WorldWideScience

Sample records for university problems caused

  1. Oral Health Problems And Causes Of Tooth Loss At The University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context Several oral diseases and conditions are associated with tooth loss. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of oral health problems seen at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) in one year with the view to highlighting causes of tooth loss in this environment. Methods This ...

  2. Measurement problem in PROGRAM UNIVERSE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.

    1984-12-01

    We present a discrete theory that meets the measurement problem in a new way. We generate a growing universe of bit strings, labeled by 2 127 + 136 strings organized by some representation of the closed, four level, combinatorial hierarchy, of bit-length N 139 greater than or equal to 139. The rest of the strings for each label, which grow in both length and number, are called addresses. The generating algorithm, called PROGRAM UNIVERSE, starts from a random choice between the two symbols ''0'' and ''1'' and grows (a) by discriminating between two randomly chosen strings and adjoining a novel result to the universe, or when the string so generated is not novel, by (b) adjoining a randomly chosen bit at the growing end of each string. We obtain, by appropriate definitions and interpretations, stable ''particles'' which satisfy the usual relativistic kinematics and quantized angular momentum without being localizable in a continuum space-time. The labeling scheme is congruent with the ''standard model'' of quarks and leptons with three generations, but for the problem at hand, the implementation of this aspect of the theory is unimportant. What matters most is that (a) these complicated ''particles'' have the periodicities familiar from relativistic ''deBroglie waves'' and resolve in a discrete way the ''wave-particle dualism'' and (b) can be ''touched'' by our discrete equivalent of ''soft photons'' in such a way as to follow, macroscopically, the usual Rutherford scattering trajectories with the associated bound states. Thus our theory could provide a discrete description of ''measurement'' in a way that allows no conceptual barrier between the ''micro'' and the ''macro'' worlds, if we are willing to base our physics on counting and exclude the ambiguities associated with the unobservable ''continuum''. 27 refs

  3. Oral Habits That Cause Malocclusion Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Joelijanto, Rudy

    2012-01-01

    Oral habits that place pressure on the teeth may slowly move the teeth out of place. The aim of this study was to review the literature for articles referring the most common oral habits that cause malocclusion. The oral bad habits that cause malocclussion problems include: Thumb sucking, It is a normal habit for babies, but causes serious orthodontic problems if it continues long after the eruption of permanent teeth. Prolonged thumb sucking can create crowded, crooked teeth, or bite problem...

  4. Baby universes, fine tuning problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Ninomiya, Masao.

    1988-12-01

    We review the recently popular 'theory of baby universes' put forward by Banks, Coleman and Hawking. We then derive the strong CP breaking coefficient θ-bar to be very small, in a similar manner to the derivation of the cosmological constant being zero. A solution for an old controversy concerning the entropy creation in black holes is also discussed. We finally confront the baby universe theory with random dynamics. We conclude that the theory of baby universes is so successful that the essential features are likely true and might have to go into a right theory even if with some troubles at first. (author)

  5. The Root Cause of the Overheating Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing

    2017-01-01

    Previously we identified the receding flow, where two fluid streams recede from each other, as an open numerical problem, because all well-known numerical fluxes give an anomalous temperature rise, thus called the overheating problem. This phenomenon, although presented in several textbooks, and many previous publications, has scarcely been satisfactorily addressed and the root cause of the overheating problem not well understood. We found that this temperature rise was solely connected to entropy rise and proposed to use the method of characteristics to eradicate the problem. However, the root cause of the entropy production was still unclear. In the present study, we identify the cause of this problem: the entropy rise is rooted in the pressure flux in a finite volume formulation and is implanted at the first time step. It is found theoretically inevitable for all existing numerical flux schemes used in the finite volume setting, as confirmed by numerical tests. This difficulty cannot be eliminated by manipulating time step, grid size, spatial accuracy, etc, although the rate of overheating depends on the flux scheme used. Finally, we incorporate the entropy transport equation, in place of the energy equation, to ensure preservation of entropy, thus correcting this temperature anomaly. Its applicability is demonstrated for some relevant 1D and 2D problems. Thus, the present study validates that the entropy generated ab initio is the genesis of the overheating problem.

  6. [Problems caused by poisonous tropical marine animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lääveri, Tinja; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Jama, Timo

    2014-01-01

    A Finnish physician encounters problems caused by tropical marine animals either during her/his own travelling or while treating travelers who have returned home. Certain species of medusae and cone shells as well as the stings by some fish species are life-threateningly poisonous. A person stung or bitten by any of the most dangerous species must immediately be admitted to the hospital. Foreign material remaining in tissues after stings by echinoderms and spiky fish may cause problems months after the actual injury. The injuries become easily infected, and antimicrobial drug therapy must thus cover gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria as well.

  7. Eliminating Problems Caused by Multicollinearity: A Warning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Peter E.

    1982-01-01

    Explains why an econometric practice introduced by J.C. Soper cannot eliminate the problems caused by multicollinearity. The author suggests that it can be a useful technique in that it forces researchers to pay more attention to the specifications of their models. (AM)

  8. Depression and Related Problems in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette

    2012-01-01

    Method: Depression and related problems were studied in a sample of 283 university students. Results: The students with high depression scores also had high scores on anxiety, intrusive thoughts, controlling intrusive thoughts and sleep disturbances scales. A stepwise regression suggested that those problems contributed to a significant proportion…

  9. UNIVERSITY ICT INFRASTRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr V. Spivakovskyi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the main problems and development of ICT infrastructure of a higher education establishment. The influence of the University’s IT development on its ratings is studied. There are four variants of ICT infrastructure development of the University according to the administrative division of its IT departments and the main structural elements of the system “University Governance -n governing and IT maintaining departments”, their activity direction and forms are determined. In addition, the main components of information and communication pedagogical environment of the University and ICT of administrative direction as the main components of ICT university infrastructure are described and determined.

  10. Computer Use and Vision.Related Problems Among University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Related Problems Among University Students In Ajman, United Arab Emirate. ... of 500 Students studying in Gulf Medical University, Ajman and Ajman University of ... prevalence of vision related problems was noted among university students.

  11. Advanced Problems in Mathematics : Preparing for University

    OpenAIRE

    Siklos, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    " This book is intended to help candidates prepare for entrance examinations in mathematics and scientific subjects, including STEP (Sixth Term Examination Paper). STEP is an examination used by Cambridge colleges as the basis for conditional offers. They are also used by Warwick University, and many other mathematics departments recommend that their applicants practice on the past papers even if they do not take the examination. Advanced Problems in Mathematics is recommended as preparati...

  12. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Alonso Castaño-Perez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related.METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems.RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition.CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities.

  13. UNIVERSITY STUDENTS? ATTITUDES TOWARDS ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek OZMEN

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine university students? attitudes towards environmental problems and the influence of socio-demographic characteristics on it. The present descriptive study was carried out at the Celal Bayar University School of Health, SHMYO and Faculty of Medicine (N=742. A questionnaire designed by researches and Environmental Attitudes Scale (EAS were applied to n=410 students who were present at the school at the time of applying. Although 65,0% of the students have stated that they were sensitive to environmental issues, 84,9% of them have not participitated to an activity about environmental issues. Total score of EAS of the students of Faculty of Medicine and School of Health, the students whose age were higher than 20, female students, the students who lived longest at city, the students who were sensitive to environmental issues, the students who thought an education must be given in high school, the students who has siblings fewer than 3 and the students whose parents were university graduate were higher than other students (p < 0,05. An education program should be developed for the students who were sensitive about the environmental issues to change their behavior about environmental matters. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(6.000: 330-344

  14. Universal problems during residency: abuse and harassment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata-Kobayashi, Shizuko; Maeno, Tetsuhiro; Yoshizu, Misaki; Shimbo, Takuro

    2009-07-01

    Perceived abuse or harassment during residency has a negative impact on residents' health and well-being. This issue pertains not only to Western countries, but also to those in Asia. In order to launch strong international preventive measures against this problem, it is necessary to establish the generality and cultural specificity of this problem in different countries. Therefore, we investigated mistreatment among resident doctors in Japan. In 2007, a multi-institutional, cross-sectional survey was conducted at 37 hospitals. A total of 619 residents (409 men, 210 women) were recruited. Prevalence of mistreatment in six categories was evaluated: verbal abuse; physical abuse; academic abuse; sexual harassment; gender discrimination, and alcohol-associated harassment. In addition, alleged abusers, the emotional effects of abusive experiences, and reluctance to report the abuse to superiors were investigated. Male and female responses were statistically compared using chi-square analysis. A total of 355 respondents (228 men, 127 women) returned a completed questionnaire (response rate 57.4%). Mistreatment was reported by 84.8% of respondents (n = 301). Verbal abuse was the most frequently experienced form of mistreatment (n = 256, 72.1%), followed by alcohol-associated harassment (n = 184, 51.8%). Among women, sexual harassment was also often reported (n = 74, 58.3%). Doctors were most often reported as abusers (n = 124, 34.9%), followed by patients (n = 77, 21.7%) and nurses (n = 61, 17.2%). Abuse was reported to have occurred most frequently during surgical rotations (n = 98, 27.6%), followed by rotations in departments of internal medicine (n = 76, 21.4%), emergency medicine (n = 41, 11.5%) and anaesthesia (n = 40, 11.3%). Very few respondents reported their experiences of abuse to superiors (n = 36, 12.0%). The most frequent emotional response to experiences of abuse was anger (n = 84, 41.4%). Mistreatment during residency is a universal phenomenon. Deliberation

  15. Reading Culture in An African University: Problems And Prospects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reading Culture in An African University: Problems And Prospects. ... This paper examined if undergraduates of African universities have reading culture or not. To elicit the necessary information ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  16. New Problems and Solutions in Basic University Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Mogens Noergaard

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we will examine some of the problems and difficulties in modern university teaching and how these difficulties were overcome and the problems were solved. Because the syllabus in Danish (and other European) high schools has been substantially weakened over the last decade and especially since 2002, the university students have…

  17. Predication and the Problem of Universals | Legg | Philosophical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper contrasts the scholastic realisms of David Armstrong and Charles Peirce. It is argued that the so-called 'problem of universals' is not a problem in pure ontology (concerning whether universals exist) as Armstrong construes it to be. Rather, it extends to issues concerning which predicates should be applied where, ...

  18. Causes of learning problems in primary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkov Snežana I.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations were conducted on learning problems using the sample of eighth-grade students of primary school (N=335. The respondents opted for one or more than seven offered statements related to: insufficient previous knowledge, insufficient studying, teaching contents (extensive, difficult unintelligible, textbook and teacher’s method of presenting the contents. On the basis of the results obtained, one-third of students have problems in mastering teaching contents of foreign language, physics and chemistry, and about one-fourth in mastering those of history and mathematics. All the mentioned causes of problems are present in varying degrees in some school subjects. The causes of learning problems are markedly present in a larger number of school subjects and they are related to some characteristics of teaching contents. Respondents point out, to a large extent, that teaching contents of technical education are uninteresting. In addition, students’ responses indicate that it is necessary to improve the method for mastering the teaching contents in various school subjects i.e. methods applied in the teaching process. Subjective causes, as pointed out by students, are connected with some of the subjects they have characterized as the most difficult. Unintelligible textbook is stressed to the lowest extent as a cause of learning problems compared to other causes stated for the majority of school subjects.

  19. Guidance for modeling causes and effects in environmental problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Carl L.; Williamson, Samuel C.

    1988-01-01

    Environmental problems are difficult to solve because their causes and effects are not easily understood. When attempts are made to analyze causes and effects, the principal challenge is organization of information into a framework that is logical, technically defensible, and easy to understand and communicate. When decisionmakers attempt to solve complex problems before an adequate cause and effect analysis is performed there are serious risks. These risks include: greater reliance on subjective reasoning, lessened chance for scoping an effective problem solving approach, impaired recognition of the need for supplemental information to attain understanding, increased chance for making unsound decisions, and lessened chance for gaining approval and financial support for a program/ Cause and effect relationships can be modeled. This type of modeling has been applied to various environmental problems, including cumulative impact assessment (Dames and Moore 1981; Meehan and Weber 1985; Williamson et al. 1987; Raley et al. 1988) and evaluation of effects of quarrying (Sheate 1986). This guidance for field users was written because of the current interest in documenting cause-effect logic as a part of ecological problem solving. Principal literature sources relating to the modeling approach are: Riggs and Inouye (1975a, b), Erickson (1981), and United States Office of Personnel Management (1986).

  20. University museums: problems, policy and progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Merriman

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available There are some 400 university museums and collections in the United Kingdom. During the 1990s their often neglected state came under close scrutiny and as a result their future role is now being re-assessed. A member of the Institute's staff has recently been appointed to the new position of Curator of UCL Museums and Collections, and he comments here on the national situation and describes some of the initiatives under way at UCL.

  1. INTRODUCTION OF UNIVERSAL HEALTH PROGRAM IN GEORGIA: PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verulava, T; Jorbenadze, R; Barkalaia, T

    2017-01-01

    Since 2013, Georgia enacted Universal Healthcare (UHC) program. Inclusion of uninsured population in the UHC program will have a positive impact on their financial accessibility to the health services. The study aims to analyze the referral rate of the beneficiaries to the health service providers before introduction and after application of the UHC program, particularly, how much it increased the recently uninsured population referral to primary health care units, and also to study the level of satisfaction with the UHC program. Research was conducted by qualitative and quantitative methods. The target groups' (program beneficiaries, physicians, personnel of the Social Service Agency) opinions were identified by means of face-to-face interviews. Enactment of the UHC programs significantly raised the population refferal to the family physicians, and the specialists. Insignificantly, but also increased the frequency of laboratory and diagnostic services. Despite the serious positive changes caused by UHC program implementation there still remain the problems in the primary healthcare system. Also, it is desirable to raise the financial availability of those medical services, which may cause catastrophic costs. In this respect, such medical services must be involved in the universal healthcare program and been expanded their scale. For the purpose of effective usage of the limited funds allocated for health care services provision, the private health insurance companies should be involved in UHC programs. This, together with the reduction of health care costs will increase a competition in the medical market, and enhance the quality of health service.

  2. UICEE Centre for Problem Based Learning (UCPBL) at Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Flemming Kobberøe; Enemark, Stig; Moesby, Egon

    2002-01-01

    University is considered to have a strong position in Problem-Based Learning (PBL) with many years of experience. Within engineering education co-operation with industry has also always been a field of high importance for Aalborg University and part of the PBL concept. An increasing number of universities...... and engineering schools worldwide are consequently seeking consultancy and cooperation with Aalborg University. The establishment of UCPBL is therefore welcomed as a possibility to merge these activities into one organisational structure and to strengthen the effort of improving engineering education......UICEE Centre for Problem-Based Learning (UCPBL) is a global centre for Problem-Based Learning located at Aalborg University, Denmark UCPBL is established as a partner to the UNESCO International Centre for Engineering Education (UICEE) located at Monash University, Melbourne, Australia. Aalborg...

  3. Investigation of the Perceived Causes of Pre-Service Physics Teachers' Problems Encountered in School Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körhasan, Nilüfer Didis; Didis, M. Gözde

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates a group of pre-service physics teachers' perceptions about the causes of problems in school experience through the attribution theory. The participants were thirteen pre-service physics teachers from a public university in Turkey. Data were collected through the interviews by requesting the participants to reflect their own…

  4. How some infinities cause problems in classical physical theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atkinson, David; Peijnenburg, Jeanne; Allo, P.; van Kerhove, B.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review a 1992 excursion of Jean Paul Van Bendegem into physics, ‘How Infinities Cause Problems in Classical Physical Theories’, in the light of two later models concerning colliding balls, of Pérez Laraudogoitia and of Alper and Bridger, respectively. We show that Van Bendegem

  5. Presbyastasis: a multifactorial cause of balance problems in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Presbyastasis: a multifactorial cause of balance problems in the elderly. C Rogers. Abstract. Presbyastasis is the result of age-related physiological changes in the three sensory systems and their central connections that contribute to balance. In all likelihood, presbyastasis is a complex condition involving many intertwined ...

  6. Resonance in the restricted problem caused by solar radiation pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, K.B.; Gupta, B.

    1977-01-01

    Resonance is discussed in the motion of an artificial Earth satellite caused by solar radiation pressure. The Hamiltonian and the generating functions occurring in the problem are expanded in the power series of small parameter β, which depends on solar radiation pressure. Also the perturbations in the osculating elements are obtained up to O(βsup(1/2)). (author)

  7. Measurement problem in Program Universe. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M.J.

    1985-07-01

    The ''measurement problem'' of contemporary physics is in our view an artifact of its philosophical and mathematical underpinnings. We describe a new philosophical view of theory formation, rooted in Wittgenstein, and Bishop's and Martin-Loef's constructivity, which obviates such discussions. We present an unfinished, but very encouraging, theory which is compatible with this philosophical framework. The theory is based on the concepts of counting and combinatorics in the framework provided by the combinatorial hierarchy, a unique hierarchy of bit strings which interact by an operation called discrimination. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar and m/sub p/ or (not ''and'') G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact. 15 refs

  8. Measurement problem in Program Universe. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, H. P.; Gefwert, C.; Manthey, M. J.

    1985-07-01

    The measurement problem of contemporary physics is in our view an artifact of its philosophical and mathematical underpinnings. We describe a new philosophical view of theory formation, rooted in Wittgenstein, and Bishop's and Martin-Loef's constructivity, which obviates such discussions. We present an unfinished, but very encouraging, theory which is compatible with this philosophical framework. The theory is based on the concepts of counting and combinatorics in the framework provided by the combinatorial hierarchy, a unique hierarchy of bit strings which interact by an operation called discrimination. Measurement criteria incorporate c, h-bar and m/sub p/ or (not and) G. The resulting theory is discrete throughout, contains no infinities, and, as far as we have developed it, is in agreement with quantum mechanical and cosmological fact.

  9. Solving University Scheduling Problem Using Hybrid Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Ahmed Shaikh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In universities scheduling curriculum activity is an essential job. Primarily, scheduling is a distribution of limited resources under interrelated constraints. The set of hard constraints demand the highest priority and should not to be violated at any cost, while the maximum soft constraints satisfaction mounts the quality scale of solution. In this research paper, a novel bisected approach is introduced that is comprisesd of GA (Genetic Algorithm as well as Backtracking Recursive Search. The employed technique deals with both hard and soft constraints successively. The first phase decisively is focused over elimination of all the hard constraints bounded violations and eventually produces partial solution for subsequent step. The second phase is supposed to draw the best possible solution on the search space. Promising results are obtained by implementation on the real dataset. The key points of the research approach are to get assurance of hard constraints removal from the dataset and minimizing computational time for GA by initializing pre-processed set of chromosomes.

  10. Causes of Payment Problems in the New Zealand Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanuja Ramachandra

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Payment delays and losses persist in the construction industry and continue to be a key concern to industry practitioners. Therefore an exploration of the key causes of payment delays and losses is undertaken in this study with the ultimate objective of seeking mitigating solutions. The study adopted a survey approach using an online questionnaire, administered to practitioners from the New Zealand construction industry, comprising consultants, head contractors and subcontractors. The data obtained was analysed using inferential statistical techniques, including comparing means and factor analysis. Factor analysis enabled clustering of the inter-related causes of payment delays and losses in order to find reduced number of causes. Accordingly, the study found that payment problems mainly relate to contractual issues, financial strength of industry players, disputes, short-comings of payment processes and ‘domino effects’. Among them, the financial strength of critical industry players was considered central to payment problems. The study concludes that any solution to these problems must address these primary causes, as a rational starting point. Thus procuring a feasible form of financial security at the outset of a project, and the pre-qualification of the financial status of critical project participants, were found to be significant in the mitigation of construction payment risks. Paper Type: Research article

  11. University Students' Problem Posing Abilities and Attitudes towards Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmeier, Todd A.

    2002-01-01

    Explores the problem posing abilities and attitudes towards mathematics of students in a university pre-calculus class and a university mathematical proof class. Reports a significant difference in numeric posing versus non-numeric posing ability in both classes. (Author/MM)

  12. The world solution for world problems : the problem, its cause, its solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    León, L.

    2002-01-01

    The book discusses the main world problem of today, which is the gradual, but lethal change of the soil and atmosphere, the main cause, which is the world-wide overpopulation, and the main solution, which is world government by lottocracy. It is a recipe for the solution of the one and only problem

  13. Pensamentos, Emoções de um Grupo de Cadeirantes frente aos Problemas causados pela Falta de Acessibilidade nas Universidades Thoughts, Emotions of a Group of College Wheelchair facing the Problems Caused by Lack of Accessibility in the Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Prado

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conhecer a percepção dos sentimentos em 7 universitários cadeirantes, frente aos obstáculos físicos dentro da instituição de ensino, os sintomas de depressão e a interação desses alunos com outros colegas da universidade. Materiais e Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo, de corte transversal entre sete cadeirantes estudantes de graduação, homens (5 e mulheres (2 na faixa etária de 20 a 25 anos. A coleta de dados foi obtida através de questionário autoavaliativo, composto por perguntas descritivas e objetivas. O acesso aos participantes aconteceu dentro da universidade frequentada pela pesquisadora, no domicilio e via internet. Resultados: Observou-se que todos os cadeirantes alegaram que as universidades não oferecem acesso adequado e 71,5% disseram que diante da falta de acesso se sentem dependentes para executar algumas atividades. A respeito da interação com os colegas 14,2% atribuem a falta de acessibilidade como fator que impede a interação, 42,9% referem que somente em algumas situações. Os sentimentos relatados foram exclusão e raiva (42,9%, constrangimento (28,6% e revolta (28,6%. Conclusão: Os alunos cadeirantes foram unânimes ao responderem que a falta de acesso não influência no rendimento escolar e não impedem que estudem. Não houve relações significativas com a falta de acesso, e o desempenho escolar, interação e incidência de depressão. Objectives: Knowing the perception of feelings in 7 university wheelchair, compared to physical barriers within the educational institution, symptoms of depression and interaction with fellow students of the university.Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study among seven graduate students in wheelchairs, men (5 and women (2 aged 20 to 25 years. Data collection was obtained through self-rated questionnaire, composed of objective and descriptive questions. Access to participants occurred within the university attended by the

  14. Observations on Leadership, Problem Solving, and Preferred Futures of Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncochar, Judith

    2013-01-01

    A focus on enrollments, rankings, uncertain budgets, and branding efforts to operate universities could have serious implications for discussions of sustainable solutions to complex problems and the decision-making processes of leaders. The Authentic Leadership Model for framing ill-defined problems in higher education is posited to improve the…

  15. Indoor swimming pools. Humidity caused problems and suggested solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Reports have been received from across Canada on premature deterioration and other problems of indoor swimming pool buildings. This technical paper has been prepared to assist pool managers to solve these problems, which typically include leaking roofs, condensation on inside walls, peeling paint, efflorescence, rusting of metal elements, deterioration of concrete block structures, and high costs for pool heating. An effective insulation and vapor barrier system for a swimming pool roof is described, and the high relative humidity of the typical pool building is discussed as the primary cause of most problems. Proper sealing to cut down air infiltration is recommended, along with proper maintenance and painting. High energy costs are often due to low insulation values and to excessive ventilation used for decreasing the humidity. By using dehumidifiers capable of heat recovery, and by placing an insulating blanket on the pool after operating hours, it is shown that substantial cost savings are possible. 10 figs.

  16. Environmental problems caused by bituminous schist and possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmas, N.; Aykul, H.; Erarslan, K.; Ediz, I.G.

    1998-01-01

    Schist, as a disposal of mine, has harmful effects on environment. however, several manners can be utilized to prevent the environmental destruction as well as an economical benefit is gained. In this study, environmental problems caused by bituminous schist and other disposals have been investigated on a specific lignite coal mine where schist is disposed as waste material. Pollution and damage on land and in water sources around the coal district and the villages have been observed, recorded and several solutions to environmental problems have been proposed. Discussed proposals will not only solve the environmental pollution problem but also provide waste management facility. Industrial structure of the district enables such a disposal to be used as an economical raw material. Besides, general effects of the coal mine and the power plant nearby have been discussed from environmental point of view, too. 7 refs

  17. Problem-based Learning and Problem Finding Among University Graduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ankit, A, Ravankar; Shotaro, Imai; Michiyo, Shimamura; Go, Chiba; Taichi, Takasuka

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, problem-based learning (PBL) techniques have been gaining momentum in schools and university curricula around the world. The main advantage of the PBL method is that it promotes creative problem solving, improves cognition and enhances overall thought processes in learners. For most PBL-style programmes, problem solving is at the core, although the notion of problem discovery or problem finding is not seriously considered. In most cases, students are always presen...

  18. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF UNIVERSITY DEVELOPMENT: THE SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Dorozhkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals the sociological research findings reflecting the development problems and prospects of theRussianStateVocationalPedagogicalUniversity. A survey, conducted in March 2013, demonstrates positive dynamics of the university prestige, rank and popularity index compared to the year 2003. The academic staff tends to recognize the unique competitive advantages of the given university: status of the Russian higher school and leading vocational pedagogical institution; professional quality of human resources, variety of prestigious specializations, existence of the Educational Methodology Association, Dissertation Board, etc. Although the respondents point out some factors adversely affecting the university image and public opinion, the criticism helps to identify the problematic units and corresponding contradictions of the university development. The research outcomes can provide the background for strategic development programs ofRussianStateVocationalPedagogicalUniversityfor the nearest future; and help to promote the university brand as the leading, dynamic and competitive educational centre at the regional, federal and international levels.

  19. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF UNIVERSITY DEVELOPMENT: THE SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Dorozhkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals the sociological research findings reflecting the development problems and prospects of theRussianStateVocationalPedagogicalUniversity. A survey, conducted in March 2013, demonstrates positive dynamics of the university prestige, rank and popularity index compared to the year 2003. The academic staff tends to recognize the unique competitive advantages of the given university: status of the Russian higher school and leading vocational pedagogical institution; professional quality of human resources, variety of prestigious specializations, existence of the Educational Methodology Association, Dissertation Board, etc. Although the respondents point out some factors adversely affecting the university image and public opinion, the criticism helps to identify the problematic units and corresponding contradictions of the university development. The research outcomes can provide the background for strategic development programs ofRussianStateVocationalPedagogicalUniversityfor the nearest future; and help to promote the university brand as the leading, dynamic and competitive educational centre at the regional, federal and international levels.

  20. Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortov, V.; Ustyantsev, Yu.

    2013-01-01

    General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. -- Highlights: ► The short comparative analysis of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima is given. ► We note the great effect of β-radiation on the radiation situation at Chernobyl. ► We discuss the problems of radiation measurements under these conditions. ► The impact of shelter on the radiation situation near Chernobyl NPS is described

  1. Technetium-99m DMSA preparation: Trivial issues causing severe problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.

    1997-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children involving renal parenchyma, upper collecting system or bladder is one of the major causes for consideration in the diagnosis and management of paediatric nuclear medicine. Acute pyelonephritis is one of the prime causes of morbidity associated with urinary tract infection in children which can lead to progressive renal damage. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is used extensively for the assessment of UTI in paediatrics. The radiopharmaceutical preparation could be influenced by several factors, most of them are trivial, but invariably have severe impact on the quality of the scintiphotographs. This communication is mainly to highlight some of the issues related to 99 mTc-DMSA preparation and the possible precautionary measures that need to be taken to obviate unwarranted problems. (author)

  2. The Problem of Universals and the Limits of Conceptual Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Problem of Universals and the Limits of Conceptual Analysis. Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra. Abstract. Philosophical Papers Vol.31(1) 2002: 39-47. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/05568640209485094 · AJOL African Journals ...

  3. Problem based learning in acoustics at Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Christensen, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    in the project work, or are defining for the candidate's professional profile. This presentation gives an overview of Problem Based Learning organized in groups in the M. Sc. in Acoustics program of Aalborg University. Examples of projects and course activities are presented to illustrate the relation...

  4. The problems of female students at Jimma University, Ethiopia, with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Education is perhaps the single essential measure to ensure a full participation of women in development. Women's participation in all fields of the world has become significant. Objective: This study was conducted to identify gender related problems of female students in Jimma University (JU). Methods: This ...

  5. Nocturnal sleep problems among university students from 26 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of nocturnal sleeping problems and its associated factors among university students in mainly low- and middle-income countries. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 20,222 undergraduate university students (mean age, 20.8; SD = 2.8) from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Overall, 10.4% reported severe or extreme nocturnal sleeping problems (male, 10.2%; female, 10.5%) in the past month. Noctural sleeping problems differed by country, from 32.9% in Indonesia to 3.0 % in Thailand among Asian countries, from 13.7% in Mauritius to 7.5% in South Africa, and from 11.8% in Jamaica to 6.1% in Columbia in the Americas. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, coming from a poor family background, staying off campus (on their own or with parents or guardians), stress (history of child sexual abuse), poor mental health (depression and PTSD symptoms), health risk behaviour (tobacco use, heavy internet use, gambling, skipping breakfast and having sustained an injury), lack of social support and poor academic performance were associated with nocturnal sleeping problems. A significant prevalence of past-month nocturnal sleeping problems was found. Potential factors associated with the risk of reporting sleeping complaints were identified, which may assist in prevention strategies to promote a better quality of sleep.

  6. General review on climate change problems: causes, potential effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martellet, J.

    1991-01-01

    Greenhouse gases and greenhouse effect principles are reviewed and climate changes due to the human activities are discussed: identification of gases, human or natural causes, composition evolution in the atmosphere and relative roles of greenhouse gases. The various tools and calculations methods for evaluating the climate change due to greenhouse effect are presented. Several problems are stated: evolution of the climate structure in 2030, variations of the climatic extremes and the extreme phenomena, augmentation or diminution of the storms on a warmed planet, long term evolution of the climate. Some consequences of a climate change are reviewed: sea level raising, climate change effects on ecosystems. Precision and validity of these predictions are discussed; recommendations for diminishing the uncertainties are proposed

  7. Recalling Academy: University Problems and Critics in Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa GÜNDÜZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of modern higher education in Turkey started in the Tanzimat Period with Darülfünûn which had been an extraordinary development to achieve a radical modernization. Darülfünûn, which had come up to the Republic Period with its own unique structure and process of ambiguity, underwent a radical transformation in 1933. Since the beginning, the basic aim of Darülfünûn had been to educate “enlightened bureaucrats”. Up to now, many attempts have been made to determine and solve problems related to the areas of finance, legislation, physical conditions, manpower, infrastructure, students, and producing knowledge emerged in higher education. While some of them have been implemented, the suggestions especially coming from the dissenting academicians and thinkers have been reserved merely in memories. Many academicians, who wrote their memoirs after serving long years in universities, put forward different ideas related to the problems of university and their remedies. There have been numerous academicians who wrote their memoirs about university, as much as they affected Turkish science community with their works, views and ideas. In this paper; how the contemporary and traditional problems of the Turkish universities have been perceived, which determinations have been made, and what kind of solutions have been proposed in the memoirs of over twenty scientist, who had worked in different disciplines, have been categorically presented.

  8. Initial value problem of space dynamics in universal Stumpff anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, M. A.; Dwidar, H. R.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the initial value problem of space dynamics in universal Stumpff anomaly ψ is set up and developed in analytical and computational approach. For the analytical expansions, the linear independence of the functions U_{j} (ψ;σ); {j=0,1,2,3} are proved. The differential and recurrence equations satisfied by them and their relations with the elementary functions are given. The universal Kepler equation and its validations for different conic orbits are established together with the Lagrangian coefficients. Efficient representations of these functions are developed in terms of the continued fractions. For the computational developments we consider the following items: 1. Top-down algorithm for continued fraction evaluation. 2. One-point iteration formulae. 3. Determination of the coefficients of Kepler's equation. 4. Derivatives of Kepler's equation of any integer order. 5. Determination of the initial guess for the solution of the universal Kepler equation. Finally we give summary on the computational design for the initial value problem of space dynamics in universal Stumpff anomaly. This design based on the solution of the universal Kepler's equation by an iterative schemes of quadratic up to any desired order ℓ.

  9. Teaching Russian Literature in Italian Universities: Problems and Possible Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Marchesini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Vladimirovič Nabokov is undoubtedly a key figure of world literature. Nonetheless, together with his legacy as a writer, his activity as a University teacher should be considered. This aspect, often marginalized by Nabokov criticism, deserves greater recognition. Indeed, it could stimulate interesting theoretical reflections on how to teach literature, especially Russian. In this perspective, this paper discusses some of the most common problems in teaching Russian literature in Italian universities, suggesting possible solutions inferred from Nabokov’s Lectures on Russian Literature (1981.

  10. Partially specified physics problems: university students' attitudes and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marusic, M; Erceg, N; Slisko, J

    2011-01-01

    In this research we asked the fourth year students (N = 50) of a technical faculty of the University of Split (Republic of Croatia) to solve a partially specified physics problem related to gravitational force. The task for the students was to decide whether the situation described in the problem is feasible or not. Nevertheless, the formulation of the problem is such that it does not give students any explicit advice regarding what to calculate or how to judge the feasibility of the given situation in the real world. The research was carried out using a structured written exam method. The worksheet was structured in order to assess explicitly a few elements of the students' problem-solving performance. Based on their results, the examinees were classified into four categories, depending on what they could or could not accomplish during problem solving. A majority of students were not able to solve the given physical problem completely. A selection of students' and professors' observations is also included. Our results show that traditionally formulated numerical exercises, which are mostly used in physics teaching, do not develop students' abilities in higher-order thinking (i.e. planning, decision making or result evaluation) to a desirable extent. We suggest that partially specified problems should be given to students, both in problem-solving sessions and exams, in order to prepare them for dealing with ill-structured tasks in real life.

  11. Symmetries, causality problems and neutrino fields in antipode universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasse, F.D.

    1986-01-01

    The S 3 xR and H 3 xR Lie groups are characterized, and using continuous deformations of S 3 and H 3 subgroups algebra, Lorentz space-time metrics with g E left invariance and g D right invariance are introduced. The topology of sections of these space-time is investigated and its relation with global causality problems is shown. In the search of g E and g D isometries, it is shown that in the class of metrics associated to H 3 xR topology, there is a particular case which accepts a G 7 group of isometries. It is shown that the g E and g D metrics characterize universes which vortices of cosmological fluid (when it is present), in relation to the inertial compass, are opposite. In the particular coordinate system, that is used, these metrics differs only by a coordinate inversion transformation. Neutrinos interacting with the geometry of these spaces times is considered. It is shown that the physical transformation which consists in to reverse the universe rotation and to reverse a determined component of neutrino momentum, leads the universe with g E (g D ) metric containing neutrinos, with determined helicity, to another one with g D (g E )metric containing neutrinos, with opposite helicity from the original. Thus, neutrinos can be used to distinguish physically these two universes, supposing that in a given universe neutrinos there is always a type of helicity. (M.C.K.) [pt

  12. How to make university students solve physics problems requiring mathematical skills: The "Adventurous Problem Solving" approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mul, F.F.M.; Martin Batlle, C.; Martin i Batlle, Cristina; de Bruijn, Imme; Rinzema, K.; Rinzema, Kees

    2003-01-01

    Teaching physics to first-year university students (in the USA: junior/senior level) is often hampered by their lack of skills in the underlying mathematics, and that in turn may block their understanding of the physics and their ability to solve problems. Examples are vector algebra, differential

  13. The University and the Gift: A Problem Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Emelianov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors suggest introducing the notion of the gift into the theory and practice of the University life. They believe that the relationship of gift in transmission of knowledge is immanent to the management organization of the University. If knowledge is given as a gift and in the situation of gift-giving, then the University milieu should have the relationship of gift. The gift is described here as a theological and anthropological category and then juxtaposed with educational concepts of certain theologians and with ideas of modern economists. Proceeding from the notion of gift, the authors formulate the problem of today’s University which consists in its economical conditionality and in the penetration of market ideology into the scholarly milieu. Transfer of knowledge, which is considered as an absolute value, when circulating within the process of gift-giving, in practice is often identified with utilitarian exchange: the knowledge acquires its price, what inevitably reflects the relationship between professors, students and University’s administration.

  14. [How do universities confront and manage environmental problems?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadera, H

    2001-06-01

    Occupational medicine is concerned with the recognition and prevention of diseases related to the work environment. The special tools, namely, epidemiology, toxicology, and public health and clinical expertise, are joined by another specialty, environmental medicine. The Environmental Science Center (ESC) of the University of Tokyo was established in April 1975 for the purpose of treating chemically-hazardous wastes deriving from the university. The ESC houses various sections including research, education, operations, management, and also a waste-collection and-treatment division. In this review, the author intends to summarize the activity of the ESC, and then review the approaches we have applied in order to deal with the environmental problems we have faced.

  15. New Problems and Solutions in Basic University Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mogens Nørgaard

    2008-01-01

    Because the syllabus in mathematics in Danish high schools has been weakened substantially over the last decade, the university students have experienced new serious problems in their first year learning. This has had the consequence that many students dropped out of their studies and that many...... other failed at their first year exams. In the paper we will only deal with the first year courses in mathematics for economists at the University of Copenhagen, and it is told how the teaching in mathematics was changed during the last two years such that the rate og failure dropped considerably. many...... resources were spent to reach this aim, and it was very important to engage and activate the students and to give them more personal excitement, such that they also obtained higher ability for studies on their own hand. The result of the new way of teaching was remarkable and the aim of a much lower rate...

  16. Problem of Office Suite Training at the University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia A. Nastashchuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Te paper considers the problem of office suite applications training, caused by a rapid change of their versions, variety of software developers and a rapid development of software and hardware platforms. The content of office suite applications training, based on the system of office suite notions, its basic functional and standards of information technologies development (OpenDocument Format Standard, ISO 26300-200Х is presented.

  17. University of Texas Safeguards by Design Problem Statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruggiero, Christy E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-22

    This document describes the problem statement that students at the University of Texas will use for their senior level capstone design class. The purpose of this project is to introduce students to Safeguards by Design concepts as part of their capstone design course at the culmination of their degree program. This work is supported by Los Alamos National Laboratory with FY17 and FY18 programmatic funding from the U. S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Office of Defense Nuclear Nonproliferation (DNN), Office of International Nuclear Safeguards (INS), Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI), Human Resource Development Program, Safeguards by Design Project.

  18. For the Problem of Knowledge of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanov, Temur Z.

    2003-04-01

    A new approach to the problem of knowledge of the Universe is suggested. This approach represents the new point of view which has arisen from the critical analysis of the foundations of physics, cosmology and philosophy (dialectical materialism). The principal idea following from the analysis is that only concepts (categories) and principles of dialectics are a basis of the correct theory of the Universe. The foundation of the correct theory is represented by the following philosophical principles. (a) The principle of materiality (objective reality) of the Nature: the Nature (Universe) is a system (set) of material objects (particles, bodies, fields). (b) The principle of existence of material object: an object exists as the objective reality, and movement is a form of existence of object. (c) The principle (definition) of movement of object: the movement is change (i.e. transition of some states into others) in general; the movement determines a direction, and direction characterizes the movement. (d) The principle of existence of time: the time exist as the parameter of the system of reference. (e) The principle of unity of opposites. (In particular, it means that the opposites are bounds of each other. In other words, if a class is divided into two non intersecting (opposite) subclasses, then each subclass is a bound another). (f) System principle: the properties of the system are not logical consequence, corollary of the properties of the elements of the system. These principles result in the following main statements about the Nature (Universe). The Universe does not contain subset of non objects (i.e. empty subset). Therefore, in accordance with (e), the Universe has no objective bound. It means that size (radius), mass, energy are not parameters of the Universe (i.e. size, mass, energy have physical meaning only in the case of limited objects). Consequences. (1) The generally accepted theories of evolution of the Universe (for example, Big Bang Theory) are

  19. PROBLEMS OF IT DEPARTMENT IN A MEDICAL UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ya Gelman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is the analysis of the problems faced by heads and staff of IT departments in medical universities. Methodology and research methods. The methods involve expert estimation, analysis and generalization of practical work experience of IT departments. Results and scientific novelty. The main aspects and specifics of professional activity of IT departments of modern medical schools are designated. The approaches to the definition of the hierarchy of goals in the professional activities of the department, as well as quantitative and qualitative indicators that assess the effectiveness of their achievements are analyzed. The contradictions arising between long-term and short-term goals of the IT department are highlighted. The main challenges which heads of IT departments can deal with in the course of day-to-day management work planning are described. The problems arising in educational, educational-methodical and scientific work of department, in its economic activity, solution of personnel affairs, and aspects of material support are considered. The possible solutions to these problems are proposed. Practical significance. The results of the analysis, proposed approaches and practical recommendations will enable to better organize the work of the IT department in a medical school. The advantage of the proposed approaches consists in their versatility: with some adjustment, they can be used by other departments, regardless of the specifics and the type of educational institution.

  20. Problems of university-based scientists associated with clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, R D

    1979-05-01

    University faculty members who participate in clinical trials face a number of difficulties in connection with this association. Publication opportunities are often limited, and individual scholarship is difficult to express and evaluate within the context of a cooperative trial. Merit increases, promotion, and the award of tenure will usually require evidence of scholarly achievement outside the trial setting. For this reason, it seems inadvisable to recommend that a young investigator devote a major portion of his scholarly and research time to such an activity. A possible exception may be a full-time appointment for 1 to 2 years. Nonetheless, cooperative clinical trials are an important investigative tool and they should continue to be associated with academic centers. If appropriate administrative arrangements can be made, it should be possible to solve the academic problems of the young investigator associated with such trials.

  1. Musculoskeletal Problems Associated with University Students Computer Users: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhadani PB

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While several studies have examined the prevalence and correlates of musculoskeletal problems among university students, scanty information exists in South African context. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, causes and consequences of musculoskeletal problems among University of Venda students’ computer users. This cross-sectional study involved 694 university students at the University of Venda. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information on the sociodemographic characteristics, problems associated with computer users, and causes of musculoskeletal problems associated with computer users. The majority (84.6% of the participants use computer for internet, wording processing (20.3%, and games (18.7%. The students reported neck pain when using computer (52.3%; shoulder (47.0%, finger (45.0%, lower back (43.1%, general body pain (42.9%, elbow (36.2%, wrist (33.7%, hip and foot (29.1% and knee (26.2%. Reported causes of musculoskeletal pains associated with computer usage were: sitting position, low chair, a lot of time spent on computer, uncomfortable laboratory chairs, and stressfulness. Eye problems (51.9%, muscle cramp (344.0%, headache (45.3%, blurred vision (38.0%, feeling of illness (39.9% and missed lectures (29.1% were consequences of musculoskeletal problems linked to computer use. The majority of students reported having mild pain (43.7%, moderate (24.2%, and severe (8.4% pains. Years of computer use were significantly associated with neck, shoulder and wrist pain. Using computer for internet was significantly associated with neck pain (OR=0.60; 95% CI 0.40-0.93; games: neck (OR=0.60; 95% CI 0.40-0.85 and hip/foot (OR=0.60; CI 95% 0.40-0.92, programming for elbow (OR= 1.78; CI 95% 1.10-2.94 and wrist (OR=2.25; CI 95% 1.36-3.73, while word processing was significantly associated with lower back (OR=1.45; CI 95% 1.03-2.04. Undergraduate study had a significant association with elbow pain (OR=2

  2. THE QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AT THE UNIVERSITY. PROBLEMS IN IMPLEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Nazina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Beginning of the XXI century marked the active integration of Russia and the world community, including entry into the world educational space. The international activities of the leading universities of the country depends on the level of cooperation with foreign countries in the field of scientific and educational activities. Today topical issue recognition of the quality of Russian education abroad. One way to confirm this is the certification of the quality management system of the university. As long-term, mostly foreign experience, achieving the required level of quality and continue to improve the most productive is accomplished by implementing a quality management system in accordance with ISO 9000. In the modern system of higher education a lot of attention paid to quality, to ensure the competitiveness of the institution in the education market by training qualified specialists. Implementation of the quality management system is to move the university to process management prepared in accordance with approved and enacted by the QMS documents. Workplaces should determine the duties, powers and responsibilities of each employee within the quality management system, develop and implement the job descriptions, staff verify documented procedures. Implementation of the certification must be accompanied by specific and persistent administration by management in conjunction with the training and retraining of all managers and employees involved in the work on the implementation of the QMS in the organization. This article describes the goals, objectives in the formation and implementation of QMS in higher education arising from this problem and barriers (information, methodological, psychological, multiple ways to address them.

  3. Sleep problems in university students – an intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlarb AA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Angelika Anita Schlarb,* Anja Friedrich,* Merle Claßen Faculty of Psychology and Sports, Bielefeld University, Bielefeld, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Up to 60% of all college students suffer from a poor sleep quality, and 7.7% meet all criteria of an insomnia disorder. Sleep problems have a great impact on the students’ daily life, for example, the grade point average. Due to irregular daytime routines, chronotype changes, side jobs and exam periods, they need specialized treatments for improving sleep. “Studieren wie im Schlaf” (SWIS; (studying in your sleep is a multicomponent sleep training that combines Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia and Hypnotherapy for Insomnia to improve students’ sleep, insomnia symptoms and nightmares. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the acceptance, feasibility and the first effects of SWIS. Methods: Twenty-seven students (mean =24.24, standard deviation =3.57 participated in a study of pre–post design. The acceptance and feasibility were measured with questionnaires. In addition, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, sleep logs and actigraphy were implemented. Further variables encompassed daytime sleepiness, sleep-related personality traits and cognitions about sleep. Results: Seventy-four percent of the participants reported symptoms of an insomnia disorder, and 51.9% fulfilled all criteria of an insomnia disorder according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (fifth edition. Correspondingly, the students suffered from clinically relevant sleep problems according to the PSQI. The SWIS sleep training is a well-accepted and feasible program. Significant improvements were observed in the subjective sleep quality and sleep-related personality traits, as well as clinical improvements in objective sleep measures. Discussion: Findings showed that SWIS is a feasible program for the treatment of sleep problems in college

  4. Indoor ice arenas. Humidity caused problems and suggested solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This report was prepared to assist indoor ice arena managers in Canada to solve common problems related to humidity. These problems typically include leaking roofs, deterioration of roof and insulation, condensation on indoor walls, damages to exterior walls due to condensation on exterior metal parts, rusting metal elements, high energy bills, and long and costly ice-making periods. Recommendations are made for improved roof insulation systems, proper sealing, maintenance, and repair. High energy costs are seen as due to insufficient insulation, air leakage, and heat losses by radiation and convection. Convection can be controlled by dehumidification and shielding the ice from air currents. Radiation losses can be lowered by using a low-emmissivity suspended ceiling; this effectively breaks the flow of radiated heat from the roof toward the ice sheet, and has the additional benefit of lowering of lighting energy demand by acting as a reflector. It is shown that these measures can result in significant energy cost savings with favorable payback periods. 10 figs.

  5. Analyzing Interpersonal Problem Solving in Terms of Solution Focused Approach and Humor Styles of University Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koc, Hayri; Arslan, Coskun

    2017-01-01

    In this study university students interpersonal problem solving approaches were investigated in terms of solution focused approach and humor styles. The participants were 773 (542 female and 231 male, between 17-33 years old) university students. To determine the university students' problem solving approaches "Interpersonal Problem Solving…

  6. Cerebral visual impairment in children: Causes and associated ophthalmological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehere, Niranjan; Chougule, Pratik; Dutton, Gordon N

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study is to identify common causes, associated ophthalmological abnormalities, and systemic comorbidities in children in Andhra Pradesh, India, with cerebral visual impairment (CVI). A retrospective review of case records of all children aged visual impairment was seen in 88.8%, and 11.2% had high functioning CVI. Fifty-eight (46.4%) patients had significant refractive errors, 40 (32.25%) had strabismus, 4 (3.2%) had visually significant cataract, and 40 (32%) had optic atrophy. Motor delay was observed in 39.5%, speech delay was evident in 22.4%, and cognitive delay in 16%. HIE is the most common cause (one-third) of CVI in our population, and the majority of them presented at age visual impairment (88.8%). A significant number of them have treatable ophthalmic conditions such as refractive errors (46.4%), accommodative insufficiency (12.1%), and cataract (3.2%), and more than one-third of them also have delay in other areas of development.

  7. Problems caused by regulatory delays and lack of regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reamer, Lynne A.

    1994-12-01

    An FDA perspective on some of the problems encountered during the device review process is described. Emphasis is placed on the need for communication and teamwork among all parties to make the system work. Manufacturers are encouraged to `Do it right the first time.' Pertinent questions are asked of the manufacturers and proposed solutions are presented. Day to day reality at FDA is described and document workload is revealed. Lack of regulation, or more appropriately, when less regulation is appropriate is discussed. FDA has distributed to manufacturers a new draft guidance document to help in the decisionmaking process and when to submit a 510(k) when modifications are made to a device. This and other mechanisms are in place at the FDA to streamline the review process. Manufacturers are cautioned about their decisions and to seek advice from qualified persons. FDA emphasizes that help is available and that when in doubt, call.

  8. Computer use and vision-related problems among university students in ajman, United arab emirate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantakumari, N; Eldeeb, R; Sreedharan, J; Gopal, K

    2014-03-01

    The extensive use of computers as medium of teaching and learning in universities necessitates introspection into the extent of computer related health disorders among student population. This study was undertaken to assess the pattern of computer usage and related visual problems, among University students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates. A total of 500 Students studying in Gulf Medical University, Ajman and Ajman University of Science and Technology were recruited into this study. Demographic characteristics, pattern of usage of computers and associated visual symptoms were recorded in a validated self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of the observed differences between the variables. The level of statistical significance was at P computer users were headache - 53.3% (251/471), burning sensation in the eyes - 54.8% (258/471) and tired eyes - 48% (226/471). Female students were found to be at a higher risk. Nearly 72% of students reported frequent interruption of computer work. Headache caused interruption of work in 43.85% (110/168) of the students while tired eyes caused interruption of work in 43.5% (98/168) of the students. When the screen was viewed at distance more than 50 cm, the prevalence of headaches decreased by 38% (50-100 cm - OR: 0.62, 95% of the confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.92). Prevalence of tired eyes increased by 89% when screen filters were not used (OR: 1.894, 95% CI: 1.065-3.368). High prevalence of vision related problems was noted among university students. Sustained periods of close screen work without screen filters were found to be associated with occurrence of the symptoms and increased interruptions of work of the students. There is a need to increase the ergonomic awareness among students and corrective measures need to be implemented to reduce the impact of computer related vision problems.

  9. Factors associated to labour absenteeism due to medical cause in an university institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F. Saldarriaga

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Labor absenteeism due to medical cause has unfavorable implications for everybody. The employee suffers with the disease, the company loses productivity and society suffers delays in its economical and social growth. The study of this problem is obviously necessary in order to achieve an appropriate prevention and control of it. Objective: to explore the behavior of absenteeism by medical causes and its associated factors among the affiliates to the health program in the University of Antioquia, Colombia. Methods: frequency, duration, costs and causes of absenteeism are studied in relation to sex, age and physical activity as a regular behavior. Relative risk and its 95% confidence intervals are estimated. Results: respiratory diseases are the first cause of labor medical handicap. Absenteeism is higher in women. RR 1.65 (CI 95% 1.53-1.77. It has a close relationship to age RR 1.25 (CI 95% 1.12-1.38 and to sedentariness RR 2.17 (IC 95% 1.72-2.73.

  10. FINANCING ACTIVITIES OF MODERN UNIVERSITIES - APPROACHES, CHALLENGES, PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    BOJINOV B.V.

    2017-01-01

    The article examined the main approaches to the funding of universities and possible mechanisms for their subsequent efficient financial management. The main sources of funding for modern universities, are usually a mix of state funding other targeted grants, tuition fees and revenues from economic activity. The declining targeted budgetary resources for the financing of universities, and linking it to performance (quality, rating realization), forcing universities to seek alternative sources...

  11. The University Entrance Exam that Diversified and the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Osamu

    The percentage of students who go on to universities or junior colleges is over fifty percent which is more than half of high school students. However the nation's birthrate is in decline and the total number of university-age children shows a declining tendency. Hence we cannot expect an increase in the number of applicants in the future. On the other hand, the number of universities has been increasing year by year. The competition among universities to survive is very fierce. The diversification of entrance examination is a symbol of this competition. By diversifying entrance exams, universities aimed at the quality of excellent students in the beginning. However, they have changed their direction to pursue the quantity of students. As of Today the entrance examination is losing its original starting function which means most or all applicants can enter universities. It is time all of the universities return to its starting line.

  12. Institutional Problems and Solutions of General Education in Chinese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Weiqing; Huang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Embedding general education in the Chinese university education system is a considerably complex systemic project, and a lack of institutional arrangements beneficial to general education has always been a key barrier in implementation. Currently, the main institutional restricting factors for university general education include substantial…

  13. On the Cause of University Students' Cheating Phenomenon from the Perspective of Albert Bandura's Reciprocal Determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Run-xian, Zhou; Xiao-pin, Zhou

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, "cheating" becomes a prevalent social phenomenon among the university students, which result in a bad influence to the quality of higher education, to the healthy growth of the university students, and to the social morale. To solve this problem, the key is to scoop out the root reason and get rid of it thoroughly. The emergence…

  14. El problema del abandono de los estudios universitarios. [The dropout problem in university study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Cabrera

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the dropout of university students, which in some cases can be as high as 50%. This study presents and analyses the dropout rates that are found in several Spanish universities. Using the results of national and international studies as background and the findings from our own investigation, we present a theoretical framework that identifies the definition of dropouts, the causes, the explanatory models and solutions used to understand this issue. The article concludes by presenting a critical perspective of university learning in relation to the social role that universities represent, and addresses the actual processes of change, particularly in light of the European convergence. En este artículo se analiza el fenómeno problemático del abandono de los estudios universitarios, que alcanza hasta el 50% en algunas titulaciones. Para ello, partimos de la presentación y análisis de los porcentajes de abandono de distintas universidades españolas. Posteriormente, al amparo de distintos estudios nacionales e internacionales, y nuestros resultados de investigación, elaboramos un perfil teórico que contempla: definición, causas, modelos explicativos y soluciones. Finalmente, ofrecemos una perspectiva crítica de la enseñanza universitaria, en relación al papel social que esta representa, y en relación a los actuales procesos de cambio, sobre todo el proceso de convergencia europea.

  15. Sexual behavior and health problems in university students, University of Antioquia, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuloaga Posada, L; Soto Vélez, C; Vélez, D J

    1995-12-01

    Authorities at the University of Antioquia, Colombia, felt it would be advisable to institute a student orientation program aimed at preventing health problems resulting from risky sexual behavior related to new cultural trends. The purpose of the work reported in this article was to collect information on the existing situation and provide appropriate advice to the Health Division of the University Welfare Office. For this purpose a survey was conducted with the voluntary participation of 836 students enrolled in their final year of study. A survey form containing 45 questions designed to elicit demographic and sexual behavior data was self-administered anonymously by the participating students. Among the participants who were sexually active, 10.9% (17.2% of the men, 3.3% of the women) said they had contracted some variety of sexually transmitted disease (STD). The most common diagnoses were gonorrhea (42%), genital warts (23%), and genital herpes (19%). The risk of contracting STD was 4.2 times greater in those reporting sex with strangers; 3.4 times greater in those reporting four or more sexual partners; and 2.5 times greater in those reporting homosexual relations, as compared to students not practicing such behaviors. Some 28.4% of 790 survey respondents or their partners had been pregnant; 49% of these pregnancies had terminated in abortions, 77% of these being induced abortions. Only 51.3% of the survey participants reported customary use of contraceptives, those most frequently cited being condoms (by 32% of the users), pills (20%), the rhythm method (18%), and extravaginal ejaculation (17%). Generally speaking, it appears that participating students had received little sex education. To obtain information, they had turned primarily to friends and books. Those who said they had received adequate sex education at home participated somewhat less frequently in risky behaviors but appeared a little less apt to have used contraceptives and a little more apt to

  16. Assessment on the problems of female staff at Jimma University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is therefore, meant to identify gender related problems of Jimma ... attitude of the society against females, work overload, lack of assertiveness, ... of females believed that there existed gender discrimination currently (p<0.05).

  17. The Investigation of Social Problem Solving Abilities of University Students in Terms of Perceived Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tras, Zeliha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze of university students' perceived social support and social problem solving. The participants were 827 (474 female and 353 male) university students. Data were collected Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (Yildirim, 2004) and Social Problem Solving (Maydeu-Olivares and D'Zurilla, 1996) translated and…

  18. Information Needs and Bibliographic Problems of the Anthropology Departments at U. N. C. and Duke University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurling, Norman Kent

    Research was conducted on information needs and bibliographic problems of anthropologists at Duke University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Sixty-four faculty members and graduate students were surveyed, and twenty faculty members were interviewed. Many areas of information retrieval problems and the different ways…

  19. Do causes of stress differ in their association with problem drinking by sex in Korean adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Woo; Park, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, So-Hee

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have focused mainly on whether stress causes present drinking or excessive drinking. However, few studies have been conducted on the relationship between stress and problem drinking in adolescents. The objective of this study was to examine the stress level and the cause of stress related to problem drinking behavior according to sex among Korean youth. Data for this study were pooled from cross-sectional data collected annually from 2007 through 2012 from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. A representative sample of 442,113 students from 800 randomly selected middle and high schools in Korea were included. Multiple logistic regression models were used in the analysis. Both male and female students with extremely high stress were more likely to engage in problem drinking than were students with no stress (odds ratios [OR], 1.73 in males and 1.41 in females). The major causes of stress in male students that were associated with problem drinking were conflict with a teacher, trouble with parents, and peer relationships (ORs, 2.47, 1.72, and 1.71, respectively), whereas there are no statistically significant association between causes of stress and problem drinking among female students. Considering stress level, Male students with extremely high stress level were associated with problem drinking regardless of causes of stress, while Female students who felt extremely high levels of stress were more likely to engage in problem drinking due to stress from a conflict with parents, peer relationships, appearance, and financial difficulty (ORs, 1.53, 1.53, 1.46, and 1.47, respectively). Adolescents who engage in problem drinking may be affected by different causes of stress according to sex. Thus, appropriate approaches that reflect sex differences will be helpful to alleviate problem drinking in adolescents and educational authorities need to arrange more effective education program for drinking given positive associations between drinking

  20. The Problem of Inertia in a Friedmann Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2012-01-01

    In this talk I will discuss the origin of inertia in a curved spacetime, particularly the spatially flat, open and closed Friedmann universes. This is done using Sciama's law of inertial induction, which is based on Mach's principle, and expresses the analogy between the retarded far fields of electrodynamics and those of gravitation. After obtaining covariant expressions for electromagnetic fields due to an accelerating point charge in Friedmann models, we adopt Sciama's law to obtain the inertial force on an accelerating mass $m$ by integrating over the contributions from all the matter in the universe. The resulting inertial force has the form $F = -kma$ where the constant $k < 1 $ depends on the choice of the cosmological parameters such as $\\Omega_{M},\\ \\Omega_{\\Lambda}, $ and $\\Omega_{R}$. The values of $k$ obtained suggest that inertial contribution from dark matter can be the source for the missing part of the inertial force.

  1. Complexity of universality and related problems for partially ordered NFAs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krötzsch, M.; Masopust, Tomáš; Thomazo, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 255, č. 1 (2017), s. 177-192 ISSN 0890-5401 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : nondeterministic automata * partial order * universal ity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 1.050, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0890540117300998?via%3Dihub

  2. Ellipsoidal universe can solve the cosmic microwave background quadrupole problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanelli, L; Cea, P; Tedesco, L

    2006-09-29

    The recent 3 yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe data have confirmed the anomaly concerning the low quadrupole amplitude compared to the best-fit Lambda-cold dark matter prediction. We show that by allowing the large-scale spatial geometry of our universe to be plane symmetric with eccentricity at decoupling or order 10(-2), the quadrupole amplitude can be drastically reduced without affecting higher multipoles of the angular power spectrum of the temperature anisotropy.

  3. Computer Use and Vision‑Related Problems Among University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and adjusted OR was calculated using the multiple logistic regression. Results: The ... Nearly 72% of students reported frequent interruption of computer work. Headache ... procedure (non-probability sampling) recruiting 250 .... Table 1: Percentage distribution of visual problems among different genders and ethnic groups.

  4. On the universal method to solve extremal problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Brinkhuis (Jan)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractSome applications of the theory of extremal problems to mathematics and economics are made more accessible to non-experts. 1.The following fundamental results are known to all users of mathematical techniques, such as economist, econometricians, engineers and ecologists: the fundamental

  5. ANALYZING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS AND PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    SÜLEYMAN DÜNDAR

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze problem solving skills of university students according to their personal characteristics. We try to find out if there is a difference in problem solving skills considering sex, class and personality harmony characteristics. Personal data form, Problem Solving Scale and Hacettepe Personality Scale are used as measurement tools. The results of the study indicate that there is no difference between male and female students in problem solving skills. Problem s...

  6. Black hole entropy and the problem of universality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, Steven

    2007-01-01

    A key test of any quantum theory of gravity is its ability to reproduce the known thermodynamic properties of black holes. A statistical mechanical description of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy once seemed remote, but today we suffer an embarrassment of riches: many different approaches to quantum gravity yield the same entropy, despite counting very different states. This 'universality' suggests that some underlying feature of the classical theory may control the quantum density of states. I discuss the possibility that this feature is an approximate two-dimensional conformal symmetry near the horizon

  7. Black hole entropy and the problem of universality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlip, Steven [Physics Department, 1 Shields Ave., University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    A key test of any quantum theory of gravity is its ability to reproduce the known thermodynamic properties of black holes. A statistical mechanical description of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy once seemed remote, but today we suffer an embarrassment of riches: many different approaches to quantum gravity yield the same entropy, despite counting very different states. This 'universality' suggests that some underlying feature of the classical theory may control the quantum density of states. I discuss the possibility that this feature is an approximate two-dimensional conformal symmetry near the horizon.

  8. Weaknesses of the Quality Evaluation Process in the Spanish University: Causes, Consequences and Proposals for Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemente Rodríguez Sabiote

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of quality assessment going on in the Spanish university since the early nineties has generated undeniable advances. However, there have been detected a series of weaknesses which have affected the process with consequences unpredictable a priori. This article reviews some of the weaknesses, together with their possible causes and consequences. Suggestions are provided for improving the process of evaluating the quality of university institutions.

  9. Computer Use and Vision-Related Problems Among University Students In Ajman, United Arab Emirate

    OpenAIRE

    Shantakumari, N; Eldeeb, R; Sreedharan, J; Gopal, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: The extensive use of computers as medium of teaching and learning in universities necessitates introspection into the extent of computer related health disorders among student population. Aim: This study was undertaken to assess the pattern of computer usage and related visual problems, among University students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 Students studying in Gulf Medical University, Ajman and Ajman University of Science and Technology we...

  10. The gravitino-overproduction problem in inflationary universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, M. [Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research; Takahashi, F. [Tokyo Univ., Chiba (Japan). Inst. for Cosmic Ray Research]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Yanagida, T.T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics]|[Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for the Early Universe

    2006-05-15

    We show that the gravitino-overproduction problem is prevalent among inflation models in supergravity. An inflaton field {phi} generically acquires (effective) non-vanishing auxiliary field G{sup (eff)}{sub {phi}}, if the Kaehler potential is non-minimal. The inflaton field then decays into a pair of the gravitinos. We extensively study the cosmological constraints on G{sup (eff)}{sub {phi}} for a wide range of the gravitino mass. For many inflation models we explicitly estimate G{sup (eff)}{sub {phi}}, and show that the gravitino-overproduction problem severely constrains the inflation models, unless such an interaction as K={kappa}/2 vertical stroke {phi} vertical stroke {sup 2}z{sup 2}+h.c. is suppressed (here z is the field responsible for the supersymmetry breaking). We find that many of them are already excluded or on the verge of, if {kappa}{proportional_to}O(1). (Orig.)

  11. Dark energy and the accelerating universe: progress, problems and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, J.A.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IAG/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas

    2012-07-01

    Full text: A large number of recent observational data strongly suggest that we live in a flat, accelerating Universe composed by nearly 1/3 of matter (baryonic + dark) and 2/3 of an exotic component with large negative pressure, usually named Dark Energy. The basic set of experiments includes: observations from SNe Ia, CMB anisotropies, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and X-ray data from galaxy clusters. Within the general relativity, the simplest explanation for dark energy is the cosmological constant associated with the zero-point energy density of all quantum fields present in the Universe. However, all estimates for its value are many orders-of-magnitude too large. Many alternative ideas include more exotic candidates for dark energy among them an extremely light scalar field. However, some possible explanations for the present accelerating stage also invokes gravitational physics beyond general relativity. In this way, several observations using satellites and ground-based telescopes are in operation or being planned to test whether dark energy is the cosmological constant or something more exotic, as well as to decide whether or not the standard general relativity can explain cosmic acceleration. In the current view, dark energy is an interesting example of new physics, and, certainly, its possible existence is one of the most profound mysteries of modern physics. In this talk we present a simplified picture of the main results and discuss briefly the difficulties underlying the dark energy paradigm and some of its possible alternatives. (author)

  12. Psychosocial problems of pre-clinical students in the University of Ibadan Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokhodion, F O

    2003-06-01

    Recent changes in the psychosocial environment of the university campus such as the steep rise in student numbers, the high cost of living standards and the increase in violence and cult activities has prompted the need to assess the impact of these changes on the students. A cross sectional study was carried out among pre-clinical medical students to identify their psychosocial problems. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about socio-demographic variables including age, sex, sources of financial support, type of accommodation, smoking and drinking habits and use of recreational facilities. Causes of insecurity and depression among students were also recorded. The General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12 was used to assess their mental health status. One hundred and seventy-six students responded to the enquiry, 94 males (53%) and 80 females (45%). One hundred and thirty-seven (79%) live on the campus while 37 (21%) live off campus. Only 9 of the students (5%) were smokers and 28 (16%) were drinkers. Monthly pocket money ranged from Naira 1,000 to Naira 25,000. Forty-one (23%) thought their pocket money was adequate, 92 (52%) thought it was fair and 39 (22%) thought it was inadequate. Causes of insecurity on the campus were cultism 34 (19%), lack of money 27 (15%), lack of textbooks 13 (7%) and stealing 10 (6%). Causes of depression include fear of failure of examinations, 62 (35%), lack of money, 48 (27%) and family problems 17 (10%). Mental health scores ranged from 1 to 10. Using a cut off point of 3 to delineate those with traits of poor mental health, 35 (21%) fell into the category 15 boys and 20 girls. Mean mental health score were higher for females, those living on campus, smokers and drinkers but this was not statistically significant. Fear of failure of examinations, cultism and lack of money are major concerns among medical students on the main university campus. Counselling services should be provided to assist students with

  13. Leadership Styles at Syrian Universities and the Differences Caused by Sector and Follower Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Ayoubi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing two modern leadership styles: transactional leadership and transformational leadership at Syrian universities. It also aims at exploring whether or not there are differences in leadership styles caused by sector or follower demographics. A quantitative research paradigm was employed. Using a questionnaire survey method, the data was collected from managerial employees at two public and private universities. In total, 216 questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS. The findings revealed that there is a high level of transactional leadership except one of its dimensions, management by exception-passive, which occurred in a medium level. There is also a high level of transformational leadership except one of its dimensions, individualized consideration, which occurred in a medium level. Furthermore, the study found significant differences in leadership styles that are caused by follower demographics, but not sector. Suggestions for Syrian universities are presented. Proposals for future studies are highlighted in the study.

  14. Simulating a singularity-free universe outside the problem boundary in poisson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbach, K.; Schlueter, R.

    1992-01-01

    An exact analytical solution developed from the Dirichlet problem exterior to a circle is employed in the magnetostatics code POISSON to provide a boundary condition option which simulates a singularity-free universe external to the problem domain. Problems with domains of large unequal extents in perpendicular directions are treated by first conformally mapping the exterior of an ellipse onto the exterior of the unit circle. Problems exhibiting symmetry in one or two planes are modeled using a semi or quarter, respectively, in conjunction with the singularity-free rest-of-universe boundary condition

  15. Experience with diagnosis of root causes of human performance problems in Indian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Low capacity factor, in any NPP, is a result of high occurrence rates of significant events. A substantial portion of such occurrences is caused by inappropriate action due to inadequate human performance. To improve human performance we need first to do its evaluation. This paper describes the essential elements of the first basic step in that context: diagnosis or identification of the fundamental causes of human performance problems in Indian NPPs. (author)

  16. Institutional Capacities in E-learning and Problem Based Learning at Universities and University Colleges in Tanzania and Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahms, Mona-Lisa; Zakaria, Hanan Lassen

    This report provides a status of the use of e-learning and Problem Based Learning (PBL) at seven universities and university colleges in Tan- zania and Ghana. It gives an overview of policies, strategies, resources and practices. It describes experiences as well as identified needs...... at these institutions to increase the use of these current teaching approaches. Since the 1970’s, PBL and other student activating teaching forms has gained increasing foothold at many universities especially in Northern Europe. Evidence is clear that students not only learn more by being active in problem solving...... in groups than by attending traditional lectures and readings; the competences they gain are absolutely necessary to be effective in today’s increasingly competitive labor force. More recently, the continuous development of the Internet and mobile net since the mid 1990’s has also lead to a shift...

  17. Extrauterine growth restriction: Universal problem among premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de FREITAS

    2016-02-01

    , individualized for small-for-gestational-age infants, to improve nutrient supply can minimize the problem.

  18. Moodle supporting problem-based, project-organized learning at Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Lillian; Møller, Brian; Enevoldsen, Lars Peter

    and efficient learning model and a trademark of Aalborg University. In 2008 some study programs started using Moodle as their learning platform. In 2011 it was decided that Moodle should be the official learning management system for Aalborg University on-campus. At the presentation we would like to share some...... of the challenges we have encountered when implementing Moodle at Aalborg University whilst keeping the problem-based, project-organized model as the pedagogical foundation....

  19. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, and associations of self-efficacy among German university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulewitsch MD

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Angelika A Schlarb1,2, Dominika Kulessa1,*, Marco D Gulewitsch1,*1Faculty of Science, Department of Psychology, University of Tübingen, 2Faculty of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies on university students have shown prevalence rates between 4.7% and 36.2% for sleep difficulties, and 13.1% and 28.1% for insomnia. Sleep problems are associated with lower social and academic performance and can have a severe impact on psychological and physical health.Objective: The goal of this study was to outline sleep characteristics, prevalence of sleep problems, insomnia, and associations with self-efficacy among German university students.Methods: A total of 2196 university students (70.9% women; mean age 24.16 years participated in the study. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, insomnia, and self-efficacy were assessed using a questionnaire.Results and conclusion: Analyses revealed that more than 16% of surveyed students needed more than 30 minutes to fall asleep. About 7.7% of the students suffered from insomnia. Short sleep was significantly associated with a considerably increased rate of insomnia (20%. Insomniacs showed lower self-efficacy than students without sleep problems.Keywords: university students, sleep characteristics, sleep problems, insomnia, self-efficacy

  20. 49 CFR 40.267 - What problems always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cancelled? 40.267 Section 40.267 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... always cause an alcohol test to be cancelled? As an employer, a BAT, or an STT, you must cancel an... the test was cancelled and must be treated as if the test never occurred. These problems are: (a) In...

  1. Characterising Learning Interactions: A Study of University Students Solving Physics Problems in Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Maria; Danielsson, Anna T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore how a group of four university physics students addressed mechanics problems, in terms of student direction of attention, problem solving strategies and their establishment of and ways of interacting. Adapted from positioning theory, the concepts "positioning" and "storyline" are used to describe and to…

  2. Mental health, behavioural problems and treatment seeking among students commencing university in Northern Ireland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret McLafferty

    Full Text Available Mental health and behavioural problems are common among students commencing university. University life can be stressful and problems often exacerbate during their course of study, while others develop disorders for the first time. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project aims to conduct longitudinal research to examine and monitor student mental health and wellbeing. The Ulster University Student Wellbeing study, which commenced in September 2015 in Northern Ireland (NI, was conducted as part of this initiative (wave 1, n = 739, using the WMH-CIDI to examine psychopathology. Baseline prevalence rates of lifetime and 12-month mental health and substance disorders, ADHD and suicidality were high, with more than half of new undergraduate students reporting any lifetime disorder. Co-morbidity was common with 19.1% of students experiencing three or more disorders. Logistic regression models revealed that females, those over 21, non-heterosexual students, and those from a lower SES background were more likely to have a range of mental health and behavioural problems. Overall, 10% of new entry students received treatment for emotional problems in the previous year. However, 22.3% of students with problems said they would not seek help. The study provides important information for universities, policy makers and practice, on mental health and wellbeing in young people generally but particularly for students commencing university. The findings will assist in the development and implementation of protection and prevention strategies in the university setting and beyond.

  3. Mental health, behavioural problems and treatment seeking among students commencing university in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; Lapsley, Coral R; Ennis, Edel; Armour, Cherie; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan P; Bjourson, Anthony J; Murray, Elaine K; O'Neill, Siobhan M

    2017-01-01

    Mental health and behavioural problems are common among students commencing university. University life can be stressful and problems often exacerbate during their course of study, while others develop disorders for the first time. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project aims to conduct longitudinal research to examine and monitor student mental health and wellbeing. The Ulster University Student Wellbeing study, which commenced in September 2015 in Northern Ireland (NI), was conducted as part of this initiative (wave 1, n = 739), using the WMH-CIDI to examine psychopathology. Baseline prevalence rates of lifetime and 12-month mental health and substance disorders, ADHD and suicidality were high, with more than half of new undergraduate students reporting any lifetime disorder. Co-morbidity was common with 19.1% of students experiencing three or more disorders. Logistic regression models revealed that females, those over 21, non-heterosexual students, and those from a lower SES background were more likely to have a range of mental health and behavioural problems. Overall, 10% of new entry students received treatment for emotional problems in the previous year. However, 22.3% of students with problems said they would not seek help. The study provides important information for universities, policy makers and practice, on mental health and wellbeing in young people generally but particularly for students commencing university. The findings will assist in the development and implementation of protection and prevention strategies in the university setting and beyond.

  4. Mental health, behavioural problems and treatment seeking among students commencing university in Northern Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Margaret; Lapsley, Coral R.; Ennis, Edel; Armour, Cherie; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan P.; Bjourson, Anthony J.; O'Neill, Siobhan M.

    2017-01-01

    Mental health and behavioural problems are common among students commencing university. University life can be stressful and problems often exacerbate during their course of study, while others develop disorders for the first time. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project aims to conduct longitudinal research to examine and monitor student mental health and wellbeing. The Ulster University Student Wellbeing study, which commenced in September 2015 in Northern Ireland (NI), was conducted as part of this initiative (wave 1, n = 739), using the WMH-CIDI to examine psychopathology. Baseline prevalence rates of lifetime and 12-month mental health and substance disorders, ADHD and suicidality were high, with more than half of new undergraduate students reporting any lifetime disorder. Co-morbidity was common with 19.1% of students experiencing three or more disorders. Logistic regression models revealed that females, those over 21, non-heterosexual students, and those from a lower SES background were more likely to have a range of mental health and behavioural problems. Overall, 10% of new entry students received treatment for emotional problems in the previous year. However, 22.3% of students with problems said they would not seek help. The study provides important information for universities, policy makers and practice, on mental health and wellbeing in young people generally but particularly for students commencing university. The findings will assist in the development and implementation of protection and prevention strategies in the university setting and beyond. PMID:29236727

  5. Psychosocial problems of clinical students in the University of Ibadan Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omokhodion, F O; Gureje, O

    2003-03-01

    A cross sectional study was carried out among medical students in the University of Ibadan to identify their socio economic and psychological problems. Three hundred and sixteen students, 159 males and 157 females participated in the study. The questionnaire, which was self-administered, sought information about sources of financial support, type of accommodation, use of recreational facilities, smoking and drinking habits and sources of stress and insecurity on the campus. The GHQ-12 was used to assess their mental status. Ninety-four percent of students were sponsored by their parents. Average monthly income as pocket money ranged from N800-N15,000. Sixty-three (20%) reported that their pocket money was inadequate and 11 (3.5%) engage in business ventures to supplement their income. Two hundred and fifty-seven (81%) live on the campus, 11 (3.5%) were current smokers and 54 (18%) were current drinkers. Stealing and lack of money were the commonest causes of insecurity on the campus. Lack of money, fear of failure of examinations, family problems and broken relationships were reported as causes of depression among this study population. GHQ scores ranged from 1 to 9 using a cut-off point of 3 scores, 38 students (12.0%) were categorised as having traits of poor mental health. GHQ scores were not associated with age, sex, smoking or drinking status or students' assessment of the adequacy of their pocket money. However, living off campus and poor self-perception were associated with poor mental health (p < 0.01). Counseling services should be provided in the medical school to assist students to handle issues that constitute a source of stress in their psychosocial environment.

  6. Little Evidence That Time in Child Care Causes Externalizing Problems During Early Childhood in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dearing, Eric; Lekhal, Ratib; Toppelberg, Claudio O.

    2012-01-01

    Associations between maternal reports of hours in child care and children’s externalizing problems at 18 and 36 months of age were examined in a population-based Norwegian sample (n = 75,271). Within a sociopolitical context of homogenously high-quality child care, there was little evidence that high quantity of care causes externalizing problems. Using conventional approaches to handling selection bias and listwise deletion for substantial attrition in this sample, more hours in care predicted higher problem levels, yet with small effect sizes. The finding, however, was not robust to using multiple imputation for missing values. Moreover, when sibling and individual fixed-effects models for handling selection bias were used, no relation between hours and problems was evident. PMID:23311645

  7. Classical universe emerging from quantum cosmology without horizon and flatness problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fathi, M.; Jalalzadeh, S. [Shahid Beheshti University, Department of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moniz, P.V. [Centro de Matematica e Aplicacoes-UBI, Covilha (Portugal); Universidade da Beira Interior, Departmento de Fisica, Covilha (Portugal)

    2016-10-15

    We apply the complex de Broglie-Bohm formulation of quantum mechanics in Chou and Wyatt (Phys Rev A 76: 012115, 2007), Gozzi (Phys Lett B 165: 351, 1985), Bhalla et al. (Am J Phys 65: 1187, 1997) to a spatially closed homogeneous and isotropic early universe whose matter contents are radiation and dust perfect fluids. We then show that an expanding classical universe can emerge from an oscillating (with complex scale factor) quantum universe without singularity. Furthermore, the universe obtained in this process has no horizon or flatness problems. (orig.)

  8. Problem gambling among international and domestic university students in Australia: who is at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan M; Thomas, Anna C; Kalé, Sudhir; Spence, Mark; Zlatevska, Natalina; Staiger, Petra K; Graffam, Joseph; Kyrios, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Young people are a high risk group for gambling problems and university (college) students fall into that category. Given the high accessibility of gambling in Australia and its association with entertainment, students from overseas countries, particularly those where gambling is restricted or illegal, may be particularly vulnerable. This study examines problem gambling and its correlates among international and domestic university students using a sample of 836 domestic students (286 males; 546 females); and 764 international students (369 males; 396 females) at three Australian universities. Our findings indicate that although most students gamble infrequently, around 5 % of students are problem gamblers, a proportion higher than that in the general adult population. Popular gambling choices include games known to be associated with risk (cards, horse races, sports betting, casino games, and gaming machines) as well as lotto/scratch tickets. Males are more likely to be problem gamblers than females, and almost 10 % of male international students could be classified as problem gamblers. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that male gender, international student status, financial stress, negative affect and frequency of gambling on sports, horses/dogs, table games, casino gaming machines, internet casino games and bingo all significantly predicted problem gambling. Results from this study could inform gambling-education programs in universities as they indicate which groups are more vulnerable and specify which games pose more risk of problem gambling.

  9. A prospect of the administration against problems of environmental contamination caused by radioactive nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osako, Masahiro

    2012-01-01

    At first, focusing on the problem of radioactive contaminated wastes caused by Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident, the Author described an outline of the waste management policy based on the law on special measures against the environmental contamination by radioactive nuclides. Next, the Author discussed a prospect of the environmental administration against the radioactive contamination problem. The most important mission of the environmental administration for the future must be to establish a social basis for the sustainable development, in other words the building-up of a newly social value added, through the measures against this unprecedented disaster. (author)

  10. Problems caused by the Concentration of Nuclear Power Plants in Border Areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billman, C.

    1979-01-01

    The concentration of nuclear power plants in border areas raises the problem of protection of the population and the environment in border lands. The author recalls the fundamental legal principle according to which no country may cause a prejudice to a neighbouring country due to installations harmful to the environment which are located in its own territory. Several legal systems are reviewed which provide for participation by neighbouring states in nuclear plant projects and licensing; the recourse procedure against such plants is also discussed. Finally, consideration is given to problems to be solved in order to coordinate legal and administrative measures in case of construction of nuclear plants in border areas. (NEA) [fr

  11. [Medical surveillance in university: organizational difficulties, legal problems, scientific e technical specificities. Experience of University of Milan Bicocca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orso, M I; Giuliani, C; Assini, R; Riva, M A; Cesana, G

    2012-01-01

    Our research describes activities of Occupational Health carried out during last year in University of Milan Bicocca by Occupational Doctors. We describe results of medical surveillance in 1153 employees or students exposed to occupational risks for health and safety. We report results obtained, technical difficulties, organizational problems, and preventive actions decided to improve functionality of our activity. Students seem to be less protected and consequently seem to have higher professional safety and health risks.

  12. Labor conditions of university teachers on Belgrade University: The problem of evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Current process of the reform of higher education system in Serbia emphasize the issue of standardization of different aspects of teachers' work. Bologna reform introduces certain innovations in the process of evaluation of teachers work - obligatory self-evaluation and student evaluations. First reactions on these innovations stressing the question of ambiguity in interpretations of the results of this kind of evaluations. The empirical analysis of the collected interviews on five faculties of Belgrade University chart some of the symbolic points of resistance, as well as the points of symbolic identification and acceptance related to the process of evaluation. Careful analysis of the ways in which interviewees construct their narratives about the idea of evaluation of their own teaching skills and practices shows numerous defects of current evaluation procedures, as well as the concrete possibilities for their improvements and adjustments to the changed requirements of teaching process in higher education institutions.

  13. Attitudes of Students Living in Dormitories of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences Towards the Causes of Drug Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir Lotfi, Parvizreza; Javadimehr, Mani; Adrome, Mahdiye

    2015-06-01

    Health-threatening behavior is one of the most challenges of social and mental health, that most countries are involved somehow in it, and as a result widespread and severe problems are imposed on communities. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of students living in dormitories of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences towards causes of drug addiction. In this study, 100 students (60 boys and 40 girls) living in dormitories (Kooser and Misagi) of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences were selected using the simple random sampling method. Data were collected by oral interview and participants were asked demographic, geographic and economic oral questions about their attitude towards causes of drug addiction. The interview was conducted by psychology experts and respondents' answers were recorded on tape recorder and then transcribed on papers, and finally the data were analyzed by SPSS (15). Different percentages of participants expressed different views about the causes of drug addiction. Results showed that 75%, 65%, 55.5% 90%, 40% and 85%, of participants believed being away from their parents, curiosity, unconsidered friendships, smoking, using drug at home, and easy accessibility were as major contributing factors involved in drug addiction, respectively, and the same factors underlie the student's involvement in addiction. Many contributing factors of drug abuse obtained in this study can influence on tendency towards drug use for new students. It is evident that the period of residency in dormitories is one of the most critical periods in students' life. Thus, the concerned authorities take necessary measures to overcome the students' mental and social problems.

  14. Growing geometric reasoning in solving problems of analytical geometry through the mathematical communication problems to state Islamic university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujiasih; Waluya, S. B.; Kartono; Mariani

    2018-03-01

    Skills in working on the geometry problems great needs of the competence of Geometric Reasoning. As a teacher candidate, State Islamic University (UIN) students need to have the competence of this Geometric Reasoning. When the geometric reasoning in solving of geometry problems has grown well, it is expected the students are able to write their ideas to be communicative for the reader. The ability of a student's mathematical communication is supposed to be used as a marker of the growth of their Geometric Reasoning. Thus, the search for the growth of geometric reasoning in solving of analytic geometry problems will be characterized by the growth of mathematical communication abilities whose work is complete, correct and sequential, especially in writing. Preceded with qualitative research, this article was the result of a study that explores the problem: Was the search for the growth of geometric reasoning in solving analytic geometry problems could be characterized by the growth of mathematical communication abilities? The main activities in this research were done through a series of activities: (1) Lecturer trains the students to work on analytic geometry problems that were not routine and algorithmic process but many problems that the process requires high reasoning and divergent/open ended. (2) Students were asked to do the problems independently, in detail, complete, order, and correct. (3) Student answers were then corrected each its stage. (4) Then taken 6 students as the subject of this research. (5) Research subjects were interviewed and researchers conducted triangulation. The results of this research, (1) Mathematics Education student of UIN Semarang, had adequate the mathematical communication ability, (2) the ability of this mathematical communication, could be a marker of the geometric reasoning in solving of problems, and (3) the geometric reasoning of UIN students had grown in a category that tends to be good.

  15. Perm State University HPC-hardware and software services: capabilities for aircraft engine aeroacoustics problems solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demenev, A. G.

    2018-02-01

    The present work is devoted to analyze high-performance computing (HPC) infrastructure capabilities for aircraft engine aeroacoustics problems solving at Perm State University. We explore here the ability to develop new computational aeroacoustics methods/solvers for computer-aided engineering (CAE) systems to handle complicated industrial problems of engine noise prediction. Leading aircraft engine engineering company, including “UEC-Aviadvigatel” JSC (our industrial partners in Perm, Russia), require that methods/solvers to optimize geometry of aircraft engine for fan noise reduction. We analysed Perm State University HPC-hardware resources and software services to use efficiently. The performed results demonstrate that Perm State University HPC-infrastructure are mature enough to face out industrial-like problems of development CAE-system with HPC-method and CFD-solvers.

  16. The main problem solving differences between high school and university in mathematical beliefs and professional behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akhlaghi Garmjani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Teaching science and math has been underdeveloped in nurturing the talents and motivations of young people who are in search of professions in these fields. Identifying and strengthening the students' problem solving beliefs and behaviors, can be a great help to those involved in teaching mathematics. This study investigates on the university and high school students, teachers and professors' problem solving beliefs and behaviors. Considering the research method, this study is a field research in which questionnaire is used. Participants in this research were senior high school and university students, math teachers and math professors. Data collection method for beliefs and behavior variables was via the use of a questionnaire. The Mann-Whitney test results showed that problem solving in high school and university was different and the main difference was in mathematical professional beliefs and behaviors.

  17. THE MODEL OF IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM MAIN CAUSE SET OF VARIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Miric

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The term Lean has been widely used in today's product manufacturing and service delivery environments. In its fundamental nature the Lean Philosophy continuously strives for elimination of any kind of waste that exists in such environments. There are six basic strategies [1] related to the Lean Philosophy: Workplace Safety & Order & Cleanliness, JIT production, Six Sigma Quality, Empowered Teams, Visual Management and Pursuit of Perfection. On the journey of sustaining the lean supporting strategies there are many problems, or opportunities as Lean Practitioners call them. The value of some strategies highly depends on the efficiency of the problem solving techniques used to overcome the emerging issues. JIT production is difficult to imagine without a system that supports a high level of operational readiness with equipment uptime above 98%. Six Sigma level of quality, even when built into a product or system design, still undergoes the challenges of day to day operations and the variability brought with it. This variability is the source of waste and lean systems culture strives for continuous reduction of it. Empowered Teams properly trained to recognize the real cause of the problems and their Pursuit of Perfection culture are one of the corner stones of Lean Philosophy sustainability. Their ability to work with Problem Solvers and understand the difference between the "cure of the symptoms" approach versus "problem root cause identification" is one of the distinctions between Lean and Mass operations. Among the series of Statistical Engineering To ols this paper will show one of the techniques that proved to be powerful in the identification of the Set of Variation that contains the Main Cause of the new problems that arise in daily operations. This technique is called Multi - Vari. Multi - Vari is th e statistical engineering method used to analyze the set of data acquired in an organized manner. The set could be analyzed graphically or

  18. University staff experiences of students with mental health problems and their perceptions of staff training needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Amelia; Farrer, Louise; Bennett, Kylie; Ali, Kathina; Hellsing, Annika; Katruss, Natasha; Griffiths, Kathleen M

    2018-06-01

    University students experience high levels of mental health problems; however, very few seek professional help. Teaching staff within the university are well placed to assist students to seek support. To investigate university teaching staff experiences of, and training needs around, assisting students with mental health problems. A total of 224 teaching staff at the Australian National University completed an anonymous online survey (16.4% response rate from n ∼ 1370). Data on mental health training needs, and experiences of assisting students with mental health problems were described using tabulation. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic analysis. Most teaching staff (70.1-82.2%) reported at least moderate confidence in their ability to provide emotional support for students. However, many staff (60.0%) felt under-equipped overall to deal with student mental health problems; almost half (49.6%) reported they did not have access to formal training. Specific actions described in assisting students included referrals, offering support, or consulting others for advice. Given the high rates of students who approach staff about mental health problems, there is a critical need to provide and promote both formal mental health response training and explicit guidelines for staff on when, how, and where to refer students for help.

  19. THE USEFULNESS OF USER TESTING METHODS IN IDENTIFYING PROBLEMS ON UNIVERSITY WEBSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Hasan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the usefulness of three user testing methods (observation, and using both quantitative and qualitative data from a post-test questionnaire in terms of their ability or inability to find specific usability problems on university websites. The results showed that observation was the best method, compared to the other two, in identifying large numbers of major and minor usability problems on university websites. The results also showed that employing qualitative data from a post-test questionnaire was a useful complementary method since this identified additional usability problems that were not identified by the observation method. However, the results showed that the quantitative data from the post-test questionnaire were inaccurate and ineffective in terms of identifying usability problems on such websites.

  20. Sleep characteristics, sleep problems, and associations of self-efficacy among German university students

    OpenAIRE

    Schlarb, Angelika A; Kulessa, Dominika; Gulewitsch, Marco D

    2012-01-01

    Angelika A Schlarb1,2, Dominika Kulessa1,*, Marco D Gulewitsch1,*1Faculty of Science, Department of Psychology, University of Tübingen, 2Faculty of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Sleep problems, especially insomnia, are a common complaint among adults. International studies on university students have shown prevalence rates between 4.7% and 36.2% for sleep difficulties, and 13.1% and 28.1% for insomnia. Slee...

  1. On the problem of finding a suitable distribution of students to universities in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Johannes J.; Hirtreiter, Christian; Morgenstern, Ingo

    2009-10-01

    For many years, the problem of how to distribute students to the various universities in Germany according to the preferences of the students has remained unsolved. Various approaches, like the centralized method to let a central agency organize the distribution to the various universities or the decentralized method to let the students apply directly at their preferred universities, turned out to lead to a significant fraction of frustrated students ending up at universities not being on their preference list or even not having a place to study at all. With our centralized approach, we are able to decrease the fraction of frustrated students as well as the bureaucratic expenses for applicants and universities drastically.

  2. Testing the Emotional Vulnerability Pathway to Problem Gambling in Culturally Diverse University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hum, Sandra; Carr, Sherilene M

    2018-02-12

    Loneliness and adapting to an unfamiliar environment can increase emotional vulnerability in culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) university students. According to Blaszczynski and Nower's pathways model of problem and pathological gambling, this emotional vulnerability could increase the risk of problem gambling. The current study examined whether loneliness was associated with problem gambling risk in CALD students relative to their Australian peers. Additionally, differences in coping strategies were examined to determine their buffering effect on the relationship. A total of 463 female and 165 male university students (aged 18-38) from Australian (38%), mixed Australian and CALD (23%) and CALD (28%) backgrounds responded to an online survey of problem gambling behaviour, loneliness, and coping strategies. The results supported the hypothesis that loneliness would be related to problem gambling in CALD students. There was no evidence of a moderating effect of coping strategies. Future research could test whether the introduction of programs designed to alleviate loneliness in culturally diverse university students reduces their risk of developing problem gambling.

  3. Playing-Related Health Problems Among Instrumental Music Students at a University in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Karen; Boon, Ong Kuan

    2016-09-01

    Musicians from a wide range of backgrounds experience playing-related health problems including musculoskeletal disorders, hearing loss, and performance anxiety. Few studies have focused specifically on the health concerns of musicians in Malaysia. This study aimed to investigate playing-related health problems among student musicians at a university in Malaysia as well as their knowledge and awareness of playing-related health problems. Instrumental music students enrolled in undergraduate and post-graduate university music courses (n=98) participated in a self-report online survey which addressed aspects such as educational background, playing experience, knowledge and awareness of musicians' health issues, history of physical problems, lifestyle factors, and prevention and management strategies. Of the total participants, 28.9% reported that they were currently experiencing playing-related pain in a body part, and 46.4% had experienced playing-related pain at some time. More than half (56.7%) felt that they have not received enough information or advice on playing-related health during their current studies. Musicians who experienced playing-related pain, tension, and discomfort reported the main problem sites to be the fingers and hands, arms, neck, and shoulders. The study results demonstrate that Malaysian university music students are affected by similar types of playing-related physical problems as their counterparts around the world. A greater awareness and knowledge of injury prevention and management strategies is needed so that these music students can sustain healthy playing careers.

  4. Reconciling the cosmic age problem in the R{sub h} = ct universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, H. [Nanjing University, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing (China); Wang, F.Y. [Nanjing University, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing (China); Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Nanjing (China)

    2014-10-15

    Many dark energy models fail to pass the cosmic age test. In this paper, we investigate the cosmic age problem associated with nine extremely old Global Clusters (GCs) and the old quasar APM 08279+5255 in the R{sub h} = ct universe. The age data of these oldest GCs in M31 are acquired from the Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut system with up-to-date theoretical synthesis models. They have not been used to test the cosmic age problem in the R{sub h} = ct universe in previous literature. By evaluating the age of the R{sub h} = ct universe with the observational constraints from the type Ia supernovae and the Hubble parameter, we find that the R{sub h} = ct universe can accommodate five GCs and the quasar APM 08279+5255 at redshift z = 3.91. But for other models, such as ΛCDM, the interacting dark energy model, the generalized Chaplygin gas model, and holographic dark energy model, cannot accommodate all GCs and the quasar APM 08279+5255. It is worthwhile to note that the age estimates of some GCs are controversial. So, unlike other cosmological models, the R{sub h} = ct universe can marginally solve the cosmic age problem, especially at high redshift. (orig.)

  5. Surveying Turkish high school and university students’ attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Balta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Students’ attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving can impact how well they learn physics and how successful they are in solving physics problems. Prior research in the U.S. using a validated Attitude and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS survey suggests that there are major differences between students in introductory physics and astronomy courses and physics experts in terms of their attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving. Here we discuss the validation, administration, and analysis of data for the Turkish version of the AAPS survey for high school and university students in Turkey. After the validation and administration of the Turkish version of the survey, the analysis of the data was conducted by grouping the data by grade level, school type, and gender. While there are no statistically significant differences between the averages of various groups on the survey, overall, the university students in Turkey were more expertlike than vocational high school students. On an item by item basis, there are statistically differences between the averages of the groups on many items. For example, on average, the university students demonstrated less expertlike attitudes about the role of equations and formulas in problem solving, in solving difficult problems, and in knowing when the solution is not correct, whereas they displayed more expertlike attitudes and approaches on items related to metacognition in physics problem solving. A principal component analysis on the data yields item clusters into which the student responses on various survey items can be grouped. A comparison of the responses of the Turkish and American university students enrolled in algebra-based introductory physics courses shows that on more than half of the items, the responses of these two groups were statistically significantly different, with the U.S. students on average responding to the items in a more expertlike manner.

  6. Assessing causes of death in the Cardiology Department of Yalgado Ouédraogo University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yameogo, Aristide Relwende; Mandi, Germain; Millogo, Georges; Samadoulougou, Andre; Zabsonre, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of the underlying causes of death can develop action plans for prevention of death that could be avoided. The aim of our study was to analyse the causes of cardiovascular deaths in the cardiology department of Yalgado Ouedraogo University Hospital. The study was a descriptive retrospective study over a 24 month period among patients who died in the department. Prevalence of death in the cardiology department was of 13.2%. Sex ratio was of 1.2 and 72.7% of patients were residing in Ouagadougou. Mean age of patients was 56.1 years and 59.4% of patients were under 65 years old. Hypertension was the major cardiovascular risk factor (46.1%) and 27.4% of patients had a medical history of dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiogenic shock was the immediate cause of death in 55.5% of cases and the initial cause of death was hypertension and its complications in 46.1% of cases. Death was not notified in 18% of cases and no death had been medically certified. Death statistics are the most reliable data for public health interventions. However, it is necessary to establish an effective method of data gathering according to the WHO standards in order to facilitate international comparison.

  7. Sorting and recycling of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O; Ebbehøj, N

    1995-01-01

    In order to reduce the strain on the environment from the deposition of waste in landfills and combustion at incineration plants, several governments throughout the industrialized world have planned greatly increased recycling of domestic waste by the turn of the millennium. To implement the plans......, new waste recycling facilities are to be built and the number of workers involved in waste sorting and recycling will increase steadily during the next decade. Several studies have reinforced the hypothesis that exposure to airborne microorganisms and the toxic products thereof are important factors...... causing a multitude of health problems among workers at waste sorting and recycling plants. Workers at transfer stations, landfills and incineration plants may experience an increased risk of pulmonary disorders and gastrointestinal problems. High concentrations of total airborne dust, bacteria, faecal...

  8. Non-training related causes of personnel performance problems: the role of organizational value systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaret, R.

    1987-01-01

    Training is frequently viewed as a panacea for all personnel related problems. Whenever an inexplicable incident occurs, training is verbalized by many as the solution, or worse, as the cause of the incident. All to frequently, training organizations are needlessly commissioned to develop some elaborate course, only to discover that the training is irrelevant to the problem. While training as a solution to an incident is socially acceptable, its' use clouds the real issue. The purpose of this paper is to emphasize that there are many reasons people do not perform, many of which are related to organizational culture or values. Values directly influence all activities which the authors are involved in, even to the extent of how they perceive their environment. They exert a strong, pervasive influence on what and how they perform

  9. Identifying the cause of intermittent problems in diagnostic X-ray machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, S.J.; O'Brien, M.J.; Robb, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Quality assurance testing and performance evaluation of radiologic x-ray equipment is an important part of producing acceptable diagnostic quality images with minimum patient exposure. Regulatory and advisory agencies provide guidance for performing these tests, but it is often only obvious problems which are detected without extensive investigation. It is desirable for the Health Physicist to be able to determine the cause of an intermittent ''bad film'' with a minimum of test equipment. This paper relates some significant performance anomalies which have been identified in diagnostic x-ray equipment from installations in the Seattle area. Many of these problems eluded manufacturer's service personnel. Also included is a description of simple steps which can be included in test procedures to detect these equipment irregularities

  10. Relation between Cyberbullying and Problem Solving: A Study on Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokler, Riza

    2013-01-01

    In this study, cyberbullying living frequency, what the cyber environments in which cyberbullying is lived are, and the relation between "being victim of cyberbullying" and "being cyberbullying" status and problem solving skill of university students are analysed. This research is done by attendance of 460 students from five…

  11. Tactics Employed and Problems Encountered by University English Majors in Hong Kong in Using a Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alice Yin Wa

    2005-01-01

    Building on the results of a small-scale survey which investigated the general use of dictionaries by university English majors in Hong Kong using a questionnaire survey and their specific use of dictionaries using an error correction task, this article discusses the tactics these students employed and the problems they encountered when using a…

  12. Culture-Based Contextual Learning to Increase Problem-Solving Ability of First Year University Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samo, Damianus Dao; Darhim; Kartasasmita, Bana G.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the differences in problem-solving ability between first-year University students who received culture-based contextual learning and conventional learning. This research is a quantitative research using quasi-experimental research design. Samples were the First-year students of mathematics education department;…

  13. An Assessment of Resource Availability for Problem Based Learning in a Ghanaian University Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyere, Gabriel Asare; Tawiah, Richard; Lamptey, Richard Bruce; Oduro, William; Thompson, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess the differences pertaining to the resources presently accessible for problem-based learning (PBL) among six colleges of Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST) in Ghana. Design/methodology/approach: Data for the study are the cross-sectional type drawn from 1,020 students. Poisson…

  14. The black-body radiation inversion problem, its instability and a new universal function set method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, JiPing; Ji, FengMin; Wen, Tao; Dai, Xian-Xi; Dai, Ji-Xin; Evenson, William E.

    2006-01-01

    The black-body radiation inversion (BRI) problem is ill-posed and requires special techniques to achieve stable solutions. In this Letter, the universal function set method (UFS), is developed in BRI. An improved unique existence theorem is proposed. Asymptotic behavior control (ABC) is introduced. A numerical example shows that practical calculations are possible with UFS

  15. The Relationship between Satisfaction with Life, ADHD Symptoms, and Associated Problems among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Eyjolfsdottir, Gudrun Agusta; Smari, Jakob; Young, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether ADHD symptoms, and associated problems, are negatively related to subjective well-being. Method: The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was completed by 369 university students, along with the Reasoning & Rehabilitation (R&R) ADHD Training Evaluation (RATE), the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  16. Problems and Expectations of University Students Attending Higher Education in Turkey: Orientation Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to find out the problems and expectations of the students in Inonu University (in Malatya, a city in east Turkey) concerning the orientation services. An additional objective is to ascertain whether students' expectations with regard to orientation services differ according to their sex, their place of origin, and…

  17. Binge drinking: a pattern associated with a risk of problems of alcohol use among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Bedendo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate problems associated with alcohol use among university students who reported binge drinking in comparison to students who consumed alcohol without binging. Method: a cross-sectional study among university students (N=2,408 who accessed the website about alcohol use. Logistic and linear regression models were included in the statistical analyzes. Results: alcohol use in the last three months was reported by 89.2% of university students; 51.6% reported binge drinking. Compared to students who did not binge drink, university students who presented this pattern were more likely to report all evaluated problems, among them: black out (aOR: 5.4; having academic problems (aOR: 3.4; acting impulsively and having regrets (aOR: 2.9; getting involved in fights (aOR: 2.6; drinking and driving (aOR: 2.6 and accepting a ride with someone who had drunk alcohol (aOR: 1.8. Students who binged also had higher scores on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (b=4.6; p<0.001, more negative consequences (b=1.0; p<0.001 and a reduced perception of the negativity of the consequences (b=-0.5; p<0.01. Conclusion: binge drinking was associated with an increase in the chances of manifesting problems related to alcohol use. The conclusions of this study cannot be generalized for all of the Brazilian population.

  18. Clinical problems of colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer cases with unknown cause of tumor mismatch repair deficiency (suspected Lynch syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchanan DD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Daniel D Buchanan,1,2 Christophe Rosty,1,3,4 Mark Clendenning,1 Amanda B Spurdle,5 Aung Ko Win2 1Oncogenomics Group, Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; 2Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia; 3Envoi Specialist Pathologists, Herston, QLD, Australia; 4School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston, QLD, Australia; 5Molecular Cancer Epidemiology Laboratory, Genetics and Computational Biology Division, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, QLD, AustraliaAbstract: Carriers of a germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes have a high risk of developing numerous different cancers, predominantly colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer (known as Lynch syndrome. MMR gene mutation carriers develop tumors with MMR deficiency identified by tumor microsatellite instability or immunohistochemical loss of MMR protein expression. Tumor MMR deficiency is used to identify individuals most likely to carry an MMR gene mutation. However, MMR deficiency can also result from somatic inactivation, most commonly methylation of the MLH1 gene promoter. As tumor MMR testing of all incident colorectal and endometrial cancers (universal screening is becoming increasingly adopted, a growing clinical problem is emerging for individuals who have tumors that show MMR deficiency who are subsequently found not to carry an MMR gene mutation after genetic testing using the current diagnostic approaches (Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and who also show no evidence of MLH1 methylation. The inability to determine the underlying cause of tumor MMR deficiency in these "Lynch-like" or "suspected Lynch syndrome" cases has significant implications on the clinical management of these individuals and their relatives. When the

  19. Some aspects to GIS modeling of environmental problems caused by mining - with special reference to China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some major points in modeling the environmental problems caused by ground surface subsidence due to mining in a geographic information system (GIS). Special attention has been paid in the paper to the management of the ground subsidence and deformation data in a GIS. The method taken in this paper is through Digital Terrain Model (DTM). With a special reference to China, the method to evaluate the damage of the buildings and pipelines using the analysis tools of a GIS is discussed. Furthermore, the possibilities of the application of GIS to land reclamation planning in the mining influenced areas are studied. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  20. PROBLEM BANKS IN UKRAINE: CAUSES AND FUNCTIONING IN 2008 – 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Versal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available It's disclosed the features of identification troubled or insolvent banks according to the requirements of the banking legislation of the USA, the EU and Ukraine. Nowadays, we observe the convergence in the approaches to identification such types banks and notice the special role of key performance indicators (capitalization and liquidity, which indicate the presence of difficulties in banks. Based on analysis of the intervention of temporary administrations in Ukrainian banks are identified the causes of problems and tracked changes in the policy of regulators: from recovery to resolution of banks.

  1. Shiftwork-Mediated Disruptions of Circadian Rhythms and Sleep Homeostasis Cause Serious Health Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suliman Khan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shiftwork became common during the last few decades with the growing demands of human life. Despite the social inactivity and irregularity in habits, working in continuous irregular shifts causes serious health issues including sleep disorders, psychiatric disorders, cancer, and metabolic disorders. These health problems arise due to the disruption in circadian clock system, which is associated with alterations in genetic expressions. Alteration in clock controlling genes further affects genes linked with disorders including major depression disorder, bipolar disorder, phase delay and phase advance sleep syndromes, breast cancer, and colon cancer. A diverse research work is needed focusing on broad spectrum changes caused by jet lag in brain and neuronal system. This review is an attempt to motivate the researchers to conduct advanced studies in this area to identify the risk factors and mechanisms. Its goal is extended to make the shift workers aware about the risks associated with shiftwork.

  2. The Relationship Between Psychological Distress, Negative Cognitions, and Expectancies on Problem Drinking: Exploring a Growing Problem Among University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, Ezemenari M; Brooks, Jessica J; Cavanagh, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have sought to understand the concurrent relationship between cognitive and affective processes on alcohol use and negative alcohol-related consequences, despite both being identified as predictive risk factors in the college population. More research is needed to understand the relationships between identified factors of problem drinking among this at-risk population. The purpose of this study was to test if the relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking among university students (N = 284; M-age = 19.77) was mediated by negative affect regulation strategies and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Two latent mediation models of problem drinking were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). The parsimonious three-path mediated latent model was supported by the data, as evidenced by several model fit indices. Furthermore, the alternate saturated model provided similar fit to the data, but contained several direct relationships that were not statistically significant. The relationship between psychological distress and problem drinking was mediated by an extended contributory chain, including negative affect regulation and positive alcohol-related expectancies. Implications for prevention and treatment, as well as future directions, are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. [Risks and health problems caused by the use of video terminals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez González, Silvia; Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Martínez-Alcántara, Susana; Méndez-Ramírez, Ignacio

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the association between video display terminal (VDT) use and health hazards, occupational risks, and psychosocial factors, in newspaper workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 1998 in a representative sample (n = 68) drawn from a population of 218 VDT operators in Mexico City. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were confirmed by performing physical examinations. The research hypothesis was that both the current and cumulative use of VDT are associated with visual, musculoskeletal system, and skin illnesses, as well as with fatigue and mental or psychosomatic disorders. Occupational health hazards were assessed (visual problems, postural risks, sedentary work, computer mouse use, excessive heat, and overcrowding), as well as psychosocial factors related to work organization (psychological demands, work control, and social support). Prevalence ratios were adjusted for confounding variables like age, sex and schooling. Women were more likely than men to have upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), dermatitis, and seborrheic eczema. VDT use was associated with neuro-visual fatigue, upper extremity MSD, dermatitis, and seborrheic eczema. Computer mouse use and postural risks were significantly associated with health problems. Psychosocial factors were mainly associated with mental problems, psychosomatic disorders, and fatigue. Intense use of video screens has been found to cause musculoskeletal disorders of the hand. The diversification of tasks and control of labor processes itself had a protective effect against psychosomatic disorders and pathological fatigue.

  4. Problems, Challenges and Benefits of Implementing E-learning in Nigerian Universities: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manir Abdullahi Kamba

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to examine and discuss the problems, challenges and Benefits of implementing E-Learning in Nigeria by reviewing the consciousness and willingness of the selected Universities. This study also identifies the enabling factors, the traffic-jam and, forecasts the future growth of E-learning in Nigeria. Survey research method was adopted for the study, and questionnaire was the only instrument used for the data collection. The findings of the study show that out of the 18 universities selected from different specialization areas, i.e three universities from each Geopolitical zone, only 12 responded with usable answers. The response rate was 67%, which is an expected rate for such surveys. Awareness of e-learning among the Universities is very high but investment and commitment to develop an e-learning application is very poor and below expectation according to the study. Most of the staff and students in the universities only use Internet related e- learning site just for the sake of finding related information for their researches, since their libraries cannot afford to provide them with adequate and current materials but not for the sake of real online learning. The study also found out that some of the universities have web page and others are in the trend of creating a web page, which is usually for advertisement of the universities but not for the e-leaning activities. Furthermore, the findings also reveal that staff and the students have also been using e-mail and Internet in addition to developing web pages for transaction of students. The Universities are planning to invest number of funds in future in the selected areas of the e-learning application. The Statistical analysis result shows that there are significant differences across both forms of e-learning activities and type of universities in Nigeria.

  5. Partially specified physics problems: university students' attitudes and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marusic, M [Prva Gimnazija, Teslina 10, 21000 Split (Croatia); Erceg, N [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Omladinska 14, 51000 Rijeka (Croatia); Slisko, J, E-mail: mirko@marusic.inf, E-mail: nerceg@phy.uniri.hr, E-mail: jslisko@fcfm.buap.mx [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal 1152, Puebla, Puebla CP 72000 (Mexico)

    2011-05-15

    In this research we asked the fourth year students (N = 50) of a technical faculty of the University of Split (Republic of Croatia) to solve a partially specified physics problem related to gravitational force. The task for the students was to decide whether the situation described in the problem is feasible or not. Nevertheless, the formulation of the problem is such that it does not give students any explicit advice regarding what to calculate or how to judge the feasibility of the given situation in the real world. The research was carried out using a structured written exam method. The worksheet was structured in order to assess explicitly a few elements of the students' problem-solving performance. Based on their results, the examinees were classified into four categories, depending on what they could or could not accomplish during problem solving. A majority of students were not able to solve the given physical problem completely. A selection of students' and professors' observations is also included. Our results show that traditionally formulated numerical exercises, which are mostly used in physics teaching, do not develop students' abilities in higher-order thinking (i.e. planning, decision making or result evaluation) to a desirable extent. We suggest that partially specified problems should be given to students, both in problem-solving sessions and exams, in order to prepare them for dealing with ill-structured tasks in real life.

  6. Causes of Indoor Air Quality Problems in Schools: Summary of Scientific Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayer, C.W.

    2001-02-22

    In the modern urban setting, most individuals spend about 80% of their time indoors and are therefore exposed to the indoor environment to a much greater extent than to the outdoors (Lebowitz 1992). Concomitant with this increased habitation in urban buildings, there have been numerous reports of adverse health effects related to indoor air quality (IAQ) (sick buildings). Most of these buildings were built in the last two decades and were constructed to be energy-efficient. The quality of air in the indoor environment can be altered by a number of factors: release of volatile compounds from furnishings, floor and wall coverings, and other finishing materials or machinery; inadequate ventilation; poor temperature and humidity control; re-entrainment of outdoor volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and the contamination of the indoor environment by microbes (particularly fungi). Armstrong Laboratory (1992) found that the three most frequent causes of IAQ are (1) inadequate design and/or maintenance of the heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, (2) a shortage of fresh air, and (3) lack of humidity control. A similar study by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH 1989) recognized inadequate ventilation as the most frequent source of IAQ problems in the work environment (52% of the time). Poor IAQ due to microbial contamination can be the result of the complex interactions of physical, chemical, and biological factors. Harmful fungal populations, once established in the HVAC system or occupied space of a modern building, may episodically produce or intensify what is known as sick building syndrome (SBS) (Cummings and Withers 1998). Indeed, SBS caused by fungi may be more enduring and recalcitrant to treatment than SBS from multiple chemical exposures (Andrae 1988). An understanding of the microbial ecology of the indoor environment is crucial to ultimately resolving many IAQ problems. The incidence of SBS related to multiple

  7. The Model of Problem Based Learning in Practice: Evidence from Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    into practice when they go through solving such problems. At the end of the day, the PBL based teaching is assessed based on the success of the problems solved, e.g., in the form of solution(s) provided, their creativity, innovation and applicability. Moreover, PBL-based teaching can identify theoretical gaps......The aim of this paper is to share an experience from Aalborg University on the application of Problem Based Learning (PBL) model, with a specific example from a bachelor studies. PBL model has now been acknowledged worldwide as a powerful tool that allows students, faculty members and industry...... practitioners engage in multi-disciplinary, collaborative and geographically distributed activities. The key word in the model is ‘problem’ – a problem that is correctly formulated eventually affects the process of learning. It is also linked to the intended outcome of the PBL based teaching, whereby students...

  8. How do University Students Perceive Depressive Symptoms? A Qualitative Study on Perceived Causes, Cures and Helping Behaviours of Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Cem Cirakoglu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate how Turkish university students perceive symptoms of depression and how they react to depression in terms of helping behaviors with a qualitative methodology. The study also aims to explore university students’ beliefs about possible causes and cures of depression. The sample of the study consisted of 113 women (60.4 % and 74 men (39.6 % with a mean age of 21.7 ± 2.8. A short study depicting a hypothetical “severe depression” case was adapted from a real case for the purpose of the study and questions were developed targeting this case. Results revealed that suicidal ideas, hopelessness, unhappiness and feelings of guilt were the most visible symptoms in deciding someone with depression needs help. Most frequently stated possible causes of depression were living conditions, adaptation difficulties, interpersonal relationships, social environment, negative attributions to self and personality, problems with family, loss, trauma physiological or psychological disorder, addiction and negative attributions to past experiences. Although, participants perceived social support, self-help, professional help, social activity and hobbies, changing living environment, avoidance, somatic regulation and self-medication as ways of overcoming depression in general, they have strong preferences toward verbal interventions and professional help specifically. While 64.3 percent of participant rated the severity of the depression as “severe” 32.4 percent of the participants rated it as “moderate”. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 119-126

  9. The Einstein static universe with torsion and the sign problem of the cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer, C G

    2004-01-01

    In the field equations of Einstein-Cartan theory with cosmological constant a static spherically symmetric perfect fluid with spin density satisfying the Weyssenhoff restriction is considered. This serves as a rough model of space filled with (fermionic) dark matter. From this the Einstein static universe with constant torsion is constructed, generalizing the Einstein cosmos to Einstein-Cartan theory. The interplay between torsion and the cosmological constant is discussed. A possible way out of the cosmological constant's sign problem is suggested

  10. Gender and the Problem of Universals: Catholic Mobilizations and Sexual Democracy in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Fassin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s, John Boswell analyzed the controversy between “essentialists” and “constructionists” in gay and lesbian studies in the light of the medieval “problem of universals.” This paper revives this analogy to understand the controversy launched by Catholic authorities against the (so-called “theory-of-gender” pitted against gender studies at the risk of equating God with Nature.

  11. Problem-solving activities in Biology for Open University students [poster session

    OpenAIRE

    Ash, P.; Robinson, D.

    2006-01-01

    Problem-based learning is a valuable tool for enhancing student learning and for providing remedial help in grasping difficult concepts in Biology. Most teaching at the Open University is by course texts, DVDs and television. Teaching material is written by academics and\\ud expert consultants. An important feature of the material is that it includes interactive in-text and self-assessed questions, and also activities which may be home experiments or computer-based.\\ud Students are provided wi...

  12. Gauge unified theories and the problem of origin of Universe baryon asymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat'ev, A.Yu.; Kuz'min, V.A.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    Explanation of origin of the Universe baryon asymmetry (UBA) has been attempted within the framework of united gauge theories (UGT) of strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions. Different approaches to the UBA formation problem have been discussed. Considered was the most natural approach from the point of view of particle physics: the singular state of the baryon-antibaryon system is symmetrical but the baryon number and CP invariance are not retained and UBA arises in processes with elementary particles at the thermodynamically nonequilibrium stage of the Universe expansion. A UBA generation mechanism based on a hypothesis of the thermodynamic equilibrium in the expanded Universe at the expense of quantum-gravitational interactions is suggested. A problem of the explanation of the UBA existence with the synthesis of UGT and of the theory of the hot Universe was investigated in detail. Macroscopic factors of the baryon asymmetry suppression in deacys of vector and scalar particles have been determined. The baryon asymmetry calculations have been performed within the framework of the SU(5) model with the Higgs expanded sector. In is concluded that within the framework of UGT, on the assumptions of scalar particle masses, a possibility for explaining the asymmetry value, the calculated value of which is close to the value observed experimentally, appears [ru

  13. Design and Application of Interactive Simulations in Problem-Solving in University-Level Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceberio, Mikel; Almudí, José Manuel; Franco, Ángel

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, interactive computer simulations have been progressively integrated in the teaching of the sciences and have contributed significant improvements in the teaching-learning process. Practicing problem-solving is a key factor in science and engineering education. The aim of this study was to design simulation-based problem-solving teaching materials and assess their effectiveness in improving students' ability to solve problems in university-level physics. Firstly, we analyze the effect of using simulation-based materials in the development of students' skills in employing procedures that are typically used in the scientific method of problem-solving. We found that a significant percentage of the experimental students used expert-type scientific procedures such as qualitative analysis of the problem, making hypotheses, and analysis of results. At the end of the course, only a minority of the students persisted with habits based solely on mathematical equations. Secondly, we compare the effectiveness in terms of problem-solving of the experimental group students with the students who are taught conventionally. We found that the implementation of the problem-solving strategy improved experimental students' results regarding obtaining a correct solution from the academic point of view, in standard textbook problems. Thirdly, we explore students' satisfaction with simulation-based problem-solving teaching materials and we found that the majority appear to be satisfied with the methodology proposed and took on a favorable attitude to learning problem-solving. The research was carried out among first-year Engineering Degree students.

  14. Locational Pricing to Mitigate Voltage Problems Caused by High PV Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Weckx

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a locational marginal pricing algorithm is proposed to control the voltage in unbalanced distribution grids. The increasing amount of photovoltaic (PV generation installed in the grid may cause the voltage to rise to unacceptable levels during periods of low consumption. With locational prices, the distribution system operator can steer the reactive power consumption and active power curtailment of PV panels to guarantee a safe network operation. Flexible loads also respond to these prices. A distributed gradient algorithm automatically defines the locational prices that avoid voltage problems. Using these locational prices results in a minimum cost for the distribution operator to control the voltage. Locational prices can differ between the three phases in unbalanced grids. This is caused by a higher consumption or production in one of the phases compared to the other phases and provides the opportunity for arbitrage, where power is transferred from a phase with a low price to a phase with a high price. The effect of arbitrage is analyzed. The proposed algorithm is applied to an existing three-phase four-wire radial grid. Several simulations with realistic data are performed.

  15. Geology environmental problems caused by municipal waste in China and the control measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Changli; Wang Xiuyan; Zhang Yun; Hou Hongbing; Song Chao; Jiang Jianmei; Fei Lixin; Yang Liu

    2010-01-01

    Improper disposal of municipal waste can cause many environmental problems. Lateral migration distance in sandy soil of waste pollutants such as COD, Cl - , NH 4 + , NO 3 - , NO 2 , is about 15 m, while it is 120 m/a in groundwater. High single pollution index of these pollutants to groundwater may reach more than 340 times which 100 times higher than three standard of groundwater and less comprehensive pollution index is 60, high index reaches 170. These pollutions' influence distance in surface water can reach more than 200 m, vertical migration distance in clay soil is less than 3 m generally. Their high single pollution index to surface water reaches more than 100 times which shows exponential function decaying in static surface water. Comprehensive index of Cd, Hg, As, F, Pb etc in sorghum of nearby landfill can reach 192 to 238 which is 650 times more than National food hygiene standards, in watermelon and muskmelon, these ions exceed standards less several times and high 100 or more than 300 times. The annual emission of methane in landfill in our Country is 14 million tons which accounts for 4.49% of the total global methane emissions. The survey of 1105 landfills of 132 prefecture level cities and above in our Country showed that almost all dumps contaminated or damaged environment and the total economic loss caused by it is more than 900 billion, the potential economic loss is more than 780 billion. Method of risk zoning of groundwater pollution combined with urban land use planning can be used to control groundwater contamination caused by refuse. In accordance with difference of geological environment and climate condition, we can research landfill closing cover material which is inexpensive, easy to get, easy to use, effective and environmentally friendly to enhance methane oxidation and reduce methane emission of landfill. (authors)

  16. Entropy in the Present and Early Universe: New Small Parameters and Dark Energy Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shalyt-Margolin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated that entropy and its density play a significant role in solving the problem of the vacuum energy density (cosmological constant of the Universe and hence the dark energy problem. Taking this in mind, two most popular models for dark energy—Holographic Dark Energy Model and Agegraphic Dark Energy Model—are analysed. It is shown that the fundamental quantities in the first of these models may be expressed in terms of a new small dimensionless parameter that is naturally occurring in High Energy Gravitational Thermodynamics and Gravitational Holography (UV-limit. On this basis, the possibility of a new approach to the problem of Quantum Gravity is discussed. Besides, the results obtained on the uncertainty relation of the pair “cosmological constant–volume of space-time”, where the cosmological constant is a dynamic quantity, are reconsidered and generalized up to the Generalized Uncertainty Relation.

  17. Sound Problems in Interpreting: a Comparative Study of Undergraduate Program at Sebelas Maret State University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Nur Hidayat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The study is to classify the problem triggers in consecutive interpreting especially in listening. The objectives of the research are to find out the relationship between listening skills and sound problem by comparing the test results of English student and non-English student and prove that students’ problem triggers are closely related to the writing and reading performances which are caused by listening skill problems such as domain in comprehension, similar word, etc. The method used in the research is descriptive qualitative. The participants are English Department and non English student. Technique of collecting data in the research uses questionnaire, test, and interview. The biggest problem faced by non-English student group is numbering and proper names. It is 34 % which occupy in first rank. Whereas the percentage of English student in comprehension is 27%, then the numbering and proper names, the last is similar word which has 20%. Meanwhile, the test result of English group is 84.5 and non-English group is 60. It represent the background knowledge factors are also play an important role in doing the test. In conclusion, there is relationship between students’ problem triggers, writing and reading performances, especially homophone errors. So, the hypothesis is accepted and it strengthens a currently underdeveloped theory that sounds problem play an important role in listening.

  18. Attitude and practice of physical activity and social problem-solving ability among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Toshimasa; Kawachi, Yousuke; Abe, Chihiro; Otomo, Yuki; Sung, Yul-Wan; Ogawa, Seiji

    2017-04-04

    Effective social problem-solving abilities can contribute to decreased risk of poor mental health. In addition, physical activity has a favorable effect on mental health. These previous studies suggest that physical activity and social problem-solving ability can interact by helping to sustain mental health. The present study aimed to determine the association between attitude and practice of physical activity and social problem-solving ability among university students. Information on physical activity and social problem-solving was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. We analyzed data from 185 students who participated in the questionnaire surveys and psychological tests. Social problem-solving as measured by the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R) (median score 10.85) was the dependent variable. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for higher SPSI-R according to physical activity categories. The multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the ORs (95% CI) in reference to participants who said they never considered exercising were 2.08 (0.69-6.93), 1.62 (0.55-5.26), 2.78 (0.86-9.77), and 6.23 (1.81-23.97) for participants who did not exercise but intended to start, tried to exercise but did not, exercised but not regularly, and exercised regularly, respectively. This finding suggested that positive linear association between physical activity and social problem-solving ability (p value for linear trend social problem-solving ability.

  19. A multi-model evaluation of aerosols over South Asia: common problems and possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, X.; Chin, M.; Gautam, R.; Bian, H.; Kim, D.; Colarco, P. R.; Diehl, T. L.; Takemura, T.; Pozzoli, L.; Tsigaridis, K.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric pollution over South Asia attracts special attention due to its effects on regional climate, water cycle and human health. These effects are potentially growing owing to rising trends of anthropogenic aerosol emissions. In this study, the spatio-temporal aerosol distributions over South Asia from seven global aerosol models are evaluated against aerosol retrievals from NASA satellite sensors and ground-based measurements for the period of 2000-2007. Overall, substantial underestimations of aerosol loading over South Asia are found systematically in most model simulations. Averaged over the entire South Asia, the annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) is underestimated by a range 15 to 44% across models compared to MISR (Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer), which is the lowest bound among various satellite AOD retrievals (from MISR, SeaWiFS (Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Aqua and Terra). In particular during the post-monsoon and wintertime periods (i.e., October-January), when agricultural waste burning and anthropogenic emissions dominate, models fail to capture AOD and aerosol absorption optical depth (AAOD) over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) compared to ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometer measurements. The underestimations of aerosol loading in models generally occur in the lower troposphere (below 2 km) based on the comparisons of aerosol extinction profiles calculated by the models with those from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) data. Furthermore, surface concentrations of all aerosol components (sulfate, nitrate, organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC)) from the models are found much lower than in situ measurements in winter. Several possible causes for these common problems of underestimating aerosols in models during the post-monsoon and wintertime periods are identified: the aerosol hygroscopic growth and formation of

  20. Evaluation of self-medication amongst university students in Abbottabad, Pakistan; prevalence, attitude and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Hanif; Khan, Shujaat A; Ali, Sayyad; Karim, Sabiha; Baseer, Abdul; Chohan, Ossam; Hassan, Syed M F; Khan, Kashif M; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Self-medication is a serious issue in most parts of the world. This study aims to evaluate self-medication among university students of Abbottabad, Pakistan. This cross-sectional survey study was carried out in COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Abbottabad during December 1 - December 31,2011. A sample of 275 students was selected for the study using convenience method of sampling. Data were managed and analyzed via SPSS version 16.0. Inferences were drawn using Z-test Out of 268 respondents (male = 61.6%, female = 38.6%), 138 were non-health professional students whereas 130 were health professional students. The prevalence of self-medication was 95.5%. Most common factor (45.7%) responsible for self-medication was "low severity of disease". Most common symptom (50.8%) that caused self-medication and stocking of medicines was "storage of medicines for multi purposes". Some respondents (22.7%) got addicted due to self-medication. Most of the students trust in allopathic medicines system. High prevalence of self-medication can be controlled through regulatory authorities, mass education and availability of health facilities.

  1. Sleep problems: predictor or outcome of media use among emerging adults at university?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, Royette; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-08-01

    The pervasiveness of media use in our society has raised concerns about its potential impact on important lifestyle behaviours, including sleep. Although a number of studies have modelled poor sleep as a negative outcome of media use, a critical assessment of the literature indicates two important gaps: (i) studies have almost exclusively relied on concurrent data, and thus have not been able to assess the direction of effects; and (ii) studies have largely been conducted with children and adolescents. The purpose of the present 3-year longitudinal study, therefore, was to examine whether both sleep duration and sleep problems would be predictors or outcomes of two forms of media use (i.e. television and online social networking) among a sample of emerging adults. Participants were 942 (71.5% female) university students (M = 19.01 years, SD = 0.90) at Time 1. Survey measures, which were assessed for three consecutive years starting in the first year of university, included demographics, sleep duration, sleep problems, television and online social networking use. Results of a cross-lagged model indicated that the association between sleep problems and media use was statistically significant: sleep problems predicted longer time spent watching television and on social networking websites, but not vice versa. Contrary to our hypotheses, sleep duration was not associated with media use. Our findings indicate no negative effects of media use on sleep among emerging adults, but instead suggest that emerging adults appear to seek out media as a means of coping with their sleep problems. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. 49 CFR 40.203 - What problems cause a drug test to be cancelled unless they are corrected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What problems cause a drug test to be cancelled unless they are corrected? 40.203 Section 40.203 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Problems in Drug Tests § 40.203...

  3. Endophthalmitis caused by Fusarium: An emerging problem in patients with corneal trauma. A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios Andrés, José Luis; López-Soria, Leyre Mónica; Alastruey Izquierdo, Ana; Echevarría Ecenarro, Jaime; Feijoó Lera, Raquel; Garrido Fierro, Jesus; Cabrerizo Nuñez, Francisco Javier; Canut Blasco, Andrés

    Although fortunately very rare in countries with a temperate climate, certain factors, such as clinical or pharmacological immunosuppression, may cause Fusarium-related fungal infections to become an emerging problem. Moreover, Fusarium is one of the most important etiological agents in exogenous endophthalmitis, which is often favored by the disruption of the epithelial barriers. The aim of this series of clinical cases is to identify characteristic clinical findings that may allow an early diagnosis and more efficient management of this ophthalmologic emergency. Three cases of endophthalmitis due to Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum, diagnosed in 2009, 2010, and 2014 in patients from two different health regions belonging to the same health system and separated by around 43 miles, are presented. The Fusarium isolates were initially identified microscopically and the species subsequently confirmed by sequencing the elongation factor alpha (EFα) and internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Susceptibility to antifungal agents was determined using the EUCAST broth dilution method. Evolution was poor as two of the three patients progressed to phthisis bulbi despite surgical measures and broad-spectrum antifungal antibiotic therapy. It is essential to rapidly instigate multidisciplinary measures to combat suspected endophthalmitis due to Fusarium given the poor prognosis of this type of infection. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. PROBLEM OF SUPPORTING THE VERSIONS OF DISTANCE EDUCATION SYSTEM MOODLE IN THE MEDICAL UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii V. Semenets

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Moodle is one of the open-source software learning management system using to support an educational process. The problem of updating the outdated Moodle versions is studied in the article. It is shown a successful implementation of a modified version on the basis of I. Ya. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University. The step-by-step manual of the updating and a new server migration process are described. Examples of the application of the virtualization techniques and version control system to the SDE Moodle system administration tasks solving are presented. The SDE Moodle server optimization and customization recommendations are also given.

  5. Courses for tutors in problem-based learning. Current challenges at four Swedish universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Susan Setterud

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The key role of the tutor in problem-based learning (PBL is to help students become selfregulated learners. Tutors need training to acquire the necessary facilitating skills for this task. The aim of this article is to describe and discuss how PBL tutor training is currently arranged at four universities in Sweden: Linköping University, Lund Medical Faculty, Uppsala Medical School and Örebro School of Medicine. Moreover, we seek to analyse how the content and format of the tutor training courses correspond to the desired skills and competencies for PBL tutors described in the literature. We draw especially on work coming out of three pioneering universities for PBL: McMaster University, Canada; Maastricht University, The Netherlands; and Linköping University, Sweden. One aim has been to construct a framework for analysis that uses categories specifying the knowledge base, capabilities and skills to support students’ learning processes which characterise the full-fledged PBL tutor. For this framework, we have used the following categories: Knowledge of PBL and pedagogical theories, Personal traits, Student-centeredness, Ability to handle group processes, and Subject knowledge. We collected descriptions of the course design and content from the four universities, and assessed to what extent these categories were represented within the courses. Our results show that all categories inform the course content at all four universities, though the design varies between courses. In summary, we show that the four PBL tutor training courses are all designed to enable participants to experience PBL first-hand both as members of a tutorial group and as tutors. They all also include a theoretical base and offer opportunities for discussion and reflection with peers; however, there are some differences in design between the courses. According to participants, all four courses provide good preparation for the tutor role. Yet, we see a need for the

  6. The Problem of Evil in DC Universe Animated Movies, 2007–2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Khoury, Toufic

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the question of evil and its metaphysical and moral implications in a series of animated movie adaptations of the DC Universe produced since 2006. The contemporary evolution of the medium, called the “Iron Age of comics”, has seen the auto-reflexive nature of comics produce problems and themes related to the main question discussed in Christian theodicy: how can we perceive and define the possibility of evil in a world where God’s omnipotence should have eliminated such a possibility? Moreover, why does evil seem to spread indefinitely in spite of all the efforts deployed by superheroes to stop evil? We will discuss the problem of evil as a natural narrative topic in light of comics’ mythological and religious roots and with a particular study case: DC Comics Multiverse as an illustration of Leibniz’s “best of all possible worlds” argument.

  7. A study on the sleep patterns and problems of university business students in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Y Y; Wing, Y K

    2009-01-01

    To investigate sleep patterns and problems of university business students. Undergraduate Chinese business students in Hong Kong. Self-reported questionnaires were completed during class lectures and through online system. Of the 620 participating students (mean age 19.9 years), sleep duration was significantly shorter during weekdays (6.9 hours) than weekends (8.6 hours). Two thirds of students reported sleep deprivation. The following factors were associated with being a "poor sleeper" (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index > 5): attending early morning lectures (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90), living on-campus (OR = 1.89), Sleep Sufficiency Index less than 0.8 (OR = 2.55), sleep debt (differences of total time-in-bed between weekday and weekend > or = 75 minutes) (OR = 1.58), and minor psychiatric disturbances (OR = 2.82). Poor sleep quality and sleep deprivation were prevalent in university business students in Hong Kong, especially for those attending early morning lectures and living on-campus. Systemic education on the importance of sleep and stress and time management is needed for university students.

  8. Clinical problems of colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer cases with unknown cause of tumor mismatch repair deficiency (suspected Lynch syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Daniel D; Rosty, Christophe; Clendenning, Mark; Spurdle, Amanda B; Win, Aung Ko

    2014-01-01

    Carriers of a germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes have a high risk of developing numerous different cancers, predominantly colorectal cancer and endometrial cancer (known as Lynch syndrome). MMR gene mutation carriers develop tumors with MMR deficiency identified by tumor microsatellite instability or immunohistochemical loss of MMR protein expression. Tumor MMR deficiency is used to identify individuals most likely to carry an MMR gene mutation. However, MMR deficiency can also result from somatic inactivation, most commonly methylation of the MLH1 gene promoter. As tumor MMR testing of all incident colorectal and endometrial cancers (universal screening) is becoming increasingly adopted, a growing clinical problem is emerging for individuals who have tumors that show MMR deficiency who are subsequently found not to carry an MMR gene mutation after genetic testing using the current diagnostic approaches (Sanger sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) and who also show no evidence of MLH1 methylation. The inability to determine the underlying cause of tumor MMR deficiency in these "Lynch-like" or "suspected Lynch syndrome" cases has significant implications on the clinical management of these individuals and their relatives. When the data from published studies are combined, 59% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 55% to 64%) of colorectal cancers and 52% (95% CI: 41% to 62%) of endometrial cancers with MMR deficiency were identified as suspected Lynch syndrome. Recent studies estimated that colorectal cancer risk for relatives of suspected Lynch syndrome cases is lower than for relatives of those with MMR gene mutations, but higher than for relatives of those with tumor MMR deficiency resulting from methylation of the MLH1 gene promoter. The cause of tumor MMR deficiency in suspected Lynch syndrome cases is likely due to either unidentified germline MMR gene mutations, somatic cell mosaicism, or biallelic somatic

  9. Chasing red herrings: Memory of distractors causes fixation in creative problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beda, Zsolt; Smith, Steven M

    2018-03-07

    Two experiments tested the red herring retrieval hypothesis, which states that fixation in creative problem solving is worse when memory for red herrings (i.e., inappropriate or incorrect solutions) is strengthened. In Experiment 1, when associations between Remote Associates Test (RAT) problem words (e.g., COTTAGE, SWISS, CAKE) and related red herring words (e.g., hut, chocolate, icing) were strengthened via repetition, an encoding variable, fixation was found to increase. In Experiment 2, when associations were formed between RAT problem contexts and red herrings, then subsequent reinstatement of problem contexts during RAT problem solving trials (as compared with showing new contexts) also worsened fixation effects. Our results add to the increasing body of research that connects memory with creative problem solving, and they suggest possible ways for overcoming fixation effects.

  10. The Drop-Out Problem in Primary Education: Towards Universalization of Primary Education in Asia and the Pacific--Some Case Studies: China, India, Peninsular Malaysia, Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, Sri Lanka, and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    The ways in which six developing countries in Asia are dealing with the problem of children dropping out of elementary school are discussed in these essays. One of the persistent problems that has deterred universalization of primary education is the early dropping out of children from schools. Case studies describing the magnitude and causes of…

  11. Building University Capacity to Visualize Solutions to Complex Problems in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderson, D.; Veazey, P.; Raymond, V. L.; Kowalski, K.; Prakash, A.; Signor, B.

    2016-12-01

    Rapidly changing environments are creating complex problems across the globe, which are particular magnified in the Arctic. These worldwide challenges can best be addressed through diverse and interdisciplinary research teams. It is incumbent on such teams to promote co-production of knowledge and data-driven decision-making by identifying effective methods to communicate their findings and to engage with the public. Decision Theater North (DTN) is a new semi-immersive visualization system that provides a space for teams to collaborate and develop solutions to complex problems, relying on diverse sets of skills and knowledge. It provides a venue to synthesize the talents of scientists, who gather information (data); modelers, who create models of complex systems; artists, who develop visualizations; communicators, who connect and bridge populations; and policymakers, who can use the visualizations to develop sustainable solutions to pressing problems. The mission of Decision Theater North is to provide a cutting-edge visual environment to facilitate dialogue and decision-making by stakeholders including government, industry, communities and academia. We achieve this mission by adopting a multi-faceted approach reflected in the theater's design, technology, networking capabilities, user support, community relationship building, and strategic partnerships. DTN is a joint project of Alaska's National Science Foundation Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (NSF EPSCoR) and the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), who have brought the facility up to full operational status and are now expanding its development space to support larger team science efforts. Based in Fairbanks, Alaska, DTN is uniquely poised to address changes taking place in the Arctic and subarctic, and is connected with a larger network of decision theaters that include the Arizona State University Decision Theater Network and the McCain Institute in Washington, DC.

  12. Comparison of attitudes and beliefs regarding the causes of low back pain between UK students and International students studying at Sheffield Hallam University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousef Shanib

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim Low Back Pain (LBP is a widespread problem. Very few past studies which focus on the attitudes and beliefs regarding the causes of LBP of UK and international students exist. This study compares attitudes and beliefs regarding the causes of low back pain between UK students and International students studying at Sheffield Hallam University. Methods The study involved 12 participants (6 UK and 6 international students studying at Sheffield Hallam University. Data was collected by conducting face to face semi structured, recorded interviews. Interviews were later transcribed verbatim. In order to analyse the data obtained, thematic analysis was carried out, using themes found in data transcriptions. Results Four main themes were identified from the data obtained from interviews. These were; personal health and medical related, work related, everyday day life and culture related and government policy and law related. Main themes identified consisted of other smaller themes. Conclusion Attitudes and beliefs belonging to UK and international students at Sheffield Hallam University are related to four main themes; personal health and medical, work, everyday day life and culture and government policy and law. The study identified differences in attitudes and beliefs between UK and International students. As students are the next generation of employees, the study could aid in increasing knowledge of causes of LBP of students in the UK and Internationally, therefore preventing low back pain incidences in the future.

  13. Does Problem-Based Learning Improve Problem Solving Skills?--A Study among Business Undergraduates at Malaysian Premier Technical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Z. Abdul; Abdullah, N. H.; Anthony, E.; Salleh, B. Mohd; Kamarulzaman, R.

    2016-01-01

    Problem-based Learning (PBL) approach has been widely used in various disciplines since it is claimed to improve students' soft skills. However, empirical supports on the effect of PBL on problem solving skills have been lacking and anecdotal in nature. This study aimed to determine the effect of PBL approach on students' problem solving skills…

  14. A Demonstration of the Universal Problem-Solving Approach to Address Children's Inappropriate Behavior in Head Start Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Martha E.; Voorhees, Mary D.; Walker, Virginia L.; Berlin, Rebecca A.; Jamison, Kristen Roorbach; Stanton-Chapman, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this demonstration was to evaluate a universal intervention during teacher-identified routines that were characterized by significant classwide problem behavior. Six Head Start classrooms (seven groups of children, with one classroom divided into two groups) received two workshops and two coaching sessions on universal Positive…

  15. Stressor-related drinking and future alcohol problems among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Michael A; Almeida, David M; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    Research using daily designs has shown that daily stressors (i.e., conflict, school/work demands) are associated with alcohol use, and that the strength of within-person links between stressors and alcohol use differs from person to person. However, to our knowledge no research has tested whether individual differences in stressor-related drinking-characterized by within-person associations between daily stressors and drinking-predict risk for future alcohol problems, a relationship suggested by theoretical models. The current study used an Internet-based daily diary design among 744 university students to (a) examine the day-level relationship between stressors and alcohol use during the first 3 years of college, and (b) test whether individual differences in the stressor-drinking relationship, captured by person-specific slopes generated from multilevel models, predicted alcohol problems as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in the fourth year of college. Results showed that students were more likely to drink on days with many versus fewer stressors, and on drinking days, students consumed more drinks with each additional stressor they experienced. Next, using individual multilevel modeling slopes as predictors, we found that students whose odds of drinking alcohol increased more sharply on high- versus low-stressor days (steeper slopes) had more severe AUDIT alcohol problems in the fourth year than students whose drinking odds increased less sharply (flatter slopes). Findings highlight the role of daily stressors in college student drinking and suggest stressor-related drinking as a risk factor for future alcohol problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Admissions for drug-related problems at the Emergency Department of a University Hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mastour S Alghamdy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Medication Errors can result in drug-related problems (DRPs. Insight into the frequency, type, and severity of DRPs could help reduce their incidence. The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of admissions as a result of DRPs at the Emergency Department (ED of a university hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: Files of suspected cases of DRPs reporting to ED in the year 2012 were scrutinized. Suspicion arose from the hospital record system based on Diagnosis Code Numbers (ICD-9-CM, Professional 2010 and from triggers, such as some drugs, laboratory tests, and signs and symptoms pointing to DRPs. Results: Of 5574 admissions, 253 (4.5% were DRPs and were categorized as: Overdose toxicity and side effects of drugs 50 (19.8%, drug-interactions 29 (11.5%, accidental and suicidal drug ingestions 26 (10.3%, drug abuse 18 (7.1%, drug allergy 10 (4%, super-infections 8 (3.2%, and noncompliance to treatment 112 (44.3%. About 70% of DRPs were preventable; 67 (26.5% required hospital admission for 7-102 days and 10 (4% died. Conclusions: Noncompliance to treatment, overdose toxicity, drug interactions, and drug abuse are important causes of hospital admissions as a result of DRPs. Awareness of prescribers to the problem and their education would help to prevent them and improve patient care.

  17. Computerization in industry causes problems for people with reading and writing difficulties (dyslexia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsson, A

    1986-01-01

    For 10 years computerization in industry has advanced at a rapid pace. A problem which has not received attention is that of people with reading and writing difficulties who experience severe problems when they have to communicate with a computer monitor screen. These individuals are often embarrassed by their difficulties and conceal them from their fellow workers. A number of case studies are described which show the form the problems can take. In one case, an employee was compelled to move from department to department as each was computerized in turn. Computers transform a large number of manual tasks in industry into jobs which call for reading and writing skills. Better education at elementary school and at the workplace in connection with computerization are the most important means of overcoming this problem. Moreover, computer programs could be written in a more human way.

  18. How the causes, consequences and solutions for problem gambling are reported in Australian newspapers: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Helen E; Thomas, Samantha L; Robinson, Priscilla; Daube, Mike

    2014-12-01

    To inform public health approaches to problem gambling by examining how the news media covers problem gambling, with a particular focus on the causes, consequences and solutions to problem gambling, and the 'actors' and sources who influence media coverage. A qualitative content analysis guided by framing theory analysed coverage of problem gambling in Australian newspapers in the period 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012. Solutions to problem gambling were more frequently discussed than causes and consequences. A focus on the responsibility of individuals was preferred to reporting that focused on broader social, ecological, and industry determinants of problem gambling. Reporting was highly politicised, with politicians frequently quoted and political issues frequently discussed. In contrast, the community sector, health professionals and problem gamblers were rarely quoted. This analysis has revealed the need for a more proactive, coordinated approach to the media by both public health researchers and health groups. The establishment of a gambling-specific coalition to push for evidence-based reform is recommended. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  19. Using Facebook to deliver a social norm intervention to reduce problem drinking at university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridout, Brad; Campbell, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    University students usually overestimate peer alcohol use, resulting in them 'drinking up' to perceived norms. Social norms theory suggests correcting these inflated perceptions can reduce alcohol consumption. Recent findings by the current authors show portraying oneself as 'a drinker' is considered by many students to be a socially desirable component of their Facebook identity, perpetuating an online culture that normalises binge drinking. However, social networking sites have yet to be utilised in social norms interventions. Actual and perceived descriptive and injunctive drinking norms were collected from 244 university students. Ninety-five students screened positive for hazardous drinking and were randomly allocated to a control group or intervention group that received social norms feedback via personalised Facebook private messages over three sessions. At 1 month post-intervention, the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumed by intervention group during the previous month had significantly reduced compared with baseline and controls. Reductions were maintained 3 months post-intervention. Intervention group perceived drinking norms were significantly more accurate post-intervention. This is the first study to test the feasibility of using Facebook to deliver social norms interventions. Correcting misperceptions of peer drinking norms resulted in clinically significant reductions in alcohol use. Facebook has many advantages over traditional social norms delivery, providing an innovative method for tackling problem drinking at university. These results have implications for the use of Facebook to deliver positive messages about safe alcohol use to students, which may counter the negative messages regarding alcohol normally seen on Facebook. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  20. Role of beliefs and emotions in numerical problem solving in university physics education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, Madelen; Winberg, Mikael

    2012-06-01

    Numerical problem solving in classical mechanics in university physics education offers a learning situation where students have many possibilities of control and creativity. In this study, expertlike beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were the most important predictors of the quality of performance of a task with many degrees of freedom. Feelings corresponding to control and concentration, i.e., emotions that are expected to trigger students’ intrinsic motivation, were also important in predicting performance. Unexpectedly, intrinsic motivation, as indicated by enjoyment and interest, together with students’ personal interest and utility value beliefs did not predict performance. This indicates that although a certain degree of enjoyment is probably necessary, motivated behavior is rather regulated by integration and identification of expertlike beliefs about learning and are more strongly associated with concentration and control during learning and, ultimately, with high performance. The results suggest that the development of students’ epistemological beliefs is important for students’ ability to learn from realistic problem-solving situations with many degrees of freedom in physics education.

  1. College and University Environmental Programs as a Policy Problem (Part 2): Strategies for Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Susan G.; Rutherford, Murray B.; Auer, Matthew R.; Cherney, David N.; Wallace, Richard L.; Mattson, David J.; Clark, Douglas A.; Foote, Lee; Krogman, Naomi; Wilshusen, Peter; Steelman, Toddi

    2011-05-01

    Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity—defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved.

  2. SLC summer 2010 university - The ocean in the climate-energy problem, urban policies. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the summer 2010 university of the SLC (save the climate) organization on the topics of the ocean in the climate-energy problem, and of the urban policies. Nine presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Biofuels made from micro-algae: stakes and challenges (Olivier Bernard, Comore - INRIA /CNRS/UPMC); 2 - The energy of waves (Alain Clement, Ecole Centrale de Nantes); 3 - The sea, new source of renewable energies? (J.J. Herou, EDF CIH); 4 - Oceans acidification: the other CO 2 problem (James Orr, Pierre Simon Laplace Institute - IPSL, Laboratory of climate and environmental Sciences - LSCE, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ); 5 - Oceans and carbon cycle (Laurent Bopp, IPSL/LSCE); 6 - Renewable marine energies (Yann-Herve De Roeck, France Energies Marines); 7 - Energy renovation of buildings (Jean-Claude Terrier, Mesac Europe); 8 - Modevur research project - Modeling of urban development, sketch of a development typology of chinese cities (Clement-Noel Douady); 9 - Urban areas in the fight against climate change: stakes, knowledge and controversies (Francois Menard, PUCA)

  3. Role of beliefs and emotions in numerical problem solving in university physics education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelen Bodin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerical problem solving in classical mechanics in university physics education offers a learning situation where students have many possibilities of control and creativity. In this study, expertlike beliefs about physics and learning physics together with prior knowledge were the most important predictors of the quality of performance of a task with many degrees of freedom. Feelings corresponding to control and concentration, i.e., emotions that are expected to trigger students’ intrinsic motivation, were also important in predicting performance. Unexpectedly, intrinsic motivation, as indicated by enjoyment and interest, together with students’ personal interest and utility value beliefs did not predict performance. This indicates that although a certain degree of enjoyment is probably necessary, motivated behavior is rather regulated by integration and identification of expertlike beliefs about learning and are more strongly associated with concentration and control during learning and, ultimately, with high performance. The results suggest that the development of students’ epistemological beliefs is important for students’ ability to learn from realistic problem-solving situations with many degrees of freedom in physics education.

  4. Evaluation of ultrasound training in the problem based learning radiography curriculum at Makerere University, Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsie, Kiguli-Malwadde; Gonzaga, Mubuuke A.; Francis, Businge; Rebecca, Nakatudde; Stephen, Bule

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The College of Health Sciences (CHS), Makerere University has been training health professionals since 1924. Six years ago, there was a curriculum change to Problem Based Learning/Community based Education and Service (PBL/COBES). A SPICES model (Student centered, problem based, integrated, community based, electives, systematic) was adopted and defined to suit the CHS environment. The radiography program is 3 years in length which involves Ultrasound as an important part of the training. It was a challenge to adopt the new PBL method of learning after having a lecture-based pedagogical method for over 80 years. Objective: To implement the training of ultrasound in the PBL radiography curriculum as well as evaluate the opinions of the staff and students about Ultrasound training in the new curriculum. Methodology: A participatory approach was used. Workshops were conducted and objectives for ultrasound courses refined. Scenarios were written for use in the PBL sessions. A retrospective review of student performance in the ultrasound courses was carried out. A cross-sectional survey involving teachers and current radiography students was also carried out to evaluate learning of ultrasound using the PBL approach. Results: Students have consistently excelled in ultrasound courses using the PBL approach of learning. Both teachers and students rated the teaching of ultrasound to radiography students as being highly important and supported the new approach to training. Conclusion: Ultrasound training using PBL has been successfully implemented. However, this is still an ongoing process and will require the total commitment of both students and teachers.

  5. College and university environmental programs as a policy problem (Part 2): Strategies for improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.G.; Rutherford, M.B.; Auer, M.R.; Cherney, D.N.; Wallace, R.L.; Mattson, D.J.; Clark, D.A.; Foote, L.; Krogman, N.; Wilshusen, P.; Steelman, T.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental studies and environmental sciences programs in American and Canadian colleges and universities seek to ameliorate environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. In a companion article (Part 1) we describe the environmental program movement (EPM) and discuss factors that have hindered its performance. Here, we complete our analysis by proposing strategies for improvement. We recommend that environmental programs re-organize around three principles. First, adopt as an overriding goal the concept of human dignity-defined as freedom and social justice in healthy, sustainable environments. This clear higher-order goal captures the human and environmental aspirations of the EPM and would provide a more coherent direction for the efforts of diverse participants. Second, employ an explicit, genuinely interdisciplinary analytical framework that facilitates the use of multiple methods to investigate and address environmental and social problems in context. Third, develop educational programs and applied experiences that provide students with the technical knowledge, powers of observation, critical thinking skills and management acumen required for them to become effective professionals and leaders. Organizing around these three principles would build unity in the EPM while at the same time capitalizing on the strengths of the many disciplines and diverse local conditions involved. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  6. The solicitation of an undue advantage: theoretical and practical problems caused by the legislative virus, and their comprehensive solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Василь Миколайович Киричко

    2018-03-01

    The solution to the theoretical and practical problems caused by the specified virus is possible only by introducing several changes to the system of the Criminal Code of Ukraine. Projects of such changes are developed by the author and reflected in the publication. In case of their adoption, the specified legislative virus will be completely eliminated.

  7. Mechanics, Problems and Contributions of Tertiary Strategic Alliance: The Case of 22 Australian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffu, Kojo; Mamman, Aminu

    1999-01-01

    A study of international strategic alliances involving 22 Australian universities indicates that a majority of universities have frameworks for internationalization initiatives, with top institutional management instrumental in initiating joint ventures with overseas institutions despite limited resources. Australian universities believe they…

  8. University Studies as a Side Job: Causes and Consequences of Massive Student Employment in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerkens, Maarja; Magi, Eve; Lill, Liis

    2011-01-01

    Student employment is increasingly common in many countries. Compared to earlier decades, not only more students work but they also work longer hours. Among European countries Estonia is one of the clear "leaders" in student employment. This study uses survey data from 2,496 students in Estonian public and private universities to examine…

  9. Collection of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O; Ebbehøj, N

    1995-01-01

    problems, irritation of the eye and skin, and perhaps symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (influenza-like symptoms, cough, muscle pains, fever, fatigue, headache) have been reported among workers collecting the biodegradable fraction of domestic waste. The few data available on exposure to bio......-aerosols and volatile compounds have indicated that these waste collectors may be simultaneously exposed to multiple agents such as dust containing bacteria, endotoxin, mould spores, glucans, volatile organic compounds, and diesel exhaust. Several studies have reported similar health problems as well as high incidence...

  10. Earthworms (Aporrectodea spp.; Lumbricidae) cause soil structure problems in young Dutch polders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ester, A.; Rozen, van K.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of earthworms in relation to clay soil structure problems in arable fields in the Flevopolders (the Netherlands) was studied. Recently, farmers in this area have had difficulty in harvesting potatoes in predominantly wet years. After a dry period, soil particles in the top layer of the

  11. Collection of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, O M; Breum, N O; Ebbehøj, N; Hansen, A M; Ivens, U I; van Lelieveld, D; Malmros, P; Matthiasen, L; Nielsen, B H; Nielsen, E M

    1995-08-18

    During the last decade, a growing interest in recycling of domestic waste has emerged, and action plans to increase the recycling of domestic waste have been agreed by many governments. A common feature of these plans is the implementation of new systems and equipment for the collection of domestic waste which has been separated at source. However, only limited information exists on possible occupational health problems related to such new systems. Occupational accidents are very frequent among waste collectors. Based on current knowledge, it appears that the risk factors should be considered as an integrated entity, i.e. technical factors (poor accessibility to the waste, design of equipment) may act in concert with high working rate, visual fatigue due to poor illumination and perhaps muscle fatigue due to high work load. Musculoskeletal problems are also common among waste collectors. A good deal of knowledge has accumulated on mechanical load on the spine and energetic load on the cardio-pulmonary system in relation to the handling of waste bags, bins, domestic containers and large containers. However, epidemiologic studies with exposure classification based on field measurement are needed, both to further identify high risk work conditions and to provide a detailed basis for the establishment of occupational exposure limits for mechanical and energetic load particularly in relation to pulling, pushing and tilting of containers. In 1975, an excess risk for chronic bronchitis was reported for waste collectors in Geneva (Rufèner-Press et al., 1975) and data from the Danish Registry of Occupational Accidents and Diseases also indicate an excess risk for pulmonary problems among waste collectors compared with the total work force. Surprisingly few measurements of potentially hazardous airborne exposures have been performed, and the causality of work-related pulmonary problems among waste collectors is unknown. Recent studies have indicated that implementation of

  12. What causes addiction problems? Environmental, biological and constitutional explanations in press portrayals from four European welfare societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Matilda; Majamäki, Maija; Rolando, Sara; Bujalski, Michał; Lemmens, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Press items (N = 1327) about addiction related problems were collected from politically independent daily newspapers in Finland, Italy, the Netherlands, and Poland from 1991, 1998, and 2011. A synchronized qualitative coding was performed for discerning the descriptions of the genesis to the problems in terms of described causes to and reasons for why they occur. Environmental explanations were by far the most common and they varied most between the materials. The analysis documents how the portrayals include traces of their contextual origin, relating to different media tasks and welfare cultural traditions. Meaning-based differences were also assigned to the kind of problems that held the most salience in the press reporting. A general worry over societal change is tied into the explanations of accumulating addiction problems and underpins the press reporting in all countries.

  13. 49 CFR 40.199 - What problems always cause a drug test to be cancelled?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cancelled? 40.199 Section 40.199 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation PROCEDURES FOR... cause a drug test to be cancelled? (a) As the MRO, when the laboratory discovers a “fatal flaw” during... specimen has been “Rejected for Testing” (with the reason stated). You must always cancel such a test. (b...

  14. Springtide-induced magnification of Earth mantle resonance causes tectonics and conceals universality of physics at all scales

    OpenAIRE

    Omerbashich, Mensur

    2006-01-01

    I demonstrate two fundamental contributions. First, the Earth tectonics is generally a consequence of the springtide-induced magnification of mechanical resonance in the Earth mantle. The same mechanism that causes bridges to collapse under the soldiers step-marching makes also the Earth lithosphere fail under the springtide-induced magnification of the mantle resonance resulting in strong earthquakes. Secondly, by generalizing the above finding onto any body anywhere in all the Universes and...

  15. Problems Caused by Microbes and Treatment Strategies Anaerobic Hydrocarbon Biodegradation and Biocorrosion: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suflita, Joseph M.; Duncan, Kathleen E.

    The anaerobic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is important for the intrinsic remediation of spilt fuels (Gieg and Suflita, 2005), for the conversion of hydrocarbons to clean burning natural gas (Gieg et al., 2008; Jones et al., 2008) and for the fundamental cycling of carbon on the planet (Caldwell et al., 2008). However, the same process has also been implicated in a host of difficult problems including reservoir souring (Jack and Westlake, 1995), oil viscosity alteration (Head et al., 2003), compromised equipment performance and microbiologically influenced corrosion (Duncan et al., 2009). Herein, we will focus on the role of anaerobic microbial communities in catalysing biocorrosion activities in oilfield facilities. Biocorrosion is a costly problem that remains relatively poorly understood. Understanding of the underlying mechanisms requires reliable information on the carbon and energy sources supporting biofilm microorganisms capable of catalysing such activities.

  16. The Relationship of Social Problem-Solving Skills and Dysfunctional Attitudes with Risk of Drug Abuse among Dormitory Students at Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrazadani, Ehteram; Maghsoudi, Jahangir; Mahrabi, Tayebeh

    2017-01-01

    Dormitory students encounter multiple social factors which cause pressure, such as new social relationships, fear of the future, and separation from family, which could cause serious problems such as tendency toward drug abuse. This research was conducted with the goal to determine social problem-solving skills, dysfunctional attitudes, and risk of drug abuse among dormitory students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. This was a descriptive-analytical, correlational, and cross-sectional research. The research sample consisted of 211 students living in dormitories. The participants were selected using randomized quota sampling method. The data collection tools included the Social Problem-Solving Inventory (SPSI), Dysfunctional Attitude Scale (DAS), and Identifying People at Risk of Addiction Questionnaire. The results indicated an inverse relationship between social problem-solving skills and risk of drug abuse ( P = 0.0002), a direct relationship between dysfunctional attitude and risk of drug abuse ( P = 0.030), and an inverse relationship between social problem-solving skills and dysfunctional attitude among students ( P = 0.0004). Social problem-solving skills have a correlation with dysfunctional attitudes. As a result, teaching these skills and the way to create efficient attitudes should be considered in dormitory students.

  17. Tinnitus and other auditory problems - occupational noise exposure below risk limits may cause inner ear dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Ann-Cathrine; Rosenhall, Ulf; Olofsson, Åke; Hagerman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal = 193. The following hearing tests were used: - pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, - transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; - psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, - forward masking, - speech recognition in noise, - tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group exposed to noise

  18. Tinnitus and other auditory problems - occupational noise exposure below risk limits may cause inner ear dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Cathrine Lindblad

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to study if dysfunctions associated to the cochlea or its regulatory system can be found, and possibly explain hearing problems in subjects with normal or near-normal audiograms. The design was a prospective study of subjects recruited from the general population. The included subjects were persons with auditory problems who had normal, or near-normal, pure tone hearing thresholds, who could be included in one of three subgroups: teachers, Education; people working with music, Music; and people with moderate or negligible noise exposure, Other. A fourth group included people with poorer pure tone hearing thresholds and a history of severe occupational noise, Industry. Ntotal = 193. The following hearing tests were used: - pure tone audiometry with Békésy technique, - transient evoked otoacoustic emissions and distortion product otoacoustic emissions, without and with contralateral noise; - psychoacoustical modulation transfer function, - forward masking, - speech recognition in noise, - tinnitus matching. A questionnaire about occupations, noise exposure, stress/anxiety, muscular problems, medication, and heredity, was addressed to the participants. Forward masking results were significantly worse for Education and Industry than for the other groups, possibly associated to the inner hair cell area. Forward masking results were significantly correlated to louder matched tinnitus. For many subjects speech recognition in noise, left ear, did not increase in a normal way when the listening level was increased. Subjects hypersensitive to loud sound had significantly better speech recognition in noise at the lower test level than subjects not hypersensitive. Self-reported stress/anxiety was similar for all groups. In conclusion, hearing dysfunctions were found in subjects with tinnitus and other auditory problems, combined with normal or near-normal pure tone thresholds. The teachers, mostly regarded as a group

  19. Chrpsomva bezziana, The Cause of Myiasis on animal And Human : Problem and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H Wardhana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is an infestation of larvae (Diptera into the live host tissue of warm-blooded animals including humans . This disease is often found in tropical countries, particularly in the community with low socio-economic level. From many flies causing myiasis, Chrysomya bezziana is medically the most important agent due to its obligate parasite property and causing economies losses . Some myiasis cases on humans and animals in Indonesia are caused by C. bezziana larvae infestation or mixed infestation with Sarcophaga sp . Sulawesi, East Sumba, Lombok, Sumbawa, Papua and Java islands were reported as myiasis endemic areas . Myiasis cases on animals occurred after parturition (vulval myiasis then is followed by umbilical myiasis on their calf or traumatic wounds, while myiasis on humans are caused by untreated fresh wounds or chronic wounds such as leprosy, diabetes, etc . Besides, nature holes like nose, eyes, ears or mouth are also reported as entry port for those larvae . Clinical signs of myiasis are various and non-specific depends on location of infested part of body, i.e . fever, inflammation, pruritus, headache, vertigo, swelling and hipereosinophilia . There would be serious conditions with secondary infection by bacteria . Myiasis treatment on animals is simpler than humans . Surgical operation is often carried out on infested human part of bodies . Insecticides were used to treat animal myiasis but had raised resistant . Myiasis treatment on humans may be done locally or systemically . Antibiotic broad spectrum or which is suitable with culture and resistance status of bacteria were given for systemic treatment . Chloroform and turpentine with ratio 1 : 4 were used for local treatment . Some of essential oils have also been tested in laboratory as an alternative medicine for both humans and animals myiasis .

  20. Locational Pricing to Mitigate Voltage Problems Caused by High PV Penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Weckx; Reinhilde D'hulst; Johan Driesen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a locational marginal pricing algorithm is proposed to control the voltage in unbalanced distribution grids. The increasing amount of photovoltaic (PV) generation installed in the grid may cause the voltage to rise to unacceptable levels during periods of low consumption. With locational prices, the distribution system operator can steer the reactive power consumption and active power curtailment of PV panels to guarantee a safe network operation. Flexible loads also respond to...

  1. Experience of Problem-Based Learning in Nursing Education at Kaohsiung Medical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan-Hao Chou

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Nursing education must keep up with the rapidly changing medical landscape to support the competences of nurses in the areas of critical thinking, problem solving, and creativity. Problem-based learning (PBL provides an appropriate strategy for nursing education innovation. Nursing curricula based on PBL remain in the growing stage in Taiwan. Kaohsiung Medical University introduced PBL into nursing education in 2002. The critical events in the process included: (1 nurturing key tutors; (2 using PBL teaching methods in an elective course—Oncology Nursing, and designing a new elective course—Symposiums Regarding Clinical Cases; (3 holding conferences inside and outside the school to promote PBL teaching methods; (4 linking e-learning and PBL teaching methods; (5 conducting PBL research; (6 establishing a committee of PBL, objective structured clinical examination, and teaching material review for the College of Nursing; and (7 setting up a required course—Nursing Ethics. We now have 12 key tutors in the College of Nursing. We have also completed two studies to evaluate the ability of students and to explore the experience of tutors. From our studies, we know that PBL can increase learner abilities in self-directed learning, critical thinking, and PBL performance. The approach helps students to cope with the changing medical landscape. Furthermore, tutors and teachers develop adequate PBL teaching skills. Based on the experience above, we believe that we are on the right path in terms of continuing tutor development, gradually increasing the number of PBL courses, and undertaking further research to promote PBL methods in Taiwan.

  2. Crying without a cause and being easily upset in two-year-olds: heritability and predictive power of behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M; Middeldorp, Christel M; M van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2011-10-01

    In order to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on 'crying without a cause' and 'being easily upset' in 2-year-old children, a large twin study was carried out. Prospective data were available for ~18,000 2-year-old twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register. A bivariate genetic analysis was performed using structural equation modeling in the Mx software package. The influence of maternal personality characteristics and demographic and lifestyle factors was tested to identify specific risk factors that may underlie the shared environment of twins. Furthermore, it was tested whether crying without a cause and being easily upset were predictive of later internalizing, externalizing and attention problems. Crying without a cause yielded a heritability estimate of 60% in boys and girls. For easily upset, the heritability was estimated at 43% in boys and 31% in girls. The variance explained by shared environment varied between 35% and 63%. The correlation between crying without a cause and easily upset (r = .36) was explained both by genetic and shared environmental factors. Birth cohort, gestational age, socioeconomic status, parental age, parental smoking behavior and alcohol use during pregnancy did not explain the shared environmental component. Neuroticism of the mother explained a small proportion of the additive genetic, but not of the shared environmental effects for easily upset. Crying without a cause and being easily upset at age 2 were predictive of internalizing, externalizing and attention problems at age 7, with effect sizes of .28-.42. A large influence of shared environmental factors on crying without a cause and easily upset was detected. Although these effects could be specific to these items, we could not explain them by personality characteristics of the mother or by demographic and lifestyle factors, and we recognize that these effects may reflect other maternal characteristics. A substantial influence of genetic factors

  3. Problem definition study of subsidence caused by geopressured geothermal resource development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The environmental and socio-economic settings of four environmentally representative Gulf Coast geopressured geothermal fairways were inventoried. Subsidence predictions were prepared using feasible development scenarios for the four representative subsidence sites. Based on the results of the subsidence estimates, an assessment of the associated potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts was prepared. An inventory of mitigation measures was also compiled. Results of the subsidence estimates and impact assessments are presented, as well as conclusions as to what are the major uncertainties, problems, and issues concerning the future study of geopressured geothermal subsidence.

  4. Trends and causes of maternal mortality in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, southwest Ethiopia: a matched case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legesse T

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tegene Legesse,1 Misra Abdulahi,2 Anteneh Dirar2 1Department of Public Health, Collage of Health Science, Mizan-Tepi University, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia; 2Department of Population and Family Health, College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia Introduction: Measures of maternal death are fundamental to a country’s health and development status. In developing countries, it remains a daunting and largely unmet public health challenge. There were two studies completed over 10 years ago in Jimma University Specialized Hospital to identify trends, but recently there have been many changes in Ethiopia to reduce maternal death. Therefore, it is important to track the achievements made in Ethiopia in the context of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. No study undertaken in the country has quantified deaths of women from specific causes after controlling confounders.Objective: To assess trends and causes of maternal death in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, southwest Ethiopia.Methods: A time-matched case–control study was conducted on 600 (120 cases and 480 controls females who utilized obstetrics and gynecology services from January 2010 to December 2014. To observe trends in maternal death, maternal mortality ratio was calculated for each year. Stata version 13 was used to analyze causal inference using propensity score matching method.Results: Maternal mortality ratio was 857/100,000 and had a decreasing trend from it’s highest in 2010 of 1,873/100,000 to it’s lowest of 350/100,000 in 2014. The leading cause of maternal death was hemorrhage (54% (β=0.477, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.307, 0.647, followed by pregnancy-induced hypertension (20% (β=0.232, 95% CI: 0.046, 0.419, and anemia (12% (β=0.110, 95% CI: 0.017, 0.204.Conclusion: There is a decreasing trend of maternal death. Hemorrhage was the major cause of death identified in each year of study. Keywords: maternal death, maternal

  5. The problem of fuzzy cause-specific death rates in mortality context analysis: the case of Panama City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, S; Gans, P

    1993-05-01

    In studies of mortality, small and fluctuating numbers of deaths are problems which are caused by infrequent reporting and small spatial unit reporting. To use Panama City as an example, the paper will introduce a Monte Carlo simulation which allows for the analysis of mortality even with small absolute numbers. In addition, Panama City will be used as an example where good medical care is available in every city district, so that social class differences between the districts have a negligible effect on most cause-specific death rates and infant mortality.

  6. A comprehensive model for diagnosing the causes of individual medical performance problems: skills, knowledge, internal, past and external factors (SKIPE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfolk, Tim; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2013-01-01

    This discussion paper describes a new and comprehensive model for diagnosing the causes of individual medical performance problems: SKIPE (skills, knowledge, internal, past and external factors). This builds on a previous paper describing a unifying theory of clinical practice, the RDM-p model, which captures the primary skill sets required for effective medical performance (relationship, diagnostics and management), and the professionalism that needs to underpin them. The SKIPE model is currently being used, in conjunction with the RDM-p model, for the in-depth assessment and management of doctors whose performance is a cause for concern.

  7. A Universal Concept for Robust Solving of Shortest Path Problems in Dynamically Reconfigurable Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Chamberlain Chedjou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a flexible analytical concept for robust shortest path detection in dynamically reconfigurable graphs. The concept is expressed by a mathematical model representing the shortest path problem solver. The proposed mathematical model is characterized by three fundamental parameters expressing (a the graph topology (through the “incidence matrix”, (b the edge weights (with dynamic external weights’ setting capability, and (c the dynamic reconfigurability through external input(s of the source-destination nodes pair. In order to demonstrate the universality of the developed concept, a general algorithm is proposed to determine the three fundamental parameters (of the mathematical model developed for all types of graphs regardless of their topology, magnitude, and size. It is demonstrated that the main advantage of the developed concept is that arc costs, the origin-destination pair setting, and the graph topology are dynamically provided by external commands, which are inputs of the shortest path solver model. This enables high flexibility and full reconfigurability of the developed concept, without any retraining need. To validate the concept developed, benchmarking is performed leading to a comparison of its performance with the performances of two well-known concepts based on neural networks.

  8. Public Health Insurance in Vietnam towards Universal Coverage: Identifying the challenges, issues, and problems in its design and organizational practices

    OpenAIRE

    Midori Matsushima; Hiroyuki Yamada

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is attempting to achieve universal health insurance coverage by 2014. Despite great progress, the country faces some challenges, issues and problems. This paper reviewed official documents, existing reports, and related literature to address: (1) grand design for achieving universal health coverage, (2) current insurance coverage, (3) health insurance premium and subsidies by the government, (4) benefit package and payment rule, and (5) organizational practices. From the review, it be...

  9. [Causes, diagnosis and treatment of neurogenic dysphagia as an interdisciplinary clinical problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewski, Jurek

    2006-01-01

    The intricate mechanism of swallowing can be divided into three phases: oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal. Dysphagia is a disruption in the swallowing process, which include difficulty in transporting (or a lack of transporting) a food or liquid bolus from the mouth through the pharynx and esophagus into the stomach. Causes of disruptions in the swallowing process can be divided into superior (oropharyngeal) and inferior (esophageal) according to Paradowski et al. Neurlologic dysphagia may be caused by a disruption in different parts of the central nervous system (supranuclear level, level of motor and sensory nuclei taking part in swallowing process, peripherial nerves level and a pathology of muscle cells and spindles) or neuromuscular and muscular disorders. Neuromuscular disorders causes according to Waśko-Czopnik et al. are: stroke, brain tumors, brain injury, bulbar and pseudobulbar paralysis, neurodegenerative diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis), tabes dorsalis, multisystem degenerations, Parkinson's disease, delayed dyskineses, Huntington's disease, myasthenia and myasthenic syndromes, myopathies and peripherial neuropathies. The correct diagnosis evaluation include history taking, physical examination with palpation and consultations (laryngological, gastrological and neurological). According to Halama radiological esophagogram, videofluoroscopy, flexible endoscopic examination, ultrasound examination, manometry, electromyography, scintigraphy and 24 hour pH monitoring are main diagnostic procedures of dysphagia. Some of the reasons for the neurologic dysphagia may be treated by surgical and pharmacological methods. Neurologic dysphagia rehabilitation is difficult, long-lasting and often falling far short of expected results. Primary it should include neurologic cause treatment if it is possible. According to WHO International Classification of Functioning and Health in 2001 non-invasive methods of dysphagia treatment may be

  10. The most common problem facing by the maintenance department: A case Study between Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) and Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norazam Yasin, Mohd; Mohamad Zin, Rosli; Halid Abdullah, Abd; Shafiq Mahmad, Muhammad; Fikri Hasmori, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    From time to time, the maintenance works become more challenging due to construction of new building and also aging of the existing buildings. University buildings without any exception require proper maintenance services to support their function requirements and this can be considered as major responsibilities to be fulfilled by the maintenance department in the universities. Maintenance department specifically will face various kinds of problems in their operation works and thus this might influence the maintenance work operations itself. This study purposely to identify the common problem facing by the maintenance department and also to examine the current status of the maintenance department. In addition, this study would also propose any suitable approach that could be implemented to overcome the problem facing by the maintenance department. To achieve the objectives of this study, a combination of deep literature study and carrying out a survey is necessary. Literature study aimed to obtain deeper information about this study, meanwhile a survey aimed at identifying the common problem facing by the maintenance department and also to provide the information of the maintenance department’s organization. Several methods will be used in analyzing the data obtained through the survey, including Microsoft Office Excel and also using mean index formula. This study has identified three categories of problem in the maintenance department, which are management problems, human resource problem, and technical problems. Following the findings, several solutions being proposed which can be implemented as the solution to the problem facing. These suggestions have the potential to improve the maintenance department work efficiency, thus could help to increase the department productivity.

  11. Experiences of university students living with mental health problems: Interrelations between the self, the social, and the school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Bonnie; Friedland, Judith; Cho, Sunny; Gopalasuntharanathan, Nisha; Orfus, Shauna; Salkovitch, Marni; Snider, Katrina; Webber, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    A university education is becoming ever-more important in preparing for employment in the knowledge-driven economy. Yet, many university students are not able to complete their degrees because they experience mental health problems during the course of their higher education. Despite the growing numbers of students seeking help, there is limited knowledge about the issues that these students face. The purpose of this study was to understand the range of individual, interpersonal, and environmental factors that affect the lives of university students living with mental health problems. The study was based at a large public university in Canada. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 students with self-identified mental health problems. Their narratives were analyzed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed which drew upon social-ecological theory. Findings depict student experiences as a function of the self (individual factors), the social (interpersonal factors) and the school (environmental factors) and their interrelations. Interventions must be designed to address all three of these areas and their interrelations. The model can be used to guide universities in designing interventions; however, a fourth level that incorporates a university policy that values and supports student mental health, should be included.

  12. French research program on the physiological problems caused by weightlessness. Use of the primate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquies, P. C.; Milhaud, C.; Nogues, C.; Klein, M.; Cailler, B.; Bost, R.

    The need to acquire a better knowledge of the main biological problems induced by microgravity implies—in addition to human experimentation—the use of animal models, and primates seem to be particularly well adapted to this type of research. The major areas of investigation to be considered are the phospho-calcium metabolism and the metabolism of supporting tissues, the hydroelectrolytic metabolism, the cardiovascular function, awakeness, sleep-awakeness cycles, the physiology of equilibrium and the pathophysiology of space sickness. Considering this program, the Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches de Medecine Aerospatiale, under the sponsorship of the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, developed both a program of research on restrained primates for the French-U.S. space cooperation (Spacelab program) and for the French-Soviet space cooperation (Bio-cosmos program), and simulation of the effects of microgravity by head-down bedrest. Its major characteristics are discussed in the study.

  13. Study on Problems and Countermeasures of Textbook Management in China Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    Textbook management in universities is an integral component of teaching management. With gradual development of university education teaching, textbook management in China universities can no longer keep pace with the steps of the teaching management, and the work of textbook management is faced up with new challenges. This article makes an…

  14. Wasps are the cause of an increasing mastitis problem in dairy cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Braverman, Y; Schwimmer, A

    1998-07-01

    The German wasp Vespula germanica (Fabr.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) has been observed to injure dairy cows teats, causing lesions which can lead to mastitis. The number of dairy herds in Israel reported to be affected in this way has increased from five prior to 1989 to 32 from 1989 to 1993. Likewise, the geographical distribution of the colonies of these wasps has expanded from the Galilee to the northern Negev. Most cases of mastitis appeared during August and September when the wasps were most active; the predominant organism isolated was Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Apparently the wasps served as a vector in spreading S. dysgalactiae infection in the herds. More adult cows than first-calving cows were affected. The teats of the front quarters were more affected than those of the hind quarters.

  15. Overweight and Obesity: Prevalence, Consequences, and Causes of a Growing Public Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ellen P; Mesidor, Marie; Winters, Karen; Dubbert, Patricia M; Wyatt, Sharon B

    2015-09-01

    This review considers a variety of perspectives on overweight and obesity (OW/obesity), including measurement and classification; prevalence and changes in prevalence in recent years; genetic, biological, medical, individual, and social correlates of OW/obesity; and treatment approaches. Despite increased attention, OW/obesity is escalating in prevalence worldwide, and the causes are exceedingly complex. A range of innovative studies, including basic research on gut microflora, dietary composition, pharmacologic interventions, and surgical procedures, is generating findings with potential for future prevention and treatment of OW/obesity. Social system changes such as school programs and the awareness of the roles of personal, family, health provider, and cultural experiences related to OW/obesity have also gained traction for vital prevention and treatment efforts over the past decade.

  16. Complexity of matrix organization and problems caused by its inadequate implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Nebojša

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrix organization model is a sophisticated structure intended to combine both the efficiency and effectiveness of the functional and the product/service/customer/area dimensions. From the moment it was introduced in practice, this organizational architecture was accepted with enthusiasm, because it represented a complex organizational response adequate to the conditions which most of the companies in the world have been facing since 1970s. Although matrix organization is not a novelty, it is still a controversial model of organization design. The aim of this paper is to provide a deeper insight into the causes and effects of organizational misfits which appear in the implementation phase of three-dimensional matrix organization, as well as to offer some practical recommendations for managers on how to improve their capacities for successful management of complex matrix organization architecture in their organizations.

  17. The Universal Causes and Effects of Women's Empowerment for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Vildö, Lovisa

    2017-01-01

    Women’s empowerment has been thoroughly discussed during the last two decades, yet the research on the components of empowerment on the national level is still lacking. This paper aims to fill that gap by investigating which national causes and effects of women’s empowerment that are generally visible across developing countries. Previous studies on meso- and micro level have shown that an increase in women’s education, an increase in women’s economic independence as well as a strong legal fr...

  18. [From gene to disease; genetic causes of hearing loss and visual impairment sometimes accompanied by vestibular problems (Usher syndrome)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, R J E; Kremer, H; Deutman, A F; Kimberling, W J; Cremers, C W R J

    2002-12-07

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessively inherited disease, characterised by sensorineural hearing loss, tapetoretinal degeneration and in some cases vestibular problems. Based on the clinical heterogeneity, the disease can be classified into three clinical types (I, II and III), which have their own genetic subtypes (Usher 1A-Usher IG, Usher 2A-Usher 2C and Usher 3). The majority of the Usher type I cases are caused by mutations in the MYO7A gene (Usher 1B) while mutations in the USH2A gene (Usher 2A) are the cause of most cases of type II. Usher syndrome type III, caused by mutations in the USH3 gene, is frequently seen only in Finland.

  19. Health behaviours & problems among young people in India: Cause for concern & call for action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Sunitha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The young people in the age group of 10-24 yr in India constitutes one of the precious resources of India characterized by growth and development and is a phase of vulnerability often influenced by several intrinsic and extrinsic factors that affect their health and safety. Nearly 10-30 per cent of young people suffer from health impacting behaviours and conditions that need urgent attention of policy makers and public health professionals. Nutritional disorders (both malnutrition and over-nutrition, tobacco use, harmful alcohol use, other substance use, high risk sexual behaviours, stress, common mental disorders, and injuries (road traffic injuries, suicides, violence of different types specifically affect this population and have long lasting impact. Multiple behaviours and conditions often coexist in the same individual adding a cumulative risk for their poor health. Many of these being precursors and determinants of non communicable diseases (NCDs including mental and neurological disorders and injuries place a heavy burden on Indian society in terms of mortality, morbidity, disability and socio-economic losses. Many health policies and programmes have focused on prioritized individual health problems and integrated (both vertical and horizontal coordinated approaches are found lacking. Healthy life-style and health promotion policies and programmes that are central for health of youth, driven by robust population-based studies are required in India which will also address the growing tide of NCDs and injuries.

  20. After-hours equine emergency admissions at a university referral hospital (1998 - 2007 : causes and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Viljoen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical records of equine after-hours admissions from 1998 to 2007 are reviewed. Data extracted from the medical records included signalment, reason for admission, pre-admission treatment, clinical presentation, procedures performed, final diagnoses, complications occurring in hospital, length of stay and outcome. Eight hundred and twenty after-hours admissions were available of which 75 % were classified as emergencies. Most horses originated from Gauteng province (82 %, with Thoroughbred, Arabian, and Warmbloods representing 46 %, 10 % and 7 % of horses. Horses had a median age of 7 years and were predominantly male (60 %. Gastrointestinal (64 % and musculoskeletal (19 % disorders were the primary reasons for admission. Anti-inflammatories, sedation and antibiotics were given in 51 %, 20 % and 15 % of cases respectively prior to referral. On admission, 23 % of horses had surgical intervention. Intravenous catheterisation (64 %, rectal examination (61 %, nasogastric intubation (56 %, abdominocentesis (33 % and ultrasonography (19 % were the procedures performed most frequently. Surgical and medical colics constituted 28 % and 27 % respectively of the overall diagnoses, while piroplasmosis was diagnosed in 5 % of horses. Post-admission complications occurred in <2 % of horses. The median length of stay was 4 days (95 % CI: 1 to 21 days. Overall survival to discharge was 74 %. This study demonstrates that the majority of after-hours equine admissions to a university referral hospital required medical intervention and were mostly due to gastrointestinal disorders. Information obtained from this study can be used in emergency referral planning.

  1. Injuries and their probable causes in undergraduates of the Physical Education course at the State University of Maringá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Saturno Madureira

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to analyse the occurrence of injuries in undergraduates of the Physical Education Course at the State University of Maringá. Types of injuries were diagnosed, the opinion of students and professors with regard to their probable causes was taken and the factors that could render injuries less damaging were identified. Research was carried out in the second semester of 1991 when 231 students were regularly enlisted. Data were collected by means of questionnaires for professors and for students. Forty injury cases were verified, 13 with males and 27 with females. The most common type of injury was bruises (55% followed by strain (18%. The inferior members were the most affected region. Judo was the subject in which the greatest number of injuries occurred. Students stated that salient probable causes were: agressivity of colleages in practical exercises (33% and defective sports facilities (25%. In the professors opinion, however, the two chief causes were: students’ distraction (20% and physical inability (20%. The establishment of an Internal Commission for the Prevention of Accidents has been suggested made up of professors, under graduate students and personnel of the Physical Education Department at the State University of Maringá. Its aims are to carry out a following up of this situation, to promote the prevention of injuries and to suggest possible improvements in the premises.

  2. Key Problems in Organizing and Structuring University Research in Vietnam: The Lack of an Effective Research "Behaviour Formalization" System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Lan; Meek, Vincent Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Structure and organization seems to be at the root of many of the questions raised about institutional behaviour; however, with respect to research on university capacity building, few studies have examined research organizational problems, particularly in developing countries. This study investigates academic reactions to the structure and…

  3. Pre-Service Teachers' Problems of Improvisation of Instructional Materials in Social Studies in Ekiti State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu-Raheem, B. O.; Oluwagbohunmi, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined problems of improvisation of instructional materials in Social Studies by pre-service teachers in Ekiti State University. The population for the study comprised all Social Studies pre-service teachers in the Faculty of Education. The sample consisted of 90 Social Studies pre-service teachers selected from 200, 300 and 400…

  4. Factors Affecting Differential Equation Problem Solving Ability of Students at Pre-University Level: A Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisha, Bibi; Zamri, Sharifa NorulAkmar Syed; Abdallah, Nabeel; Abedalaziz, Mohammad; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Satti, Umbreen

    2017-01-01

    In this study, different factors affecting students' differential equations (DEs) solving abilities were explored at pre university level. To explore main factors affecting students' differential equations problem solving ability, articles for a 19-year period, from 1996 to 2015, were critically reviewed and analyzed. It was revealed that…

  5. [Development, problems and results of specialty-specific genetic counseling at the Neurology Clinic of the Karl Marx University].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, H

    1987-11-01

    Genetic counselling for inherited neurological diseases has been established at the Clinic for Neurology of Karl Marx University. Comprehensive experiences have been got with the specific and sometimes markedly different problems and aims of counselling in Wilsons disease, X-linked recessive muscular dystrophies, myotonic dystrophy and other neuromuscular disorders, Huntingtons chorea and hereditary ataxias.

  6. The Universities and Environmental Quality--Commitment to Problem Focused Education. A Report to The President's Environmental Quality Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhart, John S.; Cherniack, Stacie

    This report is based on a study of a few of the multidisciplinary enviromental programs in over 30 universities. The study was undertaken to discover what kind of programs have been tried, which ones have been successful, and how the federal government might encourage effective interdisciplinary problem-focused programs. The report reviews the…

  7. Internal combustion engine cold-start efficiency: A review of the problem, causes and potential solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, Andrew; Brooks, Richard; Shipway, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The sources of I.C. engine cold start efficiency are reviewed and quantified. • Potential solutions are reviewed and the benefit quantified together. • Potential conflicts between different engine sub-systems are discussed. • Fuel consumption benefits of up to 7% are observed during cold start. • Emission reductions of up to 40% during cold start are observed. - Abstract: Legislation on vehicle emissions continues to become more stringent in an effort to minimise the impact of internal combustion engines on the environment. One area of significant concern in this respect is that of the cold-start; the thermal efficiency of the internal combustion engine is significantly lower at cold-start than when the vehicle reaches steady state temperatures owing to sub-optimal lubricant and component temperatures. The drive for thermal efficiency (of both the internal combustion engine and of the vehicle as a whole) has led to a variety of solutions being trialled to assess their merits and effects on other vehicle systems during this warm-up phase (and implemented where appropriate). The approaches have a common theme of attempting to reduce energy losses so that systems and components reach their intended operating temperature range as soon as possible after engine start. In the case of the engine, this is primarily focused on the lubricant system. Lubricant viscosity is highly sensitive to temperature and the increased viscosity at low temperatures results in higher frictional and pumping losses than would be observed at the target operating temperature. The approaches used to tackle the problem include the use of phase change materials (to reduce the cool-down rate during a period following engine running) [1,2] and the use of thermal barrier coatings in an attempt to insulate the cylinder bore and prevent heat loss (thus increasing the amount of energy utilised as brake work [3]). A range of system alterations have also been trialled including

  8. Surveying Turkish High School and University Students' Attitudes and Approaches to Physics Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balta, Nuri; Mason, Andrew J.; Singh, Chandralekha

    2016-01-01

    Students' attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving can impact how well they learn physics and how successful they are in solving physics problems. Prior research in the U.S. using a validated Attitude and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey suggests that there are major differences between students in introductory physics and…

  9. The Relative Merits of PBL (Problem-Based Learning) in University Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    In Australia, academic workloads are increasing, and university funding is decreasing. Academics and university managers are engaging in risk adverse behavior and tending to focus on customer satisfaction and student retention, potentially at the expense of academic standards. Conventional approaches to pedagogy minimize adverse student feedback,…

  10. The Power of the Stage and the Dignity of the Academic Calling in Imperial Germany: The Writings of Max Weber on University Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Contains Max Weber's writings on the problems of the German university in the face of political and bureaucratic authority and on the fundamental principles of university autonomy and academic freedom. (PG)

  11. A transdisciplinary approach to understanding the causes of wicked problems such as the violent conflict in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Velthuizen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is presented against a background of many wicked problems that confront us in the world today such as violent crime, conflict that emanates from political power seeking, contests for scarce resources, the increasing reaction all over the world to the deterioration of socio-economic conditions and the devastation caused by natural disasters. This article will argue that the challenge of violent conflict requires an innovative approach to research and problem solving and proposes a research methodology that follows a transdisciplinary approach. The argument is informed by field research during 2006 on the management of knowledge in the Great Lakes region of Africa, including research on how knowledge on the 1994 genocide in Rwanda is managed. The paper will make recommendations on how transdisciplinary research is required to determine the causes of violent conflict in an African context and how practitioners and academics should engage in transdisciplinarity. It was found that trans- disciplinary research is required to gain better insight into the causes of violent conflict in an African context. It requires from the researcher to recognise the many levels of reality that has to be integrated towards a synthesis to reveal new insights into the causes of violent conflict, including recognising the existence of a normative-spiritual realm that informs the epistemology of Africa. It furthermore requires a methodology that allows us to break out of the stifling constraints of systems thinking and linear processes into the inner space at the juncture where disciplines meet (the diversity of African communities. Keywords: Africa, conflict, Rwanda, crime, genocide, violence, transdisciplinary Disciplines: politics, education, law, epistemology, sociology, theology, management science

  12. Prevalence of common canine digestive problems compared with other health problems in teaching veterinary hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal M. H. Rakha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of common digestive problems compared to other health problems among dogs that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt during 1 year period from January to December 2013. Also, study the effect of age, sex, breeds, and season on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 3864 dogs included 1488 apparently healthy (included 816 males and 672 females and 2376 diseased dogs (included 1542 males and 834 females were registered for age, sex, breed, and the main complaint from their owners. A complete history and detailed clinical examination of each case were applied to the aids of radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic examination tools. Fecal examination was applied for each admitted case. Rapid tests for parvovirus and canine distemper virus detection were also performed. Results: A five digestive problems were commonly recorded including vomiting, diarrhea, concurrent vomiting with diarrhea, anorexia, and constipation with a prevalence (% of 13.6, 19.1, 10.1, 13.1, and 0.5 respectively while that of dermatological, respiratory, urinary, neurological, cardiovascular, auditory, and ocular problems was 27.9, 10.5, 3.3, 0.84, 0.4, 0.25, and 0.17 (% respectively. This prevalence was obtained on the basis of the diseased cases. Age and breed had a significant effect on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs (p0.05 on the distribution of such problems. Conclusion: Digestive problems were the highest recorded problems among dogs, and this was the first records for such problems among dogs in Egypt. Age, gender, and breeds had a significant effect on the distribution of the digestive problems in dogs while season had a non-significant effect on the distribution of such problems. The present data enable veterinarians in Egypt to ascertain their needs for diagnostic tools

  13. Transition and the problem of 'brain drain' from the perspective of students of a privately owned university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljević-Blagojević Milica R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of brain drain is not a new problem in underdeveloped countries and those in transition. Young educated people leave their countries seeking better future, which further damages already weakened economy while the developed countries become even stronger. According to the data of the World Economic Forum, Srbija holds the second place in brain drain. The cited problem is usually analyzed by checking the students of the state owned universities whose studies are financed by the Republic of Serbia. The authors were motivated to explore the same problem but with the students of privately owned universities. Our explorative research was aimed at revealing the attitudes of these students towards leaving the country and work or study abroad. The research included 226 graduate and master students of the Faculty of digital arts, IT Faculty, the Faculty of Management and the Metropolitan University. The sample was deliberately selected. The majority of the responders (two thirds are increasingly interested in finding jobs abroad. This initial research was aimed at identification of the reasons for leaving the country. The respondents state that the reasons are better life conditions, chances for getting job, further studying and bad political and economic situation in the country, poorly paid jobs, new experiences and possibilities of promotion.

  14. Applying Constructionism and Problem Based Learning for Developing Dynamic Educational Material for Mathematics At Undergraduate University Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafyllou, Eva; Timcenko, Olga

    2013-01-01

    As a result of changes in society and education, assumptions about the knowledge of entrants to university have become obsolete. One area in which this seems to be true is mathematics. This paper presents our research aiming at tackling with this problem by developing digital educational material...... for mathematics education, which will be student-driven, dynamic, and multimodal. Our approach will be supported by the theories of Constructionism and PBL. The impact of its use will be evaluated in university settings. It is expected that the evaluation will demonstrate an improvement in student engagement...

  15. THE MANAGEMENT OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY PROJECTS: A HIGH-PRIORITY ETHICAL PROBLEM IN THE UNIVERSITY AGENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Palencia

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This work paper points out that the management of social responsibility is a high-priority project in the agenda of university organizations. Social Responsibility is reasoned as a macro university ethical project; about how the projects in the university scope have been handled and finally about how the Intellectus Model is a successful option. By means of a documentary research, it was conclude that the university organizations come dragging a culture lack from ethics, which has taken it to assume the Social Responsibility with an extencionist approach. It is recommended to assume the Social Responsibility Project as a coexistence culture and to manage it by means of the Projects Management.

  16. Parent Beliefs about the Causes of Learning and Developmental Problems among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results from a National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Katharine E.; Lindly, Olivia J.; Sinche, Brianna

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess variation in parent beliefs about causes of learning and developmental problems in U.S. children with autism spectrum disorder, using data from a nationally representative survey. Results showed that beliefs about a genetic/hereditary cause of learning/developmental problems were most common, but nearly as many parents…

  17. Investigation and Reflection on the University-enterprise Cooperation Problem in the Western Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The university-enterprise cooperation is the only way to the professionalization of higher education and the cultivating model of skilled talents at the same time. Now, colleges and universities in the western region of China are trying to promote the university-enterprise cooperation, while this kind of cooperation is facing great difficulties and challenges. Based on the field and questionnaire survey, the paper analyzes the form and the way of the current university-enterprise cooperation in the western region of China, as well as difficulties and challenges occurred. Meanwhile, based on the result of the survey, the paper puts forward the “dynamic factor analytic method” which should be adopted by the university-enterprise cooperation. In the end, based on the “dynamic factor analytic method”, the paper makes 3 suggestions in order to improve the strategy and the way of the university-enterprise cooperation in the western region of China and to promote its effect.

  18. Design and Application of Interactive Simulations in Problem-Solving in University-Level Physics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceberio, Mikel; Almudí, José Manuel; Franco, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, interactive computer simulations have been progressively integrated in the teaching of the sciences and have contributed significant improvements in the teaching-learning process. Practicing problem-solving is a key factor in science and engineering education. The aim of this study was to design simulation-based problem-solving…

  19. Dealing with problems on sexual harassment in universities; Sekuhara mondai niokeru daigaku no torikumi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michiue, Masanori. [Tottori University, Tottori (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Authors carried out the outside evaluation that the education system, equipment from curriculum and results of faculty staff were checked by not only self-inspection and evaluation but also insight people outside the faculty in the engineering faculty in the Tottori University. As one part of this evaluation, a guideline to the sexual harassment was made. After then, a guideline to the sexual harassment in each university was completed after learned from the example of the Tottori University. This kind of regulation was made in offices of each ministry and agency, self governing body and company according to the direction of the National Personal Authority. Until recent time, the regulation related to student discussion on the sexual harassment was set up in whole the Tottori University, an environment to make students study at ease was adjusted. These items had the regulation related to student discussion, protection, guideline, when damage happened, and the student discussion room. These items were listed in the student living guideline on the homepage of the Tottori University. (NEDO)

  20. Perceived Social Support and Mental Health Problems Among Pakistani University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibeen, Tahira

    2016-11-01

    Despite the growing number of cross-cultural studies focusing on psychological problems, little is known about social support outside of western civilization, particularly among people in South Asian cultures. This study examined the cultural orientation regarding perceived social support and psychological problems among 912 undergraduate students (age 19-26) studying at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan. The present study supported variance in cultural values regarding the relative prominence of sources of support in collectivist culture indicating that low levels of family support were related to various psychological problems. Further, low levels of peer support were related to depression, anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity. While familial support played a bigger role than peer support in affecting psychological problems, peer support also had a role to play. The results may help counsellors and researchers to identify more effectively the population of students at high risk for mental illness and develop culturally effective interventions to address this significant and growing public health issue.

  1. Addressing the Problem of Negative Lexical Transfer Errors in Chilean University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissington, Paul Anthony

    2018-01-01

    Studies of second language learning have revealed a connection between first language transfer and errors in second language production. This paper describes an action research study carried out among Chilean university students studying English as part of their degree programmes. The study focuses on common lexical errors made by Chilean…

  2. Doing Business in the New Technology: Problems for College and University Counsel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Daniel W.; Gray, Todd D.

    1984-01-01

    Regulatory changes regarding public broadcasting and telecommunications facilities on college and university campuses allowing remunerative use of the facilities, and potential obstacles to remunerative use posed by state statutes, are discussed from legal and tax perspectives. The potential for double taxation is examined. (MSE)

  3. Ten Years of Entrepreneurship Education at Chinese Universities: Evolution, Problems, and System Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiming, Li; Chunyan, Li; Xiaohua, Du

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship education has experienced four stages of development in Chinese universities, shifting from entrepreneurship show to entrepreneurship education, from teacher training to student education, from classroom teaching to multimodal teaching, and from imparting knowledge to cultivating skills. Currently, the weak links in…

  4. Broken symmetries at high temperatures and the problem of baryon excess of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N

    1979-01-01

    We discuss a class of gauge theories, where spontan- eously broken symmetries, instead of being restored, persist as the temperature is increased. Applying these ideas to the specific case of the soft CP- viola tion in grand unified theories, we discuss a mechanism to generate the baryon to entropy ratio of the universe.

  5. Problems of Policing Plagiarism and Cheating in University Institutions Due to Incomplete or Inconsistent Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soiferman, L. Karen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to gain an understanding of the definitions of plagiarism, and cheating that are used in the literature, in institutions, and by students. The information was gathered from a literature review, from university and college websites, and from an informal sampling of students from five different first-year classes. The…

  6. The Functions and Problems of the Urban University: A Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    City Univ. of New York, NY. Graduate School. Center for European Studies.

    Issues concerning the urban university in Great Britain, France, Sweden, Japan, and West Germany are considered in the five selected conference papers that make up this document. In "Analysis in Politics: The Regionalization of Swedish Higher Education," Rune Premfors discusses how Swedish regionalization of higher education used…

  7. Addressing Problems of Professional Competence: Collaborating with University Training Programs to Support Struggling Supervisees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiney, Meaghan C.

    2018-01-01

    As a university-based supervisor (UBS) for school psychology interns, one of the highlights of the author's job is seeing students complete their capstone training experiences and move on to become credentialed, practicing school psychologists. This requires that students demonstrate competence, or the academic, assessment, clinical, ethical, and…

  8. College and university environmental programs as a policy problem (Part 1): Integrating Knowledge, education, and action for a better world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S.G.; Rutherford, M.B.; Auer, M.R.; Cherney, D.N.; Wallace, R.L.; Mattson, D.J.; Clark, D.A.; Foote, L.; Krogman, N.; Wilshusen, P.; Steelman, T.

    2011-01-01

    The environmental sciences/studies movement, with more than 1000 programs at colleges and universities in the United States and Canada, is unified by a common interest-ameliorating environmental problems through empirical enquiry and analytic judgment. Unfortunately, environmental programs have struggled in their efforts to integrate knowledge across disciplines and educate students to become sound problem solvers and leaders. We examine the environmental program movement as a policy problem, looking at overall goals, mapping trends in relation to those goals, identifying the underlying factors contributing to trends, and projecting the future. We argue that despite its shared common interest, the environmental program movement is disparate and fragmented by goal ambiguity, positivistic disciplinary approaches, and poorly rationalized curricula, pedagogies, and educational philosophies. We discuss these challenges and the nature of the changes that are needed in order to overcome them. In a subsequent article (Part 2) we propose specific strategies for improvement. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  9. Active and Healthy Ageing as a Wicked Problem: The Contribution of a Multidisciplinary Research University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Giuseppe; Graffigna, Guendalina; Baitieri, Maddalena; Amato, Alessandra; Bonanomi, Maria Grazia; Valentini, Paolo; Castelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The quest for an active and healthy ageing can be considered a "wicked problem." It is a social and cultural problem, which is difficult to solve because of incomplete, changing, and contradictory requirements. These problems are tough to manage because of their social complexity. They are a group of linked problems embedded in the structure of the communities in which they occur. First, they require the knowledge of the social and cultural context in which they occur. They can be solved only by understanding of what people do and why they do it. Second, they require a multidisciplinary approach. Wicked problems can have different solutions, so it is critical to capture the full range of possibilities and interpretations. Thus, we suggest that Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (UCSC) is well suited for accepting and managing this challenge because of its applied research orientation, multidisciplinary approach, and integrated vision. After presenting the research activity of UCSC, we describe a possible "systems thinking" strategy to consider the complexity and interdependence of active ageing and healthy living.

  10. Analysis of causes of intraocular lens explantations in the material of Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Lodz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Michał; Wilczyńska, Olena; Omulecki, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    Implantation of intraocular lenses (IOLS) has become a standard practice in cataract surgery, however, similar to any other type of surgery, using IOLs is not complication-free and sometimes explantation of intraocular lenses may be necessary. This study was to gather data and analyze causes of intraocular lens explantations, performed in the Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Łódź. The data were gathered from medical documentation of all patients who underwent intraocular lens removal from January 2003 to July 2006. The examined group consisted of 16 patients (16 eyes): 9 women (fraction 0.56), and 7 men (fraction 0.44), at the age from 21 to 82 years (mean age 62.4 years, SD +/- 15.5). In all patients IOL explantation was performed under local, peribulbar anaesthesia. Two groups of patients were distinguished: patients who had an anterior chamber lens explanted (3 patients, fraction 0.19) and patients who underwent posterior chamber lens explantation (13 patients, fraction 0.81). Causes of AC IOL explantations were: vaulting of the IOL (1 eye, fraction 0.06), luxation of the IOL to the vitreous cavity (1 eye, fraction 0.06), and painful eyeball after anterior chamber lens implantation (1 eye, fraction 0.06). Causes of PC IOL explantations were: subluxation of the IOL (6 eyes, fraction 0.38), luxation of the lens to the vitreous cavity (3 eyes, fraction 0.19), luxation of the lens to the anterior chamber (1 eye, fraction 0.06), endophthalmitis (2 eyes, fraction 0.13) and incorrect lens power (1 eye, fraction 0.06). In the majority of eyes (n = 13, fraction 0.81) the removed implant was replaced by another intraocular lens, but 3 eyes (fraction 0.19) were left aphakic. We did not observe serious intra- or early postoperative complications which might influence the final result of the operation.

  11. Common causes of morbidity and mortality amongst diabetic admissions at the university of Benin teaching hospital, Benin city, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eregie, A.; Unadike, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide and Nigeria is no exception. To determine the morbidity and mortality in patients admitted with Diabetes Mellitus in a tertiary teaching hospital of Nigeria, through retrospective analysis of admission and death records. Admission and death certificate records from the medical wards of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City, Nigeria, were retrospectively analysed from 1, August 2003 to 31, July 2004. Data included age, gender, total numbers of admissions and those due to Diabetes Mellitus, the indications for admissions, presenting symptoms and method of diagnoses in diabetic patients, mortality rates and causes of death. Data obtained were analysed using chi square. Out of 1567 medical admissions, 852(54.4%) were males and 715(45.6%) females. Diabetes was detected in 145(9.3%) patients [81(55.9%) males, 64(44.1%) females]. The mean age of diabetic patients was 53.6+16.1 years (range 18 - 94 years). Poor glycaemic control (29%) and diabetic foot syndrome (23.4%) were the most common reasons for admission in diabetic cases. The overall mortality rate among medical admissions was 21.8%, with diabetes accounting for 6.7% deaths. Within the cohort of diabetic cases, mortality was 15.9%, with significantly higher mortality in those aged > 65 years (p < 0.05). The most common causes of death in diabetic cases were Cerebrovascular disease and complications associated with the foot syndrome, accounting for 26.1% and 21.7% of deaths respectively; the least common causes of death in diabetic patients were Malaria, Hepatic Encephalopathy, and Carcinoma of the Cervix, accounting for 4.4% of deaths. Cerebrovascular disease was the most frequent cause of mortality among admitted diabetic patients with diabetic foot syndrome (a preventable complication) as the second most frequent cause of mortality. Increased screening for diabetes mellitus morbidities in the clinic and community

  12. Mutations affecting the SAND domain of DEAF1 cause intellectual disability with severe speech impairment and behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Rajamanickam, Shivakumar; Jensik, Philip J; Vergult, Sarah; de Rocker, Nina; Newhall, Kathryn J; Raghavan, Ramya; Reardon, Sara N; Jarrett, Kelsey; McIntyre, Tara; Bulinski, Joseph; Ownby, Stacy L; Huggenvik, Jodi I; McKnight, G Stanley; Rose, Gregory M; Cai, Xiang; Willaert, Andy; Zweier, Christiane; Endele, Sabine; de Ligt, Joep; van Bon, Bregje W M; Lugtenberg, Dorien; de Vries, Petra F; Veltman, Joris A; van Bokhoven, Hans; Brunner, Han G; Rauch, Anita; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Carvill, Gemma L; Hoischen, Alexander; Mefford, Heather C; Eichler, Evan E; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; Menten, Björn; Collard, Michael W; de Vries, Bert B A

    2014-05-01

    Recently, we identified in two individuals with intellectual disability (ID) different de novo mutations in DEAF1, which encodes a transcription factor with an important role in embryonic development. To ascertain whether these mutations in DEAF1 are causative for the ID phenotype, we performed targeted resequencing of DEAF1 in an additional cohort of over 2,300 individuals with unexplained ID and identified two additional individuals with de novo mutations in this gene. All four individuals had severe ID with severely affected speech development, and three showed severe behavioral problems. DEAF1 is highly expressed in the CNS, especially during early embryonic development. All four mutations were missense mutations affecting the SAND domain of DEAF1. Altered DEAF1 harboring any of the four amino acid changes showed impaired transcriptional regulation of the DEAF1 promoter. Moreover, behavioral studies in mice with a conditional knockout of Deaf1 in the brain showed memory deficits and increased anxiety-like behavior. Our results demonstrate that mutations in DEAF1 cause ID and behavioral problems, most likely as a result of impaired transcriptional regulation by DEAF1. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Problems Caused by Microbes and Treatment Strategies Monitoring and Preventing Reservoir Souring Using Molecular Microbiological Methods (MMM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittel, Antje

    The injection of seawater during the process of secondary oil recovery in offshore oilfields supplies huge amounts of sulphate to the prokaryotic reservoir communities. Together with the presence of oil organics and their degradation products as electron donors, this facilitates the enrichment and growth of sulphate-reducing prokaryotes (SRP) in the reservoir, as well as in pipings and top-side installations (Sunde and Torsvik, 2005; Vance and Thrasher, 2005). The activity of SRP causes severe economic problems due to the reactivity and toxicity of the produced hydrogen sulphide (H2S), one of the major problems being reservoir souring. Besides the use of broad-spectrum biocides or inhibitors for sulphate reduction, the addition of nitrate effectively decreased the net production of H2S in model column studies (Myhr et al., 2002; Hubert et al., 2005; Dunsmore et al., 2006) and field trials (Telang et al., 1997; Bødtker et al., 2008). The mechanisms by which nitrate addition might affect souring control are (i) the stimulation of heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that outcompete SRP for electron donors, (ii) the activity of nitrate-reducing, sulphide-oxidising bacteria (NR-SOB), and (iii) the inhibition of SRP by the production of nitrite and nitrous oxides (Sunde and Torsvik, 2005; Hubert and Voordouw, 2007).

  14. Promotion of Problem Solving Skills by Using Metacognitive-based Instruction in Students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    yahya safari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Studies have indicated that metacognitive strategies control and direct cognitive strategies. Thus, application of metacognitive and cognitive strategies together is essential for successful learning to happen. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of metacognitive-oriented instruction on development of problem solving skills in students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental research with pretest/posttest and control group design. The study sample included the students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (n=4283 in the academic year of 2013-2014. A total number of 40 students were selected through convenient sampling method as the study sample. The samples were randomly placed in experimental and control groups. For the experimental group, problem solving skills were taught based on metacognitive strategies in 8 sessions, each session for 1 and half hours. For the control group, however, problem solving skills were taught through conventional teaching method. The instrument for data collection was Heppner’s problem solving inventory (1988 whose validity and reliability were confirmed previously. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation, and the hypotheses were tested through t-test. Results: The results of the posttest showed that the total mean of scores for problem solving skills in the experimental group (99.75 was higher than that of the control group (26.800 (p<0.0001. This difference was significant in the case of confidence, approach/avoidance and personal control components (p<0.0001. Moreover, the mean of students’ scores was not significant in terms of gender and major. Conclusion: Given the positive effect of metacognitive strategies on the students’ performance and the necessity of teaching metacognition for the sake of academic achievement, these strategies are recommended to be

  15. Orbits of the n-dimensional Kepler-Coulomb problem and universality of the Kepler laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oender, M; Vercin, A

    2006-01-01

    In the standard classical mechanics textbooks used at undergraduate and graduate levels, no attention is paid to the dimensional aspects of the Kepler-Coulomb problem. We have shown that the orbits of the n-dimensional classical Kepler-Coulomb problem are the usual conic sections in a fixed two-dimensional subspace and the Kepler laws with their well-known forms are valid independent of dimension. The basic characteristics of motion in a central force field are also established in an arbitrary dimension. The approach followed is easily accessible to late undergraduate and recent graduate students

  16. Broken symmetries at high temperatures and the problem of baryon excess of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.; Senjanovic, G.

    1979-06-01

    A class of gauge theories, where spontaneously broken symmetries, instead of being restored, persist as the temperature is increased is discussed. A renormalization group analysis of this phenomena suggests that there may be more than one phase transition in these models with at least one symmetric phase. Applying these ideas to the specific case of soft CP-violation in grand unified theories, a mechanism to generate the baryon to entropy ratio of the universe is discussed. 34 references

  17. Vector theory of gravity: Universe without black holes and solution of dark energy problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svidzinsky, Anatoly A.

    2017-12-01

    We propose an alternative theory of gravity which assumes that background geometry of the Universe is fixed four dimensional Euclidean space and gravity is a vector field A k in this space which breaks the Euclidean symmetry. Direction of A k gives the time coordinate, while perpendicular directions are spatial coordinates. Vector gravitational field is coupled to matter universally and minimally through the equivalent metric f ik which is a functional of A k . We show that such assumptions yield a unique theory of gravity, it is free of black holes and, to the best of our knowledge, passes all available tests. For cosmology our theory predicts the same evolution of the Universe as general relativity with cosmological constant and zero spatial curvature. However, the present theory provides explanation of the dark energy as energy of longitudinal gravitational field induced by the Universe expansion and yields, with no free parameters, the value of {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }}=2/3≈ 0.67 which is consistent with the recent Planck result {{{Ω }}}{{Λ }}=0.686+/- 0.02. Such close agreement with cosmological data indicates that gravity has a vector, rather than tensor, origin. We demonstrate that gravitational wave signals measured by LIGO are compatible with vector gravity. They are produced by orbital inspiral of massive neutron stars which can exist in the present theory. We also quantize gravitational field and show that quantum vector gravity is equivalent to QED. Vector gravity can be tested by making more accurate measurement of the time delay of radar signal traveling near the Sun; by improving accuracy of the light deflection experiments; or by measuring propagation direction of gravitational waves relative to laser interferometer arms. Resolving the supermassive object at the center of our Galaxy with VLBA could provide another test of gravity and also shed light on the nature of dark matter.

  18. The problem of the universal density functional and the density matrix functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobrov, V. B.; Trigger, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The analysis in this paper shows that the Hohenberg-Kohn theorem is the constellation of two statements: (i) the mathematically rigorous Hohenberg-Kohn lemma, which demonstrates that the same ground-state density cannot correspond to two different potentials of an external field, and (ii) the hypothesis of the existence of the universal density functional. Based on the obtained explicit expression for the nonrel-ativistic particle energy in a local external field, we prove that the energy of the system of more than two non-interacting electrons cannot be a functional of the inhomogeneous density. This result is generalized to the system of interacting electrons. It means that the Hohenberg-Kohn lemma cannot provide justification of the universal density functional for fermions. At the same time, statements of the density functional theory remain valid when considering any number of noninteracting ground-state bosons due to the Bose condensation effect. In the framework of the density matrix functional theory, the hypothesis of the existence of the universal density matrix functional corresponds to the cases of noninteracting particles and to interaction in the Hartree-Fock approximation.

  19. Gambling participation and problems among employees at a university health center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Nancy M; Mallya, Sarita

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the frequency and intensity of gambling behaviors among employees at an academic health center. Employees were sent an anonymous questionnaire assessing demographic characteristics, participation in gambling activities, and gambling-related problems. Of the 904 respondents, 96% reported gambling in their lifetimes, with 69% gambling in the past year, 40% in the past two months, and 21% in the past week. The most common forms of gambling were lottery and scratch tickets, slot machines, card playing, sports betting, bingo, and track. Only 1.2% of the sample reported gambling on the internet. Using scores on the South Oaks Gambling Screen, 3.0% of the respondents were classified as Level 2 (or problem) gamblers, and an additional 1.8% were Level 3 (or pathological) gamblers. Compared to Level 1 (non-problem) gamblers, Level 2 and Level 3 gamblers were more likely to be male, single, and employed full-time, and to have lower income and education. About half of the Level 2 and Level 3 gamblers reported interest in an evaluation of their gambling behaviors and treatment interventions. These data suggest the need to screen for gambling problems in health care professionals and to provide gambling-specific treatments.

  20. Operational problems with radiation survey meters - The University and Accelerator perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCall, R.C.

    1984-06-01

    This article describes problems encountered with commercial survey meters. The desired qualities of such instruments for use around accelerators are listed. Attempts to meet the accelerator monitoring needs by modifying commercial instruments and by in-house research and development are described

  1. [Analysis of drug-related problems in a tertiary university hospital in Barcelona (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrández, Olivia; Casañ, Borja; Grau, Santiago; Louro, Javier; Salas, Esther; Castells, Xavier; Sala, Maria

    2018-05-07

    To describe drug-related problems identified in hospitalized patients and to assess physicians' acceptance rate of pharmacists' recommendations. Retrospective observational study that included all drug-related problems detected in hospitalized patients during 2014-2015. Statistical analysis included a descriptive analysis of the data and a multivariate logistic regression to evaluate the association between pharmacists' recommendation acceptance rate and the variable of interest. During the study period 4587 drug-related problems were identified in 44,870 hospitalized patients. Main drug-related problems were prescription errors due to incorrect use of the computerized physician order entry (18.1%), inappropriate drug-drug combination (13.3%) and dose adjustment by renal and/or hepatic function (11.5%). Acceptance rate of pharmacist therapy advice in evaluable cases was 81.0%. Medical versus surgical admitting department, specific types of intervention (addition of a new drug, drug discontinuation and correction of a prescription error) and oral communication of the recommendation were associated with a higher acceptance rate. The results of this study allow areas to be identified on which to implement optimization strategies. These include training courses for physicians on the computerized physician order entry, on drugs that need dose adjustment with renal impairment, and on relevant drug interactions. Copyright © 2018 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Interpersonal Problem Solving, Self-Compassion and Personality Traits in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Coskun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate interpersonal problem solving in terms of self-compassion and personality traits. The participants were 570 (274 females and 296 males) who participated in the research voluntarily. The mean age of the participants was 21.54 years (between 17-32 years old) with a standard deviation of 2.68 years. Data were…

  3. Coping with University-Related Problems: A Cross-cultural Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essau, Cecilia Ahmoi; Trommsdorff, Gisela

    1996-01-01

    Compares problem- and emotion-focused coping in students from North America, Germany, and Malaysia to determine the association between coping and physical symptoms. Results with 365 undergraduates found that North Americans and Germans with higher scores on emotion-focused coping had fewer symptoms, although the reverse was true for Malaysians.…

  4. The Effectiveness of the Chemistry Problem Based Learning (PBL) via FB among Pre-University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunar, Mohd Shahir Mohamed; Shaari, Ahmad Jelani

    2017-01-01

    The impact of social media, such as Facebook in various fields including education is undeniable. The main objective of this study is to examine the effect of the interaction between students' learning styles and learning approaches on their achievements in the chemistry subject using the Problem-Based Learning (PBL) method through Facebook. The…

  5. Universal algorithms and programs for calculating the motion parameters in the two-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhshiyan, B. T.; Sukhanov, A. A.

    1979-01-01

    The algorithms and FORTRAN programs for computing positions and velocities, orbital elements and first and second partial derivatives in the two-body problem are presented. The algorithms are applicable for any value of eccentricity and are convenient for computing various navigation parameters.

  6. Addressing the Problem of Negative Lexical Transfer Errors in Chilean University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Anthony Dissington

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of second language learning have revealed a connection between first language transfer and errors in second language production. This paper describes an action research study carried out among Chilean university students studying English as part of their degree programmes. The study focuses on common lexical errors made by Chilean Spanish-speakers due to negative first language transfer and aims to analyse the effects of systematic instruction and practice of this problematic lexis. It is suggested that raising awareness of lexical transfer through focused attention on common transfer errors is valued by students and seems essential for learners to achieve productive mastery.

  7. Risk of suicide ideation associated with problem-solving ability and attitudes toward suicidal behavior in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Carmel; Corcoran, Paul; Keeley, Helen S; Perry, Ivan J

    2003-01-01

    The present paper investigates the risk of lifetime suicide ideation associated with problem-solving ability and attitudes toward suicidal behavior in a sample of 328 university students (41% male, 59% female). The response rate was 77% based on the total number of students registered for the relevant courses. A series of questions assessed lifetime suicide ideation, while problem solving and attitudes toward suicide were measured using the Self-Rating Problem Solving scale and four subscales of the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire, respectively (McLeavey, 1986; Domino et al., 1989). Almost one-third of the students surveyed had lifetime suicide ideation. Both genders were similar in terms of their suicide ideation history, problem solving, and attitudes toward suicidal behavior with the exception that male students were more in agreement with the attitude that suicidal behavior lacks real intent. Compared with 2% of nonideators and ideators, one in four planners reported that they would more than likely attempt suicide at some point in their life. Greater agreement with the attitude that suicidal behavior is normal was associated with significantly increased risk of being an ideator, as was poor problem solving and less agreement with the attitude that suicidal behavior is associated with mental illness.

  8. Investigating the Difficulties and Problems Faced by the English Language Students of Al Quds Open University in Legal Translation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Maher Mahmoud Al-Nakhalah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Following experimental descriptive method, the paper explores the difficulties and problems faced by the English language students of Al Quds Open University in legal translation process; that is, while translating legal terms/documents from Arabic to English and from English to Arabic. A test was designed by the researcher in order to explore and investigate the difficulties and problems faced by the students. The test included four questions: 1 Translating English legal paragraph, 2 Translating Arabic legal paragraph, 3 Translating ten Arabic legal terms and 4 Translating ten English legal terms. The test was applied on the English language students of Al Quds Open University in Gaza Region in Palestine during the second course of the academic year 2010/2011. The samples of the study were chosen and selected randomly. Following suitable statistical methods, the paper offers the obtained results with critical discussion. Possible solutions, recommendations and suggestions to overcome these difficulties and problems also form important parts of the discussion in the paper.

  9. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Treatment of Physical Health Problems Without a Known Cause, Exemplified by Hypertension and Tinnitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the medical clinic, we often face health problems that have no known cause, even after a thorough examination. Biomedicine is often unable to find a cure in these situations, leaving the problem unsolved or leaving the patient on a palliative pharmaceutical cure, which is often for a lifetime. In this case, consciousness-based, holistic medicine could be an alternative. Using the theories and tools of holistic medicine wisely, the physician can often provide treatment for the patient. The toolbox of holistic medicine makes it possible to work on everybody because there is always something related to the patients quality of life that can be improved: his love, his purpose of life, and the way he uses his talents, his mind, his feelings, his body, and his sexuality. For treatment in holistic medicine, it really does not matter as much that you cannot give the patient a precise medical diagnosis, because you can always work on the patient with the intention of healing his or her whole life and existence. It is quite a paradox that many of these diseases can be understood on the level of the individual patient at the same moment that the patient is cured; many of these diseases seem to be clearly related to the repression of the individual character, as stressed already by Hippocrates. So if you simply start working with the patient to help him confront old existential pain and coach him in his personal development of his life by intensifying its meaning and purpose, the symptoms very often simply disappear. The toolbox of holistic medicine also seems relevant to even difficult, neurotic, psychosomatic, and hypochondriac patients. Believing in the treatment and not giving up on your patient, and moving forward in the treatment with the patient himself is the ultimate goal, even when you yourself do not understand the mechanism fully. This will force you to develop your own competence and is, in essence, what makes an outstanding holistic

  10. Virtual microscopy system at Chinese medical university: an assisted teaching platform for promoting active learning and problem-solving skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yanping; Xiao, Wengang; Li, Chengren; Liu, Yunlai; Qin, Maolin; Wu, Yi; Xiao, Lan; Li, Hongli

    2014-04-09

    Chinese medical universities typically have a high number of students, a shortage of teachers and limited equipment, and as such histology courses have been taught using traditional lecture-based formats, with textbooks and conventional microscopy. This method, however, has reduced creativity and problem-solving skills training in the curriculum. The virtual microscope (VM) system has been shown to be an effective and efficient educational strategy. The present study aims to describe a VM system for undergraduates and to evaluate the effects of promoting active learning and problem-solving skills. Two hundred and twenty-nine second-year undergraduate students in the Third Military Medical University were divided into two groups. The VM group contained 115 students and was taught using the VM system. The light microscope (LM) group consisted of 114 students and was taught using the LM system. Post-teaching performances were assessed by multiple-choice questions, short essay questions, case analysis questions and the identification of structure of tissue. Students' teaching preferences and satisfaction were assessed using questionnaires. Test scores in the VM group showed a significant improvement compared with those in the LM group (p 0.05); however, there were notable differences in the mean score rate of case analysis questions and identification of structure of tissue (p effects of the VM system in terms of additional learning resources, critical thinking, ease of communication and confidence. The VM system is an effective tool at Chinese medical university to promote undergraduates' active learning and problem-solving skills as an assisted teaching platform.

  11. Universe

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  12. Problem-based Learning, Motivation and Employability - A case study with tourism students from Aalborg University, Denmark-

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Helene; Andersson, Vibeke

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the Problem-based Learning model (PBL) and seeks to further the model by nuancing the idea of how to co-create knowledge by motivation for tourism Master students at Aalborg University (Denmark) with the aim of enhancing their employability approaches and skills. The paper...... challenges the models of experiences and experiential learning as being ‘enough’ to prepare students to take ownership for the experience of learning. We argue that students not only learn from experience or from general reflection they also need to be motivated by creating meaningful experiences and take...

  13. Inventing Problems for Technical Solutions – The Co-production of Universities, Skills and Engineering Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Joakim; Buch, Anders

    institution building where business and management competencies are incorporated to engineering curricula. By comparing experiences from early career alumni from educations that are results of moving engineering institutions into business, we analyze the consequences imposed by changing disciplinary...... of innovation. In the recent two decades, universities and other engineering institutions that are typically identified with technology development have expanded their research and teaching activities towards the business end of innovation. Purpose This paper investigates the new emergent trend in academic...... demarcations within academic and professional engineering knowledges. Theoretical and methodological framework The paper draws upon theoretical frameworks from Practice Theory (e.g. as developed by Theodore Schatzki, Stephen Kemmis et al.), and co-production and sociotechnical imaginaries from Science...

  14. [Burnout, work disruptions, interpersonal and psychosomatic problems--degree-specific comparison of students at a German university].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumz, A; Brähler, E; Heilmann, V K; Erices, R

    2014-03-01

    In the context of the public debate on psychological strain among students, the prevalence of burnout, procrastination, test anxiety, other work disruptions, interpersonal problems and psychic symptoms were analyzed depending on academic degree. The data of 358 college students (of Leipzig University) were examined. The academic degree had only a marginal effect on burnout- and work disruptions-related variables. In terms of interpersonal problems and psychic symptoms, differences between students were identified, depending on the academic degree. Diploma students reported many complaints, whereas undergraduates aspiring for a State Examination, were comparatively less affected. Knowledge of the population-specific psychological load is useful in order to develop preventive and therapeutic measures. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Problem-based learning: Dental student's perception of their education environments at Qassim University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhuwaiter, Shahad S; Aljuailan, Roqayah I; Banabilh, Saeed M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess perceptions of the Saudi dental students of the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum and to compare their perceptions among different sex and academic years. Data was collected through a questionnaire-based survey at Qassim College of dentistry. The questionnaire consisted of 19 questions regarding the perception of PBL curriculum and was distributed to 240 students. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis of the data. Out of the 240 students recruited for this study, 146 returned a complete questionnaire (the response rate was 60.8%). The majority of the students perceived that PBL enhances the ability to speak in front of people (91.1%); improved the ability to find the information using the internet/library (81.5%); enhances the problem-solving skills (71.3%); increases the practice of cooperative and collaborative learning (69.2%); improves the decision-making skills (66.4%). Sixty-five percent ( n = 96) noted that some students dominate whereas others are passive during PBL discussion session. Statistically, significant differences were found in the following variables according to the academic year students assuming before responsibility for their own learning ( P learning ( P knowledge and learning to elaborate and organize their knowledge ( P weakness for improvement ( P learning environment and to take the students recommendations into consideration.

  16. Sleep in a large, multi-university sample of college students: sleep problem prevalence, sex differences, and mental health correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P; Jarrett, Matthew A; Luebbe, Aaron M; Garner, Annie A; Burns, G Leonard; Kofler, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    To (1) describe sleep problems in a large, multi-university sample of college students; (2) evaluate sex differences; and (3) examine the unique associations of mental health symptoms (i.e., anxiety, depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder inattention [ADHD-IN], ADHD hyperactivity-impulsivity [ADHD-HI]) in relation to sleep problems. 7,626 students (70% female; 81% White) ages 18-29 years (M=19.14, SD=1.42) from six universities completed measures assessing mental health symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A substantial minority of students endorsed sleep problems across specific sleep components. Specifically, 27% described their sleep quality as poor, 36% reported obtaining less than 7 hours of sleep per night, and 43% reported that it takes >30 minutes to fall asleep at least once per week. 62% of participants met cut-off criteria for poor sleep, though rates differed between females (64%) and males (57%). In structural regression models, both anxiety and depression symptoms were uniquely associated with disruptions in most PSQI sleep component domains. However, anxiety (but not depression) symptoms were uniquely associated with more sleep disturbances and sleep medication use, whereas depression (but not anxiety) symptoms were uniquely associated with increased daytime dysfunction. ADHD-IN symptoms were uniquely associated with poorer sleep quality and increased daytime dysfunction, whereas ADHD-HI symptoms were uniquely associated with more sleep disturbances and less daytime dysfunction. Lastly, ADHD-IN, anxiety, and depression symptoms were each independently associated with poor sleep status. This study documents a high prevalence of poor sleep among college students, some sex differences, and distinct patterns of mental health symptoms in relation to sleep problems. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. University courses, eating problems and muscle dysmorphia: are there any associations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Simona; Zoccali, Rossana; Ponzo, Valentina; Soldati, Laura; De Carli, Luca; Benso, Andrea; Fea, Elisabetta; Rainoldi, Alberto; Durazzo, Marilena; Fassino, Secondo; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni

    2014-08-07

    Orthorexia and muscle dysmorphia are disorders affecting above all young adults whose prevalence and social impact are still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of the traits of orthorexia and muscle dysmorphia among freshmen attending university courses focused on nutrition (Dietetics) and body care (Exercise and Sport Sciences). Students of Biology were considered as a control group. The prevalence of eating disorder (ED) traits were also evaluated. All participants (n = 440; n = 53 Dietetics school, n = 200 Exercise and Sport Sciences school, n = 187 the Biology school) completed the following questionnaires: ORTO-15, Muscle-Dysmorphic-Disorder-Inventory, and Eating Attitudes Test-26. The prevalence of the traits of EDs, orthorexia, and muscle dysmorphia was 9.1%, 25.9%, and 5.9%, respectively. When compared to other students, those attending the Dietetics school showed a 2-fold higher risk of EDs and those from the Exercise and Sport Sciences school a 10-fold higher risk of muscle dysmorphia. The prevalence of orthorexia traits was high in all schools (35.9%, 22.5%, 26.5% in Dietetics, Biology, and Exercise and Sport Sciences schools, respectively). Overall, individuals with traits of any of these disorders were more frequently on diet or on supplement use. In a logistic regression model, attending the Dietetics school (OR = 2.71; 95% CI 1.14-6.48) was significantly associated with the ED traits, but not with the orthorexia traits (OR = 1.75; 95% CI 0.93-3.29), while attending the Exercise and Sport Sciences school was significantly associated with the muscle dysmorphia traits (OR = 5.15; 95% CI 1.44-18.4). Finally, when evaluating the relationships among the types of study programs as dependent variables and traits of these disturbances, the associations between the traits of ED (OR = 3.35; 95% CI 1.38-8.13) and matriculation at the school of Dietetics, and between the traits of muscle dysmorphia (OR = 4.32; 95% CI 1.16-16.1) and the

  18. Heuristic geometric ''eigenvalue universality'' in a one-dimensional neutron transport problem with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, G.A.; Vilhena, M.T. de; Bodmann, B.E.J.

    2010-01-01

    In the present work we propose a heuristic construction of a transport equation for neutrons with anisotropic scattering considering only the radial cylinder dimension. The eigenvalues of the solutions of the equation correspond to the positive values for the one dimensional case. The central idea of the procedure is the application of the S N method for the discretisation of the angular variable followed by the application of the zero order Hankel transformation. The basis the construction of the scattering terms in form of an integro-differential equation for stationary transport resides in the hypothesis that the eigenvalues that compose the elementary solutions are independent of geometry for a homogeneous medium. We compare the solutions for the cartesian one dimensional problem for an infinite cylinder with azimuthal symmetry and linear anisotropic scattering for two cases. (orig.)

  19. Problem-based learning in regional anatomy education at Peking University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zhang, Weiguang; Qin, Lihua; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Shuyong; Gu, Jin; Zhou, Changman

    2010-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been introduced to medical schools around the world and has increasingly become a popular pedagogical technique in Asian countries since 1990. Gross anatomy is a fundamental basic science course in virtually all medical training programs, and the methods used to teach it are under frequent scrutiny and revision. Students often struggle with the vast collection of new terms and complex relationships between structures that they must learn. To help students with this process, our department teaches separate systemic and regional anatomy courses, the latter in a PBL format. After three years of using PBL in our regional anatomy course, we have worked out a set of effective instructions that we would like to share with other medical schools. We report here evidence that our clinical PBL approach stimulates students' interest in learning and enhances anatomy education in a way that can foster better practices in our future medical work force. (c) 2010 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Loophole to the universal photon spectrum in electromagnetic cascades and application to the cosmological lithium problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale Dario

    2015-03-06

    The standard theory of electromagnetic cascades onto a photon background predicts a quasiuniversal shape for the resulting nonthermal photon spectrum. This has been applied to very disparate fields, including nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). However, once the energy of the injected photons falls below the pair-production threshold the spectral shape is much harder, a fact that has been overlooked in past literature. This loophole may have important phenomenological consequences, since it generically alters the BBN bounds on nonthermal relics; for instance, it allows us to reopen the possibility of purely electromagnetic solutions to the so-called "cosmological lithium problem," which were thought to be excluded by other cosmological constraints. We show this with a proof-of-principle example and a simple particle physics model, compared with previous literature.

  1. English as Medium of Instruction in Economic University Education: Problems and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Y. Polenova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to analyze several approaches to learning a foreign language based on using English as Medium of Instruction (EMI in High School. Special attention is given to the «content and language integrated learning» (CLIL as the most progressive approach to defining the scope of professional education. The author classifies the models of language teaching within the statedapproaches that promote the efficiency of professional training of future economists in solving professional problems on the basis of implementation of foreign language competence. The paper defines the conditions of subject and language integrated models implementation into the learning process. In conclusion, it is noted that the integration of subject and language experience contributes to the optimization of foreign language training and a significant improvement in the quality of the educational process.

  2. Faculty Perceptions, Skills and Problems on Assessment in Undergraduate Programs in a State University Extension Campus in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anania B. Aquino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of student learning is a continuous process geared towards understanding and improving student learning hence an assurance of providing quality education. It is a fundamental function of higher education and one of the primary roles of its faculty. This research investigated perceptions, practices and skills of faculty of a university extension campus on assessment of student learning. It relied on descriptive survey method to investigate responses of 77 teachers. The respondents regard assessment as useful, important and should be integrated with learning process. Faculty also place importance on purposes of evaluation in student learning and use varied assessment tools. In spite of various assessment tools used, majority of respondents are only somewhat skilled in performing tasks incident to assessment. University academic guidelines, applicable professional licensure examination, qualifying / classification test, university grading standard and their immediate academic supervisor affect faculty’s assessment practices. The respondents specify some problems and concerns on assessment. The results serve as basis in coming up with proposed strategies for continuous enhancement of assessment are conceptualized for possible implementation.

  3. Molecular identification of adenovirus causing respiratory tract infection in pediatric patients at the University of Malaya Medical Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AbuBakar Sazaly

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are at least 51 adenovirus serotypes (AdV known to cause human infections. The prevalence of the different human AdV (HAdV serotypes varies among different regions. Presently, there are no reports of the prevalent HAdV types found in Malaysia. The present study was undertaken to identify the HAdV types associated primarily with respiratory tract infections (RTI of young children in Malaysia. Methods Archived HAdV isolates from pediatric patients with RTI seen at the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 1999 to 2005 were used. Virus isolates were inoculated into cell culture and DNA was extracted when cells showed significant cytopathic effects. AdV partial hexon gene was amplified and the sequences together with other known HAdV hexon gene sequences were used to build phylogenetic trees. Identification of HAdV types found among young children in Malaysia was inferred from the phylograms. Results At least 2,583 pediatric patients with RTI sought consultation and treatment at the UMMC from 1999 to 2005. Among these patients, 48 ( Conclusions HAdV-1 and HAdV-2 were the most common HAdV isolated from pediatric patients who sought treatment for RTI at the UMMC from 1999 to 2005. HAdV-B, mainly HAdV-3, was recovered from ~22% of the patients. These findings provide a benchmark for future studies on the prevalence and epidemiology of HAdV types in Malaysia and in the region.

  4. English language teacher development in a Russian university: Context, problems and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rasskazova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of teacher professional development efficiency has always been an issue that has attracted attention of professionals in education. This paper reports on the results of a two-year English language teacher professional development programme following a Needs Analysis study conducted by Cambridge ESOL in 2012. Longitudinal research shows that in Russia English language teaching has several problems which exist throughout decades. This article focuses on some of them: class interaction mode; the use of native (Russian language in class; error correction strategies employed by teachers. A new approach to evaluation was employed by asking students and teachers the same questions from different perspectives on areas identified during the needs analysis study. The results varied in significance, though some positive changes have been noticed in class interaction mode, little has changed in the error correction strategies, the use of Russian in the classroom seems to be quite reasonable and does not interfere with learning. Overall, the study may be useful for general audience, especially for the post-Soviet countries as it provides evidence of change management and their impact on ELT. The findings presented in this paper seek to contribute to the formulation or adjustment of policies related to educational reforms, such as curriculum reform and teacher professional development in non-English-speaking countries.

  5. Urban Agriculture Practices and Health Problems among Farmers Operating on a University Campus in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana O.B. Ackerson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture, a world-wide practice, faces both environmental and health challenges. Farmers are susceptible to occupational and other water-related health risks. The research identified health problems related to urban agricultural farming through farmers’ social characteristics and agricultural practices. Thorough interviews, using structured questionnaires, were carried out. Sixty three farmers responded to questions ranging from agricultural practices to health problems encountered. The findings showed that farmers apply both organic and inorganic fertilisers while 97% used pesticides of varying active ingredients at different application rates. Only 10% used personal protective clothing during the application of pesticides. Overhead irrigation was carried out using a watering can. Eighty four percent and 13% of the respondents utilised water from shallow wells and shallow wells mixed with contaminated stream, respectively. Besides schistosomiasis and cholera, other bacterial diseases, nematode infections, malaria, headaches, dermatological, visual, cardiac, and respiratory problems were common health complaints. Headache complaints were the most common (75%.L’agriculture urbaine, une pratique qui a cours dans le monde entier, est confrontée à des défis d’ordre environnemental et sanitaire. Les agriculteurs sont exposés à divers risques professionnels, et notamment à ceux que l'eau peut poser pour leur santé. Cette étude a identifié les problèmes de santé liés à l’agriculture urbaine en fonction des caractéristiques sociales et des pratiques des agriculteurs. Des entretiens approfondis ont été conduits en suivant des questionnaires structurés. Soixante-trois fermiers ont répondu aux questions, qui abordaient leurs pratiques agricoles ainsi que leurs problèmes de santé. Les résultats montrent que les fermiers emploient aussi bien des engrais organiques que non organiques, et que 97 % utilisent des pesticides

  6. Problems Relating to Examinations in Three-Year Technical/Natural Science Courses of Study at the Federal Armed Forces University, Munich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Kurt; Zimmermann, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Problems encountered in testing in aerospace engineering courses in an accelerated technical program of a German military university are outlined. Four common grading procedures are compared, and the optimum length of written tests is discussed. (MSE)

  7. Universal approximators for multi-objective direct policy search in water reservoir management problems: a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Mason, Emanuele; Castelletti, Andrea; Pianosi, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    The optimal operation of water resources systems is a wide and challenging problem due to non-linearities in the model and the objectives, high dimensional state-control space, and strong uncertainties in the hydroclimatic regimes. The application of classical optimization techniques (e.g., SDP, Q-learning, gradient descent-based algorithms) is strongly limited by the dimensionality of the system and by the presence of multiple, conflicting objectives. This study presents a novel approach which combines Direct Policy Search (DPS) and Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms (MOEAs) to solve high-dimensional state and control space problems involving multiple objectives. DPS, also known as parameterization-simulation-optimization in the water resources literature, is a simulation-based approach where the reservoir operating policy is first parameterized within a given family of functions and, then, the parameters optimized with respect to the objectives of the management problem. The selection of a suitable class of functions to which the operating policy belong to is a key step, as it might restrict the search for the optimal policy to a subspace of the decision space that does not include the optimal solution. In the water reservoir literature, a number of classes have been proposed. However, many of these rules are based largely on empirical or experimental successes and they were designed mostly via simulation and for single-purpose reservoirs. In a multi-objective context similar rules can not easily inferred from the experience and the use of universal function approximators is generally preferred. In this work, we comparatively analyze two among the most common universal approximators: artificial neural networks (ANN) and radial basis functions (RBF) under different problem settings to estimate their scalability and flexibility in dealing with more and more complex problems. The multi-purpose HoaBinh water reservoir in Vietnam, accounting for hydropower

  8. Examination Phase of the Master's Thesis: A Plausible Cause of Delayed Completion of Graduate Studies at Makerere University, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonyu, Joseph C.; Wamala, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the examination stage of student theses on the completion time of graduate studies at Makerere University, Uganda. The assessment is based on the administrative data of 504 Master's degree students in the 2000 to 2008 enrollment cohorts at the School of Education, Makerere University. The total elapsed time…

  9. Problems of Understanding English Ironic Expressions by M.A. Students of Applied Linguistics at Mu'tah University in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khawaldeh, Suhaib

    2015-01-01

    The present study attempts to investigate the problems of understanding English ironic expressions M.A. of Applied Linguistics students at Mu'tah University in Jordan. This quantitative and qualitative study includes 15 of M.A. students of Applied Linguistics at Mu'tah University. The participants were selected randomly. Two research instruments…

  10. Mapping Causes and Implications of India's Skewed Sex Ratio and Poverty problem using Fuzzy & Neutrosophic Relational Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Gaurav; Kumar, Megha; Bhutani, Kanika; Aggarwal, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies by different researchers have confirmed that skewed sex ratio is a critical social problem in India. This enduring problem of gender imbalance is the collective result of factors like sex selective abortion, gender discrimination, son preference for the preservation of tribe, emergence of new technologies in medical field and many more factors. Another severe problem to be addressed in India is poverty. Many factors contribute to the perpetuation of poverty such as illiteracy...

  11. Molecular identification of adenovirus causing respiratory tract infection in pediatric patients at the University of Malaya Medical Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Jamil, Juraina; Teoh, Boon-Teong; Hassan, Eddy H; Roslan, Nuruliza; Abubakar, Sazaly

    2010-07-02

    There are at least 51 adenovirus serotypes (AdV) known to cause human infections. The prevalence of the different human AdV (HAdV) serotypes varies among different regions. Presently, there are no reports of the prevalent HAdV types found in Malaysia. The present study was undertaken to identify the HAdV types associated primarily with respiratory tract infections (RTI) of young children in Malaysia. Archived HAdV isolates from pediatric patients with RTI seen at the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia from 1999 to 2005 were used. Virus isolates were inoculated into cell culture and DNA was extracted when cells showed significant cytopathic effects. AdV partial hexon gene was amplified and the sequences together with other known HAdV hexon gene sequences were used to build phylogenetic trees. Identification of HAdV types found among young children in Malaysia was inferred from the phylograms. At least 2,583 pediatric patients with RTI sought consultation and treatment at the UMMC from 1999 to 2005. Among these patients, 48 (type 1 (HAdV-1) and HAdV type 2 (HAdV-2), and among the HAdV-B species, HAdV type 3 (HAdV-3) was the most common serotype identified. HAdV-C species also was isolated from throat and rectal swabs of children with hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Two isolates were identified as corresponding to HAdV-F species from a child with HFMD and a patient with intestinal obstruction. HAdV-1 and HAdV-2 were the most common HAdV isolated from pediatric patients who sought treatment for RTI at the UMMC from 1999 to 2005. HAdV-B, mainly HAdV-3, was recovered from approximately 22% of the patients. These findings provide a benchmark for future studies on the prevalence and epidemiology of HAdV types in Malaysia and in the region.

  12. Computer vision syndrome prevalence, knowledge and associated factors among Saudi Arabia University Students: Is it a serious problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rashidi, Sultan H; Alhumaidan, H

    2017-01-01

    Computers and other visual display devices are now an essential part of our daily life. With the increased use, a very large population is experiencing sundry ocular symptoms globally such as dry eyes, eye strain, irritation, and redness of the eyes to name a few. Collectively, all such computer related symptoms are usually referred to as computer vision syndrome (CVS). The current study aims to define the prevalence, knowledge in community, pathophysiology, factors associated, and prevention of CVS. This is a cross-sectional study conducted in Qassim University College of Medicine during a period of 1 year from January 2015 to January 2016 using a questionnaire to collect relevant data including demographics and various variables to be studied. 634 students were inducted from a public sector University of Qassim, Saudi Arabia, regardless of their age and gender. The data were then statistically analyzed on SPSS version 22, and the descriptive data were expressed as percentages, mode, and median using graphs where needed. A total of 634 students with a mean age of 21. 40, Std 1.997 and Range 7 (18-25) were included as study subjects with a male predominance (77.28%). Of the total patients, majority (459, 72%) presented with acute symptoms while remaining had chronic problems. A clear-cut majority was carrying the symptoms for 1 month. The statistical analysis revealed serious symptoms in the majority of study subjects especially those who are permanent users of a computer for long hours. Continuous use of computers for long hours is found to have severe problems of vision especially in those who are using computers and similar devices for a long duration.

  13. Competitiveness facets and sensation seeking as predictors of problem gambling among a sample of university student gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Nicholas; Newby, Jennifer; Klein, Rupert G

    2015-06-01

    Understanding the factors that contribute to problem gambling (PG) is imperative. Individual differences in sensation seeking (SS), as measured by the Sensation Seeking Scale Form (SSS-V), have been found to be predictive of PG among university student samples. However, what is less clear, is if the four SSS-V subscales capture unique facets of SS that are particularly predictive of PG. Much less studied than SS, competitiveness has also been found to be predictive of PG. The Competitiveness Orientation Measure (COM) is a newly developed measure of competitiveness, comprising of four facets. The main purpose of the current study was to examine if these four facets of competitiveness predicted variance in PG over and above the variance predicted by the four SSS-V subscales. Participants included 158 university student gamblers. Sequential regression analysis showed that after accounting for gender, age, and the four SSS-V subscales the only facet of the COM found to be a significant predictor of PG severity was Dominant Competitiveness. Dominant Competitiveness predicted an additional 11% of PG severity. These results provide support for the Dominant Competitiveness subscale of the COM as having utility in predicting PG over and above the predictive utility of the SSS-V subscales. Practical implications for the current findings are discussed.

  14. Medical students preference of problem-based learning or traditional lectures in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Banjar, Shorooq; Al-Ghamdi, Amal; Al-Darmasi, Moroj; Khoja, Abeer; Turkistani, Jamela; Arif, Rwan; Al-Sebyani, Awatif; Musawa, Al-Anoud; Basfar, Wijdan

    2014-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is the most important educational innovations in the past 4 decades. The objective of the study was to compare between the preference of medical students for PBL and the preference for traditional lectures regarding learning outcomes (e.g., knowledge, attitude, and skills) gained from both methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted among medical students who studied the hybrid curriculum (PBL and traditional lectures) in King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, in 2011. Data was collected through a pre-constructed, validated, confidentially anonymous, and self-administered questionnaire. Students' perceptions toward PBL and traditional lectures were assessed through their response to 20 statements inquired about both methods of learning using a five-point Likert scale. Descriptive and analytic statistics were performed using SPSS, version 21 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill., USA). Learners preferred PBL more to traditional lectures for better linking the knowledge of basic and clinical sciences (t test=10.15, P .05) was observed regarding the amount of basic knowledge recalled from both methods. Students preferred PBL more to lectures for better learning attitudes, skills, future outcomes, and learning satisfaction (P learn better than lecturing (P traditional lectures for improving most of learning outcome domains, especially, learning attitudes and skills. Introducing hybrid-PBL curriculum in all Saudi universities is highly recommended.

  15. Important knowledge gaps among pastoralists on causes and treatment of udder health problems in livestock in southern Ethiopia: results of qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amenu, Kebede; Szonyi, Barbara; Grace, Delia; Wieland, Barbara

    2017-10-23

    Ethiopia has high prevalences of udder health problems including clinical and subclinical mastitis across production systems in different livestock species. Previous studies on udder health problems have largely focused on identification of mastitis causing microbial pathogens and associated risk factors. However, relatively little is known about the knowledge and beliefs of livestock keepers regarding udder health problems. An understanding of the beliefs on the other hand would facilitate effective communication between livestock keepers and animal health professionals. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring the knowledge and belief surrounding the causes, clinical signs and treatments for udder health problems in (agro-) pastoral communities in southern Ethiopia using qualitative investigation. The result showed that udder health problem, locally known as 'dhukkuba muchaa', which translates to 'disease of teats', was classified into three main types: (1) tick infestation (dirandisa), (2) swelling of udder often with pus discharge (nyaqarsa) and (3) acute mastitis caused by evil eye (buda) with 'bloody milk'. Tick infestation was perceived to directly cause mechanical damage to udder tissue or to resulting in swelling leading to nyaqarsa. Our analysis also revealed the strong misperception that acute and severe swelling of udder was caused by evil eye. According to the pastoralists, cows with large udders in the late pregnancy are prone to evil eye infliction upon giving birth. The pastoralists often treat udder health problems by combining both modern and traditional methods. Removal of ticks by hand and acarcide application were the preferred methods for limiting tick infestation while swelling and evil eye cases were treated with antibiotics (e.g. oxytetracycline). The study also revealed that specific herbs, only known by the herbalists, were used for traditional treatment of udder health. Although this information could not be divulged at the time, it

  16. Mapping Causes and Implications of India’s Skewed Sex Ratio and Poverty problem using Fuzzy & Neutrosophic Relational Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies by different researchers have confirmed that skewed sex ratio is a critical social problem in India. This enduring problem of gender imbalance is the collective result of factors like sex selective abortion, gender discrimination, son preference for the preservation of tribe, emergence of new technologies in medical field and many more factors. Another severe problem to be addressed in India is poverty. Many factors contribute to the perpetuation of poverty such as illiteracy, bad governance, under employment and various other reasons. Despite of India's accelerated growth rate, poverty in India is still prevalent.

  17. Predictors of medical student remediation and their underlying causes: early lessons from a curriculum change in the University of Auckland Medical Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Brian; Yielder, Jill; Reid, Papaarangi; Bagg, Warwick

    2017-08-11

    The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of remediation in a medical programme and assess the underlying causes and the quality of remediation provided within the context of a recent curriculum change. A mixed methods study incorporating a retrospective cohort analysis of demographic predictors of remediation during 2013 and 2014, combined with thematic qualitative analysis of educator perspectives derived by interview on factors underlying remediation and the quality of that currently provided by the faculty. 17.7% of all students required some form of remedial assistance and 93% of all students offered remediation passed their year of study. Multivariate analysis showed international students (OR 4.59 95% CI 2.62-7.98) and students admitted via the Māori and Pacific Admission Scheme (OR 3.43 2.29-5.15) were significantly more likely to require remediation. Male students were also slightly more likely than their female classmates to require assistance. No effect was observed for rural origin students, completion of a prior degree or completion of clinical placement in a peripheral hospital. Knowledge application and information synthesis were the most frequently identified underlying problems. Most faculty believed remediation was successful, however, flexibility in the programme structure, improved diagnostics and improved access to dedicated teaching staff were cited as areas for improvement. Remediation is required by nearly a fifth of University of Auckland medical students, with MAPAS and international students being particularly vulnerable groups. Remediation is largely successful, however, interventions addressing reasoning and knowledge application may improve its effectiveness.

  18. Health problems awareness during travel among faculty members of a large university in Latin America: preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Nakamura Tome

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Health safety during trips is based on previous counseling, vaccination and prevention of infections, previous diseases or specific problems related to the destination. Our aim was to assess two aspects, incidence of health problems related to travel and the traveler's awareness of health safety. To this end we phone-interviewed faculty members of a large public University, randomly selected from humanities, engineering and health schools. Out of 520 attempts, we were able to contact 67 (12.9% and 46 (68.6% agreed to participate in the study. There was a large male proportion (37/44, 84.1%, mature adults mostly in their forties and fifties (32/44, 72.7%, all of them with higher education, as you would expect of faculty members. Most described themselves as being sedentary or as taking occasional exercise, with only 15.9% (7/44 taking regular exercise. Preexisting diseases were reported by 15 travelers. Most trips lasted usually one week or less. Duration of the travel was related to the destination, with (12h or longer trips being taken by 68.2% (30/44 of travelers, and the others taking shorter (3h domestic trips. Most travelling was made by air (41/44 and only 31.8% (14/44 of the trips were motivated by leisure. Field research trips were not reported. Specific health counseling previous to travel was reported only by two (4.5%. Twenty seven of them (61.4% reported updated immunization, but 11/30 reported unchecked immunizations. 30% (9/30 reported travel without any health insurance coverage. As a whole group, 6 (13.6% travelers reported at least one health problem attributed to the trip. All of them were males travelling abroad. Five presented respiratory infections, such as influenza and common cold, one neurological, one orthopedic, one social and one hypertension. There were no gender differences regarding age groups, destination, type of transport, previous health counseling, leisure travel motivation or pre-existing diseases

  19. Health problems awareness during travel among faculty members of a large university in Latin America: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tome, Ana Cristina Nakamura; Canello, Thaís Brandi; Luna, Expedito José de Albuquerque; Andrade Junior, Heitor Franco de

    2013-01-01

    Health safety during trips is based on previous counseling, vaccination and prevention of infections, previous diseases or specific problems related to the destination. Our aim was to assess two aspects, incidence of health problems related to travel and the traveler's awareness of health safety. To this end we phone-interviewed faculty members of a large public University, randomly selected from humanities, engineering and health schools. Out of 520 attempts, we were able to contact 67 (12.9%) and 46 (68.6%) agreed to participate in the study. There was a large male proportion (37/44, 84.1%), mature adults mostly in their forties and fifties (32/44, 72.7%), all of them with higher education, as you would expect of faculty members. Most described themselves as being sedentary or as taking occasional exercise, with only 15.9% (7/44) taking regular exercise. Preexisting diseases were reported by 15 travelers. Most trips lasted usually one week or less. Duration of the travel was related to the destination, with (12h) or longer trips being taken by 68.2% (30/44) of travelers, and the others taking shorter (3h) domestic trips. Most travelling was made by air (41/44) and only 31.8% (14/44) of the trips were motivated by leisure. Field research trips were not reported. Specific health counseling previous to travel was reported only by two (4.5%). Twenty seven of them (61.4%) reported updated immunization, but 11/30 reported unchecked immunizations. 30% (9/30) reported travel without any health insurance coverage. As a whole group, 6 (13.6%) travelers reported at least one health problem attributed to the trip. All of them were males travelling abroad. Five presented respiratory infections, such as influenza and common cold, one neurological, one orthopedic, one social and one hypertension. There were no gender differences regarding age groups, destination, type of transport, previous health counseling, leisure travel motivation or pre-existing diseases. Interestingly

  20. Homozygous SLC6A17 Mutations Cause Autosomal-Recessive Intellectual Disability with Progressive Tremor, Speech Impairment, and Behavioral Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, Z.; Willemsen, M.H.; Papon, M.A.; Musante, L.; Benevento, M.; Hu, H; Venselaar, H.; Wissink-Lindhout, W.M.; Silfhout, A.T. van; Vissers, L.E.L.M.; Brouwer, A.P.M. de; Marouillat, S.; Wienker, T.F.; Ropers, H.H.; Kahrizi, K.; Nadif Kasri, N.; Najmabadi, H.; Laumonnier, F.; Kleefstra, T.; Bokhoven, H. van

    2015-01-01

    We report on Dutch and Iranian families with affected individuals who present with moderate to severe intellectual disability and additional phenotypes including progressive tremor, speech impairment, and behavioral problems in certain individuals. A combination of exome sequencing and homozygosity

  1. Ground-water hydrology of the Punjab region of West Pakistan, with emphasis on problems caused by canal irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenman, D.W.; Swarzenski, W.V.; Bennett, G.D.

    1967-01-01

    Rising water tables and the salinization of land as the result of canal irrigation threaten the agricultural economy of the Punjab. Since 1954 the Water and Soils Investigation Division of the West Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority has inventoried the water and soils resources of the Punjab and investigated the relations between irrigation activities, the natural hydrologic factors, and the incidence of waterlogging and subsurface-drainage problems. This report summarizes the findings of the investigation, which was carried out under a cooperative agreement between the Government of Pakistan and the U.S. Agency for International Development, and its predecessor, the U.S. International Cooperation Administration. Leakage from the canal systems, some of which have been in operation for more than 100 years, is the principal cause of rising water levels and constitutes the major component of ground-water recharge in the Punjab. Geologic studies have shown that virtually the entire Punjab is underlain to depths of 1,000 feet or more by unconsolidated alluvium, which is saturated to within a few feet of land surface. The alluvium varies in texture from medium sand to silty clay, but sandy sediments predominate. Large capacity wells, yielding 4 cfs or more, can be developed almost everywhere. Ground water occurring within a depth of 500 feet below the surface averages less than 1,000 ppm of dissolved solids throughout approximately two-thirds of the Punjab. It is estimated that the volume of usable ground water in storage in this part of the alluvial aquifer is on the order of 2 billion acre-feet. In the other one-third of the Punjab, total dissolved solids range from 1,000 to about 20,000 ppm. In about one-half of this area (one-sixth of the area of the Punjab) some ground water can be utilized by diluting with surface water from canals. The ground-water reservoir underlying the Punjab is an unexploited resource of enormous economic value. It is recognized

  2. Factors and root causes of corporal punishment within home and family environment and how to tackle the problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Niknami

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Corporal punishment is one way of disciplining children which has been used by parents and child care takers over long centuries and there are still children who experience and fear violence. Studies indicate that corporal punishment is an important factor in the development of violent attitudes and actions and it has a devastating impact on an individual’s childhood and life. As a result, it has a detrimental effect on development of children and formation of proper norms of discipline. Furthermore, beating children as a factor involving risks can cause physical and psychological harms and even lead to a child‘s death. Thus, it violates the child fundamental rights such as inherent dignity. Nevertheless, corporal punishment is a legal and common practice in many countries and sometimes religion is used to justify its validity. Therefore, to tackle this concern and global problem, we need to identify its root causes and then take measures to eliminate all forms of it. This article is an attempt to explore the causes and consequences of corporal punishment of children and to offer solutions regarding how to tackle this problem. raise some misconceptions regarding the contradiction between domestic law and religious opinions on the matter with international law and may cast doubt on its international commitments. In addition to describing the legal status of corporal punishment of children, this study will reveal the position of the legal system of the Islamic Republic of Iran towards this important international document more than before. طرز رفتار بزرگسالان اثر عمیقی بر شخصیت کودکان و عادات کسب شده توسط آنها دارد. تنبیه بدنی به معنای استفاده از نیروی فیزیکی جهت ایجاد درد بدون صدمه، به منظور تربیت «تصحیح یا کنترل رفتار» کودک می‌باشد. تنبیه‌بدنی دارای اثرات

  3. Behavioural, emotional, and post-traumatic stress problems in children and adolescents, long term after septic shock caused by Neisseria meningitidis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermunt, L. C. A. C.; Buysse, C. M. P.; Joosten, K. F. M.; Hazelzet, J. A.; Verhulst, F. C.; Utens, E. M. W. J.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the occurrence of a wide range of behavioural, emotional, and post-traumatic stress problems in children and adolescents, long term after septic shock caused by Neisseria meningitidis (MSS). This study included 6- to 17-year-old patients who survived MSS and were admitted to the PICU of

  4. Determinant of Academic Performance of Under Graduate Students: In the Cause of Arba Minch University Chamo Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigermal, Moges Endalamaw

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the determinant factors affecting academic performance of regular undergraduate students of Arba Minch University (AMU) Chamo Campus students. The study employed the use of correlation design to establish the nature of the relationships. Data were collected from 100 respondents selected from all the 12…

  5. Studying the Variable Refrigerant Volume (VRV) System and Determining the Root Cause of its Problem in Building 37, Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhafizudin Zainal Anuar; Mohamad Suhaimi Yahaya; Jusnan Hasim; Suhilah Mohd Ali; Mohd Khafidz Shamsuddin

    2015-01-01

    Variable Refrigerant Volume (VRV) system is one of the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) type in the building. VRV system is a multi-split type air conditioner that uses variable refrigerant flow control to provide customers with the ability to maintain individual zone control in each room and floor of a building. VRV used in Building 37 is made by Mitsubishi Heavy Industries that was completely installed in 2011 with two pipes system format. The objectives of this study are to understand the Variable Refrigerant Volume (VRV) system and also to study the root cause of its problem in Building 37, Agensi Nuklear Malaysia. The result of the study study suggests poor workmanship during installation process and insufficient electrical grounding are suspected as the causes of on-going and repeating problems occurred. Hence, Bahagian Kejuruteraan (BKJ) has worked out with the service contractor to identify the main problem and leaking area before proceeding with repair and commissioning activities. (author)

  6. A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GII in a university located in Xiamen City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhinan Guo

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: The outbreak of gastroenteritis was caused mainly by bread products contaminated with norovirus GII. A food handler with an asymptomatic norovirus GII infection was the possible source of infection.

  7. [From gene to disease; genetic causes of hearing loss and visual impairment sometimes accompanied by vestibular problems (Usher syndrome)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, R.J.E.; Kremer, J.M.J.; Deutman, A.F.; Kimberling, W.J.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessively inherited disease, characterised by sensorineural hearing loss, tapetoretinal degeneration and in some cases vestibular problems. Based on the clinical heterogeneity, the disease can be classified into three clinical types (I, II and III), which have their

  8. Crying without a cause and being easily upset in two-year-olds: heritability and predictive power of behavioral problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen-Blokhuis, Maria M.; Middeldorp, Christel M.; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2011-01-01

    In order to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on 'crying without a cause' and 'being easily upset' in 2-year-old children, a large twin study was carried out. Prospective data were available for ~18,000 2-year-old twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register. A bivariate

  9. Crying Without a Cause and Being Easily Upset in Two-Year-Olds: Heritability and Predictive Power of Behavioral Problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen-Blokhuis, M.M.; Middeldorp, C.M.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2011-01-01

    In order to estimate the influence of genetic and environmental factors on 'crying without a cause' and 'being easily upset' in 2-year-old children, a large twin study was carried out. Prospective data were available for ∼18,000 2-year-old twin pairs from the Netherlands Twin Register. A bivariate

  10. University Students' Views on the Perceived Benefits and Drawbacks of Seeking Help for Mental Health Problems on the Internet: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jade Ky; Farrer, Louise M; Gulliver, Amelia; Bennett, Kylie; Griffiths, Kathleen M

    2016-01-19

    University students experience high levels of mental health problems yet very few seek professional help. Web-based mental health interventions may be useful for the university student population. However, there are few published qualitative studies that have examined the perceived benefits and drawbacks of seeking help for mental health problems on the Internet from the perspective of university students. To investigate the attitudes of university students on mental health help-seeking on the Internet. A total of 19 university students aged 19-24 years participated in 1 of 4 focus groups to examine their views toward help-seeking for mental health problems on the Internet. Perceived concerns about Web-based help-seeking included privacy and confidentiality, difficulty communicating on the Internet, and the quality of Web-based resources. Potential benefits included anonymity/avoidance of stigma, and accessibility. Participants reported mixed views regarding the ability of people with similar mental health issues to interact on the Internet. These factors should be considered in the development of Web-based mental health resources to increase acceptability and engagement from university students.

  11. Engineering change management report 2012: Survey results on causes and effects, current practice, problems, and strategies in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chucholowski, Nepomuk; Langer, Stefan; Ferreira, Marcelo Gitirana Gomes

    Engineering changes (ECs) are well known for generating additional costs and decreasing de-velopment efficiency. Yet, they are a fundamental part of product and service development and they are necessary to keep up with, for example, competitors, market trends or new technolo-gies. The effective...... management of engineering changes is a crucial precondition for Brazilian companies to successfully compete not only on the fast growing Brazilian market, but also on the world market which becomes more interesting due to the rising industrial power of Brazil. To achieve improvements in engineering change...... management practice, industry and universities need to work together. In this report the main findings of our study on Engineering Change Management (ECM) in Brazilian companies are presented, which indicate possible solution strategies and further research needs. Our survey aimed on the investigation...

  12. Homozygous SLC6A17 Mutations Cause Autosomal-Recessive Intellectual Disability with Progressive Tremor, Speech Impairment, and Behavioral Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Zafar; Willemsen, Marjolein H.; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Musante, Luciana; Benevento, Marco; Hu, Hao; Venselaar, Hanka; Wissink-Lindhout, Willemijn M.; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Vissers, Lisenka E.L.M.; de Brouwer, Arjan P.M.; Marouillat, Sylviane; Wienker, Thomas F.; Ropers, Hans Hilger; Kahrizi, Kimia

    2015-01-01

    We report on Dutch and Iranian families with affected individuals who present with moderate to severe intellectual disability and additional phenotypes including progressive tremor, speech impairment, and behavioral problems in certain individuals. A combination of exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping revealed homozygous mutations c.484G>A (p.Gly162Arg) and c.1898C>G (p.Pro633Arg) in SLC6A17. SLC6A17 is predominantly expressed in the brain, encodes a synaptic vesicular transporter of neu...

  13. Visual impairment attributable to uncorrected refractive error and other causes in the Ghanaian youth: The University of Cape Coast Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abokyi, Samuel; Ilechie, Alex; Nsiah, Peter; Darko-Takyi, Charles; Abu, Emmanuel Kwasi; Osei-Akoto, Yaw Jnr; Youfegan-Baanam, Mathurin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of visual impairment attributable to refractive error and other causes in a youthful Ghanaian population. A prospective survey of all consecutive visits by first-year tertiary students to the Optometry clinic between August, 2013 and April, 2014. Of the 4378 first-year students aged 16-39 years enumerated, 3437 (78.5%) underwent the eye examination. The examination protocol included presenting visual acuity (PVA), ocular motility, and slit-lamp examination of the external eye, anterior segment and media, and non-dilated fundus examination. Pinhole acuity and fundus examination were performed when the PVA≤6/12 in one or both eyes to determine the principal cause of the vision loss. The mean age of participants was 21.86 years (95% CI: 21.72-21.99). The prevalence of bilateral visual impairment (BVI; PVA in the better eye ≤6/12) and unilateral visual impairment UVI; PVA in the worse eye ≤6/12) were 3.08% (95% CI: 2.56-3.72) and 0.79% (95% CI: 0.54-1.14), respectively. Among 106 participants with BVI, refractive error (96.2%) and corneal opacity (3.8%) were the causes. Of the 27 participants with UVI, refractive error (44.4%), maculopathy (18.5%) and retinal disease (14.8%) were the major causes. There was unequal distribution of BVI in the different age groups, with those above 20 years having a lesser burden. Eye screening and provision of affordable spectacle correction to the youth could be timely to eliminate visual impairment. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. The Problem-Solving Process in Physics as Observed When Engineering Students at University Level Work in Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Peter; Jonsson, Gunnar; Enghag, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    The problem-solving process is investigated for five groups of students when solving context-rich problems in an introductory physics course included in an engineering programme. Through transcripts of their conversation, the paths in the problem-solving process have been traced and related to a general problem-solving model. All groups exhibit…

  15. Serratia marcescens-contaminated baby shampoo causing an outbreak among newborns at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, T A; Alsaedi, S; James, L; Eldeek, B S; Jiman-Fatani, A A; Alawi, M M; Marwan, D; Cudal, M; Macapagal, M; Bahlas, R; Farouq, M

    2011-05-01

    During November 2008 to January 2009, 11 babies in the neonatal intensive care (NICU) and three babies in the nursery were infected with Serratia marcescens at King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Saudi Arabia. Overall, fifteen infections were identified among 11 newborns in the NICU: septicaemia (five cases), purulent conjunctivitis (three), urinary tract infection (two), meningitis (two) and cellulitis (one). Three newborns in the nursery had three infections: purulent conjunctivitis (two cases) and omphalitis (one). Thirteen of 14 babies recovered fully but one died from S. marcescens meningitis and septicaemia. All infections were traced to intrinsically contaminated baby shampoo introduced to the units five days before the first reported case. The outbreak terminated following withdrawal of the shampoo product. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Authors are also reviewers: problems in assigning cause for missing negative studies [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/uo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Senn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I compare two possible extreme hypotheses regarding submission of papers to journals: the Q hypothesis, whereby the decision to submit is based on quality of research; and the P hypothesis, whereby it is based on probability of acceptance. I give five reasons as to why the P hypothesis is more plausible and suggest that problems of missing data may previously have caused researchers to misinterpret the evidence on editorial bias.

  17. Strategy to identify the causes and to solve a sludge granulation problem in methanogenic reactors: application to a full-scale plant treating cheese wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macarie, Hervé; Esquivel, Maricela; Laguna, Acela; Baron, Olivier; El Mamouni, Rachid; Guiot, Serge R; Monroy, Oscar

    2017-08-26

    Granulation of biomass is at the basis of the operation of the most successful anaerobic systems (UASB, EGSB and IC reactors) applied worldwide for wastewater treatment. Despite of decades of studies of the biomass granulation process, it is still not fully understood and controlled. "Degranulation/lack of granulation" is a problem that occurs sometimes in anaerobic systems resulting often in heavy loss of biomass and poor treatment efficiencies or even complete reactor failure. Such a problem occurred in Mexico in two full-scale UASB reactors treating cheese wastewater. A close follow-up of the plant was performed to try to identify the factors responsible for the phenomenon. Basically, the list of possible causes to a granulation problem that were investigated can be classified amongst nutritional, i.e. related to wastewater composition (e.g. deficiency or excess of macronutrients or micronutrients, too high COD proportion due to proteins or volatile fatty acids, high ammonium, sulphate or fat concentrations), operational (excessive loading rate, sub- or over-optimal water upflow velocity) and structural (poor hydraulic design of the plant). Despite of an intensive search, the causes of the granulation problems could not be identified. The present case remains however an example of the strategy that must be followed to identify these causes and could be used as a guide for plant operators or consultants who are confronted with a similar situation independently of the type of wastewater. According to a large literature based on successful experiments at lab scale, an attempt to artificially granulate the industrial reactor biomass through the dosage of a cationic polymer was also tested but equally failed. Instead of promoting granulation, the dosage caused a heavy sludge flotation. This shows that the scaling of such a procedure from lab to real scale cannot be advised right away unless its operability at such a scale can be demonstrated.

  18. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF EMI (ENGLISH MEDIUM INSTRUCTION IN INDONESIAN UNIVERSITIES: ITS OPPORTUNITIES, ITS THREATS, ITS PROBLEMS, AND ITS POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusuf Ibrahim

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I attempt to find out whether EMI (English Medium Instruction can be an effective means of enhancing students' and teachers' language proficiency at university (bilingualism and whether bilingualism necessarily leads to biliteracy. In addition, I would like to propose a model on which a smooth transition to a full EMI implementation can be achieved, should it be adopted. From literature reviews, I conclude that EMI (using English to teach content subjects can be a better means of solving learners' language problems than teaching English as a subject, because it allows learners more exposure to the language (comprehensible input and more opportunity to use it (comprehensible output. However, due to its classroom-based nature, EMI is not likely to develop the four language skills (listening, reading, speaking, & writing equally for both students and teachers. On the other hand, the assumption that EMI will automatically result in biliteracy is unsupported, because only bilinguals competent in both languages can take a full advantage of their bilingualism. Students or teachers who are not adequately developed in the language are likely to suffer academically, socially, and psychologically instead. Since research has found that total/full immersion is not the right method for language-incompetent students, the writer believes that both a bridging program and a partial EMI program are necessary at least at the initial stage of EMI implementation. The bridging program should be based on students' and teachers' academic and linguistic needs (EAP; the partial EMI program may be based on limitations on three factors: the participants, the scope of use, and the settings. Finally, in order for the program to run smoothly, mixed-mode teaching in the classroom should be discouraged and a conducive atmosphere for second language acquisition should be established both in the classroom and outside the classroom

  19. Problems and prospects of managing thoracic aortic aneurysm at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chianakwana, Gabriel U; Odike, Maxy A C; Nwofor, Alexander M E

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this report is to highlight the problems encountered in managing thoracic aortic aneurysm in a third-generation teaching hospital serving a purely rural community in the heartland of Anambra State, in the southeastern part of Nigeria. This report also proffers solutions aimed at assisting in providing better care for patients afflicted with this condition. From time to time, patients present with vascular diseases, including aneurysm, but the condition is only occasionally suspected and sparingly investigated. This is a report of two cases within the setting of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital (NAUTH), Nnewi Nigeria. After the death of these two patients, one of whom was a member of the staff of the hospital, post mortem examinations revealed that they had died of ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm. Their medical records were retrieved from the Medical Records Department and reviewed with the aim of analyzing their clinical features and management in the light of the unexpected post-mortem examination results. The survey of the patient records revealed that the diagnosis of thoracic aortic aneurysm was not suspected in either patient even though both had symptoms pointing to this condition. The staff member was a 55-year old man and the other patient was a 31-year old woman in her 30th week of pregnancy. We conclude by drawing the attention of medical practitioners in our community to the fact that thoracic aortic aneurysms are probably more common than we thought. Only a high index of suspicion will lead to clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Cosmology problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukash, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    Information discussed at the 18th General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union and Symposium on ''Early Universe Evolution and Its Modern Structure'' on the problems of relic radiation, Hubble expansion, spatial structure and physics of the early Universe is presented. The spectrum of relic radioemission differs but slightly from the equilibrium one in the maximum range. In G. Smith (USA) opinion such difference may be caused by any radiosources radiating in the same wave range. The absence of unanimous opinion of astronomers on Hubble constant value is pointed out. G.Tam-man (Switzerland) estimates the Hubble constant 50+-7 km/s. J. Voculer (USA) gives a twice greater value. Such divergence is ca sed by various methods of determining distances up to remote galaxies and galaxy clusters. Many reports deal with large-scale Universe structure. For the first time considered are the processes which occurred in the epoch at times about 10 -35 c from the beginning of the Universe expansion. Such possibility is presented by the theory of ''great unification'' which permits to explain some fundamental properties of the Universe: spatial uniformity of isotropic expansion, existence of small primary density perturbations

  1. Mobility problems at the KNK II shut-down systems, cause investigations and valuation in comparison with the experience at other plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, B.

    1992-12-01

    During the operation of the second core of the fast test reactor KNK II the shutdown systems showed repeatedly problems with their mobility, which also caused to be reported events. The present report gives a summary description of the events in chronological order. The investigations to remove the mobility problems and the resulting design modifications are described together with the comments of the licensing authorities on the way to the restart of the plant. The results of the post-irradiation investigations in the hot cells and of sodium-chemical investigations are also described. In addition to the comparison of the events at the KNK plant itself and a review of the experiences at comparable plants it will be shown that all known cases of mobility problems did only influence the availability of the plant but that the safe shut-down of the plant was never at risk [de

  2. Impact of a universal intervention targeting childhood disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol initiation from age 10 to 13 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lier, P.A.C.; Huizink, A.C.; Crijnen, A.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The distal impact of a school based universal preventive intervention targeting disruptive behavior problems on tobacco and alcohol use from age 10 to 13 years was explored. Second grade classrooms (children aged 7 years) were randomly assigned to the intervention or a control condition. Tobacco and

  3. The Relationship between EQ & Constructive and Non-Constructive Problem Solving Styles among Payame Noor University's Students of Abadan in the Year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaeipoor, Saeed; Siadat, Ali; Hoveida, Reza; Mohammadi, Nazanin; Keshavarz, Akbar; Salimi, Mohammad Hossein; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Shamsi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study is considering the relationship between EQ & constructive and non-constructive problem solving styles among students. The applied methodology is cross-correlation method. The statistical population in this study is all the educational sciences' students of Payame Noor university of Abadan in the year 2014 and…

  4. The Academic, Administrative, Economic, Social, and Psychological Problems Faced by Students of Textile and Clothing Major at King Abdul-Aziz University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsubyani, Noor Abdulhadi

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the academic, administrative, economic, social, and psychological problems faced by students of Textile and fabric major at King Abdul-Aziz University. To achieve this purpose, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to a sample of students in the Textile and fabric major, after the use of…

  5. A Model of e-Learning by Constructivism Approach Using Problem-Based Learning to Develop Thinking Skills for Students in Rajaghat University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutimarrungson, Werayut; Pumipuntu, Sangkom; Noirid, Surachet

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to develop a model of e-learning by using Problem-Based Learning--PBL to develop thinking skills for students in Rajabhat University. The research is divided into three phases through the e-learning model via PBL with Constructivism approach as follows: Phase 1 was to study characteristics and factors through the model to…

  6. Custos dos problemas causados pelo abuso do álcool The cost of problems caused by alcohol abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Donatti Gallassi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: O abuso de álcool é considerado atualmente um dos maiores problemas de saúde devido ao impacto mundial que esta problemática gera em termos sociais e financeiros. OBJETIVOS: Discutir, a partir do referencial econômico, as conseqüências sociais do abuso do álcool e introduzir os conceitos relacionados à economia da saúde. MÉTODOS: Revisão da literatura com base nos sistemas Medline, LILACS e Scielo de artigos publicados nas línguas, portuguesa e inglesa no período de 1987 a 2007, e posterior busca manual com base na bibliografia de interesse dos artigos selecionados. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados 50 artigos sobre estudos econômicos e conceitos econômicos em diversas áreas; desses, 15 diretamente relacionados ao custo social do abuso do álcool. O método de apuração dos custos e a composição dos itens de custos foram semelhantes em todos os estudos. CONCLUSÕES: Os estudos econômicos se apresentam incipientes no Brasil e avançados nos países desenvolvidos. A necessidade de pesquisas nacionais que abordem o custo social do abuso do álcool tem como uma das finalidades promover subsídios para se pensar e efetivar a construção de políticas públicas mais consistentes e que estejam em consonância com o perfil epidemiológico e socioeconômico do país.BACKGROUND: Alcohol abuse is currently considered one of the largest worldwide health problems due to its social and financial impact. OBJECTIVES: To discuss the economic and social impact of alcohol abuse and to introduce concepts related to health economics. METHODS: Literature review of articles written in Portuguese and in English (published between 1987 and 2007 stored in the MEDLINE, LILACS and Scielo databases was carried out. RESULTS: Fifty articles on economic studies and economic concepts in various areas were found, among which 15 were directly related to the social costs of alcohol abuse. The costs assessment methods and the composition of cost items

  7. Homozygous SLC6A17 Mutations Cause Autosomal-Recessive Intellectual Disability with Progressive Tremor, Speech Impairment, and Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar; Willemsen, Marjolein H.; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Musante, Luciana; Benevento, Marco; Hu, Hao; Venselaar, Hanka; Wissink-Lindhout, Willemijn M.; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T.; Vissers, Lisenka E.L.M.; de Brouwer, Arjan P.M.; Marouillat, Sylviane; Wienker, Thomas F.; Ropers, Hans Hilger; Kahrizi, Kimia; Nadif Kasri, Nael; Najmabadi, Hossein; Laumonnier, Frédéric; Kleefstra, Tjitske; van Bokhoven, Hans

    2015-01-01

    We report on Dutch and Iranian families with affected individuals who present with moderate to severe intellectual disability and additional phenotypes including progressive tremor, speech impairment, and behavioral problems in certain individuals. A combination of exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping revealed homozygous mutations c.484G>A (p.Gly162Arg) and c.1898C>G (p.Pro633Arg) in SLC6A17. SLC6A17 is predominantly expressed in the brain, encodes a synaptic vesicular transporter of neutral amino acids and glutamate, and plays an important role in the regulation of glutamatergic synapses. Prediction programs and 3D modeling suggest that the identified mutations are deleterious to protein function. To directly test the functional consequences, we investigated the neuronal subcellular localization of overexpressed wild-type and mutant variants in mouse primary hippocampal neuronal cells. Wild-type protein was present in soma, axons, dendrites, and dendritic spines. p.Pro633Arg altered SLC6A17 was found in soma and proximal dendrites but did not reach spines. p.Gly162Arg altered SLC6A17 showed a normal subcellular distribution but was associated with an abnormal neuronal morphology mainly characterized by the loss of dendritic spines. In summary, our genetic findings implicate homozygous SLC6A17 mutations in autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, and their pathogenic role is strengthened by genetic evidence and in silico and in vitro functional analyses. PMID:25704603

  8. Prostate Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know the exact cause of your prostate problem. Prostatitis The cause of prostatitis depends on whether you ... prostate problem in men older than age 50. Prostatitis If you have a UTI, you may be ...

  9. Screening for psychosocial problems in children attending the pediatric clinic at king Khalid university hospital (KKUH in Riyadh (KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H Al-Ayed

    2008-01-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed the feasibility of screening for behavioral problems of children in an outpatient setting. It is necessary to implement screening procedures for psycho-behavioral problems, and train pediatricians to screen children presenting at clinics.

  10. Evaluation of sleep related breathing problems and sleep disturbances among health related employees at Fayoum University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwa Ahmed Elhefny

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the daytime somnolence is common among health care workers followed by nocturnal sleep problems. Urbanization and large scale of industrialization can explain the incidence of sleep problems among rural living.

  11. Towards a balanced social psychology: causes, consequences, and cures for the problem-seeking approach to social behavior and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Joachim I; Funder, David C

    2004-06-01

    Mainstream social psychology focuses on how people characteristically violate norms of action through social misbehaviors such as conformity with false majority judgments, destructive obedience, and failures to help those in need. Likewise, they are seen to violate norms of reasoning through cognitive errors such as misuse of social information, self-enhancement, and an over-readiness to attribute dispositional characteristics. The causes of this negative research emphasis include the apparent informativeness of norm violation, the status of good behavior and judgment as unconfirmable null hypotheses, and the allure of counter-intuitive findings. The shortcomings of this orientation include frequently erroneous imputations of error, findings of mutually contradictory errors, incoherent interpretations of error, an inability to explain the sources of behavioral or cognitive achievement, and the inhibition of generalized theory. Possible remedies include increased attention to the complete range of behavior and judgmental accomplishment, analytic reforms emphasizing effect sizes and Bayesian inference, and a theoretical paradigm able to account for both the sources of accomplishment and of error. A more balanced social psychology would yield not only a more positive view of human nature, but also an improved understanding of the bases of good behavior and accurate judgment, coherent explanations of occasional lapses, and theoretically grounded suggestions for improvement.

  12. Current Economic and Financial Crisis – New Issues or Returning to the Old Problems? Paradigms, Causes, Effects and Solutions Adopted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix TOTIR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available At the ideological level, the current crisis, as the others in history, has triggered an intellectual debate among several applicable ideas: ultra-liberal theory of the "invisible hand" of Adam Smith, Keynes's theory of state interventionism and even neo-Marxist theories. Globalization, with all its core components, generates a chain reaction when the phenomenon occurs, either positive or negative. The origin of the current financial crisis should be sought in the effects of massive cross-border capital flows and the use of more complex derivatives. Reaching the saturation of the three engines of economic growth worldwide in the period after the collapse of the socialist bloc is another important cause of all the failures that currently exist worldwide. Acquisition of toxic assets from bank balance sheets, their recapitalization and takeover by the state, but also the reinforcement of the prudential supervision of capitalization, liquidity and risk management system, improved transparency and speed the process of evaluating or reinforcing authorities' response to risk, can be considered short or long term anti-crisis measures, as appropriate.

  13. Homozygous SLC6A17 mutations cause autosomal-recessive intellectual disability with progressive tremor, speech impairment, and behavioral problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zafar; Willemsen, Marjolein H; Papon, Marie-Amélie; Musante, Luciana; Benevento, Marco; Hu, Hao; Venselaar, Hanka; Wissink-Lindhout, Willemijn M; Vulto-van Silfhout, Anneke T; Vissers, Lisenka E L M; de Brouwer, Arjan P M; Marouillat, Sylviane; Wienker, Thomas F; Ropers, Hans Hilger; Kahrizi, Kimia; Nadif Kasri, Nael; Najmabadi, Hossein; Laumonnier, Frédéric; Kleefstra, Tjitske; van Bokhoven, Hans

    2015-03-05

    We report on Dutch and Iranian families with affected individuals who present with moderate to severe intellectual disability and additional phenotypes including progressive tremor, speech impairment, and behavioral problems in certain individuals. A combination of exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping revealed homozygous mutations c.484G>A (p.Gly162Arg) and c.1898C>G (p.Pro633Arg) in SLC6A17. SLC6A17 is predominantly expressed in the brain, encodes a synaptic vesicular transporter of neutral amino acids and glutamate, and plays an important role in the regulation of glutamatergic synapses. Prediction programs and 3D modeling suggest that the identified mutations are deleterious to protein function. To directly test the functional consequences, we investigated the neuronal subcellular localization of overexpressed wild-type and mutant variants in mouse primary hippocampal neuronal cells. Wild-type protein was present in soma, axons, dendrites, and dendritic spines. p.Pro633Arg altered SLC6A17 was found in soma and proximal dendrites but did not reach spines. p.Gly162Arg altered SLC6A17 showed a normal subcellular distribution but was associated with an abnormal neuronal morphology mainly characterized by the loss of dendritic spines. In summary, our genetic findings implicate homozygous SLC6A17 mutations in autosomal-recessive intellectual disability, and their pathogenic role is strengthened by genetic evidence and in silico and in vitro functional analyses. Copyright © 2015 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Characteristics and Predictors of Health Problems from Use among High-Frequency Cannabis Users in a Canadian University Student Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Dawe, Meghan; Mcguire, Fraser; Shuper, Paul A; Jones, Wayne; Rudzinski, Katherine; Rehm, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Assess key cannabis use, risk and outcome characteristics among high-frequency cannabis users within a university student sample in Toronto, Canada. Methods: N = 134 active universities students (ages of 18-28) using cannabis at least three times per week were recruited by mass advertisement, telephone-screened and anonymously assessed by an…

  15. The genesis of relevant entrepreneurial processes – stimulating problem solving capabilities by joint university-industry collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard; Fladkjær, Henrik Find; Jensen, Erling

    of researcher programs, preferential tax treatment of firms who do R&D-collaboration with universities etc. Such initiatives for promoting and sustaining university industry interactions have in the literature been seen as an important part of an effort to encourage the development of the “entrepreneurial...

  16. Investigation report on causes of radiation underexposure accident at Yamagata University Hospital and Prevention of Similar accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The accident in the title was announced on February 18, 2004 by the hospital, which asked its investigation immediately. The group based on 4 academic societies concerned, thereby started investigations of the in-house reports on the accident and of subsequent hospital visit in March, which involved hearing from personnel concerned, physical/technological examinations and clinical evaluation, with respect to the hospital system for radiation treatment, flow of the treatment, accident details, estimation of the actual expose dose and classification of patients. The investigational group found for the actual number of patients underexposed to be 36 (63, in the in-house report) in 1,377. The cause of the accident was thought essentially the input error for the correct power coefficient 1.032 to be a wrong one 1.320 for 15 x 15 cm 4 MV X-ray. The error had been overlooked by the contract operator from the introduction of the treatment planning equipment in 1999. For prevention, setting up of quality assurance (QA) program by the hospital, the user itself, was pointed out necessary. Making the guideline for introducing the new equipment was conceivably an important work of the trader. (N.I.)

  17. Ranking of the Causes of Medication Errors in the Viewpoints of Nurses in Selected Hospitals Affiliated With Yazd University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roohollah Askari

    2017-09-01

    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 220 nurses working in educational hospitals affiliated to Yazd University of Medical Sciences (Shahid Sadoughi, Shahid Rahnemoon and Afshar Hospitals. Stratified random sampling was used. Required data was gathered by Gladstone questionnaire. Data analysis was done through SPSS 16. Results: The most common causes of medication errors were the failure to match the patients' names with ordered drugs, the ill-considered and unreadable nature of the physicians' orders and the nominal similarity of drugs. Failure to match the patients' names with ordered drugs (3.45 ± 2.85 and the incorrect setting of the infusion device by the nurse (8.81 ± 2.57 had the highest and lowest scores from the viewpoints of nurses. Conclusion: Establishing and implementing electronic drug prescription, in service training for improving nurses' pharmacological knowledge, identifying the main types and causes of drug errors, the teaching of proper prescribing techniques are needed.

  18. Assessment of direct causes and costs of medical admissions in Bingham University Teaching Hospital – Jos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter U Bassi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available >Background: As health-care costs continue to rise and the population ages, an individual Nigerian continues to experience financial hardship in settling medical bills, especially when health insurance schemes are still far from reality for most Nigerians, making health-care financing burdensome in Nigeria like many developing countries. This has made out-of-pocket expenditure the most common form of health-care financing.Aims: This study assessed the average costs, duration, and causes of inpatient admission so as to know the direct costs associated with medical care for proper health-care planning.Settings and Design: This was a pilot study of a prospective cohort design whereby all patients were admitted to medical wards during the study period.Materials and Methods: Cost analysis was performed from the societal perspective, but included only direct medical care cost for this analysis. Patients input charts and pharmacy dispensing charts of all patients admitted to medical wards between May and July 2015 were reviewed. All costs were in local currency (Naira using the average exchange rates proposed by Central Bank of Nigeria for June 2015.Statistical sAnalysis Used: Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS version 20.Results: A total of 293 out of 320 patients met inclusion criteria and were assessed. Female patients admitted during the study period had an overall higher mean cost of care ₦84, 303.94 ± 6860.56 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 68,991.65–96,103.27 compared to male patients ₦68, 601.59 ± 57,178.37 (95% CI: 59,081.51–78,121.67 (P < 0.102. Civil servants had higher mean overall costs of care ₦90, 961.70 ± 105,175.62 (95% CI: 65,883.46–116,039.94 (P < 0.203.Conclusions: The higher prevalence of female patients with higher mean cost of inpatient care in this study suggests that Jos females may be more health conscious than their male counterparts. Overall mean cost of inpatient care stay was not proportional to

  19. The Universal Islamic Declaration on Human Rights and the Problem of Inequalities of Rights between Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Hassan Eslami

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Islamic Declaration on Human Rights (the UIDHR is the most important official replication to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (the UDHR by Islamic countries, and based on that, it has been attempted to provide a declaration containing the benefits of the UDHR and at the same time devoid of its faults. However, a detailed study of the UIDHR makes us uncertain in achieving these objectives. In this study, after a brief introduction of the history and development of the provisions of the UIDHR, incompatible cases with the provisions of the UDHR are reported, some inequalities of rights between men and women are recognized and arguments in favor of it are mentioned, interpreted and analyzed. It appears that the UIDHR, as an universal document, which seeks to ensure human rights, carries three major drawbacks; first, implicit approval of some of inequalities of rights between men and women based on gender and religion; second, fluid and variable interpretative sources; third, lack of sanction. These three problems have diminished the reputation of this declaration and changed it to a number of non-binding ethical recommendations. اعلامیه اسلامی حقوق بشر، مهم‌ترین پاسخ رسمی کشورهای اسلامی به اعلامیه جهانی حقوق بشر به شمار می‌رود و تلاش شده است تا بر اساس آن متنی دارای فوائد آن اعلامیه و در همان حال تهی از نقائص آن به دست داده شود. با این همه، خوانش دقیق این اعلامیه، ما را در تحقق این اهداف مردد می‌سازد. در این نوشته، پس از مقدمه‌ای کوتاه از تاریخچه شکل‌گیری و مواد این اعلامیه، مواردی که با مفاد اعلامیه جهانی حقوق بشر ناسازگار است و برخی از نابرابری‌ها را به رسمیت

  20. Moderating effect of self-efficacy on the relation between behavior problems in persons with dementia and the distress they cause in caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogales-González, C; Romero-Moreno, R; Losada, A; Márquez-González, M; Zarit, S H

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) are the principal sources of stress in caregivers. The aim of the present work is to analyze the moderating effect of self-efficacy for managing BPSD on the distress these problems generate in family caregivers. The participants were 231 family caregivers of people with dementia. We assessed the frequency and caregiver distress associated with three dimensions of BPSD (depressive, disruptive and memory problems). In addition, we assessed the moderating effect of self-efficacy for dealing with BPSD in the relationship between the dementia patient's frequency of BPSD and caregiver distress through hierarchical regression analyses, one for each of the dimensions of BPSD. We found a moderating effect of self-efficacy on the relation between the frequency of BPSD and the distress in caregivers for the dimensions of depressive and disruptive behaviors. Caregivers having to deal with a high frequency of behavior problems but with high levels of self-efficacy presented significantly lower levels of distress associated with depressive and disruptive behavior problems compared to those caregivers with low levels of self-efficacy. No differences in the effects of self-efficacy were found for distress levels of caregivers who dealt with low frequency of BPSD. Also, we did not find a moderating effect of self-efficacy on the relation between the frequency of memory problems and caregivers' distress. The results suggest that self-efficacy for managing BPSD attenuates the relation between the frequency of behavior problems – both disruptive and depressive – and the distress they cause in caregivers.

  1. Cursus Conimbricensis - Sebastian Couto S.J. Nature Considered in itself in the Context of the Problem of Universals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, David

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2013), s. 135-150 ISSN 1804-5588 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Cursus Conimbricensis * Sebastian Couto * universals * common nature Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  2. The problem of the content of the recognition of the testimony of the informers towards the concept of just cause for the regular exercise of the criminal action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Barbosa Bittar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the conceptual problems regarding the legal nature of the plea bargaining and the just cause, seeking to establish limits regarding the recognition of the content of the version presented by the informers, with greater attention to the probative value, as seen in the Brazilian legal system, seeking if it is possible to include the content of what can be understood as accepted just cause, or not, as a legitimate requirement for the criminal action procedure. To fulfill this objective, we sought to establish existence and validity requirements for the beginning of a valid criminal prosecution procedure, highlighting the criminal political aspects that end up influencing in the conclusion of the inherent contours of the object of the analysis of the present study.

  3. A Critical Discourse Analysis of Practical Problems in a Foundation Mathematics Course at a South African University

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, Kate; Adler, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical problems that make links to the everyday and to disciplines other than mathematics--variously referred to as practical, realistic, real-world or applied problems in the literature--feature in school and undergraduate mathematics reforms aimed at increasing mathematics participation in contexts of inequity and diversity. In this…

  4. Production of light elements by cascades from energetic antiprotons in the early Universe and problem of nuclear cosmoarcheology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, Yu.L.; Sobol', I.M.; Khlopov, M.Yu.; Chechetkin, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    The mathematical model of the process of light-element (D and 3 He) production due to disintegration of 4 He nuclei, induced by nonequilibrium processes of production of energetic antiprotons in the early Universe is suggested. Numerical calculations show that formation of the nucleon cascade induced by antiproton slowing down increases the D and 3 He yield due to the growth of probability of disintegration of several 4 He nuclei by a single antiproton and due to disintegration of such nuclei by cascade protons. Restraints on the concentration of possible sources of energetic antiprotons in the early Universe are strengthened respectively

  5. The information system of learning quality control in higher education institutions: achievements and problems of European universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orekhova Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main trends in the development of the system of learning quality control connected with the European integration of higher education and the democratization of education. The authors analyze the state of information systems of learning quality control existing in European higher education and identify their strong and weak points. The authors show that in the learning process universities actively use innovative analytic methods as well as modern means of collecting, storing and transferring information that ensure the successful management of such a complex object as the university of the 21st century.

  6. An Examination of Critical Problems Associated with the Implementation of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) Programme in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejere, Emmanuel Iriemi

    2011-01-01

    It is hardly debatable that implementation is the bane of public policies and programmes in Nigeria. A well formulated policy or programme is useless if not properly implemented as its stated objectives will not be realized. The Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme was introduced in Nigeria in September 1999 by the Obasanjo's administration.…

  7. Organization of nuclear education at the Faculty of Chemistry of the Byelorussian state university: progress and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savitskaya, T.A.; Kimlenko, I.M.; Sviridov, D.V.; Tolstik, A.L.; Shadyro, O.I.

    2013-01-01

    The strategy of the nuclear education in the Republic of Belarus is discussed. Nuclear knowledge management course is introduced into the curricular according to the IAEA recommendations. Podcasting lectures, advanced handbooks, interdisciplinary courses, cooperative learning is the main components of the nuclear education processes. The aspects of the interaction between the university and employers are considered [ru

  8. Teachers, Students, and Ideological Bias in the College Classroom. Wicked Problems Forum: Freedom of Speech at Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, Joseph P.

    2018-01-01

    Discussions surrounding ideology and free speech on college and university campuses continually occur in the popular press. In this forum, Herbeck (see EJ1171161) chronicles several heated clashes over free speech that have recently erupted on campuses across the country, fueling news stories reported through traditional and social media. Issues…

  9. The universal service in the field creating a problem of social exclusion; A universalizacao do atendimento no campo gerando um problema de exclusao social

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Rui Manuel B.S.; Carmo, Jose do [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos Graduacao em Energia], Email: carmo-jd@uol.com.br; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica], Email: fribeiro@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The Brazil's model of electric energy's universalization excludes the access and use of energy to the countryside poor families that, in the past, had electricity in his properties, but were unable to pay the financing made for installing the energy in his houses, and had its energy cut by the distributions companies. This work explores the social tension that emerge of that fact and the lack of legislation to deal with the problem. This work also proposes actions that may solve the problem and concludes, therefore, that is state obligation, by means of the constitution, to eradicate the poverty in Brazil, and deal to the grantor the search for a solution to this social problem, creating the necessary conditions, by means of a new law, to effectively allow the access and use of electric energy to all people. (author)

  10. The universal service in the field creating a problem of social exclusion; A universalizacao do atendimento no campo gerando um problema de exclusao social

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, Rui Manuel B.S.; Carmo, Jose do [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos Graduacao em Energia], Email: carmo-jd@uol.com.br; Ribeiro, Fernando Selles [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EP/USP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica], Email: fribeiro@pea.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    The Brazil's model of electric energy's universalization excludes the access and use of energy to the countryside poor families that, in the past, had electricity in his properties, but were unable to pay the financing made for installing the energy in his houses, and had its energy cut by the distributions companies. This work explores the social tension that emerge of that fact and the lack of legislation to deal with the problem. This work also proposes actions that may solve the problem and concludes, therefore, that is state obligation, by means of the constitution, to eradicate the poverty in Brazil, and deal to the grantor the search for a solution to this social problem, creating the necessary conditions, by means of a new law, to effectively allow the access and use of electric energy to all people. (author)

  11. Improving Transportation Services for the University of the Thai Chamber of Commerce: A Case Study on Solving the Mixed-Fleet Vehicle Routing Problem with Split Deliveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthikarnnarunai, N.; Olinick, E.

    2009-01-01

    We present a case study on the application of techniques for solving the Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) to improve the transportation service provided by the University of The Thai Chamber of Commerce to its staff. The problem is modeled as VRP with time windows, split deliveries, and a mixed fleet. An exact algorithm and a heuristic solution procedure are developed to solve the problem and implemented in the AMPL modeling language and CPLEX Integer Programming solver. Empirical results indicate that the heuristic can find relatively good solutions in a small fraction of the time required by the exact method. We also perform sensitivity analysis and find that a savings in outsourcing cost can be achieved with a small increase in vehicle capacity.

  12. A survey of causes of the drugs abuse tendency and psychoactive drugs from viewpoint of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davod Kordestani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : The following study is done to recognize causes of the drugs abuse tendency and psychoactive drugs from viewpoint of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences students. Materials and Methods: The method of the following study is descriptive survey with purpose. The statistic groups are the university students of medical university of Lorestan and its colleges between 2014 and 2015. To take samples we used the Morgan table and the numbers of participants is 335 in a random order. In this study, to analysis the data, we use the descriptive statistics in two ways. The first part is descriptive statistics, like use of frequency tables, charts, and in second part the analysis is done by inferential descriptive statistics (sample test one. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 19. Results: The results showed that, personal، social and interpersonal factors has effects on student tendency toward using drugs (p<0/01. According to the findings among personal factors positive attitude toward drugs 23/3 depression 20/8 and not being able to intolerance of  failure have the most possible mean and curiosity and aggression with 13/58 has the least possible mean among interpersonal and environmental factors related to family with the mean of 30/96 has the most possible mean and school related factors has the least possible mean 17/67.Also in social factors in accessibility to systems of services، support systems and consultative systems had the most possible mean with 34/27 and drug market in Iran has the least possible mean with 20/67.Among following factors interpersonal factor had the most impression with 122/62. Conclusion: It seems that running comprehensive educational programs and increasing awareness ،enriching the leisure times can increase awareness of students and finally leads to prevention drugs, furthermore educating the students will make them more aware and keeps them away from drugs.

  13. Effectiveness of a pragmatic school-based universal intervention targeting student resilience protective factors in reducing mental health problems in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dray, Julia; Bowman, Jenny; Campbell, Elizabeth; Freund, Megan; Hodder, Rebecca; Wolfenden, Luke; Richards, Jody; Leane, Catherine; Green, Sue; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Attia, John; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John

    2017-06-01

    Worldwide, 10-20% of adolescents experience mental health problems. Strategies aimed at strengthening resilience protective factors provide a potential approach for reducing mental health problems in adolescents. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a universal, school-based intervention targeting resilience protective factors in reducing mental health problems in adolescents. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in 20 intervention and 12 control secondary schools located in socio-economically disadvantaged areas of NSW, Australia. Data were collected from 3115 students at baseline (Grade 7, 2011), of whom 2149 provided data at follow up (Grade 10, 2014; enrolments in Grades 7 to 10 typically aged 12-16 years; 50% male; 69.0% retention). There were no significant differences between groups at follow-up for three mental health outcomes: total SDQ, internalising problems, and prosocial behaviour. A small statistically significant difference in favour of the control group was found for externalising problems. Findings highlight the continued difficulties in developing effective, school-based prevention programs for mental health problems in adolescents. ANZCTR (Ref no: ACTRN12611000606987). Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Technology-Enhanced Problem-Based Learning Methodology in Geographically Dispersed Learners of Tshwane University of Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibitse M. Tlhapane

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving teaching and learning methodologies is not just a wish but rather strife for most educational institutions globally. To attain this, the Adelaide Tambo School of Nursing Science implemented a Technology-enhanced Problem-Based Learning methodology in the programme B Tech Occupational Nursing, in 2006. This is a two-year post-basic nursing program. The students are geographically dispersed and the curriculum design is the typically student-centred outcomes-based education. The research question posed by this paper is: How does technology-enhanced problem-based learning enhance student-centred learning, thinking skills, social skills and social space for learners? To answer the above question, a case study with both qualitative and quantitative data was utilised. The participants consisted of all students registered for the subject Occupational Health level 4. The sample group was chosen from willing participants from the Pretoria, eMalahleni and Polokwane learning sites, using the snowball method. This method was seen as appropriate due to the timing of the study. Data was collected using a questionnaire with both open and closed-ended questions. An analyses of the students‟ end of year examination was also done, including a comparison of performances by students on technology enhanced problem-based learning and those on problem-based learning only. The findings revealed that with Technology-enhanced Problem Based Learning (PBL, students‟ critical thinking, problem solving, and social skills improved and that social space was enhanced. This was supported by improved grades in students‟ on Technology-enhanced PBL as compared to those on PBL only.

  15. Students' and Teachers' Experiences with the Implementation of Problem-Based Learning at a University Law School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, Marit; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Smeets, Guus; Kroeze, Maarten J.; Van der Molen, Henk T.

    2017-01-01

    A few years ago, the Erasmus School of Law implemented problem-based learning (PBL) as an instructional method in the bachelor's program. Transition to a PBL program often brings some difficulties for the teaching staff. To find out whether the implementation at the Erasmus School of Law has been successful, students and teachers were asked about…

  16. Problems concerning food production, supply and use caused by radioactive deposition: A study directed towards needs for early decision making after radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, R.

    1995-12-01

    The primary aim of this study is to analyze and describe how a radioactive deposition after nuclear weapons employment outside Sweden would affect the domestic food production in a short time perspective and in the sequence of events from primary production over processing and transport to food consumption. The study is an attempt at a comprehensive treatment of knowledge needed as a basis for decisions on operative issues, often of a time-urgent nature. Actions to alleviate the problems pertinent to the food supply in the event of radioactive fallout are also discussed, although without any claim of exhaustive coverage. Other aspects, as the economical consequences of the disturbances due to the fallout situation (or of possible counteractions) are not dealt with, however. With certain restrictions mentioned in the text the results are also applicable in connection with radioactive deposition caused by accidental release from a nuclear power plant. 60 refs, 32 figs

  17. Account of an optical beam spreading caused by turbulence for the problem of partially coherent wavefield propagation through inhomogeneous absorbing media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudorov, Vadim V.; Kolosov, Valerii V.

    2003-04-01

    The propagation problem for partially coherent wave fields in inhomogeneous media is considered in this work. The influence of refraction, inhomogeneity of gain medium properties and refraction parameter fluctuations on target characteristics of radiation are taken into consideration. Such problems arise in the study of laser propagation on atmosphere paths, under investigation of directional radiation pattern forming for lasers which gain media is characterized by strong fluctuation of dielectric constant and for lasers which resonator have an atmosphere area. The ray-tracing technique allows us to make effective algorithms for modeling of a partially coherent wave field propagation through inhomogeneous random media is presented for case when the influecne of an optical wave refraction, the influence of the inhomogeiety of radiaitn amplification or absorption, and also the influence of fluctuations of a refraction parameter on target radiation parameters are basic. Novelty of the technique consists in the account of the additional refraction caused by inhomogeneity of gain, and also in the method of an account of turbulent distortions of a beam with any initial coherence allowing to execute construction of effective numerical algorithms. The technique based on the solution of the equation for coherence function of the second order.

  18. PROBLEMS IN THE ADMISSION TO HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE LOWER SIERRA DE SONORA, CASE: UNIVERSITY OF SIERRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Ángel Vásquez-Navarro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to clarify the issues and find solutions to align somewhat academic models of institutions of higher average level and above found in the central highlands of the state of Sonora, as are the University of Sierra, and the CBTA 53 and confront the culture of the people of the importance of young people studying a degree in that region.The above educational institutions are located in the geographical catchment area and education, in fact, in the same population, in the northeastern state of Sonora. The mountains of Sonora had always intended to have a school of higher education. To justify the town of Montezuma as a geographically strategic point, and thanks to the efforts made by the governor in turn was as the University of Sierra opens its doors to students on the mountain in August 2002.For the analysis of the functioning of an educational institution in the rural sector, should take into account a wide range of factors, however, this work will be key to analyze the dislocation and inconsistency of educational models from an institution of higher average level in relationship to another level, which serve as a unique educational opportunities for the people of Sonora and surrounding Montezuma. In addition, the cultural aspect, which reflects a regional behavior of the inhabitants of the region. La Sierra University is located in the mountainous region of the state of Sonora, in the town of Montezuma, with a catchment area of more than 30 municipalities in this area, which lacked a college until recently time.

  19. Between universalism and relativism: a conceptual exploration of problems in formulating and applying international biomedical ethical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangwa, G B

    2004-02-01

    In this paper, the author attempts to explore some of the problems connected with the formulation and application of international biomedical ethical guidelines, with particular reference to Africa. Recent attempts at revising and updating some international medical ethical guidelines have been bedevilled by intractable controversies and wrangling regarding both the content and formulation. From the vantage position of relative familiarity with both African and Western contexts, and the privilege of having been involved in the revision and updating of one of the international ethical guidelines, the author reflects broadly on these issues and attempts prescribing an approach from both the theoretical and practical angles liable to mitigate, if not completely eliminate, some of the problems and difficulties.

  20. Chagas disease as a cause of heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias in patients long removed from endemic areas: an emerging problem in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucchi, Vieri; Tomberli, Benedetta; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Fornaro, Alessandra; Castelli, Gabriele; Pieralli, Filippo; Berni, Andrea; Yacoub, Sophie; Bartoloni, Alessandro; Olivotto, Iacopo

    2015-12-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. In endemic areas (South and Central America), Chagas disease represents a relevant public health issue, and is the most frequent cause of cardiomyopathy. In nonendemic areas, such as Europe, Chagas disease represents an emerging problem following the establishment of sizeable communities from Brazil and Bolivia. Chagas cardiomyopathy represents the most frequent and serious complication of chronic Chagas disease, affecting about 20-30% of patients, potentially leading to heart failure, arrhythmias, thromboembolism, stroke and sudden death. Because late complications of Chagas disease may develop several years or even decades after the acute infection, it may be extremely challenging to reach the correct diagnosis in patients long removed from the countries of origin. We report two examples of Chagas cardiomyopathy in South American women permanently residing in Italy for more than 20 years, presenting with cardiac manifestations ranging from left ventricular dysfunction and heart failure to isolated ventricular arrhythmias. The present review emphasizes that Chagas disease should be considered as a potential diagnosis in patients from endemic areas presenting with 'idiopathic' cardiac manifestations, even when long removed from their country of origin, with potential implications for treatment and control of Chagas disease transmission.

  1. Disinfectants used in medal field and problems caused from their use. Igaku ryoiki ni okeru sakkinzai to sorera shiyo ni yoru mondaiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, K; Watabe, S [Yokohama City University, Yokohama (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-04-05

    This paper describes typical anti-microorganism chemicals used in hospitals, and touches on measures against intra-hospital infection. Killing microorganisms reliably by using a high-pressure steam sterilization method is the best means for medical devices and apparatuses. However, there are high-priced medical devices that cannot withstand such a method and require other processes according to the situations, such as gas sterilization and alcohol disinfection. In addition to such sterilization methods as using heat, alcohols, and gases, methods that have been developed recently may include the following: use of Bronopol (an antiseptic) and anti-mold agents that have electronphilic functional groups, disinfectants using metal ions from silver, zinc and copper, and other materials. The problem of intra-hospital infection is caused typically by MRSA, hepatitis virus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Preventive measures require good knowledge about their infection courses and disinfecting technologies, as well as an attention not to cause change in the ecology as a result of using excessively strong chemicals. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Appropriate Interventions on the Problems Encountered on Effective Teaching Practices in a State University External Campus in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilo L. Masbaño

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Descriptive studies on the perception of teachers regarding effective teaching practices, problems encountered and appropriate interventions have generally supported the beliefs that the problems of education did not lie only outside the school but inside the school itself. Yet such studies neglect the primary reason through which students learn, the effective teaching practices. The current study explores the link on the perception of teachers regarding effective teaching practices, problems encountered and appropriate interventions. Data were obtained using the questionnaire that were collected from 80 respondents whom faculty members of WVSU-JC. Mean and rank were used as statistical tools. A high level of agreement among teachers on the propositions regarding effective teaching was hypothesized. However, they preferred some teaching practices to the other. Teachers' perception on effective teaching practices were, showing of mastery on the subject matter, updating of knowledge about the subject matter, utilizing an appropriate strategies and methods and observing an ethical and moral principles in teaching. Generally, the top problems perceived by teachers that hinder their effective teaching includes inadequacy of laboratory facilities and equipment, insufficient library references and classrooms which are not conducive for teaching-learning process. However, it varies according to the classification as to different categories of variables. The appropriate interventions were the upgrading of laboratory facilities and equipment, the purchasing of additional books, the giving of trainings to the teachers on the recent development on the subject that they are teaching, providing more hands on activities for students, enhancing the teaching strategies and methods, and strengthening the commitment among teachers.

  3. Electroconvulsive therapy in Brazil after the "psychiatric reform": a public health problem--example from a university service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Rafael Bernardon; Melzer-Ribeiro, Débora Luciana; Rigonatti, Sérgio Paulo; Cordeiro, Quirino

    2012-09-01

    The Brazilian public health system does not provide electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), which is limited to a few academic services. National mental health policies are against ECT. Our objectives were to analyze critically the public policies toward ECT and present the current situation using statistics from the Institute of Psychiatry of the University of São Paulo (IPq-HCFMUSP) and summary data from the other 13 ECT services identified in the country. Data regarding ECT treatment at the IPq-HCFMUSP were collected from January 2009 to June 2010 (demographical, number of sessions, and diagnoses). All the data were analyzed using SPSS 19, Epic Info 2000, and Excel. During this period, 331 patients were treated at IPq-HCFMUSP: 221 (67%) were from São Paulo city, 50 (15.2%) from São Paulo's metropolitan area, 39 (11.8%) from São Paulo's countryside, and 20 (6.1%) from other states; 7352 ECT treatments were delivered-63.0% (4629) devoted entirely via the public health system (although not funded by the federal government); the main diagnoses were a mood disorder in 86.4% and schizophrenia in 7.3% of the cases. There is an important lack of public assistance for ECT, affecting mainly the poor and severely ill patients. The university services are overcrowded and cannot handle all the referrals. The authors press for changes in the mental health policies.

  4. Ankle Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read MoreDepression in Children and TeensRead MoreBMI Calculator Ankle ProblemsFollow this chart for more information about problems that can cause ankle pain. Our trusted Symptom Checker is written and ...

  5. Mechatronic control engineering and electro-mechanical system design - two mechatronic curricula at Aalborg University based on problem oriented and project based learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2009-01-01

    , it is addressed how a mechatronic education is structured so courses and projects are aligned, to utilize the full benefits of the Problem Oriented Project Based Learning (POPBL) system practiced at AalborgUniversity (AAU). This is followed by a presentation of the two complementary educations in Mechatronicsat...... using a subsystem based approach. The challenges related to teaching and learning mechatronics are addressed, discussing how mechatronics is typically taught around the world also illustrating the trends and applications of mechatronic engineering and research. This is followed by an outline...... Based Learning environment....

  6. Complex solution of problem of all-season construction of roads and pipelines on universal composite pontoon units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabkov, A. V.; Stafeeva, N. A.; Ivanov, V. A.; Zakuraev, A. F.

    2018-05-01

    A complex construction consisting of a universal floating pontoon road for laying pipelines in automatic mode on its body all year round and in any weather for Siberia and the Far North has been designed. A new method is proposed for the construction of pipelines on pontoon modules, which are made of composite materials. Pontoons made of composite materials for bedding pipelines with track-forming guides for automated wheeled transport, pipelayer, are designed. The proposed system eliminates the construction of a road along the route, ensures the buoyancy and smoothness of the self-propelled automated stacker in the form of a "centipede", which has a number of significant advantages in the construction and operation of the entire complex in the swamp and watered areas without overburden.

  7. MICROBIAL PROFILE AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF PATHOGENS CAUSING VENTILATOR- ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA AT INTENSIVE CARE UNIT, SESTRE MILOSRDNICE UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL CENTER, ZAGREB, CROATIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turković, Tihana Magdić; Grginić, Ana Gverić; Cucujić, Branka Đuras; Gašpar, Božena; Širanović, Mladen; Perić, Mladen

    2015-06-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is very common in many intensive care Units, but there are still many uncertainties about VAP, especially about the choice of initial empiric antibiotics. The incidence of specific pathogens with different susceptibility patterns causing VAP varies from hospital to hospital. This is the reason why empiric initial antibiotic treatment for VAP should be based not only on general guidelines (that recommend therapy according to the presence of risk factors for multidrug-resistant bacteria), but also on up-to-date information on local epidemiology. The aim of this study was to determine the microbial profile of pathogens causing VAP and their antibiotic susceptibility patterns. The study was conducted in the 15-bed surgical and neurosurgical Intensive Care Unit, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Sestre milosrdnice University Hospital Center, Zagreb, Croatia. Retrospective data were collected from September 2009 to March 2013. All patients that developed VAP during the study period were eligible for the study. According to study results, the incidence of VAP was 29.4%. The most commonly isolated bacterium was Staphylococcus aureus (21.1%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.0%) and Acinetobacter species (13.6%). All Staphylococcus aureus isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed 100% susceptibility to cefepime and very high susceptibility to pip'eracillin-tazobactam (96%), ceftazidime (93%) and ciprofloxacin (89%). Ampicillin-sulbactam was highly effective for Acinetobacter species, showing resistance in only 8% of isolates. In conclusion, according to study data, appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy for patients with VAP without risk factors for multidrug-resistant bacteria is ceftriaxone and for patients with risk factors for multidrug-resistant bacteria ampicillin-sulbactam plus cefepime plus vancomycin or linezolid.

  8. [Current state of training in pharmacy education using a problem-based learning/tutorial model with simulated patients and standardized patients at National University Corporation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irie, Tetsumi; Nitta, Atsumi; Akaike, Akinori

    2012-01-01

    Simulated/standardized patient-based (SP) education and problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial education become a powerful tool to heighten the pharmacy students' will to learn in order to cultivate the responsibility to contribute to public health and welfare as a clinical professional and to facilitate students' competences to solve problems by themselves. What this program is trying to do is: 1) to establish the system to train, educate and supply SP who are effective in the training and education of pharmacy students in close cooperation with the medical schools and their affiliated hospitals; 2) to improve the quality of the current PBL tutorial education and thereby establish it as an advanced education program in the education of senior students. We carried out the questionnaire to National University Corporation which establishes a school of pharmacy, as to the training and education of SP. The analysis of the answers to the questionnaire revealed the present status of SP in the Pharmaceutical Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in the Pharmaceutical Common Achievement Test, and the existence of the problems on how to standardize SP as well as how to cover such expenses. Furthermore, the activity of the first year consisted of the exchange and sharing of information regarding the existing method of training and education of SP and PBL tutorial education and the identification of the problems to be solved in order to improve the quality of the educational program.

  9. Universal Natural Shapes: From Unifying Shape Description to Simple Methods for Shape Analysis and Boundary Value Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielis, Johan; Caratelli, Diego; Fougerolle, Yohan; Ricci, Paolo Emilio; Tavkelidze, Ilia; Gerats, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Gielis curves and surfaces can describe a wide range of natural shapes and they have been used in various studies in biology and physics as descriptive tool. This has stimulated the generalization of widely used computational methods. Here we show that proper normalization of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm allows for efficient and robust reconstruction of Gielis curves, including self-intersecting and asymmetric curves, without increasing the overall complexity of the algorithm. Then, we show how complex curves of k-type can be constructed and how solutions to the Dirichlet problem for the Laplace equation on these complex domains can be derived using a semi-Fourier method. In all three methods, descriptive and computational power and efficiency is obtained in a surprisingly simple way. PMID:23028417

  10. An analysis of the implementation of problem-based learning at the Department of Energy Technology – Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da

    2016-01-01

    increases students’ motivation and improves their performance resulting in better grades when comparing with traditional teaching methods. Engineering curriculums at AAU are organised in projects (i.e. problem-based) and courses (i.e. lecture-based). However, there are no systematic studies evaluating how...... well students do in projects and courses, and their perceptions on the respective assessments. This paper evaluates the AAU PBL model, based on a statistical analysis of the grades obtained by students from the department of Energy Technology, together with answers given by these students in an online....... A possible area for curriculum improvement, consisting in changing the project content at the first years of bachelor, is also evaluated. The results show that the projects have consistently higher grades than courses and a lower failure rate. The students agree that PBL improves the learning of technical...

  11. Status, problems and perspectives of the education on nuclear energetics and nuclear safety within the Technical University of Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakov, M.; Bonev, B.; Stoyanov, S.; Velev, V.

    2004-01-01

    Education on nuclear energetic within the Technical University of Sofia is conducted since 1966 within the framework of the specialty 'Thermal energetic' at that time, and since 1973, within the specialty 'Thermal and nuclear energetic'. In 1986 is opened a college on nuclear energetic teaching on specialty 'Nuclear Energetic' and 'Automation in Energetic'. Since 1998 the department 'Thermal and nuclear energetic' is the only one within the Republic of Bulgaria having the legal rights to train 'engineers-bachelors' and 'engineers-master of science' on 'Thermal and nuclear energetic', as well as doctors - engineers of the same specialty. The bachelor course is graduated from between 40 and 60 students annually. The training within the bachelor level is 4 years and finishes by defending diploma thesis. Part of the graduated bachelors (between 20 and 30 students) are closely specialized in the area of Nuclear Energetic. The specialization is trained through preparation of diploma thesis within the nuclear area. The master course has 3 semesters including preparation of diploma thesis. Within the master level are prepared 25 students annually. Within the sub-division 'Nuclear Energetic' are promulgated between 2 and 4 competitions for preparation of doctoral thesis annually. At the moment 7 students are preparing doctoral thesis. Graduated engineers on 'Nuclear Energetic' are engaged as operative personnel mainly in Kozloduy NPP. The rest of them are engaged within the engineering and scientific organizations, connected to nuclear energetic

  12. Who Defines Culturally Acceptable Health Access? Universal rights, healthcare politics and the problems of two Mbya-Guarani communities in the Misiones Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to analyze the problems and barriers encountered when public policy health programs are implemented within indigenous communities. The initial stumbling block for such programs is precisely the idea of health as a universal right, around which emerges a characterization and stereotype of the indigenous population who are consequently addressed as a homogenized unit subsisting below the poverty line, and marginalized. A result of this is that the  particular ethno-cultural register of such populations fails to be acknowledged and form part of a systematic public health policy. Consequently, health policies become generalized in character, unable to variate and differentiate according to the culturally specific contexts within which health outreach and access is needed. In this sense, based on the results of an ethnographic study carried out in two Mbya-Guaraní indigenous communities of Argentina, our study highlights as to how public policies of indigenous health are perceived, their impact value measured, and the meanings which emerge locally about the policy practices implemented.Lastly, our study identifies problems that can be avoided in fulfilling the goals of universal policies and certain questions to consider at the time of policy design and implementation.

  13. Menstrual problems and associated factors among students of Bahir Dar University, Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia: A cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiferaw, Muluken Teshome; Wubshet, Mamo; Tegabu, Desalegn

    2014-01-01

    Menstrual problems are the most common gynecologic complaints. The prevalence is highest in the 20 to 24-year-old age group and decreases progressively thereafter. They affect not only the woman, but also family, social and national economics as well. However, Population studies on Menstrual problems and associated factors were very little for university students in Ethiopia. Institutional based quantitative cross-sectional study was employed at Bahir Dar University from October 14 to 20, 2010, Ethiopia. Stratified sampling technique was used and 491 study subjects were randomly selected from faculties. Only 470 respondents had given complete response for the self-administered questionnaire and were included in the final analysis. Data was entered and analyzed with SPSS version 16.0 windows. The main statistical method applied was logistic regression (unconditional) and both the classical bivariate and the multivariate analyses were considered. The prevalence of dysmenorrhea and premenstrual syndrome were 85.1% and 72.8%, respectively. The most contributing factors remained to be statistically significant and independently associated with dysmenorrhea were having menstrual cycle length of 21-35 days (AOR=0.16, 95%CI: 0.04, 0.71), family history of dysmenorrhea (AOR=3.80, 95%CI: 2.13, 6.78) and circumcision (AOR=1.84, 95%CI: 1.001, 3.386) while with premenstrual syndrome were educational status of mothers being certified in certificate and beyond (AOR=0.45, 95%CI: 0.25, 0.83), living in Peda campus (AOR=2.11, 95%: 1.30, 3.45), having irregular menstruation (AOR=1.87, 95%CI: 1.17, 2.99) and family history of premenstrual syndrome (AOR=4.19, 95%CI: 2.60, 6.74). The prevalence of menstrual problems among students of Bahir Dar University was very high. Menstrual cycle length, family history of dysmenorrhea and circumcision were the most contributing factors associated with dysmenorrhea while educational status of mothers, regularity of menstruation, and family history

  14. Prevalence and possible causes of anemia in the elderly: a cross-sectional analysis of a large European university hospital cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach V

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Veronika Bach,1 Guenter Schruckmayer,1 Ines Sam,1 Georg Kemmler,2 Reinhard Stauder11Department of Internal Medicine V (Hematology and Oncology, 2Department of Biological Psychiatry, Innsbruck Medical University, Innsbruck, AustriaBackground: Anemia in later life is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and possible causes of anemia in the elderly in a well defined hospital cohort.Methods: Participants in this cross-sectional, retrospective analysis included all inpatients and outpatients aged ≥64 years with complete blood counts treated at Innsbruck Medical University Hospital between October 1, 2004 and September 29, 2005 (n=19,758, median age 73 years.Results: According to World Health Organization criteria, 21.1% of these patients were anemic, ie, 30.7% and 37.0% at 80+ years and 90+ years, respectively. The prevalence of anemia was significantly correlated with advanced age (r=0.21; P<0.001 and male sex (P<0.001. In anemic patients, renal insufficiency with a glomerular filtration rate <30 mL/min/1.73 m2 (11.3% versus 2.1%, hyperinflammation (62.1% versus 31.4%, absolute (14.4% versus 6.9% or functional (28.2% versus 11.8% iron deficiency, and folate deficiency (6.7% versus 3.0% were observed significantly more often than in nonanemic subjects (P<0.001. The pathogenesis of anemia was multifactorial, with decreased renal function (glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, signs of inflammation, and functional iron deficiency detected in 11.4% of anemic patients. Hemoglobin was significantly correlated with elevated C-reactive protein (r=–0.296; P<0.001 and low transferrin saturation (r=0.313; P<0.001. Mean corpuscular volume correlated only weakly with the various anemia subtypes. Cytopenias and morphologic alterations suggestive of underlying myelodysplastic syndromes were found in a substantial proportion of anemic patients, including thrombocytopenia (5

  15. Job-Seeking Stress, Mental Health Problems, and the Role of Perceived Social Support in University Graduates in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ah Young; Lee, Seung-Hee; Jeon, Yeongju; Yoo, Rankyung; Jung, Hee-Yeon

    2018-05-07

    Increases in unemployment and suicide in the young Korean population have recently become major social concerns in the country. The purpose of this study was to examine mental health status in young job seekers and identify sociodemographic factors related to job-seeking stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. We also explored the mediating effect of depression on the relationship between job-seeking stress and suicidal ideation and examined whether social support moderated this effect. In total, 124 university graduates completed the Job-Seeking Stress Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Descriptive statistics were calculated for participants' general characteristics, and t-tests or analyses of variance, correlation analysis, simple mediation analysis, and mediated moderation analysis were performed. Of the 124 participants, 39.5% and 15.3% exhibited clinical levels of depression and suicidal ideation, respectively. Sociodemographic factors (i.e., sex, academic major, educational expenses loan, and willingness to accept irregular employment) were associated with job-seeking stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. Women and graduates who were willing to accept irregular employment exhibited high levels of job-seeking stress, depression, and suicidal ideation. Job-seeking stress affected suicidal ideation via depression, and perceived social support moderated the effect of job-seeking stress on depression and the effect of depression on suicidal ideation. The results suggest that depression management and interventions are urgently required for young job seekers, and social support should be provided to assist them both emotionally and economically.

  16. Potentials and Problems of Internet as a Source of Purchasing Information – Experiences and Attitudes of University Students in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Knežević

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gathering information online prior to offline purchase became the com - mon way of using Internet within student population. On the other hand, there are more and more Internet users and online shoppers at all Central European Countries. In the CEE region companies are searching the way how to approach students as a target group via their web sites. The purpose of this research was to explain (1 how student population in Croatia use Internet as a tool for gathering information on products and services and (2 to assess perceived problems and potential of Internet as a retail information source. The paper is based on a primary research – a survey on attitudes of Croatian students towards Internet and online shopping. Results are analyzed by using descriptive and inferential statistical method. Discussion of the results brings us to conclusions that there are statistically different attitudes among groups according to gender and according previous experience with the on-line shopping. For illustration: (a males and females differ in assortment that they are choosing and buying online, (b male students have a more positive attitude towards online shopping benefits than female students, and (c online shoppers have more positive attitudes towards security issues than non-online shoppers.

  17. Why did the UV-A-induced photoluminescent blue–green glow in trilobite eyes and exoskeletons not cause problems for trilobites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Schoenemann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The calcitic lenses in the eyes of Palaeozoic trilobites are unique in the animal kingdom, although the use of calcite would have conveyed great advantages for vision in aquatic systems. Calcite lenses are transparent, and due to their high refractive index they would facilitate the focusing of light. In some respects, however, calcite lenses bear evident disadvantages. Birefringence would cause double images at different depths, but this is not a problem for trilobites since the difference in the paths of the ordinary and extraordinary rays is less than the diameter of the receptor cells. Another point, not discussed hitherto, is that calcite fluoresces when illuminated with UV-A. Here we show experimentally that calcite lenses fluoresce, and we discuss why fluorescence does not diminish the optical quality of these lenses and the image formed by them. In the environments in which the trilobites lived, UV-A would not have been a relevant factor, and thus fluorescence would not have disturbed or confused their visual system. We also argue that whatever the reason that calcite was never again used successfully in the visual systems of aquatic arthropods, it was not fluorescence.

  18. Book received: Paul van den Akker, Looking for Lines: Theories of the Essence of Art and the Problem of Mannerism, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press 2010 including preface, contents and introduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul van den Akker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Paul van den Akker, Looking for Lines: Theories of the Essence of Art and the Problem of Mannerism, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press 2010 including preface, contents and introduction.

  19. Funding Strategies for Qualitative University Education in Developing Economies: The Case of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    The problem of funding universities in developing economies has become a reoccurring problem often resulting in calamitous effect on teaching and research, and intellectual capital flight of academics. The inadequate funding of universities in developing countries especially West Africa is a prime cause of other problems that have undermined…

  20. Three-dimensional, virtual reality vestibular rehabilitation for chronic imbalance problem caused by Ménière's disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Su-Yi; Fang, Te-Yung; Yeh, Shih-Ching; Su, Mu-Chun; Wang, Pa-Chun; Wang, Victoria Y

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a three-dimensional, virtual reality system for vestibular rehabilitation in patients with intractable Ménière's disease and chronic vestibular dysfunction. We included 70 patients (36 for study, 34 as control) with a chronic imbalance problem caused by uncompensated Ménière's disease. The virtual reality vestibular rehabilitation comprised four training tasks (modified Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises: eye, head, extension, and coordination exercises) performed in six training sessions (in 4 weeks). Measurements of the task scores and balance parameters obtained at the baseline and after final training sessions were compared. A significant improvement was observed in extension and coordination scores. Patients in the early stages of Ménière's disease had a significantly greater improvement in the center of gravity sway and trajectory excursion in the mediolateral direction than did patients in the late stages of Ménière's disease. Mild functional disability attributable to Ménière's disease was a predictor of improvement in the statokinesigram and maximum trajectory excursion in the anteroposterior direction after rehabilitation. The control group showed no significant improvement in almost all parameters. Virtual reality vestibular rehabilitation may be useful in patients with Ménière's disease, particular those in the early stages or having mild functional disability. Implication for rehabilitation Chronic imbalance caused by uncompensated Ménière's disease is an indication for vestibular rehabilitation. The interactive virtual reality video game, when integrated into vestibular rehabilitation exercise protocol, may assist patients who have mild disability Ménière's disease and who cannot benefit from treatment with drugs or surgery. The initial data from this study support the applicability of three-dimensional virtual reality technology in vestibular rehabilitation programs. The technology gives

  1. Applying the Kanban method in problem-based project work: a case study in a manufacturing engineering bachelor's programme at Aalborg University Copenhagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balve, Patrick; Krüger, Volker; Tolstrup Sørensen, Lene

    2017-11-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has proven to be highly effective for educating students in an active and self-motivated manner in various disciplines. Student projects carried out following PBL principles are very dynamic and carry a high level of uncertainty, both conditions under which agile project management approaches are assumed to be highly supportive. The paper describes an empirical case study carried out at Aalborg University Copenhagen involving students from two different semesters of a Bachelor of Science programme. While executing the study, compelling examples of how PBL and the agile project management method Kanban blend could be identified. A final survey reveals that applying Kanban produces noticeable improvements with respect to creating, assigning and coordinating project tasks. Other improvements were found in group communication, knowledge about the work progress with regards to both the individual and the collective and the students' way of continuously improving their own teamwork.

  2. Shift Work and Related Health Problems among Medical and Diagnostic Staff of the General Teaching Hospitals Affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sajjadnia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Today, shift work is considered as a necessity in many jobs and for some 24-hour services the use of shift-work is growing. However, shift work can lead to physiological and psycho-social problems for shift workers. This study aimed to determine the effects of shift work on the associated health problems, together with the demographic and job characteristics underlying the problems, among the medical and diagnostic staff of the general teaching hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2012. Method:This study was an applied, cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical one. The study employed a sample of 205 employees from the medical and diagnostic staff using stratified sampling proportional to the size and simple random sampling methods. Data were collected using the Survey of Shift workers (SOS questionnaire, validity and reliability of which have already been confirmed. Finally, the collected data were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 software through ANOVA, Chi-square, Independent-Samples T-Test, as well as Pearson Correlation Coefficient. A P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that among the demographic and job characteristics studied, the individual, family and social problems had significant associations with work schedules, shift work and job satisfaction. In addition, there were significant associations between musculoskeletal disorders and the satisfaction of shift work; cardiovascular disorders and marital status and occupation; digestive disorders and the work schedules; sleep disorders and the satisfaction of shift work; musculoskeletal disorders, cardiovascular disorders and sleep disorders and age, job experience and shift work experience. And finally, there were significant associations among sleep disorders and age, job experience and the shift work experience. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, demographic characteristics such as age, marital

  3. Students’ perceptions and satisfaction level of hybrid problem-based learning for 16 years in Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghee Yeo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Kyungpook National University School of Medicine has been implementing hybrid problem-based learning (PBL since 1999. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the students’ perceptions and satisfaction levels of hybrid PBL. Methods: The target period of our study was from 1999 to 2014, and target subjects were second-year medical students in Kyungpook National University School of Medicine. The survey was conducted at the end of semester. We had a focused interview with group leaders and some volunteer students. Results: As for the scores regarding students’ overall satisfaction with PBL, there was significant improvement in 2005 compared to 2002, but the scores decreased and no differences between the survey years noted after 2005. The students’ preference ratio for the once a week PBL sessions, tutor presence, synchronization of contents, and arrangement of PBL sessions and related lectures was 60%–80%, 50%–90%, 52%–96%, and 78%–93%, respectively. Conclusion: In order to increase students’ satisfaction with hybrid PBL and to improve the perception of it, firstly, it is necessary to arrange the date and the time of PBL sessions so that students can concentrate on PBL. Secondly, PBL cases should be selected and arranged to be well synchronized with the ongoing lectures. Finally, it is important to create a safe atmosphere so that students can engage actively in PBL sessions.

  4. Problems Related to the Siting of the Laboratory Building for Civil Engineering Department at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagroba, Marek

    2016-10-01

    This paper deals with the conditions underlying and the problems arising from the siting of a building with specialist laboratories in a developed part of the university campus in Olsztyn, Poland. The topography of the terrain and the need to house civil engineering laboratories in the planned building had an immense impact on the shape of the building and consequently on its foundations, whose dimensions responded to the ground conditions and the specification of various loads they would have to support, including the equipment for the laboratories. The siting of a building as a step in the construction process entails several problems, which are first taken into consideration at the stage of making preliminary concept plans and are subsequently verified while working on the final construction plan. The required information included geotechnical documentation, survey of the ground conditions and the data regarding the predicted loads on the building, necessary to select the right type of foundations. All these problems grow in importance when dealing with such unique buildings like the discussed example of a laboratory building for the Civil Engineering Department, built on a site within a conservation zone on the campus of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland. The specific character of the building and the specialist equipment with which it was to be furnished (a resistance testing machine, a 17-meter-long wave flume) necessitated a series of analyses prior to the siting of the building and selecting suitable foundations. In turn, the fact that the new building was to be erected in the conservation zone meant that collaboration with the Heritage Conservation Office had to be undertaken at the stage of making the plan and continued during the construction works. The Heritage Officer's recommendations concerning the building's shape, divisions, dimensions, materials used, etc., created a situation where the team of designers and architects had to

  5. Work-related psychosocial risk factors and mental health problems amongst nurses at a university hospital in Estonia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freimann, Tiina; Merisalu, Eda

    2015-07-01

    Rapid changes in the Estonian health care system have placed extra pressure on the nursing profession, but the potential impacts of psychosocial changes have not been investigated. We aimed to explore the work-related psychosocial risk factors and their relationships with mental health problems (MHPs) amongst nurses at the university hospital in Estonia. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken amongst registered nurses at Tartu University Hospital (TUH). Psychosocial work factors and MHPs (stress, somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms and burnout) were measured using version two of the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ II). Descriptive statistics and Pearson's r correlation with sequential Bonferroni correction were used to analyse the data. The analysis was based on 404 nurses (45% of the full-time working population of nurses). The highest mean scores recorded for the positive work-related psychosocial factors studied were meaning of work, role clarity, social relationships and mutual trust between employees. The highest scores for the negative factors studied were the demands for hiding emotions, work pace, cognitive and emotional demands. Stress and burnout showed the highest mean scores amongst the MHPs. Quantitative and emotional demands were positively related to all of the studied MHPs, while work pace and role conflicts had a positive correlation with stress and burnout. All of the studied negative psychosocial factors were significantly correlated with burnout. work-related psychosocial risk factors such as quantitative demands work load, emotional demands, work pace and role conflicts, had significant positive relationships with MHPS in nurses in Estonia, and may contribute to high levels of stress as well as burnout amongst nurses: . © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  6. Mouth Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as sores, are very common. Follow this chart for more information about mouth problems in adults. ... cancers. See your dentist if sharp or rough teeth or dental work are causing irritation. Start OverDiagnosisThis ...

  7. Universe symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The sky uniformity can be noticed in studying the repartition of objects far enough. The sky isotropy description uses space rotations. The group theory elements will allow to give a meaning at the same time precise and general to the word a ''symmetry''. Universe models are reviewed, which must have both of the following qualities: - conformity with the physic known laws; - rigorous symmetry following one of the permitted groups. Each of the models foresees that universe evolution obeys an evolution equation. Expansion and big-bang theory are recalled. Is universe an open or closed space. Universe is also electrically neutral. That leads to a work hypothesis: the existing matter is not given data of universe but it appeared by evolution from nothing. Problem of matter and antimatter is then raised up together with its place in universe [fr

  8. Assisting the integration of social media in problem-based learning sessions in the Faculty of Medicine at King Abdulaziz University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Zuhier A; Awan, Almuatazbellah A; Alshawwa, Lana; Tekian, Ara; Park, Yoon Soo

    2018-05-07

    Issues related to traditional Problem-Based Learning (PBL) at King Abdulaziz University Faculty of Medicine (KAU-FOM), including lack of student interaction between sessions and outdated instructional materials have led to the examining the use of social media. This study examines factors affecting the implementation of social media into PBL sessions Methods: Mentored social media activities were incorporated between PBL sessions to third year medical students. Ground rules were set, and students were kept on track with learning objectives and authentic references. An online survey consisting of 18 questions were administered to measure the impact of the social media model embedded between PBL sessions. Feedback showed major improvements in students' learning process as well as identifying areas for improvement. The highest ratings were in participation and communication, knowledge and information gathering, and cooperation and team-building. This paper indicates that incorporating social media could facilitate learning between PBL sessions. Furthermore, guidelines are proposed to help educators implement a social media model into their PBL sessions.

  9. Comments from the Science Education Directorate, National Science Foundation: CAUSE, ISEP, and LOCI: Three-Program Approach to College-Level Science Improvement. II. Patterns and Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Judith B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Discusses patterns resulting from the monitor of science education proposals which may reflect problems or differing perceptions of NSF. Discusses these areas: proposal submissions from two-year institutions and social and behavioral scientists, trends in project content at the academic-industrial interface and in computer technology, and…

  10. Project for solving of environmental problems caused by ash emission and deposition from the thermal power plant 'Nikola Tesla' at Obrenovac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovic, B.R.; Vukmirovic, Z.; Ilic, M.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of ash emission and deposition from the Thermal Power Plant 'Nikola Tesla' (TPPNT) in Obrenovac commences with the date of their construction. Up to now, mainly, some analysis of several possible influences of ash (emitted or deposited on the ash and slug dump) was done. We believe that is time now, due to the consequences for a long time, to pose and to resolve the whole problem of ash emission and deposition from TPPNT Obrenovac. Due to the very big production capacity, an enormous amount of fly ash (particle size of 90-200 μm) is emitted to a large area near Obrenovac. Very large quantities of ash and slug (more than 2 millions tons annually) produced during coal burning were deposited on the dump very close to the river Sava. Some of the multiple consequences due to elution of heavy metals, water spilling from the dump and mixing with ground water and surface water of river Sava, weathering of fine particles of ash by wind, acid rains near to the thermal power plants, and other influences of flying and deposited ash on the environment of the whole area are always present. Due to the complexity of the posed problem, a multidisciplinary experts' team was formed to cover all aspects of negative influences of ash emission and deposition from TPPNT Obrenovac. Our project comprises a large number of subprojects covering different problem solving, diminution or removal of all negative influences according to European standards and regulations. (author)

  11. INTRODUCTION Introduction to the conference proceeding of the Workshop on Electromagnetic Inverse ProblemsThe University of Manchester, UK, 15-18 June, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Oliver; Lionheart, Bill

    2010-11-01

    This proceeding combines selected contributions from participants of the Workshop on Electromagnetic Inverse Problems which was hosted by the University of Manchester in June 2009. The workshop was organized by the two guest editors of this conference proceeding and ran in parallel to the 10th International Conference on Electrical Impedance Tomography, which was guided by Bill Lionheart, Richard Bayford, and Eung Je Woo. Both events shared plenary talks and several selected sessions. One reason for combining these two events was the goal of bringing together scientists from various related disciplines who normally might not attend the same conferences, and to enhance discussions between these different groups. So, for example, one day of the workshop was dedicated to the broader area of geophysical inverse problems (including inverse problems in petroleum engineering), where participants from the EIT community and from the medical imaging community were also encouraged to participate, with great success. Other sessions concentrated on microwave medical imaging, on inverse scattering, or on eddy current imaging, with active feedback also from geophysically oriented scientists. Furthermore, several talks addressed such diverse topics as optical tomography, photoacoustic tomography, time reversal, or electrosensing fish. As a result of the workshop, speakers were invited to contribute extended papers to this conference proceeding. All submissions were thoroughly reviewed and, after a thoughtful revision by the authors, combined in this proceeding. The resulting set of six papers presenting the work of in total 22 authors from 5 different countries provides a very interesting overview of several of the themes which were represented at the workshop. These can be divided into two important categories, namely (i) modelling and (ii) data inversion. The first three papers of this selection, as outlined below, focus more on modelling aspects, being an essential component of

  12. The Problem of Soil Erosion in Developing Countries--Direct and Indirect Causes and Recommendations for Reducing It to a Sustainable Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrook, Cathy H.; Goode, Pamela M.

    1992-01-01

    Presents direct and indirect causes of erosion in developing countries. Identifies soil conservation developments ranging from major international policy reforms to small-scale, local farming programs. Suggests that strategies at all levels, and the political will to implement them, are needed if erosion is to be reduced to a sustainable rate. (23…

  13. Students interest in learning science through fieldwork activity encourage critical thinking and problem solving skills among UPSI pre-university students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Siti Zaheera Muhamad; Khairuddin, Raja Farhana Raja

    2017-05-01

    Graduates with good critical thinking and problem solving (CTPS) skills are likely to boost their employability to live in 21st century. The demands of graduates to be equipped with CTPS skills have shifted our education system in focusing on these elements in all levels of education, from primary, the secondary, and up to the tertiary education, by fostering interesting teaching and learning activities such as fieldwork activity in science classes. Despite the importance of the CTPS skills, little is known about whether students' interests in teaching and learning activities, such as fieldwork activity, have any influence on the students CTPS skills. Therefore, in this investigation, firstly to examine students interests in learning science through fieldwork activity. Secondly, this study examined whether the students' interest in learning science through fieldwork activity have affect on how the students employ CTPS skills. About 100 Diploma of Science students in Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) were randomly chosen to participate in this study. All of the participants completed a survey on how they find the fieldwork activity implemented in their science classes and it relevents towards their CTPS skills development. From our findings, majority of the students (91%) find that fieldwork activity is interesting and helpful in increasing their interest in learning science (learning factor) and accommodate their learning process (utility). Results suggest that students' interest on the fieldwork activity in science classes does have some influence on the students development of CTPS skills. The findings could be used as an initial guideline by incorporating students' interest on other teaching and learning activities that being implemented in science classes in order to know the impacts of these learning activities in enhancing their CTPS skills.

  14. Tracing Actual Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-08

    produce a full explanation. While related, this problem dif- fers from the problem of determining actual causes where the focus is on identifying...1987]. We prove that the decision problem for causal slices is DP1 - complete. DP1 is the class of computational problems that can be solved using an NP ...machine and a co- NP machine simultaneously. Based on this result, we further show that the decision problem for causal histories is in ΠP2 . Closely

  15. Climatic change and health. Which problems are caused by thermophile hazardous organisms? Final report. Environment and health: climatic change; Klimawandel und Gesundheit. Welche Probleme verursachen Waerme liebende Schadorganismen? Abschlussbericht. Umwelt and Gesundheit: Klimawandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustin, Jobst; Muecke, Hans-Guido (comps.)

    2010-03-15

    Climatic changes can cause health hazards due to thermophile harmful organisms, especially those with increased allergic potentials. The meeting covered the following topics: climatic change induced health hazards and the German adaptation strategies; the complex relation between climatic change and allergies; ambrosia propagation in Germany - hazards for health and biodiversity; climatic change induced reaction of hygienically precarious organism in urban regions; monitoring and abatement of Thaumetopoea processionea in Bavarian woods; climatic change and pollen flight dynamics; Thaumetopoea processionea as cause for non-distinctive respiratory systems diseases; risk and protection factors for the development of asthma and allergies during infancy; abatement of pathogenic or invasive harmful organisms in Switzerland; health hazards in connection with Thaumetopoea processionea - examples from Bavaria; retrospective analysis of EPS diseases during 2004 and 2005 in the region Kleve.

  16. Analysis of causes for reject x-ray films as a quality assurance elements in diagnostic radiology in Jos university teaching hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anikoh, S.O.; Mangset, W.E.; Habila, N.; Mallam, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    The film reject rate and quality assessments studies were carried out at the Jos University Teaching Hospital. The rejected films collected and counted with respect to type, size and reasons for rejection were carried out for two calendar years. The observed reject rates were found to be nearly independent of the type of X-ray examination, which 68% of waste film reflected the nature and skills employed. The mechanical influence of equipment (machine fault is 11%, film rejection due to poor processing (dark room fault) was found to be 8% and for film rejection due to wrong identification, fogged film, uncooperating patient (patient movement) are 5%, 5% and 3% respectively. The deterioration in the quality of films and film processing conditions, ineffective quality assurance programs and inadequate regular staff training form a possible explanation for observed waste films which could have been avoided.

  17. The cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    A review of the cosmological term problem is presented. Baby universe model and the compensating field model are discussed. The importance of more accurate data on the Hubble constant and the Universe age is stressed. 18 refs

  18. Causes Of Low Efficiency Of Combined Ventilation System In Coal Mines In Resolving The Problem Of Air Leaks (Inflows) Between Levels And Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Valeriy; Filatov, Yuriy; Lee, Hee; Golik, Anatoliy

    2017-11-01

    The paper discusses the problem of the underground mining safety control. The long-term air intake to coal accumulations is reviewed as one of the reasons of endogenous fires during mining. The methods of combating air leaks (inflows) in order to prevent endogenous fires are analyzed. The calculations showing the discrepancy between the design calculations for the mine ventilation, disregarding a number of mining-andgeological and mining-engineering factors, and the actual conditions of mining are given. It is proved that the conversion of operating mines to combined (pressure and exhaust) ventilation system in order to reduce the endogenous fire hazard of underground mining is unreasonable due to impossibility of providing an optimal distribution of aerodynamic pressure in mines. The conversion does not exclude the entry of air into potentially hazardous zones of endogenous fires. The essence of the combined application of positive and negative control methods for the distribution of air pressure is revealed. It consists of air doors installation in easily ventilated airways and installation of pressure equalization chambers equipped with auxiliary fans near the stoppings, working sections and in parallel airways.The effectiveness of the combined application of negative and positive control methods for the air pressure distribution in order to reduce endogenous fire hazard of mining operations is proved.

  19. Causes Of Low Efficiency Of Combined Ventilation System In Coal Mines In Resolving The Problem Of Air Leaks (Inflows Between Levels And Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Valeriy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of the underground mining safety control. The long-term air intake to coal accumulations is reviewed as one of the reasons of endogenous fires during mining. The methods of combating air leaks (inflows in order to prevent endogenous fires are analyzed. The calculations showing the discrepancy between the design calculations for the mine ventilation, disregarding a number of mining-andgeological and mining-engineering factors, and the actual conditions of mining are given. It is proved that the conversion of operating mines to combined (pressure and exhaust ventilation system in order to reduce the endogenous fire hazard of underground mining is unreasonable due to impossibility of providing an optimal distribution of aerodynamic pressure in mines. The conversion does not exclude the entry of air into potentially hazardous zones of endogenous fires. The essence of the combined application of positive and negative control methods for the distribution of air pressure is revealed. It consists of air doors installation in easily ventilated airways and installation of pressure equalization chambers equipped with auxiliary fans near the stoppings, working sections and in parallel airways.The effectiveness of the combined application of negative and positive control methods for the air pressure distribution in order to reduce endogenous fire hazard of mining operations is proved.

  20. Industry-University Collaborations in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA – With Emphasis on Publication Freedom and Managing the Intellectual Property Lock-Up Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Robert; Mongeon, Marcel; Cope, Jeff; Garner, Cathy; Ternouth, Philip

    2014-01-01

    As industry-university collaborations are promoted to commercialize university research and foster economic growth, it is important to understand how companies benefit from these collaborations, and to ensure that resulting academic discoveries are developed for the benefit of all stakeholders: companies, universities and public. Lock up of inventions, and censoring of academic publications, should be avoided if feasible. This case-study analysis of interviews with 90 companies in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA assesses the scope of this challenge and suggests possible resolutions. The participating companies were asked to describe an important interaction with universities, and most described collaborative research. The most frequently cited tensions concerned intellectual property management and publication freedom. IP disagreements were most frequent in the context of narrowly-focused collaborations with American universities. However, in the case of exploratory research, companies accepted the IP management practices of US universities. It might make sense to let companies have an automatic exclusive license to IP from narrowly defined collaborations, but to encourage universities to manage inventions from exploratory collaborations to ensure development incentives. Although Canada, the UK and US have strong publication freedom guarantees, tensions over this issue arose frequently in focused collaborations, though were rare in exploratory collaborations. The UK Lambert Agreements give sponsors the option to control publications in return for paying the full economic cost of a project. This may offer a model for the other three countries. Uniquely among the four countries, Japan enables companies to control exclusively most collaborative inventions and to censor academic publications. Despite this high degree of control, the interviews suggest many companies do not develop university discoveries to their full potential. The steps suggested above may rebalance the

  1. Industry-university collaborations in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA--with emphasis on publication freedom and managing the intellectual property lock-up problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneller, Robert; Mongeon, Marcel; Cope, Jeff; Garner, Cathy; Ternouth, Philip

    2014-01-01

    As industry-university collaborations are promoted to commercialize university research and foster economic growth, it is important to understand how companies benefit from these collaborations, and to ensure that resulting academic discoveries are developed for the benefit of all stakeholders: companies, universities and public. Lock up of inventions, and censoring of academic publications, should be avoided if feasible. This case-study analysis of interviews with 90 companies in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA assesses the scope of this challenge and suggests possible resolutions. The participating companies were asked to describe an important interaction with universities, and most described collaborative research. The most frequently cited tensions concerned intellectual property management and publication freedom. IP disagreements were most frequent in the context of narrowly-focused collaborations with American universities. However, in the case of exploratory research, companies accepted the IP management practices of US universities. It might make sense to let companies have an automatic exclusive license to IP from narrowly defined collaborations, but to encourage universities to manage inventions from exploratory collaborations to ensure development incentives. Although Canada, the UK and US have strong publication freedom guarantees, tensions over this issue arose frequently in focused collaborations, though were rare in exploratory collaborations. The UK Lambert Agreements give sponsors the option to control publications in return for paying the full economic cost of a project. This may offer a model for the other three countries. Uniquely among the four countries, Japan enables companies to control exclusively most collaborative inventions and to censor academic publications. Despite this high degree of control, the interviews suggest many companies do not develop university discoveries to their full potential. The steps suggested above may rebalance the

  2. Industry-university collaborations in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA--with emphasis on publication freedom and managing the intellectual property lock-up problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kneller

    Full Text Available As industry-university collaborations are promoted to commercialize university research and foster economic growth, it is important to understand how companies benefit from these collaborations, and to ensure that resulting academic discoveries are developed for the benefit of all stakeholders: companies, universities and public. Lock up of inventions, and censoring of academic publications, should be avoided if feasible. This case-study analysis of interviews with 90 companies in Canada, Japan, the UK and USA assesses the scope of this challenge and suggests possible resolutions. The participating companies were asked to describe an important interaction with universities, and most described collaborative research. The most frequently cited tensions concerned intellectual property management and publication freedom. IP disagreements were most frequent in the context of narrowly-focused collaborations with American universities. However, in the case of exploratory research, companies accepted the IP management practices of US universities. It might make sense to let companies have an automatic exclusive license to IP from narrowly defined collaborations, but to encourage universities to manage inventions from exploratory collaborations to ensure development incentives. Although Canada, the UK and US have strong publication freedom guarantees, tensions over this issue arose frequently in focused collaborations, though were rare in exploratory collaborations. The UK Lambert Agreements give sponsors the option to control publications in return for paying the full economic cost of a project. This may offer a model for the other three countries. Uniquely among the four countries, Japan enables companies to control exclusively most collaborative inventions and to censor academic publications. Despite this high degree of control, the interviews suggest many companies do not develop university discoveries to their full potential. The steps suggested

  3. Problems caused by dioxins and furans. Pt. 2. Controls and degradation methods; `I problemi causati da diossine e furani. Pt. 2. Metodi di contenimento e di degradazione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervasini, A.; Vezzoli, G.C.; Ragaini, V. [Milan Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Chimica Fisica ed Elettrochimica

    1999-01-01

    The environmental effects and the toxicity towards human health caused by polychlorodibenzodioxins and furans (PCDD/F) is related to the peculiar properties of the various isomers and to the geographic and climatic characteristics of the emission sources. The different methods and techniques of control and degradation introduced in the last years have to take into account the type and the location of the source. A survey of the principal methods of degradation of PCDD/F, thermal, chemical, photochemical, and catalytic decomposition, with their advantages and limits is presented. [Italiano] L`impatto che policlorodibenzodiossine e furani (PCDD/F) provocano sull`ambiente e sulla salute dell`uomo e` legato oltre che alle proprieta` peculiari dei vari congeneri alle caratteristiche geografiche e climatologiche del luogo in cui vengono emesse. Le metodologie di contenimento e le tecniche di degradazione messe a punto negli ultimi anni devono tenere in considerazione anche l`ubicazione e il tipo di sorgente dell`emissione. Viene fornita una panoramica sui principali metodi di degradazione di PCDD/F discutendo vantaggi e limiti delle varie tecniche: decomposizione termica, chimica, fotochimica e catalitica.

  4. Incidence of Antenatal Trichomoniasis and Evaluation of Its Role as a Cause of Preterm Birth in Pregnant Women Referring to Minia University Hospital, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Mohamed KAMAL

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to determine the incidence of trichomoniasis and its risk factors in Egyptian pregnant women attending the Minia Maternity and Pediatric University Hospital, Minia, Egypt and evaluate its association with preterm birth.Methods: The study was carried out from Aug 2014 to Jun 2015 through 2 phases, the first phase was case-control study, and the second phase was follow-up with intervention. Overall, 300 pregnant women with gestational age of 20-36 weeks with no medical risk factors of preterm labour birth were enrolled. Vaginal swabs were examined by the wet mount microscopy and culture while urine samples were examined by urine analysis. Demographic information was collected. Pregnant women were divided into two groups, study group (with trichomoniasis and control group (without trichomoniasis. Positive cases were subjected to metronidazole treatment.Results: Thirty-five cases were positive for T. vaginalis infection. Maximum cases were detected by culture (11.7% followed by wet mount microscopy (9.7% whereas least number of cases (7.3% was detected by urine examination. Nineteen (54.28% cases had preterm delivery. Post-delivery adverse outcomes were observed in 29 cases (82.8%. The high rate of infection was observed in age group of 20-30 years (P<0.05. In addition, there was a signifi­cant T. vaginalis infection in pregnant women living in rural area, of low socioeconomic and primary educa­tional levels (P<0.05.Conclusion: pregnant women lived in rural area with a low socioeconomic and primary educational levels should be screened for trichomoniasis to reduce the incidence of preterm delivery and low birth weight.

  5. Use of enzymes to minimize the rheological dough problems caused by high levels of damaged starch in starch-gluten systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Gabriela N; León, Alberto E; Ribotta, Pablo D

    2016-05-01

    During wheat milling, starch granules can experience mechanical damage, producing damaged starch. High levels of damaged starch modify the physicochemical properties of wheat flour, negatively affecting the dough behavior as well as the flour quality and cookie and bread making quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of α-amylase, maltogenic amylase and amyloglucosidase on dough rheology in order to propose alternatives to reduce the issues related to high levels of damaged starch. The dough with a high level of damaged starch became more viscous and resistant to deformations as well as less elastic and extensible. The soluble fraction of the doughs influenced the rheological behavior of the systems. The α-amylase and amyloglucosidase reduced the negative effects of high damaged starch contents, improving the dough rheological properties modified by damaged starch. The rheological behavior of dough with the higher damaged-starch content was related to a more open gluten network arrangement as a result of the large size of the swollen damaged starch granules. We can conclude that the dough rheological properties of systems with high damaged starch content changed positively as a result of enzyme action, particularly α-amylase and amyloglucosidase additions, allowing the use of these amylases and mixtures of them as corrective additives. Little information was reported about amyloglucosidase activity alone or combined with α-amylase. The combinations of these two enzymes are promising to minimize the negative effects caused by high levels of damaged starch on product quality. More research needs to be done on bread quality combining these two enzymes. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Resistance profile for pathogens causing urinary tract infection in a pediatric population, and antibiotic treatment response at a university hospital, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez Echeverri, Catalina; Serna-Higuita, Lina María; Serrano, Ana Katherina; Ochoa-García, Carolina; Rojas Rosas, Luisa; María Bedoya, Ana; Suárez, Margarita; Hincapié, Catalina; Henao, Adriana; Ortiz, Diana; Vanegas, Juan José; Zuleta, John Jairo; Espinal, David

    2014-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in childhood and causes acute and chronic morbidity and long-term hypertension and chronic kidney disease. To describe the demographic characteristics, infectious agents, patterns of antibiotic resistance, etiologic agent and profile of susceptibility and response to empirical treatment of UTI in a pediatric population. This is a descriptive, retrospective study. Included in the study were 144 patients, 1:2.06 male to female ratio. The most common symptom was fever (79.9%) and 31.3% had a history of previous UTI. 72.0% of the patients had positive urine leukocyte count (>5 per field), urine gram was positive in 85.0% of samples and gram negative bacilli accounted for 77.8% for the total pathogens isolated. The most frequent uropathogens isolated were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Our E.coli isolates had a susceptibility rate higher than 90% to most of the antibiotics used, but a resistance rate of 42.6% to TMP SMX and 45.5% to ampicillin sulbactam. 6.3% of E. coli was extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producer strains. The most frequent empirical antibiotic used was amikacin, which was used in 66.0% of the patients. 17 of 90 patients who underwent voiding cistouretrography (VCUG) had vesicoureteral reflux. This study revealed that E. coli was the most frequent pathogen of community acquired UTI. We found that E. coli and other uropathogens had a high resistance rate against TMP SMX and ampicillin sulbactam. In order to ensure a successful empirical treatment, protocols should be based on local epidemiology and susceptibility rates.

  7. Mobbing Experiences of Instructors: Causes, Results, and Solution Suggestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celep, Cevat; Konakli, Tugba

    2013-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to investigate possible mobbing problems in universities, their causes and results, and to attract attention to precautions that can be taken. Phenomenology as one of the qualitative research methods was used in the study. Sample group of the study was selected through the criteria sampling method and eight instructors…

  8. Causes and Management of Domestic Conflicts among Couples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whereas the issue of domestic conflict is universal, its manifestation differs between and within ethnographic regions of the world. This paper examines the phenomenon of domestic conflict among couples in Esan-speaking area of Edo State. Particularly the paper addresses the main causes of the problem and the ...

  9. What causes education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Why do universities not give priority to education? The article suggests a formal answer on the basis of Lacan’s four discourses. Why education? Why do we learn? Is it caused by a natural curiosity or is it caused by anxiety? Is it at all possible to control the influence that we undoubtedly have...

  10. Collaborative problem solving with a total quality model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volden, C M; Monnig, R

    1993-01-01

    A collaborative problem-solving system committed to the interests of those involved complies with the teachings of the total quality management movement in health care. Deming espoused that any quality system must become an integral part of routine activities. A process that is used consistently in dealing with problems, issues, or conflicts provides a mechanism for accomplishing total quality improvement. The collaborative problem-solving process described here results in quality decision-making. This model incorporates Ishikawa's cause-and-effect (fishbone) diagram, Moore's key causes of conflict, and the steps of the University of North Dakota Conflict Resolution Center's collaborative problem solving model.

  11. The mismatch between the health research and development (R&D that is needed and the R&D that is undertaken: an overview of the problem, the causes, and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderik F. Viergever

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most pressing global health problems is that there is a mismatch between the health research and development (R&D that is needed and that which is undertaken. The dependence of health R&D on market incentives in the for-profit private sector and the lack of coordination by public and philanthropic funders on global R&D priorities have resulted in a global health R&D landscape that neglects certain products and populations and is characterised, more generally, by a distribution that is not ‘needs-driven’. This article provides an overview of the mismatch, its causes, and solutions.

  12. The mismatch between the health research and development (R&D) that is needed and the R&D that is undertaken: an overview of the problem, the causes, and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viergever, Roderik F

    2013-10-10

    One of the most pressing global health problems is that there is a mismatch between the health research and development (R&D) that is needed and that which is undertaken. The dependence of health R&D on market incentives in the for-profit private sector and the lack of coordination by public and philanthropic funders on global R&D priorities have resulted in a global health R&D landscape that neglects certain products and populations and is characterised, more generally, by a distribution that is not 'needs-driven'. This article provides an overview of the mismatch, its causes, and solutions.

  13. Phantom energy accretion onto black holes in a cyclic universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Chengyi

    2008-01-01

    Black holes pose a serious problem in cyclic or oscillating cosmology. It is speculated that, in the cyclic universe with phantom turnarounds, black holes will be torn apart by phantom energy prior to turnaround before they can create any problems. In this paper, using the mechanism of phantom accretion onto black holes, we find that black holes do not disappear before phantom turnaround. But the remanent black holes will not cause any problems due to Hawking evaporation.

  14. New Jersey City University's College of Education Writing Assessment Program: Profile of a Local Response to a Systemic Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, Audrey

    2017-01-01

    This profile presents New Jersey City University's Writing Assessment Program from its creation in 2002 to its elimination in 2017. The program arose as an attempt to raise the writing skills of the diverse, first generation teacher certification candidates in the College of Education. Despite political missteps, the program gained greater…

  15. The Problem with Reform from the Bottom up: Instructional Practises and Teacher Beliefs of Graduate Teaching Assistants Following a Reform-Minded University Teacher Certificate Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Tracie M.; Blanchard, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    Reform-minded practices are widely encouraged during pre-service science teacher education in concert with national reform documents. This contrasts to the nature of instruction within university science laboratories in which pre-service teachers enrol, which are largely confirmatory in nature. Undergraduate science laboratories are taught…

  16. Impact of Binding Study Advice on Study Behavior and Pre-University Education Qualification Factors in a Problem-Based Psychology Bachelor Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Björn B.; Loyens, Sofie M. M.; Rikers, Remy M. J. P.; Smeets, Guus; van der Molen, Henk T.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands, university programs increasingly use the binding study advice (BSA) to select students after the first year. Students with insufficient progress after the first year and who therefore do not conform to pre-defined BSA norms have to quit their program. This study investigated whether the introduction of the BSA is associated…

  17. PEARLs, Problems and Politics: Exploring Findings from Two Teaching and Learning Projects in Indigenous Australian Studies at the University of Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinlay, Elizabeth; Barney, Katelyn

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the implementation of PEARL (Political, Embodied, Active, and Reflective Learning) in two courses at The University of Queensland: a first-year introductory Indigenous Studies course and a second year Indigenous Education course. We draw on findings from a 2-year (2010-2011) Office for Learning and Teaching (then ALTC) funded…

  18. Calculus problems

    CERN Document Server

    Baronti, Marco; van der Putten, Robertus; Venturi, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This book, intended as a practical working guide for students in Engineering, Mathematics, Physics, or any other field where rigorous calculus is needed, includes 450 exercises. Each chapter starts with a summary of the main definitions and results, which is followed by a selection of solved exercises accompanied by brief, illustrative comments. A selection of problems with indicated solutions rounds out each chapter. A final chapter explores problems that are not designed with a single issue in mind but instead call for the combination of a variety of techniques, rounding out the book’s coverage. Though the book’s primary focus is on functions of one real variable, basic ordinary differential equations (separation of variables, linear first order and constant coefficients ODEs) are also discussed. The material is taken from actual written tests that have been delivered at the Engineering School of the University of Genoa. Literally thousands of students have worked on these problems, ensuring their real-...

  19. Baby Business: a randomised controlled trial of a universal parenting program that aims to prevent early infant sleep and cry problems and associated parental depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook Fallon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant crying and sleep problems (e.g. frequent night waking, difficulties settling to sleep each affect up to 30% of infants and often co-exist. They are costly to manage and associated with adverse outcomes including postnatal depression symptoms, early weaning from breast milk, and later child behaviour problems. Preventing such problems could improve these adverse outcomes and reduce costs to families and the health care system. Anticipatory guidance-i.e. providing parents with information about normal infant sleep and cry patterns, ways to encourage self-settling in infants, and ways to develop feeding and settling routines before the onset of problems-could prevent such problems. This paper outlines the protocol for our study which aims to test an anticipatory guidance approach. Methods/Design 750 families from four Local Government Areas in Melbourne, Australia have been randomised to receive the Baby Business program (intervention group or usual care (control group offered by health services. The Baby Business program provides parents with information about infant sleep and crying via a DVD and booklet (mailed soon after birth, telephone consultation (at infant age 6-8 weeks and parent group session (at infant age 12 weeks. All English speaking parents of healthy newborn infants born at > 32 weeks gestation and referred by their maternal and child health nurse at their first post partum home visit (day 7-10 postpartum, are eligible. The primary outcome is parent report of infant night time sleep as a problem at four months of age and secondary outcomes include parent report of infant daytime sleep or crying as a problem, mean duration of infant sleep and crying/24 hours, parental depression symptoms, parent sleep quality and quantity and health service use. Data will be collected at two weeks (baseline, four months and six months of age. An economic evaluation using a cost-consequences approach will, from a societal

  20. Baby Business: a randomised controlled trial of a universal parenting program that aims to prevent early infant sleep and cry problems and associated parental depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Fallon; Bayer, Jordana; Le, Ha N D; Mensah, Fiona; Cann, Warren; Hiscock, Harriet

    2012-02-06

    Infant crying and sleep problems (e.g. frequent night waking, difficulties settling to sleep) each affect up to 30% of infants and often co-exist. They are costly to manage and associated with adverse outcomes including postnatal depression symptoms, early weaning from breast milk, and later child behaviour problems. Preventing such problems could improve these adverse outcomes and reduce costs to families and the health care system. Anticipatory guidance-i.e. providing parents with information about normal infant sleep and cry patterns, ways to encourage self-settling in infants, and ways to develop feeding and settling routines before the onset of problems-could prevent such problems. This paper outlines the protocol for our study which aims to test an anticipatory guidance approach. 750 families from four Local Government Areas in Melbourne, Australia have been randomised to receive the Baby Business program (intervention group) or usual care (control group) offered by health services. The Baby Business program provides parents with information about infant sleep and crying via a DVD and booklet (mailed soon after birth), telephone consultation (at infant age 6-8 weeks) and parent group session (at infant age 12 weeks). All English speaking parents of healthy newborn infants born at > 32 weeks gestation and referred by their maternal and child health nurse at their first post partum home visit (day 7-10 postpartum), are eligible. The primary outcome is parent report of infant night time sleep as a problem at four months of age and secondary outcomes include parent report of infant daytime sleep or crying as a problem, mean duration of infant sleep and crying/24 hours, parental depression symptoms, parent sleep quality and quantity and health service use. Data will be collected at two weeks (baseline), four months and six months of age. An economic evaluation using a cost-consequences approach will, from a societal perspective, compare costs and health outcomes

  1. Students applying their knowledge of material science in problem-solving: implications for competence based-learning at the University of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kwaira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study involved a class of serving teachers in their second year of a Bachelor of Education degree programme, in which one of the pre-requisite courses covered during first year was ‘Principles of Material Science (PMS. At the time of study, they were studying ‘Machine-shop Practice’ (MsP; a course based on the Design and Technology (D&T approach, in terms of teaching and learning. They were required to solve practical-technical problems through hands-on practical activities, supported by relevant ancillary theory. In practice, during such activities, students are expected to demonstrate the ability to apply their knowledge of Material Science (MS in various ways; for example, in the choice of materials for given projects aimed at solving specific problems and in the methods of working such materials. Now given this background, the problem was therefore to determine the extent to which students applied their knowledge of MS in solving selected problems under MsP. Data were gathered through interviews, discussions, observations and document analysis. Findings showed students being able to apply their knowledge of MS effectively during problem-solving under MsP; thereby, qualifying their learning as having been outcome-based in nature.

  2. Understanding Heart Valve Problems and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Check Recipe Certification Program Nutrition Requirements Heart-Check Professional Resources Contact the Heart-Check Certification Program Simple Cooking and Recipes Dining Out Choosing a Restaurant Deciphering ...

  3. Fish based diets cause archaeological dating problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Rørbæk, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Every time our ancestors cooked freshwater fish in ceramic vessels, they unwittingly set a Carbon-14 trap for future archaeologists......Every time our ancestors cooked freshwater fish in ceramic vessels, they unwittingly set a Carbon-14 trap for future archaeologists...

  4. The Study of the Magnitude of the Research Problems before and after the Administrative and Management Interventions from the Faculty Members and Researchers' Viewpoint at Qom University of Medical Sciences , Qom, Iran, during 2004-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darabi Sh.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Objectives: The examination of the research attractions in developed counties, and deficiencies and constraints in conducting researches can reveal invaluable implications. The researches carried out in recent decades are indicative of the fact that there have always been major constraints during the research conduction. Those countries which aspire to compete in the world should remove all the constraints and barriers, and attract the necessary attention on researches. Thus, the current study was intended to find the problems and limitations, and offer the needed interventions so as to overcome those problems.Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental (pre and post one. The participants of the study included those faculty members and researchers who had conducted at least a project as an administrator or a major contributor before and after intervention. In order to gather data, a self-designed questionnaire was filled in two phases; before and after the interventions. The questionnaire included demographics and information about research problems in the four areas of Research Project Preparation (RPP, Research Project Conduct (RPC, Administrative-Management and Personal Problems. Descriptive statistics and various statistical procedures tests were utilized to analyze the data.Results: The findings revealed that the mean of the magnitude of the research problems in RPP, RPC, administrative management and personal problems was a significant difference (P<0.001 before and after intervention. In RPP, lack of beneficial database bank in university, in RPC lack of budget, in Administrative-Management lack of knowledge accountant about corresponding activity and in Personal Problems lack of enough motivation for research were all having the highest intensity. Thus, after intervention the magnitude of the problem was reduced. Conclusion: In conclusion, it seems that bureaucratic rules, shortage of research budget, heavy work

  5. Applications of hybrid and digital computation methods in aerospace-related sciences and engineering. [problem solving methods at the University of Houston

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. J.; Motard, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The computing equipment in the engineering systems simulation laboratory of the Houston University Cullen College of Engineering is described and its advantages are summarized. The application of computer techniques in aerospace-related research psychology and in chemical, civil, electrical, industrial, and mechanical engineering is described in abstracts of 84 individual projects and in reprints of published reports. Research supports programs in acoustics, energy technology, systems engineering, and environment management as well as aerospace engineering.

  6. SUICIDE AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN KENYA: CAUSES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suicide is against the law in Kenya. The existence of suicide phenomena in the society is a major issue that needs to be looked into with a lot of concern, and creating effective preventative measure is a matter of urgency. Knowledge concerning suicide is largely limited. The majority of people in the society treat suicide ...

  7. The inflationary universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guth, A.; Steinhardt, P.

    1993-01-01

    According to the inflationary model, the universe had a brief period of extraordinary rapid expansion, or inflation, during which its diameter increased by a factor at least 10 25 times larger (and perhaps much larger still) than had been previously thought. All the matter and energy in the universe could have been created from virtually nothing. Features of this article are: comparison of standard and inflationary modes, the horizon problem, the geometry of the universe, spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism (energy density of the Higgs fields), the flatness problem, the new inflationary universe (new Higgs fields and false vacuum), conserved quantities in the universe. 12 figs., 11 refs

  8. Fellowship Connects Principal Learning to Student Achievement: How an External Benefactor, a Research University, and an Urban School District Build Capacity for Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Krista; Monson, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Much has been written about the disconnect between education research produced in graduate schools of education and the practice of school leaders. In this article, the authors share one story of an external partnership that promotes the development of a principal's capacity for complex problem solving and the early research that suggests this…

  9. Problems of Modern Higher Education in the Sphere of Russian Philology and the Ways of Solving Them (on the Example of the Situation in Kazan Federal University)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushkanets, Leah E.; Mahinina, Natalia G.; Nasrutdinova, Lilia H.; Sidorova, Marina M.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the actual problems of modern higher education in the sphere of Russian Philology which depends on the world crisis situation, that continues to persist, despite the efforts to reform it. This article aims to mark some important problematical items necessary to realize the reformation of higher philological education and…

  10. Applying the Kanban Method in Problem-Based Project Work: A Case Study in A Manufacturing Engineering Bachelor's Programme at Aalborg University Copenhagen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balve, Patrick; Krüger, Volker; Tolstrup Sørensen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has proven to be highly effective for educating students in an active and self-motivated manner in various disciplines. Student projects carried out following PBL principles are very dynamic and carry a high level of uncertainty, both conditions under which agile project management approaches are assumed to be highly…

  11. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth / For Teens / What Causes Bad Breath? Print en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  12. Cross-national comparison of Middle Eastern university students: help-seeking behaviors, attitudes toward helping professionals, and cultural beliefs about mental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Krenawi, Alean; Graham, John R; Al-Bedah, Eman A; Kadri, Hafni Mahmud; Sehwail, Mahmud A

    2009-02-01

    This study is the first to use identical data collection processes and instruments in Egypt, Kuwait, Palestine, and Israeli Arab communities regarding help-seeking behaviors and attitudes towards perceived cultural beliefs about mental health problems. Data is based on a survey sample of 716, undergraduate students in the 4 countries, 61% female and 39% male. Results indicate that respondents within the various countries, based on nationality, gender and level of education, vary in terms of recognition of personal need, beliefs about mental health problems (i.e. stigmatization), and the use of traditional healing methods versus modern approaches to psychiatric therapy. The conclusion discusses differences between our respondents' expectations and prevailing mental health service provision and delivery.

  13. Finite element flow analysis; Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Finite Element Methods in Flow Problems, Chuo University, Tokyo, Japan, July 26-29, 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, T.

    Among the topics discussed are the application of FEM to nonlinear free surface flow, Navier-Stokes shallow water wave equations, incompressible viscous flows and weather prediction, the mathematical analysis and characteristics of FEM, penalty function FEM, convective, viscous, and high Reynolds number FEM analyses, the solution of time-dependent, three-dimensional and incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, turbulent boundary layer flow, FEM modeling of environmental problems over complex terrain, and FEM's application to thermal convection problems and to the flow of polymeric materials in injection molding processes. Also covered are FEMs for compressible flows, including boundary layer flows and transonic flows, hybrid element approaches for wave hydrodynamic loadings, FEM acoustic field analyses, and FEM treatment of free surface flow, shallow water flow, seepage flow, and sediment transport. Boundary element methods and FEM computational technique topics are also discussed. For individual items see A84-25834 to A84-25896

  14. The Problem with Reform from the Bottom up: Instructional practises and teacher beliefs of graduate teaching assistants following a reform-minded university teacher certificate programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Tracie M.; Blanchard, Margaret R.

    2010-05-01

    Reform-minded practices are widely encouraged during pre-service science teacher education in concert with national reform documents. This contrasts to the nature of instruction within university science laboratories in which pre-service teachers enrol, which are largely confirmatory in nature. Undergraduate science laboratories are taught predominantly by graduate teaching assistants (GTAs) with minimal teacher preparation. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to investigate the instructional practices and teacher beliefs of eight GTAs at a university with very high research activity who completed a reform-minded Teacher Certificate Programme, asking: What are their beliefs about teaching? How are their practices described? Do their beliefs and practices differ from one another? Do their teaching beliefs correspond with their practices? Findings indicate that GTAs held moderately reform-minded "transitional" beliefs of teaching following the programme, yet displayed fairly traditional instruction. Cross-case findings highlight similar patterns across subscales of the RTOP that draw attention to underlying constraints of the laboratory curriculum structure. We suggest that GTA professional development is best undertaken concurrent with laboratory course revision.

  15. Inflation in the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, J.D.; California Univ., Berkeley; Turner, M.S.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1981-01-01

    The problems of explaining the observed isotropy, homogeneity, flatness and specific entropy of the Universe are discussed in the context of an inflationary Universe which has recently been suggested. It is shown that the isotropy cannot be ignored as a Universe with a large amount of anisotropy will not undergo the inflationary phase. A Universe with only moderate anistropy will undergo inflation and will be rapidly isotropized. (U.K.)

  16. Diagnosing plant problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheryl A. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosing Christmas tree problems can be a challenge, requiring a basic knowledge of plant culture and physiology, the effect of environmental influences on plant health, and the ability to identify the possible causes of plant problems. Developing a solution or remedy to the problem depends on a proper diagnosis, a process that requires recognition of a problem and...

  17. Problems concerning food production, supply and use caused by radioactive deposition: A study directed towards needs for early decision making after radioactive fallout; Radiakproblem inom livsmedelssektorn: En studie inriktad paa behoven foer beslutsfattande i tidigt skede efter radioaktivt nedfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, R

    1995-12-01

    The primary aim of this study is to analyze and describe how a radioactive deposition after nuclear weapons employment outside Sweden would affect the domestic food production in a short time perspective and in the sequence of events from primary production over processing and transport to food consumption. The study is an attempt at a comprehensive treatment of knowledge needed as a basis for decisions on operative issues, often of a time-urgent nature. Actions to alleviate the problems pertinent to the food supply in the event of radioactive fallout are also discussed, although without any claim of exhaustive coverage. Other aspects, as the economical consequences of the disturbances due to the fallout situation (or of possible counteractions) are not dealt with, however. With certain restrictions mentioned in the text the results are also applicable in connection with radioactive deposition caused by accidental release from a nuclear power plant. 60 refs, 32 figs.

  18. Causes of drug-related problems in the emergency room of a hospital in southern Brazil Problemas relacionados con medicamentos en el servicio de urgencias de un hospital en el sur de Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Simone Andreazza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the frequency and types of drug-related problems (DRPs in patients seeking emergency care in a teaching hospital in southern Brazil and to identify the possible causes and drugs involved in these problems. Method: A cross-sectional study was performed, using a structured questionnaire for data collection. Multivariate logistic regression was used to control for possible confounding factors and to establish an independent association between the presence of DRPs and the amount of medication, patient's age and their educational level. Results: A total of 350 patients were interviewed. The frequency of DRPs was 31.6%. Quantitative ineffectiveness was observed in 30.9% of DRPs and the main cause of the DRP was an inadequate dosing regimen. Sixty-six DRPs (53.7% were caused by the health system or the health professionals. Factors independently influencing the development of DRPs were educational level and the number of drugs being taken. Conclusions: Our data suggest that one-third of the patients attending the emergency room of our hospital had a drug-related problem, highlighting the importance of considering drugs as a possible cause of health problems and the need for their more rational use.Objetivo: Evaluar la frecuencia y el tipo de problemas relacionados con medicamentos que presentan los pacientes que acuden al servicio de urgencias en un hospital universitario del sur de Brasil, e identificar las posibles causas y los fármacos involucrados. Método: La investigación siguió el modelo de estudio transversal, con una encuesta estructurada para la recogida de los datos. Se empleó el análisis de regresión logística múltiple para controlar posibles factores de confusión y establecer una asociación independiente entre la presencia de problemas relacionados con medicamentos y el número de éstos, la edad y el nivel educativo. Resultados: Se entrevistaron 350 pacientes y la frecuencia de problemas relacionados con

  19. If the universe is teeming with aliens where is everybody? fifty solutions to the Fermi paradox and the problem of extraterrestrial life

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Given the fact that there are perhaps 400 million stars in our Galaxy alone, and perhaps 400 million galaxies in the Universe, it stands to reason that somewhere out there, in the 14-billion-year-old cosmos, there is or once was a civilization at least as advanced as our own. The sheer enormities of the numbers almost demand that we accept the truth of this hypothesis. Why, then, have we encountered no evidence, no messages, no artifacts of these extraterrestrials? Webb discusses in detail the 50 most cogent and intriguing solutions to Fermi's famous paradox: If the numbers strongly point to the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations, why have we found no evidence of them?

  20. If the Universe is teeming with aliens... where is everybody? seventy-five solutions to the Fermi paradox and the problem of extraterrestrial life

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Given the fact that there are perhaps 400 billion stars in our Galaxy alone, and perhaps 400 billion galaxies in the Universe, it stands to reason that somewhere out there, in the 14-billion-year-old cosmos, there is or once was a civilization at least as advanced as our own. The sheer enormity of the numbers almost demands that we accept the truth of this hypothesis. Why, then, have we encountered no evidence, no messages, no artifacts of these extraterrestrials? In this second, significantly revised and expanded edition of his widely popular book, Webb discusses in detail the (for now!) 75 most cogent and intriguing solutions to Fermi's famous paradox: If the numbers strongly point to the existence of extraterrestrial civilizations, why have we found no evidence of them?

  1. The Study of the Magnitude of the Research Problems before and after the Administrative and Management Interventions from the Faculty Members and Researchers' Viewpoint at Qom University of Medical Sciences , Qom, Iran, during 2004-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Darabi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: The examination of the research attractions in developed counties, and deficiencies and constraints in conducting researches can reveal invaluable implications. The researches carried out in recent decades are indicative of the fact that there have always been major constraints during the research conduction. Those countries which aspire to compete in the world should remove all the constraints and barriers, and attract the necessary attention on researches. Thus, the current study was intended to find the problems and limitations, and offer the needed interventions so as to overcome those problems.

    Methods: This study was a quasi-experimental (pre and post one. The participants of the study included those faculty members and researchers who had conducted at least a project as an administrator or a major contributor before and after intervention. In order to gather data, a self-designed questionnaire was filled in two phases; before and after the interventions. The questionnaire included demographics and information about research problems in the four areas of Research Project Preparation (RPP, Research Project Conduct (RPC, Administrative-Management and Personal Problems. Descriptive statistics and various statistical procedures tests were utilized to analyze the data.

    Results: The findings revealed that the mean of the magnitude of the research problems in RPP, RPC, administrative management and personal problems was a significant difference (P<0.001 before and after intervention. In RPP, lack of beneficial database bank in university, in RPC lack of budget, in Administrative-Management lack of knowledge accountant about corresponding activity and in Personal Problems lack of enough motivation for research were all having the

  2. Problems of radiation protection and their solution in afterloading therapy performed in a X-ray deep therapy chamber of the Radiological Clinic of the Martin-Luther-University Halle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauh, G.

    1982-01-01

    The Radiological Clinic of the Martin-Luther-University Halle got the first afterloading therapy unit DECATRON in December 1973. After preceding physical measurements the first patient was irradiated in August 1974. At this time there was no experience with the afterloading therapy in the GDR. The afterloading therapy was performed in a former X-ray deep therapy chamber. The occuring problems of radiation protection are considered and the ways of solution are described. Radiation protection calculations were carried out, values of local dose measurements are given, interpreted and compared with the values of personal dosimetry. Also the terms 'incorporated activity' and 'threading out activity' ('effective activity') are discussed, which led to differences in dose measurements formerly. The special situation required to discuss radiation protection problems of X-ray deep therapy simultaneously. (author)

  3. The First Attempt at Initiating Problem-Based Learning as A Method of Teaching–Learning at the University of Medical Sciences in Poznan, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Grzeskowiak

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of problem-based learning (PBL is to provoke students to solve a new problem by themselves. The aim of this study was to investigate whether PBL was a better method of teaching basic and advanced life support to medical students compared with the classical method. The research was undertaken in 2002 in accordance with the European Guidelines 2000 and involved 36 medical students in year 4. The students were divided into two groups: experimental PBL group (17 students and the control-classical method group (19 students. After the advanced life support course, the students wrote two tests to assess their knowledge on how to open the airway and how to perform basic and advanced resuscitation. The questions contained true or false answers. The students' skills of basic and advanced methods of opening the airway and advanced resuscitation were checked by practical tests. The Mann-Whitney test was used for statistical analysis. The experimental PBL group received significantly better results: 30–45 points (mean, 38.29 points and 30–47 points (mean, 40.94 points for the written and practical tests, respectively, compared with the control-classical group (22–34 points [mean, 29.36 points] and 22–35 points [mean, 28.63 points], respectively. Therefore, PBL offers a better method for teaching basic and advanced life support to medical students compared with the classical method.

  4. Simpson's Paradox and Confounding Factors in University Rankings: A Demonstration Using QS 2011-12 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Kay Cheng

    2012-01-01

    University ranking has become ritualistic in higher education. Ranking results are taken as bona fide by rank users. Ranking systems usually use large data sets from highly heterogeneous universities of varied backgrounds. This poses the problem of Simpson's Paradox and the lurking variables causing it. Using QS 2011-2012 Ranking data, the dual…

  5. Can hospital audit teams identify case management problems, analyse their causes, identify and implement improvements? A cross-sectional process evaluation of obstetric near-miss case reviews in Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borchert Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obstetric near-miss case reviews are being promoted as a quality assurance intervention suitable for hospitals in low income countries. We introduced such reviews in five district, regional and national hospitals in Benin, West Africa. In a cross-sectional study we analysed the extent to which the hospital audit teams were able to identify case management problems (CMPs, analyse their causes, agree on solutions and put these solutions into practice. Methods We analysed case summaries, women’s interview transcripts and audit minutes produced by the audit teams for 67 meetings concerning one woman with near-miss complications each. We compared the proportion of CMPs identified by an external assessment team to the number found by the audit teams. For the latter, we described the CMP causes identified, solutions proposed and implemented by the audit teams. Results Audit meetings were conducted regularly and were well attended. Audit teams identified half of the 714 CMPs; they were more likely to find managerial ones (71% than the ones relating to treatment (30%. Most identified CMPs were valid. Almost all causes of CMPs were plausible, but often too superficial to be of great value for directing remedial action. Audit teams suggested solutions, most of them promising ones, for 38% of the CMPs they had identified, but recorded their implementation only for a minority (8.5%. Conclusions The importance of following-up and documenting the implementation of solutions should be stressed in future audit interventions. Tools facilitating the follow-up should be made available. Near-miss case reviews hold promise, but their effectiveness to improve the quality of care sustainably and on a large scale still needs to be established.

  6. Can hospital audit teams identify case management problems, analyse their causes, identify and implement improvements? A cross-sectional process evaluation of obstetric near-miss case reviews in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Obstetric near-miss case reviews are being promoted as a quality assurance intervention suitable for hospitals in low income countries. We introduced such reviews in five district, regional and national hospitals in Benin, West Africa. In a cross-sectional study we analysed the extent to which the hospital audit teams were able to identify case management problems (CMPs), analyse their causes, agree on solutions and put these solutions into practice. Methods We analysed case summaries, women’s interview transcripts and audit minutes produced by the audit teams for 67 meetings concerning one woman with near-miss complications each. We compared the proportion of CMPs identified by an external assessment team to the number found by the audit teams. For the latter, we described the CMP causes identified, solutions proposed and implemented by the audit teams. Results Audit meetings were conducted regularly and were well attended. Audit teams identified half of the 714 CMPs; they were more likely to find managerial ones (71%) than the ones relating to treatment (30%). Most identified CMPs were valid. Almost all causes of CMPs were plausible, but often too superficial to be of great value for directing remedial action. Audit teams suggested solutions, most of them promising ones, for 38% of the CMPs they had identified, but recorded their implementation only for a minority (8.5%). Conclusions The importance of following-up and documenting the implementation of solutions should be stressed in future audit interventions. Tools facilitating the follow-up should be made available. Near-miss case reviews hold promise, but their effectiveness to improve the quality of care sustainably and on a large scale still needs to be established. PMID:23057707

  7. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Ecole de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 28 April 2008 PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM at 17.00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Gravity : an Emergent Perspective by Prof. Thanu Padmanabhan, Pune University Dean, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India I will motivate and describe a novel perspective in which gravity arises as an emergent phenomenon, somewhat like elasticity. This perspective throws light on several issues which are somewhat of a mystery in the conventional approach. Moreover it provides new insights on the dark energy problem. In fact, I will show that it is necessary to have such an alternative perspective in order to solve the cosmological constant problem.Information: http://theory.physics.unige.ch/~fiteo/seminars/COL/collist.html

  8. Field study learning model to introduce environmental health problems to medical students at the faculty of medicine, University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhriyah, Lilik; Setijowati, Nanik; Andarini, Sri

    2017-11-01

    Some diseases in the community have a relationship with the environment. Therefore, medical students need to be exposed early to environmental problems in the community. The aim of this paper is to explain the role of field studies for medical students in introducing environmental health problems at an early stage. Field studies were applied by the Department of Public Health in 2005-2006 and 164 students from Semester II, which come from two classes, were required to join it. The portion score of the field study was 10%. Each class consisted of ten groups. Each group consisted of approximately eight students. Each group took different topics/targets of observation. These included ecological farming, household waste management, communal waste management, family medicine plants, food home industry, food street vendors, slaughterhouses, traditional markets, management of communal waste water, and recycling home industry. Each group observed in a community and interviewed related informants. Students were required to make a report and present it in their class. At the end of the exam, students were required to assess the benefit of this activity using a range of 1 (minimal) to 5 (maximal). The students considered the benefits of the field study method, giving an average score of 3.9 and 3.95 for presentation and discussion in class. Some students proposed to maintain field studies and discussion, and to conduct this method every semester with more time. Other students suggested that a lecturer accompany them in the field. Several students regretted unpunctual discussion time that reduced lecture time. The learning model of field study increased the students' interest in the subject of public health.

  9. Exploring the Rate and Causes of Deductions Imposed on Social Security and Health Insurance`s Bills Related to Inpatients in Two Hospitals Affiliated with Tabriz University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rezvanjou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Annually, a large amount of fees that are paid by hospitals, will not be reimbursed as deductions by health insurance which imposes irreparable financial losses on hospitals. The purpose of this study was to determine the amount of deductions imposed on social security and health insurance`s bills and its causes related to inpatients in two hospitals affiliated with Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Alavi and Madani hospitals affiliated with Tabriz University of Medical Sciences by using 2015 data.  Researcher-designed checklist was used for data collecting. According to population size, census method and random sampling were used in Alavi and Madani hospitals, respectively. Gathered data were analyzed through descriptive statistics assisted by Excel v.13 software. Results: In the studied hospitals, most of the deductions in the Alavi and Madani hospitals were related to charge of surgeon and angioplasty, respectively. Also, in Alavi Hospital among deductions factors, the most repeated one was extra application in contrary to determined tariffs. In both hospitals, the role of the human factor in cases of error cannot be denied. Extra applications, inaccuracy in registration costs and lack of knowledge of the approved insurance tariffs are the main important factors influential on the deduction. Conclusion: Due to high rates of preventable deductions in both hospitals and being given the multiplicity and variety of services offered at the health centers, establishing income monitoring unit in hospitals and use of experienced staff is inevitable.

  10. Numerical problems in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Devraj

    2015-01-01

    Numerical Problems in Physics, Volume 1 is intended to serve the need of the students pursuing graduate and post graduate courses in universities with Physics and Materials Science as subject including those appearing in engineering, medical, and civil services entrance examinations. KEY FEATURES: * 29 chapters on Optics, Wave & Oscillations, Electromagnetic Field Theory, Solid State Physics & Modern Physics * 540 solved numerical problems of various universities and ompetitive examinations * 523 multiple choice questions for quick and clear understanding of subject matter * 567 unsolved numerical problems for grasping concepts of the various topic in Physics * 49 Figures for understanding problems and concept

  11. RESEARCH ON THE PROBLEMS OF interaction BETWEEN SCIENCE AND RELIGION IN UNIVERSITY COURSE OF PHILOSOPHY (BASED ON WORKS BY RUSSIAN RELIGIOUS THINKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksey I. Belkin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the article explores the interrelations between science and religion in the context of shaping integrated world outlook of future specialists in the framework of the competence-based approach. Axiological and ethical aspects of the interaction between the two major branches of human culture are considered using the example of works by Russian religious thinkers: Archbishop Luke (V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky, V. S. Soloviev, N. A. Berdyaev. Materials and Methods: materials and methods: the study employed the method of original sources, i. e. works by N. A. Berdyaev, V. F. Voino-Yasenetsky, V. S. Solovyov, considering the problems of interaction between science and religion. The method of original sources was combined with methods of analysis, synthesis and generalisation. Results: attention is paid to different approaches to addressing this problem over the historical development of human thought. When analysing the works by V. S. Solovyov emphasis is made on the concept of integral knowledge, considering the true knowledge as a result of the interaction of rational, empirical and mystical aspects. Much attention is paid to the interpretation of Archbishop Luke’s thoughts (V. F. Voyno-Yasenetsky who advocated theoretically and practically the idea of the synthesis of the knowledge and belief in their inextricable link to the genuine scientific and philosophical works. When discussing N. A. Berdyaev’s ideas the focus is on the critical analysis of the three types of relationships between science and religion, established in human culture: 1 supremacy of knowledge and denial of faith, 2 supremacy of faith and denial of knowledge, and 3 the dualism of knowledge and faith. The article also gives a thorough account of the philosopher’s idea about the synthesis of knowledge, faith and intuition that contradicts traditional approach. The article presents the arguments of modern science about the importance of interaction between religious

  12. Investigation of zoonotic infections in risk groups in Ordu University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of zoonotic infections in risk groups in Ordu University Hospital, Turkey. ... Aims: Zoonotic diseases, which are a major public health problem in our city, have a negative impact on public health and also cause economic losses due to yield losses of animals and deaths. This study was carried out to determine ...

  13. Outpatient waiting time in Jos University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problem Long waiting time for services has been identified as a reason people avoid presenting to for care in African countries. Design Examination of causes for long outpatient waiting time and the effect of measures to reduce waiting time. Setting Outpatient department of the Jos University Teaching Hospital.

  14. Study on construction of temporary dwellings and problems caused by living long time on Hanshin-Awaji Great Earthquake; Hanshin / Awaji daishinsai ni okeru okyu kasetsu jutaku no secchi to chokikan shiyo suru baai no kadai ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Nakamura, Y. [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan)] Shimizu, Y. [Kumagai Gumi Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Two years after the above-titled earthquake, an examination was performed on inhabitants in the temporary dwelling houses in Kobe, center of the calamity, and problems caused by a long stay there were clarified together with a grasp of the evolving problems by comparing the result of survey carried out immediately after the disaster. The number of such temporary dwelling houses amounted to 29,128 within Kobe City and 3,168 outside of the city. According to the room arrangement, they were either one f 4 types : 2-rooms with a kitchen, 1 room with a kitchen, dormitory and those specifically for aged persons. There were 59,449 applications at the first offer of 2,702 houses. The priority of their assignments and so on are explained. As for the housing structure, numerous complaints concerned with the room temperature, noise and so forth. As for the living environment, lack of nearby commodity shop, omission of transportation access, ill drainage of the housing sites were pointed out and the matters of demand to the local authorities included the installation of mail post and street lights. As for the health management, insomnia, stiff shoulder, lumbago and other bad physical conditions were revealed. The financial difficulty and the high house rent were obstacles to migrate to other places. The prolonged temporary lives worsened the apprehension of dwellers for the earthquake, typhoon, fire and alike. Some features for the calamity are described in comparison with the result of survey on those who were compelled to live under similar conditions by the eruption of Mr. Fugen. 6 refs., 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. The inflationary universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    According to the inflationary universe scenario the universe in the very early stages of its evolution was exponentially expanding in the unstable vacuum-like state. At the end of the exponential expansion the energy of the unstable vacuum transforms into the energy of hot dense matter. Recently it was realised that the exponential expansion of the universe naturally occurs in a wide class of realistic theories of elementary particles. The inflationary universe scenario makes it possible to obtain a simple solution to many longstanding cosmological problems and leads to a crucial modification of the standard point of view of the large-scale structure of the universe. (author)

  16. Fast pyrolysis of biomass in fluidized bed reactor UNICAMP, Brazil: problems, causes and solutions; Pirolise rapida de biomassa em reator de leito fluidizado UNICAMP-Brasil: problemas, causas e solucoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesa Perez, Juan Miguel; Marin Mesa, Henry Ramon [Bioware Tecnologia, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Jose Dilcio; Olivares Gomez, Edgardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa; Shimabukuro, Fabio Rodrigo; Vallin, Marco Jim Gui [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola

    2006-07-01

    The fluidized bed reactor developed by the researchers of the UNICAMP in the installations of the Sugar Cane Technology Center (CTC), in Piracicaba-SP, is the first reactor of biomass fast pyrolysis in Brazil to produce bio-oil. In this work the problems of operation with the reactor in functioning are presented as the emptying of gases produced in the pyrolysis by means of the biomass feeding system, the block of the thread of biomass feeding, the inert material sintering in the bed, etc. The possible causes are described. Thus it, the first ones could be solved, either by the reduction of the height of the inert bed, or by the increase of the wadding percentage of the thread, among others. These results of the exploratory tests make possible the steady work of the plant, greater knowledge of the phenomena that occur during the fast pyrolysis in flutizide bed, as well as the establishment of adjusted levels for the identified independent factors during the remaining experimental works. (author)

  17. Geometry of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, L.Eh.; Gliner, Eh.B.

    1978-01-01

    Problems of investigating the Universe space-time geometry are described on a popular level. Immediate space-time geometries, corresponding to three cosmologic models are considered. Space-time geometry of a closed model is the spherical Riemann geonetry, of an open model - is the Lobachevskij geometry; and of a plane model - is the Euclidean geometry. The Universe real geometry in the contemporary epoch of development is based on the data testifying to the fact that the Universe is infinitely expanding

  18. 大学生问题行为及其与大五人格和自我控制的关系%Problem Behaviors among University Students and Their Associations with Big-five Personality and Self-control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司徒巧敏

    2017-01-01

    目的:考察广州市大学生问题行为的现状及其与大五人格和自我控制的关系.方法:本研究采用问卷法对551名广州市大学生的大五人格、自我控制以及问题行为进行测量.结果:①广州市大学生的内化和外化问题水平较低;②除开放性外,其余4个大五人格维度以及自我控制均与内化和外化问题行为呈显著相关关系(r=-0.02~0.81,P<0.01);③大五人格与自我控制共同解释39.1%内化问题和31.0%外化问题的方差变异,两者既共同又独立解释内化和外化问题的方差;开放性(B=0.09,P<0.01)、外向性(B=-0.10,P<0.01)、宜人性(B=-0.07,P<0.05)、神经质(B=0.25,P<0.01)与自我控制(B=-0.05,P<0.05)显著预测内化问题行为;开放性(B=0.05,P<0.05)、严谨性(g=-0.08,P<0.01)、宜人性(B=-0.18,P<0.01)、神经质(B-0.13,P<0.01)和自我控制(B--0.06,P<0.01)显著预测外化问题行为.结论:广州市大学生的问题行为总体程度较轻,大五人格特质和自我控制是大学生问题行为的重要保护性因子.%Objective:To investigate the levels of problem behaviors and their relations to big-five personality traits and self-control among university students in Guangzhou.Methods:A total of 567 university students participated in the research completing the FFI-NEO,the Brief Self-Control Scale,and the Adult Self-Report that assessed personality trait,self-control,and problem behaviors,respectively.Results:① University students from Guangzhou reported low levels of both internalizing and externalizing problems;②Except the associations between openness and internalizing and externalizing problems,the other four dimensions of the Big Five personality traits as well as self-control were significantly related to internalizing and externalizing problems(P<.01);and ③The big-five personality and self-control co-explained 39.1% and 30.1% of variance of internalizing and externalizing problems

  19. Self-assessed mental health problems and work capacity as determinants of return to work: a prospective general population-based study of individuals with all-cause sickness absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensing, Gunnel; Bertilsson, Monica; Ahlborg, Gunnar; Waern, Margda; Vaez, Marjan

    2013-10-14

    Mental health problems are common in the work force and influence work capacity and sickness absence. The aim was to examine self-assessed mental health problems and work capacity as determinants of time until return to work (RTW). Employed women and men (n=6140), aged 19-64 years, registered as sick with all-cause sickness absence between February 18 and April 15, 2008 received a self-administered questionnaire covering health and work situation (response rate 54%). Demographic data was collected from official registers. This follow-up study included 2502 individuals. Of these, 1082 were currently off sick when answering the questionnaire. Register data on total number of benefit compensated sick-leave days in the end of 2008 were used to determine the time until RTW. Self-reported persistent mental illness, the WHO (Ten) Mental Well-Being Index and self-assessed work capacity in relation to knowledge, mental, collaborative and physical demands at work were used as determinants. Multinomial and binary logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the likelihood of RTW. The likelihood of RTW (≥ 105 days) was higher among those with persistent mental illness OR= 2.97 (95% CI, 2.10-4.20) and those with low mental well-being OR= 2.89 (95% CI, 2.31-3.62) after adjusting for gender, age, SES, hours worked and sick leave 2007. An analysis of employees who were off sick when they answered the questionnaire, the likelihood of RTW (≥ 105 days) was higher among those who reported low capacity to work in relation to knowledge, mental, collaborative and physical demands at work. In a multivariable analysis, the likelihood of RTW (≥ 105 days) among those with low mental well-being remained significant OR=1.93 (95% CI 1.46-2.55) even after adjustment for all dimensions of capacity to work. Self-assessed persistent mental illness, low mental well-being and low work capacity increased the likelihood of prolonged RTW

  20. Vulvovaginitis: causes and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A M; Hart, C A

    1992-01-01

    Over a period of 33 months in a paediatric accident and emergency department, the clinical pattern and possible causes of vulvovaginitis were studied prospectively in 200 girls presenting with genital discharge, irritation, pain, or redness. The major causes were poor hygiene and threadworms. The suspicion of sexual abuse arose in a few girls but no organisms of sexually transmitted disease were found. Urinary symptoms were common but only 20 patients had a significant bacteriuria and 40 had sterile pyuria. Specific skin problems occurred in 28 cases. Simple measures to improve hygiene and treatment of threadworms gave effective relief. Genital irritation caused urinary symptoms with no clinical evidence of infection, and it is advised that antibiotic treatment should await urine culture. Specific skin problems require help from a dermatologist. The possibility of sexual abuse must be considered especially if the vulvovaginitis is persistent or recurrent after adequate treatment. PMID:1580682

  1. SLC summer 2010 university - The ocean in the climate-energy problem, urban policies. Proceedings; Universite d'ete 2010 SLC - L'Ocean dans la problematique Climat-Energie, politiques urbaines. Recueil des presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the summer 2010 university of the SLC (save the climate) organization on the topics of the ocean in the climate-energy problem, and of the urban policies. Nine presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Biofuels made from micro-algae: stakes and challenges (Olivier Bernard, Comore - INRIA /CNRS/UPMC); 2 - The energy of waves (Alain Clement, Ecole Centrale de Nantes); 3 - The sea, new source of renewable energies? (J.J. Herou, EDF CIH); 4 - Oceans acidification: the other CO{sub 2} problem (James Orr, Pierre Simon Laplace Institute - IPSL, Laboratory of climate and environmental Sciences - LSCE, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ); 5 - Oceans and carbon cycle (Laurent Bopp, IPSL/LSCE); 6 - Renewable marine energies (Yann-Herve De Roeck, France Energies Marines); 7 - Energy renovation of buildings (Jean-Claude Terrier, Mesac Europe); 8 - Modevur research project - Modeling of urban development, sketch of a development typology of chinese cities (Clement-Noel Douady); 9 - Urban areas in the fight against climate change: stakes, knowledge and controversies (Francois Menard, PUCA)

  2. Balance Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... often, it could be a sign of a balance problem. Balance problems can make you feel unsteady. You may ... related injuries, such as a hip fracture. Some balance problems are due to problems in the inner ...

  3. Universal algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Grätzer, George

    1979-01-01

    Universal Algebra, heralded as ". . . the standard reference in a field notorious for the lack of standardization . . .," has become the most authoritative, consistently relied on text in a field with applications in other branches of algebra and other fields such as combinatorics, geometry, and computer science. Each chapter is followed by an extensive list of exercises and problems. The "state of the art" account also includes new appendices (with contributions from B. Jónsson, R. Quackenbush, W. Taylor, and G. Wenzel) and a well-selected additional bibliography of over 1250 papers and books which makes this a fine work for students, instructors, and researchers in the field. "This book will certainly be, in the years to come, the basic reference to the subject." --- The American Mathematical Monthly (First Edition) "In this reviewer's opinion [the author] has more than succeeded in his aim. The problems at the end of each chapter are well-chosen; there are more than 650 of them. The book is especially sui...

  4. Baby universe theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Ninomiya, Masao

    1989-12-01

    We give an elementary review of the so called 'the theory of baby universes' which is a series of ideas or speculations about some effects in quantum gravity, viz. the effect of a certain type of wormholes, representing the exchange of small 3-space universes called baby universes. We consider this 'theory' as being physically and scientifically a very promising candidate for a theory of everything. It is, however, mathematically lacking any strong foundation at all. It solves several fine-tuning problems: First of all the cosmological constant problem, and also the strong CP-problem and the hierarchy problem. We also speculate that it might predict the possibility of influencing the probability distributions of the outcome of quantum mechanical measurements at one time by acts at a later time. (orig.)

  5. [Population problem, comprehension problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, F

    1993-08-01

    Overpopulation of developing countries in general, and Rwanda in particular, is not just their problem but a problem for developed countries as well. Rapid population growth is a key factor in the increase of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Population growth outstrips food production. Africa receives more and more foreign food, economic, and family planning aid each year. The Government of Rwanda encourages reduced population growth. Some people criticize it, but this criticism results in mortality and suffering. One must combat this ignorance, but attitudes change slowly. Some of these same people find the government's acceptance of family planning an invasion of their privacy. Others complain that rich countries do not have campaigns to reduce births, so why should Rwanda do so? The rate of schooling does not increase in Africa, even though the number of children in school increases, because of rapid population growth. Education is key to improvements in Africa's socioeconomic growth. Thus, Africa, is underpopulated in terms of potentiality but overpopulated in terms of reality, current conditions, and possibilities of overexploitation. Africa needs to invest in human resources. Families need to save, and to so, they must refrain from having many children. Africa should resist the temptation to waste, as rich countries do, and denounce it. Africa needs to become more independent of these countries, but structural adjustment plans, growing debt, and rapid population growth limit national independence. Food aid is a means for developed countries to dominate developing countries. Modernization through foreign aid has had some positive effects on developing countries (e.g., improved hygiene, mortality reduction), but these also sparked rapid population growth. Rwandan society is no longer traditional, but it is also not yet modern. A change in mentality to fewer births, better quality of life for living infants, better education, and less burden for women must occur

  6. INVESTIGATING DEPRESSION SITUTATION OF THE STUDENTS WHO HAVE SETTLED WITH CENTRAL EXAMINATION SYSTEM AND PRIVATE ABILITY EXAM TO UNIVERSITY

    OpenAIRE

    Ercüment ERDOĞAN, Levent ÖZDEMİR

    2018-01-01

    The most often seen psychological problem is found as a depression in universty students. It causes to lose his fertility, to lose quality of his life. In addition this must be under debate as a public health problem. We aimed in our works to compare depression level of students who are settled in Cumhuriyet University with Central Exam System with students who are settled in Cumhuriyet University with Private Ability Exam. Also we aimed to explain the relation with socio demography depressio...

  7. Diabetic Eye Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness ... You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your ...

  8. Mouth Problems and HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teeth (periodontitis), canker sores, oral warts, fever blisters, oral candidiasis (thrush), hairy leukoplakia (which causes a rough, white patch on the tongue), and dental caries. Read More Publications Cover image Mouth Problems + HIV Publication files Download Language English PDF — ...

  9. Art as metontological problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Saša Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author explains the link between fundamental ontology and metontology in Heidegger's thought. In this context, he raises the question about art as a metontological problem. Then he goes to show that the problem of metontology stems from imanent transformation of fundamental ontology. In this sense, two aspects of the problem of existence assume relevance, namely, universality and radicalism. He draws the conclusion that metontology and art as its problem, as opposed to fundamental ontology, were not integrated into Heidegger's later thought.

  10. Study of university students' attitudes toward office space at universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Eteadifard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Office space is the space where students first experience the university. In this paper, the attitude of students toward office space in the public sphere of university is discussed. This article is the result of the research conducted for the “Institute for Social and Cultural Studies” by the author. The main issues in this paper are: university students' attitudes towards quality office space at the universities and mental basis of common issues among students at the universities. Data were collected through individual and group interviews. More than eighty interviews with activists and students of University of Tehran, Shahid Beheshti University, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Sharif University of Technology and Kharazmi University were done. The main indicators of office space in this study include: students’ satisfaction of office space, students’ welfare affairs and students’ feedback about this space. Problems and obstacles relating to the office space and their solutions were also studied in this paper.

  11. Speech Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Speech Problems What's in ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech and Language Disorders Stuttering is a problem that ...

  12. Hemiequilibrium problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aslam Noor

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a new class of equilibrium problems, known as hemiequilibrium problems. Using the auxiliary principle technique, we suggest and analyze a class of iterative algorithms for solving hemiequilibrium problems, the convergence of which requires either pseudomonotonicity or partially relaxed strong monotonicity. As a special case, we obtain a new method for hemivariational inequalities. Since hemiequilibrium problems include hemivariational inequalities and equilibrium problems as special cases, the results proved in this paper still hold for these problems.

  13. "La comprensión lectora en Inglés: problemas encontrados en las pruebas de acceso a la universidad" [Reading comprehension in English: problems found within the spanish university entrance examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Sánchez Ruiz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El objetivo de esta investigación es analizar errores de lectura en inglés –cometidos por alumnos españoles de segundo de bachillerato en la prueba de acceso a la universidad- detectando los problemas de comprensión mediante la observación y el diálogo con el lector según se van produciendo (miscue analysis. Para llevar a cabo el experimento, se siguen los siguientes pasos: selección de la muestra, elección de las lecturas, previsión de problemas, análisis de errores, explicación de resultados, extracción de conclusiones y, por último, propuesta de mejoras en el hábito lector y comprobación de su eficacia. Este trabajo pretende aportar nuevas teorías sobre el proceso lector y aplicar un cambio en la concepción del mismo basado en la actitud de los lectores para obtener éxito. Igualmente, los datos registrados han permitido depurar estrategias que subsanen los problemas detectados; además, la demostración de su valía ofrece alternativas para mejorar la práctica docente en cuanto a comprensión lectora.ABSTRACT:The aim of the current study is to analyse reading mistakes in English made by Spanish students in their second year of Baccalaureate in the university entrance examination. For that, miscue analysis is applied, which consists in detecting comprehension problems while observing the readers’ behaviour and dialoguing with them as they make those mistakes. To carry out the present experiment, the following steps were taken: selection of the participants and the reading fragments, problem anticipation, analysis of the mistakes, explanation of the results, drawing conclusions and, finally, proposals for improvement and checking of their effectiveness. This paper seeks to find new theories about the reading process and to apply a change in its conception based on readers’ attitudes to be successful. The data registered during the process have led to polish strategies which can solve those problems

  14. University Internationalization and University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gulieva, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability are d......, dissimilar, and sometimes conflicting dimensions of the financial, legal, organisational, staffing, and academic autonomy of the host country, are compromising key aspects of their own autonomy and core mission?......Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability...... are determined by the structure and exercise of university autonomy settings at home and in the host countries, and that the process itself cannot be successfully achieved and maintained without changes in the autonomy settings. The key question the authors ask is to what degree universities, in embracing new...

  15. Quantum and Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uiler, Dzh.

    1982-01-01

    General approach to the structure of the Universe is discussed. Two properties of physical laws: symmetry and changeability are considered from this view point. Each physical law permits simpler formulation in the notion of symmetry. But the simplicity of this description conceals interval mechanisms which make up the base of the physical law. The problem of physical law stability is analyzed. It is concluded that unrestricted changeability is the main property of physics. Primary attention is paid to the problem of ''quantum and Universe''. The effect of measuring process on the experimental results is the most difficult problem of quantum mechanisms. The quantum principle rejected an attempt to conceptually present the reality as it is pictured independently from its observation and it made the description of the Universe structure still more complicated and confused

  16. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  17. Universities scale like cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  18. Gobernar la universidad pública: un problema político-administrativo Governo das universidades públicas: um assunto político-administrativo Governing Public Universities: A Political-Administrative Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alberto Cortés-Moreno

    2011-04-01

    -administrative problems involved in governing schools with uniform and unidirectional criteria, as well as the constant and growing loss of legitimacy on the part of administrative bodies, the constraints on student's autonomy, and the absence of a participatory democracy in the way universities are governed. The article also includes part of the history of the National University of Colombia, and looks at how it is managed currently and some of the facts and events that differentiate and characterize its academia, so as to propose possible and desirable ways of governing higher education in Colombia.

  19. Water Pollution (Causes, Mechanisms, Solution).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Carl

    Written for the general public, this book illustrates the causes, status, problem areas, and prediction and control of water pollution. Water pollution is one of the most pressing issues of our time and the author communicates the complexities of this problem to the reader in common language. The purpose of the introductory chapter is to show what…

  20. On the Causes of Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, A. Philip; Faigman, David L.; Fienberg, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    We welcome Professor Pearl's comment on our original article, Dawid et al. Our focus there on the distinction between the "Effects of Causes" (EoC) and the "Causes of Effects" (CoE) concerned two fundamental problems, one a theoretical challenge in statistics and the other a practical challenge for trial courts. In this…

  1. Universal (Global Evolutionism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkady Ursul

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article investigate a general scientific concept of a global (universal evolution, in which selforganization of the material systems acts as a common ground and a permanent process of progressive development in the visible Universe. The main problem of research of this type of evolution is seen as a superhighway trajectory of evolutionary processes in the Universe, in which there is a continuous selforganization of the material systems, ranging from the Big Bang and to the social level of evolution, which may have an indefinite continuation of society and nature

  2. Bowel Control Problems (Fecal Incontinence)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Hemorrhoids Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & ... Control Problems in Women (Urinary Incontinence) Constipation Diarrhea Hemorrhoids Related Diagnostic Tests Colonoscopy Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Lower GI ...

  3. 甲醇装置ECS系统通信问题原因分析及对策%ANALYSIS OF CAUSES FOR COMMUNICATION PROBLEM OF ECS SYSTEM 1N METHANOL PLANT AND COUNTER-MEASURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟彦禄

    2012-01-01

    The problems encountered in the ECS rear system for the two methanol plants in the company are introduced and counter-measures for solving the communication interruption of ECS system are proposed, also some methods and suggestions in solving the communication problems are summed up.%介绍中海石油建滔化工有限公司2套甲醇装置ECS后台系统遇到的通讯问题,提出解决ECS系统通讯中断的对策,归纳了一些解决通讯问题方法和建议。

  4. Explaining the Mind: Problems, Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2001-01-01

    The mind/body problem is the feeling/function problem: How and why do feeling systems feel? The problem is not just "hard" but insoluble (unless one is ready to resort to telekinetic dualism). Fortunately, the "easy" problems of cognitive science (such as the how and why of categorization and language) are not insoluble. Five books (by Damasio, Edelman/Tononi...

  5. Sustainable Education: Analyzing the Determinants of University Student Dropout by Nonlinear Panel Data Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donggeun Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available University dropout is a serious problem. It affects not only the individual who drops out but also the university and society. However, most previous studies have focused only on the subjective/individual level. University dropout is a very important issue in South Korea, but it has not received much research attention so far. This study examined the possible causes of university dropout in South Korea at the aggregate level, focusing on four fundamental categories: students, resources, faculty, and university characteristics. Three-year balanced panel data from 2013 to 2015 were constructed and estimated by using nonlinear panel data models. The findings show that cost and burden for students, financial resources, qualitative and quantitative features of faculty, and type/size of the university have significant effects on university dropout.

  6. Targeted School Violence and the Web of Causes: Risk Factors and the Problems of Specificity. Commentary on: "Bullying, Romantic Rejection, and Conflicts with Teachers: The Crucial Role of Social Dynamics in the Development of School Shootings--A Systematic Review"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckler, Nils; Roth, Viktoria; Stetten, Lina; Zick, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The authors begin their commentary by saying that looking at the phenotypical characteristics of a school shooting, which focus on the perpetrators' experiences in school contexts seems to be overdue. In spite of methodological problems, the studies involved in the review seem to paint a clear picture with regard to social ostracism and harassment…

  7. The Proceedings of the Panel “Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health, Air Pollution Problem in the World, Turkey and Our Region” (The Conference Hall of Dicle University, Diyarbakır 24.12.2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Bayram

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution still exceeds safe limits worldwide, particularly in big metropolitans, despite regular monitoring facilities and measures taken. It is usually originated from industrial activities, fossil fuel use in domestic settings and vehicle exhaust emission. Although there is a decrease in air pollution in big cities of Turkey due to use of natural gas, it is still a serious health concern. In Diyarbakır, because of a rapid increase in its population recently, wrong urbanisation and a relative increase in industrialisation, air pollution leads to dangerous levels, particularly in the winter. Epidemiological studies from all over the world, and Turkey have reported a close relation between air pollution and respiratory morbidity and mortality. Studies investigating the mechanisms underlying respiratory effects of air pollution demonstrated that pollutants lead to increased respiratory symptoms, decreased respiratory function and induce inflammatory changes in airways. In vitro studies have shown that air pollutants exert their effects by causing cellular injury directly, and by activating intracellular oxidative pathways indirectly. The attempts to reduce air pollution levels have been implemented in Turkey and worldwide. In order to solve the problem in Diyarbakır, several measures such as prevention the use of out standardized fuel, use of reliable burning techniques, and a close car emission monitoring system need to be implemented.

  8. Universality of measurements on quantum markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakuła, Ireneusz; Piotrowski, Edward W.; Sładkowski, Jan

    2007-11-01

    Two of the authors have recently discussed financial markets operated by quantum computers-quantum market games. These “new markets” cannot by themselves create opportunity of making extraordinary profits or multiplying goods, but they may cause the dynamism of transaction which would result in more effective markets and capital flow into hands of the most efficient traders. Here we focus upon the problem of universality of measurement in quantum market games offering a possible method of implementation if the necessary technologies would be available. It can be also used to analyse material commitments that elude description in orthodox game-theoretic terms.

  9. General problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the general problems as natural disasters, consequences of global climate change, public health, the danger of criminal actions, the availability to information about problems of environment

  10. Learning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Learning Problems KidsHealth / For Kids / Learning Problems What's in ... for how to make it better. What Are Learning Disabilities? Learning disabilities aren't contagious, but they ...

  11. University students' understanding of social anxiety disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Yoshie; Okamoto, Yuri; Jinnin, Ran; Yashiki, Hisako; Uchino, Teiji; Isobe, Noriko; Takata, Jun; Kojima, Nanae; Nihonmatsu, Misato; Yokosaki, Yasuyuki; Hiyama, Toru; Yoshihara, Masaharu

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder is an important cause of psychosocial morbidity in adolescents and young adults. Problems in adolescents and young adults with social anxiety disorder would be a topic in recent years in campus mental health. We examined the opinion of social anxiety disorder on university students. We found that many students felt anxiety in various social scenes, and some students were worried about their anxiety. Most of the students understood the importance of mental treatment for...

  12. Teaching Geomorphology at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, David; Hamilton, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Geomorphology courses in British universities emphasize the main landform/process systems rather than more abstract concepts. Recommends a more theoretical focus on fundamental geomorphic processes and methodological problems. Available from: Faculty of Modern Studies, Oxford Polytechnic, Headington, Oxford OX3 OBP, England. (Author/AV)

  13. Problemas de saúde responsáveis pelo absenteísmo de trabalhadores de enfermagem de um hospital universitário - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2232 Health problems responsible for the nursing staff disease-absenteeism in a university hospital - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v25i2.2232

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Marli Petry Paulo da Silva

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Entende-se por absenteísmo-doença as faltas do trabalhador devidas a problemas de saúde diagnosticados para efeito de licença-saúde. Com o objetivo de identificar os problemas de saúde responsáveis pelo absenteísmo-doença em trabalhadores de enfermagem de um hospital universitário, foi realizado um levantamento retrospectivo das faltas (494 justificadas por licenças-saúde, equivalentes a 1.491 dias de trabalho perdidos em um ano, calculados os índices de absenteísmo-doença e identificadas suas causas. A Unidade de Pediatria apresentou o maior índice de freqüência (If=0,35; a maior porcentagem de tempo perdido (Tp=4,19% ocorreu no Pronto Atendimento, entre auxiliares de Enfermagem, enquanto os enfermeiros apresentaram maiores índices nas UTIs, If=0,17 e Tp=3,93%. Os problemas de saúde foram relacionados aos sistemas respiratório, geniturinário, digestivo e osteomuscular, aos órgãos dos sentidos e ao aparelho reprodutor feminino. Concluímos que os índices de absenteísmo-doença apresentam-se elevados. As causas do adoecimento dos trabalhadores apresentam interface com inadequadas condições de trabalho e fatores de risco presentes no cotidiano da enfermagem.Disease-absenteeism is the frequent absence from work due to some illness. A retrospective survey of the sick-leave (494 absences during a year was performed. Aiming to identify health problems responsible for the nursing staff disease-absenteeism of a university hospital. Both frequency index and percentage of lost time were calculated, and the health problems were identified. The results showed that the highest frequency index occurred in the Pediatric Unit (Fi=0.35 and the highest percentage of lost time due to absence occurred in the Emergency Unit (Lt=4.19% among the Nursing Auxiliaries; the nurses showed the highest frequency in the Intensive Care Unit, Fi=0.17 and Lt=3.93%. Health problems of nursing staff were related to the respiratory and genito

  14. Chlamydia trachomatis and genital human papillomavirus infections in female university students in Honduras.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabora, N.; Zelaya, A.; Bakkers, J.; Melchers, W.J.; Ferrera, A.

    2005-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections are a serious health problem in Honduras. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are major causes of sexually transmitted diseases. To determine the prevalence of C. trachomatis and HPV in young women, 100 female university students in Honduras were

  15. Descriptive Geometry in Educational Process of Technical University in Russia Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, Marianna V.; Tretyakova, Zlata O.; Moroz, Olga N.; Folomkin, Andrey I.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the investigated problem is caused by the need for monitoring the impact of the Unified State Examination (USE) on the level of mathematical culture and the level of geometric literacy of applicants and students of modern engineering universities of Russia. The need to determine the position of Descriptive Geometry in the…

  16. Landslides - Cause and effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radbruch-Hall, D. H.; Varnes, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Landslides can cause seismic disturbances; landslides can also result from seismic disturbances, and earthquake-induced slides have caused loss of life in many countries. Slides can cause disastrous flooding, particularly when landslide dams across streams are breached, and flooding may trigger slides. Slope movement in general is a major process of the geologic environment that places constraints on engineering development. In order to understand and foresee both the causes and effects of slope movement, studies must be made on a regional scale, at individual sites, and in the laboratory. Areal studies - some embracing entire countries - have shown that certain geologic conditions on slopes facilitate landsliding; these conditions include intensely sheared rocks; poorly consolidated, fine-grained clastic rocks; hard fractured rocks underlain by less resistant rocks; or loose accumulations of fine-grained surface debris. Field investigations as well as mathematical- and physical-model studies are increasing our understanding of the mechanism of slope movement in fractured rock, and assist in arriving at practical solutions to landslide problems related to all kinds of land development for human use. Progressive failure of slopes has been studied in both soil and rock mechanics. New procedures have been developed to evaluate earthquake response of embankments and slopes. The finite element method of analysis is being extensively used in the calculation of slope stability in rock broken by joints, faults, and other discontinuities. ?? 1976 International Association of Engineering Geology.

  17. Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chiral unitary theory: Application to nuclear problems ... Physics Department, Nara Women University, Nara, Japan. 5 ... RCNP, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan ...... We acknowledge partial financial support from the DGICYT under contract ...

  18. Tenderfooting: Tackling the Problems of Freshman Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Valerie; Rex-Kerish, Lesley

    1986-01-01

    University of California writing instructors must teach poorly prepared freshmen how to survive English classes and how to adapt the skills they learn to the rest of their university writing assignments. Reading, thinking, organizing, and stylistic problems are discussed. (MLW)

  19. Physical Analysis of the Biomolecules Causing Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jehun; Lee, Seong Hyeon; Kim, Chai Rin

    Periodontitis caused by microorganisms that adhere to and grow on the tooth's surfaces, is an inflammatory diseases causing gum infection. The disease damages the soft tissues that surround and support the teeth and destroys the bone that supports teeth and finally causes tooth loss. An increased risk of stroke and heart attack problems are related to the periodontitis as well. Most bacteria or pathogens attach to gum surface where they form a biofilm. Bacterial cells in biofilms are well protected against antibiotics. The mechanisms of action are still unknown, and it is difficult to control pathogens with antibiotics in biofilm infections and thus the study on the antibiotics is needed. In this research, a number of natural water soluble, small-sized antibiotics molecules and their derivatives are studied. Molecular editing programs such as Gamess, Chemcraft and Avogadro, with an auto-optimization feature that determines the theoretical values of the structure's atomic properties are used to build virtually any molecule with the optimized geometry according to various force field options. The UFF (Universal Force Field) is used for optimizing most molecules.

  20. Quantum creation of an inflationary Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of quantum creation of the Universe is discussed. It is shown that the process of quantum creation of the Universe in a wide class on elementary particle theories leads with a high probability to the creation of an exponentially expanding (inflationary) Universe. Universe size after expansion should exceed l approximately 10 28 cm