WorldWideScience

Sample records for university health system

  1. Primary health care and public health: foundations of universal health systems.

    White, Franklin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to advocate for more integrated and universally accessible health systems, built on a foundation of primary health care and public health. The perspective outlined identified health systems as the frame of reference, clarified terminology and examined complementary perspectives on health. It explored the prospects for universal and integrated health systems from a global perspective, the role of healthy public policy in achieving population health and the value of the social-ecological model in guiding how best to align the components of an integrated health service. The importance of an ethical private sector in partnership with the public sector is recognized. Most health systems around the world, still heavily focused on illness, are doing relatively little to optimize health and minimize illness burdens, especially for vulnerable groups. This failure to improve the underlying conditions for health is compounded by insufficient allocation of resources to address priority needs with equity (universality, accessibility and affordability). Finally, public health and primary health care are the cornerstones of sustainable health systems, and this should be reflected in the health policies and professional education systems of all nations wishing to achieve a health system that is effective, equitable, efficient and affordable. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Competing health policies: insurance against universal public systems

    Asa Ebba Cristina Laurell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This article analyzes the content and outcome of ongoing health reforms in Latin America: Universal Health Coverage with Health Insurance, and the Universal and Public Health Systems. It aims to compare and contrast the conceptual framework and practice of each and verify their concrete results regarding the guarantee of the right to health and access to required services. It identifies a direct relationship between the development model and the type of reform. The neoclassical-neoliberal model has succeeded in converting health into a field of privatized profits, but has failed to guarantee the right to health and access to services, which has discredited the governments. The reform of the progressive governments has succeeded in expanding access to services and ensuring the right to health, but faces difficulties and tensions related to the permanence of a powerful, private, industrial-insurance medical complex and persistence of the ideologies about medicalized 'good medicine'. Based on these findings, some strategies to strengthen unique and supportive public health systems are proposed.

  3. Health status and health systems financing in the MENA region: roadmap to universal health coverage.

    Asbu, Eyob Zere; Masri, Maysoun Dimachkie; Kaissi, Amer

    2017-01-01

    and GDP growth rate, and high OOPS pose serious challenges for universal health coverage. Using multi-sector interventions, countries should develop and implement evidence-informed health system financing roadmaps to address these obstacles and move forward toward universal health coverage.

  4. Health-system reform and universal health coverage in Latin America.

    Atun, Rifat; de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Almeida, Gisele; Cotlear, Daniel; Dmytraczenko, T; Frenz, Patricia; Garcia, Patrícia; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Knaul, Felicia M; Muntaner, Carles; de Paula, Juliana Braga; Rígoli, Felix; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Wagstaff, Adam

    2015-03-28

    Starting in the late 1980s, many Latin American countries began social sector reforms to alleviate poverty, reduce socioeconomic inequalities, improve health outcomes, and provide financial risk protection. In particular, starting in the 1990s, reforms aimed at strengthening health systems to reduce inequalities in health access and outcomes focused on expansion of universal health coverage, especially for poor citizens. In Latin America, health-system reforms have produced a distinct approach to universal health coverage, underpinned by the principles of equity, solidarity, and collective action to overcome social inequalities. In most of the countries studied, government financing enabled the introduction of supply-side interventions to expand insurance coverage for uninsured citizens--with defined and enlarged benefits packages--and to scale up delivery of health services. Countries such as Brazil and Cuba introduced tax-financed universal health systems. These changes were combined with demand-side interventions aimed at alleviating poverty (targeting many social determinants of health) and improving access of the most disadvantaged populations. Hence, the distinguishing features of health-system strengthening for universal health coverage and lessons from the Latin American experience are relevant for countries advancing universal health coverage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Health financing for universal coverage and health system performance: concepts and implications for policy.

    Kutzin, Joseph

    2013-08-01

    Unless the concept is clearly understood, "universal coverage" (or universal health coverage, UHC) can be used to justify practically any health financing reform or scheme. This paper unpacks the definition of health financing for universal coverage as used in the World Health Organization's World health report 2010 to show how UHC embodies specific health system goals and intermediate objectives and, broadly, how health financing reforms can influence these. All countries seek to improve equity in the use of health services, service quality and financial protection for their populations. Hence, the pursuit of UHC is relevant to every country. Health financing policy is an integral part of efforts to move towards UHC, but for health financing policy to be aligned with the pursuit of UHC, health system reforms need to be aimed explicitly at improving coverage and the intermediate objectives linked to it, namely, efficiency, equity in health resource distribution and transparency and accountability. The unit of analysis for goals and objectives must be the population and health system as a whole. What matters is not how a particular financing scheme affects its individual members, but rather, how it influences progress towards UHC at the population level. Concern only with specific schemes is incompatible with a universal coverage approach and may even undermine UHC, particularly in terms of equity. Conversely, if a scheme is fully oriented towards system-level goals and objectives, it can further progress towards UHC. Policy and policy analysis need to shift from the scheme to the system level.

  6. [Using the concept of universal health coverage to promote the health system reform in China].

    Hu, S L

    2016-11-06

    The paper is systematically explained the definition, contents of universal health coverage (UHC). Universal health coverage calls for all people to have access to quality health services they need without facing undue financial burden. The relationship between five main attributes, i.e., quality, efficiency, equity, accountability and resilience, and their 15 action plans has been explained. The nature of UHC is belonged to the State and government. The core function is commitment with equality. The whole-of-system method is used to promoting the health system reform. In China, the universal health coverage has been reached to the preliminary achievements, which include universal coverage of social medical insurance, basic medical services, basic public health services, and the provision of essential medicines. China has completed millennium development goals (MDG) and is being stepped to the sustainable development goals (SDG).

  7. Viewpoint: Re-instating a 'public health' system under universal health care in India.

    George, Mathew

    2015-02-01

    I examine possibilities for strengthening essential public health functions in the context of India's drive to implement universal health care. In a country where population health outcomes are rooted in social, political, economic, cultural, and ecological conditions, it is important to have a state mediated public health system that can modify the causes of the major public health problems. This calls for strengthening the social epidemiological approach in public health by demarcating public health functions distinct from medical care. This will be a prerequisite for the growth of the public health profession in the country, because it can offer avenues for newly trained professionals within the country to work in 'core' public health.

  8. Social health insurance in Nepal: A health system departure toward the universal health coverage.

    Pokharel, Rajani; Silwal, Pushkar Raj

    2018-04-10

    The World Health Organization has identified universal health coverage (UHC) as a key approach in reducing equity gaps in a country, and the social health insurance (SHI) has been recommended as an important strategy toward it. This article aims to analyze the design, expected benefits and challenges of realizing the goals of UHC through the recently launched SHI in Nepal. On top of the earlier free health-care policy and several other vertical schemes, the SHI scheme was implemented in 2016 and has reached population coverage of 5% in the implemented districts in just within a year of implementation. However, to achieve UHC in Nepal, in addition to operationalizing the scheme, several other requirements must be dealt simultaneously such as efficient health-care delivery system, adequate human resources for health, a strong information system, improved transparency and accountability, and a balanced mix of the preventive, health promotion, curative, and rehabilitative services including actions to address the social determinants of health. The article notes that strong political commitment and persistent efforts are the key lessons learnt from countries achieving progressive UHC through SHI. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Understanding the impact of global trade liberalization on health systems pursuing universal health coverage.

    Missoni, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    In the context of reemerging universalistic approaches to health care, the objective of this article was to contribute to the discussion by highlighting the potential influence of global trade liberalization on the balance between health demand and the capacity of health systems pursuing universal health coverage (UHC) to supply adequate health care. Being identified as a defining feature of globalization affecting health, trade liberalization is analyzed as a complex and multidimensional influence on the implementation of UHC. The analysis adopts a systems-thinking approach and refers to the six building blocks of World Health Organization's current "framework for action," emphasizing their interconnectedness. While offering new opportunities to increase access to health information and care, in the absence of global governance mechanisms ensuring adequate health protection and promotion, global trade tends to have negative effects on health systems' capacity to ensure UHC, both by causing higher demand and by interfering with the interconnected functioning of health systems' building blocks. The prevention of such an impact and the effective implementation of UHC would highly benefit from a more consistent commitment and stronger leadership by the World Health Organization in protecting health in global policymaking fora in all sectors. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Achieving universal health coverage in South Africa through a district health system approach: conflicting ideologies of health care provision.

    Fusheini, Adam; Eyles, John

    2016-10-07

    Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has emerged as a major goal for health care delivery in the post-2015 development agenda. It is viewed as a solution to health care needs in low and middle countries with growing enthusiasm at both national and global levels. Throughout the world, however, the paths of countries to UHC have differed. South Africa is currently reforming its health system with UHC through developing a national health insurance (NHI) program. This will be practically achieved through a decentralized approach, the district health system, the main vehicle for delivering services since democracy. We utilize a review of relevant documents, conducted between September 2014 and December 2015 of district health systems (DHS) and UHC and their ideological underpinnings, to explore the opportunities and challenges, of the district health system in achieving UHC in South Africa. Review of data from the NHI pilot districts suggests that as South Africa embarks on reforms toward UHC, there is a need for a minimal universal coverage and emphasis on district particularity and positive discrimination so as to bridge health inequities. The disparities across districts in relation to health profiles/demographics, health delivery performance, management of health institutions or district management capacity, income levels/socio-economic status and social determinants of health, compliance with quality standards and above all the burden of disease can only be minimised through positive discrimination by paying more attention to underserved and disadavantaged communities. We conclude that in South Africa the DHS is pivotal to health reform and UHC may be best achieved through minimal universal coverage with positive discrimination to ensure disparities across districts in relation to disease burden, human resources, financing and investment, administration and management capacity, service readiness and availability and the health access inequalities are consciously

  11. The Virtual Health University: An eLearning Model within the Cuban Health System.

    Jardines, José B

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes Cuba's experience with the Virtual Health University (VHU) as a strategic project of INFOMED, promoting creation of an open teaching-learning environment for health sciences education, through intensive and creative use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and a network approach to learning. An analysis of the VHU's main antecedents in its different stages of development provides insight into the strategic reasons that led to the establishment of a virtual university in the national health system during Cuba's so-called Special Period of economic crisis. Using the general objectives of creating, sharing, and collaborating which define the VHU's conceptual-operative framework, the three essential components (subsystems) are described: pedagogical, technological, and managerial, as well as the operative stages of educational design, technological implementation, and teaching-administrative management system. Each component of the model is analyzed in the context of global, modern university trends, towards integration of the face-to-face and distance education approaches and the creation of virtual institutions that assume the technological and pedagogical changes demanded by eLearning.

  12. [The strategic purchasing of health services: a big opportunity for the National Universal Health System].

    González-Block, Miguel Ángel; Alarcón Irigoyen, José; Figueroa Lara, Alejandro; Ibarra Espinosa, Ignacio; Cortés Llamas, Noemí

    2015-01-01

    proposed to establish a service packages, whether through a single obligatory list or through the definition of a flexible, high priority set to be offered to specific populations according to their economic possibilities. For the strategic purchasing of services, two alternatives are proposed: to assign the fund either to a single national manager or to each of the existing public provider institutions, with the expectation that they would contract across each other and with private providers to fulfill their complementary needs.The proposal does not consider the risks and alternatives to a single tax contribution fund, which could have been suggested given that it is not an essential part of a National Universal Health System. However, it is necessary to discuss in more detail the roles and strategies for a national single-payer, especially for the strategic purchasing of high-cost and specialized interventions in the context of public and private providers. The alternative of allocating funds directly to providers would undermine the incentives for competition and collaboration and the capacity to steer providers towards the provision of high quality health services.It is proposed to focus the discussion of the reform of the national health system around strategic purchasing and the functions and structure of a single-payer as well as of agencies to articulate integrated health service networks as tools to promote quality and efficiency of the National Universal Health System. The inclusion of economic incentives to providers will be vital for competition, but also for the cooperation of providers within integrated, multi-institutional health service networks.Health professionals and sector policy specialists coordinated by the Centro de Estudios Espinosa Yglesi as in Mexico propose a policy to anchor the health system in primary care centered on the individual. The vision includes effective stewardship,solid financing, and the provision of services by a

  13. The Realization of the System Programme "Health Saving Education" in the Pedagogical University

    Nagovitsyn, Roman S.; Chigovskaya-Nazarova, Yanina A.; Miroshnichenko, Aleksey A.; Senator, Svetlana Y.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to develop a system programme "Health saving education" on the basis of creating a structural model and model of management and ensuring health and preventive activities and experimentally prove the effectiveness of its implementation in the educational process of the university. The solution of research…

  14. A university system's approach to enhancing the educational mission of health science schools and institutions: the University of Texas Academy of Health Science Education

    L. Maximilian Buja

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The academy movement developed in the United States as an important approach to enhance the educational mission and facilitate the recognition and work of educators at medical schools and health science institutions. Objectives: Academies initially formed at individual medical schools. Educators and leaders in The University of Texas System (the UT System, UTS recognized the academy movement as a means both to address special challenges and pursue opportunities for advancing the educational mission of academic health sciences institutions. Methods: The UTS academy process was started by the appointment of a Chancellor's Health Fellow for Education in 2004. Subsequently, the University of Texas Academy of Health Science Education (UTAHSE was formed by bringing together esteemed faculty educators from the six UTS health science institutions. Results: Currently, the UTAHSE has 132 voting members who were selected through a rigorous, system-wide peer review and who represent multiple professional backgrounds and all six campuses. With support from the UTS, the UTAHSE has developed and sustained an annual Innovations in Health Science Education conference, a small grants program and an Innovations in Health Science Education Award, among other UTS health science educational activities. The UTAHSE represents one university system's innovative approach to enhancing its educational mission through multi- and interdisciplinary as well as inter-institutional collaboration. Conclusions: The UTAHSE is presented as a model for the development of other consortia-type academies that could involve several components of a university system or coalitions of several institutions.

  15. Healthy universities: an example of a whole-system health-promoting setting.

    Newton, Joanne; Dooris, Mark; Wills, Jane

    2016-03-01

    The health-promoting settings approach is well established in health promotion, with organisational settings being understood as complex systems able to support human wellbeing and flourishing. Despite the reach and evident importance of higher education as a sector, 'healthy universities' has not received high-level international leadership comparable to many other settings programmes. This study explores how the concept of a healthy university is operationalised in two case study universities. Data collection methods included documentary analysis, observation field notes and semi-structured interviews with staff and students. Staff and students understood the characteristics of a healthy university to pertain to management processes relating to communication and to a respectful organisational ethos. Enhancers of health and wellbeing were feeling valued, being listened to, having skilled and supportive line managers and having a positive physical environment. Inhibitors of health and wellbeing were having a sense of powerlessness and a lack of care and concern. The concept of the healthy university has been slow to be adopted in contrast to initiatives such as healthy schools. In addition to challenges relating to lack of theorisation, paucity of evidence and difficulties in capturing the added value of whole-system working, this study suggests that this may be due to both their complex organisational structure and the diverse goals of higher education, which do not automatically privilege health and wellbeing. It also points to the need for a whole-university approach that pays attention to the complex interactions and interconnections between component parts and highlights how the organisation can function effectively as a social system. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Strengthening Health Systems of Developing Countries: Inclusion of Surgery in Universal Health Coverage.

    Okoroh, Juliet S; Chia, Victoria; Oliver, Emily A; Dharmawardene, Marisa; Riviello, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) has its roots in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and has recently gained momentum. Out-of-pocket payments (OPP) remain a significant barrier to care. There is an increasing global prevalence of non-communicable diseases, many of which are surgically treatable. We sought to provide a comparative analysis of the inclusion of surgical care in operating plans for UHC in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We systematically searched PubMed and Google Scholar using pre-defined criteria for articles published in English, Spanish, or French between January 1991 and November 2013. Keywords included "insurance," "OPP," "surgery," "trauma," "cancer," and "congenital anomalies." World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank, and Joint Learning Network for UHC websites were searched for supporting documents. Ministries of Health were contacted to provide further information on the inclusion of surgery. We found 696 articles and selected 265 for full-text review based on our criteria. Some countries enumerated surgical conditions in detail (India, 947 conditions). Other countries mentioned surgery broadly. Obstetric care was most commonly covered (19 countries). Solid organ transplantation was least covered. Cancer care was mentioned broadly, often without specifying the therapeutic modality. No countries were identified where hospitals are required to provide emergency care regardless of insurance coverage. OPP varied greatly between countries. Eighty percent of countries had OPP of 60% or more, making these services, even if partially covered, largely inaccessible. While OPP, delivery, and utilization continue to represent challenges to health care access in many LMICs, the inclusion of surgery in many UHC policies sets an important precedent in addressing a growing global prevalence of surgically treatable conditions. Barriers to access, including inequalities in financial protection in the form of high OPP, remain a fundamental

  17. Utilizing Health Information Technology to Support Universal Healthcare Delivery: Experience of a National Healthcare System.

    Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Hsu, Min-Huei; Iqbal, Usman; Scholl, Jeremiah; Huang, Chih-Wei; Nguyen, Phung Anh; Lee, Peisan; García-Romero, Maria Teresa; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack; Jian, Wen-Shan

    2015-09-01

    Recent discussions have focused on using health information technology (HIT) to support goals related to universal healthcare delivery. These discussions have generally not reflected on the experience of countries with a large amount of experience using HIT to support universal healthcare on a national level. HIT was compared globally by using data from the Ministry of the Interior, Republic of China (Taiwan). Taiwan has been providing universal healthcare since 1995 and began to strategically implement HIT on a national level at that time. Today the national-level HIT system is more extensive in Taiwan than in many other countries and is used to aid administration, clinical care, and public health. The experience of Taiwan thus can provide an illustration of how HIT can be used to support universal healthcare delivery. In this article we present an overview of some key historical developments and successes in the adoption of HIT in Taiwan over a 17-year period, as well as some more recent developments. We use this experience to offer some strategic perspectives on how it can aid in the adoption of large-scale HIT systems and on how HIT can be used to support universal healthcare delivery.

  18. Methods University Health System Can Use to Expand Medicaid Coverage to Uninsured Poor Parents with Medicaid Eligible Children: Policy Analysis

    McMahon, III, Robert T

    2006-01-01

    ... and the continuing reduction in local employer-sponsored insurance. The cost for providing health care to this population has fallen to Bexar County residents through local taxes in support of the county hospital, University Health System...

  19. Exploring models for the roles of health systems' responsiveness and social determinants in explaining universal health coverage and health outcomes.

    Valentine, Nicole Britt; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2016-01-01

    Intersectoral perspectives of health are present in the rhetoric of the sustainable development goals. Yet its descriptions of systematic approaches for an intersectoral monitoring vision, joining determinants of health, and barriers or facilitators to accessing healthcare services are lacking. To explore models of associations between health outcomes and health service coverage, and health determinants and health systems responsiveness, and thereby to contribute to monitoring, analysis, and assessment approaches informed by an intersectoral vision of health. The study is designed as a series of ecological, cross-country regression analyses, covering between 23 and 57 countries with dependent health variables concentrated on the years 2002-2003. Countries cover a range of development contexts. Health outcome and health service coverage dependent variables were derived from World Health Organization (WHO) information sources. Predictor variables representing determinants are derived from the WHO and World Bank databases; variables used for health systems' responsiveness are derived from the WHO World Health Survey. Responsiveness is a measure of acceptability of health services to the population, complementing financial health protection. Health determinants' indicators - access to improved drinking sources, accountability, and average years of schooling - were statistically significant in particular health outcome regressions. Statistically significant coefficients were more common for mortality rate regressions than for coverage rate regressions. Responsiveness was systematically associated with poorer health and health service coverage. With respect to levels of inequality in health, the indicator of responsiveness problems experienced by the unhealthy poor groups in the population was statistically significant for regressions on measles vaccination inequalities between rich and poor. For the broader determinants, the Gini mattered most for inequalities in child

  20. The strategic use of standardized information exchange technology in a university health system.

    Cheng, Po-Hsun; Chen, Heng-Shuen; Lai, Feipei; Lai, Jin-Shin

    2010-04-01

    This article illustrates a Web-based health information system that is comprised of specific information exchange standards related to health information for healthcare services in National Taiwan University Health System. Through multidisciplinary teamwork, medical and informatics experts collaborated and studied on system scope definition, standard selection challenges, system implementation barriers, system management outcomes, and further expandability of other systems. After user requirement analysis and prototyping, from 2005 to 2008, an online clinical decision support system with multiple functions of reminding and information push was implemented. It was to replace its original legacy systems and serve among the main hospital and three branches of 180-200 clinics and 7,500-8,000 patient visits per day. To evaluate the effectiveness of this system, user surveys were performed, which revealed that the average score of user satisfaction increased from 2.80 to 3.18 on a 4-point scale. Among the items, especially e-learning for training service, courtesy communications for system requests, and courtesy communications for system operations showed statistically significant improvement. From this study, the authors concluded that standardized information exchange technologies can be used to create a brand new enterprise value and steadily obtain more competitive advantages for a prestige healthcare system.

  1. Going Tobacco-Free on 24 New York City University Campuses: A Public Health Agency's Partnership with a Large Urban Public University System

    Bresnahan, Marie P.; Sacks, Rachel; Farley, Shannon M.; Mandel-Ricci, Jenna; Patterson, Ty; Lamberson, Patti

    2016-01-01

    The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene partnered with the nation's largest university system, the City University of New York (CUNY), to provide technical assistance and resources to support the development and implementation of a system-wide tobacco-free policy. This effort formed one component of "Healthy CUNY"--a…

  2. Health System Creation and Integration at a Health Sciences University: A Five-Year Follow-up.

    Slade, Catherine P; Azziz, Ricardo; Levin, Steven; Caughman, Gretchen B; Hefner, David S; Halbur, Kimberly V; Tingen, Martha S; James, Susan

    Shifting healthcare market forces and regulation have exerted near-constant pressure on U.S. academic health centers (AHCs) attempting to successfully execute their traditional tripartite mission. A governance structure and organizational alignment that works well under one set of conditions is rarely optimal when conditions change. Thus, the degree and type of alignment of an AHC's clinical, educational, and faculty practice organizations have changed regularly within the sector, typically landing near one end or the other on a continuum from fully aligned with centralized governance to largely independent with separate governance. The authors examine the case of Georgia Regents University and Health System in this context. In step with industry trends, the institution's governance structure swung from fully aligned/centralized governance in the early 1990s to essentially separate and decentralized by 2000. In 2010, the Georgia Regents University organizations achieved rapid realignment by creating a governance structure of sufficient strength and flexibility to absorb and adjust to continuing external upheaval. The hospitals, clinics, and physician-faculty practice group were combined into one integrated health system, then aligned with the university to form the state's only public AHC under aligned, but distinct, corporate and management structures. The years since reorganization have seen significant growth in patient volumes and complexity, improved service quality, and enhanced faculty physician satisfaction, while also significantly increasing economic contributions from the health system to the academic mission. This case study offers observations and lessons learned that may be useful to other higher education institutions considering reorganization.

  3. U.S. Army-Baylor University Health Care Administration Program: evidenced-based outcomes in the military health system.

    Mangelsdorff, A David; Rogers, Jody; Finstuen, Kenn; Pryor, Rene

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to assess the impact of an educational program on the Military Health System on some of the evidence-based educational outcomes for the Individual (student) and the Society (all Army Medical Treatment Facilities). The U.S. Army-Baylor University HCA program provides a unique opportunity to assess the impact of an educational program on the Military Health System (MHS). Since the majority of the graduate students are military officers who serve in military medical treatment facilities (MTFs), tracking their career progression allows assessing the value added of the U.S. Army-Baylor University HCA experience from 1951 to 2001 (n = 2234). The context of Society outcomes includes all the Army MTFs where U.S. Army-Baylor University HCA graduates execute their leadership skills. During the time from 1994 to 2001, all of the Army MTFs in the MHS (n = 38) were examined by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). In a similar but shorter time frame (1997-2001), DoD patient satisfaction assessments were conducted. The Individual outcomes (career advancement, increase in status, higher professional association membership) demonstrate that the selection criteria used for program admission appear to be successful. The Society outcomes showed higher JCAHO scores and satisfied consumers in Army facilities with Baylor graduates as the Deputy Commander for Administration (DCA). Continued internal program assessments (curriculum reviews) and external reviews (Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Administration accreditations of 5 years in 1987, 8 years in 1993 and 7 years in 2001, and 7 ACHE student chapter awards) attest to the strengths of the U.S. Army-Baylor University HCA program. Educating the MHS shareholders (patients, beneficiaries, professional and support staff, senior leaders) and leveraging technology to. share best practices for all administrators (including non-Baylor graduates) will

  4. Universal coverage challenges require health system approaches; the case of India.

    Duran, Antonio; Kutzin, Joseph; Menabde, Nata

    2014-02-01

    This paper uses the case of India to demonstrate that Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is about not only health financing; personal and population services production issues, stewardship of the health system and generation of the necessary resources and inputs need to accompany the health financing proposals. In order to help policy makers address UHC in India and sort out implementation issues, the framework developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) in the World Health Report 2000 and its subsequent extensions are advocated. The framework includes final goals, generic intermediate objectives and four inter-dependent functions which interact as a system; it can be useful by diagnosing current shortcomings and facilitating the filling up of gaps between functions and goals. Different positions are being defended in India re the preconditions for UHC to succeed. This paper argues that more (public) money will be important, but not enough; it needs to be supplemented with broad interventions at various health system levels. The paper analyzes some of the most important issues in relation to the functions of service production, generation of inputs and the necessary stewardship. It also pays attention to reform implementation, as different from its design, and suggests critical aspects emanating from a review of recent health system reforms. Precisely because of the lack of comparative reference for India, emphasis is made on the need to accompany implementation with analysis, so that the "solutions" ("what to do?", "how to do it?") are found through policy analysis and research embedded into flexible implementation. Strengthening "evidence-to-policy" links and the intelligence dimension of stewardship/leadership as well as accountability during implementation are considered paramount. Countries facing similar challenges to those faced by India can also benefit from the above approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Progress of optical sensor system for health monitoring of bridges at Chongqing University

    Chen, W.; Fu, Y.; Zhu, Y.; Huang, S.

    2005-02-01

    With decades of research experience on optical sensors, Optoelectronic Technology Lab of Chongqing University (OTLCU) has studied on a variety of sensors system designed for practical use in health monitoring. In OTLCU, embedded and surface mounted fiber Fabry-Perot strain sensor has been developed for monitoring the local strain of both concrete and steel truss bridge. Optoelectronic deflect meter, with a group of optical level sensor in a series connected pipe, was developed for deflection monitoring and line shape monitoring of the bridges. Laser deflect meter, with a laser pointer and a sensors array, has been also developed for a dynamic deflection monitoring of the bridges. To monitoring the 2-Dimentional displacement of the bridge, a self-calibrating imaging system was developed. All these sensor systems have been applied in different bridges successfully. This paper briefly describes principle of these optical sensing systems, and also gives some representative results of the system in practical application of bridges.

  6. Towards Universal Health Coverage via Social Health Insurance in China: Systemic Fragmentation, Reform Imperatives, and Policy Alternatives.

    He, Alex Jingwei; Wu, Shaolong

    2017-12-01

    China's remarkable progress in building a comprehensive social health insurance (SHI) system was swift and impressive. Yet the country's decentralized and incremental approach towards universal coverage has created a fragmented SHI system under which a series of structural deficiencies have emerged with negative impacts. First, contingent on local conditions and financing capacity, benefit packages vary considerably across schemes, leading to systematic inequity. Second, the existence of multiple schemes, complicated by massive migration, has resulted in weak portability of SHI, creating further barriers to access. Third, many individuals are enrolled on multiple schemes, which causes inefficient use of government subsidies. Moral hazard and adverse selection are not effectively managed. The Chinese government announced its blueprint for integrating the urban and rural resident schemes in early 2016, paving the way for the ultimate consolidation of all SHI schemes and equal benefits for all. This article proposes three policy alternatives to inform the consolidation: (1) a single-pool system at the prefectural level with significant government subsidies, (2) a dual-pool system at the prefectural level with risk-equalization mechanisms, and (3) a household approach without merging existing pools. Vertical integration to the provincial level is unlikely to happen in the near future. Two caveats are raised to inform this transition towards universal health coverage.

  7. Cancer Deaths due to Lack of Universal Access to Radiotherapy in the Brazilian Public Health System.

    Mendez, L C; Moraes, F Y; Fernandes, G Dos S; Weltman, E

    2018-01-01

    Radiotherapy plays a fundamental role in the treatment of cancer. Currently, the Brazilian public health system cannot match the national radiotherapy demand and many patients requiring radiotherapy are never exposed to this treatment. This study estimated the number of preventable deaths in the public health system if access to radiotherapy was universal. Incidence rates for the year 2016 provided by Instituto Nacional de Cancer were used in this analysis. The number of untreated patients requiring radiotherapy was obtained through the difference between the total number of patients requiring radiotherapy and the total amount of delivered radiotherapy treatments in the public health system. The number of deaths for the three most common cancers in each gender due to radiotherapy shortage was calculated. Initially, the total number of patients per cancer type was divided in stages using Brazilian epidemiological data. Subsequently, previously published tree arm diagrams were used to define the rate of patients requiring radiotherapy in each specific clinical setting. Finally, the clinical benefit of radiotherapy in overall survival was extracted from studies with level 1 evidence. Over 596 000 cancer cases were expected in Brazil in 2016. The public health system covers more than 75% of the Brazilian population and an estimated 111 432 patients who required radiotherapy in 2016 did not receive this treatment. Breast, colorectal and cervix cancers are the most frequent malignant tumours in women and prostate, lung and colorectal in men. The number of deaths due to a radiotherapy shortage in the year 2016 for these types of cancer were: (i) breast: 1011 deaths in 10 years; (ii) cervix: 2006 deaths in 2 years; (iii) lung: 1206 deaths in 2 years; (iv) prostate, intermediate risk: 562 deaths in 13 years; high risk: 298 deaths in 10 years; (v) colorectal: 0 deaths, as radiotherapy has no proven benefit in overall survival. Thousands of cancer patients requiring

  8. Geographic variations in avoidable hospitalizations in the elderly, in a health system with universal coverage

    Alberquilla Angel

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of Hospitalizations for ambulatory care sensitive conditions (ACSH has been proposed as an indirect measure of access to and receipt of care by older persons at the entryway to the Spanish public health system. The aim of this work is to identify the rates of ACSH in persons 65 years or older living in different small-areas of the Community of Madrid (CM and to detect possible differences in ACSH. Methods Cross-sectional, ecologic study, which covered all 34 health districts of the CM. The study population consisted of all individuals aged 65 years or older residing in the CM between 2001 and 2003, inclusive. Using hospital discharge data, avoidable ACSH were selected from the list of conditions validated for Spain. Age- and sex-adjusted ACSH rates were calculated for the population of each health district and the statistics describing the data variability. Point graphs and maps were designed to represent the ACSH rates in the different health districts. Results Of all the hospitalizations, 16.5% (64,409 were ACSH. Globally, the rate was higher among men: 33.15 per 1,000 populations vs. 22.10 in women and these differences were statistically significant (p Conclusion A significant variation is demonstrated in "preventable" hospitalizations between the different districts. In all the districts the men present rates significantly higher than women. Important variations in the access are observed the Primary Attention in spite of existing a universal sanitary cover.

  9. Nottingham Trent University and Makerere University School of Public Health partnership: experiences of co-learning and supporting the healthcare system in Uganda.

    Musoke, David; Gibson, Linda; Mukama, Trasias; Khalil, Yesmean; Ssempebwa, John C

    2016-03-28

    Partnerships between developed and developing country institutions are increasingly becoming important in addressing contemporary global health challenges faced by health systems. Inter-university health collaboration such as the Nottingham Trent University (UK) and Makerere University School of Public Health (Uganda) partnership provide opportunities for working together in training, research and service delivery while strengthening health systems. This paper shares the experiences, achievements and opportunities of this partnership in co-learning and supporting the health system in Uganda. This includes a project being implemented to strengthen the training, supervision and motivation of community health workers in rural Uganda. Training and research are a key focus of the partnership and have involved both staff and students of both institutions including guest lectures, seminars and conference presentations. The partnership's collaboration with stakeholders such as the Ministry of Health (Uganda) and local health authorities has ensured participation necessary in supporting implementation of sustainable interventions. The partnership uses several channels such as email, telephone, Skype, Dropbox and WhatsApp which have been useful in maintaining constant and effective communication. The challenges faced by the partnership include lack of funding to support student mobility, and varying academic schedules of the two institutions. The experiences and prospects of this growing partnership can inform other collaborations in similar settings.

  10. [Designing and Operating a Comprehensive Mental Health Management System to Support Faculty at a University That Contains a Medical School and University Hospital].

    Kawanishi, Chiaki

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, healthcare professionals and healthcare workers typically practice a culture of self-assessment when it comes to managing their own health. Even where this background leads to instances of mental health disorders or other serious problems within a given organization, such cases are customarily addressed by the psychiatrists or psychiatric departments of the facilities affected. Organized occupational mental health initiatives for professionals and workers within the healthcare system are extremely rare across Japan, and there is little recognition of the need for such initiatives even among those most directly affected. The author has some experience designing and operating a comprehensive health management system to support students and faculty at a university in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area that contains a medical school and university hospital. At this university, various mental health-related problems were routinely being allowed to develop into serious cases, while the fundamental reforms required by the health management center and the mental health management scheme organized through the center had come to represent a challenge for the entire university. From this initial situation, we undertook several successive initiatives, including raising the number of staff in the health management center and its affiliated organizations, revising and drafting new health management rules and regulations, launching an employment support and management system, implementing screenings to identify people with mental ill-health, revamping and expanding a counselling response system, instituting regular collaboration meetings with academic affairs staff, and launching educational and awareness-raising activities. This resulted in the possibility of intervention in all cases of mental health crisis, such as suicidal ideation. We counted more than 2,400 consultations (cumulative total number; more than half of consultations was from the medical school, postgraduate

  11. Rotavirus vaccines contribute towards universal health coverage in a mixed public-private healthcare system.

    Loganathan, Tharani; Jit, Mark; Hutubessy, Raymond; Ng, Chiu-Wan; Lee, Way-Seah; Verguet, Stéphane

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate rotavirus vaccination in Malaysia from the household's perspective. The extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) framework quantifies the broader value of universal vaccination starting with non-health benefits such as financial risk protection and equity. These dimensions better enable decision-makers to evaluate policy on the public finance of health programmes. The incidence, health service utilisation and household expenditure related to rotavirus gastroenteritis according to national income quintiles were obtained from local data sources. Multiple birth cohorts were distributed into income quintiles and followed from birth over the first five years of life in a multicohort, static model. We found that the rich pay more out of pocket (OOP) than the poor, as the rich use more expensive private care. OOP payments among the poorest although small are high as a proportion of household income. Rotavirus vaccination results in substantial reduction in rotavirus episodes and expenditure and provides financial risk protection to all income groups. Poverty reduction benefits are concentrated amongst the poorest two income quintiles. We propose that universal vaccination complements health financing reforms in strengthening Universal Health Coverage (UHC). ECEA provides an important tool to understand the implications of vaccination for UHC, beyond traditional considerations of economic efficiency. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Social inequalities in the organization of pregnancy care in a universally funded public health care system.

    Sutherland, Georgina; Yelland, Jane; Brown, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    To examine the social organization of pregnancy care and the extent to which socioeconomic factors affect women's experience of care. We consider these data in the global discussion on taking action to reduce health inequalities. This study draws on cross-sectional data from a large population-based survey of Australian women 6 months after giving birth. Only those women reporting to attend publically-funded models of antenatal care (i.e., public clinic, midwife clinic, shared care, primary medical care, primary midwife care) were included in analyses. Results showed a social patterning in the organization and experience of care with clear links between model of care attended in pregnancy and a number of individual-level indicators of social disadvantage. Our findings show model of care is a salient feature in how women view their care. How women from socially disadvantaged backgrounds navigate available care options are important considerations. Pregnancy care is recognized as an opportunity to intervene to give children 'the best start in life.' Our data show the current system of universally accessible pregnancy care in Australia is failing to support the most vulnerable women and families. This information can inform actions to reduce social disparities during this critical period.

  13. Exploring models for the roles of health systems' responsiveness and social determinants in explaining universal health coverage and health outcomes

    Valentine, Nicole Britt; Bonsel, Gouke J

    Background Intersectoral perspectives of health are present in the rhetoric of the sustainable development goals. Yet its descriptions of systematic approaches for an intersectoral monitoring vision, joining determinants of health, and barriers or facilitators to accessing healthcare services are

  14. Exploring models for the roles of health systems' responsiveness and social determinants in explaining universal health coverage and health outcomes

    N. Valentine (Nicole); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Intersectoral perspectives of health are present in the rhetoric of the sustainable development goals. Yet its descriptions of systematic approaches for an intersectoral monitoring vision, joining determinants of health, and barriers or facilitators to accessing healthcare

  15. Bismarck meets Beveridge on the Silk Road: coordinating funding sources to create a universal health financing system in Kyrgyzstan.

    Kutzin, Joseph; Ibraimova, Ainura; Jakab, Melitta; O'Dougherty, Sheila

    2009-07-01

    Options for health financing reform are often portrayed as a choice between general taxation (known as the Beveridge model) and social health insurance (known as the Bismarck model). Ten years of health financing reform in Kyrgyzstan, since the introduction of its compulsory health insurance fund in 1997, provide an excellent example of why it is wrong to reduce health financing policy to a choice between the Beveridge and Bismarck models. Rather than fragment the system according to the insurance status of the population, as many other low- and middle-income countries have done, the Kyrgyz reforms were guided by the objective of having a single system for the entire population. Key features include the role and gradual development of the compulsory health insurance fund as the single purchaser of health-care services for the entire population using output-based payment methods, the complete restructuring of pooling arrangements from the former decentralized budgetary structure to a single national pool, and the establishment of an explicit benefit package. Central to the process was the transformation of the role of general budget revenues - the main source of public funding for health - from directly subsidizing the supply of services to subsidizing the purchase of services on behalf of the entire population by redirecting them into the health insurance fund. Through their approach to health financing policy, and pooling in particular, the Kyrgyz health reformers demonstrated that different sources of funds can be used in an explicitly complementary manner to enable the creation of a unified, universal system.

  16. Moving from ideas to action - developing health financing systems towards universal coverage in Africa

    Musango Laurent

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accelerating progress towards universal coverage in African countries calls for concrete actions that reinforce social health protection through establishment of sustainable health financing mechanisms. In order to explore possible pathways for moving past the existing obstacles, panel discussions were organized on health financing bringing together Ministers of health and Ministers of finance with the objective of creating a discussion space where the different perspectives on key issues and needed actions could meet. This article presents a synthesis of panel discussions focusing on the identified challenges and the possible solutions. The overview of this paper is based on the objectives and proceedings of the panel discussions and relies on the observation and study of the interaction between the panelists and on the discourse used. Summary The discussion highlighted that a large proportion of the African population has no access to needed health services with significant reliance on direct out of pocket payments. There are multiple obstacles in making prepayment and pooling mechanisms operational. The relatively strong political commitment to health has not always translated into more public spending for health. Donor investment in health in low income countries still falls below commitments. There is need to explore innovative domestic revenue collection mechanisms. Although inadequate funding for health is a fundamental problem, inefficient use of resources is of great concern. There is need to generate robust evidence focusing on issues of importance to ministry of finance. The current unsatisfactory state of health financing was mainly attributed to lack of clear vision; evidence based plans and costed strategies. Discussion Based on the analysis of discussion made, there are points of convergence and divergence in the discourse and positions of the two ministries. The current blockage points holding back budget

  17. Moving from ideas to action - developing health financing systems towards universal coverage in Africa.

    Musango, Laurent; Orem, Juliet Nabyonga; Elovainio, Riku; Kirigia, Joses

    2012-11-08

    Accelerating progress towards universal coverage in African countries calls for concrete actions that reinforce social health protection through establishment of sustainable health financing mechanisms. In order to explore possible pathways for moving past the existing obstacles, panel discussions were organized on health financing bringing together Ministers of health and Ministers of finance with the objective of creating a discussion space where the different perspectives on key issues and needed actions could meet. This article presents a synthesis of panel discussions focusing on the identified challenges and the possible solutions. The overview of this paper is based on the objectives and proceedings of the panel discussions and relies on the observation and study of the interaction between the panelists and on the discourse used. The discussion highlighted that a large proportion of the African population has no access to needed health services with significant reliance on direct out of pocket payments. There are multiple obstacles in making prepayment and pooling mechanisms operational. The relatively strong political commitment to health has not always translated into more public spending for health. Donor investment in health in low income countries still falls below commitments. There is need to explore innovative domestic revenue collection mechanisms. Although inadequate funding for health is a fundamental problem, inefficient use of resources is of great concern. There is need to generate robust evidence focusing on issues of importance to ministry of finance. The current unsatisfactory state of health financing was mainly attributed to lack of clear vision; evidence based plans and costed strategies. Based on the analysis of discussion made, there are points of convergence and divergence in the discourse and positions of the two ministries. The current blockage points holding back budget allocations for health can be solved with a more evidence based

  18. Educational disparities in quality of diabetes care in a universal health insurance system: evidence from the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Do, Young Kyung; Eggleston, Karen N

    2011-08-01

    To investigate educational disparities in the care process and health outcomes among patients with diabetes in the context of South Korea's universal health insurance system. Bivariate and multiple regression analyses of data from a cross-sectional health survey. A nationally representative and population-based survey, the 2005 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Respondents aged 40 or older who self-reported prior diagnosis with diabetes (n= 1418). Seven measures of the care process and health outcomes, namely (i) receiving medical treatment for diabetes, (ii) ever received diabetes education, (iii) received dilated eye examination in the past year, (iv) received microalbuminuria test in the past year, (v) having activity limitation due to diabetes, (vi) poor self-rated health and (vii) self-rated health on a visual analog scale. Except for receiving medical care for diabetes, overall process quality was low, with only 25% having ever received diabetes education, 39% having received a dilated eye examination in the past year and 51% having received a microalbuminuria test in the past year. Lower education level was associated with both poorer care processes and poorer health outcomes, whereas lower income level was only associated with poorer health outcomes. While South Korea's universal health insurance system may have succeeded in substantially reducing financial barriers related to diabetes care, the quality of diabetes care is low overall and varies by education level. System-level quality improvement efforts are required to address the weaknesses of the health system, thereby mitigating educational disparities in diabetes care quality.

  19. Accelerators/decelerators of achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health services: a case study of Iranian health system.

    Akbari, Nahid; Ramezankhani, Ali; Pazargadi, Mehrnoosh

    2013-07-01

    At the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), held in Cairo, the global community agreed to the goal of achieving universal access to sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and rights by 2015. This research explores the accelerators and decelerators of achieving universal access to the sexual and reproductive health targets and accordingly makes some suggestions. We have critically reviewed the latest national reports and extracted the background data on each SRH indicator. The key stakeholders, both national and international, were visited and interviewed at two sites. A total of 55 in-depth interviews were conducted with religious leaders, policy-makers, senior managers, senior academics, and health care managers. Six focus-group discussions were also held among health care providers. The study was qualitative in nature. Obstacles on the road to achieving universal access to SRH can be viewed from two perspectives. One gap exists between current achievements and the targets. The other gap arises due to age, marital status, and residency status. The most recently observed trends in the indicators of the universal access to SRH shows that the achievements in the "unmet need for family planning" have been poor. Unmet need for family planning could directly be translated to unwanted pregnancies and unwanted childbirths; the former calls for sexual education to underserved people, including adolescents; and the latter calls for access to safe abortion. Local religious leaders have not actively attended international goal-setting programs. Therefore, they usually do not presume a positive attitude towards these goals. Such negative attitudes seem to be the most important factors hindering the progress towards universal access to SRH. Lack of international donors to fund for SRH programs is also another barrier. In national levels both state and the society are interactively playing their roles. We have used a cascade model for presenting the

  20. Realizing right to health through universal health coverage

    ANJALI Singh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of right to health is an essential step to work towards improvement of public health and to attain highest standard of physical and mental health of the people. Right to health in India is implicit part of right to life under Article 19 mentioned in the Constitution of India but is not recognized per se. Universal Health Coverage adopts rights based approach and principles of universality, equity, empowerment and comprehensiveness of care. The Universal Coverage Report of India makes recommendations in six identified areas to revamp the health systems in order to ensure right to health of Indians. These areas are: health financing and financial protection; health service norms; human resources for health; community participation and citizen engagement; access to medicines, vaccines and techno- logy; management and institutional reforms. This paper attempts to determine the ways inwhich Universal Health Coverage can make a contribution in realizing right to health and thus human rights in developing countries.

  1. The Role of Hospital Information Systems in Universal Health Coverage Monitoring in Rwanda.

    Karara, Gustave; Verbeke, Frank; Nyssen, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In this retrospective study, the authors monitored the patient health coverage in 6 Rwandan hospitals in the period between 2011 and 2014. Among the 6 hospitals, 2 are third level hospitals, 2 district hospitals and 2 private hospitals. Patient insurance and financial data were extracted and analyzed from OpenClinic GA, an open source hospital information system (HIS) used in those 6 hospitals. The percentage of patients who had no health insurer globally decreased from 35% in 2011 to 15% in 2014. The rate of health insurance coverage in hospitals varied between 75% in private hospitals and 84% in public hospitals. The amounts paid by the patients for health services decreased in private hospitals to 25% of the total costs in 2014 (-7.4%) and vary between 14% and 19% in public hospitals. Although the number of insured patients has increased and the patient share decreased over the four years of study, the patients' out-of-pocket payments increased especially for in-patients. This study emphasizes the value of integrated hospital information systems for this kind of health economics research in developing countries.

  2. University students' mental health: Aksaray University example

    Rezzan Gündoğdu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether mental health scores of the university students differ based on gender, whether they study in their ideal majors, whether they are contended with their majors, economic condition perceived and perceptions on employment opportunity after graduation. The sample group of the study constituted 3492 students comprising 2037 female students and 1455 male students attending Faculty of Education (634, Engineering Faculty (1582, Economic and Administrative Sciences Faculty (1097, Faculty of Science and Letters (762, Medical Vocational College (540, Physical Training and Sports College (443 and Aksaray Vocational College (1452 of Aksaray University in 2010-2011 Academic Year. Symptom Checklist (SCL 90-R developed by Deragotis, (1983; eg Öner, 1997 has been used to collect data on mental health level of the students involved in the study. Statistical analysis of the data collected has been carried out using t Test, One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA. Significant differences have been found in students in terms of independent variants according to the general symptom average score and numerous sub-scale scores.

  3. Assessment of capacity for Health Policy and Systems Research and Analysis in seven African universities: results from the CHEPSAA project

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Lê, Gillian; Green, Andrew; Orgill, Marsha; Komba, Adalgot; Esena, Reuben K; Nyapada, Linet; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Amde, Woldekidan K; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Gilson, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The importance of health policy and systems research and analysis (HPSR+A) is widely recognized. Universities are central to strengthening and sustaining the HPSR+A capacity as they teach the next generation of decision-makers and health professionals. However, little is known about the capacity of universities, specifically, to develop the field. In this article, we report results of capacity self- assessments by seven universities within five African countries, conducted through the Consortium for Health Policy and Systems Analysis in Africa (CHEPSAA). The capacity assessments focused on both capacity ‘assets’ and ‘needs’, and covered the wider context, as well as organizational and individual capacity levels. Six thematic areas of capacity were examined: leadership and governance, organizations’ resources, scope of HPSR+A teaching and research, communication, networking and getting research into policy and practice (GRIPP), demand for HPRS+A and resource environment. The self-assessments by each university used combinations of document reviews, semi-structured interviews and staff surveys, followed by comparative analysis. A framework approach, guided by the six thematic areas, was used to analyse data. We found that HPSR+A is an international priority, and an existing activity in Africa, though still neglected field with challenges including its reliance on unpredictable international funding. All universities have capacity assets, such as ongoing HPSR+A teaching and research. There are, however, varying levels of assets (such as differences in staff numbers, group sizes and amount of HPSR+A teaching and research), which, combined with different capacity needs at all three levels (such as individual training, improvement in systems for quality assurance and fostering demand for HPSR+A work), can shape a future agenda for HPSR+A capacity strengthening. Capacity assets and needs at different levels appear related. Possible integrated strategies for

  4. How universal is coverage and access to diagnosis and treatment for Chagas disease in Colombia? A health systems analysis.

    Cucunubá, Zulma M; Manne-Goehler, Jennifer M; Díaz, Diana; Nouvellet, Pierre; Bernal, Oscar; Marchiol, Andrea; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Conteh, Lesong

    2017-02-01

    Limited access to Chagas disease diagnosis and treatment is a major obstacle to reaching the 2020 World Health Organization milestones of delivering care to all infected and ill patients. Colombia has been identified as a health system in transition, reporting one of the highest levels of health insurance coverage in Latin America. We explore if and how this high level of coverage extends to those with Chagas disease, a traditionally marginalised population. Using a mixed methods approach, we calculate coverage for screening, diagnosis and treatment of Chagas. We then identify supply-side constraints both quantitatively and qualitatively. A review of official registries of tests and treatments for Chagas disease delivered between 2008 and 2014 is compared to estimates of infected people. Using the Flagship Framework, we explore barriers limiting access to care. Screening coverage is estimated at 1.2% of the population at risk. Aetiological treatment with either benznidazol or nifurtimox covered 0.3-0.4% of the infected population. Barriers to accessing screening, diagnosis and treatment are identified for each of the Flagship Framework's five dimensions of interest: financing, payment, regulation, organization and persuasion. The main challenges identified were: a lack of clarity in terms of financial responsibilities in a segmented health system, claims of limited resources for undertaking activities particularly in primary care, non-inclusion of confirmatory test(s) in the basic package of diagnosis and care, poor logistics in the distribution and supply chain of medicines, and lack of awareness of medical personnel. Very low screening coverage emerges as a key obstacle hindering access to care for Chagas disease. Findings suggest serious shortcomings in this health system for Chagas disease, despite the success of universal health insurance scale-up in Colombia. Whether these shortcomings exist in relation to other neglected tropical diseases needs investigating

  5. Financing universal health coverage—effects of alternative tax structures on public health systems: cross-national modelling in 89 low-income and middle-income countries

    Reeves, Aaron; Gourtsoyannis, Yannis; Basu, Sanjay; McCoy, David; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background How to finance progress towards universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries is a subject of intense debate. We investigated how alternative tax systems affect the breadth, depth, and height of health system coverage. Methods We used cross-national longitudinal fixed effects models to assess the relationships between total and different types of tax revenue, health system coverage, and associated child and maternal health outcomes in 89 low-income and middle-income countries from 1995–2011. Findings Tax revenue was a major statistical determinant of progress towards universal health coverage. Each US$100 per capita per year of additional tax revenues corresponded to a yearly increase in government health spending of $9·86 (95% CI 3·92–15·8), adjusted for GDP per capita. This association was strong for taxes on capital gains, profits, and income ($16·7, 9·16 to 24·3), but not for consumption taxes on goods and services (−$4·37, −12·9 to 4·11). In countries with low tax revenues (tax revenue per year substantially increased the proportion of births with a skilled attendant present by 6·74 percentage points (95% CI 0·87–12·6) and the extent of financial coverage by 11·4 percentage points (5·51–17·2). Consumption taxes, a more regressive form of taxation that might reduce the ability of the poor to afford essential goods, were associated with increased rates of post-neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and under-5 mortality rates. We did not detect these adverse associations with taxes on capital gains, profits, and income, which tend to be more progressive. Interpretation Increasing domestic tax revenues is integral to achieving universal health coverage, particularly in countries with low tax bases. Pro-poor taxes on profits and capital gains seem to support expanding health coverage without the adverse associations with health outcomes observed for higher consumption taxes. Progressive tax

  6. Financing universal health coverage--effects of alternative tax structures on public health systems: cross-national modelling in 89 low-income and middle-income countries.

    Reeves, Aaron; Gourtsoyannis, Yannis; Basu, Sanjay; McCoy, David; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-07-18

    How to finance progress towards universal health coverage in low-income and middle-income countries is a subject of intense debate. We investigated how alternative tax systems affect the breadth, depth, and height of health system coverage. We used cross-national longitudinal fixed effects models to assess the relationships between total and different types of tax revenue, health system coverage, and associated child and maternal health outcomes in 89 low-income and middle-income countries from 1995-2011. Tax revenue was a major statistical determinant of progress towards universal health coverage. Each US$100 per capita per year of additional tax revenues corresponded to a yearly increase in government health spending of $9.86 (95% CI 3.92-15.8), adjusted for GDP per capita. This association was strong for taxes on capital gains, profits, and income ($16.7, 9.16 to 24.3), but not for consumption taxes on goods and services (-$4.37, -12.9 to 4.11). In countries with low tax revenues (tax revenue per year substantially increased the proportion of births with a skilled attendant present by 6.74 percentage points (95% CI 0.87-12.6) and the extent of financial coverage by 11.4 percentage points (5.51-17.2). Consumption taxes, a more regressive form of taxation that might reduce the ability of the poor to afford essential goods, were associated with increased rates of post-neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and under-5 mortality rates. We did not detect these adverse associations with taxes on capital gains, profits, and income, which tend to be more progressive. Increasing domestic tax revenues is integral to achieving universal health coverage, particularly in countries with low tax bases. Pro-poor taxes on profits and capital gains seem to support expanding health coverage without the adverse associations with health outcomes observed for higher consumption taxes. Progressive tax policies within a pro-poor framework might accelerate progress toward achieving major

  7. University and public health system partnership: A real-life intervention to improve asthma management.

    Melo, Janaina; Moreno, Adriana; Ferriani, Virginia; Araujo, Ana Carla; Vianna, Elcio; Borges, Marcos; Roxo, Pérsio; Gonçalves, Marcos; Mello, Luane; Parreira, Rosa; Silva, Jorgete; Stefanelli, Patricia; Panazolo, Larissa; Cetlin, Andrea; Queiroz, Luana; Araujo, Rosângela; Dias, Marina; Aragon, Davi; Domingos, Nélio; Arruda, L Karla

    2017-05-01

    Asthma is under-diagnosed in many parts of the world. We aimed to assess the outcome of a capacitating program on asthma for non-specialist physicians and other healthcare professionals working in the public system in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil. A group of 16 asthma specialists developed a one-year capacitating program in 11 healthcare clinics in the Northern District of the city, which included lectures on asthma, training on inhalation device use and spirometry, and development of an asthma management protocol. Researchers visited one health unit 2-4 times monthly, working with doctors on patients' care, discussing cases, and delivering lectures. Asthma education was also directed to the general population, focusing on recognition of signs and symptoms and long-term treatment, including production of educational videos available on YouTube. Outcome measures were the records of doctors' prescriptions of individual asthma medications pre- and post-intervention. Prior to the program, 3205 units of inhaled albuterol and 2876 units of inhaled beclomethasone were delivered by the Northern District pharmacy. After the one-year program, there was increase to 4850 units (51.3%) for inhaled albuterol and 3526 units (22.6%) for inhaled beclomethasone. The albuterol increase followed the recommendation given to the non-specialist doctors by the asthma experts, that every patient with asthma should have inhaled albuterol as a rescue medication, by protocol. No increase was observed in other districts where no capacitating program was conducted. A systematic capacitating program was successful in changing asthma prescription profiles among non-specialist doctors, with increased delivery of inhaled albuterol and beclomethasone.

  8. Providing Universal Health Insurance Coverage in Nigeria.

    Okebukola, Peter O; Brieger, William R

    2016-07-07

    Despite a stated goal of achieving universal coverage, the National Health Insurance Scheme of Nigeria had achieved only 4% coverage 12 years after it was launched. This study assessed the plans of the National Health Insurance Scheme to achieve universal health insurance coverage in Nigeria by 2015 and discusses the challenges facing the scheme in achieving insurance coverage. In-depth interviews from various levels of the health-care system in the country, including providers, were conducted. The results of the analysis suggest that challenges to extending coverage include the difficulty in convincing autonomous state governments to buy into the scheme and an inadequate health workforce that might not be able to meet increased demand. Recommendations for increasing the scheme's coverage include increasing decentralization and strengthening human resources for health in the service delivery systems. Strong political will is needed as a catalyst to achieving these goals. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Are universities preparing nurses to meet the challenges posed by the Australian mental health care system?

    Wynaden, D; Orb, A; McGowan, S; Downie, J

    2000-09-01

    The preparedness of comprehensive nurses to work with the mentally ill is of concern to many mental health professionals. Discussion as to whether current undergraduate nursing programs in Australia prepare a graduate to work as a beginning practitioner in the mental health area has been the centre of debate for most of the 1990s. This, along with the apparent lack of interest and motivation of these nurses to work in the mental health area following graduation, remains a major problem for mental health care providers. With one in five Australians now experiencing the burden of a major mental illness, the preparation of a nurse who is competent to work with the mentally ill would appear to be a priority. The purpose of the present study was to determine third year undergraduate nursing students' perceived level of preparedness to work with mentally ill clients. The results suggested significant differences in students' perceived level of confidence, knowledge and skills prior to and following theoretical and clinical exposure to the mental health area. Pre-testing of students before entering their third year indicated that the philosophy of comprehensive nursing: integration, although aspired to in principle, does not appear to occur in reality.

  10. A study of user requests regarding the fully electronic health record system at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital: challenges for future electronic health record systems.

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Kim, Seok; Lee, Seungja; Lee, Kee-Hyuck; Baek, Rong-Min; Hwang, Hee

    2013-05-01

    Although the adoption rates for Electronic Health Records (EHRs) are growing, significant opportunities for further advances in EHR system design remain. The goal of this study was to identify issues that should be considered in the design process for the successful development of future systems by analyzing end users' service requests gathered during a recent three-year period after a comprehensive EHR system was implemented at Seoul National University's Bundang Hospital in South Korea. Data on 11,400 service requests from end users of the EHR system made from 2008 through 2010 were used in this study. The requests were categorized as program modification/development, data request, insurance-fee identification/generation, patient-record merging, or other. The authors further subcategorized the requests for program modification/development into the following nine areas of concern: (1) indicators and statistics, (2) patient safety and quality of care, (3) special task-oriented functionalities, (4) ease of use and user interface, (5) system speed, (6) interoperability and integration, (7) privacy and security, (8) customer service, and (9) miscellaneous. The system users were divided into four groups--direct care, care support, administrative/insurance, and general management--to identify each group's needs and concerns. The service requests for program modification/development, data request, insurance-fee identification/generation, patient-record merging, and other issues constituted approximately 49.2%, 33.9%, 11.4%, 4.0%, and 1.5% of the total data set, respectively. The number of data-request service requests grew over the three years studied. Different groups of users were found to have different concerns according to their activities and tasks. Within the program-modification/development category, end users were most frequently concerned with ease of use and user interface (38.1% of the total) and special task-oriented functionalities (29.3% of the total) in

  11. The provincial health office as performance manager: change in the local healthcare system after Thailand's universal coverage reforms.

    Intaranongpai, Siranee; Hughes, David; Leethongdee, Songkramchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of Thailand's universal coverage healthcare reforms in a rural province, using data from field studies undertaken in 2003-2005 and 2008-2011. We focus on the strand of policy that aimed to develop primary care by allocating funds to contracting units for primary care (CUPs) responsible for managing local service networks. The two studies document a striking change in the balance of power in the local healthcare system over the 8-year period. Initially, the newly formed CUPs gained influence as 'power followed the money', and the provincial health offices (PHOs), which had commanded the service units, were left with a weaker co-ordination role. However, the situation changed as a new insurance purchaser, the National Health Security Office, took financial control and established regional outposts. National Health Security Office outposts worked with PHOs to develop rationalised management tools-strategic plans, targets, KPIs and benchmarking-that installed the PHOs as performance managers of local healthcare systems. New lines of accountability and changed budgetary systems reduced the power of the CUPs to control resource allocation and patterns of services within CUP networks. Whereas some CUPs fought to retain limited autonomy, the PHO has been able to regain much of its former control. We suggest that implementation theory needs to take a long view to capture the complexity of a major reform initiative and argue for an analysis that recognises the key role of policy networks and advocacy coalitions that span national and local levels and realign over time. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Change theory for accounting system reform in health sector: a case study of kerman university of medical sciences in iran.

    Mehrolhassani, Mohammad Hossein; Emami, Mozhgan

    2013-11-01

    Change theories provide an opportunity for organizational managers to plan, monitor and evaluate changes using a framework which enable them, among others, to show a fast response to environmental fluctuations and to predict the changing patterns of individuals and technology. The current study aimed to explore whether the change in the public accounting system of the Iranian health sector has followed Kurt Lewin's change theory or not. This study which adopted a mixed methodology approach, qualitative and quantitative methods, was conducted in 2012. In the first phase of the study, 41 participants using purposive sampling and in the second phase, 32 affiliated units of Kerman University of Medical Sciences (KUMS) were selected as the study sample. Also, in phase one, we used face-to-face in-depth interviews (6 participants) and the quote method (35 participants) for data collection. We used a thematic framework analysis for analyzing data. In phase two, a questionnaire with a ten-point Likert scale was designed and then, data were analyzed using descriptive indicators, principal component and factorial analyses. The results of phase one yielded a model consisting of four categories of superstructure, apparent infrastructure, hidden infrastructure and common factors. By linking all factors, totally, 12 components based on the quantitative results showed that the state of all components were not satisfactory at KUMS (5.06±2.16). Leadership and management; and technology components played the lowest and the greatest roles in implementing the accrual accounting system respectively. The results showed that the unfreezing stage did not occur well and the components were immature, mainly because the emphasis was placed on superstructure components rather than the components of hidden infrastructure. The study suggests that a road map should be developed in the financial system based on Kurt Lewin's change theory and the model presented in this paper underpins the change

  13. Change Theory for Accounting System Reform in Health Sector: A Case Study of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in Iran

    Mohammad Hossein Mehrolhasani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundChange theories provide an opportunity for organizational managers to plan, monitor and evaluate changes using a framework which enable them, among others, to show a fast response to environmental fluctuations and to predict the changing patterns of individuals and technology. The current study aimed to explore whether the change in the public accounting system of the Iranian health sector has followed Kurt Lewin’s change theory or not. MethodsThis study which adopted a mixed methodology approach, qualitative and quantitative methods, was conducted in 2012. In the first phase of the study, 41 participants using purposive sampling and in the second phase, 32 affiliated units of Kerman University of Medical Sciences (KUMS were selected as the study sample. Also, in phase one, we used face-to-face in-depth interviews (6 participants and the quote method (35 participants for data collection. We used a thematic framework analysis for analyzing data. In phase two, a questionnaire with a ten-point Likert scale was designed and then, data were analyzed using descriptive indicators, principal component and factorial analyses. ResultsThe results of phase one yielded a model consisting of four categories of superstructure, apparent infrastructure, hidden infrastructure and common factors. By linking all factors, totally, 12 components based on the quantitative results showed that the state of all components were not satisfactory at KUMS (5.06±2.16. Leadership and management; and technology components played the lowest and the greatest roles in implementing the accrual accounting system respectively. ConclusionThe results showed that the unfreezing stage did not occur well and the components were immature, mainly because the emphasis was placed on superstructure components rather than the components of hidden infrastructure. The study suggests that a road map should be developed in the financial system based on Kurt Lewin’s change theory and

  14. [Universalization of health or of social security?].

    Levy-Algazi, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the architecture of Mexico's health system based on the main economic problem, failing to achieve a GDP growth rate to increase real wages and give workers in formal employment coverage social security. This analysis describes the relationship between social security of the population and employment status of it (either formal or informal employment) and the impact that this situation poses to our health system. Also, it ends with a reform proposal that will give all workers the same social rights, ie to grant universal social security.

  15. The impact of health system reform plan on the hospital\\'s performance indicators of Lorestan University of Medical Sciences

    Reza Dadgar

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: The health system  reform plan has been positive changes in indicators of hospital performance. Therefore, while considering the current trend of continuous improvement, the continuity of the project was advised based on the results of this study.

  16. Consultant's Playbook: A Survey of Pharmacy Consultant Experiences Among Hospitals In the University HealthSystem Consortium.

    Hicks, Dave; McCarthy, Bryan; Fanikos, John; Emamifar, Amir; Nedved, Andrea; Thompson, Bruce; Bender, Fred; McMahon, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Our team surveyed a group of pharmacy directors to learn about their experiences with pharmacy consultants so that the directors might be able to use their consulting resources in a more effective manner. In May 2012, the University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC) Pharmacy Council Financial Performance Committee developed an electronic survey that collectively measured the characteristics, goals, and methodology of historical pharmacy consultant engagements and level of satisfaction. After e-mailing the initial electronic survey, we conducted follow-up telephone interviews with respondents from July through November 2012. These interviews were designed to include questions about expected outcomes, recommendations for evaluation processes, timelines for implementing the recommendations, consultants' expenses, and insights gained. A total of 23 pharmacy directors responded to the initial electronic survey; their organizations had engaged at least one consultant within the previous 5 years. Data were collected for 28 consultant engagements. Subsequent telephone interviews were conducted with 20 of the 23 pharmacy directors (87%) who completed the initial electronic survey, accounting for 25 of the 28 consultant engagements (89%). Cost reduction along with revenue enhancement was most often the focus of these engagements. These engagements were also mainly within the scope of an organization-wide effort initiated by the executive board or executive team. Consultant experiences varied greatly in terms of (1) the degree to which assistance was provided to the organization, (2) benchmarking methodologies and resources, and (3) timelines for implementing the consultants' recommendations. In general, most respondents rated their consultant experience as positive and were able to provide "pearls of wisdom" or lessons learned.

  17. Carolina Care at University of North Carolina Health Care: Implementing a Theory-Driven Care Delivery Model Across a Healthcare System.

    Tonges, Mary; Ray, Joel D; Herman, Suzanne; McCann, Meghan

    2018-04-01

    Patient satisfaction is a key component of healthcare organizations' performance. Providing a consistent, positive patient experience across a system can be challenging. This article describes an organization's approach to achieving this goal by implementing a successful model developed at the flagship academic healthcare center across an 8-hospital system. The Carolina Care at University of North Carolina Health Care initiative has resulted in substantive qualitative and quantitative benefits including higher patient experience scores for both overall rating and nurse communication.

  18. From universal health insurance to universal healthcare? The shifting health policy landscape in Ireland since the economic crisis.

    Burke, Sara Ann; Normand, Charles; Barry, Sarah; Thomas, Steve

    2016-03-01

    Ireland experienced one of the most severe economic crises of any OECD country. In 2011, a new government came to power amidst unprecedented health budget cuts. Despite a retrenchment in the ability of health resources to meet growing need, the government promised a universal, single-tiered health system, with access based solely on medical need. Key to this was introducing universal free GP care by 2015 and Universal Health Insurance from 2016 onwards. Delays in delivering universal access and a new health minister in 2014 resulted in a shift in language from 'universal health insurance' to 'universal healthcare'. During 2014 and 2015, there was an absence of clarity on what government meant by universal healthcare and divergence in policy measures from their initial intent of universalism. Despite the rhetoric of universal healthcare, years of austerity resulted in poorer access to essential healthcare and little extension of population coverage. The Irish health system is at a critical juncture in 2015, veering between a potential path to universal healthcare and a system, overwhelmed by years of austerity, which maintains the status quo. This papers assesses the gap between policy intent and practice and the difficulties in implementing major health system reform especially while emerging from an economic crisis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. [Universal coverage of health services in Mexico].

    2013-01-01

    The reforms made in recent years to the Mexican Health System have reduced inequities in the health care of the population, but have been insufficient to solve all the problems of the MHS. In order to make the right to health protection established in the Constitution a reality for every citizen, Mexico must warrant effective universal access to health services. This paper outlines a long-term reform for the consolidation of a health system that is akin to international standards and which may establish the structural conditions to reduce coverage inequity. This reform is based on a "structured pluralism" intended to avoid both a monopoly exercised within the public sector and fragmentation in the private sector, and to prevent falling into the extremes of authoritarian procedures or an absence of regulation. This involves the replacement of the present vertical integration and segregation of social groups by a horizontal organization with separation of duties. This also entails legal and fiscal reforms, the reinforcement of the MHS, the reorganization of health institutions, and the formulation of regulatory, technical and financial instruments to operationalize the proposed scheme with the objective of rendering the human right to health fully effective for the Mexican people.

  20. Health care financing in Nigeria: Implications for achieving universal ...

    The way a country finances its health care system is a critical determinant for reaching universal health coverage (UHC). This is so because it determines whether the health services that are available are affordable to those that need them. In Nigeria, the health sector is financed through different sources and mechanisms.

  1. Progress toward universal health coverage in ASEAN.

    Van Minh, Hoang; Pocock, Nicola Suyin; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Chhorvann, Chhea; Duc, Ha Anh; Hanvoravongchai, Piya; Lim, Jeremy; Lucero-Prisno, Don Eliseo; Ng, Nawi; Phaholyothin, Natalie; Phonvisay, Alay; Soe, Kyaw Min; Sychareun, Vanphanom

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is characterized by much diversity in terms of geography, society, economic development, and health outcomes. The health systems as well as healthcare structure and provisions vary considerably. Consequently, the progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in these countries also varies. This paper aims to describe the progress toward UHC in the ASEAN countries and discuss how regional integration could influence UHC. Data reported in this paper were obtained from published literature, reports, and gray literature available in the ASEAN countries. We used both online and manual search methods to gather the information and 'snowball' further data. We found that, in general, ASEAN countries have made good progress toward UHC, partly due to relatively sustained political commitments to endorse UHC in these countries. However, all the countries in ASEAN are facing several common barriers to achieving UHC, namely 1) financial constraints, including low levels of overall and government spending on health; 2) supply side constraints, including inadequate numbers and densities of health workers; and 3) the ongoing epidemiological transition at different stages characterized by increasing burdens of non-communicable diseases, persisting infectious diseases, and reemergence of potentially pandemic infectious diseases. The ASEAN Economic Community's (AEC) goal of regional economic integration and a single market by 2015 presents both opportunities and challenges for UHC. Healthcare services have become more available but health and healthcare inequities will likely worsen as better-off citizens of member states might receive more benefits from the liberalization of trade policy in health, either via regional outmigration of health workers or intra-country health worker movement toward private hospitals, which tend to be located in urban areas. For ASEAN countries, UHC should be explicitly considered to mitigate

  2. Progress toward universal health coverage in ASEAN

    Hoang Van Minh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN is characterized by much diversity in terms of geography, society, economic development, and health outcomes. The health systems as well as healthcare structure and provisions vary considerably. Consequently, the progress toward Universal Health Coverage (UHC in these countries also varies. This paper aims to describe the progress toward UHC in the ASEAN countries and discuss how regional integration could influence UHC. Design: Data reported in this paper were obtained from published literature, reports, and gray literature available in the ASEAN countries. We used both online and manual search methods to gather the information and ‘snowball’ further data. Results: We found that, in general, ASEAN countries have made good progress toward UHC, partly due to relatively sustained political commitments to endorse UHC in these countries. However, all the countries in ASEAN are facing several common barriers to achieving UHC, namely 1 financial constraints, including low levels of overall and government spending on health; 2 supply side constraints, including inadequate numbers and densities of health workers; and 3 the ongoing epidemiological transition at different stages characterized by increasing burdens of non-communicable diseases, persisting infectious diseases, and reemergence of potentially pandemic infectious diseases. The ASEAN Economic Community's (AEC goal of regional economic integration and a single market by 2015 presents both opportunities and challenges for UHC. Healthcare services have become more available but health and healthcare inequities will likely worsen as better-off citizens of member states might receive more benefits from the liberalization of trade policy in health, either via regional outmigration of health workers or intra-country health worker movement toward private hospitals, which tend to be located in urban areas. For ASEAN countries, UHC should

  3. Slovenia: Health System Review.

    Albreht, Tit; Pribakovic Brinovec, Radivoje; Josar, Dusan; Poldrugovac, Mircha; Kostnapfel, Tatja; Zaletel, Metka; Panteli, Dimitra; Maresso, Anna

    2016-06-01

    This analysis of the Slovene health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The health of the population has improved over the last few decades. While life expectancy for both men and women is similar to EU averages, morbidity and mortality data show persistent disparities between regions, and mortality from external causes is particularly high. Satisfaction with health care delivery is high, but recently waiting times for some outpatient specialist services have increased. Greater focus on preventive measures is also needed as well as better care coordination, particularly for those with chronic conditions. Despite having relatively high levels of co-payments for many services covered by the universal compulsory health insurance system, these expenses are counterbalanced by voluntary health insurance, which covers 95% of the population liable for co-payments. However, Slovenia is somewhat unique among social health insurance countries in that it relies almost exclusively on payroll contributions to fund its compulsory health insurance system. This makes health sector revenues very susceptible to economic and labour market fluctuations. A future challenge will be to diversify the resource base for health system funding and thus bolster sustainability in the longer term, while preserving service delivery and quality of care. Given changing demographics and morbidity patterns, further challenges include restructuring the funding and provision of long-term care and enhancing health system efficiency through reform of purchasing and provider-payment systems. World Health Organization 2016 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  4. Information Systems for University Planning.

    Robinson, Robert J.

    This paper proposes construction of a separate data base environment for university planning information, distinct from data bases and systems supporting operational functioning and management. The data base would receive some of its input from the management information systems (MIS)/transactional data bases and systems through a process of…

  5. Minding the gaps: health financing, universal health coverage and gender.

    Witter, Sophie; Govender, Veloshnee; Ravindran, T K Sundari; Yates, Robert

    2017-12-01

    In a webinar in 2015 on health financing and gender, the question was raised why we need to focus on gender, given that a well-functioning system moving towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC) will automatically be equitable and gender balanced. This article provides a reflection on this question from a panel of health financing and gender experts.We trace the evidence of how health-financing reforms have impacted gender and health access through a general literature review and a more detailed case-study of India. We find that unless explicit attention is paid to gender and its intersectionality with other social stratifications, through explicit protection and careful linking of benefits to needs of target populations (e.g. poor women, unemployed men, female-headed households), movement towards UHC can fail to achieve gender balance or improve equity, and may even exacerbate gender inequity. Political trade-offs are made on the road to UHC and the needs of less powerful groups, which can include women and children, are not necessarily given priority.We identify the need for closer collaboration between health economists and gender experts, and highlight a number of research gaps in this field which should be addressed. While some aspects of cost sharing and some analysis of expenditure on maternal and child health have been analysed from a gender perspective, there is a much richer set of research questions to be explored to guide policy making. Given the political nature of UHC decisions, political economy as well as technical research should be prioritized.We conclude that countries should adopt an equitable approach towards achieving UHC and, therefore, prioritize high-need groups and those requiring additional financial protection, in particular women and children. This constitutes the 'progressive universalism' advocated for by the 2013 Lancet Commission on Investing in Health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The

  6. A composite indicator to measure universal health care coverage in India: way forward for post-2015 health system performance monitoring framework.

    Prinja, Shankar; Gupta, Rakesh; Bahuguna, Pankaj; Sharma, Atul; Kumar Aggarwal, Arun; Phogat, Amit; Kumar, Rajesh

    2017-02-01

    There is limited work done on developing methods for measurement of universal health coverage. We undertook a study to develop a methodology and demonstrate the practical application of empirically measuring the extent of universal health coverage at district level. Additionally, we also develop a composite indicator to measure UHC. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken among 51 656 households across 21 districts of Haryana state in India. Using the WHO framework for UHC, we identified indicators of service coverage, financial risk protection, equity and quality based on the Government of India and the Haryana Government's proposed UHC benefit package. Geometric mean approach was used to compute a composite UHC index (CUHCI). Various statistical approaches to aggregate input indicators with or without weighting, along with various incremental combinations of input indicators were tested in a comprehensive sensitivity analysis. The population coverage for preventive and curative services is presented. Adjusting for inequality, the coverage for all the indicators were less than the unadjusted coverage by 0.1-6.7% in absolute term and 0.1-27% in relative term. There was low unmet need for curative care. However, about 11% outpatient consultations were from unqualified providers. About 30% households incurred catastrophic health expenditures, which rose to 38% among the poorest 20% population. Summary index (CUHCI) for UHC varied from 12% in Mewat district to 71% in Kurukshetra district. The inequality unadjusted coverage for UHC correlates highly with adjusted coverage. Our paper is an attempt to develop a methodology to measure UHC. However, careful inclusion of others indicators of service coverage is recommended for a comprehensive measurement which captures the spirit of universality. Further, more work needs to be done to incorporate quality in the measurement framework. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London

  7. Organizational Behavior Analysis Focusing on the University of Texas System

    Terry, Bobby K.

    2011-01-01

    This project analyzes the organizational behavior of the University of Texas System. The University of Texas System is comprised of nine academic and six health institutions. The University of Texas System has over 85,000 employees; the student enrollment is 202,240 with a budget of $2.25 billion dollars. This project has a total of four parts and…

  8. Plan for radiological security at a university health center

    Huiaman Mendoza, G.M.; Sanchez Riojas, M.M.; Felix JImenez, D.

    1998-01-01

    This work shows a radiological security plan applied to a Basic Radiological Service at a university health center. Factors taken into account were installation designs, equipment operation parameters, work procedures, image system and responsibilities

  9. Austria: health system review.

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Quentin, Wilm

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Austrian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health-system performance. The Austrian health system provides universal coverage for a wide range of benefits and high-quality care. Free choice of providers and unrestricted access to all care levels (general practitioners, specialist physicians and hospitals) are characteristic features of the system. Unsurprisingly, population satisfaction is well above EU average. Income-related inequality in health has increased since 2005, although it is still relatively low compared to other countries. The health-care system has been shaped by both the federal structure of the state and a tradition of delegating responsibilities to self-governing stakeholders. On the one hand, this enables decentralized planning and governance, adjusted to local norms and preferences. On the other hand, it also leads to fragmentation of responsibilities and frequently results in inadequate coordination. For this reason, efforts have been made for several years to achieve more joint planning, governance and financing of the health-care system at the federal and regional level. As in any health system, a number of challenges remain. The costs of the health-care system are well above the EU15 average, both in absolute terms and as a percentage of GDP. There are important structural imbalances in healthcare provision, with an oversized hospital sector and insufficient resources available for ambulatory care and preventive medicine. This is coupled with stark regional differences in utilization, both in curative services (hospital beds and specialist physicians) and preventative services such as preventive health check-ups, outpatient rehabilitation, psychosocial and psychotherapeutic care and nursing. There are clear social inequalities in the use of medical services, such as preventive health check-ups, immunization or dentistry

  10. Healthy Universities: Mapping Health-Promotion Interventions

    Sarmiento, Juan Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to map out and characterize existing health-promotion initiatives at Florida International University (FIU) in the USA in order to inform decision makers involved in the development of a comprehensive and a long-term healthy university strategy. Design/methodology/approach: This study encompasses a narrative…

  11. HEALTH SYSTEMS

    many levels, and underscores the fact that health ... The health of mothers and their children depends on the status of women. INSIGHT ... tions find fertile ground when poverty ... Dr Gita Sen, Professor of Public Policy at the Indian Institute.

  12. Montana University System Fact Book.

    Montana Univ. System, Helena. Office of the Commissioner of Higher Education.

    This report contains numerous figures and tables providing data about the Montana University System. The report is divided into 11 sections, with some preceded by a brief text summary, followed by data tables and figures. Sections cover: (1) total funds, (2) state appropriated funds, (3) funding sources, (4) enrollment, (5) employment, (6) state…

  13. [Suicide Prevention and Mental Health Measures for Japanese University Students].

    Ohnishi, Masaru; Koyama, Shihomi; Senoo, Akiko; Kawahara, Hiroko; Shimizu, Yukito

    2016-01-01

    According to the nationwide survey of the National University students in Japan, the annual suicide rate in 2012 was 15.7 per 100,000 undergraduate students. In many universities, suicide prevention is an important issue regarding mental health measures, and each university is actively examining this. The current situation concerning measures for suicide prevention in the Japanese National Universities was investigated in 2009. In 2010, the "college student's suicide prevention measures guideline, 2010" was established based on the results of this investigation. This guideline refers to the basic philosophy of suicide prevention in Chapter 1, risk factors for suicide in Chapter 2, and systems and activities for suicide prevention in Chapter 3. The Health Service Center, Okayama University plays central roles in mental health and suicide prevention measures on the Medical Campus. The primary prevention includes a mini-lecture on mental health, classes on mental health, and periodic workshops and lectures for freshmen. The secondary prevention includes interviews with students with mental health disorders by a psychiatrist during periodic health check-ups and introducing them to a hospital outside the university. The tertiary prevention includes support for students taking a leave of absence to return to school, periodic consultation with such students with mental disorders, and postvention following a suicide. We believe that for mental health measures on the university campus, it is important to efficiently make use of limited resources, and that these efforts will eventually lead to suicide prevention.

  14. Automated Podcasting System for Universities

    Ypatios Grigoriadis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results achieved at Graz University of Technology (TU Graz in the field of automating the process of recording and publishing university lectures in a very new way. It outlines cornerstones of the development and integration of an automated recording system such as the lecture hall setup, the recording hardware and software architecture as well as the development of a text-based search for the final product by method of indexing video podcasts. Furthermore, the paper takes a look at didactical aspects, evaluations done in this context and future outlook.

  15. MENTAL HEALTH AND UNIVERSITY STUDENTS: SURVEY

    Woodgate, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    We want to learn from university students about your experiences and perspectives on mental health and well-being in the context of being a student. Your input can help us develop evidence-based intervention programs that can help address the mental health needs of students. This survey should take 15-20 minutes to complete.

  16. Poland health system review.

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  17. Reform in medical and health sciences educational system: a Delphi study of faculty members' views at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.

    Salehi, A; Harris, N; Lotfi, F; Hashemi, N; Kojouri, J; Amini, M

    2014-04-03

    Despite the strengths in the Iranian medical and health sciences educational system, areas in need of improvement have been noted. The purpose of this study was to understand the views of faculty members at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences about current and future needs for medical and health sciences education, with the goal of improving the quality of the educational system. The data were collected using a Delphi consensus method. Analysis of the findings identified the following key themes among the factors likely to contribute to medical and health sciences education and training: adding and/or increasing student numbers in higher degrees in preference to associate degrees; providing more interactive, student-centred teaching methods; improving the educational content with more practical and research-based courses tailored to society's needs; and an emphasis on outcome-based student evaluation techniques. These changes aim to respond to health trends in society and enhance the close relationship between medical education and the needs of the Iranian society.

  18. University Program Management Information System

    Gans, Gary (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    As basic policy, NASA believes that colleges and universities should be encouraged to participate in the nation's space and aeronautics program to the maximum extent practicable. Indeed, universities are considered as partners with government and industry in the nation's aerospace program. NASA's objective is to have them bring their scientific, engineering, and social research competence to bear on aerospace problems and on the broader social, economic, and international implications of NASA's technical and scientific programs. It is expected that, in so doing, universities will strengthen both their research and their educational capabilities to contribute more effectively to the national well being. This annual report is one means of documenting the NASA-university relationship, frequently denoted, collectively, as NASA's University Program. This report is consistent with agency accounting records, as the data is obtained from NASA's Financial and Contractual Status (FACS) System, operated by the Financial Management Division and the Procurement Office. However, in accordance with interagency agreements, the orientation differs from that required for financial or procurement purposes. Any apparent discrepancies between this report and other NASA procurement or financial reports stem from the selection criteria for the data.

  19. University Program Management Information System

    2001-01-01

    As basic policy, NASA believes that colleges and universities should be encouraged to participate in the nation's space and aeronautics program to the maximum extent practicable. Indeed, universities are considered as partners with government and industry in the nation's aerospace program. NASA' objective is to have them bring their scientific, engineering, and social research competence to bear on aerospace problems and on the broader social, economic, and international implications of NASA's technical and scientific programs. It is expected that, in so doing, universities will strengthen both their research and their educational capabilities to contribute more effectively to the national well being. This annual report is one means of documenting the NASA-university relationship, frequently denoted, collectively, as NASA's University Program. This report is consistent with agency accounting records, as the data is obtained from NASA's Financial and Contractual Status (FACS) System, operated by the Financial Management Division and the Procurement Office. However, in accordance with interagency agreements, the orientation differs from that required for financial or procurement purposes. Any apparent discrepancies between this report and other NASA procurement or financial reports stem from the selection criteria for the data.

  20. Mental health among students of pedagogical universities

    Malinauskas R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with questions of mental health among students of pedagogical universities. There were analysed differences in the level of mental health among sporting and non-sporting students. Two methods were used in the inquiry. Stepanov's questionnaire was used to estimate the level of mental health, Gundarov's questionnaire was used to evaluate psychical satisfaction. The sample consisted of 263 sporting students (athletes and 288 non-sporting students. Results have shown that the level of mental health among sporting students was higher than the level of mental health among non-sporting students.

  1. The impacts of DRG-based payments on health care provider behaviors under a universal coverage system: a population-based study.

    Cheng, Shou-Hsia; Chen, Chi-Chen; Tsai, Shu-Ling

    2012-10-01

    To examine the impacts of diagnosis-related group (DRG) payments on health care provider's behavior under a universal coverage system in Taiwan. This study employed a population-based natural experiment study design. Patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, which were incorporated in the Taiwan version of DRG payments in 2010, were defined as the intervention group. The comparison group consisted of patients who underwent cardiovascular procedures which were paid for by fee-for-services schemes and were selected by propensity score matching from patients treated by the same group of surgeons. The generalized estimating equations model and difference-in-difference analysis was used in this study. The introduction of DRG payment resulted in a 10% decrease (pDRG-based payment resulted in reduced intensity of care and shortened length of stay. The findings might be valuable to other countries that are developing or reforming their payment system under a universal coverage system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Information Systems in University Learning

    Gheorghe SABAU

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors of this article are going to bring into light the significance, the place and the role of information systems in the university education process. At the same time they define the objectives and the target group of the subject named Economic Information Systems and state the competence gained by students by studying this subject. Special attention is given to the curriculum to be taught to students and to a suggestive enumeration of a series of economic applications that can be themes for laboratory practice and for students’ dissertation (graduation thesis.

  3. Clinical and academic use of electronic and print books: the Health Sciences Library System e-book study at the University of Pittsburgh.

    Folb, Barbara L; Wessel, Charles B; Czechowski, Leslie J

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of the Health Sciences Library System (HSLS) electronic book (e-book) study was to assess use, and factors affecting use, of e-books by all patron groups of an academic health sciences library serving both university and health system-affiliated patrons. A web-based survey was distributed to a random sample (n=5,292) of holders of library remote access passwords. A total of 871 completed and 108 partially completed surveys were received, for an approximate response rate of 16.5%-18.5%, with all user groups represented. Descriptive and chi-square analysis was done using SPSS 17. Library e-books were used by 55.4% of respondents. Use by role varied: 21.3% of faculty reported having assigned all or part of an e-book for class readings, while 86% of interns, residents, and fellows reported using an e-book to support clinical care. Respondents preferred print for textbooks and manuals and electronic format for research protocols, pharmaceutical, and reference books, but indicated high flexibility about format choice. They rated printing and saving e-book content as more important than annotation, highlighting, and bookmarking features. Respondents' willingness to use alternate formats, if convenient, suggests that libraries can selectively reduce title duplication between print and e-books and still support library user information needs, especially if publishers provide features that users want. Marketing and user education may increase use of e-book collections.

  4. Universal health coverage in Turkey: enhancement of equity.

    Atun, Rifat; Aydın, Sabahattin; Chakraborty, Sarbani; Sümer, Safir; Aran, Meltem; Gürol, Ipek; Nazlıoğlu, Serpil; Ozgülcü, Senay; Aydoğan, Ulger; Ayar, Banu; Dilmen, Uğur; Akdağ, Recep

    2013-07-06

    Turkey has successfully introduced health system changes and provided its citizens with the right to health to achieve universal health coverage, which helped to address inequities in financing, health service access, and health outcomes. We trace the trajectory of health system reforms in Turkey, with a particular emphasis on 2003-13, which coincides with the Health Transformation Program (HTP). The HTP rapidly expanded health insurance coverage and access to health-care services for all citizens, especially the poorest population groups, to achieve universal health coverage. We analyse the contextual drivers that shaped the transformations in the health system, explore the design and implementation of the HTP, identify the factors that enabled its success, and investigate its effects. Our findings suggest that the HTP was instrumental in achieving universal health coverage to enhance equity substantially, and led to quantifiable and beneficial effects on all health system goals, with an improved level and distribution of health, greater fairness in financing with better financial protection, and notably increased user satisfaction. After the HTP, five health insurance schemes were consolidated to create a unified General Health Insurance scheme with harmonised and expanded benefits. Insurance coverage for the poorest population groups in Turkey increased from 2·4 million people in 2003, to 10·2 million in 2011. Health service access increased across the country-in particular, access and use of key maternal and child health services improved to help to greatly reduce the maternal mortality ratio, and under-5, infant, and neonatal mortality, especially in socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Several factors helped to achieve universal health coverage and improve outcomes. These factors include economic growth, political stability, a comprehensive transformation strategy led by a transformation team, rapid policy translation, flexible implementation with

  5. Evolution of the Dutch University Medical Centers : At the interface of the Health care and the Science systems

    Chiong Meza, C.; Ligtvoet, Andreas; Knops, Hamilcar

    A traditional way of analyzing the healthcare system suggests that major change flows from governmental action and trickles to other organizations in the system. A complex adaptive system view suggests a more dynamic analysis in which bottom-up emergent events are as important as top-down steering

  6. Enhancing Political Will for Universal Health Coverage in Nigeria.

    Aregbeshola, Bolaji S

    2017-01-01

    Universal health coverage aims to increase equity in access to quality health care services and to reduce financial risk due to health care costs. It is a key component of international health agenda and has been a subject of worldwide debate. Despite differing views on its scope and pathways to reach it, there is a global consensus that all countries should work toward universal health coverage. The goal remains distant for many African countries, including Nigeria. This is mostly due to lack of political will and commitment among political actors and policymakers. Evidence from countries such as Ghana, Chile, Mexico, China, Thailand, Turkey, Rwanda, Vietnam and Indonesia, which have introduced at least some form of universal health coverage scheme, shows that political will and commitment are key to the adoption of new laws and regulations for reforming coverage. For Nigeria to improve people's health, reduce poverty and achieve prosperity, universal health coverage must be vigorously pursued at all levels. Political will and commitment to these goals must be expressed in legal mandates and be translated into policies that ensure increased public health care financing for the benefit of all Nigerians. Nigeria, as part of a global system, cannot afford to lag behind in striving for this overarching health goal.

  7. Universities Earth System Scientists Program

    Estes, John E.

    1995-01-01

    This document constitutes the final technical report for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Grant NAGW-3172. This grant was instituted to provide for the conduct of research under the Universities Space Research Association's (USRA's) Universities Earth System Scientist Program (UESSP) for the Office of Mission to Planet Earth (OMTPE) at NASA Headquarters. USRA was tasked with the following requirements in support of the Universities Earth System Scientists Programs: (1) Bring to OMTPE fundamental scientific and technical expertise not currently resident at NASA Headquarters covering the broad spectrum of Earth science disciplines; (2) Conduct basic research in order to help establish the state of the science and technological readiness, related to NASA issues and requirements, for the following, near-term, scientific uncertainties, and data/information needs in the areas of global climate change, clouds and radiative balance, sources and sinks of greenhouse gases and the processes that control them, solid earth, oceans, polar ice sheets, land-surface hydrology, ecological dynamics, biological diversity, and sustainable development; (3) Evaluate the scientific state-of-the-field in key selected areas and to assist in the definition of new research thrusts for missions, including those that would incorporate the long-term strategy of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). This will, in part, be accomplished by study and evaluation of the basic science needs of the community as they are used to drive the development and maintenance of a global-scale observing system, the focused research studies, and the implementation of an integrated program of modeling, prediction, and assessment; and (4) Produce specific recommendations and alternative strategies for OMTPE that can serve as a basis for interagency and national and international policy on issues related to Earth sciences.

  8. Human Rights and the Political Economy of Universal Health Care

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Health system financing is a critical factor in securing universal health care and achieving equity in access and payment. The human rights framework offers valuable guidance for designing a financing strategy that meets these goals. This article presents a rights-based approach to health care financing developed by the human right to health care movement in the United States. Grounded in a human rights analysis of private, market-based health insurance, advocates make the case for public financing through progressive taxation. Financing mechanisms are measured against the twin goals of guaranteeing access to care and advancing economic equity. The added focus on the redistributive potential of health care financing recasts health reform as an economic policy intervention that can help fulfill broader economic and social rights obligations. Based on a review of recent universal health care reform efforts in the state of Vermont, this article reports on a rights-based public financing plan and model, which includes a new business tax directed against wage disparities. The modeling results suggest that a health system financed through equitable taxation could produce significant redistributive effects, thus increasing economic equity while generating sufficient funds to provide comprehensive health care as a universal public good. PMID:28559677

  9. Associations among socioeconomic status, patterns of care and outcomes in breast cancer patients in a universal health care system: Ontario's experience.

    Kumachev, Alexander; Trudeau, Maureen E; Chan, Kelvin K W

    2016-03-15

    The Canadian health care system provides equitable access to equivalent standards of care. The authors investigated to determine whether patients with breast cancer who had different socioeconomic status (SES) received different care and had different overall survival (OS) in Ontario, Canada. Women who were diagnosed with breast cancer between 2004 and 2009 were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry and linked to provincial databases to ascertain patient demographics, screening, diagnosis, treatment patterns, and survival. SES was defined as neighborhood income by postal code and was divided into income quintiles (Q1-Q5; with Q5 the highest SES quintile). Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to examine the associations between: 1) SES and mammogram screening and breast cancer treatments, and 2) SES and OS. In total, 34,776 patients with breast cancer who had information on disease stage available at diagnosis were identified. Seventy-six percent of women were aged >50 years. Patients with higher SES were more likely to be diagnosed at an earlier stage (Q5 [44.3%] vs Q1 [37.7%]; odds ratio [OR], 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.41; P cancer stage at diagnosis, adjuvant chemotherapy, trastuzumab, radiotherapy and surgery types, higher SES remained associated with better OS (P = .0017). In a universal health care system, higher SES is associated with greater screening and treatments and with better OS after adjusting for screening, cancer stage at diagnosis, and treatments. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  10. Biomass universal district heating systems

    Soltero, Victor Manuel; Rodríguez-Artacho, Salvador; Velázquez, Ramón; Chacartegui, Ricardo

    2017-11-01

    In mild climate regions Directive 27/2012 EU application for developing sustainable district heating networks in consolidated urban nucleus is a challenge. In Spain most of the municipalities above 5,000 inhabitants have a reliable natural gas network and individual heating systems at homes. In this work a new heating network paradigm is proposed, the biomass universal heating network in rural areas. This model involves all the economic, legal and technical aspects and interactions between the different agents of the systems: provider company, individual and collective end-users and local and regional administration. The continental region in Spain has 588 municipalities with a population above 1,500 inhabitants close to forest biomass with renewable use. In many of these cases the regulation identifies the ownership of the forest resources use. The universal heating networks are a great opportunity for energy saving of 2,000 GWh, avoiding 2.7 million tons of CO2 emissions and with a global annual savings for end users of 61.8 million of euros. The presented model is easily extrapolated to other small municipalities in Europe. The real application of the model is presented for three municipalities in different locations of Spain where Universal Heating Networks are under development. The analysis show the interest of the integrated model for the three cases with different structural agents and relationships between them. The use of sustainable forest resources, extracted and managed by local companies, strengths circular economy in the region with a potential global economic impact above 200 M€.

  11. Canada: Health system review.

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and

  12. Mitigating India's health woes: Can health insurance be a remedy to achieve universal health coverage?

    B Savitha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A low level of public investments in preventive health facilities and medical care facilities and health professionals has given rise to poor health status for an average Indian. Insufficient government funding for health care, inadequate and ineffective health financing mechanisms, poor delivery of health care, especially in public facilities, and excessive reliance on unregulated high-cost private providers have contributed to the poor accomplishment of Millennium Development Goals, especially in the informal sector. Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs consider health to be one of the important objectives to be achieved by all the nations in the world. This paper reappraises the current status, unmet needs, challenges, and the way forward to implement and achieve universal health coverage (UHC in India by thrusting the focus on three elements (pillars of universal access to health services. Despite seven decades of independence, India does still face the formidable challenge of providing health services to its population at an affordable cost. One of the major obstacles in reaching universal coverage and universal health entitlement of every Indian citizen has been the absence of effective health financing mechanism that promotes affordable access to weaker and vulnerable sections of the society. In this respect, health insurance certainly does have the potential to expedite the process of UHC if various stakeholders work in cohesion under the government stewardship. In rural India, the health infrastructure and workforce are inadequate to serve the unserved and underserved population. Hence, the government should invest in public health facilities while promoting pan-India health insurance to ensure and guarantee easy access and affordability for its citizens. The way forward should not only be centered on financial protection, but also to have renewed emphasis on restructuring the health-care system, ensuring the adequate availability of

  13. Validation of acute physiologic and chronic health evaluation II scoring system software developed at The Aga Khan University, Pakistan.

    Hashmi, M; Asghar, A; Shamim, F; Khan, F H

    2016-01-01

    To assess the predictive performance of Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) software available on the hospital intranet and analyze interrater reliability of calculating the APACHE II score by the gold standard manual method or automatically using the software. An expert scorer not involved in the data collection had calculated APACHE II score of 213 patients admitted to surgical Intensive Care Unit using the gold standard manual method for a previous study performed in the department. The same data were entered into the computer software available on the hospital intranet (http://intranet/apacheii) to recalculate the APACHE II score automatically along with the predicted mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC), Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistical test and Pearson's correlation coefficient was computed. The 213 patients had an average APACHE II score of 17.20 ± 8.24, the overall mortality rate was 32.8% and standardized mortality ratio was 1.00. The area under the ROC curve of 0.827 was significantly >0.5 (P test showed a good calibration (H = 5.46, P = 0.71). Interrater reliability using Pearson's product moment correlations demonstrated a strong positive relationship between the computer and the manual expert scorer (r = 0.98, P = 0.0005). APACHE II software available on the hospital's intranet has satisfactory calibration and discrimination and interrater reliability is good when compared with the gold standard manual method.

  14. Clinical and academic use of electronic and print books: the Health Sciences Library System e-book study at the University of Pittsburgh

    Wessel, Charles B; Czechowski, Leslie J

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of the Health Sciences Library System (HSLS) electronic book (e-book) study was to assess use, and factors affecting use, of e-books by all patron groups of an academic health sciences library serving both university and health system–affiliated patrons. Methods: A web-based survey was distributed to a random sample (n = 5,292) of holders of library remote access passwords. A total of 871 completed and 108 partially completed surveys were received, for an approximate response rate of 16.5%–18.5%, with all user groups represented. Descriptive and chi-square analysis was done using SPSS 17. Results: Library e-books were used by 55.4% of respondents. Use by role varied: 21.3% of faculty reported having assigned all or part of an e-book for class readings, while 86% of interns, residents, and fellows reported using an e-book to support clinical care. Respondents preferred print for textbooks and manuals and electronic format for research protocols, pharmaceutical, and reference books, but indicated high flexibility about format choice. They rated printing and saving e-book content as more important than annotation, highlighting, and bookmarking features. Conclusions: Respondents' willingness to use alternate formats, if convenient, suggests that libraries can selectively reduce title duplication between print and e-books and still support library user information needs, especially if publishers provide features that users want. Marketing and user education may increase use of e-book collections. PMID:21753914

  15. Computer Application Systems at the University.

    Bazewicz, Mieczyslaw

    1979-01-01

    The results of the WASC Project at the Technical University of Wroclaw have confirmed the possibility of constructing informatic systems based on the recognized size and specifics of user's needs (needs of the university) and provided some solutions to the problem of collaboration of computer systems at remote universities. (Author/CMV)

  16. Learning from developing countries in strengthening health systems: an evaluation of personal and professional impact among global health volunteers at Addis Ababa University's Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (Ethiopia).

    Busse, Heidi; Aboneh, Ephrem A; Tefera, Girma

    2014-09-05

    The positive impact of global health activities by volunteers from the United States in low-and middle-income countries has been recognized. Most existing global health partnerships evaluate what knowledge, ideas, and activities the US institution transferred to the low- or middle-income country. However, what this fails to capture are what kinds of change happen to US-based partners due to engagement in global health partnerships, both at the individual and institutional levels. "Reverse innovation" is the term that is used in global health literature to describe this type of impact. The objectives of this study were to identify what kinds of impact global partnerships have on health volunteers from developed countries, advance this emerging body of knowledge, and improve understanding of methods and indicators for assessing reverse innovation. The study population consisted of 80 US, Canada, and South Africa-based health care professionals who volunteered at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital in Ethiopia. Surveys were web-based and included multiple choice and open-ended questions to assess global health competencies. The data were analyzed using IBRM SPSS® version 21 for quantitative analysis; the open-ended responses were coded using constant comparative analysis to identify themes. Of the 80 volunteers, 63 responded (79 percent response rate). Fifty-two percent of the respondents were male, and over 60 percent were 40 years of age and older. Eighty-three percent reported they accomplished their trip objectives, 95 percent would participate in future activities and 96 percent would recommend participation to other colleagues. Eighty-nine percent reported personal impact and 73 percent reported change on their professional development. Previous global health experience, multiple prior trips, and the desire for career advancement were associated with positive impact on professional development. Professionally and personally meaningful learning happens often

  17. Universal Health Coverage for Schizophrenia: A Global Mental Health Priority

    Patel, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    The growing momentum towards a global consensus on universal health coverage, alongside an acknowledgment of the urgency and importance of a comprehensive mental health action plan, offers a unique opportunity for a substantial scale-up of evidence-based interventions and packages of care for a range of mental disorders in all countries. There is a robust evidence base testifying to the effectiveness of drug and psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia and to the feasibility, ...

  18. Advanced Practice Nursing: A Strategy for Achieving Universal Health Coverage and Universal Access to Health

    Denise Bryant-Lukosius

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to examine advanced practice nursing (APN roles internationally to inform role development in Latin America and the Caribbean to support universal health coverage and universal access to health. Method: we examined literature related to APN roles, their global deployment, and APN effectiveness in relation to universal health coverage and access to health. Results: given evidence of their effectiveness in many countries, APN roles are ideally suited as part of a primary health care workforce strategy in Latin America to enhance universal health coverage and access to health. Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico are well positioned to build this workforce. Role implementation barriers include lack of role clarity, legislation/regulation, education, funding, and physician resistance. Strong nursing leadership to align APN roles with policy priorities, and to work in partnership with primary care providers and policy makers is needed for successful role implementation. Conclusions: given the diversity of contexts across nations, it is important to systematically assess country and population health needs to introduce the most appropriate complement and mix of APN roles and inform implementation. Successful APN role introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean could provide a roadmap for similar roles in other low/middle income countries.

  19. Health System Measurement Project

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical U.S. health system indicators. The website presents national trend data as well as detailed...

  20. [Development and Implementation of a Comprehensive Health Management System (Fit for Work and Life) for Employees of a University Hospital - A Practice Report].

    Gutenbrunner, C; Egen, C; Kahl, K G; Briest, J; Tegtbur, U; Miede, J; Born, M

    2017-07-01

    Background: Due to the increase of sick leave, prolonging working life and the prediction of shortage of skilled workers in the future, health management systems are continuously gaining importance. Employees in a University Hospital are exposed to particular stress factors, which are also reflected in a higher than average amount of sick leave. Against this background, the project "Fit for Work and Life" (FWL) was developed and implemented by the Hannover Medical School (MHH). Aims: FWL aims to maintain, improve or recover the work ability of employees by offering both preventive and rehabilitative treatments. A second goal is to significantly reduce the days of sick leave. Methods: The project was jointly developed and implemented by five MHH departments and the DRV Braunschweig-Hannover (DRV BS-H) according to previously defined principles. It was scientifically evaluated by the following outcomes: average days of sick leave, work ability (WAI), quality of life (SF-36, WHOQOL), coping strategies (FERUS) and effort-reward imbalance (ERI). Results and Conclusions: So far, this project is unique in its concept. It has been successfully implemented in the organisational structures of the MHH. 376 employees have registered during the first project year. Up to now, 182 participants have completed their individual programmes. The results show that 60.4% of employees have moderate to poor WAI values. The average of the mental summary scale of the SF-36 was 44.9, indicating a high workload. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Croatia: health system review.

    Džakula, Aleksandar; Sagan, Anna; Pavić, Nika; Lonćčarek, Karmen; Sekelj-Kauzlarić, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Croatia is a small central European country on the Balkan peninsula, with a population of approximately 4.3 million and a gross domestic product (GDP) of 62% of the European Union (EU) average (expressed in purchasing power parity; PPP) in 2012. On 1 July 2013, Croatia became the 28th Member State of the EU. Life expectancy at birth has been increasing steadily in Croatia (with a small decline in the years following the 1991 to 1995 War of Independence) but is still lower than the EU average. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population has increased during recent years and trends in physical inactivity are alarming. The Croatian Health Insurance Fund (CHIF), established in 1993, is the sole insurer in the mandatory health insurance (MHI) system that provides universal health coverage to the whole population. The ownership of secondary health care facilities is distributed between the State and the counties. The financial position of public hospitals is weak and recent reforms were aimed at improving this. The introduction of concessions in 2009 (public private partnerships whereby county governments organize tenders for the provision of specific primary health care services) allowed the counties to play a more active role in the organization, coordination and management of primary health care; most primary care practices have been privatized. The proportion of GDP spent on health by the Croatian government remains relatively low compared to western Europe, as does the per capita health expenditure. Although the share of public expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure (THE) has been decreasing, at around 82% it is still relatively high, even by European standards. The main source of the CHIFs revenue is compulsory health insurance contributions, accounting for 76% of the total revenues of the CHIF, although only about a third of the population (active workers) is liable to pay full health care contributions. Although the breadth and scope

  2. Great expectations for the World Health Organization: a Framework Convention on Global Health to achieve universal health coverage.

    Ooms, G; Marten, R; Waris, A; Hammonds, R; Mulumba, M; Friedman, E A

    2014-02-01

    Establishing a reform agenda for the World Health Organization (WHO) requires understanding its role within the wider global health system and the purposes of that wider global health system. In this paper, the focus is on one particular purpose: achieving universal health coverage (UHC). The intention is to describe why achieving UHC requires something like a Framework Convention on Global Health (FCGH) that have been proposed elsewhere,(1) why WHO is in a unique position to usher in an FCGH, and what specific reforms would help enable WHO to assume this role. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Henry Ford Health Systems

    Henry Ford Health Systems evolved from a hospital into a system delivering care to 2.5 million patients and includes the Cancer Epidemiology, Prevention and Control Program, which focuses on epidemiologic and public health aspects of cancer.

  4. Authentic leadership in a health sciences university.

    Al-Moamary, Mohamed S; Al-Kadri, Hanan M; Tamim, Hani M

    2016-01-01

    To study authentic leadership characteristics between academic leaders in a health sciences university. Cross-sectional study at a health sciences university in Saudi Arabia. The Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) was utilized to assess authentic leadership. Out of 84 ALQs that were distributed, 75 (89.3%) were eligible. The ALQ scores showed consistency in the dimensions of self-awareness (3.45 ± 0.43), internalized moral prospective (3.46 ± 0.33) and balanced processing (3.42 ± 0.36). The relational transparency dimension had a mean of 3.24 ± 0.31 which was significantly lower than other domains. Academic leaders with medical background represented 57.3%, compared to 42.7% from other professions. Academic leaders from other professions had better ALQ scores that reached statistical significance in the internalized moral perspective and relational transparency dimensions with p values of 0.006 and 0.049, respectively. In reference to the impact of hierarchy, there were no significant differences in relation to ALQ scores. Almost one-third of academic leaders (34.7%) had Qualifications in medical education that did not show significant impact on ALQ scores. There was less-relational transparency among academic leaders that was not consistent with other ALQ domains. Being of medical background may enhance leaders' opportunity to be at a higher hierarchy status but it did not enhance their ALQ scores when compared to those from other professions. Moreover, holding a master in medical education did not impact leadership authenticity.

  5. INTRODUCTION OF UNIVERSAL HEALTH PROGRAM IN GEORGIA: PROBLEMS AND PERSPECTIVES.

    Verulava, T; Jorbenadze, R; Barkalaia, T

    2017-01-01

    Since 2013, Georgia enacted Universal Healthcare (UHC) program. Inclusion of uninsured population in the UHC program will have a positive impact on their financial accessibility to the health services. The study aims to analyze the referral rate of the beneficiaries to the health service providers before introduction and after application of the UHC program, particularly, how much it increased the recently uninsured population referral to primary health care units, and also to study the level of satisfaction with the UHC program. Research was conducted by qualitative and quantitative methods. The target groups' (program beneficiaries, physicians, personnel of the Social Service Agency) opinions were identified by means of face-to-face interviews. Enactment of the UHC programs significantly raised the population refferal to the family physicians, and the specialists. Insignificantly, but also increased the frequency of laboratory and diagnostic services. Despite the serious positive changes caused by UHC program implementation there still remain the problems in the primary healthcare system. Also, it is desirable to raise the financial availability of those medical services, which may cause catastrophic costs. In this respect, such medical services must be involved in the universal healthcare program and been expanded their scale. For the purpose of effective usage of the limited funds allocated for health care services provision, the private health insurance companies should be involved in UHC programs. This, together with the reduction of health care costs will increase a competition in the medical market, and enhance the quality of health service.

  6. EDITORIAL Universal health coverage: A re-emerging paradigm?

    admin

    of earlier initiatives in global health that include the basic health ... the availability, accessibility (geographic, economic, cultural) and appropriateness ... public good nature of health leading to new .... fragmentation and towards universal.

  7. TEL4Health research at University College Cork (UCC)

    Drachsler, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Drachsler, H. (2013, 12 May). TEL4Health research at University College Cork (UCC). Invited talk given at Application of Science to Simulation, Education and Research on Training for Health Professionals Centre (ASSERT for Health Care), Cork, Ireland.

  8. University Program Management Information System: NASA's University Program Active Projects

    Gans, Gary (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    As basic policy, NASA believes that colleges and universities should be encouraged to participate in the nation's space and aeronautics program to the maximum extent practicable. Indeed, universities are considered as partners with government and industry in the nation's aerospace program. NASA's objective is to have them bring their scientific, engineering, and social research competence to bear on aerospace problems and on the broader social, economic, and international implications of NASA's technical and scientific programs. It is expected that, in so doing, universities will strengthen both their research and their educational capabilities to contribute more effectively to the national well being. This annual report is one means of documenting the NASA-university relationship, frequently denoted, collectively, as NASA's University Program. This report is consistent with agency accounting records, as the data is obtained from NASA's Financial and Contractual Status (FACS) System, operated by the Financial Management Division and the Procurement Office. However, in accordance with interagency agreements, the orientation differs from that required for financial or procurement purposes. Any apparent discrepancies between this report and other NASA procurement or financial reports stem from the selection criteria for the data. This report was prepared by the Office of Education/N.

  9. Denmark: Health system review

    Juul, Annegrete; Krasnik, Allan; Rudkjøbing, Andreas

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) series provide detailed descriptions of health systems in the countries of the WHO European Region as well as some additional OECD countries. An individual health system review (HiT) examines the specific approach to the organization, financing and delivery...... of health services in a particular country and the role of the main actors in the health system. It describes the institutional framework, process, content, and implementation of health and health care policies. HiTs also look at reforms in progress or under development and make an assessment of the health...... system based on stated objectives and outcomes with respect to various dimensions (health status, equity, quality, efficiency, accountability)....

  10. Universal health insurance through incentives reform.

    Enthoven, A C; Kronick, R

    1991-05-15

    Roughly 35 million Americans have no health care coverage. Health care expenditures are out of control. The problems of access and cost are inextricably related. Important correctable causes include cost-unconscious demand, a system not organized for quality and economy, market failure, and public funds not distributed equitably or effectively to motivate widespread coverage. We propose Public Sponsor agencies to offer subsidized coverage to those otherwise uninsured, mandated employer-provided health insurance, premium contributions from all employers and employees, a limit on tax-free employer contributions to employee health insurance, and "managed competition". Our proposed new government revenues equal proposed new outlays. We believe our proposal will work because efficient managed care does exist and can provide satisfactory care for a cost far below that of the traditional fee-for-service third-party payment system. Presented with an opportunity to make an economically responsible choice, people choose value for money; the dynamic created by these individual choices will give providers strong incentives to render high-quality, economical care. We believe that providers will respond to these incentives.

  11. Health care financing in Nigeria: Implications for achieving universal health coverage.

    Uzochukwu, B S C; Ughasoro, M D; Etiaba, E; Okwuosa, C; Envuladu, E; Onwujekwe, O E

    2015-01-01

    The way a country finances its health care system is a critical determinant for reaching universal health coverage (UHC). This is so because it determines whether the health services that are available are affordable to those that need them. In Nigeria, the health sector is financed through different sources and mechanisms. The difference in the proportionate contribution from these stated sources determine the extent to which such health sector will go in achieving successful health care financing system. Unfortunately, in Nigeria, achieving the correct blend of these sources remains a challenge. This review draws on relevant literature to provide an overview and the state of health care financing in Nigeria, including policies in place to enhance healthcare financing. We searched PubMed, Medline, The Cochrane Library, Popline, Science Direct and WHO Library Database with search terms that included, but were not restricted to health care financing Nigeria, public health financing, financing health and financing policies. Further publications were identified from references cited in relevant articles and reports. We reviewed only papers published in English. No date restrictions were placed on searches. It notes that health care in Nigeria is financed through different sources including but not limited to tax revenue, out-of-pocket payments (OOPs), donor funding, and health insurance (social and community). In the face of achieving UHC, achieving successful health care financing system continues to be a challenge in Nigeria and concludes that to achieve universal coverage using health financing as the strategy, there is a dire need to review the system of financing health and ensure that resources are used more efficiently while at the same time removing financial barriers to access by shifting focus from OOPs to other hidden resources. There is also need to give presidential assent to the national health bill and its prompt implementation when signed into law.

  12. Ukraine: health system review.

    Lekhan, Valery; Rudiy, Volodymyr; Shevchenko, Maryna; Nitzan Kaluski, Dorit; Richardson, Erica

    2015-03-01

    This analysis of the Ukrainian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Since the country gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, successive governments have sought to overcome funding shortfalls and modernize the health care system to meet the needs of the population's health. However, no fundamental reform of the system has yet been implemented and consequently it has preserved the main features characteristic of the Semashko model; there is a particularly high proportion of total health expenditure paid out of pocket (42.3 % in 2012), and incentives within the system do not focus on quality or outcomes. The most recent health reform programme began in 2010 and sought to strengthen primary and emergency care, rationalize hospitals and change the model of health care financing from one based on inputs to one based on outputs. Fundamental issues that hampered reform efforts in the past re-emerged, but conflict and political instability have proved the greatest barriers to reform implementation and the programme was abandoned in 2014. More recently, the focus has been on more pressing humanitarian concerns arising from the conflict in the east of Ukraine. It is hoped that greater political, social and economic stability in the future will provide a better environment for the introduction of deep reforms to address shortcomings in the Ukrainian health system. World Health Organization 2015 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  13. On the Recommender System for University Library

    Fu, Shunkai; Zhang, Yao; Seinminn

    2013-01-01

    Libraries are important to universities, and they have two primary features: readers as well as collections are highly professional. In this study, based on the experimental study with five millions of users' borrowing records, our discussion covers: (1) the necessity of recommender system for university libraries; (2) collaborative filtering (CF)…

  14. Association between supplementary private health insurance and visits to physician offices versus hospital outpatient departments among adults with diabetes in the universal public insurance system.

    You, Chang Hoon; Choi, Ji Heon; Kang, Sungwook; Oh, Eun-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2018-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with a high prevalence across the world as well as in South Korea. Most cases of diabetes can be adequately managed at physician offices, but many diabetes patients receive outpatient care at hospitals. This study examines the relationship between supplementary private health insurance (SPHI) ownership and the use of hospitals among diabetes outpatients within the universal public health insurance scheme. Data from the 2011 Korea Health Panel, a nationally representative sample of Korean individuals, was used. For the study, 6,379 visits for diabetes care were selected while controlling for clustered errors. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine determinants of hospital outpatient services. This study demonstrated that the variables of self-rated health status, comorbidity, unmet need, and alcohol consumption significantly correlated with the choice to use a hospital services. Patients with SPHI were more likely to use medical services at hospitals by 1.71 times (95% CI 1.068-2.740, P = 0.026) compared to patients without SPHI. It was confirmed that diabetic patients insured by SPHI had more use of hospital services than those who were not insured. People insured by SPHI seem to be more likely to use hospital services because SPHI lightens the economic burden of care.

  15. Health workers' ICT literacy in a Nigerian University Teaching Hospital

    This study investigated the ICT literacy among the health workers of Igbinedion University Teaching Hospital. The emergence of Internet for Telemedicine and health information revolution necessitates that issue of computer and other communication technology literacy among the health workers of Igbinedion University ...

  16. Smart information system for gachon university gil hospital.

    Park, Dong Kyun; Jung, Eun Young; Jeong, Byung Hui; Moon, Byung Chan; Kang, Hyung Wook; Tchah, Hann; Han, Gi Seong; Cheng, Woo Sung; Lee, Young Ho

    2012-03-01

    In this research, the hospital information system of Gachon University Gil hospital is introduced and a future strategy for hospital information systems is proposed. This research introduces the development conditions of hospital information system at Gachon University Gil hospital, information about the development of the enterprise resource planning (ERP), a medical service process improvement system, and the personal health record (PHR) system. The medical service process and work efficiency were improved through the medical service process improvement system, which is the most common hospital information system at Gachon University Gil hospital and which includes an emergency medical service system, an online evaluation system and a round support system. Gachon University Gil hospital developed medical service improvement systems to increase work efficiency of medical team and optimized the systems to prove the availability of high-quality medical services for patients and their families. The PHR-based personalized health care solution is under development and will provide higher quality medical service for more patients in the future.

  17. Universal Health Coverage for Schizophrenia: A Global Mental Health Priority.

    Patel, Vikram

    2016-07-01

    The growing momentum towards a global consensus on universal health coverage, alongside an acknowledgment of the urgency and importance of a comprehensive mental health action plan, offers a unique opportunity for a substantial scale-up of evidence-based interventions and packages of care for a range of mental disorders in all countries. There is a robust evidence base testifying to the effectiveness of drug and psychosocial interventions for people with schizophrenia and to the feasibility, acceptability and cost-effectiveness of the delivery of these interventions through a collaborative care model in low resource settings. While there are a number of barriers to scaling up this evidence, for eg, the finances needed to train and deploy community based workers and the lack of agency for people with schizophrenia, the experiences of some upper middle income countries show that sustained political commitment, allocation of transitional financial resources to develop community services, a commitment to an integrated approach with a strong role for community based institutions and providers, and a progressive realization of coverage are the key ingredients for scale up of services for schizophrenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  18. Belgium: Health system review.

    Gerkens, Sophie; Merkur, Sherry

    2010-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Belgian population continues to enjoy good health and long life expectancy. This is partly due to good access to health services of high quality. Financing is based mostly on proportional social security contributions and progressive direct taxation. The compulsory health insurance is combined with a mostly private system of health care delivery, based on independent medical practice, free choice of physician and predominantly fee-for-service payment. This Belgian HiT profile (2010) presents the evolution of the health system since 2007, including detailed information on new policies. While no drastic reforms were undertaken during this period, policy-makers have pursued the goals of improving access to good quality of care while making the system sustainable. Reforms to increase the accessibility of the health system include measures to reduce the out-of-pocket payments of more vulnerable populations (low-income families and individuals as well as the chronically ill). Quality of care related reforms have included incentives to better integrate different levels of care and the establishment of information systems, among others. Additionally, several measures on pharmaceutical products have aimed to reduce costs for both the National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance (NIHDI) and patients, while maintaining the quality of care. World Health Organization 2010, on behalf of the European Observatory on health systems and Policies.

  19. Defining Pathways and Trade-offs Toward Universal Health Coverage Comment on “Ethical Perspective: Five Unacceptable Trade-offs on the Path to Universal Health Coverage”

    Stéphane Verguet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization’s (WHO’s World Health Report 2010, “Health systems financing, the path to universal coverage,” promoted universal health coverage (UHC as an aspirational objective for country health systems. Yet, in addition to the dimensions of services and coverage, distribution of coverage in the population, and financial risk protection highlighted by the report, the consideration of the budget constraint should be further strengthened in the ensuing debate on resource allocation toward UHC. Beyond the substantial financial constraints faced by low- and middle-income countries, additional considerations, such as the geographical context, the underlying country infrastructure, and the architecture of health systems, determine the feasibility, effectiveness, quality and cost of healthcare delivery. Therefore, increased production and use of local evidence tied to the criteria of health benefits, equity, financial risk protection, and costs accompanying health delivery are needed so that to highlight pathways and acceptable trade-offs toward UHC.

  20. Equity in health personnel financing after Universal Coverage: evidence from Thai Ministry of Public Health?s hospitals from 2008?2012

    Ruangratanatrai, Wilailuk; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2015-01-01

    Background Shortage and maldistribution of the health workforce is a major problem in the Thai health system. The expansion of healthcare access to achieve universal health coverage placed additional demand on the health system especially on the health workers in the public sector who are the major providers of health services. At the same time, the reform in hospital payment methods resulted in a lower share of funding from the government budgetary system and higher share of revenue from hea...

  1. University of Washington Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  2. France: Health System Review.

    Chevreul, Karine; Berg Brigham, Karen; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the French health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The French population has a good level of health, with the second highest life expectancy in the world for women. It has a high level of choice of providers, and a high level of satisfaction with the health system. However, unhealthy habits such as smoking and harmful alcohol consumption remain significant causes of avoidable mortality. Combined with the significant burden of chronic diseases, this has underscored the need for prevention and integration of services, although these have not historically been strengths of the French system. Although the French health care system is a social insurance system, it has historically had a stronger role for the state than other Bismarckian social insurance systems. Public financing of health care expenditure is among the highest in Europe and out-of-pocket spending among the lowest. Public insurance is compulsory and covers the resident population; it is financed by employee and employer contributions as well as increasingly through taxation. Complementary insurance plays a significant role in ensuring equity in access. Provision is mixed; providers of outpatient care are largely private, and hospital beds are predominantly public or private non-profit-making. Despite health outcomes being among the best in the European Union, social and geographical health inequities remain. Inequality in the distribution of health care professionals is a considerable barrier to equity. The rising cost of health care and the increasing demand for long-term care are also of concern. Reforms are ongoing to address these issues, while striving for equity in financial access; a long-term care reform including public coverage of long-term care is still pending. World Health Organization 2015 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the

  3. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-04

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Monitoring intervention coverage in the context of universal health coverage.

    Ties Boerma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring universal health coverage (UHC focuses on information on health intervention coverage and financial protection. This paper addresses monitoring intervention coverage, related to the full spectrum of UHC, including health promotion and disease prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, and palliation. A comprehensive core set of indicators most relevant to the country situation should be monitored on a regular basis as part of health progress and systems performance assessment for all countries. UHC monitoring should be embedded in a broad results framework for the country health system, but focus on indicators related to the coverage of interventions that most directly reflect the results of UHC investments and strategies in each country. A set of tracer coverage indicators can be selected, divided into two groups-promotion/prevention, and treatment/care-as illustrated in this paper. Disaggregation of the indicators by the main equity stratifiers is critical to monitor progress in all population groups. Targets need to be set in accordance with baselines, historical rate of progress, and measurement considerations. Critical measurement gaps also exist, especially for treatment indicators, covering issues such as mental health, injuries, chronic conditions, surgical interventions, rehabilitation, and palliation. Consequently, further research and proxy indicators need to be used in the interim. Ideally, indicators should include a quality of intervention dimension. For some interventions, use of a single indicator is feasible, such as management of hypertension; but in many areas additional indicators are needed to capture quality of service provision. The monitoring of UHC has significant implications for health information systems. Major data gaps will need to be filled. At a minimum, countries will need to administer regular household health surveys with biological and clinical data collection. Countries will also need to improve the

  5. Malta: Health system review.

    Azzopardi Muscat, Natasha; Calleja, Neville; Calleja, Antoinette; Cylus, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This analysis of the Maltese health system reviews the developments in its organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The health system in Malta consists of a public sector, which is free at the point of service and provides a comprehensive basket of health services for all its citizens, and a private sector, which accounts for a third of total health expenditure and provides the majority of primary care. Maltese citizens enjoy one of the highest life expectancies in Europe. Nevertheless, non-communicable diseases pose a major concern with obesity being increasingly prevalent among both adults and children. The health system faces important challenges including a steadily ageing population, which impacts the sustainability of public finances. Other supply constraints stem from financial and infrastructural limitations. Nonetheless, there exists a strong political commitment to ensure the provision of a healthcare system that is accessible, of high quality, safe and also sustainable. This calls for strategic investments to underpin a revision of existing processes whilst shifting the focus of care away from hospital into the community. World Health Organization 2014 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  6. Entrepreneurial universities in a world educational system

    Iryna Kalenyuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes modern development tendencies of university activities, it proved establishing of a global educational system, which shows increase of university education role, competition escalating and transformation of modern universities functions. It comprehensively studies the process when universities, both traditional and modern – business ones, are extending their functions. The article studied the development of scientists’ beliefs related to the essence and forms of entrepreneurial universities. On a basis of generalization of existing approaches, the authors give definition of the essence of entrepreneurial university as a subject of educational, scientific and other allied activities, which receives financial resources from diversified sources, extends fields of its activities and services. The foundation of the system of extended and main criteria for definition of entrepreneurial universities was laid. The main ones are the following: considerable financial autonomy and receiving of significant funding from non-governmental and diversified sources. Amounts and financial funding structure of the world leading universities were analyzed. It was proved that income from activities, which are allied with the main one (educational activity, increase. The article provides the amounts and the significance of international grants that ensure financial firmness, financial motivation of personnel, upgrades of facilities and resources, initiation and effectiveness of scientific-research activities of universities. Special attention was paid to research of such financial resources of the world leading universities as endowment funds, their scales, features and importance to boost economic capacities of higher education establishments. It was proved that it is important to consider world experience of entrepreneurial universities’ work within development and improving of competitive performance of Ukrainian higher education

  7. Advanced Practice Nursing: A Strategy for Achieving Universal Health Coverage and Universal Access to Health.

    Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Valaitis, Ruta; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Donald, Faith; Peña, Laura Morán; Brousseau, Linda

    2017-01-30

    to examine advanced practice nursing (APN) roles internationally to inform role development in Latin America and the Caribbean to support universal health coverage and universal access to health. we examined literature related to APN roles, their global deployment, and APN effectiveness in relation to universal health coverage and access to health. given evidence of their effectiveness in many countries, APN roles are ideally suited as part of a primary health care workforce strategy in Latin America to enhance universal health coverage and access to health. Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Mexico are well positioned to build this workforce. Role implementation barriers include lack of role clarity, legislation/regulation, education, funding, and physician resistance. Strong nursing leadership to align APN roles with policy priorities, and to work in partnership with primary care providers and policy makers is needed for successful role implementation. given the diversity of contexts across nations, it is important to systematically assess country and population health needs to introduce the most appropriate complement and mix of APN roles and inform implementation. Successful APN role introduction in Latin America and the Caribbean could provide a roadmap for similar roles in other low/middle income countries. analisar o papel da enfermagem com prática avançada (EPA) a nível internacional para um relatório do seu desenvolvimento na América Latina e no Caribe, para apoiar a cobertura universal de saúde e o acesso universal à saúde. análise da bibliografia relacionada com os papéis da EPA, sua implantação no mundo e a eficácia da EPA em relação à cobertura universal de saúde e acesso à saúde. dada a evidência da sua eficácia em muitos países, as funções da EPA são ideais como parte de uma estratégia de recursos humanos de atenção primária de saúde na América Latina para melhorar a cobertura universal de saúde e o acesso à saúde. Brasil

  8. Occupant comfort and health in green and conventional university buildings.

    Hedge, A; Miller, L; Dorsey, J A

    2014-01-01

    Green building standards are significantly impacting modern construction practices. The resulting structures are more energy efficient, but their impact on occupant health has not been widely studied. To investigate a range of indoor environment and ergonomic issues in green buildings. Retrospective post-occupancy evaluation survey of 319 occupants in two Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified buildings and one conventional building on a Canadian University campus. Results show that working in the LEED buildings was a generally positive experience for their health, performance, and satisfaction. However, the LEED buildings did not always receive the highest ratings for environmental conditions or for health and productivity. Respondents indicated a range of concerns with thermal conditions, office lighting, noise and their overall workstation designs and these were not always better in the green buildings. These results highlight the need for better integration of ergonomic design into green buildings and into the LEED rating system, and these implications are discussed.

  9. Health care delivery systems.

    Stevens, F.; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    A health care delivery system is the organized response of a society to the health problems of its inhabitants. Societies choose from alternative health care delivery models and, in doing so, they organize and set goals and priorities in such a way that the actions of different actors are effective,

  10. Improving equity in health care financing in China during the progression towards Universal Health Coverage.

    Chen, Mingsheng; Palmer, Andrew J; Si, Lei

    2017-12-29

    China is reforming the way it finances health care as it moves towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC) after the failure of market-oriented mechanisms for health care. Improving financing equity is a major policy goal of health care system during the progression towards universal coverage. We used progressivity analysis and dominance test to evaluate the financing channels of general taxation, pubic health insurance, and out-of-pocket (OOP) payments. In 2012 a survey of 8854 individuals in 3008 households recorded the socioeconomic and demographic status, and health care payments of those households. The overall Kakwani index (KI) of China's health care financing system is 0.0444. For general tax KI was -0.0241 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.0315 to -0.0166). The indices for public health schemes (Urban Employee Basic Medical Insurance, Urban Resident's Basic Medical Insurance, New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme) were respectively 0.1301 (95% CI: 0.1008 to 0.1594), -0.1737 (95% CI: -0.2166 to -0.1308), and -0.5598 (95% CI: -0.5830 to -0.5365); and for OOP payments KI was 0.0896 (95%CI: 0.0345 to 0.1447). OOP payments are still the dominant part of China's health care finance system. China's health care financing system is not really equitable. Reducing the proportion of indirect taxes would considerably improve health care financing equity. The flat-rate contribution mechanism is not recommended for use in public health insurance schemes, and more attention should be given to optimizing benefit packages during China's progression towards UHC.

  11. Switzerland: Health System Review.

    De Pietro, Carlo; Camenzind, Paul; Sturny, Isabelle; Crivelli, Luca; Edwards-Garavoglia, Suzanne; Spranger, Anne; Wittenbecher, Friedrich; Quentin, Wilm

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the Swiss health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Swiss health system is highly complex, combining aspects of managed competition and corporatism (the integration of interest groups in the policy process) in a decentralized regulatory framework shaped by the influences of direct democracy. The health system performs very well with regard to a broad range of indicators. Life expectancy in Switzerland (82.8 years) is the highest in Europe after Iceland, and healthy life expectancy is several years above the European Union (EU) average. Coverage is ensured through mandatory health insurance (MHI), with subsidies for people on low incomes. The system offers a high degree of choice and direct access to all levels of care with virtually no waiting times, though managed care type insurance plans that include gatekeeping restrictions are becoming increasingly important. Public satisfaction with the system is high and quality is generally viewed to be good or very good. Reforms since the year 2000 have improved the MHI system, changed the financing of hospitals, strengthened regulations in the area of pharmaceuticals and the control of epidemics, and harmonized regulation of human resources across the country. In addition, there has been a slow (and not always linear) process towards more centralization of national health policy-making. Nevertheless, a number of challenges remain. The costs of the health care system are well above the EU average, in particular in absolute terms but also as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) (11.5%). MHI premiums have increased more quickly than incomes since 2003. By European standards, the share of out-of-pocket payments is exceptionally high at 26% of total health expenditure (compared to the EU average of 16%). Low and middle-income households contribute a greater share of their income to

  12. Estonia: health system review.

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Triin; Kahur, Kristiina; Reinap, Marge; Kiivet, Raul; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Estonian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, the main issue has been the 2008 financial crisis. Although Estonia has managed the downturn quite successfully and overall satisfaction with the system remains high, it is hard to predict the longer-term effects of the austerity package. The latter included some cuts in benefits and prices, increased cost sharing for certain services, extended waiting times, and a reduction in specialized care. In terms of health outcomes, important progress was made in life expectancy, which is nearing the European Union (EU) average, and infant mortality. Improvements are necessary in smoking and alcohol consumption, which are linked to the majority of avoidable diseases. Although the health behaviour of the population is improving, large disparities between groups exist and obesity rates, particularly among young people, are increasing. In health care, the burden of out-of-pocket payments is still distributed towards vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the number of hospitals, hospital beds and average length of stay has decreased to the EU average level, yet bed occupancy rates are still below EU averages and efficiency advances could be made. Going forwards, a number of pre-crisis challenges remain. These include ensuring sustainability of health care financing, guaranteeing a sufficient level of human resources, prioritizing patient-centred health care, integrating health and social care services, implementing intersectoral action to promote healthy behaviour, safeguarding access to health care for lower socioeconomic groups, and, lastly, improving evaluation and monitoring tools across the health system. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  13. Universality in Nonequilibrium Lattice Systems Theoretical Foundations

    Ódor, Géza

    2008-01-01

    Universal scaling behavior is an attractive feature in statistical physics because a wide range of models can be classified purely in terms of their collective behavior due to a diverging correlation length. This book provides a comprehensive overview of dynamical universality classes occurring in nonequilibrium systems defined on regular lattices. The factors determining these diverse universality classes have yet to be fully understood, but the book attempts to summarize our present knowledge, taking them into account systematically.The book helps the reader to navigate in the zoo of basic m

  14. Analysis of technical university information system

    Savelyev, N. A.; Boyarkin, M. A.

    2018-05-01

    The paper covers a set and interaction of the existing higher education institution automated control systems in φ state budgetary educational institution of higher professional education "Industrial University of Tyumen ". A structural interaction of the existing systems and their functions has been analyzed which has become a basis for identification of a number of system-related and local (related to separate modules) drawbacks of the university activities automation. The authors suggested a new structure of the automated control system, consisting of three major subsystems: management support; training and methodology support; distance and supplementary education support. Functionality for each subsystem has been defined in accordance with the educational institution automation requirements. The suggested structure of the ACS will solve the challenges facing the university during reorganization and optimization of the processes of management of the institution activities as a whole.

  15. Hong Kong's Cross-System University Partnerships

    Postiglione, Gerard A.; Yunyun, Qin; Te, Alice Y. C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the special case of Hong Kong higher education's institutional partnerships in the Chinese mainland. After noting the rise of cross-system university partnership in Asia, it provides a neoinstitutional perspective on the differences between the two China higher education systems. Finally, a case study of the experience of the…

  16. ENGINEERING OF UNIVERSITY INTELLIGENT LEARNING SYSTEMS

    Vasiliy M. Trembach

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article issues of engineering intelligent tutoring systems of University with adaptation are considered. The article also dwells on some modern approaches to engineering of information systems. It shows the role of engineering e-learning devices (systems in system engineering. The article describes the basic principles of system engineering and these principles are expanded regarding to intelligent information systems. The structure of intelligent learning systems with adaptation of the individual learning environments based on services is represented in the article.

  17. Technical support for universal health coverage pilots in Karnataka ...

    Technical support for universal health coverage pilots in Karnataka and Kerala. This project will provide evidence-based support to implement universal health coverage (UHC) pilot activities in two Indian states: Kerala and Karnataka. The project team will provide technical assistance to these early adopter states to assist ...

  18. Lifestyle, Fitness and Health Promotion Initiative of the University of ...

    This study examined the health promotion initiative introduced by the Management of the University of Ilorin, Ngeria. In an attempt to ensure stress free academic society that would boost staff productivity and longevity, the university invested heavily on a number of lifestyle, fitness and health promotion initiatives. Descriptive ...

  19. Health Attitudes and Suicidal Ideation among University Students

    Ashrafioun, Lisham; Bonar, Erin; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine whether positive health attitudes are associated with suicidal ideation among university students after accounting for other health risk factors linked to suicidal ideation. Participants: Participants were 690 undergraduates from a large midwestern university during fall semester 2011. Methods:…

  20. Bulgaria health system review.

    Dimova, Antoniya; Rohova, Maria; Moutafova, Emanuela; Atanasova, Elka; Koeva, Stefka; Panteli, Dimitra; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years, demographic development in Bulgaria has been characterized by population decline, a low crude birth rate, a low fertility rate, a high mortality rate and an ageing population. A stabilizing political situation since the early 2000s and an economic upsurge since the mid-2000s were important factors in the slight increase of the birth and fertility rates and the slight decrease in standardized death rates. In general, Bulgaria lags behind European Union (EU) averages in most mortality and morbidity indicators. Life expectancy at birth reached 73.3 years in 2008 with the main three causes of death being diseases of the circulatory system, malignant neoplasms and diseases of the respiratory system. One of the most important risk factors overall is smoking, and the average standardized death rate for smoking-related causes in 2008 was twice as high as the EU15 average. The Bulgarian health system is characterized by limited statism. The Ministry of Health is responsible for national health policy and the overall organization and functioning of the health system and coordinates with all ministries with relevance to public health. The key players in the insurance system are the insured individuals, the health care providers and the third party payers, comprising the National Health Insurance Fund, the single payer in the social health insurance (SHI) system, and voluntary health insurance companies (VHICs). Health financing consists of a publicprivate mix. Health care is financed from compulsory health insurance contributions, taxes, outofpocket (OOP) payments, voluntary health insurance (VHI) premiums, corporate payments, donations, and external funding. Total health expenditure (THE) as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) increased from 5.3% in 1995 to 7.3% in 2008. At the latter date it consisted of 36.5% OOP payments, 34.8% SHI, 13.6% Ministry of Health expenditure, 9.4% municipality expenditure and 0.3% VHI. Informal payments in the health

  1. Determinants of health-related lifestyles among university students.

    Aceijas, Carmen; Waldhäusl, Sabrina; Lambert, Nicky; Cassar, Simon; Bello-Corassa, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate students' health-related lifestyles and to identify barriers and social determinants of healthier lifestyles. An online survey, two focus groups and three in-depth interviews across 2014/2015. A stratified by school size and random sample ( n = 468) of university students answered a 67-item questionnaire comprising six scales: Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity, Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Patients-Short Version, CAGE, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale short version, and ad hoc scale for drug use/misuse. Stratified by gender, χ 2 tests were run to test associations/estimate risks and three multivariate Logistic Regression models were adjusted. A thematic approach guided the analysis of qualitative data. A total of 60% of the respondents were insufficiently physically active, 47% had an unbalanced diet and 30% had low mental wellbeing. Alcohol drinkers versus abstinent were almost equally distributed. A total of 42% of alcohol drinkers reported getting drunk at least once a month. Smokers accounted for 16% of the respondents. Identified risk factors for suboptimal physical activity were as follows: being a woman, not using the university gym and smoking. Risk factors for unbalanced diet were low mental wellbeing and drug use. Poor mental wellbeing was predicted by unbalanced diet, not feeling like shopping and cooking frequently, and a lack of help-seeking behaviour in cases of distress. Qualitative analysis revealed seven thematic categories: transition to new life, university environment and systems, finances, academic pressure, health promotion on campus and recommendations. This study provides robust evidence that the health-related lifestyles of the student population are worrying and suggests that the trend in chronic diseases associated with unhealthy lifestyles sustained over years might be unlikely to change in future generations. University students

  2. Comprehensive Implementation of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS in a Dental School and University Oral Health Centre: A Stepwise Framework

    Priya Ahlawat

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available ICDAS (the International Caries Detection and Assessment System is a new approach to the detection and classification of dental caries, starting with the stage showing the earliest visual changes. Methodology: This article describes the implementation of the ICDAS at the School of Dentistry, International Medical University, and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in a step-by-step systematically planned process. Beginning with the setting up of a Task Force in 2011 for the evaluation and preparation of the training resources and the running of exploratory training exercises, it finally culminated in carrying out training workshops for the entire staff and students. After the internal processes had been completed, an international expert (KE was invited to evaluate the process and conduct another workshop using the resources developed within the University, including a reference set of carious teeth. The overall time taken was one and a half years. Conclusions: The implementation of the ICDAS has been comprehensively set into motion within the context of our local curriculum and oral healthcare delivery arrangements. However, this will be an ongoing process with further quality assurance measures being required clinically together with the continuing training of new staff. Sharing this ‘framework’ of the ICDAS implementation process should considerably ease the path and reduce the time period of future implementations by other dental teaching institutions.

  3. Circumpolar Inuit health systems.

    Ellsworth, Leanna; O'Keeffe, Annmaree

    2013-01-01

    The Inuit are an indigenous people totalling about 160,000 and living in 4 countries across the Arctic - Canada, Greenland, USA (Alaska) and Russia (Chukotka). In essence, they are one people living in 4 countries. Although there have been significant improvements in Inuit health and survival over the past 50 years, stark differences persist between the key health indicators for Inuit and those of the national populations in the United States, Canada and Russia and between Greenland and Denmark. On average, life expectancy in all 4 countries is lower for Inuit. Infant mortality rates are also markedly different with up to 3 times more infant deaths than the broader national average. Underlying these statistical differences are a range of health, social, economic and environmental factors which have affected Inuit health outcomes. Although the health challenges confronting the Inuit are in many cases similar across the Arctic, the responses to these challenges vary in accordance with the types of health systems in place in each of the 4 countries. Each of the 4 countries has a different health care system with varying degrees of accessibility and affordability for Inuit living in urban, rural and remote areas. To describe funding and governance arrangements for health services to Inuit in Canada, Greenland, USA (Alaska) and Russia (Chukotka) and to determine if a particular national system leads to better outcomes than any of the other 3 systems. Literature review. It was not possible to draw linkages between the different characteristics of the respective health systems, the corresponding financial investment and the systems' effectiveness in adequately serving Inuit health needs for several reasons including the very limited and inadequate collection of Inuit-specific health data by Canada, Alaska and Russia; and second, the data that are available do not necessarily provide a feasible point of comparison in terms of methodology and timing of the available data

  4. Circumpolar Inuit health systems

    Leanna Ellsworth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . The Inuit are an indigenous people totalling about 160,000 and living in 4 countries across the Arctic – Canada, Greenland, USA (Alaska and Russia (Chukotka. In essence, they are one people living in 4 countries. Although there have been significant improvements in Inuit health and survival over the past 50 years, stark differences persist between the key health indicators for Inuit and those of the national populations in the United States, Canada and Russia and between Greenland and Denmark. On average, life expectancy in all 4 countries is lower for Inuit. Infant mortality rates are also markedly different with up to 3 times more infant deaths than the broader national average. Underlying these statistical differences are a range of health, social, economic and environmental factors which have affected Inuit health outcomes. Although the health challenges confronting the Inuit are in many cases similar across the Arctic, the responses to these challenges vary in accordance with the types of health systems in place in each of the 4 countries. Each of the 4 countries has a different health care system with varying degrees of accessibility and affordability for Inuit living in urban, rural and remote areas. Objective . To describe funding and governance arrangements for health services to Inuit in Canada, Greenland, USA (Alaska and Russia (Chukotka and to determine if a particular national system leads to better outcomes than any of the other 3 systems. Study design . Literature review. Results . It was not possible to draw linkages between the different characteristics of the respective health systems, the corresponding financial investment and the systems’ effectiveness in adequately serving Inuit health needs for several reasons including the very limited and inadequate collection of Inuit-specific health data by Canada, Alaska and Russia; and second, the data that are available do not necessarily provide a feasible point of

  5. NASA University Program Management Information System

    1999-01-01

    As basic policy, NASA believes that colleges and universities should be encouraged to participate in the nation's space and aeronautics program to the maximum extent practicable. Indeed, universities are considered as partners with government and industry in the nation's aerospace program. NASA's objective is to have them bring their scientific, engineering, and social research competence to bear on aerospace problems and on the broader social, economic, and international implications of NASA's technical and scientific programs. It is expected that, in so doing, universities will strengthen both their research and their educational capabilities to contribute more effectively to the national well-being. NASA field codes and certain Headquarters program offices provide funds for those activities in universities which contribute to the mission needs of that particular NASA element. Although NASA has no predetermined amount of money to devote to university activities, the effort funded each year is substantial. (See the bar chart on the next page). This annual report is one means of documenting the NASA-university relationship, frequently denoted, collectively, as NASA's University Program. This report is consistent with agency accounting records, as the data is obtained from NASA's Financial and Contractual Status (FACS) System, operated by the Financial Management Division and the Procurement Office. However, in accordance with interagency agreements, the orientation differs from that required for financial or procurement purposes. Any apparent discrepancies between this report and other NASA procurement or financial reports stem from the selection criteria for the data.

  6. Medicalization of global health 4: The universal health coverage campaign and the medicalization of global health.

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    Universal health coverage (UHC) has emerged as the leading and recommended overarching health goal on the post-2015 development agenda, and is promoted with fervour. UHC has the backing of major medical and health institutions, and is designed to provide patients with universal access to needed health services without financial hardship, but is also projected to have 'a transformative effect on poverty, hunger, and disease'. Multiple reports and resolutions support UHC and few offer critical analyses; but among these are concerns with imprecise definitions and the ability to implement UHC at the country level. A medicalization lens enriches these early critiques and identifies concerns that the UHC campaign contributes to the medicalization of global health. UHC conflates health with health care, thus assigning undue importance to (biomedical) health services and downgrading the social and structural determinants of health. There is poor evidence that UHC or health care alone improves population health outcomes, and in fact health care may worsen inequities. UHC is reductionistic because it focuses on preventative and curative actions delivered at the individual level, and ignores the social and political determinants of health and right to health that have been supported by decades of international work and commitments. UHC risks commodifying health care, which threatens the underlying principles of UHC of equity in access and of health care as a collective good.

  7. Performance Based Supplementary Payment System at University Hospitals in Turkey

    Vahit YÝÐÝT

    2017-06-01

    Results: The result of the analysis has revealed that PBSP system encourage physicians who would like to receive financial incentives. PBSP system supports the individual performance, reduces waiting times in patients, increases revenues and decreases expenditures and increases in efficiency of department. However, this payment system increases work load, number of examinations and provokes the conflict among personals. Conclusions: University hospitals are academic institutions that perform important missions such as research, medical education and health services provision. Therefore, PBSP system should be revised so as to encourage performing these missions at university hospitals. There is also shortage of financial resources at the university hospitals. This situation leads to less additional payments to physicians. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(2.000: 126-131

  8. As contradições entre o SUS universal e as transferências de recursos públicos para os planos e seguros privados de saúde The contradictions between the universal Unified Health System and the transfer of public funds to private health plans and insurances

    Ligia Bahia

    2008-10-01

    , taking into consideration the contradictions between the political and economical circuit in which the health plan and insurance companies are operating and the universality of the Brazilian Health System.

  9. Universal health coverage in 'One ASEAN': are migrants included?

    Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S

    2015-01-01

    As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC beyond the basis of

  10. Leveraging Existing Laboratory Capacity towards Universal Health ...

    Adequately equipped clinical laboratories should provide early warning signals of health risks. The Assessment categorized the laboratories at three levels relating to the type of facility, these being hospital, health center and health post. This study used results from the SARA to determine the ability to make timely diagnosis ...

  11. [Health services research for the public health service (PHS) and the public health system].

    Hollederer, A; Wildner, M

    2015-03-01

    There is a great need for health services research in the public health system and in the German public health service. However, the public health service is underrepresented in health services research in Germany. This has several structural, historical and disciplinary-related reasons. The public health service is characterised by a broad range of activities, high qualification requirements and changing framework conditions. The concept of health services research is similar to that of the public health service and public health system, because it includes the principles of multidisciplinarity, multiprofessionalism and daily routine orientation. This article focuses on a specified system theory based model of health services research for the public health system and public health service. The model is based on established models of the health services research and health system research, which are further developed according to specific requirements of the public health service. It provides a theoretical foundation for health services research on the macro-, meso- and microlevels in public health service and the public health system. Prospects for public health service are seen in the development from "old public health" to "new public health" as well as in the integration of health services research and health system research. There is a significant potential for development in a better linkage between university research and public health service as is the case for the "Pettenkofer School of Public Health Munich". © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. University psychiatry in Italy: organisation and integration of university clinics and the National Health Service

    Pier Maria Furlan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In the Italian psychiatric system, community-based care has become increasingly important and widespread since the national reform of 1978. This report aims to provide an overview of the involvement of university medical schools in this process, considering their responsibility for teaching and training specialist practitioners and professionals. METHODS: The study was carried out between early 2010 and February 2011. An 18-items, self-administered, questionnaire was designed to investigate the number of faculty members that are responsible both for running a clinical ward and for providing community-based healthcare. RESULTS: Nine out of 53 faculty members (17% manage a Mental Health Department, 9 (17% manage a University Department, and 2 (3.8% manage both types of department. Less than half of the teachers have full responsibility (hospital and community; however the percentage reaches 73.2% if we include the hospital wards open to the community emergencies. The remaining 26.8% have no responsibility for community psychiatry. Moreover there were undoubtedly still too many universities with specialisation schools that are without an appropriate network of facilities enabling them to offer complex psychiatric training. DISCUSSION: As expected, there were several types of healthcare management that were not uniformly distributed throughout Italy and there were also marked differences between mental health care provision in the North, Centre, and South of Italy. The university involvement in clinical responsibility was great, but at the management level there was a lack of equality in terms of clinical care, which risks being reflected also on the institutional functions of teaching and research.

  13. Nursing scholarship within the British university system.

    Ramcharan, P; Ashmore, R; Nicklin, L; Drew, J

    This article is a review of how a school of nursing and midwifery might promote scholarship within the university system. It is argued that the emphasis on research in universities has undermined the importance of scholarship within education and practice. The difficulties of recognizing scholarly processes as opposed to products such as publications is outlined in relation to three areas of potential scholarship within nurse education, i.e. research, teaching and practice. Issues are raised about how scholarship might be promoted in these three areas in practical terms. It is argued that systems of recognition and reward should be equitably distributed between these wide areas of potential scholarship. This will mean universities accommodating different models of scholarship and nurses recognizing their responsibility to contribute to scholarly activity.

  14. Highlight: Improving health systems research in West Africa | IDRC ...

    2016-04-15

    Apr 15, 2016 ... ... by the University of Ghana School of Public Health, in partnership with WAHO and IDRC. Health systems research experts and partners from across the ... adopted direct payment for health services as the primary means.

  15. Health Information Systems

    the technology and expertise to process and share ... services. GEHS supports efforts that reach beyond healthcare institutions to capture evidence ... Health information systems are a foundation for quality care, and can increase accountability ...

  16. Universal formats for nonlinear ordinary differential systems

    Kerner, E.H.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that very general nonlinear ordinary differential systems (embracing all that arise in practice) may, first, be brought down to polynomial systems (where the nonlinearities occur only as polynomials in the dependent variables) by introducing suitable new variables into the original system; second, that polynomial systems are reducible to ''Riccati systems,'' where the nonlinearities are quadratic at most; third, that Riccati systems may be brought to elemental universal formats containing purely quadratic terms with simple arrays of coefficients that are all zero or unity. The elemental systems have representations as novel types of matrix Riccati equations. Different starting systems and their associated Riccati systems differ from one another, at the final elemental level, in order and in initial data, but not in format

  17. Is our universe an open system?

    Page, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    The author gives a brief summary of the arguments which might indicate the universe to be an open system. The arguments concern the formation and evaporation of black holes and the asymptotic completeness or incompleteness of the Hilbert space of quantum gravity. (Auth.)

  18. NASA University Program Management Information System

    2000-01-01

    As basic policy, NASA believes that colleges and universities should be encouraged to participate in the nation's space and aeronautics program to the maximum extent practicable. Indeed, universities are considered as partners with government and industry in the nation's aerospace program. NASA:s objective is to have them bring their scientific, engineering, and social research competence to bear on aerospace problems and on the broader social, economic, and international implications of NASA's technical and scientific programs. It is expected that, in so doing, universities will strengthen both their research and their educational capabilities to contribute more effectively to the national well-being. NASA field codes and certain Headquarters program offices provide funds for those activities in universities which contribute to the mission needs of that particular NASA element. Although NASA has no predetermined amount of money to devote to university activities, the effort funded each year is substantial. This annual report is one means of documenting the NASA-university relationship, frequently denoted, collectively, as NASA's University Program. This report is consistent with agency accounting records, as the data is obtained from NASA:s Financial and Contractual Status (FACS) System, operated by the Financial Management Division and the Procurement Office. However, in accordance with interagency agreements, the orientation differs from that required for financial or procurement purposes. Any apparent discrepancies between this report and other NASA procurement or financial reports stem from the selection criteria for the data.* This report was prepared by the Education Division/FE, Office of Human Resources and Education, using a management information system which was modernized during FY 1993.

  19. Nursing challenges for universal health coverage: a systematic review

    Mariana Cabral Schveitzer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives to identify nursing challenges for universal health coverage, based on the findings of a systematic review focused on the health workforce' understanding of the role of humanization practices in Primary Health Care. Method systematic review and meta-synthesis, from the following information sources: PubMed, CINAHL, Scielo, Web of Science, PsycInfo, SCOPUS, DEDALUS and Proquest, using the keyword Primary Health Care associated, separately, with the following keywords: humanization of assistance, holistic care/health, patient centred care, user embracement, personal autonomy, holism, attitude of health personnel. Results thirty studies between 1999-2011. Primary Health Care work processes are complex and present difficulties for conducting integrative care, especially for nursing, but humanizing practices have showed an important role towards the development of positive work environments, quality of care and people-centered care by promoting access and universal health coverage. Conclusions nursing challenges for universal health coverage are related to education and training, to better working conditions and clear definition of nursing role in primary health care. It is necessary to overcome difficulties such as fragmented concepts of health and care and invest in multidisciplinary teamwork, community empowerment, professional-patient bond, user embracement, soft technologies, to promote quality of life, holistic care and universal health coverage.

  20. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R [B.P. Konstantinov St. Petersburg Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Gatchina, Leningrad region, Rusian Federation (Russian Federation); Amusia, M Ya [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Popov, Konstantin G [Komi Scientific Center, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-30

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T{sub c} superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  1. Universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems

    Shaginyan, Vasilii R; Amusia, M Ya; Popov, Konstantin G

    2007-01-01

    This review discusses the construction of a theory and the analysis of phenomena occurring in strongly correlated Fermi systems such as high-T c superconductors, heavy-fermion metals, and quasi-two-dimensional Fermi systems. It is shown that the basic properties and the universal behavior of strongly correlated Fermi systems can be described in the framework of the Fermi-condensate quantum phase transition and the well-known Landau paradigm of quasiparticles and the order parameter. The concept of fermion condensation may be fruitful in studying neutron stars, finite Fermi systems, ultra-cold gases in traps, and quark plasma. (reviews of topical problems)

  2. Mandatory universal drug plan, access to health care and health: Evidence from Canada.

    Wang, Chao; Li, Qing; Sweetman, Arthur; Hurley, Jeremiah

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines the impacts of a mandatory, universal prescription drug insurance program on health care utilization and health outcomes in a public health care system with free physician and hospital services. Using the Canadian National Population Health Survey from 1994 to 2003 and implementing a difference-in-differences estimation strategy, we find that the mandatory program substantially increased drug coverage among the general population. The program also increased medication use and general practitioner visits but had little effect on specialist visits and hospitalization. Findings from quantile regressions suggest that there was a large improvement in the health status of less healthy individuals. Further analysis by pre-policy drug insurance status and the presence of chronic conditions reveals a marked increase in the probability of taking medication and visiting a general practitioner among the previously uninsured and those with a chronic condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. India's "tryst" with universal health coverage: reflections on ethnography in Indian health policymaking.

    Nambiar, Devaki

    2013-12-01

    In 2011, India stood at the crossroads of potentially major health reform. A High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on universal health coverage (UHC), convened by the Indian Planning Commission, proposed major changes in the structure and functioning of the country's health system. This paper presents reflections on the role of ethnography in policy-based social change for health in India, drawing from year-long participation in the aforementioned policy development process. It theorizes that international discourses have been (re)appropriated in the Indian case by recourse to both experience and evidence, resulting in a plurality of concepts that could be prioritized for Indian health reform. This articulation involved HLEG members exerting para-ethnographic labour and paying close attention to context, suggesting that ethnographic sensibilities can reside within the interactive and knowledge production practices among experts oriented toward policy change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Universal health coverage in Latin American countries: how to improve solidarity-based schemes.

    Titelman, Daniel; Cetrángolo, Oscar; Acosta, Olga Lucía

    2015-04-04

    In this Health Policy we examine the association between the financing structure of health systems and universal health coverage. Latin American health systems encompass a wide range of financial sources, which translate into different solidarity-based schemes that combine contributory (payroll taxes) and non-contributory (general taxes) sources of financing. To move towards universal health coverage, solidarity-based schemes must heavily rely on countries' capacity to increase public expenditure in health. Improvement of solidarity-based schemes will need the expansion of mandatory universal insurance systems and strengthening of the public sector including increased fiscal expenditure. These actions demand a new model to integrate different sources of health-sector financing, including general tax revenue, social security contributions, and private expenditure. The extent of integration achieved among these sources will be the main determinant of solidarity and universal health coverage. The basic challenges for improvement of universal health coverage are not only to spend more on health, but also to reduce the proportion of out-of-pocket spending, which will need increased fiscal resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. System health monitoring

    Reneke, J.A.; Fryer, M.O.

    1995-01-01

    Well designed large systems include many instrument taking data. These data are used in a variety of ways. They are used to control the system and its components, to monitor system and component health, and often for historical or financial purposes. This paper discusses a new method of using data from low level instrumentation to monitor system and component health. The method uses the covariance of instrument outputs to calculate a measure of system change. The method involves no complicated modeling since it is not a parameter estimation algorithm. The method is iterative and can be implemented on a computer in real time. Examples are presented for a metal lathe and a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. It is shown that the proposed method is quite sensitive to system changes such as wear out and failure. The method is useful for low level system diagnostics and fault detection

  6. Leveraging Existing Laboratory Capacity towards Universal Health ...

    Background: The provision of quality health care is influenced by ... Laboratory support is urgently needed to enhance service delivery in the ... Information generated through ... professionals using simple rapid technology have been adopted.

  7. Greece: Health system review.

    Economou, Charalambos

    2010-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The health status of the Greek population has strongly improved over the last few decades and seems to compare relatively favourably with other OECD and European Union (EU) countries. The health system is a mixture of public integrated, public contract and public reimbursement models, comprising elements from both the public and private sectors and incorporating principles of different organizational patterns. Access to services is based on citizenship as well as on occupational status.The system is financed by the state budget, social insurance contributions and private payments.The largest share of health expenditure constitutes private expenditure, mainly in the form of out of pocket payments which is also the element contributing most to the overall increase in health expenditure. The delivery of health care services is based on both public and private providers. The presence of private providers is more obvious in primary care,especially in diagnostic technologies, private physicians' practices and pharmaceuticals. Despite success in improving the health of the population, the Greek health care system faces serious structural problems concerning the organization, financing and delivery of services. It suffers from the absence of cost-containment measures and defined criteria for funding, resulting in sickness funds experiencing economic constraints and budget deficits. The high percentage of private expenditure goes against the principle of fair

  8. Global Peace through the Global University System

    Cengiz Hakan AYDIN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Utopia is defined in Encarta Dictionary as “an ideal and perfect place or state, where everyone lives in harmony and everything is for the best.” Developments all around the world especially in the last decade have supported the idea that global peace is nothing but just a utopian dream. However, for centuries a group of believers have always been in search of global peace via different means. This book, titled as “Global Peace through the Global University System”, can be considered as one of the artifacts of this search.Actually this book is a collection of papers presented in working conference on the Global University System (GUS hosted by the University of Tampere, Finland in 1999. The main goal of the conference was bringing international experts to share their philosophy, past and present experiences about the GUS. The conference was held by the University of Tampere because UNESCO has an agreement with the University to establish the UNESCOChair in Global e-Learning.

  9. Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of ...

    Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of Limpopo students. ... Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among undergraduate ... positive for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), 22% reported hazardous or ...

  10. HEALTH SECTOR CORRUPTION AS THE ARCHENEMY OF UNIVERSAL HEALTH CARE IN INDONESIA

    Juwita, Ratna

    2017-01-01

    AbstractThis article argues that health sector corruption is a direct threat towards universal health care in Indonesia. Three Indonesian legal cases of health sector corruption are selected to exemplify the reality of health sector corruption and it’s detrimental effect to the realization of the right to health. This article emphasizes that corruption causes misallocation and embezzlement of the fund that hampers the State party to optimally provide universal health care for the people. This...

  11. Leadership Succession Management in a University Health Faculty

    McMurray, Anne M.; Henly, Debra; Chaboyer, Wendy; Clapton, Jayne; Lizzio, Alf; Teml, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We report on a succession planning pilot project in an Australian university health faculty. The programme aimed to enhance organisational stability and develop leadership capacity in middle level academics. Six monthly sessions addressed university and general leadership topics, communication, decision-making, working with change, self-management…

  12. UNIVERSAL INTERFACE TO MULTIPLE OPERATIONS SYSTEMS

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1986-01-01

    Alternative ways to provide access to operations systems that maintain, test, and configure complex telephone networks are being explored. It is suggested that a universal interface that provides simultaneous access to multiple operations systems that execute in different hardware and software...... environments, can be provided by an architecture that is based on the separation of presentation issues from application issues and on a modular interface management system that consists of a virtual user interface, physical user interface, and interface agent. The interface functionality that is needed...

  13. Progress towards universal health coverage in BRICS: translating economic growth into better health.

    Rao, Krishna D; Petrosyan, Varduhi; Araujo, Edson Correia; McIntyre, Diane

    2014-06-01

    Brazil, the Russian Federation, India, China and South Africa--the countries known as BRICS--represent some of the world's fastest growing large economies and nearly 40% of the world's population. Over the last two decades, BRICS have undertaken health-system reforms to make progress towards universal health coverage. This paper discusses three key aspects of these reforms: the role of government in financing health; the underlying motivation behind the reforms; and the value of the lessons learnt for non-BRICS countries. Although national governments have played a prominent role in the reforms, private financing constitutes a major share of health spending in BRICS. There is a reliance on direct expenditures in China and India and a substantial presence of private insurance in Brazil and South Africa. The Brazilian health reforms resulted from a political movement that made health a constitutional right, whereas those in China, India, the Russian Federation and South Africa were an attempt to improve the performance of the public system and reduce inequities in access. The move towards universal health coverage has been slow. In China and India, the reforms have not adequately addressed the issue of out-of-pocket payments. Negotiations between national and subnational entities have often been challenging but Brazil has been able to achieve good coordination between federal and state entities via a constitutional delineation of responsibility. In the Russian Federation, poor coordination has led to the fragmented pooling and inefficient use of resources. In mixed health systems it is essential to harness both public and private sector resources.

  14. Groundwork for Universal Canister System Development

    Price, Laura L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gross, Mike [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Prouty, Jeralyn L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rigali, Mark J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Craig, Brian [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Zenghu [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lee, John Hok [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Liu, Yung [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pope, Ron [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Connolly, Kevin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feldman, Matt [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jarrell, Josh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Radulescu, Georgeta [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Scaglione, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wells, Alan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The mission of the United States Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is to complete the safe cleanup of the environmental legacy brought about from five decades of nuclear weapons development and go vernment - sponsored nuclear energy re search. S ome of the waste s that that must be managed have be en identified as good candidates for disposal in a deep borehole in crystalline rock (SNL 2014 a). In particular, wastes that can be disposed of in a small package are good candidates for this disposal concept. A canister - based system that can be used for handling these wastes during the disposition process (i.e., storage, transfers, transportation, and disposal) could facilitate the eventual disposal of these wastes. This report provides information for a program plan for developing specifications regarding a canister - based system that facilitates small waste form packaging and disposal and that is integrated with the overall efforts of the DOE's Office of Nuclear Energy Used Fuel Dis position Camp aign's Deep Borehole Field Test . Groundwork for Universal Ca nister System Development September 2015 ii W astes to be considered as candidates for the universal canister system include capsules containing cesium and strontium currently stored in pools at the Hanford Site, cesium to be processed using elutable or nonelutable resins at the Hanford Site, and calcine waste from Idaho National Laboratory. The initial emphasis will be on disposal of the cesium and strontium capsules in a deep borehole that has been drilled into crystalline rock. Specifications for a universal canister system are derived from operational, performance, and regulatory requirements for storage, transfers, transportation, and disposal of radioactive waste. Agreements between the Department of Energy and the States of Washington and Idaho, as well as the Deep Borehole Field Test plan provide schedule requirements for development of the universal canister system

  15. Universal Health Coverage: A burning need for developing countries

    Zaman, Sojib Bin; Hossain, Naznin

    2017-01-01

    The term of universal health coverage (UHC) are getting popularity among the countries who have not yet attained it. Majority of the developing countries are planning to implement the UHC to protect the vulnerable citizen who cannot afford to buy the health services. Poor people living in developing countries, where there is no UHC, are bereft of getting equal health care. They have to bear a significant amount of health cost in buying different services which often causes catastrophic expend...

  16. ACADEMIC INTEGRITY SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR UKRAINIAN UNIVERSITIES

    V. G. Sherstjuk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Developing the methodology for providing academic integrity in the university. The methodology is based on Web-oriented academic integrity support system, developed by the authors, which enters into the information system of learning process control. Academic integrity support system is aimed at maintaining academic integrity as a basic institutional value, which will help to reduce corruption, plagiarism and other types of academic dishonesty. Methodology. The methodology of problem to solve is based on the development of the information system of education process control with the integral elements of quality control. The information subsystem of academic integrity support is its basic part. Findings. The proposed information system allows us to fulfill the following levels: educational process monitoring; audit of internal processes, which is necessary for developing the effective quality control system; assessment of achievements of educational process participants; formalization of the interaction of educational process participants. The system is aimed at the development of new academic society based on the following principles: open access to the information, at which the access of wide audience to the information provides participation, forming the sense of responsibility and social control; transparency of the information, by which its relevance, quality, reliability are meant; responsibility of all members of educational process; measurability, at which any action in educational process should be measured; detail of describing the actions, results and processes; support, which is meant by automatic tools of the realization of the principles of open access to the information, transparency of the information, responsibility of all participants of educational process, measurability, detail, support. The practical realization of information system is based on the development of a common repository of university information. The

  17. Health-related quality of life among online university students.

    Maynard, Pamela L; Rohrer, James E; Fulton, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    Online university students are a growing population whose health has received minimal attention. The purpose of this cross-sectional Internet survey was to identify risk factors for the health status among online university students. This online survey collected data from 301 online university students through a large, US-based participant pool and LinkedIn. Health status was measured using 3 elements of health-related quality of life (HRQOL): self-rated overall health (SRH), unhealthy days, and recent activity limitation days. All 3 measures were dichotomized. The odds of poor SRH were higher for people who reported a body mass index in the overweight and obese categories (odds ratio [OR] = 2.99, P students who are low income, in disadvantaged racial groups, who are overweight, smoke, and who do not exercise. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Universal health care in India: Panacea for whom?

    Qadeer, Imrana

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the current notion of universal health care (UHC) in key legal and policy documents and argues that the recommendations for UHC in these entail further abdication of the State's responsibility in health care with the emphasis shifting from public provisioning of services to merely ensuring universal access to services. Acts of commission (recommendations for public private partnership [PPPs], definition and provision of an essential health package to vulnerable populations to ensure universal access to care) and omission (silence maintained on tertiary care) will eventually strengthen the private and corporate sector at the cost of the public health care services and access to care for the marginalized. Thus, the current UHC strategy uses equity as a tool for promoting the private sector in medical care rather than health for all.

  19. Information Systems in Western Australian Universities

    Craig Standing

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Systems (IS teaching and research within Western Australia (WA. A brief overview of the WA environment is followed by an exploration of teaching and research in the four main Universities. This is examined against the framework for the study and, in particular, the impact of social processes (Ariav et al, 1987; Klein et al, 1991 and local contingencies (Culnan et al, 1993; Checkland and Howell, 1998, which are found to be of relevance to historic developments.

  20. INFORMATION-ANALYTICAL LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM UNIVERSITIES

    Yu. Tryus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider conceptual approaches to creation of information systems, learning management school, which uses modern methods of decision-making and simulational modeling, web-technologies. The main criteria for the selection of development tools of the system are: openness, free of charge, easy to use and independence from system software and hardware. The chosen technology and the system itself satisfies such requirements as: focus on national and international standards in the field of higher education, adherence to service-oriented architecture, ensuring stable operation with a large number of users, support for a clear division of user rights to obtain and change information resources, software modularity the final product and its ability to integrate into the corporate information system of the university

  1. [A glossary for health care promoting universities (an HPU glossary)].

    Bravo-Valenzuela, Paulina; Cabieses, Báltica; Zuzulich, María S; Muñoz, Mónica; Ojeda, Minerva

    2013-01-01

    The health promotion in the university context emerges as an important initiative to facilitate the development of healthy lifestyle behaviors in this environment where students, faculty and university staff spend and share a significant part of their lives. The movement of Health Promoting Universities (HPU) has over 20 years of experience, but still lacks a common language that allows effective communication between those who are interested in its planning and implementation. The purpose of this paper is to develop the most relevant concepts in the context of the international movement of UPS. This document is organized into five anchor dimensions: [1]The university and health promotion, [2] The University and its social responsibility, [3] The University, inequality and inequity, [4] The University and evidence in health promotion, and [5] Strategies to develop a HPU. It is hoped that this glossary for HPU encourages the development of a common language between those who promote this initiative and come from different disciplines, and at the same time serve as a guide for practice.

  2. Los seguros de salud mexicanos: cobertura universal incierta Mexican health insurance: uncertain universal coverage

    Asa Cristina Laurell

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de salud mexicano se compone de la Secretaría de Salud (rectora del sector y prestador de algunos servicios, la seguridad social laboral pública, y el sector privado. Transita por un proceso de reforma iniciado en 1995 para universalizar la cobertura y separar las funciones regulación-financiamiento-prestación de servicios; reforma que después de quince años sigue inacabada y problemática. Este texto analiza crítica- y propositivamente la problemática surgida a raíz de las sucesivas reformas. El énfasis se pone en su última etapa con la introducción del "Seguro Popular" para la población sin seguridad social laboral. El análisis concibe la reforma de salud como parte de la Reforma del Estado en el marco de la reorganización neoliberal de la sociedad. A diferencia de otros países latinoamericanos este proceso no pasó por una nueva Constitución. El análisis se basa en documentos oficiales y un seguimiento sistemático de la instrumentación del Sistema de Protección Social en Salud y su impacto sobre la cobertura y acceso a los servicios. Se concluye que es improbable que se universalice la cobertura poblacional y menos el acceso a los servicios. Empero las reformas están forzando la mercantilización del sistema aún en presencia de un sector privado débil.The Mexican health system is comprised of the Department of Health, state labor social security and the private sector. It is undergoing a reform process initiated in 1995 to achieve universal coverage and separate the regulation, financing and service functions; a reform that after fifteen years is incomplete and problematic. The scope of this paper is to assess the problems that underlie the successive reforms. Special emphasis is given to the last reform stage with the introduction of the "Insurance of the People" aimed at the population without labor social security. In the analysis, health reform is seen as part of the Reform of the State in the context of

  3. Universal Investment in Infants and Long-Run Health

    Hjort, Jonas; Sølvsten, Mikkel; Wüst, Miriam

    This paper provides the first estimates of the long-run health effects of a universal infant health intervention. We examine the 1937 Danish home visiting program, which targeted all infants. Using administrative population data and exploiting variation in the timing of implementation across...

  4. Universal Investment in Infants and Long-Run Health

    Hjort, Jonas; Sølvsten, Mikkel; Wüst, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the long-run health effects of a universal infant health intervention, the 1937 Danish home visiting program, which targeted all infants. Using administrative population data and exploiting variation in the timing of implementation across municipalities, we find that treated...

  5. Preparing States in India for Universal Health Coverage | IDRC ...

    This expanded access has the potential to become a financial burden on households. This project aims to provide the evidence needed to support the rollout of universal health care in India. The Public Health Foundation of India, in collaboration with state-level institutions and decision-makers, will carry out the research.

  6. BRICS countries and the global movement for universal health coverage

    Tediosi, Fabrizio; Finch, Aureliano; Procacci, Christina; Marten, Robert; Missoni, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    This article explores BRICS' engagement in the global movement for Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and the implications for global health governance. It is based on primary data collected from 43 key informant interviews, complemented by a review of BRICS' global commitments supporting UHC.

  7. Is universal coverage via social health insurance financially feasible ...

    SHI would take up an increasing proportion of total health expenditure over the simulation period and become the dominant health financing mechanism. In principle, and on the basis of the assumed policy variables, universal coverage could be reached within 6 years through the implementation of an SHI scheme based ...

  8. Measuring name system health

    Casalicchio, Emiliano; Caselli, Marco; Coletta, Alessio; Di Blasi, Salvatore; Fovino, Igor Nai; Butts, Jonathan; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2012-01-01

    Modern critical infrastructure assets are exposed to security threats arising from their use of IP networks and the Domain Name System (DNS). This paper focuses on the health of DNS. Indeed, due to the increased reliance on the Internet, the degradation of DNS could have significant consequences for

  9. Health system reform.

    Ortolon, Ken

    2009-06-01

    A vote on reforming the nation's health care system seems likely this summer as President Obama makes good on a campaign pledge. Although the Democratic leadership in Congress appears ready to push through reform legislation before the next election, TMA and AMA leaders say very little is known about what that "reform" likely will look like.

  10. Interrogating resilience in health systems development.

    van de Pas, Remco; Ashour, Majdi; Kapilashrami, Anuj; Fustukian, Suzanne

    2017-11-01

    The Fourth Global Symposium on Health Systems Research was themed around 'Resilient and responsive health systems for a changing world.' This commentary is the outcome of a panel discussion at the symposium in which the resilience discourse and its use in health systems development was critically interrogated. The 2014-15 Ebola outbreak in West-Africa added momentum for the wider adoption of resilient health systems as a crucial element to prepare for and effectively respond to crisis. The growing salience of resilience in development and health systems debates can be attributed in part to development actors and philanthropies such as the Rockefeller Foundation. Three concerns regarding the application of resilience to health systems development are discussed: (1) the resilience narrative overrules certain democratic procedures and priority setting in public health agendas by 'claiming' an exceptional policy space; (2) resilience compels accepting and maintaining the status quo and excludes alternative imaginations of just and equitable health systems including the socio-political struggles required to attain those; and (3) an empirical case study from Gaza makes the case that resilience and vulnerability are symbiotic with each other rather than providing a solution for developing a strong health system. In conclusion, if the normative aim of health policies is to build sustainable, universally accessible, health systems then resilience is not the answer. The current threats that health systems face demand us to imagine beyond and explore possibilities for global solidarity and justice in health. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Accelerating health equity: the key role of universal health coverage in the Sustainable Development Goals.

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Mills, Anne; Palu, Toomas

    2015-04-29

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), to be committed to by Heads of State at the upcoming 2015 United Nations General Assembly, have set much higher and more ambitious health-related goals and targets than did the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The main challenge among MDG off-track countries is the failure to provide and sustain financial access to quality services by communities, especially the poor. Universal health coverage (UHC), one of the SDG health targets indispensable to achieving an improved level and distribution of health, requires a significant increase in government investment in strengthening primary healthcare - the close-to-client service which can result in equitable access. Given the trend of increased fiscal capacity in most developing countries, aiming at long-term progress toward UHC is feasible, if there is political commitment and if focused, effective policies are in place. Trends in high income countries, including an aging population which increases demand for health workers, continue to trigger international migration of health personnel from low and middle income countries. The inspirational SDGs must be matched with redoubled government efforts to strengthen health delivery systems, produce and retain more and relevant health workers, and progressively realize UHC.

  12. The Researches on Food Traceability System of University takeout

    lu, Jia xin; zhao, Ce; li, Zhuang zhuang; shao, Zi rong; pi, Kun yi

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, campus takeaway has developed rapidly, and all kinds of online ordering platforms are running. The problem of distribution in the campus can not only save the time cost of the businessmen, but also guarantee the effective management of the school, which is beneficial to the construction of the standard health system for the takeout. But distribution according to the existing mode will cause certain safety and health risks. The establishment of the University takeaway food traceability system can solve this problem. This paper first analyzes the sharing mode and distribution process of campus takeaway, and then designs the intelligent tracing system for the campus takeaway; the construction of the food distribution information platform and the problem of the recycling of the green environment of the dining box. Finally, the intelligent tracing system of the school takeout is analyzed with the braised chicken as an example.

  13. The Researches on Food Traceability System of University takeout

    lu Jia xin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, campus takeaway has developed rapidly, and all kinds of online ordering platforms are running. The problem of distribution in the campus can not only save the time cost of the businessmen, but also guarantee the effective management of the school, which is beneficial to the construction of the standard health system for the takeout. But distribution according to the existing mode will cause certain safety and health risks. The establishment of the University takeaway food traceability system can solve this problem. This paper first analyzes the sharing mode and distribution process of campus takeaway, and then designs the intelligent tracing system for the campus takeaway; the construction of the food distribution information platform and the problem of the recycling of the green environment of the dining box. Finally, the intelligent tracing system of the school takeout is analyzed with the braised chicken as an example.

  14. PROLOGUE : Health Information System

    Tomar, Shivanjali

    2013-01-01

    Prologue is a health information system developed for underserved communities in Bihar, India. It is aimed at helping people living in poverty and with low literacy to take the right steps to manage their and their family’s health. Bihar suffers from one of the worst healthcare records in the country. This is as much due to the lack of access to the right information as it is due to the economic condition of the region. The inaccessibility of information is aggravated by the complex social se...

  15. SPORT AND MENTAL HEALTH LEVEL AMONG UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Mouloud Kenioua

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: study of mental health level of university student, athletes and non-athletes. Material: The tested group consisted of 160 male and female undergraduates from Ouargla University, Algeria; 80 students-athletes from Institute of Physical Education and Sports and 80 students-non-athletes from Department of Psychology, English and Mathematics. In the study we used health mental scale, adapted by Diab (2006 to Arab version scale, formed from five dimensions (Competence and self-confidence, Capacity for social interaction, Emotional maturity, Freedom from neurotic symptoms, self rating and aspects of natural deficiencies. Results: the findings indicated that university students have high level of mental health. And the mean of the responses of students-athletes group by mental health scale reached (M = 32.40, with standard deviation (STD =5.83, while the mean of the responses of students-non athletes group by mental health scale has reached (M=27.47, with standard deviation (STD=7.88. T-value, required to know significance of differences between means of students-athletes and students-non athletes has reached (T=4.51, (DF=185, p -0.01. So there are significant statistical differences between student athletes and non-athletes in their responses by mental health scale in favor of the student athletes. Conclusion:sports are beneficial in respect to mental health among university students and emphasizing the importance of the mental health of university students through its integration in the various recreational and competitive activities. Future qualitative research, covering multi-variables’ tests on mental health and others psychological characteristics could be performed in sports area.

  16. Universal blind quantum computation for hybrid system

    Huang, He-Liang; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Tan; Li, Feng-Guang; Fu, Xiang-Qun; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Hai-Long; Wang, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    As progress on the development of building quantum computer continues to advance, first-generation practical quantum computers will be available for ordinary users in the cloud style similar to IBM's Quantum Experience nowadays. Clients can remotely access the quantum servers using some simple devices. In such a situation, it is of prime importance to keep the security of the client's information. Blind quantum computation protocols enable a client with limited quantum technology to delegate her quantum computation to a quantum server without leaking any privacy. To date, blind quantum computation has been considered only for an individual quantum system. However, practical universal quantum computer is likely to be a hybrid system. Here, we take the first step to construct a framework of blind quantum computation for the hybrid system, which provides a more feasible way for scalable blind quantum computation.

  17. Cooperative Extension as a Framework for Health Extension: The Michigan State University Model.

    Dwyer, Jeffrey W; Contreras, Dawn; Eschbach, Cheryl L; Tiret, Holly; Newkirk, Cathy; Carter, Erin; Cronk, Linda

    2017-10-01

    The Affordable Care Act charged the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to create the Primary Care Extension Program, but did not fund this effort. The idea to work through health extension agents to support health care delivery systems was based on the nationally known Cooperative Extension System (CES). Instead of creating new infrastructure in health care, the CES is an ideal vehicle for increasing health-related research and primary care delivery. The CES, a long-standing component of the land-grant university system, features a sustained infrastructure for providing education to communities. The Michigan State University (MSU) Model of Health Extension offers another means of developing a National Primary Care Extension Program that is replicable in part because of the presence of the CES throughout the United States. A partnership between the MSU College of Human Medicine and MSU Extension formed in 2014, emphasizing the promotion and support of human health research. The MSU Model of Health Extension includes the following strategies: building partnerships, preparing MSU Extension educators for participation in research, increasing primary care patient referrals and enrollment in health programs, and exploring innovative funding. Since the formation of the MSU Model of Health Extension, researchers and extension professionals have made 200+ connections, and grants have afforded savings in salary costs. The MSU College of Human Medicine and MSU Extension partnership can serve as a model to promote health partnerships nationwide between CES services within land-grant universities and academic health centers or community-based medical schools.

  18. Intelligent tutoring system of the university department

    A. S. Aleshchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research is intelligent tutoring system for planning and development of individual learning programs for students. One of the important components of modern training programs is the individual practice programs that are formed from the first course and built up in the process of learning in the subsequent courses. Each individual practice program is formed on the basis of the Working program of practice for a specific group. At later practice stages planning and adjustment of the individual program are worked out for a particular student.The agent-oriented approach for the planning of individual learning programs is used for the formation of individual practice program. Agents of the intelligent learning systems are created according to the requirements of service-oriented architecture. To apply knowledge there used an integrated approach to represent knowledge.As a result of research, the authors propose the architecture of intelligent educational systems of the University Department, using the repository of learning objects, telecommunication systems and such agents as: the learner, the assessment of the student’s knowledge, the formation of individual programs for learning, the personal learning environment, the methodical support, the businesses. The authors demonstrate the possibility for the formation of individual practice programs using an agent of the methodical support.Application of the approaches and technologies which were considered in the article will allow to solve problems of the formation of individual practice programs. The use of such applications will extend the possibilities of intelligent tutoring systems of the University departments.

  19. Health Information Systems.

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Artz, David R

    2015-06-01

    This article provides surgical pathologists an overview of health information systems (HISs): what they are, what they do, and how such systems relate to the practice of surgical pathology. Much of this article is dedicated to the electronic medical record. Information, in how it is captured, transmitted, and conveyed, drives the effectiveness of such electronic medical record functionalities. So critical is information from pathology in integrated clinical care that surgical pathologists are becoming gatekeepers of not only tissue but also information. Better understanding of HISs can empower surgical pathologists to become stakeholders who have an impact on the future direction of quality integrated clinical care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The quest for universal health coverage: achieving social protection for all in Mexico.

    Knaul, Felicia Marie; González-Pier, Eduardo; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; García-Junco, David; Arreola-Ornelas, Héctor; Barraza-Lloréns, Mariana; Sandoval, Rosa; Caballero, Francisco; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Juan, Mercedes; Kershenobich, David; Nigenda, Gustavo; Ruelas, Enrique; Sepúlveda, Jaime; Tapia, Roberto; Soberón, Guillermo; Chertorivski, Salomón; Frenk, Julio

    2012-10-06

    Mexico is reaching universal health coverage in 2012. A national health insurance programme called Seguro Popular, introduced in 2003, is providing access to a package of comprehensive health services with financial protection for more than 50 million Mexicans previously excluded from insurance. Universal coverage in Mexico is synonymous with social protection of health. This report analyses the road to universal coverage along three dimensions of protection: against health risks, for patients through quality assurance of health care, and against the financial consequences of disease and injury. We present a conceptual discussion of the transition from labour-based social security to social protection of health, which implies access to effective health care as a universal right based on citizenship, the ethical basis of the Mexican reform. We discuss the conditions that prompted the reform, as well as its design and inception, and we describe the 9-year, evidence-driven implementation process, including updates and improvements to the original programme. The core of the report concentrates on the effects and impacts of the reform, based on analysis of all published and publically available scientific literature and new data. Evidence indicates that Seguro Popular is improving access to health services and reducing the prevalence of catastrophic and impoverishing health expenditures, especially for the poor. Recent studies also show improvement in effective coverage. This research then addresses persistent challenges, including the need to translate financial resources into more effective, equitable and responsive health services. A next generation of reforms will be required and these include systemic measures to complete the reorganisation of the health system by functions. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications of the Mexican quest to achieve universal health coverage and its relevance for other low-income and middle-income countries. Copyright

  1. How changes to Irish healthcare financing are affecting universal health coverage.

    Briggs, Adam D M

    2013-11-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organisation (WHO) published the World Health Report - Health systems financing: the path to universal coverage. The Director-General of the WHO, Dr Margaret Chan, commissioned the report "in response to a need, expressed by rich and poor countries alike, for practical guidance on ways to finance health care". Given the current context of global economic hardship and difficult budgetary decisions, the report offered timely recommendations for achieving universal health coverage (UHC). This article analyses the current methods of healthcare financing in Ireland and their implications for UHC. Three questions are asked of the Irish healthcare system: firstly, how is the health system financed; secondly, how can the health system protect people from the financial consequences of ill-health and paying for health services; and finally, how can the health system encourage the optimum use of available resources? By answering these three questions, this article argues that the Irish healthcare system is not achieving UHC, and that it is unclear whether recent changes to financing are moving Ireland closer or further away from the WHO's ambition for healthcare for all. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Expanding the universe of universal coverage: the population health argument for increasing coverage for immigrants.

    Nandi, Arijit; Loue, Sana; Galea, Sandro

    2009-12-01

    As the US recession deepens, furthering the debate about healthcare reform is now even more important than ever. Few plans aimed at facilitating universal coverage make any mention of increasing access for uninsured non-citizens living in the US, many of whom are legally restricted from certain types of coverage. We conducted a critical review of the public health literature concerning the health status and access to health services among immigrant populations in the US. Using examples from infectious and chronic disease epidemiology, we argue that access to health services is at the intersection of the health of uninsured immigrants and the general population and that extending access to healthcare to all residents of the US, including undocumented immigrants, is beneficial from a population health perspective. Furthermore, from a health economics perspective, increasing access to care for immigrant populations may actually reduce net costs by increasing primary prevention and reducing the emphasis on emergency care for preventable conditions. It is unlikely that proposals for universal coverage will accomplish their objectives of improving population health and reducing social disparities in health if they do not address the substantial proportion of uninsured non-citizens living in the US.

  3. History of the biomedical studies PhD program: a joint graduate program of the Baylor Health Care system and Baylor University.

    Morel, Christine R; Horton, Joshua M; Peng, Han; Xu, Kangling; Batra, Sushil K; Miles, Jonathan P; Kane, Robert R

    2008-10-01

    On a sweltering summer morning, throngs of people filed into Jones Theatre at Baylor University in Waco for the graduate student orientation. One could look around and notice the diversity of not only the student population, but also the disciplines being represented. Many students had stepped off planes only hours prior, but even those who had been traveling for days could not contain their excitement. As for me, I was nowhere near any of this. I was still 40 miles north of Waco in Waxahachie, having been pulled over for speeding. After 4 days of traveling with my life in my Volkswagon Jetta, all the way from San Francisco, on one of the most important days of my life, I was late. When I finally arrived at the Hooper Schafer Fine Arts Auditorium, out of breath from running all the way from the parking structure, all of the graduate students were quietly listening to the first introductory speech. I snuck into the back and sat down. My mind was racing, as I knew very little about Waco and Baylor University except for the growing accomplishments of the biomedical studies program. What little I did know about Baylor seemed so different from my very liberal upbringing in California. What would this experience be like for me? But, as I listened to the talks, met with other students, and finally met the entire biomedical studies entering class of 2007, I knew that I had made the right decision in coming to Baylor. This would be an experience unlike any other, and I was wholeheartedly open to embracing it. -Christine Morel, PhD candidate, Institute of Biomedical Studies.

  4. Creating a center for global health at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

    Haq, Cynthia; Baumann, Linda; Olsen, Christopher W; Brown, Lori DiPrete; Kraus, Connie; Bousquet, Gilles; Conway, James; Easterday, B C

    2008-02-01

    Globalization, migration, and widespread health disparities call for interdisciplinary approaches to improve health care at home and abroad. Health professions students are pursuing study abroad in increasing numbers, and universities are responding with programs to address these needs. The University of Wisconsin (UW)-Madison schools of medicine and public health, nursing, pharmacy, veterinary medicine, and the division of international studies have created an interdisciplinary center for global health (CGH). The CGH provides health professions and graduate students with courses, field experiences, and a new Certificate in Global Health. Educational programs have catalyzed a network of enthusiastic UW global health scholars. Partnerships with colleagues in less economically developed countries provide the foundation for education, research, and service programs. Participants have collaborated to improve the education of health professionals and nutrition in Uganda; explore the interplay between culture, community development, and health in Ecuador; improve animal health and address domestic violence in Mexico; and examine successful public health efforts in Thailand. These programs supply students with opportunities to understand the complex determinants of health and structure of health systems, develop adaptability and cross-cultural communication skills, experience learning and working in interdisciplinary teams, and promote equity and reduce health disparities at home and abroad. Based on the principles of equity, sustainability, and reciprocity, the CGH provides a strong foundation to address global health challenges through networking and collaboration among students, staff, and faculty within the UW and beyond.

  5. Diabetes Care and Treatment Project: A Diabetes Institute of the Walter Reed Health Care System and Joslin (and University of Hawaii) Telemedicine Initiative

    2010-04-01

    digital teleophthalmology system as used by three federal healthcare agencies for detecting proliferative diabetic retinopathy . Telemedicine and e...Research Group. Detection of diabetic macular edema: ophthalmoscopy versus photography—Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study report number 5...project are the establishment of a telemedicine system for comprehensive diabetes management and the assessment of diabetic retinopathy that

  6. Confronting the fear factor: the coverage/access disparity in universal health care.

    Litow, Mark E

    2007-01-01

    Since their introduction following World War II, single-payer health care systems and universally mandated health care systems have stumbled, but in their pratfalls are many lessons that apply to the universal health care proposals currently on the table in the United States. The critical and often-over-looked point is that universal coverage does not guarantee that individuals will receive needed care--In many cases guaranteed access to care is a false promise or available only on a delayed timetable. A more feasible alternative lies in providing a safety net for citizens who truly need care and financial support with an appropriate system of checks and balances--without disrupting the economic and actuarial fundamental principles of supply and demand and risk classification.

  7. Experiences with Universal Health Coverage of Maternal Health ...

    USER

    services does not expose the user to financial hardship‖. This is based on the .... statements of the two hospitals at inception was ―to run integrated maternal and child .... consolidated revenue for primary health care which will essentially be ...

  8. Nursing workloads in family health: implications for universal access.

    de Pires, Denise Elvira Pires; Machado, Rosani Ramos; Soratto, Jacks; Scherer, Magda dos Anjos; Gonçalves, Ana Sofia Resque; Trindade, Letícia Lima

    2016-01-01

    to identify the workloads of nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy, considering its implications for the effectiveness of universal access. qualitative study with nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy of the South, Central West and North regions of Brazil, using methodological triangulation. For the analysis, resources of the Atlas.ti software and Thematic Content Analysis were associated; and the data were interpreted based on the labor process and workloads as theorical approaches. the way of working in the Family Health Strategy has predominantly resulted in an increase in the workloads of the nursing professionals, with emphasis on the work overload, excess of demand, problems in the physical infrastructure of the units and failures in the care network, which hinders its effectiveness as a preferred strategy to achieve universal access to health. On the other hand, teamwork, affinity for the work performed, bond with the user, and effectiveness of the assistance contributed to reduce their workloads. investments on elements that reduce the nursing workloads, such as changes in working conditions and management, can contribute to the effectiveness of the Family Health Strategy and achieving the goal of universal access to health.

  9. The Mental Health of University Students in the United Kingdom

    Macaskill, Ann

    2013-01-01

    There are increasing concerns globally about the mental health of students. In the UK, the actual incidence of mental disturbance is unknown, although university counselling services report increased referrals. This study assesses the levels of mental illness in undergraduate students to examine whether widening participation in education has…

  10. Mental Health Assessment in Professors' Training in Two Chilean Universities

    Ossa, Carlos J.; Quintana, Ingrid M.; Rodriguez, Felipe F.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the evaluation of professors of pedagogy and directors programs, about the importance of mental health in vocational training, and factors that might influence this valuation. The methodology includes participation of 17 academicians (professors and belonging to the managerial staff) of two universities in southern Chile. A…

  11. Mental health and HIV sexual risk behaviour among University of ...

    To determine the association between mental health, substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviour among a sample of university ... analysis, HIV risk behaviour was associated with, among men, hazardous or harmful alcohol use and having screened positive for PTSD, and ..... risk behaviors among U.S. adolescents.

  12. Human Rights and the Political Economy of Universal Health Care: Designing Equitable Financing.

    Rudiger, Anja

    2016-12-01

    Health system financing is a critical factor in securing universal health care and achieving equity in access and payment. The human rights framework offers valuable guidance for designing a financing strategy that meets these goals. This article presents a rights-based approach to health care financing developed by the human right to health care movement in the United States. Grounded in a human rights analysis of private, market-based health insurance, advocates make the case for public financing through progressive taxation. Financing mechanisms are measured against the twin goals of guaranteeing access to care and advancing economic equity. The added focus on the redistributive potential of health care financing recasts health reform as an economic policy intervention that can help fulfill broader economic and social rights obligations. Based on a review of recent universal health care reform efforts in the state of Vermont, this article reports on a rights-based public financing plan and model, which includes a new business tax directed against wage disparities. The modeling results suggest that a health system financed through equitable taxation could produce significant redistributive effects, thus increasing economic equity while generating sufficient funds to provide comprehensive health care as a universal public good.

  13. Highlight: Kenya selects first research chair on health systems ...

    14 avr. 2016 ... Research will focus on a systems approach to improving maternal and child ... and at the same time, endeavour to bridge the gap between universities ... health systems research is grounded in political realities and have real ...

  14. Embedded Sensor Systems for Health - A Step Towards Personalized Health.

    Lindén, Maria; Björkman, Mats

    2018-01-01

    The demography is changing towards older people, and the challenge to provide an appropriate care is well known. Sensor systems, combined with IT solutions are recognized as one of the major tools to handle this situation. Embedded Sensor Systems for Health (ESS-H) is a research profile at Mälardalen University in Sweden, focusing on embedded sensor systems for health technology applications. The research addresses several important issues: to provide sensor systems for health monitoring at home, to provide sensor systems for health monitoring at work, to provide safe and secure infrastructure and software testing methods for physiological data management. The user perspective is important in order to solve real problems and to develop systems that are easy and intuitive to use. One of the overall aims is to enable health trend monitoring in home environments, thus being able to detect early deterioration of a patient. Sensor systems, signal processing algorithms, and decision support algorithms have been developed. Work on development of safe and secure infrastructure and software testing methods are important for an embedded sensor system aimed for health monitoring, both in home and in work applications. Patient data must be sent and received in a safe and secure manner, also fulfilling the integrity criteria.

  15. Development of a Universal Waste Management System

    Stapleton, Thomas J.; Baccus, Shelley; Broyan, James L., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    NASA is working with a number of commercial companies to develop the next low Earth orbit spacecraft. The hardware volume and weight constraints are similar to or greater than those of the Apollo era. This, coupled with the equally demanding cost challenge of the proposed commercial vehicles, causes much of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) designs to be reconsidered. The Waste Collection System (WCS) is within this group of ECLSS hardware. The development to support this new initiative is discussed within. A WCS concept - intended to be common for all the vehicle platforms currently on the drawing board - is being developed. The new concept, referred to as the Universal Waste Management System (UWMS), includes favorable features from previous designs while improving on other areas on previous Space Shuttle and the existing International Space Station (ISS) WCS hardware, as needed. The intent is to build a commode that requires less crew time, improved cleanliness, and a 75% reduction in volume and weight compared to the previous US ISS/Extended Duration Orbitor WCS developed in the 1990s. The UWMS is most similar to the ISS Development Test Objective (DTO) WCS design. It is understood that the most dramatic cost reduction opportunity occurs at the beginning of the design process. To realize this opportunity, the cost of each similar component between the UWMS and the DTO WCS was determined. The comparison outlined were the design changes that would result with the greatest impact. The changes resulted in simplifying the approach or eliminating components completely. This initial UWMS paper will describe the system layout approach and a few key features of major components. Future papers will describe the UWMS functionality, test results, and components as they are developed.

  16. A proposed universal medical and public health definition of terrorism.

    Arnold, Jeffrey L; Ortenwall, Per; Birnbaum, Marvin L; Sundnes, Knut Ole; Aggrawal, Anil; Anantharaman, V; Al Musleh, Abdul Wahab; Asai, Yasufumi; Burkle, Frederick M; Chung, Jae Myung; Cruz-Vega, Felipe; Debacker, Michel; Della Corte, Francesco; Delooz, Herman; Dickinson, Garth; Hodgetts, Timothy; Holliman, C James; MacFarlane, Campbell; Rodoplu, Ulkumen; Stok, Edita; Tsai, Ming-Che

    2003-01-01

    The lack of a universally applicable definition of terrorism has confounded the understanding of terrorism since the term was first coined in 18th Century France. Although a myriad of definitions of terrorism have been advanced over the years, virtually all of these definitions have been crisis-centered, frequently reflecting the political perspectives of those who seek to define it. In this article, we deconstruct these previously used definitions of terrorism in order to reconstruct a definition of terrorism that is consequence-centered, medically relevant, and universally harmonized. A universal medical and public health definition of terrorism will facilitate clinical and scientific research, education, and communication about terrorism-related events or disasters. We propose the following universal medical and public definition of terrorism: The intentional use of violence--real or threatened--against one or more non-combatants and/or those services essential for or protective of their health, resulting in adverse health effects in those immediately affected and their community, ranging from a loss of well-being or security to injury, illness, or death.

  17. Behavioural sciences at university of health sciences: the way forward

    Khan, J.S.; Mukhtar, O.; Tabasum, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association of medical ethics with teaching and training and health profession has been informal, largely dependent on role modelling and the social contract of the physicians with the community that they abide by. This study was conducted to examine the effect, if any, of introducing the subject of Behavioural Sciences on students performance in the clinical years viva voce and patient interactions components of the examinations. Methods: A prospective study on four cohorts of students at UHS from 2007 to 2012 (8,155 candidates). Reliability was calculated through Cronbach Alpha. Linear Regression Analysis was applied to determine the relationship between the scores of Basic Medical Sciences, Behavioural Sciences and Forensic medicine with the viva voce and Structured Stations marks of the Clinical Sciences in OSCE. Gender and demographics analysis was also done. Results: Cronbach Alpha was 0.47, 0.63, 0.67 and 0.53 for the Papers of Behavioural Sciences from 2007 to 2010 respectively. Poor predictive value of Behavioural Sciences for performance in the clinical years viva voce and OSCE was identified. Basic Medical Sciences and Forensic Medicine were statistically significant predictors for the performance of female candidates in all four cohorts of the study (p<0.05). In Central Punjab, Behavioural Sciences statistically significantly predicted for better performance in all four cohorts of the study (p<0.05). Conclusion: It is premature to understand the results of Behavioural Sciences teaching at University of Health Sciences (UHS). We can still safely conclude that it can only have a positive sustained effect on the healthcare delivery systems and patient care in Pakistan if it is integrated within each subject and taught and learned not as a theoretical construct but rather an evaluation of one values within the code of conduct of medical professionalism in the larger context of the societal and cultural norms. (author)

  18. Work stress and health effects among university personnel.

    Donders, N C G M; van der Gulden, J W J; Furer, J W; Tax, B; Roscam Abbing, E W

    2003-10-01

    (1) To investigate the contribution of job characteristics and personal characteristics to the explanation of health effects among university personnel; (2) to investigate the differences between scientific personnel (SP) and non-scientific personnel (NSP); (3) to investigate whether health effects occurred one after another. The well being at work of employees at a Dutch university (n=2,522) was investigated by means of a questionnaire. A model was constructed in which several job and personal characteristics were set out against health effects. The latter were assumed to occur in phases: decreased "job satisfaction" as an early effect, followed by increased "tension" and "emotional exhaustion", and possibly also by increased "perceived health complaints". The contribution of job and personal characteristics to the explanation of health effects was investigated by means of linear regression analysis, with separate analyses for SP and NSP. Positive job characteristics, especially professional expertise and work variety, contributed to the explanation of "job satisfaction". The major contributors to "tension" and "emotional exhaustion" were negative characteristics, such as work pressure. Besides the negative aspects, the major contributors to the explanation of "perceived health complaints" were sex, age and other health effects. In NSP, social support contributed to the explanation of "tension" and "emotional exhaustion", but not in SP. The explained variance of "job satisfaction" by the positive job characteristics in NSP was much higher than that in SP. To investigate whether health effects occurred one after another, we considered explained variance. Explained variance in "job satisfaction" was much higher than in "perceived health complaints". "Emotional exhaustion" and "tension" were in between. Contrary to expectations, decision latitude and social support played only minor roles. Also, the differences between SP and NSP were smaller than expected. As

  19. Wireless GPS fleet tracking system at the University of Albany.

    2014-07-01

    This report provides an overview of the project undertaken at the University at Albany to make alternative transportation a more : viable option by implementing a GPS Tracking System on the University bus fleet and broadcasting the bus locations to c...

  20. The impact of universal National Health Insurance on population health: the experience of Taiwan

    Kuo Ken N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan established a system of universal National Health Insurance (NHI in March, 1995. Today, the NHI covers more than 98% of Taiwan's population and enrollees enjoy almost free access to healthcare with small co-payment by most clinics and hospitals. Yet while this expansion of coverage will almost inevitably have improved access to health care, however, it cannot be assumed that it will necessarily have improved the health of the population. The aim of this study was to determine whether the introduction of National Health Insurance (NHI in Taiwan in 1995 was associated with a change in deaths from causes amenable to health care. Methods Identification of discontinuities in trends in mortality considered amenable to health care and all other conditions (non-amenable mortality using joinpoint regression analysis from 1981 to 2005. Results Deaths from amenable causes declined between 1981 and 1993 but slowed between 1993 and 1996. Once NHI was implemented, the decline accelerated significantly, falling at 5.83% per year between 1996 and 1999. In contrast, there was little change in non-amenable causes (0.64% per year between 1981 and 1999. The effect of NHI was highest among the young and old, and lowest among those of working age, consistent with changes in the pattern of coverage. NHI was associated with substantial reductions in deaths from circulatory disorders and, for men, infections, whilst an earlier upward trend in female cancer deaths was reversed. Conclusions NHI was associated in a reduction in deaths considered amenable to health care; particularly among those age groups least likely to have been insured previously.

  1. Undergraduate student mental health at Makerere University, Uganda

    OVUGA, EMILIO; BOARDMAN, JED; WASSERMAN, DANUTA

    2006-01-01

    There is little information on the current mental health of University students in Uganda. The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of depressed mood and suicidal ideation among students at Makerere University. Two student samples participated. Sample I comprised 253 fresh students admitted to all faculties at the University in the academic year 2000/2001, selected by a simple random sampling procedure. Sample II comprised 101 students admitted to the Faculty of Medicine during the academic year 2002/2003. The prevalence of depressed mood was measured using the 13-item Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The prevalence of depressed mood (BDI score 10 or more) was significantly higher in sample I (16.2%) than sample II (4.0%). Sample I members were significantly more likely than those of sample II to report lifetime and past week suicide ideation. Thus, there is a high prevalence of mental health problems among the general population of new students entering Makerere University and this is significantly higher than for new students in the Faculty of Medicine. PMID:16757997

  2. Creating a University System for the 21st Century. Analysis of 2009-2011 Legislative Appropriation

    North Dakota University System, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The 2009-11 state general fund appropriation is $597.9 million for the eleven campuses, University of North Dakota (UND) School of Medicine and Health Sciences (SMHS), Forest Service and North Dakota University System Office, which is an increase of $153.4 million over the 2007-09 adjusted appropriation, less 07-09 one-time funding. This includes…

  3. Is universal health coverage the practical expression of the right to health care?

    Ooms, Gorik; Latif, Laila A; Waris, Attiya; Brolan, Claire E; Hammonds, Rachel; Friedman, Eric A; Mulumba, Moses; Forman, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The present Millennium Development Goals are set to expire in 2015 and their next iteration is now being discussed within the international community. With regards to health, the World Health Organization proposes universal health coverage as a 'single overarching health goal' for the next iteration of the Millennium Development Goals. The present Millennium Development Goals have been criticised for being 'duplicative' or even 'competing alternatives' to international human rights law. T...

  4. The Netherlands: health system review

    Schäfer, W.; Kroneman, M.; Boerma, W.; van den Berg, M.; Westert, G.; Devillé, W.; van Ginneken, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of health systems and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of

  5. Subjective health complaints and psychosocial work environment among university personnel.

    Moen, B E; Wieslander, G; Bakke, J V; Norbäck, D

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaires are often used to study health problems in working populations. An association between self-reported symptoms and psychosocial strain has been suggested, but results from such studies are difficult to interpret, as a gender difference might be present. The knowledge in this area is not clear. To compare the prevalence of subjective health symptoms and their relation to psychosocial work strain among men and women in different age groups, all working as university staff. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among university personnel. The questionnaire included a subjective health complaint inventory consisting of 29 items about subjective somatic and psychological symptoms experienced during the last 30 days and psychosocial work factors. Regression analyses were performed. In total, 172 (86%) of 201 eligible employees participated. Women had a higher prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms than men. Significant differences were found between the genders for headaches, neck pain and arm pain. There was a significant relationship between musculoskeletal symptoms and work strain for both genders. This was found for both men and women below 40 years and among men above the age of 40. No significant difference was found between genders regarding pseudoneurological, gastrointestinal, allergic and flu-like symptoms. More female than male university personnel reported musculoskeletal symptoms. The musculoskeletal symptoms were associated with high work strain in both genders, but, for women, this was limited to employees under the age of 40. The cause of this gender difference is unknown.

  6. Fellowship Program in Health System Improvement: A novel approach integrating leadership development and patient-centred health system transformation.

    Philippon, Donald J; Montesanti, Stephanie; Stafinski, Tania

    2018-03-01

    This article highlights a novel approach to professional development, integrating leadership, development and patient-centred health system transformation in the new Fellowship Program in Health System Improvement offered by the School of Public Health at the University of Alberta. Early assessment of the program is also provided.

  7. Measuring human betterment through avoidable mortality: a case for universal health care in the USA.

    Hisnanick, J J; Coddington, D A

    1995-10-01

    The USA system of health care has begun a monumental change that will affect everyone, irrespective of their socioeconomic status, professional status or pre-existing health insurance status. Whatever type of plan is finally implemented through the legislative process, there will need to be a way to evaluate its success (or failure). One way to evaluate the plan's effectiveness is through its impact on human betterment as viewed by a reduction in 'avoidable mortality' for those most in need of health care; the poor and uninsured. For one USA minority population, universal health care has improved human betterment by reducing avoidable mortality, even in the face of a severe burden of poverty.

  8. Perception of academic stress among Health Science Preparatory Program students in two Saudi universities.

    Alsulami, Saleh; Al Omar, Zaid; Binnwejim, Mohammed S; Alhamdan, Fahad; Aldrees, Amr; Al-Bawardi, Abdulkarim; Alsohim, Meshary; Alhabeeb, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    The Health Science Preparatory Program (HSPP) is a special program that aims to enhance the educational preparedness of students for participation in a health sciences career. Students spend their first university year in a combined extensive teaching program before they can be assigned to a particular health science specialty. It is thought that students enrolled in a highly competitive environment such as HSPP with a long list of potential stressors, including developmental, academic overload, language barriers and competition, are more disposed to stress and stress-related complications. This study aims to measure the level of academic stress and to determine its risk factors in students enrolled in HSPP-adapted local universities in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted at two Saudi universities, King Saud University (KSU) and Imam Mohammad ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSU) with competition-based and non-competition-based HSPP learning models, respectively. Both universities adopt the HSPP system. The scale for assessing academic stress (SAAS) was used to assess students' perceived stress. A total of 290 students successfully completed the questionnaire (N=290), with a mean age of 18.66 years. Mean SAAS scores for KSU and IMSU students were 8.37 (SD = 4.641) and 7.97 (SD = 5.104), P =0.480, respectively. Only "satisfaction" and "associated social and health problems" have shown statistically significant correlation with university ( P =0.000 and P =0.049, respectively). This study has found mean SAAS score for two local universities with competition-based versus non-competition-based HSPP learning models. Academic stress correlation with age, gender and universities was discussed, and valuable future work guidance was recommended.

  9. TRICARE, Military Health System

    ... Claim Get Proof of TRICARE Coverage View My Military Health Record Less TRICARE Enrollment Freeze Starting Dec. ... Disaster Information Download a Form Go Paperless My Military Health Records Multimedia Center Plan Information Kits Recoupment ...

  10. Mental health service delivery following health system reform in Colombia.

    Romero-González, Mauricio; González, Gerardo; Rosenheck, Robert A

    2003-12-01

    In 1993, Colombia underwent an ambitious and comprehensive process of health system reform based on managed competition and structured pluralism, but did not include coverage for mental health services. In this study, we sought to evaluate the impact of the reform on access to mental health services and whether there were changes in the pattern of mental health service delivery during the period after the reform. Changes in national economic indicators and in measures of mental health and non-mental health service delivery for the years 1987 and 1997 were compared. Data were obtained from the National Administrative Department of Statistics of Colombia (DANE), the Department of National Planning and Ministry of the Treasury of Colombia, and from national official reports of mental health and non-mental health service delivery from the Ministry of Health of Colombia for the same years. While population-adjusted access to mental health outpatient services declined by -2.7% (-11.2% among women and +5.8% among men), access to general medical outpatient services increased dramatically by 46%. In-patient admissions showed smaller differences, with a 7% increase in mental health admissions, as compared to 22.5% increase in general medical admissions. The health reform in Colombia imposed competition across all health institutions with the intention of encouraging efficiency and financial autonomy. However, the challenge of institutional survival appears to have fallen heavily on mental health care institutions that were also expected to participate in managed competition, but that were at a serious disadvantage because their services were excluded from the compulsory standardized package of health benefits. While the Colombian health care reform intended to close the gap between those who had and those who did not have access to health services, it appears to have failed to address access to specialized mental health services, although it does seem to have promoted a

  11. Equity in health personnel financing after Universal Coverage: evidence from Thai Ministry of Public Health's hospitals from 2008-2012.

    Ruangratanatrai, Wilailuk; Lertmaharit, Somrat; Hanvoravongchai, Piya

    2015-07-18

    Shortage and maldistribution of the health workforce is a major problem in the Thai health system. The expansion of healthcare access to achieve universal health coverage placed additional demand on the health system especially on the health workers in the public sector who are the major providers of health services. At the same time, the reform in hospital payment methods resulted in a lower share of funding from the government budgetary system and higher share of revenue from health insurance. This allowed public hospitals more flexibility in hiring additional staff. Financial measures and incentives such as special allowances for non-private practice and additional payments for remote staff have been implemented to attract and retain them. To understand the distributional effect of such change in health workforce financing, this study evaluates the equity in health workforce financing for 838 hospitals under the Ministry of Public Health across all 75 provinces from 2008-2012. Data were collected from routine reports of public hospital financing from the Ministry of Public Health with specific identification on health workforce spending. The components and sources of health workforce financing were descriptively analysed based on the geographic location of the hospitals, their size and the core hospital functions. Inequalities in health workforce financing across provinces were assessed. We calculated the Gini coefficient and concentration index to explore horizontal and vertical inequity in the public sector health workforce financing in Thailand. Separate analyses were carried out for funding from government budget and funding from hospital revenue to understand the difference between the two financial sources. Health workforce financing accounted for about half of all hospital non-capital expenses in 2012, about a 30 % increase from the level of spending in 2008. Almost one third of the workforce financing came from hospital revenue, an increase from only one

  12. Lifestyle of health sciences students at Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia

    Fahad Alfhaid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background We all want to live a long, happy and healthy life with an abundance of energy and vitality to perform well both mentally and physically. A healthy lifestyle is a valuable resource for reducing the incidence and impact of health problems, enabling you better to cope with life stressors, as well as improving your quality of life. Aims The study was aimed to assess the lifestyle (eating habits and physical activity of health sciences students studying at Majmaah University. Methods This cross-sectional institutional based study was conducted from 25th November 2014-3rd May 2015. A total of 450 students (370 males and 80 females aged between 18–28 years were randomly chosen. Self-reported questionnaire was used for data collection from the College of Medicine, College of Applied Medical Sciences and College of Dentistry. Results Majority of the students, 62.4 per cent, were physically inactive. Students from the College of Medicine, 40.4 per cent, were the most physically active. The most common reason that restrained the students from being active was time limitation. In addition to that, many of the participants, 29.6 per cent, have never had breakfast at home. Also, most of the participants, 42.7 per cent, were not satisfied with their eating habits. Almost one quarter of students were consuming soft drinks more than four times a day. Conclusion There is a high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle, physical inactivity and unhealthy dietary habits among health sciences students studying at Majmaah University. There is an urgent need for arranging health education programs for promoting healthy and active living among health sciences students of Majmaah University in Saudi Arabia.

  13. Contributions of Global Health Diplomacy to Health Systems in Sub ...

    New research will help boost Africa's bargaining power in global health diplomacy, ... need to assert their public health interests in global health diplomacy from an ... Brazil, and India; and 3) the involvement of African actors in getting universal ...

  14. Application of ubiquitous computing in personal health monitoring systems.

    Kunze, C; Grossmann, U; Stork, W; Müller-Glaser, K D

    2002-01-01

    A possibility to significantly reduce the costs of public health systems is to increasingly use information technology. The Laboratory for Information Processing Technology (ITIV) at the University of Karlsruhe is developing a personal health monitoring system, which should improve health care and at the same time reduce costs by combining micro-technological smart sensors with personalized, mobile computing systems. In this paper we present how ubiquitous computing theory can be applied in the health-care domain.

  15. [The health system of Ecuador].

    Lucio, Ruth; Villacrés, Nilhda; Henríquez, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in Ecuador and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Ecuadorian health system, including its structure and coverage, its financial sources, the physical, material and human resources available, and the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Public Health. It also describes the structure and content of its health information system, and the participation of citizens in the operation and evaluation of the health system. The paper ends with a discussion of the most recent policy innovations implemented in the Ecuadorian system, including the incorporation of a chapter on health into the new Constitution which recognizes the protection of health as a human right, and the construction of the Comprehensive Public Health Network.

  16. BRICS countries and the global movement for universal health coverage.

    Tediosi, Fabrizio; Finch, Aureliano; Procacci, Christina; Marten, Robert; Missoni, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    This article explores BRICS' engagement in the global movement for Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and the implications for global health governance. It is based on primary data collected from 43 key informant interviews, complemented by a review of BRICS' global commitments supporting UHC. Interviews were conducted using a semi-structured questionnaire that included both closed- and open-ended questions. Question development was informed by insights from the literature on UHC, Cox's framework for action, and Kingdon's multiple-stream theory of policy formation. The closed questions were analysed with simple descriptive statistics and the open-ended questions using grounded theory approach. The analysis demonstrates that most BRICS countries implicitly supported the global movement for UHC, and that they share an active engagement in promoting UHC. However, only Brazil, China and to some extent South Africa, were recognized as proactively pushing UHC in the global agenda. In addition, despite some concerted actions, BRICS countries seem to act more as individual countries rather that as an allied group. These findings suggest that BRICS are unlikely to be a unified political block that will transform global health governance. Yet the documented involvement of BRICS in the global movement supporting UHC, and their focus on domestic challenges, shows that BRICS individually are increasingly influential players in global health. So if BRICS countries should probably not be portrayed as the centre of future political community that will transform global health governance, their individual involvement in global health, and their documented concerted actions, may give greater voice to low- and middle-income countries supporting the emergence of multiple centres of powers in global health. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Information system governance in Moroccan universities: case of ...

    Information system governance in Moroccan universities: case of student ... contribution of these systems to the overall performance of an organizational being. ... Keywords: Information System; Governance; Data Quality, Process Quality ...

  18. Success of the Undergraduate Public Health Program At Tulane University

    Luann Ellis White

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine (SPHTM launched the Bachelors of Science in Public Health (BSPH in 2005. The BSPH has steadily grown and comprises one third of the total enrollment in the school. A review of the organizational structure demonstrates that direct responsibility for undergraduate education by a school of public health is advantageous to the success of the program. The competency and skills-based curriculum attracts students. Outcome measures show the enrollment is steadily increasing. The majority of the BSPH graduates continue onto competitive graduate and professional degree programs. Those who seek jobs find employment related to their public health education, but outside of the traditional governmental public health agencies. The combined BSPH/MPH degree is a pipeline for students to pursue a MPH and increases the likelihood students will pursue careers in public health. The range and depth of study in the bachelors program is continually examined. Topics once within the purview of graduate education are now being incorporated into undergraduate courses. Undergraduate public health is one of a number of factors that is influencing changes in the MPH degree.

  19. Morocco's policy choices to achieve Universal health coverage ...

    Morocco's health system remains weak in spite of the improvement of other development indicators in the last ten years. Health remains one of the major challenges to lower the social disparities that are the priority for the authorities. Despite the goodwill of all stakeholders, significant reforms implemented respond only ...

  20. California Colleges and Universities Collaborate to Support Student Mental Health

    Woodbridge, Michelle W.; Goldweber, Asha; Yu, Jennifer; Golan, Shari; Stein, Bradley D.

    2014-01-01

    One key objective of California's Prevention and Early Intervention (PEI) Student Mental Health (SMH) initiative funded under Proposition 63 is to establish a formal process for ongoing collaboration between higher education systems and county mental health, as well as to increase collaboration among higher education campuses to improve student…

  1. Improving University Ranking to Achieve University Competitiveness by Management Information System

    Dachyar, M.; Dewi, F.

    2015-05-01

    One way to increase university competitiveness is through information system management. A literature review was done to find information system factors that affect university performance in Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) University Ranking: Asia evaluation. Information system factors were then eliminated using Delphi method through consensus of 7 experts. Result from Delphi method was used as measured variables in PLS-SEM. Estimation with PLS-SEM method through 72 respondents shows that the latent variable academic reputation and citation per paper have significant correlation to university competitiveness. In University of Indonesia (UI) the priority to increase university competitiveness as follow: (i) network building in international conference, (ii) availability of research data to public, (iii) international conference information, (iv) information on achievements and accreditations of each major, (v) ease of employment for alumni.

  2. University of Illinois at Chicago Health Policy Center - Funding

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. Funding Data, Appropriations...

  3. Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences Journal 2003 Edition

    Dix, Mary A

    2004-01-01

    ... for the Military Health System (MHS) through the provision of career-oriented, uniquely trained physicians, advanced practice nurses and scientists and specialized educational training, exercises and research to meet the combat...

  4. Sexual behaviours and preconception health in Italian university students

    Andrea Poscia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Risky sexual behaviours have been recognized as a threat for sexual and reproductive health. AIM: This article shows the results of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk" in relation to determining how a large sample of university students in Italy cope with preconception health, especially in the domains of sexual transmitted infections (STIs, fertility and vaccination preventable disease. METHODS: Twentythree questions of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" survey about sexual behaviour and reproductive health were analysed. Besides, results were stratified for sex, age class and socio-economic status. RESULTS: 19.7% of students have had first sexual intercourse before age 15. 21.8% of female students used emergency contraception. 66.4% of the 74.0% sexual active students reported using contraceptives, but about 32% of them used methods ineffective against STIs. A general low coverage for rubella, measles and mumps vaccination was revealed. 63.7% of men and 30.9% of woman never had urologic or gynaecological examinations. DISCUSSION: Overall, young adults in Italy are not still enough sensitized on fertility and preconception care. High schools and universities should increase awareness towards preservation of male and female fertility and preconception care.

  5. Human rights from the grassroots up: Vermont's campaign for universal health care.

    McGill, Mariah

    2012-06-15

    In 2008, the Vermont Workers' Center launched the "Healthcare Is a Human Right Campaign," a grassroots campaign to secure the creation of a universal health care system in Vermont. Campaign organizers used a human rights framework to mobilize thousands of voters in support of universal health care. In response to this extraordinary grassroots effort, the state legislature passed health care legislation that incorporates human rights principles into Vermont law and provides a framework for universal health care. The United States has often lagged behind other nations in recognizing economic, social, and cultural (ESC) rights, including the right to health. Nonetheless, activists have begun to incorporate ESC rights into domestic advocacy campaigns, and state and local governments are beginning to respond where the federal government has not. Vermont serves as a powerful example of how a human rights framework can inform health care policy and inspire grassroots campaigns in the United States. This three-part article documents the Vermont Workers' Center campaign and discusses the impact that human rights activity at the grassroots level may have on attitudes towards ESC rights in the United States. The first part describes the Vermont health care crisis and explains why the center adopted international human rights principles for their campaign. The article then goes on to discuss the three-year campaign and analyze the health care reform bill that the Vermont legislature passed. Finally, the article discusses the campaign's local and national impact. Copyright © 2012 McGill.

  6. Integrative Nursing and Health Sciences Initiatives for the 21st Century: Vision and Pedagogy at One Jesuit University

    Campbell, Suzanne Hetzel; Crabtree, Robbin D.; Kelly, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The powerful and complex mandates arising from reports such as "The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health" and "Health Professionals for a New Century: Transforming Education to Strengthen Health Systems in an Interdependent World" challenge colleges and universities to reconsider how they deliver nursing…

  7. Investing in Nurses is a Prerequisite for Ensuring Universal Health Coverage.

    Kurth, Ann E; Jacob, Sheena; Squires, Allison P; Sliney, Anne; Davis, Sheila; Stalls, Suzanne; Portillo, Carmen J

    2016-01-01

    Nurses and midwives constitute the majority of the global health workforce and the largest health care expenditure. Efficient production, successful deployment, and ongoing retention based on carefully constructed policies regarding the career opportunities of nurses, midwives, and other providers in health care systems are key to ensuring universal health coverage. Yet nurses are constrained by practice regulations, workplaces, and career ladder barriers from contributing to primary health care delivery. Evidence shows that quality HIV care, comparable to that of physicians, is provided by trained nurses and associate clinicians, but many African countries' health systems remain dependent on limited numbers of physicians and fail to meet the demand for treatment. The World Health Organization endorses task sharing to ensure universal health coverage in HIV and maternal health, which requires an investment in nursing education, retention, and professional growth opportunities. Exemplars from Haiti, Rwanda, Republic of Georgia, and multi-country efforts are described. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of sexual health course on Malaysian university students.

    Low, W Y

    2004-10-01

    A sexual health course was offered and taught by academic staff from the Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya during semester II of every year as a university elective course to other university students apart from medical students. The course covered a wide range of topics: adolescent sexuality, family planning and pregnancy, violence against women, alternative sexual behavior, physiology of sex, sex and the disabled, gender bias in sexuality, relationship and marriage, sexual dysfunctions, clarification of sexual attitudes and STDs and AIDS. The Sexual Knowledge and Attitude Test (SKAT-II) was used to measure students' pre- and post-course scores on sexual knowledge and attitudes. Fifty-four students who completed both the pre- and post-course tests showed a significant change in sexual knowledge and their attitudes towards sexual myths and autoeroticism. Sexual knowledge was also positively correlated with age, heterosexual relations, autoeroticism and sexual myths scores. However, sexual knowledge is negatively related to religiosity and the influence of religious beliefs on one's attitudes towards sexual matters. This study showed that the sexual health course offered does have a positive impact in increasing one's knowledge and changing one's attitudes towards sexual issues.

  9. Health literacy among Danish university students enrolled in health-related study programmes.

    Elsborg, Lea; Krossdal, Fie; Kayser, Lars

    2017-12-01

    It is important to address people's health literacy when providing health care. Health professionals should be aware of, and have insight into, people's health literacy when they provide health services. Health professionals need to be health literate themselves. We examined the level of health literacy in students in Denmark attending one of four full university programmes related to health and investigated how their health literacy was associated with their sociodemographic background. The health literacy level of the students was measured using the multi-dimensional Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLQ) supplemented with sociodemographic questions. The questionnaire was administrated through the students' Facebook groups. The students were enrolled in courses on health informatics, medicine, molecular biomedicine or public health. Out of a total of 7663 students, 630 responded to the questionnaire. No sex difference was found although female students scored higher than male students in domain 4 (social support for health). Students attending the public health programme tended to score higher and those attending molecular biomedicine tended to score lower in the HLQ. There was a positive correlation between HLQ scores and the educational level of the students' parents. If one of their parents was employed in the health care sector, the HLQ score tended to be higher in domains 1 and 4. Students who had been hospitalized also tended to score higher in domains 1, 5 and 6. Students' health literacy relates to their personal background and educational path. This may be of importance when planning curricula and educational activities, including cross-disciplinary courses.

  10. Assessment of oral health attitudes and behavior among students of Kuwait University Health Sciences Center.

    Ali, Dena A

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess attitudes and behavior of oral health maintenance among students in four faculties (Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmacy, and Allied Health) and to compare oral health attitudes and behavior of all students at Kuwait University Health Sciences Center (KUHSC) based on their academic level. Students enrolled in the Faculties of Dentistry, Medicine, Pharmacy, and Allied Health at KUHSC were evaluated regarding their oral health attitudes and behavior by an e-mail invitation with a link to the Hiroshima University Dental Behavior Inventory survey that was sent to all 1802 students with Kuwait University Health Sciences Center e-mail addresses. The data were analyzed for frequency distributions, and differences among the groups were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U test, Chi-square test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant ( P < 0.05). The results of this study indicated that dental students achieved better oral health attitudes and behavior than that of their nondental professional fellow students ( P < 0.05). Students in advanced academic levels and female students demonstrated better oral health attitudes and behavior. Dental students and students who were in advanced levels of their training along with female students demonstrated better oral health practices and perceptions than students in lower academic levels and male students, respectively. Additional studies for investigating the effectiveness and identifying areas requiring modification within the dental curriculum at KUHSC may be warranted.

  11. Dissemination research: the University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute.

    Remington, Patrick L; Moberg, D Paul; Booske, Bridget C; Ceraso, Marion; Friedsam, Donna; Kindig, David A

    2009-08-01

    Despite significant accomplishments in basic, clinical, and population health research, a wide gap persists between research discoveries (ie, what we know) and actual practice (ie, what we do). The University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute (Institute) researchers study the process and outcomes of disseminating evidence-based public health programs and policies into practice. This paper briefly describes the approach and experience of the Institute's programs in population health assessment, health policy, program evaluation, and education and training. An essential component of this dissemination research program is the active engagement of the practitioners and policymakers. Each of the Institute's programs conducts data collection, analysis, education, and dialogue with practitioners that is closely tied to the planning, implementation, and evaluation of programs and policies. Our approach involves a reciprocal exchange of knowledge with non-academic partners, such that research informs practice and practice informs research. Dissemination research serves an important role along the continuum of research and is increasingly recognized as an important way to improve population health by accelerating the translation of research into practice.

  12. Achieving and Sustaining Universal Health Coverage: Fiscal Reform of the National Health Insurance in Taiwan.

    Lan, Jesse Yu-Chen

    2017-12-01

    The paper discusses the expansion of the universal health coverage (UHC) in Taiwan through the establishment of National Health Insurance (NHI), and the fiscal crisis it caused. Two key questions are addressed: How did the NHI gradually achieve universal coverage, and yet cause Taiwanese health spending to escalate to fiscal crisis? What measures have been taken to reform the NHI finance and achieve moderate success to date? The main argument of this paper is that the Taiwanese Government did try to implement various reforms to save costs and had moderate success, but the path-dependent process of reform does not allow increasing contribution rates significantly and thereby makes sustainability challenging.

  13. [Dynamics and interactions between the university community and public health 2.0].

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    To explore the experiences of a group of participants in a university community with the web in general and with digital contents on public health, to describe their motivations and to understand how social networks influence their interaction with content on public health. Qualitative research. Deep semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand the phenomenon. Five categories emerged after the study: socialization and internalization of the cyberculture, social marketing linked to the web and public health, culture of fear and distrust, the concept of health, and the health system and public health. Participants have internalized the web and have given it a strong symbolic capital. The challenges of public health 2.0 are not only to achieve interaction with users and to get a place in cyberspace, but also to fight against the stigma of the "public" and to take advantage of the influence of the web on small-world networks to communicate.

  14. The Child Health Care System of Croatia.

    Mestrovic, Julije; Bralic, Irena; Simetin, Ivana Pavic; Mujkic, Aida; Radonić, Marija; Rodin, Urelija; Trošelj, Mario; Stevanović, Ranko; Benjak, Tomislav; Pristaš, Ivan; Mayer, Dijana; Tomić, Branimir

    2016-10-01

    The Republic of Croatia is a Parliamentary Republic with a population of 4.2 million people that sits on the Adriatic coast within Central Europe. Gross domestic product is approximately 60% of the European Union average, which in turn, limits health service spending. The health system is funded through universal health insurance administered by the Croatian Health Insurance Fund based on the principles of social solidarity and reciprocity. The children of Croatia are guaranteed access to universal primary, hospital, and specialist care provided by a network of health institutions. Pediatricians and school medicine specialists provide comprehensive preventive health care for both preschool and school-aged children. Despite the Croatian War of Independence in the late 20th century, indicators of child health and measures of health service delivery to children and families are steadily improving. However, similar to many European countries, Croatia is experiencing a rise in the "new morbidities" and is responding to these new challenges through a whole society approach to promote healthy lifestyles and insure good quality of life for children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Assessing Private Sector Involvement in Health Care and Universal Health Coverage in Light of the Right to Health

    de Wolf, Antenor Hallo; Toebes, Brigit

    2016-01-01

    The goal of universal health coverage is to "ensure that all people obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them." There are many connections between this goal and the state's legal obligation to realize the human right to health. In the context of

  16. Mental health status among Japanese medical students: a cross-sectional survey of 20 universities.

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Nanri, Hinako; Ohida, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the mental health status of Japanese medical students and to examine differences based on gender, as well as on university type and location, using the results of a nationwide survey. Between December 2006 and March 2007, we conducted a questionnaire survey among fourth-year medical students at 20 randomly selected medical schools in Japan. The data from 1,619 students (response rate: 90.6%; male: 1,074; female: 545) were analyzed. We used the Japanese version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) to measure mental health status. Poor mental health status (GHQ-12 score of 4 points or higher) was observed in 36.6% and 48.8% of the male and female medical students, respectively. The ratio of the age-adjusted prevalence of poor mental health status in female versus male medical students was 1.33 (95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.62). The universities were categorized into two groups based on the university type (national/public: 15 vs. private: 5) or location (in a large city: 7 vs. in a local city: 13 cities). The prevalence of poor mental health status in both men and women differed between these groups, although not significantly. The GHQ-12 scores in men significantly differed between the categorized groups of universities. These results suggest that adequate attention must be paid to the mental health of medical students, especially females, and that a system for providing mental health care for medical students must be established in the context of actual conditions at each university.

  17. Evaluating Usability of E-Learning Systems in Universities

    Nicholas Kipkurui Kiget; Professor G. Wanyembi; Anselemo Ikoha Peters

    2014-01-01

    The use of e-learning systems has increased significantly in the recent times. E-learning systems are supplementing teaching and learning in universities globally. Kenyan universities have adopted e-learning technologies as means for delivering course content. However despite adoption of these systems, there are considerable challenges facing the usability of the systems. Lecturers and students have different perceptions in regard to the usability of e-learning systems. The aim of this study ...

  18. General Health Status Among Students of Islamic Azad University: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iran

    Mohammad Taghi Savadpour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Health is one of the basic needs of human. There is a close relationship between physical and mental health. Human psyche is directly affected by his physical condition, and mutually his body and actions of human systems are influenced by psychological and mental space. Students because of their particular circumstances are vulnerable to mental health problems. The purpose of this study is to determine the general health status of students of Islamic Azad University. Materials & Methods: This descriptive analytical research was conducted on 478 students of Khalkhal Islamic Azad University. Simple random sampling method was used. General health questionnaire (GHQ-28 was used as research tool. Following data collection, data were analyzed using SPSS Software 13. Results: The results show that mean score of general health of the subjects is higher than cutoff. In this study, 21.3 percent of students were suspected of impaired health. Also, status of general health of female students was worse than male students and significant statistical relationship was observed between general health status and all its sub-scales except depression and gender (P < 0.5. Conclusions: G eneral health of students especially female students is impaired which may considerably affect their learning and performance and academic achievement.

  19. Performance of private sector health care: implications for universal health coverage

    Morgan, R; Ensor, T; Waters, H

    2016-01-01

    Although the private sector is an important health-care provider in many low-income and middle-income countries, its role in progress towards universal health coverage varies. Studies of the performance of the private sector have focused on three main dimensions: quality, equity of access, and efficiency. The characteristics of patients, the structures of both the public and private sectors, and the regulation of the sector influence the types of health services delivered, and outcomes. Combi...

  20. Advancing Health Literacy Measurement: A Pathway to Better Health and Health System Performance

    Pleasant, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The concept of health literacy initially emerged and continues to gain strength as an approach to improving health status and the performance of health systems. Numerous studies clearly link low levels of education, literacy, and health literacy with poor health, poor health care utilization, increased barriers to care, and early death. However, theoretical understandings and methods of measuring the complex social construct of health literacy have experienced a continual evolution that remains incomplete. As a result, the seemingly most-cited definition of health literacy proposed in the now-decade-old Institute of Medicine report on health literacy is long overdue for updating. Such an effort should engage a broad and diverse set of health literacy researchers, practitioners, and members of the public in creating a definition that can earn broad consensus through validation testing in a rigorous scientific approach. That effort also could produce the basis for a new universally applicable measure of health literacy. Funders, health systems, and policymakers should reconsider their timid approach to health literacy. Although the field and corresponding evidence base are not perfect, health literacy—especially when combined with a focus on prevention and integrative health—is one of the most promising approaches to advancing public health. PMID:25491583

  1. Indonesia's road to universal health coverage: a political journey.

    Pisani, Elizabeth; Olivier Kok, Maarten; Nugroho, Kharisma

    2017-03-01

    In 2013 Indonesia, the world's fourth most populous country, declared that it would provide affordable health care for all its citizens within seven years. This crystallised an ambition first enshrined in law over five decades earlier, but never previously realised. This paper explores Indonesia's journey towards universal health coverage (UHC) from independence to the launch of a comprehensive health insurance scheme in January 2014. We find that Indonesia's path has been determined largely by domestic political concerns – different groups obtained access to healthcare as their socio-political importance grew. A major inflection point occurred following the Asian financial crisis of 1997. To stave off social unrest, the government provided health coverage for the poor for the first time, creating a path dependency that influenced later policy choices. The end of this programme coincided with decentralisation, leading to experimentation with several different models of health provision at the local level. When direct elections for local leaders were introduced in 2005, popular health schemes led to success at the polls. UHC became an electoral asset, moving up the political agenda. It also became contested, with national policy-makers appropriating health insurance programmes that were first developed locally, and taking credit for them. The Indonesian experience underlines the value of policy experimentation, and of a close understanding of the contextual and political factors that drive successful UHC models at the local level. Specific drivers of success and failure should be taken into account when scaling UHC to the national level. In the Indonesian example, UHC became possible when the interests of politically and economically influential groups were either satisfied or neutralised. While technical considerations took a back seat to political priorities in developing the structures for health coverage nationally, they will have to be addressed going forward

  2. Universal canonical entropy for gravitating systems

    Similar to this is the case of ref. [12] which also uses the saddle point approximation to express the microcanonical entropy in terms of the canonical entropy [12a]. Recalling that there is at least 'circumstantial' evidence that the microcanonical entropy has a 'universal' form [13–15], identical to that obtained in ref. [6] quoted.

  3. Economic Impact of the North Dakota University System in 2011

    Coon, Randal C.; Bangsund, Dean A.; Hodur, Nancy M.

    2012-01-01

    The North Dakota University System consists of the North Dakota University System Office and 11 college campuses located throughout the state. In addition to the 11 main campuses, numerous other university facilities, centers, and offices are located throughout the state. Institutions of higher education have an economic effect in their respective areas and across the state as those institutions acquire inputs, purchase services, and provide for payroll and employment at both the local and st...

  4. Fixing Health Systems

    In Africa, health care has been in a state of crisis for several decades. ..... Instead, think about them as representations of real people — people with families that ...... blood screening; patient care, counseling, and social support; palliative care.

  5. 49 CFR 37.25 - University transportation systems.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false University transportation systems. 37.25 Section 37.25 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation TRANSPORTATION SERVICES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES (ADA) Applicability § 37.25 University transportation systems. (a...

  6. Achieving Quality Assurance in Nigeria University System through ...

    This paper examines how quality assurance can be attained through Strategic Human Resources Development in Nigerian University system. The purpose is to ensure quality control and maintenance of acceptable standards in the University system. To seek solution to the problem, three research questions were posed.

  7. The University Immune System: Overcoming Resistance to Change

    Gilley, Ann; Godek, Marisha; Gilley, Jerry W.

    2009-01-01

    A university, similar to any other organization, has an immune system that erects a powerful barrier against change. This article discusses the university immune system and what can be done to counteract its negative effects and thereby allow change to occur.

  8. Information system for strategic planning the university sustainable development

    Drevs, Yu.G.

    2013-01-01

    Issues of designing the information system which helps the University principal's office to take decisions as concerns the strategic planning are discussed. The importance of having the University simulation model is emphasized; model representation in terms of system dynamics is given [ru

  9. On the Universality and Non-Universality of Spiking Neural P Systems With Rules on Synapses.

    Song, Tao; Xu, Jinbang; Pan, Linqiang

    2015-12-01

    Spiking neural P systems with rules on synapses are a new variant of spiking neural P systems. In the systems, the neuron contains only spikes, while the spiking/forgetting rules are moved on the synapses. It was obtained that such system with 30 neurons (using extended spiking rules) or with 39 neurons (using standard spiking rules) is Turing universal. In this work, this number is improved to 6. Specifically, we construct a Turing universal spiking neural P system with rules on synapses having 6 neurons, which can generate any set of Turing computable natural numbers. As well, it is obtained that spiking neural P system with rules on synapses having less than two neurons are not Turing universal: i) such systems having one neuron can characterize the family of finite sets of natural numbers; ii) the family of sets of numbers generated by the systems having two neurons is included in the family of semi-linear sets of natural numbers.

  10. The Open Education System, Anadolu University, Turkey: E-Transformation in a Mega-University

    Latchem, Colin; Ozkul, Ali Ekrem; Aydin, Cengiz Hakan; Mutlu, Mehmet Emin

    2006-01-01

    Anadolu University in Turkey is one of the world's largest and least known mega-universities. Well over one million students in Turkey, the European Union and Northern Cyprus are enrolled in its Open Education System and yet few accounts of this dual-mode provider appear in the international literature. This article describes the evolution of the…

  11. 76 FR 59388 - Board of Regents of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences

    2011-09-26

    ... University of the Health Sciences AGENCY: Department of Defense, Uniformed Services University of the Health... Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. DATES: Tuesday, October 25, 2011, from 8:30 a.m. to 11... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Janet S. Taylor, Designated Federal Officer, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Bethesda...

  12. Assessing government’s fiscal space for moving towards universal health coverage in Cambodia

    Kouland Thin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In line with the global trend, it becomes clear that the Cambodian government’s policy direction is leaning toward universal health coverage, the agreed target within the newly ratified Sustainable Development Goals. Thus, the health system will need to be further reformed to achieve this target by 2030. To assess if the Cambodian government is able to increase the proportion of health budget out of the total government expenditure, this study will evaluate the government’s fiscal space and propose feasible options where and to what extent new resources can be generated for improving the health system. Design The data used for this analysis were obtained from World Bank online database and a series of Cambodia’s economic updates produced by the World Bank office in Cambodia. We observed the trends over time from 2011 to 2018 to provide insights into the extent to which fiscal space for health can be expanded. Findings By assessing the key fiscal indicators, it is unlikely that the Cambodian government is able to increase the proportion of health budget out of its total budget in the short run. Health budget is increased in absolute terms but not in real terms, which is linked tightly to the predicted 7% economic growth per annum. Conclusion The proportion of health budget from now until 2018 is expected to remain the same, and the revenues raised through pre‐payment mechanisms are still too small to address the pressing issues in the current health system. The Ministry of Health could benefit from putting a much stronger effort on improving efficiency and equity in the distribution of resources, as well as transparency and accountability, to achieve the immediate objectives for universal health coverage.

  13. Public Health Achievements and Challenges: Symposium of the University of Mostar Faculty of Health Studies.

    Ravlija, Jelena; Vasilj, Ivan; Babic, Dragan; Marijanovic, Inga

    2017-05-01

    Public health is an important area of health care that reflects the readiness of the state and society to provide the welfare of all citizens through the promotion of health and the preservation of a healthy environment - factors that directly affect the health of the population. The field of public health is very broad and its concept is changing over time, being defined in a narrower and wider sense. In short, public health is a science and practice that aims at ensuring the conditions in which people can preserve and improve their health and prevent health damage. The third millennium brings its specifics, needs and priorities according to challenges public health is faced by in the twenty-first century: the economic crisis, rising inequality, population aging, rising rates of chronic diseases, migration, urbanization, ecosystem change, climate change, etc. The role of public health is to protect, improve health, prevent diseases and injuries. Such a public health approach implies a multisectoral work focusing on "wider health determinants", and within this activity experts from various medical and non-medical profiles, whose field of public health is concerned, can be found. The development of inter-departmental co-operation skills contributes to a better understanding of health professionals and professionals of other profiles, and facilitates common, synergistic actions in addressing public health problems in the community. Symposium on Public Health Achievements and Challenges organized by the University of Mostar Faculty of Health Studies is just another indication of the obligation, the need and the desire for professional and scientific contribution to the fight for better health. Our faculty has so far organized other numerous symposia, and the aim of this symposium is to present public health achievements and challenges in our surrounding in order to protect, improve health, prevent diseases and injuries in a modern way.

  14. Health Promotion of University Students: contributions of community therapy.

    Cintia Poleto Buzeli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With this experience report of a master’s degree and two teachers of graduate Nursing School of Nursing Federal University of Mato Grosso, we sought to reflect on the Community Therapy (TC as a practice of collective care offered to students university students. Our goal is to report the experience of performing TC wheels in an academic environment, offer theoretical and methodological principles for the structuring and implementation of this practice care to college students at other universities. Was used for data collection direct observation of the wheels of TC the professional experiences as nurses and therapists community and appreciation of documents of such as the registration form filled out by the TC meetings and therapist co-therapist after each wheel TC. The reported experience has demonstrated the effectiveness of TC for the promotion of health thin this group, showing its importance as a practice for the creation and strengthening of ties between the community, the establishment of solidarity networks among students, as being a space speech and listening to their sufferings, their appreciation of life and its potential for promoting self-esteem and to encourage the development of a democract and civic consciousness.

  15. Power system health analysis

    Billinton, Roy; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud; Aboreshaid, Saleh

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a technique which combines both probabilistic indices and deterministic criteria to reflect the well-being of a power system. This technique permits power system planners, engineers and operators to maximize the probability of healthy operation as well as minimizing the probability of risky operation. The concept of system well-being is illustrated in this paper by application to the areas of operating reserve assessment and composite power system security evaluation

  16. Mapping International University Partnerships Identified by East African Universities as Strengthening Their Medicine, Nursing, and Public Health Programs.

    Yarmoshuk, Aaron N; Guantai, Anastasia Nkatha; Mwangu, Mughwira; Cole, Donald C; Zarowsky, Christina

    International university partnerships are recommended for increasing the capacity of sub-Saharan African universities. Many publications describe individual partnerships and projects, and tools are available for guiding collaborations, but systematic mappings of the basic, common characteristics of partnerships are scarce. To document and categorize the international interuniversity partnerships deemed significant to building the capacity of medicine, nursing, and public health programs of 4 East African universities. Two universities in Kenya and 2 in Tanzania were purposefully selected. Key informant interviews, conducted with 42 senior representatives of the 4 universities, identified partnerships they considered significant for increasing the capacity of their institutions' medicine, nursing, and public health programs in education, research, or service. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed. Partners were classified by country of origin and corresponding international groupings, duration, programs, and academic health science components. One hundred twenty-nine university-to-university partnerships from 23 countries were identified. Each university reported between 25 and 36 international university partners. Seventy-four percent of partnerships were with universities in high-income countries, 15% in low- and middle-income countries, and 11% with consortia. Seventy percent included medicine, 37% nursing, and 45% public health; 15% included all 3 programs. Ninety-two percent included an education component, 47% research, and 24% service; 12% included all 3 components. This study confirms the rapid growth of interuniversity cross-border health partnerships this century. It also finds, however, that there is a pool of established international partnerships from numerous countries at each university. Most partnerships that seek to strengthen universities in East Africa should likely ensure they have a significant education component. Universities should make

  17. Work environment and health promotion needs among personnel in the faculty of medicine, Thammasat university.

    Buranatrevedh, Surasak

    2013-04-01

    Work environment and health promotion needs are important factors for quality of life of workers. Study occupational health and safety hazards and control measures as well as health status and health promotion needs among personnel in Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University. This was a cross sectional study. Questionnaires were designed to collect demographic data, health status, health promotion needs, occupational health and safety hazards, and job demand/control data. Questionnaires were sent out to 181 personnel and 145 were returned filled-out (80.1%). Among them, 42.8% had physical illness or stress, 68.3% had debt problem, 20% had some problems with coworker or work environment, 65.5% had a high workload, and 64.1% felt they did not get enough work benefits. Job demand and control factors included attention from leaders, fast-pace work, relationship among coworkers, repetitive work, hard work, high stress work, and high workload The occupational safety and health system included training to use new equipment, supervisor training, work skill training, work in sitting position for long period of time, appropriate periodic health exam, appropriate medical service, proper canteen, proper salary raise, and facilities for health promotion. In the occupational health hazards, employees were working in low temperature, bright light, and had a lack of health promotion programs. Requested programs to improve quality of life were Thai traditional massage, workplace improvement, health promotion, one-day travel, and Friday's happy and healthy program. Results from the present study can be used to improve workplace environment and health of personnel in the Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University.

  18. Strengthening global health security by embedding the International Health Regulations requirements into national health systems.

    Kluge, Hans; Martín-Moreno, Jose Maria; Emiroglu, Nedret; Rodier, Guenael; Kelley, Edward; Vujnovic, Melitta; Permanand, Govin

    2018-01-01

    The International Health Regulations (IHR) 2005, as the overarching instrument for global health security, are designed to prevent and cope with major international public health threats. But poor implementation in countries hampers their effectiveness. In the wake of a number of major international health crises, such as the 2014 Ebola and 2016 Zika outbreaks, and the findings of a number of high-level assessments of the global response to these crises, it has become clear that there is a need for more joined-up thinking between health system strengthening activities and health security efforts for prevention, alert and response. WHO is working directly with its Member States to promote this approach, more specifically around how to better embed the IHR (2005) core capacities into the main health system functions. This paper looks at how and where the intersections between the IHR and the health system can be best leveraged towards developing greater health system resilience. This merging of approaches is a key component in pursuit of Universal Health Coverage and strengthened global health security as two mutually reinforcing agendas.

  19. Trends in future health financing and coverage: future health spending and universal health coverage in 188 countries, 2016-40.

    2018-05-05

    Achieving universal health coverage (UHC) requires health financing systems that provide prepaid pooled resources for key health services without placing undue financial stress on households. Understanding current and future trajectories of health financing is vital for progress towards UHC. We used historical health financing data for 188 countries from 1995 to 2015 to estimate future scenarios of health spending and pooled health spending through to 2040. We extracted historical data on gross domestic product (GDP) and health spending for 188 countries from 1995 to 2015, and projected annual GDP, development assistance for health, and government, out-of-pocket, and prepaid private health spending from 2015 through to 2040 as a reference scenario. These estimates were generated using an ensemble of models that varied key demographic and socioeconomic determinants. We generated better and worse alternative future scenarios based on the global distribution of historic health spending growth rates. Last, we used stochastic frontier analysis to investigate the association between pooled health resources and UHC index, a measure of a country's UHC service coverage. Finally, we estimated future UHC performance and the number of people covered under the three future scenarios. In the reference scenario, global health spending was projected to increase from US$10 trillion (95% uncertainty interval 10 trillion to 10 trillion) in 2015 to $20 trillion (18 trillion to 22 trillion) in 2040. Per capita health spending was projected to increase fastest in upper-middle-income countries, at 4·2% (3·4-5·1) per year, followed by lower-middle-income countries (4·0%, 3·6-4·5) and low-income countries (2·2%, 1·7-2·8). Despite global growth, per capita health spending was projected to range from only $40 (24-65) to $413 (263-668) in 2040 in low-income countries, and from $140 (90-200) to $1699 (711-3423) in lower-middle-income countries. Globally, the share of health spending

  20. Universal health coverage in Rwanda: dream or reality.

    Nyandekwe, Médard; Nzayirambaho, Manassé; Baptiste Kakoma, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has been a global concern for a long time and even more nowadays. While a number of publications are almost unanimous that Rwanda is not far from UHC, very few have focused on its financial sustainability and on its extreme external financial dependency. The objectives of this study are: (i) To assess Rwanda UHC based mainly on Community-Based Health Insurance (CBHI) from 2000 to 2012; (ii) to inform policy makers about observed gaps for a better way forward. A retrospective (2000-2012) SWOT analysis was applied to six metrics as key indicators of UHC achievement related to WHO definition, i.e. (i) health insurance and access to care, (ii) equity, (iii) package of services, (iv) rights-based approach, (v) quality of health care, (vi) financial-risk protection, and (vii) CBHI self-financing capacity (SFC) was added by the authors. The first metric with 96,15% of overall health insurance coverage and 1.07 visit per capita per year versus 1 visit recommended by WHO, the second with 24,8% indigent people subsidized versus 24,1% living in extreme poverty, the third, the fourth, and the fifth metrics excellently performing, the sixth with 10.80% versus ≤40% as limit acceptable of catastrophic health spending level and lastly the CBHI SFC i.e. proper cost recovery estimated at 82.55% in 2011/2012, Rwanda UHC achievements are objectively convincing. Rwanda UHC is not a dream but a reality if we consider all convincing results issued of the seven metrics.

  1. Health-Related Quality of Life in University Dance Students.

    White, Hayley M; Hoch, Johanna M; Hoch, Matthew C

    2018-03-01

    Injuries are common among dancers and may negatively affect health-related quality of life (HRQL). The modified Disablement in the Physically Active Scale (mDPA) is a generic patient-reported outcome instrument that could be used when providing care to patients participating in performing arts. The objective of this pilot study was to examine the internal consistency of the mDPA and assess overall HRQL using the mDPA in university dance students. Thirty-one female university dance students completed the mDPA during one data collection session. Higher scores on the Physical Summary Component (mDPA-PSC), the Mental Summary Component (mDPAMSC), and mDPA-Total indicated increased disablement. The internal consistency was determined using Cronbachs alpha. The mDPA-Total, mDPA-PSC, and mDPAMSC scores were examined descriptively using mean and standard deviations. Individual item responses were also examined. The proportion of university dance students with clinically relevant levels of disablement on the mDPA-Total was examined using a previously established minimally clinically important difference value. The internal consistency for the mDPA-MSC (a=0.91) and mDPATotal (a=0.90) was excellent and good for the mDPA-PSC (a=0.88). A large proportion (71%) of university dance students demonstrated clinically relevant levels of disablement despite fully participating in dance-related activities. Pain, impaired motion, and stress were the greatest contributors to increased disablement in these individuals. The mDPA scores observed in this pilot study indicate that many dance students experience levels of disablement and decreased HRQL which may warrant physical and mental intervention. Clinicians providing healthcare services to performing artists should consider using the mDPA to provide patient-centered care.

  2. A Transformative Approach to Academic Medicine: The Partnership Between the University of Arizona and Banner Health.

    Cairns, Charles B; Bollinger, Kathy; Garcia, Joe G N

    2017-01-01

    The University of Arizona Health Network (UAHN) was a modestly successful health care delivery organization with a vibrant academic portfolio and stable finances. By 2013, however, market forces, health care financing changes, and the burden of technology and informatics upgrades led to a compromised financial position at UAHN, a situation experienced by many academic medical centers. Concurrently, Banner Health had been interested in forming an academic partnership to enhance innovation, including the incorporation of new approaches into health care delivery, and to recruit high-quality providers to the organization. In 2015, the University of Arizona (UA) and Banner Health entered into a unique partnership known as Banner - University Medicine. The objective was to create a statewide system that provides reliable, compassionate, high-quality health care across all of its providers and facilities and to make a 30-year commitment to UA's College of Medicine in Tucson and the College of Medicine in Phoenix to support the State of Arizona's position as a first-tier research and training destination with world-class physicians. The goal of the Banner - University Medicine partnership is to create a nationally leading organization that transforms health care by delivering better care, enhanced service, and lower costs through new approaches focused on wellness. Key elements of this partnership are highlighted in this Commentary, including the unique governance structure of the Academic Management Council, the creation of the Academic Enhancement Fund to support the UA Colleges of Medicine in Tucson and Phoenix, and novel approaches to medical education, research, innovation, and care.

  3. Hawaii's public mental health system.

    VanderVoort, Debra J

    2005-03-01

    The following article addresses the nature of and problems with the public mental health system in Hawaii. It includes a brief history of Hawaii's public mental health system, a description and analysis of this system, economic factors affecting mental health, as well as a needs assessment of the elderly, individuals with severe mental illness, children and adolescents, and ethnically diverse individuals. In addition to having the potential to increase suicide rates and unnecessarily prolong personal suffering, problems in the public mental health system such as inadequate services contribute to an increase in social problems including, but not limited to, an increase in crime rates (e.g., domestic violence, child abuse), divorce rates, school failure, and behavioral problems in children. The population in need of mental health services in Hawaii is under served, with this inadequacy of services due to economic limitations and a variety of other factors.

  4. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  5. In Madagascar, Use Of Health Care Services Increased When Fees Were Removed: Lessons For Universal Health Coverage.

    Garchitorena, Andres; Miller, Ann C; Cordier, Laura F; Ramananjato, Ranto; Rabeza, Victor R; Murray, Megan; Cripps, Amber; Hall, Laura; Farmer, Paul; Rich, Michael; Orlan, Arthur Velo; Rabemampionona, Alexandre; Rakotozafy, Germain; Randriantsimaniry, Damoela; Gikic, Djordje; Bonds, Matthew H

    2017-08-01

    Despite overwhelming burdens of disease, health care access in most developing countries is extremely low. As governments work toward achieving universal health coverage, evidence on appropriate interventions to expand access in rural populations is critical for informing policies. Using a combination of population and health system data, we evaluated the impact of two pilot fee exemption interventions in a rural area of Madagascar. We found that fewer than one-third of people in need of health care accessed treatment when point-of-service fees were in place. However, when fee exemptions were introduced for targeted medicines and services, the use of health care increased by 65 percent for all patients, 52 percent for children under age five, and over 25 percent for maternity consultations. These effects were sustained at an average direct cost of US$0.60 per patient. The pilot interventions can become a key element of universal health care in Madagascar with the support of external donors. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  6. Thinking shift on health systems: from blueprint health programmes towards resilience of health systems Comment on "Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: A regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries".

    Blanchet, Karl

    2015-03-03

    International health is still highly dominated by equilibrium approaches. The emergence of systems thinking in international health provides a great avenue to develop innovative health interventions adapted to changing contexts. The public health community, nevertheless, has the responsibility to translate concepts related to systems thinking and complexity into concrete research methods and interventions. One possibility is to consider the properties of systems such as resilience and adaptability as entry points to better understand how health systems react to shocks. © 2015 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  7. From blockchain technology to global health equity: can cryptocurrencies finance universal health coverage?

    Till, Brian M; Peters, Alexander W; Afshar, Salim; Meara, John G

    2017-01-01

    Blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies could remake global health financing and usher in an era global health equity and universal health coverage. We outline and provide examples for at least four important ways in which this potential disruption of traditional global health funding mechanisms could occur: universal access to financing through direct transactions without third parties; novel new multilateral financing mechanisms; increased security and reduced fraud and corruption; and the opportunity for open markets for healthcare data that drive discovery and innovation. We see these issues as a paramount to the delivery of healthcare worldwide and relevant for payers and providers of healthcare at state, national and global levels; for government and non-governmental organisations; and for global aid organisations, including the WHO, International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group. PMID:29177101

  8. From blockchain technology to global health equity: can cryptocurrencies finance universal health coverage?

    Till, Brian M; Peters, Alexander W; Afshar, Salim; Meara, John

    2017-01-01

    Blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies could remake global health financing and usher in an era global health equity and universal health coverage. We outline and provide examples for at least four important ways in which this potential disruption of traditional global health funding mechanisms could occur: universal access to financing through direct transactions without third parties; novel new multilateral financing mechanisms; increased security and reduced fraud and corruption; and the opportunity for open markets for healthcare data that drive discovery and innovation. We see these issues as a paramount to the delivery of healthcare worldwide and relevant for payers and providers of healthcare at state, national and global levels; for government and non-governmental organisations; and for global aid organisations, including the WHO, International Monetary Fund and World Bank Group.

  9. Universal health coverage and the health Sustainable Development Goal: achievements and challenges for Sri Lanka.

    de Silva, Amala; Ranasinghe, Thushara; Abeykoon, Palitha

    2016-09-01

    With state-funded health care that is free at the point of delivery, a sound primary health-care policy and widespread health-care services, Sri Lanka seems a good example of universal health coverage. Yet, health transition and disparities in provision and financing threaten this situation. Sri Lanka did well on the Millennium Development Goal health indicators, but the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) for health has a wider purview, which is to "ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages". The gender gap in life expectancy and the gap between life expectancy and healthy life expectancy make achievement of the health SDG more challenging. Although women and children do well overall, the comparative health disadvantage for men in Sri Lanka is a cause for concern. From a financing perspective, high out-of-pocket expenditure and high utilization of the private sector, even by those in the lowest income quintile, are concerns, as is the emerging "third tier", where some individuals accessing state health care that is free at the point of delivery actually bear some of the costs of drugs, investigations and surgery. This cost sharing is resulting in catastrophic health expenditure for individuals, and delays in and non-compliance with treatment. These concerns about provision and financing must be addressed, as health transition will intensify the morbidity burden and loss of well-being, and could derail plans to achieve the health SDG.

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Canada's health care system: A relevant ...

    Canada's universal health care system, named Medicare, was fully in place. While this universal .... through lotteries and 'sin taxes' on alcohol and cigarettes. Since 2004, the federal portion of ..... Himmelstein DU, Thorne D, Warren E, Woolhandler S. Medical bankruptcy in the United. States, 2007: results of a national study.

  11. Assessment of university student health literacy toward Influenza

    Marzieh Meraji

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Outbreak of influenza A/H1N1 become serious concern. Student in academic institutions can play effective role in prevention and control of influenza. Here paramedical faculty student health literacy toward Influenza was assessed. Methods: A cross sectional-descriptive study was conducted among 139 students in Medical Records, Physiotherapy, Radiology, Health Information Technology, Speech Therapy and Optometry discipline at paramedical faculty of Mashhad medical university in 2016. A pandemic influenza questionnaire was translated and edited. Demographic characteristics of student, level of knowledge and perception toward influenza and perception toward government and media were collected. Results: More than half of student correctly identified influenza symptoms as fever 95/1%, body ache 51/2%, cough 46/3% and headaches 43/9%.person to person transmission and contact with infected objects were recognized by 87/8% and 68/3% of student as a mode of transmission. Students Covering identified nose and mouth 87/8%, hand washing with soap and water 80/5% and throwing tissues in rubbish bin as precutions.48/6% of student believed that influenza is not fatal; despite 88/9% of student perceived influenza as serious disease. In Government and media assessment, 39% of student agreed health department and other health authorities had a good control plan, 51/4% of student agreed with transparency of necessary intervention during flu outbreak. Conclusion: This study shows that paramedical faculty student has appropriate influenza health literacy. Delivering more information about mode of transmission, high risk group and precaution intervention and playing more effective role by media is recommended. Paper Type: Research Article.

  12. Dental health status and oral health behavior among university students from five ASEAN countries.

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate dental health status and oral health behavior and associated factors among university students in five ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam). Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 3,344 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.5, SD=1.6; 58.3% female) from five ASEAN countries. Results indicate that 27.7% of students reported to have sometimes, most of the time or always having tooth ache in the past 12 months, 39.4% reported to have one or more cavities, 20.3% did not brush their teeth twice or more times a day, and 30.9% had never been to a dentist (or did not know it). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age, living in a lower middle income country, consumption of chocolate or candy, having made a dental care visit, and poor mental health was associated with tooth ache in the past 12 months. Being male, being 20 to 21 years old, coming from a wealthier family background, living in a lower middle income country, frequent consumption of soft drinks, not having consulted with a dentist in the past 12 months and weak beliefs in the benefits of tooth brushing were associated with inadequate tooth brushing frequency (health status and oral health behaviors were found and various risk factors identified that can be utilized to guide interventions to improve oral health programs among university students.

  13. Paying for and receiving benefits from health services in South Africa: is the health system equitable?

    Ataguba, John E; McIntyre, Di

    2012-03-01

    There is a global challenge for health systems to ensure equity in both the delivery and financing of health care. However, many African countries still do not have equitable health systems. Traditionally, equity in the delivery and the financing of health care are assessed separately, in what may be termed 'partial' analyses. The current debate on countries moving toward universal health systems, however, requires a holistic understanding of equity in both the delivery and the financing of health care. The number of studies combining these aspects to date is limited, especially in Africa. An assessment of overall health system equity involves assessing health care financing in relation to the principles of contributing to financing according to ability to pay and benefiting from health services according to need for care. Currently South Africa is considering major health systems restructuring toward a universal system. This paper examines together, for both the public and the private sectors, equity in the delivery and financing of health care in South Africa. Using nationally representative datasets and standard methodologies for assessing progressivity in health care financing and benefit incidence, this paper reports an overall progressive financing system but a pro-rich distribution of health care benefits. The progressive financing system is driven mainly by progressive private medical schemes that cover a small portion of the population, mainly the rich. The distribution of health care benefits is not only pro-rich, but also not in line with the need for health care; richer groups receive a far greater share of service benefits within both public and private sectors despite having a relatively lower share of the ill-health burden. The importance of the findings for the design of a universal health system is discussed.

  14. Perception of academic stress among Health Science Preparatory Program students in two Saudi universities

    Alsulami S

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Saleh Alsulami, Zaid Al Omar, Mohammed S Binnwejim, Fahad Alhamdan, Amr Aldrees, Abdulkarim Al-bawardi, Meshary Alsohim, Mohammed Alhabeeb Departments of Family Medicine and Medical Education, College of Medicine, Imam Mohammad ibn Saud Islamic University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Abstract: The Health Science Preparatory Program (HSPP is a special program that aims to enhance the educational preparedness of students for participation in a health sciences career. Students spend their first university year in a combined extensive teaching program before they can be assigned to a particular health science specialty. It is thought that students enrolled in a highly competitive environment such as HSPP with a long list of potential stressors, including developmental, academic overload, language barriers and competition, are more disposed to stress and stress-related complications. This study aims to measure the level of academic stress and to determine its risk factors in students enrolled in HSPP-adapted local universities in Saudi Arabia. The study was conducted at two Saudi universities, King Saud University (KSU and Imam Mohammad ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSU with competition-based and non-competition-based HSPP learning models, respectively. Both universities adopt the HSPP system. The scale for assessing academic stress (SAAS was used to assess students’ perceived stress. A total of 290 students successfully completed the questionnaire (N=290, with a mean age of 18.66 years. Mean SAAS scores for KSU and IMSU students were 8.37 (SD = 4.641 and 7.97 (SD = 5.104, P=0.480, respectively. Only “satisfaction” and “associated social and health problems” have shown statistically significant correlation with university (P=0.000 and P=0.049, respectively. This study has found mean SAAS score for two local universities with competition-based versus non-competition-based HSPP learning models. Academic stress correlation with age, gender and

  15. Universities, regional innovation systems and the Bangalore experience

    Vang, Jan; Coenen, Lars; Chaminade, Christina

    2007-01-01

    This paper takes stock with one-size-fits-all models on the role of universities in regional innovation systems in Asia. It proposes a contextual and evolutionary perspective which focuses on the match between the specific competences and capabilities of the universities and the firms' particular...

  16. Developing National Systems of Innovation: University-Industry ...

    2015-01-30

    Jan 30, 2015 ... Interactions between firms and universities are key building blocks of innovation systems. With a focus on developing countries, this book presents novel comparative research spanning three continents. The result is a more universal and dynamic view of the shaping and reshaping of interactions between ...

  17. Universal Health Coverage - The Critical Importance of Global Solidarity and Good Governance Comment on "Ethical Perspective: Five Unacceptable Trade-offs on the Path to Universal Health Coverage".

    Reis, Andreas A

    2016-06-07

    This article provides a commentary to Ole Norheim' s editorial entitled "Ethical perspective: Five unacceptable trade-offs on the path to universal health coverage." It reinforces its message that an inclusive, participatory process is essential for ethical decision-making and underlines the crucial importance of good governance in setting fair priorities in healthcare. Solidarity on both national and international levels is needed to make progress towards the goal of universal health coverage (UHC). © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  18. Child Poverty and the Health Care System.

    Racine, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    The persistence of child poverty in the United States and the pervasive health consequences it engenders present unique challenges to the health care system. Human capital theory and empirical observation suggest that the increased disease burden experienced by poor children originates from social conditions that provide suboptimal educational, nutritional, environmental, and parental inputs to good health. Faced with the resultant excess rates of pediatric morbidity, the US health care system has developed a variety of compensatory strategies. In the first instance, Medicaid, the federal-state governmental finance system designed to assure health insurance coverage for poor children, has increased its eligibility thresholds and expanded its benefits to allow greater access to health services for this vulnerable population. A second arm of response involves a gradual reengineering of health care delivery at the practice level, including the dissemination of patient-centered medical homes, the use of team-based approaches to care, and the expansion of care management beyond the practice to reach deep into the community. Third is a series of recent experiments involving the federal government and state Medicaid programs that includes payment reforms of various kinds, enhanced reporting, concentration on high-risk populations, and intensive case management. Fourth, pediatric practices have begun to make use of specific tools that permit the identification and referral of children facing social stresses arising from poverty. Finally, constituencies within the health care system participate in enhanced advocacy efforts to raise awareness of poverty as a distinct threat to child health and to press for public policy responses such as minimum wage increases, expansion of tax credits, paid family leave, universal preschool education, and other priorities focused on child poverty. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  19. Mobile health systems and emergence

    Jones, Valerie M.; Graziosi, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Changes in the age distribution of the population and increased prevalence of chronic illnesses, together with a shortage of health professionals and other resources, will increasingly challenge the ability of national healthcare systems to meet rising demand for services. Large-scale use of eHealth

  20. Czechoslovakia's changing health care system.

    Raffel, M W; Raffel, N K

    1992-01-01

    Before World War II, Czechoslovakia was among the most developed European countries with an excellent health care system. After the Communist coup d'etat in 1948, the country was forced to adapt its existing health care system to the Soviet model. It was planned and managed by the government, financed by general tax money, operated in a highly centralized, bureaucratic fashion, and provided service at no direct charge at the time of service. In recent years, the health care system had been deteriorating as the health of the people had also been declining. Life expectancy, infant mortality rates, and diseases of the circulatory system are higher than in Western European countries. In 1989, political changes occurred in Czechoslovakia that made health care reform possible. Now health services are being decentralized, and the ownership of hospitals is expected to be transferred to communities, municipalities, churches, charitable groups, or private entities. Almost all health leaders, including hospital directors and hospital department heads, have been replaced. Physicians will be paid according to the type and amount of work performed. Perhaps the most important reform is the establishment of an independent General Health Care Insurance Office financed directly by compulsory contributions from workers, employers, and government that will be able to negotiate with hospitals and physicians to determine payment for services.

  1. Promoting better integration of health information systems: best practices and challenges

    Michelsen, K.; Brand, H.; Achterberg, P.; Wilkinson, J.

    2015-01-01

    Health Evidence Network Synthesis Report [Promoting better integration of health information systems: best practices and challenges K Michelsen, H Brand, P Achterberg, J Wilkinson - 2015 ... Authors Kai Michelsen Department of International Health, Maastricht University Maastricht,

  2. Breast Health Belief Systems Study

    Williams, Mary

    1999-01-01

    .... The hypothesis underlying this research is that a breast health promotion approach that is based in specific belief systems among three disparate African American rural populations of low socioeconomic status (SES...

  3. Physical activity and health promotion in Italian university students.

    Teleman, Adele Anna; de Waure, Chiara; Soffiani, Valentina; Poscia, Andrea; Di Pietro, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity, diet plans, the mantainment of a certain Body Mass Index (BMI) and the use of various types of supplementation are common elements in the search for disease prevention, health promotion and well-being. We analyzed the data regarding Italian university students' BMI, dieting behaviour, personal body perception, exercise habits, and use of dietary supplements and of doping substances. 13.7% resulted being underweight, 75.1% was in the normal range, 9.8% was overweight, and 1.4% was obese. 11.0% were on a diet. 25.8% of the students reported never doing any type of physical activity. 0.9% admitted consuming doping substances. The percentage of overweight/obese students increases from 8.8% of the 18-21 year olds to 18.1% of the 25-30 year olds. Similarly, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 18.5% among male population and 7.5% among the female one. The data deriving from this questionnaire showed that while the majority of university students has a BMI in the normal range, 11.2% of the study population is overweight/obese. Males present a higher risk of being overweight or obese. An important part of the population showed to be sedentary even though data coming from our study are aligned to further evidence. The most important concern arising from the questionnaire is represented by physical inactivity. Indeed, it is necessary to encourage and plan initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity in university students.

  4. Physical activity and health promotion in Italian university students

    Adele Anna Teleman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Physical activity, diet plans, the mantainment of a certain Body Mass Index (BMI and the use of various types of supplementation are common elements in the search for disease prevention, health promotion and well-being. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed the data regarding Italian university students' BMI, dieting behaviour, personal body perception, exercise habits, and use of dietary supplements and of doping substances. RESULTS: 13.7% resulted being underweight, 75.1% was in the normal range, 9.8% was overweight, and 1.4% was obese. 11.0% were on a diet. 25.8% of the students reported never doing any type of physical activity. 0.9% admitted consuming doping substances. The percentage of overweight/obese students increases from 8.8% of the 18-21 year olds to 18.1% of the 25-30 year olds. Similarly, the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 18.5% among male population and 7.5% among the female one. DISCUSSION: The data deriving from this questionnaire showed that while the majority of university students has a BMI in the normal range, 11.2% of the study population is overweight/obese. Males present a higher risk of being overweight or obese. An important part of the population showed to be sedentary even though data coming from our study are aligned to further evidence. CONCLUSION: The most important concern arising from the questionnaire is represented by physical inactivity. Indeed, it is necessary to encourage and plan initiatives aimed at promoting physical activity in university students.

  5. Outcome mapping for health system integration

    Tsasis P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Peter Tsasis,1 Jenna M Evans,2 David Forrest,3 Richard Keith Jones4 1School of Health Policy and Management, Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, Canada; 2Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Canada; 3Global Vision Consulting Ltd, Victoria, Canada; 4R Keith Jones and Associates, Victoria, Canada Abstract: Health systems around the world are implementing integrated care strategies to improve quality, reduce or maintain costs, and improve the patient experience. Yet few practical tools exist to aid leaders and managers in building the prerequisites to integrated care, namely a shared vision, clear roles and responsibilities, and a common understanding of how the vision will be realized. Outcome mapping may facilitate stakeholder alignment on the vision, roles, and processes of integrated care delivery via participative and focused dialogue among diverse stakeholders on desired outcomes and enabling actions. In this paper, we describe an outcome-mapping exercise we conducted at a Local Health Integration Network in Ontario, Canada, using consensus development conferences. Our preliminary findings suggest that outcome mapping may help stakeholders make sense of a complex system and foster collaborative capital, a resource that can support information sharing, trust, and coordinated change toward integration across organizational and professional boundaries. Drawing from the theoretical perspectives of complex adaptive systems and collaborative capital, we also outline recommendations for future outcome-mapping exercises. In particular, we emphasize the potential for outcome mapping to be used as a tool not only for identifying and linking strategic outcomes and actions, but also for studying the boundaries, gaps, and ties that characterize social networks across the continuum of care. Keywords: integrated care, integrated delivery systems, complex adaptive systems, social capital

  6. Characteristics quality system assurance of university programs

    Lucian Ion Medar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality assurance program of study requires time, dedication, effort, innovative thinking and creativity. Competitive research programs monitored by quality assurance system to create the desired results on the relationship between learning and teaching methods and assessment.

  7. A Universal Logging System for LHCb Online

    Nikolaidis, Fotis; Brarda, Loic; Garnier, Jean-Christophe; Neufeld, Niko

    2011-01-01

    A log is recording of system's activity, aimed to help system administrator to traceback an attack, find the causes of a malfunction and generally with troubleshooting. The fact that logs are the only information an administrator may have for an incident, makes logging system a crucial part of an IT infrastructure. In large scale infrastructures, such as LHCb Online, where quite a few GB of logs are produced daily, it is impossible for a human to review all of these logs. Moreover, a great percentage of them as just n oise . That makes clear that a more automated and sophisticated approach is needed. In this paper, we present a low-cost centralized logging system which allow us to do in-depth analysis of every log.

  8. Knowledge, Awareness and Compliance with Universal Precautions among Health Care Workers at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica

    K Vaz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Universal precautions are not well understood or implemented by health care practitioners, though crucial in the prevention and transmission of blood-borne pathogens like HIV. Objective: To assess knowledge, awareness and compliance of universal precautions among health care workers at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in September and October 2007. A 28-item self-administered questionnaire was provided to 200 health care workers including medical doctors, medical technologists, nurses and porters to assess their knowledge, awareness and practice towards universal precautions. Results: Almost two-thirds (64.0% of the respondents were very knowledgeable of universal precautions with significantly more females (75.4% than males (42.9% (p<0.0001. More nurses (90.0%, medical doctors (88.0% and medical technologists (70% were very knowledgeable of universal precautions (p<0.0001. More respondents (92.9% who were employed in the health sector for 16 years and over reported high levels of awareness of universal precautions than those who were employed for less than five years (p<0.0001. 28.6% of males and only 6.2% of females reported that they do not use protective gear. More nurses reported frequent use of protective equipment followed by medical technologists and medical doctors (p<0.0001. Conclusions: There was adequate knowledge and a fair level of awareness among medical doctors, medical technologists, and nurses towards universal precautions.

  9. Knowledge, awareness and compliance with universal precautions among health care workers at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica.

    Vaz, K; McGrowder, D; Alexander-Lindo, R; Gordon, L; Brown, P; Irving, R

    2010-10-01

    Universal precautions are not well understood or implemented by health care practitioners, though crucial in the prevention and transmission of blood-borne pathogens like HIV. To assess knowledge, awareness and compliance of universal precautions among health care workers at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in September and October 2007. A 28-item self-administered questionnaire was provided to 200 health care workers including medical doctors, medical technologists, nurses and porters to assess their knowledge, awareness and practice towards universal precautions. Almost two-thirds (64.0%) of the respondents were very knowledgeable of universal precautions with significantly more females (75.4%) than males (42.9%) (p<0.0001). More nurses (90.0%), medical doctors (88.0%) and medical technologists (70%) were very knowledgeable of universal precautions (p<0.0001). More respondents (92.9%) who were employed in the health sector for 16 years and over reported high levels of awareness of universal precautions than those who were employed for less than five years (p<0.0001). 28.6% of males and only 6.2% of females reported that they do not use protective gear. More nurses reported frequent use of protective equipment followed by medical technologists and medical doctors (p<0.0001). There was adequate knowledge and a fair level of awareness among medical doctors, medical technologists, and nurses towards universal precautions.

  10. Availability, use, and affordability of medicines in urban China under universal health coverage : an empirical study in Hangzhou and Baoji

    Huang, Yunyu; Jiang, Youfen; Zhang, Luying; Mao, Wenhui; van Boven, Job F M; Postma, Maarten J; Chen, Wen

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to examine the availability, use, and affordability of medicines in urban China following the 2009 Health Care System Reform that included implementation of universal health coverage (UHC). METHODS: This longitudinal study was performed in Hangzhou (high income, eastern

  11. Availability, use, and affordability of medicines in urban China under universal health coverage : an empirical study in Hangzhou and Baoji

    Huang, Yunyu; Jiang, Youfen; Zhang, Luying; Mao, Wenhui; van Boven, Job F. M.; Postma, Maarten J.; Chen, Wen

    2018-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to examine the availability, use, and affordability of medicines in urban China following the 2009 Health Care System Reform that included implementation of universal health coverage (UHC). Methods: This longitudinal study was performed in Hangzhou (high income, eastern

  12. [Corruption and health care system].

    Marasović Šušnjara, Ivana

    2014-06-01

    Corruption is a global problem that takes special place in health care system. A large number of participants in the health care system and numerous interactions among them provide an opportunity for various forms of corruption, be it bribery, theft, bureaucratic corruption or incorrect information. Even though it is difficult to measure the amount of corruption in medicine, there are tools that allow forming of the frames for possible interventions.

  13. Health Systems Strengthening

    Hanlin, Rebecca; Andersen, Margrethe Holm

    The Global Network for the Economics of Learning, Innovation, and Competence Building Systems (Globelics) is an open and diverse community of scholars working on innovation and competence building in the context of economic development. The major purpose of the network is to contribute to buildin...

  14. Sexual behavior and health problems in university students, University of Antioquia, 1991.

    Zuloaga Posada, L; Soto Vélez, C; Vélez, D J

    1995-12-01

    Authorities at the University of Antioquia, Colombia, felt it would be advisable to institute a student orientation program aimed at preventing health problems resulting from risky sexual behavior related to new cultural trends. The purpose of the work reported in this article was to collect information on the existing situation and provide appropriate advice to the Health Division of the University Welfare Office. For this purpose a survey was conducted with the voluntary participation of 836 students enrolled in their final year of study. A survey form containing 45 questions designed to elicit demographic and sexual behavior data was self-administered anonymously by the participating students. Among the participants who were sexually active, 10.9% (17.2% of the men, 3.3% of the women) said they had contracted some variety of sexually transmitted disease (STD). The most common diagnoses were gonorrhea (42%), genital warts (23%), and genital herpes (19%). The risk of contracting STD was 4.2 times greater in those reporting sex with strangers; 3.4 times greater in those reporting four or more sexual partners; and 2.5 times greater in those reporting homosexual relations, as compared to students not practicing such behaviors. Some 28.4% of 790 survey respondents or their partners had been pregnant; 49% of these pregnancies had terminated in abortions, 77% of these being induced abortions. Only 51.3% of the survey participants reported customary use of contraceptives, those most frequently cited being condoms (by 32% of the users), pills (20%), the rhythm method (18%), and extravaginal ejaculation (17%). Generally speaking, it appears that participating students had received little sex education. To obtain information, they had turned primarily to friends and books. Those who said they had received adequate sex education at home participated somewhat less frequently in risky behaviors but appeared a little less apt to have used contraceptives and a little more apt to

  15. Intelligent Integrated System Health Management

    Figueroa, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system (Management: storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation). Presentation discusses: (1) ISHM Capability Development. (1a) ISHM Knowledge Model. (1b) Standards for ISHM Implementation. (1c) ISHM Domain Models (ISHM-DM's). (1d) Intelligent Sensors and Components. (2) ISHM in Systems Design, Engineering, and Integration. (3) Intelligent Control for ISHM-Enabled Systems

  16. Universal Coverage without Universal Access: Institutional Barriers to Health Care among Women Sex Workers in Vancouver, Canada

    Soc?as, M. Eugenia; Shoveller, Jean; Bean, Chili; Nguyen, Paul; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Background Access to health care is a crucial determinant of health. Yet, even within settings that purport to provide universal health coverage (UHC), sex workers? experiences reveal systematic, institutionally ingrained barriers to appropriate quality health care. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and correlates of institutional barriers to care among sex workers in a setting with UHC. Methods Data was drawn from an ongoing community-based, prospective cohort of women sex worke...

  17. Institutional analysis of health system governance.

    Abimbola, Seye; Negin, Joel; Martiniuk, Alexandra L; Jan, Stephen

    2017-11-01

    It is important that researchers who study health system governance have a set of collective understandings of the meanings of governance, which can then inform the methods used in research. We present an institutional framing and definition of health system governance; that is, governance refers to making, changing, monitoring and enforcing the rules that govern the demand and supply of health services. This pervasive, relational view of governance is to be preferred to approaches that focus primarily on structures of governments and health care organizations, because health system governance involves communities and service users, and because governments in many low- and middle-income countries tend to under-govern. Therefore, the study of health system governance requires institutional analysis; an approach that focuses not only on structures, but also on the rules (both formal and informal) governing demand and supply relations. Using this 'structure-relations' lens, and based on our field experience, we discuss how this focus could be applied to the three approaches to framing and studying health system governance that we identified in the literature. In order of decreasing focus on structures ('hardware') and increasing focus on relations ('software'), they are: (1) the government-centred approach, which focuses on the role of governments, above or to the exclusion of non-government health system actors; (2) the building-block approach, which focuses on the internal workings of health care organizations, and treats governance as one of the several building blocks of organizations; and (3) the institutional approach, which focuses on how the rules governing social and economic interactions are made, changed, monitored and enforced. Notably, either or both qualitative and quantitative methods may be used by researchers in efforts to incorporate the analysis of how rules determine relations among health system actors into these three approaches to health system

  18. THE BPMN APPROACH OF THE UNIVERSITY INFORMATION SYSTEMS

    Catalin STRȊMBEI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a new vision about the enterprise modelling in the context of Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN and the university area. Although the flow objects, artefacts, connecting objects and swim lanes are very used in the process of Enterprise Modelling, they have specific roles in the university information systems. The paper will reveal a specific approach of BPMN in the context of university information systems based on a comparative analysis of some representative universities from United States and Central Europe. Our ideas are argued with a practical case study that includes 4 realistic and complex systems: study programs and curriculum, students’ admission, student roadmap, students’ exchange. The future directions of the article are some visions of BPMN orchestration of a SOA-based architecture for Student Record Systems.

  19. Modifying scoring system at South African University rugby level ...

    Success in rugby is measured by winning the game and in order to do so, teams need to score more points ... if modifying the scoring system at South African University rugby level changes the game dynamics. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. INFORMATION SYSTEM DESIGN OF PERFORMANCE ACHIEVEMENTS MONITORING IN THE UNIVERSITY: A CASE STUDY IN BINUS UNIVERSITY

    Irma Irawati Ibrahim

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Dashboard is a computer interface that displays a variety of charts, graphs, tables, which are selected reports from various data that are considered important to display rapidly, with an attractive appearance, dynamic, and relevant so that it can immediately be seen quickly to analyze a condition. Dashboard information system is widely used in various companies as a support system for decision-making where Dashboard usually displays data business trends of the company or the achievement of KPI (Key Performance Indicator of a company. The method used is descriptive analysis by means of collecting information that areimportant for universities to be considered asthe Key Success Factors (KSF of the university, and then, the design of the dashboard is made in accordance with these important factors.The result of this study is a grand design of information systems for the university performance monitoring, starting from the reception of students, faculty performance, student academic achievement, effectiveness and efficiency of services, including graduates. It is expected that by the time the system has been fully implemented, the university can take action quickly and accurately with respect to the required conditions.Keywords: Information System Dashboard; Dashboard; Academic Dashboard; University Dashboard

  1. The University of Wisconsin OAO operating system

    Heacox, H. C.; Mcnall, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The Wisconsin OAO operating system is presented which consists of two parts: a computer program called HARUSPEX, which makes possible reasonably efficient and convenient operation of the package and ground operations equipment which provides real-time status monitoring, commanding and a quick-look at the data.

  2. Managing examination malpractice in Nigerian University system ...

    Examination malpractice is as old as examination itself. However, the rate at which examination malpractices occurs in the Nigerian educational system is highly disturbing. The challenge therefore needs prompt attention. The phenomenon which has both moral and legal dimensions is considered as a hydra-headed ...

  3. Mental Health Literacy in Emerging Adults in a University Setting: Distinctions between Symptom Awareness and Appraisal

    Gagnon, Michelle M.; Gelinas, Bethany L.; Friesen, Lindsay N.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of mental health concerns in university populations, students are unlikely to seek formal help. The current study examined help-seeking behaviors among emerging adults in a university setting using a mental health literacy framework. Responses from 122 university undergraduates were examined. Students ranged in age from…

  4. 普通高校“体育与健康”课程体系初探%A Preliminary Exploration on the Curriculum System of"Sports and Health"in Common Universities

    刘艳丽

    2014-01-01

    教育性的原则是指教育者在进行心理健康教育的过程中,要根据具体情况,提出积极中肯的分析,始终注意培养学生的积极进取的精神,帮助学生树立正确的人生观、价值观和世界观。进入21世纪,随着高校体育课程改革已进入深化阶段,对学校体育卫生工作提出了更新、更高的要求,普通高校体育课程改革逐步向体育教育与健康教育相融合的方向发展已成为趋势。学生能够提高对身体和健康的认识,掌握有关身体健康的知识和科学健身方法,提高自我保健意识;坚持锻炼,增强体能,促进身体健康;养成健康的行为与生活方式。可见一个健康的人,除了生理上的健康外,还必须具备心理上的健康和对社会良好的适应能力。%The educational principle means that, the educators, in the process of psychological health education, should put forward positive and relevant analysis in accordance with the specific sit-uation, always pay attention to the cultivation of students' enter-prising spirit, and help students set up the correct outlook on life, values and world. Entering the 21st century, with the deepening of university sports curriculum reform, newer and higher require-ments have been proposed for university sports and health work, and the trend of sports curriculum reform in common universities has gradually become the integration of physical education and health education. In the process, students will improve the un-derstanding of the sports and health, grasp relevant knowledge about physical health and methods of scientific health-building, and improve the consciousness of sel-health care;they will keep exercising, enhance physical fitness and promote physical health;they will also develop a healthy behavior and way of life. Thus it can be seen that, in addition to physical health, a healthy person must also possess psychological health and good social adapt-ability.

  5. China's community-based strategy of universal preconception care in rural areas at a population level using a novel risk classification system for stratifying couples´ preconception health status.

    Zhou, Qiongjie; Zhang, Shikun; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Tian, Weidong; Chen, Jingqi; Acharya, Ganesh; Li, Xiaotian

    2016-12-28

    Preconception care (PCC) is recommended for optimizing a woman's health prior to pregnancy to minimize the risk of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the impact of strategy and a novel risk classification model of China´s "National Preconception Health Care Project" (NPHCP) in identifying risk factors and stratifying couples' preconception health status. We performed a secondary analysis of data collected by NPHCP during April 2010 to December 2012 in 220 selected counties in China. All couples enrolled in the project accepted free preconception health examination, risk evaluation, health education and medical advice. Risk factors were categorized into five preconception risk classes based on their amenability to prevention and treatment: A-avoidable risk factors, B- benefiting from targeted medical intervention, C-controllable but requiring close monitoring and treatment during pregnancy, D-diagnosable prenatally but not modifiable preconceptionally, X-pregnancy not advisable. Information on each couple´s socio-demographic and health status was recorded and further analyzed. Among the 2,142,849 couples who were enrolled to this study, the majority (92.36%) were from rural areas with low education levels (89.2% women and 88.3% men had education below university level). A total of 1463266 (68.29%) couples had one or more preconception risk factors mainly of category A, B and C, among which 46.25% were women and 51.92% were men. Category A risk factors were more common among men compared with women (38.13% versus 11.24%; P = 0.000). This project provided new insights into preconception health of Chinese couples of reproductive age. More than half of the male partners planning to father a child, were exposed to risk factors during the preconception period, suggesting that an integrated approach to PCC including both women and men is justified. Stratification based on the new risk classification model demonstrated that a majority of the

  6. [The health system of Guatemala].

    Becerril-Montekio, Víctor; López-Dávila, Luis

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health conditions in Guatemala and, in more detail, the characteristics of the Guatemalan health system, including its structure en coverage, its financial sources, the stewardship functions developed by the Ministry of Health, as well as the generation of health information and the development of research activities. It also discusses the recent efforts to extend coverage of essential health services, mostly to poor rural areas.The most recent innovations also discussed in this paper include the Program for the Expansion of Coverage of Essential Services, the Program to Expand Access to Essential Drugs and the agreements between the Ministry of Health and several non-governmental organizations to provide essential services in rural settings.

  7. A new remote-imaging diagnosis system at Komazawa University

    Shimada, Morio; Kohda, Eiichi; Yoshikawa, Kohki

    2007-01-01

    We developed a remote-imaging diagnosis system that links the highly experienced radiologists at Komazawa University with Fuji Electric Hospital, where no such radiologists are present. MRI or CT images from Fuji Electric hospital are transmitted to Komazawa University via private line (INS64). The radiologists at Komazawa University then read the MRI or CT images, and relay the results to Fuji Electric Hospital. We describe the advantages and disadvantages of this system. MRI or CT imaging data from 80 cases were used. The data were stored in the imaging system server at Fuji Electric Hospital and were evaluated by experienced radiologists at Komazawa University. The images were sent one by one to the diagnostic support system server at Komazawa University through the private INS64 line. We examined transmission time per case and the security of transmission. Transmission of MRI or CT images from the 80 cases required a mean duration of 63 minutes 30 seconds per image. The quality of all images was highly satisfactory. In addition, there was no evidence of weaknesses in security. A physician at Fuji Electric Hospital was able to readily explain to the patient the results of the images by referring to the findings written by a radiologist at Komazawa University. We were able to transmit MRI or CT images by using this system safely and readily. The primary disadvantage of this system was the slow transmission speed. This will be improved by upgrading to an optical fibers. (author)

  8. The Management and Demonstration System at Murray State University.

    Schroeder, Gary G.

    The management system in use at the Murray State University Teacher Corps Project is described. The system uses management by objectives and the demonstration approach, and encourages managers to focus on the development and demonstration of ideas, processes, and structures. The system's operating concepts of time management and human resources…

  9. Embedding health literacy into health systems: a case study of a regional health service.

    Vellar, Lucia; Mastroianni, Fiorina; Lambert, Kelly

    2017-12-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe how one regional health service the Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District embedded health literacy principles into health systems over a 3-year period. Methods Using a case study approach, this article describes the development of key programs and the manner in which clinical incidents were used to create a health environment that allows consumers the right to equitably access quality health services and to participate in their own health care. Results The key outcomes demonstrating successful embedding of health literacy into health systems in this regional health service include the creation of a governance structure and web-based platform for developing and testing plain English consumer health information, a clearly defined process to engage with consumers, development of the health literacy ambassador training program and integrating health literacy into clinical quality improvement processes via a formal program with consumers to guide processes such as improvements to access and navigation around hospital sites. Conclusions The Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District has developed an evidence-based health literacy framework, guided by the core principles of universal precaution and organisational responsibility. Health literacy was also viewed as both an outcome and a process. The approach taken by the Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District to address poor health literacy in a coordinated way has been recognised by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care as an exemplar of a coordinated approach to embed health literacy into health systems. What is known about the topic? Poor health literacy is a significant national concern in Australia. The leadership, governance and consumer partnership culture of a health organisation can have considerable effects on an individual's ability to access, understand and apply the health-related information and services available to them

  10. Strengthening Governance in Health Systems for Reproductive ...

    Home · What we do ... As a result, Pakistan's health system has suffered and health service delivery has worsened. ... This four-year project aims to strengthen health systems governance for reproductive health and rights in Pakistan.

  11. Democratic candidates call for change in the health care system: wider use of home and community-based care, chronic disease management, universal coverage, and greater use of telehealth.

    Marsh, Aaron G

    2008-10-01

    Senator Barack Obama, the Democratic candidate for president, and Senator Joe Biden, the party's candidate for vice president, have made health care reform a central pillar of their campaign. The Democrats want to target the 12 percent of Americans who are responsible for 69 percent of health care costs. Such individuals generally have multiple and complex health care problems, which if left untreated, require them to seek care in hospital emergency rooms which are vastly overcrowded. In order to solve the problem, they believe first that universal coverage along the lines of the Federal Government Employees' health plan is necessary, followed by a shift away from institutionally-based care, making home and community-based care, which integrates telehealth and other technologies, the norm. The party's platform includes this committment to help solve the problem of long-term care, which affects not only the nation's 35 million elderly, but increasingly will affect the 78 million baby boomers who are entering their retirement years.

  12. The path towards universal health coverage in the Arab uprising countries Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen.

    Saleh, Shadi S; Alameddine, Mohamad S; Natafgi, Nabil M; Mataria, Awad; Sabri, Belgacem; Nasher, Jamal; Zeiton, Moez; Ahmad, Shaimaa; Siddiqi, Sameen

    2014-01-25

    The constitutions of many countries in the Arab world clearly highlight the role of governments in guaranteeing provision of health care as a right for all citizens. However, citizens still have inequitable health-care systems. One component of such inequity relates to restricted financial access to health-care services. The recent uprisings in the Arab world, commonly referred to as the Arab spring, created a sociopolitical momentum that should be used to achieve universal health coverage (UHC). At present, many countries of the Arab spring are considering health coverage as a priority in dialogues for new constitutions and national policy agendas. UHC is also the focus of advocacy campaigns of a number of non-governmental organisations and media outlets. As part of the health in the Arab world Series in The Lancet, this report has three overarching objectives. First, we present selected experiences of other countries that had similar social and political changes, and how these events affected their path towards UHC. Second, we present a brief overview of the development of health-care systems in the Arab world with regard to health-care coverage and financing, with a focus on Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, and Yemen. Third, we aim to integrate historical lessons with present contexts in a roadmap for action that addresses the challenges and opportunities for progression towards UHC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mobile health information system: a mobile app. to aid health ...

    Mobile health information system: a mobile app. to aid health workers relate health information. ... Global Journal of Mathematical Sciences ... phones in delivering vital health information and effective fieldwork reporting is of significance.

  14. The Bristol University neutron dosimetry system

    Worley, A.; Fews, A.P.; Henshaw, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The neutron dosimetry system developed at Bristol is based on recording recoil proton tracks in conventionally etched PADC plastic using a fully automated image analysis system. Two features contribute to the achievement of a low dose threshold: high quality plastic is manufactured and undergoes extensive quality control tests prior to acceptance for use in dosimetry, and a readout system with high efficiency for rejecting background events is used. The principal dosemeter that has been developed consists of three orthogonal elements, each containing two 3 cm x 1 cm plastics on either side of a polyethylene radiator. On each plastic an area of 0.15 cm 2 is scanned giving a total active area of 0.90 cm 2 . Each plastic is coded for manual identification and for computer recognition. The track counts from the six plastics are added with different weightings to achieve a measure of dose which is independent of irradiation direction when worn on the body. The device has been calibrated using monoenergetic neutrons in the range 100 keV to 14.7 MeV at NPL, and using the recent CENDOS exposure. If the track counts are added without weighting, the device has a nominal response of 120 tracks cm -2 .mSv -1 and an energy threshold at 200 keV. Taken together with a background of 20 track cm -2 , a dose threshold of around 80μSv is implied. A simpler dosemeter, using a single plastic/radiator combination, may also be considered. If a 1 cm 2 device is used for normal incidence exposure, the dose threshold is calculated to be 25 μSv. (author)

  15. A 'Universal Time' system for ASDEX upgrade

    Raupp, Gerhard; Cole, R.; Behler, K.; Fitzek, M.; Heimann, P.; Lohs, A.; Lueddecke, K.; Neu, G.; Schacht, J.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, Th.; Zilker, M.

    2003-01-01

    For the new generation of intelligent controllers for plasma diagnostics, discharge control and long-pulse experiment control a new time system supporting steady state real-time operation has been devised. A central unit counts time at nanosecond resolution, covering more than the experiment lifetime. The broadcast time information serves local units to perform application functions such as current time readout, trigger generation and sample time measurement. Time is treated as a precisely measured quantity like other physical quantities. Tagging all detected events and sampled values with measured times as [value; time]-entities facilitates real-time data analysis, steady state protocolling and time-sorted archiving

  16. The rise and fall of democratic universalism: health care reform in Italy, 1978-1994.

    Ferrera, M

    1995-01-01

    In 1978, a sweeping reform created the first national health service of continental Europe: Italy's Servizio Sanitario Nazionale. This new scheme was based on the principle of "full democratic universalism": The state would provide free and equal benefits to every citizen and the organization of public health would subject to popular control, essentially through political parties. However, the severe problems encountered in implementing the reform design and rapidly increasing health expenditures soon eroded any consensus on this principle. Thus the 1980s and early 1990s witnessed a gradual shift to "conditional and well managed universalism." These latter principles stress the need to differentiate access to care according to some criterion to regulate demand and the need for efficient use of scarce resources through adequate valorization of managerial skills and the use of "market-type" incentives. An elaborated system of user copayments was introduced gradually, and in 1992 a "reform of the reform" profoundly changed the organizational framework of the Servizio Sanitario Nazionale. The new government elected in the spring of 1994 announced ambitious plans to partially dismantle public universal insurance. Although these plans may prove difficult, the potential to form an anti-universalistic coalition seems strong in the contemporary Italian health care arena.

  17. Introduction on health recommender systems.

    Sanchez-Bocanegra, C L; Sanchez-Laguna, F; Sevillano, J L

    2015-01-01

    People are looking for appropriate health information which they are concerned about. The Internet is a great resource of this kind of information, but we have to be careful if we don't want to get harmful info. Health recommender systems are becoming a new wave for apt health information as systems suggest the best data according to the patients' needs.The main goals of health recommender systems are to retrieve trusted health information from the Internet, to analyse which is suitable for the user profile and select the best that can be recommended, to adapt their selection methods according to the knowledge domain and to learn from the best recommendations.A brief definition of recommender systems will be given and an explanation of how are they incorporated in the health sector. A description of the main elementary recommender methods as well as their most important problems will also be made. And, to finish, the state of the art will be described.

  18. Universal health coverage for India by 2022: a utopia or reality?

    Singh, Zile

    2013-04-01

    It is the obligation of the state to provide free and universal access to quality health-care services to its citizens. India continues to be among the countries of the world that have a high burden of diseases. The various health program and policies in the past have not been able to achieve the desired goals and objectives. 65(th) World Health Assembly in Geneva identified universal health coverage (UHC) as the key imperative for all countries to consolidate the public health advances. Accordingly, Planning Commission of India constituted a high level expert group (HLEG) on UHC in October 2010. HLEG submitted its report in Nov 2011 to Planning Commission on UHC for India by 2022. The recommendations for the provision of UHC pertain to the critical areas such as health financing, health infrastructure, health services norms, skilled human resources, access to medicines and vaccines, management and institutional reforms, and community participation. India faces enormous challenges to achieve UHC by 2022 such as high disease prevalence, issues of gender equality, unregulated and fragmented health-care delivery system, non-availability of adequate skilled human resource, vast social determinants of health, inadequate finances, lack of inter-sectoral co-ordination and various political pull and push of different forces, and interests. These challenges can be met by a paradigm shift in health policies and programs in favor of vulnerable population groups, restructuring of public health cadres, reorientation of undergraduate medical education, more emphasis on public health research, and extensive education campaigns. There are still areas of concern in fulfilling the objectives of achieving UHC by 2022 regarding financing model for health-care delivery, entitlement package, cost of health-care interventions and declining state budgets. However, the Government's commitment to provide adequate finances, recent bold social policy initiatives and enactments such as food

  19. Achieving universal health coverage in small island states: could importing health services provide a solution?

    Walls, Helen; Smith, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Background Universal health coverage (UHC) is difficult to achieve in settings short of medicines, health workers and health facilities. These characteristics define the majority of the small island developing states (SIDS), where population size negates the benefits of economies of scale. One option to alleviate this constraint is to import health services, rather than focus on domestic production. This paper provides empirical analysis of the potential impact of this option. Methods Analysis was based on publicly accessible data for 14 SIDS, covering health-related travel and health indicators for the period 2003–2013, together with in-depth review of medical travel schemes for the two highest importing SIDS—the Maldives and Tuvalu. Findings Medical travel from SIDS is accelerating. The SIDS studied generally lacked health infrastructure and technologies, and the majority of them had lower than the recommended number of physicians in a country, which limits their capacity for achieving UHC. Tuvalu and the Maldives were the highest importers of healthcare and notably have public schemes that facilitate medical travel and help lower the out-of-pocket expenditure on medical travel. Although different in approach, design and performance, the medical travel schemes in Tuvalu and the Maldives are both examples of measures used to increase access to health services that cannot feasibly be provided in SIDS. Interpretation Our findings suggest that importing health services (through schemes to facilitate medical travel) is a potential mechanism to help achieve universal healthcare for SIDS but requires due diligence over cost, equity and quality control. PMID:29527349

  20. Consolidating the social health insurance schemes in China: towards an equitable and efficient health system.

    Meng, Qingyue; Fang, Hai; Liu, Xiaoyun; Yuan, Beibei; Xu, Jin

    2015-10-10

    Fragmentation in social health insurance schemes is an important factor for inequitable access to health care and financial protection for people covered by different health insurance schemes in China. To fulfil its commitment of universal health coverage by 2020, the Chinese Government needs to prioritise addressing this issue. After analysing the situation of fragmentation, this Review summarises efforts to consolidate health insurance schemes both in China and internationally. Rural migrants, elderly people, and those with non-communicable diseases in China will greatly benefit from consolidation of the existing health insurance schemes with extended funding pools, thereby narrowing the disparities among health insurance schemes in fund level and benefit package. Political commitments, institutional innovations, and a feasible implementation plan are the major elements needed for success in consolidation. Achievement of universal health coverage in China needs systemic strategies including consolidation of the social health insurance schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Implementing the Health Promoting University approach in culturally different contexts: a systematic review.

    Suárez-Reyes, Mónica; Van den Broucke, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    Universities represent a valuable opportunity to promote health and well-being. Based on the setting approach, the Health Promoting Universities concept has been developed in different countries and contexts. However, the implementation process remains poorly documented. This systematic review aims to describe how universities have implemented the Health Promoting University concept in different cultural contexts. Pubmed, Medline, Lilacs and Scielo were searched for articles on Health Promoting Universities, published between 1995 and 2015. Studies detailing the implementation of a Health Promoting University approach were included. Selected articles were content analysed paying attention to: (a) the definition of a Health Promoting University; (b) priority areas of action; (c) items of work; (d) coordination of the project; (e) evaluation; and (f) adaptation to the cultural context. Twelve studies were identified for in-depth analysis. Of those, three were theoretical papers, and nine were intervention studies. The programmes described in the selected studies are mostly based on the guidelines of the Edmonton Charter. They incorporated the main areas of action and items of works proposed by the Health Promoting University framework. The implementation of healthy policies and incorporation of health promotion in the curriculum are remaining challenges. Strategies to facilitate adaptation to context include: stakeholder participation in planning and implementation, adaptation of educational material and analysis of needs. The review suggests that most of the universities work towards similar goals, relying on the Health Promoting University framework, yet that the way in which initiatives are implemented depends on the context. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. The University Environment: A Comprehensive Assessment of Health-Related Advertisements

    Szymona, Katie; Quick, Virginia; Olfert, Melissa; Shelnutt, Karla; Kattlemann, Kendra K.; Brown-Esters, Onikia; Colby, Sarah E.; Beaudoin, Christina; Lubniewski, Jocelyn; Maia, Angelina Moore; Horacek, Tanya; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about health-related advertising on university environments. Given the power of advertising and its potential effect on health behaviors, the purpose of this paper is to assess the health-related advertisement environment and policies on university campuses. Design/methodology/approach: In total, ten geographically and…

  3. UNIVERSITY TURBINE SYSTEMS RESEARCH PROGRAM SUMMARY AND DIRECTORY

    Lawrence P. Golan; Richard A. Wenglarz

    2004-07-01

    The South Carolina Institute for Energy Studies (SCIES), administratively housed at Clemson University, has participated in the advancement of combustion turbine technology for over a decade. The University Turbine Systems Research Program, previously referred to as the Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program, has been administered by SCIES for the U.S. DOE during the 1992-2003 timeframe. The structure of the program is based on a concept presented to the DOE by Clemson University. Under the supervision of the DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), the UTSR consortium brings together the engineering departments at leading U.S. universities and U.S. combustion turbine developers to provide a solid base of knowledge for the future generations of land-based gas turbines. In the UTSR program, an Industrial Review Board (IRB) (Appendix C) of gas turbine companies and related organizations defines needed gas turbine research. SCIES prepares yearly requests for university proposals to address the research needs identified by the IRB organizations. IRB technical representatives evaluate the university proposals and review progress reports from the awarded university projects. To accelerate technology transfer technical workshops are held to provide opportunities for university, industry and government officials to share comments and improve quality and relevancy of the research. To provide educational growth at the Universities, in addition to sponsored research, the UTSR provides faculty and student fellowships. The basis for all activities--research, technology transfer, and education--is the DOE Turbine Program Plan and identification, through UTSR consortium group processes, technology needed to meet Program Goals that can be appropriately researched at Performing Member Universities.

  4. Universal Health Coverage and the Right to Health: From Legal Principle to Post-2015 Indicators.

    Sridhar, Devi; McKee, Martin; Ooms, Gorik; Beiersmann, Claudia; Friedman, Eric; Gouda, Hebe; Hill, Peter; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is widely considered one of the key components for the post-2015 health goal. The idea of UHC is rooted in the right to health, set out in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. Based on the Covenant and the General Comment of the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, which is responsible for interpreting and monitoring the Covenant, we identify 6 key legal principles that should underpin UHC based on the right to health: minimum core obligation, progressive realization, cost-effectiveness, shared responsibility, participatory decision making, and prioritizing vulnerable or marginalized groups. Yet, although these principles are widely accepted, they are criticized for not being specific enough to operationalize as post-2015 indicators for reaching the target of UHC. In this article, we propose measurable and achievable indicators for UHC based on the right to health that can be used to inform the ongoing negotiations on Sustainable Development Goals. However, we identify 3 major challenges that face any exercise in setting indicators post-2015: data availability as an essential criterion, the universality of targets, and the adaptation of global goals to local populations. © SAGE Publications 2015.

  5. Portable Health Algorithms Test System

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Wong, Edmond; Fulton, Christopher E.; Sowers, Thomas S.; Maul, William A.

    2010-01-01

    A document discusses the Portable Health Algorithms Test (PHALT) System, which has been designed as a means for evolving the maturity and credibility of algorithms developed to assess the health of aerospace systems. Comprising an integrated hardware-software environment, the PHALT system allows systems health management algorithms to be developed in a graphical programming environment, to be tested and refined using system simulation or test data playback, and to be evaluated in a real-time hardware-in-the-loop mode with a live test article. The integrated hardware and software development environment provides a seamless transition from algorithm development to real-time implementation. The portability of the hardware makes it quick and easy to transport between test facilities. This hard ware/software architecture is flexible enough to support a variety of diagnostic applications and test hardware, and the GUI-based rapid prototyping capability is sufficient to support development execution, and testing of custom diagnostic algorithms. The PHALT operating system supports execution of diagnostic algorithms under real-time constraints. PHALT can perform real-time capture and playback of test rig data with the ability to augment/ modify the data stream (e.g. inject simulated faults). It performs algorithm testing using a variety of data input sources, including real-time data acquisition, test data playback, and system simulations, and also provides system feedback to evaluate closed-loop diagnostic response and mitigation control.

  6. Universal Precautions: A Review | Buowari | Nigerian Health Journal

    Methodology: A review of the literature on universal precaution's using Medline and Google search engine was done. Thirty six scientific publications on universal precautions and standard precautions were reviewed and summarized. Conclusion: Universal precautions should be used whenever there may be occupational ...

  7. E-Health Literacy and Health Information Seeking Behavior Among University Students in Bangladesh.

    Islam, Md Mohaimenul; Touray, Musa; Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Poly, Tahmina Nasrin; Nguyen, Phung-Anh; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack; Syed Abdul, Shabbir

    2017-01-01

    Web 2.0 has become a leading health communication platform and will continue to attract young users; therefore, the objective of this study was to understand the impact of Web 2.0 on health information seeking behavior among university students in Bangladesh. A random sample of adults (n = 199, mean 23.75 years, SD 2.87) participated in a cross-sectional, a survey that included the eHealth literacy scale (eHEALS) assessed use of Web 2.0 for health information. Collected data were analyzed using a descriptive statistical method and t-tests. Finally logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between sociodemographic, social determinants, and use of Web 2.0 for seeking and sharing health information. Almost 74% of older Web 2.0 users (147/199, 73.9%) reported using popular Web 2.0 websites, such as Facebook and Twitter, to find and share health information. Current study support that current Web-based health information seeking and sharing behaviors influence health-related decision making.

  8. Health care financing in South Africa: moving towards universal ...

    Advances in Health Economics and Health. Services Research. Bingley, UK: Emerald Group. Publishing Limited, 2009: 133-156. 16. Wagstaff A. Poverty and health sector inequalities. Bull World Health Organ 2002; 80: 97-105. 17. WHO. Macroeconomics and Health: Investing in Health for Economic Development. Geneva:.

  9. User Requirements Model for University Timetable Management System

    Ahmad Althunibat; Mohammad I. Muhairat

    2016-01-01

    Automated timetables are used to schedule courses, lectures and rooms in universities by considering some constraints. Inconvenient and ineffective timetables often waste time and money. Therefore, it is important to investigate the requirements and potential needs of users. Thus, eliciting user requirements of University Timetable Management System (TMS) and their implication becomes an important process for the implementation of TMS. On this note, this paper seeks to propose a m...

  10. South Africa's universal health coverage reforms in the post-apartheid period.

    van den Heever, Alexander Marius

    2016-12-01

    In 2011, the South African government published a Green Paper outlining proposals for a single-payer National Health Insurance arrangement as a means to achieve universal health coverage (UHC), followed by a White Paper in 2015. This follows over two decades of health reform proposals and reforms aimed at deepening UHC. The most recent reform departure aims to address pooling and purchasing weaknesses in the health system by internalising both functions within a single scheme. This contrasts with the post-apartheid period from 1994 to 2008 where pooling weaknesses were to be addressed using pooling schemes, in the form of government subsidies and risk-equalisation arrangements, external to the public and private purchasers. This article reviews both reform paths and attempts to reconcile what may appear to be very different approaches. The scale of the more recent set of proposals requires a very long reform path because in the mid-term (the next 25 years) no single scheme will be able to raise sufficient revenue to provide a universal package for the entire population. In the interim, reforms that maintain and improve existing forms of coverage are required. The earlier reform framework (1994-2008) largely addressed this concern while leaving open the final form of the system. Both reform approaches are therefore compatible: the earlier reforms addressed medium- to long-term coverage concerns, while the more recent define the long-term institutional goal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. An Affordable Microcomputer Library Information System Developed by Georgetown University.

    Broering, Naomi C.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses development of a library information system by Georgetown University Medical Center's Dahlgren Memorial Library; describes its components, including online catalog and OCLC interface, circulation, serials control, acquisitions, networking/interlibrary loans, word processing and mini-Medline system; and discusses user reaction, staff…

  12. Achieving universal health care coverage: Current debates in Ghana on covering those outside the formal sector

    Abiiro Gilbert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, extending financial protection and equitable access to health services to those outside the formal sector employment is a major challenge for achieving universal coverage. While some favour contributory schemes, others have embraced tax-funded health service cover for those outside the formal sector. This paper critically examines the issue of how to cover those outside the formal sector through the lens of stakeholder views on the proposed one-time premium payment (OTPP policy in Ghana. Discussion Ghana in 2004 implemented a National Health Insurance Scheme, based on a contributory model where service benefits are restricted to those who contribute (with some groups exempted from contributing, as the policy direction for moving towards universal coverage. In 2008, the OTPP system was proposed as an alternative way of ensuring coverage for those outside formal sector employment. There are divergent stakeholder views with regard to the meaning of the one-time premium and how it will be financed and sustained. Our stakeholder interviews indicate that the underlying issue being debated is whether the current contributory NHIS model for those outside the formal employment sector should be maintained or whether services for this group should be tax funded. However, the advantages and disadvantages of these alternatives are not being explored in an explicit or systematic way and are obscured by the considerable confusion about the likely design of the OTPP policy. We attempt to contribute to the broader debate about how best to fund coverage for those outside the formal sector by unpacking some of these issues and pointing to the empirical evidence needed to shed even further light on appropriate funding mechanisms for universal health systems. Summary The Ghanaian debate on OTPP is related to one of the most important challenges facing low- and middle-income countries seeking to achieve a universal health care system. It

  13. University of Illinois FRIENDS Children’s Environmental Health Center

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The FRIENDS Children's Environmental Health Center at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, was established in 2001 to investigate the interactive effects of...

  14. Assessing Private Sector Involvement in Health Care and Universal Health Coverage in Light of the Right to Health

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The goal of universal health coverage is to “ensure that all people obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them.” There are many connections between this goal and the state’s legal obligation to realize the human right to health. In the context of this goal, it is important to assess private actors’ involvement in the health sector. For example, private actors may not always have the incentives to deal with externalities that affect the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of health care services; they may not be in a position to provide “public goods”; or they may operate under imperfect information. This paper sets out to answer the question, what legal human rights obligations do states have in terms of regulating private sector involvement in health care? PMID:28559678

  15. Assessing Private Sector Involvement in Health Care and Universal Health Coverage in Light of the Right to Health.

    Hallo De Wolf, Antenor; Toebes, Brigit

    2016-12-01

    The goal of universal health coverage is to "ensure that all people obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them." There are many connections between this goal and the state's legal obligation to realize the human right to health. In the context of this goal, it is important to assess private actors' involvement in the health sector. For example, private actors may not always have the incentives to deal with externalities that affect the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of health care services; they may not be in a position to provide "public goods"; or they may operate under imperfect information. This paper sets out to answer the question, what legal human rights obligations do states have in terms of regulating private sector involvement in health care?

  16. Placing the Solar System in its Universal Context

    Grier, J. A.; Steel, S. J.; Dussault, M. E.; Reinfeld, E. L.; Gould, R. R.

    2004-11-01

    Data from surveys and evaluations of recent space science education programs show that both teachers and students use the terms 'solar system', 'galaxy' and 'universe' interchangeably. For some this merely represents a barrier in vocabulary, but for most, it is indicative of an underlying lack of structure within their internal models of the solar system and universe. Some of the misconceptions of size of the solar system, placement, distance, scale and hierarchy of objects in the galaxy and universe are introduced by not including the solar system in a consistent, coherent picture within the rest of the galaxy and universe. If these ideas and misconceptions are not addressed through a targeted educational experience, they can form barriers to developing new and more accurate internal models, and impede the assimilation of any new evidence or ideas within those models. We are developing focused educational products and experiences that allow students to encounter the topics of 'solar system', 'galaxy' and 'universe' as an integrated whole, showing the common and unique features, natural interrelationships, and hierarchies that allow students and teachers to develop more powerful internal models of their place in space and time. We have used this approach to enhance the learning experience at Girl Scouts 'Train the Trainer' Workshops, in the 'Modeling the Universe' Professional Development Workshops, and in several venues for urban public school teachers. We have also created activities such as the "Cosmic Timeline", and products such as the "How Big is the Universe?" booklet to support learning about size and scale from the Earth to the Sun, and then all the way out to the edge of space.

  17. [The health system of Brazil].

    Montekio, Víctor Becerril; Medina, Guadalupe; Aquino, Rosana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian health system, which includes a public sector covering almost 75% of the population and an expanding private sector offering health services to the rest of the population. The public sector is organized around the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) and it is financed with general taxes and social contributions collected by the three levels of government (federal, state and municipal). SUS provides health care through a decentralized network of clinics, hospitals and other establishments, as well as through contracts with private providers. SUS is also responsible for the coordination of the public sector. The private sector includes a system of insurance schemes known as Supplementary Health which is financed by employers and/or households: group medicine (companies and households), medical cooperatives, the so called Self-Administered Plans (companies) and individual insurance plans.The private sector also includes clinics, hospitals and laboratories offering services on out-of-pocket basis mostly used by the high-income population. This paper also describes the resources of the system, the stewardship activities developed by the Ministry of Health and other actors, and the most recent policy innovations implemented in Brazil, including the programs saúde da Familia and Mais Saúde.

  18. The impact of Universal Health Coverage on health care consumption and risky behaviours: evidence from Thailand.

    Ghislandi, Simone; Manachotphong, Wanwiphang; Perego, Viviana M E

    2015-07-01

    Thailand is among the first non-OECD countries to have introduced a form of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). This policy represents a natural experiment to evaluate the effects of public health insurance on health behaviours. In this paper, we examine the impact of Thailand's UHC programme on preventive activities, unhealthy or risky behaviours and health care consumption using data from the Thai Health and Welfare Survey. We use doubly robust estimators that combine propensity scores and linear regressions to estimate differences-in-differences (DD) and differences-in-DD models. Our results offer important insights. First, UHC increases individuals' likelihood of having an annual check-up, especially among women. Regarding health care consumption, we observe that UHC increases hospital admissions by over 2% and increases outpatient visits by 13%. However, there is no evidence that UHC leads to an increase in unhealthy behaviours or a reduction of preventive efforts. In other words, we find no evidence of ex ante moral hazard. Overall, these findings suggest positive health impacts among the Thai population covered by UHC.

  19. Health sector employment: a tracer indicator for universal health coverage in national Social Protection Floors.

    Scheil-Adlung, Xenia; Behrendt, Thorsten; Wong, Lorraine

    2015-08-31

    Health sector employment is a prerequisite for availability, accessibility, acceptability and quality (AAAQ) of health services. Thus, in this article health worker shortages are used as a tracer indicator estimating the proportion of the population lacking access to such services: The SAD (ILO Staff Access Deficit Indicator) estimates gaps towards UHC in the context of Social Protection Floors (SPFs). Further, it highlights the impact of investments in health sector employment equity and sustainable development. The SAD is used to estimate the share of the population lacking access to health services due to gaps in the number of skilled health workers. It is based on the difference of the density of the skilled health workforce per population in a given country and a threshold indicating UHC staffing requirements. It identifies deficits, differences and developments in access at global, regional and national levels and between rural and urban areas. In 2014, the global UHC deficit in numbers of health workers is estimated at 10.3 million, with most important gaps in Asia (7.1 million) and Africa (2.8 million). Globally, 97 countries are understaffed with significantly higher gaps in rural than in urban areas. Most affected are low-income countries, where 84 per cent of the population remains excluded from access due to the lack of skilled health workers. A positive correlation of health worker employment and population health outcomes could be identified. Legislation is found to be a prerequisite for closing access as gaps. Health worker shortages hamper the achievement of UHC and aggravate weaknesses of health systems. They have major impacts on socio-economic development, particularly in the world's poorest countries where they act as drivers of health inequities. Closing the gaps by establishing inclusive multi-sectoral policy approaches based on the right to health would significantly increase equity, reduce poverty due to ill health and ultimately contribute

  20. Controlling cost escalation of healthcare: making universal health coverage sustainable in China

    2012-01-01

    An increasingly number of low- and middle-income countries have developed and implemented a national policy towards universal coverage of healthcare for their citizens over the past decade. Among them is China which has expanded its population coverage by health insurance from around 29.7% in 2003 to over 90% at the end of 2010. While both central and local governments in China have significantly increased financial inputs into the two newly established health insurance schemes: new cooperative medical scheme (NCMS) for the rural population, and urban resident basic health insurance (URBMI), the cost of healthcare in China has also been rising rapidly at the annual rate of 17.0%% over the period of the past two decades years. The total health expenditure increased from 74.7 billion Chinese yuan in 1990 to 1998 billion Chinese yuan in 2010, while average health expenditure per capital reached the level of 1490.1 Chinese yuan per person in 2010, rising from 65.4 Chinese yuan per person in 1990. The repaid increased population coverage by government supported health insurance schemes has stimulated a rising use of healthcare, and thus given rise to more pressure on cost control in China. There are many effective measures of supply-side and demand-side cost control in healthcare available. Over the past three decades China had introduced many measures to control demand for health care, via a series of co-payment mechanisms. The paper introduces and discusses new initiatives and measures employed to control cost escalation of healthcare in China, including alternative provider payment methods, reforming drug procurement systems, and strengthening the application of standard clinical paths in treating patients at hospitals, and analyses the impacts of these initiatives and measures. The paper finally proposes ways forward to make universal health coverage in China more sustainable. PMID:22992484

  1. The Chinese Health Care System

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter; Yu, Yi

    In the present paper we describe the structure of the Chinese health care system and sketch its future development. We analyse issues of provider incentives and the actual burden sharing between government, enterprises and people. We further aim to identify a number of current problems and link...

  2. Filtration Systems Design for Universal Oils in Agricultural Tractors

    R. Majdan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Three filtration systems using the tractor hydraulic circuit were proposed and verified during the tractors operation. Using the tractor-implement hydraulic system and filter body with accessories the universally useful filtration systems were designed. The designed filtration systems are the second stage of universal oil filtration whereas the first stage is the standard tractor filter. The decrease in the content of iron reached the values 25.53 %, 32.95 % and 41.55 % and the average decrease in oil contamination characterized by average value of decrease in content of iron, copper and silicium reached values 24.3 %, 24.7 % and 35.53 % in dependence on the filtration system and an oil contamination level. The decrease in contamination level verified the ability of designed filtration systems for agricultural tractors.

  3. Strengthening Health Systems Research Capacity in Mozambique ...

    Mozambique's health sector is dealing with system-wide challenges. ... the Ministry's work on national health accounts, resource allocation, and national health ... a combined INS-FIOCRUS program, and the master's in public health and field ...

  4. Factors affecting utilization of University health services in a tertiary ...

    2013-01-16

    Jan 16, 2013 ... Objective: To determine students' perception of health care services provided in a tertiary institution and ... evaluation of health services utilization among students in the .... African culture and health. ... Asian Am Pac Isl J.

  5. African Health Systems Initiative (AHSI) | IDRC - International ...

    The African Health Systems Initiative (AHSI) is a 10-year Canadian International ... for strengthening African-led health systems and human resources for health. ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  6. [The need of transforming the health system in Mexico].

    López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Durán Arenas, Juan Luis; Villanueva Lozano, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    In this article we review the need for the transformation of the Mexican health care system given the deformities that the system developed in the last 60 years. We start by the discussion of two main deformities: the segmented answer to the health right, and the development of a segmented health care system based on the method of payment (formal workers contributions); and the development of a health care model based on specialties and hospital care. These deformities have resulted in a health care system characterized by high costs and low effectiveness. Even though the correction of the deformities imply complex modifications that involve political economic and legal aspects, in the short term we have the conditions in Mexico for the creation of a universal primary health care system, given the human and financial resources available in the country.

  7. Private sector in public health care systems

    Matějusová, Lenka

    2008-01-01

    This master thesis is trying to describe the situation of private sector in public health care systems. As a private sector we understand patients, private health insurance companies and private health care providers. The focus is placed on private health care providers, especially in ambulatory treatment. At first there is a definition of health as a main determinant of a health care systems, definition of public and private sectors in health care systems and the difficulties at the market o...

  8. Population Consultation: A Powerful Means to Ensure that Health Strategies are Oriented Towards Universal Health Coverage.

    Rohrer, Katja; Rajan, Dheepa; Schmets, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    We seek to highlight why population consultations need to be promoted more strongly as a powerful means to move health reforms towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC). However, despite this increasing recognition that the "population" is the key factor of successful health planning and high-quality service delivery, there has been very little systematic reflection and only limited (international) attention brought to the idea of specifically consulting the population to improve the quality and soundness of health policies and strategies and to strengthen the national health planning process and implementation. So far, research has done little to assess the significance of population consultations for the health sector and its importance for strategic planning and implementation processes; in addition, there has been insufficient evaluation of population consultations in the health sector or health-related areas. We drew on ongoing programmatic work of World Health Organization (WHO) offices worldwide, as most population consultations are not well-documented. In addition, we analyzed any existing documentation available on population consultations in health. We then elaborate on the potential benefits of bringing the population's voice into national health planning. We briefly mention the key methods used for population consultations, and we put forward recent country examples showing that population consultation is an effective way of assessing the population's needs and expectations, and should be more widely used in strategizing health. Giving the voice to the population is a means to strengthen accountability, to reinforce the commitment of policy makers, decision-makers and influencers (media, political parties, academics, etc.) to the health policy objectives of UHC, and, in the specific case of donor-dependent countries, to sensitize donors' engagement and alignment with national health strategies. The consequence of the current low international interest for

  9. Achieving universal health coverage goals in Thailand: the vital role of strategic purchasing.

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Limwattananon, Supon; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Thammatacharee, Jadej; Jongudomsuk, Pongpisut; Sirilak, Supakit

    2015-11-01

    Strategic purchasing is one of the key policy instruments to achieve the universal health coverage (UHC) goals of improved and equitable access and financial risk protection. Given favourable outcomes of Universal Coverage Scheme (UCS), this study synthesized strategic purchasing experiences in the National Health Security Office (NHSO) responsible for the UCS in contributing to achieving UHC goals. The UCS applied the purchaser-provider split concept where NHSO, as a purchaser, is in a good position to enforce accountability by public and private providers to the UCS beneficiaries, through active purchasing. A comprehensive benefit package resulted in high level of financial risk protection as reflected by low incidence of catastrophic health spending and impoverished households. The NHSO contracted the District Health System (DHS) network, to provide outpatient, health promotion and disease prevention services to the whole district population, based on an annual age-adjusted capitation payment. In most cases, the DHS was the only provider in a district without competitors. Geographical monopoly hampered the NHSO to introduce a competitive contractual agreement, but a durable, mutually dependent relationship based on trust was gradually evolved, while accreditation is an important channel for quality improvement. Strategic purchasing services from DHS achieved a pro-poor utilization due to geographical proximity, where travel time and costs were minimal. Inpatient services paid by Diagnostic Related Group within a global budget ceiling, which is estimated based on unit costs, admission rates and admission profiles, contained cost effectively. To prevent potential under-provisions of the services, some high cost interventions were unbundled from closed end payment and paid on an agreed fee schedule. Executing monopsonistic purchasing power by NHSO brought down price of services given assured quality. Cost saving resulted in more patients served within a finite

  10. Exploring models for the roles of health systems’ responsiveness and social determinants in explaining universal health coverage and health outcomes

    Nicole Britt Valentine

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intersectoral perspectives of health are present in the rhetoric of the sustainable development goals. Yet its descriptions of systematic approaches for an intersectoral monitoring vision, joining determinants of health, and barriers or facilitators to accessing healthcare services are lacking. Objective: To explore models of associations between health outcomes and health service coverage, and health determinants and health systems responsiveness, and thereby to contribute to monitoring, analysis, and assessment approaches informed by an intersectoral vision of health. Design: The study is designed as a series of ecological, cross-country regression analyses, covering between 23 and 57 countries with dependent health variables concentrated on the years 2002–2003. Countries cover a range of development contexts. Health outcome and health service coverage dependent variables were derived from World Health Organization (WHO information sources. Predictor variables representing determinants are derived from the WHO and World Bank databases; variables used for health systems’ responsiveness are derived from the WHO World Health Survey. Responsiveness is a measure of acceptability of health services to the population, complementing financial health protection. Results: Health determinants’ indicators – access to improved drinking sources, accountability, and average years of schooling – were statistically significant in particular health outcome regressions. Statistically significant coefficients were more common for mortality rate regressions than for coverage rate regressions. Responsiveness was systematically associated with poorer health and health service coverage. With respect to levels of inequality in health, the indicator of responsiveness problems experienced by the unhealthy poor groups in the population was statistically significant for regressions on measles vaccination inequalities between rich and poor. For the

  11. Evolution of interprofessional learning: Dalhousie University's "From Family Violence to Health" module.

    Johnston, Grace M; Ryding, Helen A; Campbell, Lindsay M

    2003-11-01

    At Dalhousie University, interprofessional (IP) learning modules are used to help future health care professionals learn to work together in resolving complex problems. One module, "From Family Violence to Health," features the role of dental professionals. This paper describes the evolution of this module from the year 2000. By February 2003, 1,182 students from 15 health care professions had completed the module. Qualitative evaluation in years 1 and 2 of the program (2000 and 2001) revealed that, before participating in the IP module, many students were able to identify a role for themselves in the recognition of family violence and knew their responsibility to report incidents. However, after participating in the module, they had a greater understanding of the reporting of family violence, a more comprehensive and supportive perspective, increased recognition of how health care professionals could work together and improved awareness of the roles of other professions. In a quantitative evaluation in year 3 (2002), mean student ratings on a scale of 1 to 5 indicated that the IP module was relevant (4.2), increased their understanding of family violence (4.0), and had some impact in promoting IP learning (3.8). As health care delivery becomes more focused on care teams and system thinking, the provision of IP training is expected to increase. The Dalhousie University IP modules (available at http://www.dal.ca/~fhp/ipl/index.html) address health and social problems for which it is critical that health care and other professionals work together. Feedback from practitioners on the development of IP education is welcomed, particularly with regard to the IP module addressing family violence.

  12. [Public health competencies and contents in Spanish university degree programmes of Veterinary Medicine].

    Davó-Blanes, María Del Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Huerta, Belén

    2017-04-19

    To reach a consensus among public health faculty from various Spanish universities about the core public health competencies that should be integrated into the Veterinary Medicine degree training. The 3rd Forum of University Professors of Public Health was held at the School of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Cordoba (12-13 January 2016). Forty-two university professors and lecturers from nine Spanish universities with veterinary degrees participated in the forum. They were divided into five working groups during three working sessions to identify and classify core public health competencies for the Veterinary Medicine degree, propose public health contents for the identified competencies and organize such contents in thematic blocks. The results were discussed in different plenary sessions. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the activities related to the following public health functions: «Assessment of the population's health needs» and «Developing health policies». The final programme included basic contents organized into five units: 1) Fundamentals of public health; 2) Study and research in public health; 3) Production, animal health and environment; 4) Food security; and 5) Health education. The public health core competencies and contents identified in this Forum may be considered as a starting point to update public health training programmes for future veterinary professionals. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Academic entrepreneurship in a medical university: A system dynamics approach

    Tofighi Sharam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Academic entrepreneurship is a dynamic field which is growing after the second academic revolution that added entrepreneurial mission as the Third Mission of universities. In this sense, dynamics of this phenomenon is a suitable field of study and provides fruitful insights for both theory and practice. Thus, in this research, system dynamics approach is used to scrutinize academic entrepreneurship. The main question of this research is 'how academic entrepreneurship might evolve in a medical university of a developing country?' Therefore, Cross Impact Analysis method is used to examine the system behavior. In this study, the main attributes are adapted from a recent study by Salamzadeh et al. (2013a. Then, some policy variables are proposed and their effects on the model were shown. Findings show that although entrepreneurial ecosystem is growing in the country, still there are problems to be taken into account in order to improve the entrepreneurship in university.

  14. Perceptions of Health Students of the Lagos University Teaching ...

    Gender equity, equality and mainstreaming are very topical issues presently and most components of reproductive health require gender equity to succeed. Health care workers are constantly going to have to be involved in gender related issues in health. This study was conducted among health students of the College of ...

  15. Health assessment of French university students and risk factors associated with mental health disorders.

    Antoine Tran

    Full Text Available The first year of university is a particularly stressful period and can impact academic performance and students' health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health and lifestyle of undergraduates and assess risk factors associated with psychiatric symptoms.Between September 2012 and June 2013, we included all undergraduate students who underwent compulsory a medical visit at the university medical service in Nice (France during which they were screened for potential diseases during a diagnostic interview. Data were collected prospectively in the CALCIUM database (Consultations Assistés par Logiciel pour les Centres Inter-Universitaire de Médecine and included information about the students' lifestyle (living conditions, dietary behavior, physical activity, use of recreational drugs. The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms related to depression, anxiety and panic attacks was assessed and risk factors for these symptoms were analyzed using logistic regression.A total of 4,184 undergraduates were included. Prevalence for depression, anxiety and panic attacks were 12.6%, 7.6% and 1.0%, respectively. During the 30 days preceding the evaluation, 0.6% of the students regularly drank alcohol, 6.3% were frequent-to-heavy tobacco smokers, and 10.0% smoked marijuana. Dealing with financial difficulties and having learning disabilities were associated with psychiatric symptoms. Students who were dissatisfied with their living conditions and those with poor dietary behavior were at risk of depression. Being a woman and living alone were associated with anxiety. Students who screened positively for any psychiatric disorder assessed were at a higher risk of having another psychiatric disorder concomitantly.The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in undergraduate students is low but the rate of students at risk of developing chronic disease is far from being negligible. Understanding predictors for these symptoms may improve students' health by

  16. Health assessment of French university students and risk factors associated with mental health disorders.

    Tran, Antoine; Tran, Laurie; Geghre, Nicolas; Darmon, David; Rampal, Marion; Brandone, Diane; Gozzo, Jean-Michel; Haas, Hervé; Rebouillat-Savy, Karine; Caci, Hervé; Avillach, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The first year of university is a particularly stressful period and can impact academic performance and students' health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the health and lifestyle of undergraduates and assess risk factors associated with psychiatric symptoms. Between September 2012 and June 2013, we included all undergraduate students who underwent compulsory a medical visit at the university medical service in Nice (France) during which they were screened for potential diseases during a diagnostic interview. Data were collected prospectively in the CALCIUM database (Consultations Assistés par Logiciel pour les Centres Inter-Universitaire de Médecine) and included information about the students' lifestyle (living conditions, dietary behavior, physical activity, use of recreational drugs). The prevalence of psychiatric symptoms related to depression, anxiety and panic attacks was assessed and risk factors for these symptoms were analyzed using logistic regression. A total of 4,184 undergraduates were included. Prevalence for depression, anxiety and panic attacks were 12.6%, 7.6% and 1.0%, respectively. During the 30 days preceding the evaluation, 0.6% of the students regularly drank alcohol, 6.3% were frequent-to-heavy tobacco smokers, and 10.0% smoked marijuana. Dealing with financial difficulties and having learning disabilities were associated with psychiatric symptoms. Students who were dissatisfied with their living conditions and those with poor dietary behavior were at risk of depression. Being a woman and living alone were associated with anxiety. Students who screened positively for any psychiatric disorder assessed were at a higher risk of having another psychiatric disorder concomitantly. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders in undergraduate students is low but the rate of students at risk of developing chronic disease is far from being negligible. Understanding predictors for these symptoms may improve students' health by implementing targeted

  17. Universality of the topology of period doubling dynamical systems

    Beiersdorfer, P.

    1983-10-01

    The evolution of the topology of the invariant manifolds of the attractors of 3-D autonomous dynamical systems during period doubling is shown to be universal. The overall topology of the nth attractor is shown to depend only on the topology of the first attractor at birth

  18. Systems Thinking Evidence from Colleges of Business and Their Universities

    Seiler, John H.; Kowalsky, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated instances of the term "systems thinking" among the websites of the Top 25 business schools as ranked by "U. S. News and World Report" in 2010. Since a greater number of instances of the term and its variants in a university's web documents may indicate an increased interest of the institution in the…

  19. Implementation of a radiology information system in an University Hospital

    Marques, Paulo Mazzoncini de Azevedo; Santos, Antonio Carlos; Elias Junior, Jorge; Trad, Clovis Simao; Goes, Wilson Moraes; Castro, Carlos Roberto de

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a radiology information system (RIS) developed and in the process of implementation in an University Hospital (Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto - Universidade de Sao Paulo) which integrates a plan for a 'filmless' radiology facility. (author)

  20. New compliance management system of the University Hospital Frankfurt, Germany

    Irmscher, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    The meaning of Corporate Governance is all values and principles guiding or regulating good and responsible business management. Clearly defined roles and responsibilities for managing compliance, risks and checks is the prerequisite for the latter. For that reason, a compliance management system was set up at the University Hospital Frankfurt in 2015.

  1. WEAKNESSES OF THE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF TRADITIONAL HUNGARIAN UNIVERSITIES

    Gabriella KECZER

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of the management of traditional higher education institutionsemerged in Hungary following the change of the political system in 1990,however, an appropriate answer has not been found to date. The first step inthe management of reform is identification of the issues that need to beresolved through the implementation of changes.The present research has been aimed at identifying the present weaknessesof the inner management system of traditional Hungarian universities, thusfind a solid starting point for reforming it. I conducted in-depth interviews inthe course of research, with 10 top university managers who represent 9institutions, thus the majority of traditional Hungarian universities. Such aresearch has not been made at least for the last decade.In my paper first I present the current legal framework of the system ofuniversity management. Then I give an assessment of it on the basis of theinterviews, analysing the deficiencies, the external and internal obstacles toefficient management I conclude that the present leaders of theuniversities can exactly identify those deficiencies of the system and therelated external and internal circumstances that lead to disturbed operationand low efficiency. The results obtained through the interviews suggest that areform of the internal management should rearrange intra-university powerrelations and harmonize scopes of responsibility and competence. A shifttoward a stronger central, rectoral and a more limited faculty- and bodyrelatedmanagement appears necessary.

  2. Performance of private sector health care: implications for universal health coverage.

    Morgan, Rosemary; Ensor, Tim; Waters, Hugh

    2016-08-06

    Although the private sector is an important health-care provider in many low-income and middle-income countries, its role in progress towards universal health coverage varies. Studies of the performance of the private sector have focused on three main dimensions: quality, equity of access, and efficiency. The characteristics of patients, the structures of both the public and private sectors, and the regulation of the sector influence the types of health services delivered, and outcomes. Combined with characteristics of private providers-including their size, objectives, and technical competence-the interaction of these factors affects how the sector performs in different contexts. Changing the performance of the private sector will require interventions that target the sector as a whole, rather than individual providers alone. In particular, the performance of the private sector seems to be intrinsically linked to the structure and performance of the public sector, which suggests that deriving population benefit from the private health-care sector requires a regulatory response focused on the health-care sector as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Managing disclosure of research misconduct by a graduate student to a university mental health professional during a clinical counseling session.

    Taylor, Holly A; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2013-01-01

    This case looks at the question of how to consider obligations of confidentiality by a mental health professional who works for an institution and learns that a student has been using a drug intended for an animal research project. Dr. Paul Appelbaum, MD, a psychiatrist at Columbia University, examines the issue of the limits of confidentiality. Nicholas Steneck, PhD, a scholar in research misconduct at the University of Michigan, explores the obligations to report research misconduct. Walter Limehouse, MD, an ethicist at the Medical University of South Carolina, considers the systems issues raised by this case and offers some suggestions that might change the institutional environment.

  4. A new compact AMS system at Peking University

    Liu Kexin; Ding Xingfang; Fu Dongpo; Pan Yan; Wu Xiaohong; Guo Zhiyu; Zhou Liping

    2007-01-01

    A compact 14 C AMS system manufactured by the National Electrostatics Corporation has been installed at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics, Peking University. The system is based on a Model 1.5SDH-1 Pelletron accelerator with a maximum terminal voltage of 0.6 MV. The 14 C measurement accuracy with this system is better than 0.4% and the machine background is lower than 0.03 pMC. The performance of the new system, especially the background and the δ 13 C measurements, is presented. Several important applications are also described briefly

  5. Energy Systems and Population Health

    Ezzati, Majid; Bailis, Rob; Kammen, Daniel M.; Holloway, Tracey; Price, Lynn; Cifuentes, Luis A.; Barnes, Brendon; Chaurey, Akanksha; Dhanapala, Kiran N.

    2004-04-12

    It is well-documented that energy and energy systems have a central role in social and economic development and human welfare at all scales, from household and community to regional and national (41). Among its various welfare effects, energy is closely linked with people s health. Some of the effects of energy on health and welfare are direct. With abundant energy, more food or more frequent meals can be prepared; food can be refrigerated, increasing the types of food items that are consumed and reducing food contamination; water pumps can provide more water and eliminate the need for water storage leading to contamination or increased exposure to disease vectors such as mosquitoes or snails; water can be disinfected by boiling or using other technologies such as radiation. Other effects of energy on public health are mediated through more proximal determinants of health and disease. Abundant energy can lead to increased irrigation, agricultural productivity, and access to food and nutrition; access to energy can also increase small-scale income generation such as processing of agricultural commodities (e.g., producing refined oil from oil seeds, roasting coffee, drying and preserving fruits and meats) and production of crafts; ability to control lighting and heating allows education or economic activities to be shielded from daily or seasonal environmental constraints such as light, temperature, rainfall, or wind; time and other economic resources spent on collecting and/or transporting fuels can be used for other household needs if access to energy is facilitated; energy availability for transportation increases access to health and education facilities and allow increased economic activity by facilitating the transportation of goods and services to and from markets; energy for telecommunication technology (radio, television, telephone, or internet) provides increased access to information useful for health, education, or economic purposes; provision of energy

  6. Public Health and Preventive Medicine Meet Integrative Health: Applications of Competency Mapping to Curriculum Education at the University of Michigan.

    Wells, Eden V; Benn, Rita K; Warber, Sara L

    2015-11-01

    The University of Michigan School of Public Health Preventive Medicine Residency (UMSPH PMR) Integrative Medicine Program (IMP) was developed to incorporate integrative medicine (IM), public health, and preventive medicine principles into a comprehensive curriculum for preventive medicine residents and faculty. The objectives of this project were to (1) increase the preventive medicine workforce skill sets based in complementary and alternative medicine and IM that would address individual and population health issues; (2) address the increasing demand for evidence-based IM by training physicians to implement cost-effective primary and secondary prevention services and programs; and (3) share lessons learned, curriculum evaluations, and best practices with the larger cohort of funded IM PMR programs. The UMSPH PMR collaborated with University of Michigan IM faculty to incorporate existing IM competencies with those already established for preventive medicine and public health residency training as the first critical step for IMP curriculum integration. Essential teaching strategies incorporated didactic and practicum methods, and made use of seasoned IM faculty, along with newly minted preventive medicine integrative teaching faculty, and PMR resident learners as IM teachers. The major components of the IMP curriculum included resident participation in IMP Orientation Sessions, resident leadership in epidemiology graduate IM seminars, resident rotations in IM month-long clinical practicums, resident participation in interprofessional health system-wide IM clinical case conferences, and PMR faculty enrollment in the renowned Faculty Scholars Program in Integrative Healthcare. This paper describes the novel interdisciplinary collaborations and key curriculum components that resulted in the IMP, as well as evaluation of strengths, weaknesses, and lessons learned. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Health Care Crossroads: What's the Right Solution? Putting Consumer-Driven Ideas to Work at Louisiana State University

    Benedict, Forest; Guinn, Shayla

    2006-01-01

    Idling at the crossroads and faced with ever-increasing health care costs, the Louisiana State University System chose the road less traveled and instituted a consumer-driven benefits plan. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the consumer-driven programs LSU has adopted and how these programs have helped curb costs and improve the…

  8. The Environmental Health Condition of The New University of Port ...

    Alasia Datonye

    modern health care delivery; while it provides an avenue for the treatment of ... hospitals safe for the patients, carers, health workers and the. 5 ... providing excellent medical services, manpower training and ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  9. Towards Universal Health Coverage: Exploring the Determinants of ...

    WHO),. 2013). For example, Alatinga and Williams (2014) argue that health insurance improves the poor's access to health care and protects them against the costs of illness. With a view to reducing disparities in access to health care, in 2004 ...

  10. Career choices and global health engagement: 24-year follow-up of U.S. participants in the Indiana University-Moi University elective.

    Umoren, Rachel A; Gardner, Adrian; Stone, Geren S; Helphinstine, Jill; Machogu, Emily P; Huskins, Jordan C; Johnson, Cynthia S; Ayuo, Paul O; Mining, Simeon; Litzelman, Debra K

    2015-12-01

    Global health experiences evoke a profound awareness of cultural differences, inspire learners to prioritize professional values, and provide a lens for addressing global health care challenges. This study compares the long-term career and practice choices of participants in a 2-month Indiana University-Moi University, Kenya elective from 1989-2013 with those of a control group. Global health elective (GHE) participants and a random sample of alumni without GHE experience were surveyed on their clinical practice, public health and global health activities. Responses from 176 former participants were compared with a control group of 177 alumni. GHE participants were more likely than similar controls to provide care to underserved U.S. populations (p=0.037), spend time in global health, public health, and public policy activities (p=0.005) and be involved in global health advocacy (p=0.001). Using multivariable analysis, GHE participants were more likely to be generalists (p<0.05), report that healthcare costs influenced medical decision-making (p<0.05), and provide healthcare outside the U.S. for ≥1 week/year (p<0.001). Many years out of training, GHE participants were more likely to be generalists working with underserved populations, to be cost-conscious in their healthcare decision-making, and to be involved in global health, public health or public policy. With the primary care provider shortage and need for greater awareness among providers of healthcare costs, our study shows that that global health experiences may yield broader benefits to the U.S. medical system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Universal bursty behavior in the air transportation system.

    Ito, Hidetaka; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Social activities display bursty behavior characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. We examine the bursty behavior of airplanes' arrivals in hub airports. The analysis indicates that the air transportation system universally follows a power-law interarrival time distribution with an exponent α=2.5 and an exponential cutoff. Moreover, we investigate the mechanism of this bursty behavior by introducing a simple model to describe it. In addition, we compare the extent of the hub-and-spoke structure and the burstiness of various airline networks in the system. Remarkably, the results suggest that the hub-and-spoke network of the system and the carriers' strategy to facilitate transit are the origins of this universality.

  12. Management of health care services for flood victims: the case of the shelter at Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University Central Thailand.

    Buajaroen, Hathaichanok

    2013-08-01

    In Central Thailand basic health care services were affected by a natural disaster in the form of a flood situation. Flood Relief Operations Centers were established from the crisis. Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University and including the faculty of nursing volunteered to care for those affected and assist in re-establishing a functioning health care system. The aim of this study was to make explicit knowledge of concept, lesson learned, and the process of management for re-establishing a health care service system at a flood victims at Relief Operations Center, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University. We used a qualitative design with mixed methods. This involved in-depth interviews, focus group, observational participation and non-observational participation. Key informants included university administrators, instructors, leaders of flood victims and the flood victims. Data was collected during October-December, 2010. Data were analysed using content analysis and compared matrix. We found that the concept and principle of health care services management were community based and involved home care and field hospital services. We had prepared a management system that placed emphasise on a community based approach and holistic caring such as 24h Nursing Clinic Home, visits with family, a referral system, field hospital. The core of management was to achieve integrated instruction started from nursing students were practiced skills as Health promotion and nursing techniques practicum. Rules were established regarding the health care service system. The outcomes of Health Care Service at the Flood Relief Operations Center were direct and sincere help without conditions, administrations concerned and volunteer nursing students instructors, University Officer have sympathetic and charitable with flood victims and environment. Copyright © 2013 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Accreditation Role of the National Universities Commission and the Quality of the Educational Inputs into Nigerian University System

    Ibijola; Yinka, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Accreditation role of the National Universities Commission (NUC) and the quality of the educational inputs into Nigerian university system was investigated in this work, using a descriptive research of survey design. The population consisted of public Universities in South-West, Nigeria. The sample was made up of 300 subjects, consisting of 50…

  14. [The Mexican health system: does it require a transformation?].

    Chertorivski Woldenberg, Salomón; Fajardo Dolci, German

    2012-01-01

    National health systems represent an organized social response that enables countries to improve, maintain and enhance the health status of their citizens. These evolve and are transformed according to changes in the biological, economic, political and social components of health. In Mexico there is currently a segmented health system, consisting of a bismarckian model of social security and a social protection in health model. The latter developed to comply with the fourth constitutional article by which health is no longer described as a right linked to the employment status of the individual. Given this reality at least three alternatives seem to emerge for the future: the permanence of a mixed health system with social security and social protection institutions with a similar weight within the national health system, or its opposite, the extension of social protection as a mechanism for widespread access. Given the challenges we face, it is desirable to establish a unified health system, the aim should be that health care is universally protected, as currently happens, but is guaranteed through a much more efficient and based in primary care health care system.

  15. Seeking consensus on universal health coverage indicators in the sustainable development goals.

    Reddock, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    There is optimism that the inclusion of universal health coverage in the Sustainable Development Goals advances its prominence in global and national health policy. However, formulating indicators for Target 3.8 through the Inter-Agency Expert Group on Sustainable Development Indicators has been challenging. Achieving consensus on the conceptual and methodological aspects of universal health coverage is likely to take some time in multi-stakeholder fora compared with national efforts to select indicators.

  16. Mobile Attendance Checking System on Android Platform for Kazakhstani University

    Saparkhojayev, N.; Shakhov, E.; Mailybayev, Y.

    2016-04-01

    In the 21st century-the century of Information Technology, it is difficult to imagine life without any gadgets: phones, tablets, computers, laptops, and so on. Today, smartphones and tablets are becoming popular, and thus their operating systems become popular too. Android is designed for low-power devices that run on battery power at full capacity, using all of its services, such as cameras, lights, GPS navigation, Wi-Fi, etc. In Kazakhstani universities, the process of checking students’ attendance is one of the important issues, because final grade evaluation of students is based on their total number of appearances and their grades during the whole semester. This raises the question of having some tool to control students’ attendance. There are many possible ways of controlling attendance: there are many examples when universities prefer to control attendance by the use of paper sheet, and some universities prefer to use two-stage way of controlling attendance: firstly, teachers and professors use paper sheet for checking students’ attendance and after this, they fill out these information into a system manually. However, this is not an efficient way since there will be spent much of time for calling students names and putting marks like “presence” or “absence” if the class is a lecture class, and in this class at least 5 groups are presented. Furthermore, some students may call his/her friend as “presence” nevertheless to the fact that this student is currently absent. After taking into consideration all these issues and the fact that many gadgets use Android platform, authors of the following research paper decided to create a mobile system that makes easier to check students’ attendance automatically, and this system is implemented in Almaty Management University, Kazakhstan. The system is based on Android platform, and in this paper, details of this system are presented.

  17. Learning Management Systems and E-Learning within Cyprus Universities

    Amirkhanpour, Monaliz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive research study and results on the use of existing open-source Learning Management Systems, or LMS within the public and private universities of Cyprus. The most significant objective of this research is the identification of the different types of E-Learning, i.e. Computer-Based Training (CBT, Technology-Based Learning (TBL, and Web-Based Training (WBT within Cyprus universities. The paper identifies the benefits and limitations of the main learning approaches used in higher educational institutions, i.e. synchronous and asynchronous learning, investigates the open-source LMS used in the Cypriot universities and compares their features with regards to students’ preferences for a collaborative E-Learning environment. The required data for this research study were collected from undergraduate and graduate students, alumni, faculty members, and IT professionals who currently work and/or study at the public and private universities of Cyprus. The most noteworthy recommendation of this study is the clear indication that most of the undergraduate students that extensively use the specific E-Learning platform of their university do not have a clear picture of the differences between an LMS and a VLE. This gap has to be gradually diminished in order to make optimum use of the different features offered by the specific E-Learning platform.

  18. A retrospective evaluation of the Perfecting Patient Care University training program for health care organizations.

    Morganti, Kristy Gonzalez; Lovejoy, Susan; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Haviland, Amelia M; Haas, Ann C; Farley, Donna O

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated how the Perfecting Patient Care (PPC) University, a quality improvement (QI) training program for health care leaders and clinicians, affected the ability of organizations to improve the health care they provide. This training program teaches improvement methods based on Lean concepts and principles of the Toyota Production System and is offered in several formats. A retrospective evaluation was performed that gathered data on training, other process factors, and outcomes after staff completed the PPC training. A majority of respondents reported gaining QI competencies and cultural achievements from the training. Organizations had high average scores for the success measures of "outcomes improved" and "sustainable monitoring" but lower scores for diffusion of QI efforts. Total training dosage was significantly associated with the measures of QI success. This evaluation provides evidence that organizations gained the PPC competencies and cultural achievements and that training dosage is a driver of QI success.

  19. Toward Advanced Nursing Practice along with People-Centered Care Partnership Model for Sustainable Universal Health Coverage and Universal Access to Health.

    Kamei, Tomoko; Takahashi, Keiko; Omori, Junko; Arimori, Naoko; Hishinuma, Michiko; Asahara, Kiyomi; Shimpuku, Yoko; Ohashi, Kumiko; Tashiro, Junko

    2017-01-30

    this study developed a people-centered care (PCC) partnership model for the aging society to address the challenges of social changes affecting people's health and the new role of advanced practice nurses to sustain universal health coverage. a people-centered care partnership model was developed on the basis of qualitative meta-synthesis of the literature and assessment of 14 related projects. The ongoing projects resulted in individual and social transformation by improving community health literacy and behaviors using people-centered care and enhancing partnership between healthcare providers and community members through advanced practice nurses. people-centered care starts when community members and healthcare providers foreground health and social issues among community members and families. This model tackles these issues, creating new values concerning health and forming a social system that improves quality of life and social support to sustain universal health care through the process of building partnership with communities. a PCC partnership model addresses the challenges of social changes affecting general health and the new role of advanced practice nurses in sustaining UHC. o estudo desenvolveu um modelo de parceria de cuidados centrados nas pessoas (CCP) para uma sociedade que está envelhecendo, com o fim de enfrentar os desafios das mudanças sociais que afetam a saúde das pessoas e o novo papel da prática avançada de enfermagem para sustentar a cobertura universal de saúde. um modelo de parceria de cuidados centrados nas pessoas foi desenvolvido com base na meta-síntese qualitativa da literatura e a avaliação de 14 projetos relacionados. Os projetos em curso resultaram na transformação individual e social, melhorando a alfabetização de saúde da comunidade e comportamentos que usam o cuidado centrado nas pessoas e aumentando a parceria entre os profissionais de saúde e membros da comunidade por meio da prática avançada de enfermagem

  20. University of Hawaii Lure Observatory. [lunar laser ranging system construction

    Carter, W. E.; Williams, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The University of Hawaii's Institute for Astronomy is currently constructing a lunar laser ranging observatory at the 3050-meter summit of Mt. Haleakala, Hawaii. The Nd YAG laser system to be employed provides three pulses per second, each pulse being approximately 200 picoseconds in duration. The energy contained in one pulse at 5320 A lies in the range from 250 to 350 millijoules. Details of observatory construction are provided together with transmitter design data and information concerning the lunastat, the feed telescope, the relative pointing system, the receiver, and the event timer system.

  1. A universal measuring and monitoring system for nuclear radiation

    Genrich, V.

    1988-01-01

    Genitron Instruments, Frankfurt/Main, committed themselves to revise the 'conventional' concept of counting tube metrology. The goal was to develop a modular system that would allow large-area measuring tasks. The contribution in hand explains this development, which consists of a highly integrated measuring head that can be combined with various detector types, and complemented by various system components, to form a universal measuring and monitoring system for nuclear radiation. This modular design concept is capable of fulfilling a multitude of tasks, ranging from single, specific applications to non-stop monitoring tasks within a large-area measuring network. (orig./DG) [de

  2. Haldane's statistical interactions and universal properties of anyon systems

    Protogenov, A.

    1995-03-01

    The exclusion principle of fractional statistics proposed by Haldane is applied to systems with internal degrees of freedom. The symmetry of these systems is included in the statistical interaction matrix which contains the Cartan matrix of Lie algebras. The solutions of the equations for the statistical weights, which coincide with the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz equations are determined in the high temperature limit by the squares of q-deformed dimensions of irreducible representations. The entropy and other thermodynamic properties of anyon systems in this limit are completely characterized by the algebraic structure of symmetry in the universal form. (author). 39 refs

  3. Exploration of priority actions for strengthening the role of nurses in achieving universal health coverage

    Rowaida Al Maaitah

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to explore priority actions for strengthening the role of Advanced Practice Nurses (APNs towards the achievement of Universal Health Converge (UHC as perceived by health key informants in Jordan. Methods: an exploratory qualitative design, using a semi-structured survey, was utilized. A purposive sample of seventeen key informants from various nursing and health care sectors was recruited for the purpose of the study. Content analysis utilizing the five-stage framework approach was used for data analysis. Results: the findings revealed that policy and regulation, nursing education, research, and workforce were identified as the main elements that influence the role of APNs in contributing to the achievement of UHC. Priority actions were identified by the participants for the main four elements. Conclusion: study findings confirm the need to strengthen the role of APNs to achieve UHC through a major transformation in nursing education, practice, research, leadership, and regulatory system. Nurses should unite to come up with solid nursing competencies related to APNs, PHC, UHC, leadership and policy making to strengthen their position as main actors in influencing the health care system and evidence creation.

  4. Collaboration between the University of Michigan Taubman Health Sciences library and the University of Michigan Medical School Office of Research.

    Black, Christine; Harris, Bethany; Mahraj, Katy; Schnitzer, Anna Ercoli; Rosenzweig, Merle

    2013-01-01

    Librarians have traditionally facilitated research development resulting in grants through performing biomedical literature searches for researchers. The librarians at the Taubman Health Sciences Library of the University of Michigan have taken additional steps forward by instituting a proactive approach to assisting investigators. To accomplish this, the librarians have taken part in a collaborative effort with the University of Michigan Medical School Office of Research. Through this partnership, both units have created and adopted various techniques intended to facilitate the submission of grants, thus allowing researchers more time to conduct their primary activities.

  5. Implementing Universal Design Strategies in Municipalities - A Multidisciplinary Approach to Universal Design and Public Health.

    Jensen, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Based on a national program, the regional authorities stimulated each of the 18 municipalities in Telemark 2012-15 to plan and build promenades with universal design. The cooperation between different disciplines was an important factor for good results. The project continues from 2016.

  6. The Malnourished University Student: Health from the Student Perspective

    Jones, Sandra Beth

    2015-01-01

    Over the first four years of college, students’ self-ratings on writing ability and motivation to perform well increase, while self-reports of physical and emotional health decrease during that same period (Astin, 1997). This qualitative investigation identifies and explains the environmental and cultural forces that shape and are shaped by health and wellness perspectives of students. Research questions for this investigation addressed students’ understandings of health and wellness and th...

  7. Health Care Information System (HCIS) Data File

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The data was derived from the Health Care Information System (HCIS), which contains Medicare Part A (Inpatient, Skilled Nursing Facility, Home Health Agency (Part A...

  8. Policy Choices for Progressive Realization of Universal Health Coverage Comment on "Ethical Perspective: Five Unacceptable Trade-offs on the Path to Universal Health Coverage".

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn; Panichkriangkrai, Warisa; Sommanustweechai, Angkana

    2016-07-31

    In responses to Norheim's editorial, this commentary offers reflections from Thailand, how the five unacceptable trade-offs were applied to the universal health coverage (UHC) reforms between 1975 and 2002 when the whole 64 million people were covered by one of the three public health insurance systems. This commentary aims to generate global discussions on how best UHC can be gradually achieved. Not only the proposed five discrete trade-offs within each dimension, there are also trade-offs between the three dimensions of UHC such as population coverage, service coverage and cost coverage. Findings from Thai UHC show that equity is applied for the population coverage extension, when the low income households and the informal sector were the priority population groups for coverage extension by different prepayment schemes in 1975 and 1984, respectively. With an exception of public sector employees who were historically covered as part of fringe benefits were covered well before the poor. The private sector employees were covered last in 1990. Historically, Thailand applied a comprehensive benefit package where a few items are excluded using the negative list; until there was improved capacities on technology assessment that cost-effectiveness are used for the inclusion of new interventions into the benefit package. Not only cost-effectiveness, but long term budget impact, equity and ethical considerations are taken into account. Cost coverage is mostly determined by the fiscal capacities. Close ended budget with mix of provider payment methods are used as a tool for trade-off service coverage and financial risk protection. Introducing copayment in the context of fee-for-service can be harmful to beneficiaries due to supplier induced demands, inefficiency and unpredictable out of pocket payment by households. UHC achieves favorable outcomes as it was implemented when there was a full geographical coverage of primary healthcare coverage in all districts and sub

  9. Poverty, food security and universal access to sexual and reproductive health services: a call for cross-movement advocacy against neoliberal globalisation.

    Sundari Ravindran, T K

    2014-05-01

    Universal access to sexual and reproductive health services is one of the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development of 1994. The Millennium Development Goals were intended above all to end poverty. Universal access to health and health services are among the goals being considered for the post-2015 agenda, replacing or augmenting the MDGs. Yet we are not only far from reaching any of these goals but also appear to have lost our way somewhere along the line. Poverty and lack of food security have, through their multiple linkages to health and access to health care, deterred progress towards universal access to health services, including for sexual and reproductive health needs. A more insidious influence is neoliberal globalisation. This paper describes neoliberal globalisation and the economic policies it has engendered, the ways in which it influences poverty and food security, and the often unequal impact it has had on women as compared to men. It explores the effects of neoliberal economic policies on health, health systems, and universal access to health care services, and the implications for access to sexual and reproductive health. To be an advocate for universal access to health and health care is to become an advocate against neoliberal globalisation. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phase transition universality classes of classical, nonequilibrium systems

    Ódor, G

    2004-01-01

    In the first chapter I summarize the most important critical exponents and relations used in this work. In the second chapter I briefly address the question of scaling behavior at first order phase transitions.In chapter three I review dynamical extensions of basic static classes, show the effect of mixing dynamics and percolation behavior. The main body of this work is given in chapter four where genuine, dynamical universality classes specific to nonequilibrium systems are introduced. In chapter five I continue overviewing such nonequilibrium classes but in coupled, multi-component systems. Most of known transitions in low dimensional systems are between active and absorbing states of reaction-diffusion type systems, but I briefly introduce related classes that appear in interface growth models in chapter six. Some of them are related to critical behavior of coupled, multi-component systems. Finally in chapter seven I summarize families of absorbing state system classes, mean-field classes and the most freq...

  11. Universality in driven-dissipative quantum many-body systems

    Sieberer, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Recent experimental investigations of condensation phenomena in driven-dissipative quantum many-body systems raise the question of what kind of novel universal behavior can emerge under non-equilibrium conditions. We explore various aspects of universality in this context. Our results are of relevance for a variety of open quantum systems on the interface of quantum optics and condensed matter physics, ranging from exciton-polariton condensates to cold atomic gases. In Part I we characterize the dynamical critical behavior at the Bose-Einstein condensation phase transition in driven open quantum systems in three spatial dimensions. Although thermodynamic equilibrium conditions are emergent at low frequencies, the approach to this thermalized low-frequency regime is described by a critical exponent which is specific to the non-equilibrium transition, and places the latter beyond the standard classification of equilibrium dynamical critical behavior. Our theoretical approach is based on the functional renormalization group within the framework of Keldysh non-equilibrium field theory, which is equivalent to a microscopic description of the open system dynamics in terms of a many-body quantum master equation. Universal behavior in the coherence properties of driven-dissipative condensates in reduced dimensions is investigated in Part II. We show that driven two-dimensional Bose systems cannot exhibit algebraic order as in thermodynamic equilibrium, unless they are sufficiently anisotropic. However, we find evidence that even isotropic systems may have a finite superfluidity fraction. In one-dimensional systems, non-equilibrium conditions are traceable in the behavior of the autocorrelation function. We obtain these results by mapping the long-wavelength condensate dynamics onto the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation. In Part III we show that systems in thermodynamic equilibrium have a specific symmetry, which makes them distinct from generic driven open systems. The novel

  12. Health policy, health systems research and analysis capacity ...

    Introduction: Health Policy and Systems Research and Analysis (HPSR&A) is an applied science that deals with complexity as it tries to provide lessons, tools and methods to understand and improve health systems and health policy. It is defined by the kinds of questions asked rather than a particular methodology.

  13. Health Seeking Behavior of Physicians at the Jos University ...

    Background: Physicians who have the task of caring for the sick also need to be cared for when they take ill. Healthseeking habits of physicians have been found to be poor in most developed countries. Utilization of health services by physicians in developing countries is not known. We sought to describe the health seeking ...

  14. Epidemiological Study of Greek University Students' Mental Health

    Kounenou, Kalliope; Koutra, Aikaterini; Katsiadrami, Aristea; Diacogiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…

  15. The University Life Cafe: Promoting Students' Emotional Health

    Hai-Jew, Shalin

    2009-01-01

    Institutions of higher education have a vested interest in the health of their student populations, even without the traditional strictures of "in loco parentis". Student health issues involve stress management, healthy diet and exercise, the building of healthy social lives, effective relationship management, and the development of life…

  16. More Than Political Ideology: Subtle Racial Prejudice as a Predictor of Opposition to Universal Health Care Among U.S. Citizens

    Megan Johnson Shen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Political rhetoric surrounding Universal Health Care in the United States typically deals only with differences in political ideology. Research on symbolic racism, however, indicates that subtle racial prejudice may also predict attitudes toward policies like universal health care that are assumed to benefit racial minorities. This subtle racial prejudice hypothesis was supported across three studies conducted in the U.S. A measure of attitudes toward universal health care was found to be a reliable, single-dimension measure associated with political ideology (Pilot Study. Subtle racial prejudice (as measured by the Modern Racism Scale predicted opposition to universal health care, even when statistically controlling for political ideology and attitudes toward the poor (Study 1. Moreover, reading about a Black individual (compared to a White individual receiving universal health care benefits reduced support for universal health care, even when statistically controlling for political ideology and right-wing authoritarianism (Study 2. Being a person who takes advantage of the system (e.g., free rides was a significant predictor of universal health care attitudes while race was not (Study 3. This work demonstrates that subtle racial prejudice plays a critical role in predicting universal health care attitudes among U.S. citizens, reflecting a long-standing history of associations between subtle racial prejudice and opposition to governmental assistance programs in the U.S.

  17. Oral Health Behaviour and Social and Health Factors in University Students from 26 Low, Middle and High Income Countries

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2014-01-01

    Poor oral health is still a major burden for populations throughout the world, particularly in developing countries. The aim of this study was investigate oral health behaviour (tooth brushing and dental attendance) and associated factors in low, middle and high income countries. Using anonymous questionnaires, data were collected from 19,560 undergraduate university students (mean age 20.8, SD = 2.8) from 27 universities in 26 countries across Asia, Africa and the Americas. Results indicate...

  18. Sexual Violence Screening Practices of Student Health Centers Located on Universities in Florida

    Halstead, Valerie; Williams, Jessica R.; Gattamorta, Karina; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to describe current sexual violence screening practices of student health centers located on universities in Florida. Participants: Institutional level data was collected from 33 student health centers from November 2015 through January 2016. The student health centers were located on public or private…

  19. A Comprehensive Profile of Health Risk Behaviors Among Students at a Small Canadian University

    Taylor, Jennifer P.; McCarthy, Mary Jean; Herbert, Rosemary J.; Smith, Philip B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent attention to health promotion and illness prevention, young people continue to engage in a variety of risk behaviors, which may negatively influence current and future health status. The purpose of this study was to create a comprehensive profile of health risk behaviors among undergraduate students at the University of Prince…

  20. A National Assessment of Colleges and University School Health Education Methods Courses

    Fisher, Christine M.; Price, James H.; Telljohann, Susan K.; Dake, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Across the United States, school health education programs provide a wide variety of knowledge and skills to their students. There are currently no guidelines for school health methods courses. Methods: Using a 2-wave mailing followed by a third wave e-mail reminder, a final population of 226 university school health methods…

  1. The student health services at the University of Pretoria from 2000 to 2005

    D H van Papendorp

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The University of Pretoria’s Student Health Services provides free, voluntary, family-medicine-orientated health services with an emphasis on offering preventative medicine and health education to enrolled students. ABSTRAK Die Universiteit van Pretoria se Gesondheidsdienste voorsien gratis, vrywillige gesins-medisyne-georiënteerde gesondheidsdienste met die klem op voorkomende medisyne en gesondheidsopvoeding aan ingeskrewe studente.

  2. Students Left behind: The Limitations of University-Based Health Insurance for Students with Mental Illnesses

    McIntosh, Belinda J.; Compton, Michael T.; Druss, Benjamin G.

    2012-01-01

    A growing trend in college and university health care is the requirement that students demonstrate proof of health insurance prior to enrollment. An increasing number of schools are contracting with insurance companies to provide students with school-based options for health insurance. Although this is advantageous to students in some ways, tying…

  3. Explanation of model design and talent management system in universities

    AH Nazaripour; SNJ Mosavi; M Hakak; A Pirzad

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim: Nowadays talented human resources are considerd as the most important and valuable organizational asset. Proper management of these major asset, the the most essential task manager and the progress of any organization in this field is fierce competition with competitor. The aim of this study was to develop a model system for talent management in universities in the country. Methods: In this study the population was composed of 10 Azad Univers...

  4. Development of robotic mobile platform with the universal chassis system

    Ryadchikov, I.; Nikulchev, E.; Sechenev, S.; Drobotenko, M.; Svidlov, A.; Volkodav, P.; Feshin, A.

    2018-02-01

    The problem of stabilizing the position of mobile devices is extremely relevant at the modern level of technology development. This includes the problem of stabilizing aircraft and stabilizing the pitching of ships. In the laboratory of robotics and mechatronics of the Kuban State University, a robot is developed. The robot has additional internal degrees of freedom, responsible for compensating for deflections - the dynamic stabilization system.

  5. Health Information Technology as a Universal Donor to Bioethics Education.

    Goodman, Kenneth W

    2017-04-01

    Health information technology, sometimes called biomedical informatics, is the use of computers and networks in the health professions. This technology has become widespread, from electronic health records to decision support tools to patient access through personal health records. These computational and information-based tools have engendered their own ethics literature and now present an opportunity to shape the standard medical and nursing ethics curricula. It is suggested that each of four core components in the professional education of clinicians-privacy, end-of-life care, access to healthcare and valid consent, and clinician-patient communication-offers an opportunity to leverage health information technology for curricular improvement. Using informatics in ethics education freshens ethics pedagogy and increases its utility, and does so without additional demands on overburdened curricula.

  6. Integrated Health Care Barcelona Esquerra (Ais-Be: A Global View of Organisational Development, Re-Engineering of Processes and Improvement of the Information Systems. The Role of the Tertiary University Hospital in the Transformation

    David Font

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Integrated Health Area “Barcelona Esquerra” ('Área Integral de Salud de Barcelona Esquerra' – AIS-BE, which covers a population of 524,000 residents in Barcelona city, is running a project to improve healthcare quality and efficiency based on co-ordination between the different suppliers in its area through the participation of their professionals. Endowed with an Organisational Model that seeks decision-taking that starts out from clinical knowledge and from Information Systems tools that facilitate this co-ordination (an interoperability platform and a website it presents important results in its structured programmes that have been implemented such as the Reorganisation of Emergency Care, Screening for Colorectal Cancer, the Onset of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Teledermatology and the Development of Cross-sectional Healthcare Policies for Care in Chronicity.

  7. Sustainable food systems for optimal planetary health.

    Canavan, Chelsey R; Noor, Ramadhani A; Golden, Christopher D; Juma, Calestous; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2017-06-01

    Sustainable food systems are an important component of a planetary health strategy to reduce the threat of infectious disease, minimize environmental footprint and promote nutrition. Human population trends and dietary transition have led to growing demand for food and increasing production and consumption of meat, amid declining availability of arable land and water. The intensification of livestock production has serious environmental and infectious disease impacts. Land clearing for agriculture alters ecosystems, increases human-wildlife interactions and leads to disease proliferation. Context-specific interventions should be evaluated towards optimizing nutrition resilience, minimizing environmental footprint and reducing animal and human disease risk. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Software for Intelligent System Health Management

    Trevino, Luis C.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the characteristics and advantages of autonomy and artificial intelligence in systems health monitoring. The presentation lists technologies relevant to Intelligent System Health Management (ISHM), and some potential applications.

  9. The public health system in England

    Hunter, David J; Marks, Linda; Smith, Katherine E

    2010-01-01

    .... The Public Health System in England offers a wide-ranging, provocative and accessible assessment of challenges confronting a public health system, exploring how its parameters have shifted over time...

  10. Universality in few-body systems with large scattering length

    Hammer, H.-W.

    2005-01-01

    Effective Field Theory (EFT) provides a powerful framework that exploits a separation of scales in physical systems to perform systematically improvable, model-independent calculations. Particularly interesting are few-body systems with short-range interactions and large two-body scattering length. Such systems display remarkable universal features. In systems with more than two particles, a three-body force with limit cycle behavior is required for consistent renormalization already at leading order. We will review this EFT and some of its applications in the physics of cold atoms and nuclear physics. In particular, we will discuss the possibility of an infrared limit cycle in QCD. Recent extensions of the EFT approach to the four-body system and N-boson droplets in two spatial dimensions will also be addressed

  11. [Leadership and vision in the improvement of universal health care coverage in low-income countries].

    Meda, Ziemlé Clément; Konate, Lassina; Ouedraogo, Hyacinthe; Sanou, Moussa; Hercot, David; Sombie, Issiaka

    2011-01-01

    implementing a decentralized approach to tuberculosis detection, succeeded in improving access to care and enabled us to quantify the rate of tuberculosis-HIV co-infection in the HD. The fourth intervention improved financial access to emergency obstetric care by providing essential drugs and consumables for emergency obstetric surgery free of charge. The fifth intervention boosted the motivation of health workers by an annual 'competition of excellence', organised for workers and teams in the HD. Finally, our sixth intervention was the introduction of a "culture" of evaluation and transparency, by means of a local health journal, used to interact with stakeholders both at the local level and in the health sector more broadly. We also present our experiences regularly during national health science symposia. Although the DT operates with limited resources, it has over time managed to improve care and services in the HD, through its dynamic management and strategic planning. It has reduced inpatient mortality and improved access to care, particularly for vulnerable groups, in line with the Primary Health Care and Bamako Initiative principles. This case study would have benefited from a stronger methodology. However, it shows that in a context of limited resources it is still possible to strengthen the local health system by improving management practices. To progress towards universal health coverage, all core functions of a DT are worth implementing, including leadership and vision. National and international health strategies should thus include a plan to provide for and train local health system managers who can provide both leadership and strategic vision.

  12. Achieving equity within universal health coverage: a narrative review of progress and resources for measuring success.

    Rodney, Anna M; Hill, Peter S

    2014-10-10

    Equity should be implicit within universal health coverage (UHC) however, emerging evidence is showing that without adequate focus on measurement of equity, vulnerable populations may continue to receive inadequate or inferior health care. This study undertakes a narrative review which aims to: (i) elucidate how equity is contextualised and measured within UHC, and (ii) describe tools, resources and lessons which will assist decision makers to plan and implement UHC programmes which ensure equity for all. A narrative review of peer-reviewed literature published in English between 2005 and 2013, retrieved from PubMed via the search words, 'universal health coverage/care' and 'equity/inequity' was performed. Websites of key global health organizations were also searched for relevant grey literature. Papers were excluded if they failed to focus on equity (of access, financial risk protection or health outcomes) as well as focusing on one of the following: (i) the impact of UHC programmes, policies or interventions on equity (ii) indicators, measurement, monitoring and/or evaluation of equity within UHC, or (iii) tools or resources to assist with measurement. Eighteen journal articles consisting mostly of secondary analysis of country data and qualitative case studies in the form of commentaries/reviews, and 13 items of grey literature, consisting largely of reports from working groups and expert meetings focusing on defining, understanding and measuring inequity in UHC (including recent drafts of global/country monitoring frameworks) were included. The literature advocates for progressive universalism addressing monetary and non-monetary barriers to access and strengthening existing health systems. This however relies on countries being effectively able to identify and reach disadvantaged populations and estimate unmet need. Countries should assess the new WHO/WB-proposed framework for its ability to adequately track the progress of disadvantaged populations in terms

  13. Students' attitudes towards impact of the health department website on their health literacy in Semnan University of Medical Sciences.

    Mahdizadeh, Jamileh; Valinejadi, Ali; Pooyesh, Behnoosh; Jafari, Fatemeh; Kahouei, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Health literacy has been of interest to policymakers because of its impact on health decision-making as one of the important issues for promoting community health and improving the quality of health care delivery. Therefore, it seems necessary to examine the status of the website of the health sector of the University of Medical Sciences in promoting health literacy from the viewpoint of the students. This cross-sectional study was performed on 529 medical and allied students in schools affiliated to Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran between 2016 and 2017. In this study, a valid and reliable adult health literacy questionnaire designed by Montazeri et al. was used. The questionnaire was distributed among students in medical and allied health schools and they were asked to complete the questionnaire. Independent-samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson product-moment correlation were used to analyze data by SPSS 19. Mean scores of the participants' attitudes towards reading of health information was 3.14 and towards decision and usage of health information was 2.53. Relationship between the study subjects' demographic characteristics and their attitudes was significant (pwebsite. Hence, the results of this study showed that the website of the health department needs to be redesigned, and this design would allow a better link between the University of Medical Sciences and its audience to promote health literacy.

  14. Students’ attitudes towards impact of the health department website on their health literacy in Semnan University of Medical Sciences

    Mahdizadeh, Jamileh; Valinejadi, Ali; Pooyesh, Behnoosh; Jafari, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Background and aim Health literacy has been of interest to policymakers because of its impact on health decision-making as one of the important issues for promoting community health and improving the quality of health care delivery. Therefore, it seems necessary to examine the status of the website of the health sector of the University of Medical Sciences in promoting health literacy from the viewpoint of the students. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 529 medical and allied students in schools affiliated to Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran between 2016 and 2017. In this study, a valid and reliable adult health literacy questionnaire designed by Montazeri et al. was used. The questionnaire was distributed among students in medical and allied health schools and they were asked to complete the questionnaire. Independent-samples t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson product-moment correlation were used to analyze data by SPSS 19. Results Mean scores of the participants’ attitudes towards reading of health information was 3.14 and towards decision and usage of health information was 2.53. Relationship between the study subjects’ demographic characteristics and their attitudes was significant (pwebsite. Hence, the results of this study showed that the website of the health department needs to be redesigned, and this design would allow a better link between the University of Medical Sciences and its audience to promote health literacy. PMID:29588815

  15. Equity-Oriented Monitoring in the Context of Universal Health Coverage

    Hosseinpoor, Ahmad Reza; Bergen, Nicole; Koller, Theadora; Prasad, Amit; Schlotheuber, Anne; Valentine, Nicole; Lynch, John; Vega, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring inequalities in health is fundamental to the equitable and progressive realization of universal health coverage (UHC). A successful approach to global inequality monitoring must be intuitive enough for widespread adoption, yet maintain technical credibility. This article discusses methodological considerations for equity-oriented monitoring of UHC, and proposes recommendations for monitoring and target setting. Inequality is multidimensional, such that the extent of inequality may vary considerably across different dimensions such as economic status, education, sex, and urban/rural residence. Hence, global monitoring should include complementary dimensions of inequality (such as economic status and urban/rural residence) as well as sex. For a given dimension of inequality, subgroups for monitoring must be formulated taking into consideration applicability of the criteria across countries and subgroup heterogeneity. For economic-related inequality, we recommend forming subgroups as quintiles, and for urban/rural inequality we recommend a binary categorization. Inequality spans populations, thus appropriate approaches to monitoring should be based on comparisons between two subgroups (gap approach) or across multiple subgroups (whole spectrum approach). When measuring inequality absolute and relative measures should be reported together, along with disaggregated data; inequality should be reported alongside the national average. We recommend targets based on proportional reductions in absolute inequality across populations. Building capacity for health inequality monitoring is timely, relevant, and important. The development of high-quality health information systems, including data collection, analysis, interpretation, and reporting practices that are linked to review and evaluation cycles across health systems, will enable effective global and national health inequality monitoring. These actions will support equity-oriented progressive realization of UHC

  16. A case study of global health at the university: implications for research and action.

    Pinto, Andrew D; Cole, Donald C; ter Kuile, Aleida; Forman, Lisa; Rouleau, Katherine; Philpott, Jane; Pakes, Barry; Jackson, Suzanne; Muntaner, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Global health is increasingly a major focus of institutions in high-income countries. However, little work has been done to date to study the inner workings of global health at the university level. Academics may have competing objectives, with few mechanisms to coordinate efforts and pool resources. To conduct a case study of global health at Canada's largest health sciences university and to examine how its internal organization influences research and action. We drew on existing inventories, annual reports, and websites to create an institutional map, identifying centers and departments using the terms 'global health' or 'international health' to describe their activities. We compiled a list of academics who self-identified as working in global or international health. We purposively sampled persons in leadership positions as key informants. One investigator carried out confidential, semi-structured interviews with 20 key informants. Interview notes were returned to participants for verification and then analyzed thematically by pairs of coders. Synthesis was conducted jointly. More than 100 academics were identified as working in global health, situated in numerous institutions, centers, and departments. Global health academics interviewed shared a common sense of what global health means and the values that underpin such work. Most academics interviewed expressed frustration at the existing fragmentation and the lack of strategic direction, financial support, and recognition from the university. This hampered collaborative work and projects to tackle global health problems. The University of Toronto is not exceptional in facing such challenges, and our findings align with existing literature that describes factors that inhibit collaboration in global health work at universities. Global health academics based at universities may work in institutional siloes and this limits both internal and external collaboration. A number of solutions to address these

  17. Predictive models for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among Spanish University students: rationale and methods of the UNIVERSAL (University & mental health) project.

    Blasco, Maria Jesús; Castellví, Pere; Almenara, José; Lagares, Carolina; Roca, Miquel; Sesé, Albert; Piqueras, José Antonio; Soto-Sanz, Victoria; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús; Echeburúa, Enrique; Gabilondo, Andrea; Cebrià, Ana Isabel; Miranda-Mendizábal, Andrea; Vilagut, Gemma; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Auerbach, Randy P; Kessler, Ronald C; Alonso, Jordi

    2016-05-04

    Suicide is a leading cause of death among young people. While suicide prevention is considered a research and intervention priority, longitudinal data is needed to identify risk and protective factors associate with suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Here we describe the UNIVERSAL (University and Mental Health) project which aims are to: (1) test prevalence and 36-month incidence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors; and (2) identify relevant risk and protective factors associated with the incidence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors among university students in Spain. An ongoing multicenter, observational, prospective cohort study of first year university students in 5 Spanish universities. Students will be assessed annually during a 36 month follow-up. The surveys will be administered through an online, secure web-based platform. A clinical reappraisal will be completed among a subsample of respondents. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors will be assess with the Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors Interview (SITBI) and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). Risk and protective factors will include: mental disorders, measured with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) and Screening Scales (CIDI-SC), and the Epi-Q Screening Survey (EPI-Q-SS), socio-demographic variables, self-perceived health status, health behaviors, well-being, substance use disorders, service use and treatment. The UNIVERSAL project is part of the International College Surveys initiative, which is a core project within the World Mental Health consortium. Lifetime and the 12-month prevalence will be calculated for suicide ideation, plans and attempts. Cumulative incidence of suicidal thoughts and behaviors, and mental disorders will be measured using the actuarial method. Risk and protective factors of suicidal thoughts and behaviors will be analyzed by Cox proportional hazard models. The study will provide valid, innovative and useful data for developing

  18. Combined PACS and intranet information system in a University Hospital

    Heiss, D.; Pfluger, T.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Hahn, K.; Koenig, A.; Endres, S.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The Department of Radiology at the University Hospital Innenstadt Munich provides all clinical departments of a large university hospital with several radiology units at different locations. During the last four years all units have been fully digitalized with a stepwise installation of a PACS. The PACS also processes images from the Nuclear Medicine Department. Methods: As image modalities, archive systems and review workstations, we use devices from multiple vendors, which are integrated into a consistent system using the DICOM standard. The hospital has developed its own RIS and an intranet information system, which provides access to all reports and images from radiology for all clinical departments inside the hospital. Additionally, other clinical information such as laboratory results or ECG examinations are available through the system. Results: After one year of operation, the system succeeded in the clinical routine work as the primary source for radiological reports and images as well as for laboratory values. Conclusion: The advantages of digitalization were, besides reduction of film cost, especially optimizations of work flow with access to digital images from every where at any time. (orig.) [de

  19. Realizing universal health coverage for maternal health services in the Republic of Guinea : the use of workforce projections to design health labor market interventions

    Jansen, Christel; Codjia, Laurence; Cometto, Giorgio; Yansané, Mohamed Lamine; Dieleman, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Universal health coverage requires a health workforce that is available, accessible, and well-performing. This article presents a critical analysis of the health workforce needs for the delivery of maternal and neonatal health services in Guinea, and of feasible and relevant

  20. THE QUALITY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AT THE UNIVERSITY. PROBLEMS IN IMPLEMENTING

    L. I. Nazina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Beginning of the XXI century marked the active integration of Russia and the world community, including entry into the world educational space. The international activities of the leading universities of the country depends on the level of cooperation with foreign countries in the field of scientific and educational activities. Today topical issue recognition of the quality of Russian education abroad. One way to confirm this is the certification of the quality management system of the university. As long-term, mostly foreign experience, achieving the required level of quality and continue to improve the most productive is accomplished by implementing a quality management system in accordance with ISO 9000. In the modern system of higher education a lot of attention paid to quality, to ensure the competitiveness of the institution in the education market by training qualified specialists. Implementation of the quality management system is to move the university to process management prepared in accordance with approved and enacted by the QMS documents. Workplaces should determine the duties, powers and responsibilities of each employee within the quality management system, develop and implement the job descriptions, staff verify documented procedures. Implementation of the certification must be accompanied by specific and persistent administration by management in conjunction with the training and retraining of all managers and employees involved in the work on the implementation of the QMS in the organization. This article describes the goals, objectives in the formation and implementation of QMS in higher education arising from this problem and barriers (information, methodological, psychological, multiple ways to address them.

  1. Computer network access to scientific information systems for minority universities

    Thomas, Valerie L.; Wakim, Nagi T.

    1993-08-01

    The evolution of computer networking technology has lead to the establishment of a massive networking infrastructure which interconnects various types of computing resources at many government, academic, and corporate institutions. A large segment of this infrastructure has been developed to facilitate information exchange and resource sharing within the scientific community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) supports both the development and the application of computer networks which provide its community with access to many valuable multi-disciplinary scientific information systems and on-line databases. Recognizing the need to extend the benefits of this advanced networking technology to the under-represented community, the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) in the Space Data and Computing Division at the Goddard Space Flight Center has developed the Minority University-Space Interdisciplinary Network (MU-SPIN) Program: a major networking and education initiative for Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and Minority Universities (MUs). In this paper, we will briefly explain the various components of the MU-SPIN Program while highlighting how, by providing access to scientific information systems and on-line data, it promotes a higher level of collaboration among faculty and students and NASA scientists.

  2. Master's Level Graduate Training in Medical Physics at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center.

    Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Hendee, William R.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the master's degree program in medical physics developed at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. Required courses for the program, and requirements for admission are included in the appendices. (HM)

  3. [Organization analysis and health technology assessment: an experiment in San Giovanni Battista University Hospital-Turin].

    Minniti, D; Chiadò Piat, S; Barbaro, S; Galzerano, M; Siliquini, R

    2010-01-01

    Recent Italian laws emphasise Clinical Governance model as a priority for hospitals and Health Technology Assessment as one of the major tools in order to support local and hospital decisions as far as new health technologies are concerned. Our reported experience suggests managing solutions and appraises clinical issues in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and security of new and emerging technologies in order to plan and to create a system according to up to date Health Technology Assessment principles in San Giovanni Battista University Hospital-Turin. Mini-HTA reports have been realised on "Technology Intelligence" in prostate cancer treatment, percutaneous implantation of aortic valve prosthesis in high-risk patients with aortic valve disease and experimental Home Radiology project. In addition, 1167 health technologies have been evaluated through a database created ad hoc. 65% of the evaluations have been positive, less than 5% negative and the other 30% have been suspended waiting for deeper assessments. The future perspectives predict the realization of further Mini-HTA reports even through a revision of the managing model used.

  4. Health Care System for Children and Adolescents in Slovenia.

    Juričič, Mojca; Truden Dobrin, Polonca; Paulin, Sonja; Seher Zupančič, Margareta; Bratina, Nataša

    2016-10-01

    Slovenia's health system is financed by a Bismarckian type of social insurance system with a single insurer for a statutory health insurance, which is fully regulated by national legislation and administered by the Health Insurance Institute of Slovenia. The health insurance system is mandatory, providing almost universal coverage (98.5% of the population). Children and adolescents have the right to compulsory health insurance as family members of an insured person until the end of their regular education. Slovenia has a lower number of physicians per capita than both the European Union and the Central and Eastern Europe countries. Slovenia is facing a workforce crisis, as the number of health professionals retiring is not adequately being replaced by new trainees. There is also a net deficit of nurses with university and college degrees. Physicians working with children and adolescents in primary level have a 5-year specialization in pediatrics. Slovenia tends to be in line with the goals for the development of pediatric health care on a primary level in European countries, which are to maintain the achieved level of quality, better and equitable access, and delivery of services, aiming to reduce inequalities in health of children and adolescents and provide for every child and adolescent in the best way possible. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Relationship between healthy lifestyle behaviors and health locus of control and health-specific self-efficacy in university students.

    Açıkgöz Çepni, Serap; Kitiş, Yeter

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between the healthy lifestyle behaviors and the health locus of control and health-specific self-efficacy in university students. The study included 572 undergraduate students of a university in the central Anatolia region of Turkey. The data were collected with the General Characteristics Form, the Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile II, the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, and the Perceived Health Competence Scale and investigated with the structural equation model. Health-specific self-efficacy was an important predictor of healthy lifestyle behaviors. The Internal health locus of control influenced the healthy lifestyle behaviors through health-specific self-efficacy. The other dimension was the Powerful Others health locus of control that affected healthy lifestyle behaviors, both directly and indirectly, through health-specific self-efficacy. There was a chance that the health locus of control had a negative effect on healthy lifestyle behaviors through self-efficacy. Health-specific self-efficacy is an important prerequisite for changes in healthy lifestyle behaviors, which supports Pender's model. The subscales of the health locus of control vary in their effects on healthy lifestyle behaviors, which partly supports Pender's model. Nurses, by using this model, can examine ways of improving these cognitive-perceptual factors and implement health education programs that are directed towards improving them in young persons. © 2016 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  6. Community-University Research Partnerships for Workers' and Environmental Health in Campinas Brazil

    Monteiro, Maria Ines; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Filho, Heleno Rodrigues Correa

    2011-01-01

    Three partnerships between the University of Campinas, community, and public health care services are discussed in this article. A theoretical framework underpins the critical reviews of their accomplishments following criteria proposed by scholars of community-university partnerships and community-based participatory research. The article…

  7. Coping Style, Job Burnout and Mental Health of University Teachers of the Millennial Generation

    Jian, Xiao-Rong; Du, Juan-Juan; Dong, Rui-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    At present, in social transition period of China, reform of higher education is in full swing, with workload, job difficulty of university teachers greatly increased than before. Plus unique values and personality characteristics of the Millennial Generation, mental health of university teachers of the Millennial Generation has aroused more and…

  8. Cultural Differences in the Health Information Environments and Practices between Finnish and Japanese University Students

    Askola, Kreetta; Atsushi, Toshimori; Huotari, Maija-Leena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to identify cultural differences in the information environment and information practices, namely active seeking and encountering, of web-based health information between Finnish and Japanese university students. Method: The data were gathered with a Web-based survey among first-year university students at…

  9. Expert System for Quality Assessment in "Tibiscus" University

    Catalin Tuican

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The periodical evaluation of the teaching staff in „Tibiscus” University bases on the specifications of The Romanian Agency for Quality Assurance in Higher Education (Agenţia Română de Asigurare a Calităţii în Învăţământul Superior, ARACIS namely : „The quality of the teaching and researching staff The universities must dispose of teaching staff which, as number and functional base, must be correctly allocated to the total number of students, depending on the study domain, and regarding the qualifications it must depend on the specific of the study program and the proposed quality objectives.” This paper presents the implementation of an expert system, offering to the students the possibility to perform the evaluation in a modern way and to the evaluation committee a quick access to all necessary data.

  10. The implication of the shortage of health workforce specialist on universal health coverage in Kenya.

    Miseda, Mumbo Hazel; Were, Samuel Odhiambo; Murianki, Cirindi Anne; Mutuku, Milo Peter; Mutwiwa, Stephen N

    2017-12-01

    Globally, there is an acute shortage of human resources for health (HRH), and the greatest burden is borne by low-income countries especially in sub-Saharan Africa and some parts of Asia. This shortage has not only considerably constrained the achievement of health-related development goals but also impeded accelerated progress towards universal health coverage (UHC). Like any other low-income country, Kenya is experiencing health workforce shortage particularly in specialized healthcare workers to cater for the rapidly growing need for specialized health care (MOH Training Needs Assessment report (2015)). Efficient use of the existing health workforce including task shifting is under consideration as a short-term stop gap measure while deliberate efforts are being put on retention policies and increased production of HRH. The Ministry of Health (MOH) with support from the United States Agency for International Development-funded FUNZOKenya project and MOH/Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) project conducted a country-wide training needs assessment (TNA) to identify skill gaps in the provision of specialized health care in private and public hospitals in 46 out of Kenya's 47 counties between April and June 2015. A total of 99 respondents participated in the TNA. Structured questionnaires were used to undertake this assessment. The assessment sought to determine the extent of skill gaps on the basis of the national guidelines and as perceived by the County Directors of Health (CDH). The questionnaires were posted to and received by all the respondents a week prior to a face-to-face interview with the respondents for familiarization. Data analysis was done using SPSS statistical package. Overall, the findings revealed average skill gaps on selected specialists (healthcare professional whose practice is limited to a particular area, such as a branch of medicine, surgery, or nursing, especially, one who by virtue of advanced training is certified by a

  11. Predictors of Mental Health Symptoms, Automatic Thoughts, and Self-Esteem Among University Students.

    Hiçdurmaz, Duygu; İnci, Figen; Karahan, Sevilay

    2017-01-01

    University youth is a risk group regarding mental health, and many mental health problems are frequent in this group. Sociodemographic factors such as level of income and familial factors such as relationship with father are reported to be associated with mental health symptoms, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem. Also, there are interrelations between mental health problems, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem. The extent of predictive effect of each of these variables on automatic thoughts, self-esteem, and mental health symptoms is not known. We aimed to determine the predictive factors of mental health symptoms, automatic thoughts, and self-esteem in university students. Participants were 530 students enrolled at a university in Turkey, during 2014-2015 academic year. Data were collected using the student information form, the Brief Symptom Inventory, the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Mental health symptoms, self-esteem, perception of the relationship with the father, and level of income as a student significantly predicted automatic thoughts. Automatic thoughts, mental health symptoms, participation in family decisions, and age had significant predictive effects on self-esteem. Finally, automatic thoughts, self-esteem, age, and perception of the relationship with the father had significant predictive effects on mental health symptoms. The predictive factors revealed in our study provide important information to practitioners and researchers by showing the elements that need to be screened for mental health of university students and issues that need to be included in counseling activities.

  12. Universal Health Coverage – The Critical Importance of Global Solidarity and Good Governance

    Reis, Andreas A.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a commentary to Ole Norheim’ s editorial entitled "Ethical perspective: Five unacceptable trade-offs on the path to universal health coverage." It reinforces its message that an inclusive, participatory process is essential for ethical decision-making and underlines the crucial importance of good governance in setting fair priorities in healthcare. Solidarity on both national and international levels is needed to make progress towards the goal of universal health coverage (UHC). PMID:27694683

  13. Strengthening of oral health systems

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    is either due to low availability and accessibility of oral health care or because oral health care is costly. In all countries, the poor and disadvantaged population groups are heavily affected by a high burden of oral disease compared to well-off people. Promotion of oral health and prevention of oral...... diseases must be provided through financially fair primary health care and public health intervention. Integrated approaches are the most cost-effective and realistic way to close the gap in oral health between rich and poor. The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral Health Programme will work......Around the globe many people are suffering from oral pain and other problems of the mouth or teeth. This public health problem is growing rapidly in developing countries where oral health services are limited. Significant proportions of people are underserved; insufficient oral health care...

  14. A Universal Motor Performance Test System Based on Virtual Instrument

    Wei Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the development of technology universal motors play a more and more important role in daily life and production, they have been used in increasingly wide field and the requirements increase gradually. How to control the speed and monitor the real-time temperature of motors are key issues. The cost of motor testing system based on traditional technology platform is very high in many reasons. In the paper a universal motor performance test system which based on virtual instrument is provided. The system achieves the precise control of the current motor speed and completes the measurement of real-time temperature of motor bearing support in order to realize the testing of general-purpose motor property. Experimental result shows that the system can work stability in controlling the speed and monitoring the real-time temperature. It has advantages that traditional using of SCM cannot match in speed, stability, cost and accuracy aspects. Besides it is easy to expand and reconfigure.

  15. Reducing maternal mortality in Nigeria: the need for urgent changes in financing for maternal health in the Nigerian health system.

    Ebeigbe, P N

    2013-06-01

    Nigeria's maternal mortality indices are among the worst in the world. Various approaches aimed at combatting the persistently high maternal mortality rates in the past have been ineffective. The objective of this article was to evaluate the fairness and equitability of financing for maternal health in the Nigerian health system. A review of the performance of the Nigerian Health system with regards to financing for maternal healthcare and comparison with other health systems utilising internationally accepted criteria was done. Household out-of -pocket payment was found to be the largest source of health care financing in the Nigerian health system contributing as much as 65.6 % of total health expenditure. This is in sharp contrast to the performance of more effective health systems like that in South Africa where health care is free for pregnant and breast feeding mothers. The result is that South Africa reports less than a tenth of total maternal mortalities reported from Nigeria annually. The current Nigeria health financing system is not equitable and appears to encourage maternal mortalities since it does not cater for the most vulnerable. There is an urgent need for a review of financing of maternal health in Nigeria to achieve universal access to maternal health care. An urgent overhaul of the currently under performing National Health Insurance scheme or adoption of the simpler system based on funding from taxation with universal access for health care including maternal care and services free at the point of access is suggested.

  16. Systems for the management of information in a university context: an investigation of user need. Information systems, Universities, Information strategy

    Marcella R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The accessibility, reliability, consistency, and relevance of data underpinning information systems are crucial to its use and effectiveness in a university setting. This article reports on the findings of a research project carried out at a new university, which highlighted the role information plays in the success of the operation and in allowing the institution to evolve and meet the challenges posed by the government, students and other stakeholders. Data were gathered from the academic and administrative staff of the university through interviews with senior managers, and a Web-based questionnaire completed by 863 respondents (a 47.9% response rate. The project aimed to explore data and information activities supporting management and strategic decision making in a new university. Project results indicate that there are real deficiencies in the realization of the case institution's information strategy and that these deficiencies must be addressed in developments focusing on improving strategic effectiveness in the future. Particular issues identified included the lack of clarity in responsibility regarding information and concerns about the validity of much of the internally created and maintained data.

  17. Universality classes and critical phenomena in confined liquid systems

    A.V. Chalyi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the similar universal behavior of infinite-size (bulk systems of different nature requires the same basic conditions: space dimensionality; number components of order parameter; the type (short- or long-range of the intermolecular interaction; symmetry of the fluctuation part of thermodynamical potential. Basic conditions of similar universal behavior of confined systems needs the same supplementary conditions such as the number of monolayers for a system confinement; low crossover dimensionality, i.e., geometric form of restricted volume; boundary conditions on limiting surfaces; physical properties under consideration. This review paper is aimed at studying all these conditions of similar universal behavior for diffusion processes in confined liquid systems. Special attention was paid to the effects of spatial dispersion and low crossover dimensionality. This allowed us to receive receiving correct nonzero expressions for the diffusion coefficient at the critical point and to take into account the specific geometric form of the confined liquid volume. The problem of 3D⇔2D dimensional crossover was analyzed. To receive a smooth crossover for critical exponents, the Kawasaki-like approach from the theory of mode coupling in critical dynamics was proposed. This ensured a good agreement between data of computer experiment and theoretical calculations of the size dependence of the critical temperature Tc(H of water in slitlike pores. The width of the quasi-elastic scattering peak of slow neutrons near the structural phase transition in the aquatic suspensions of plasmatic membranes (mesostructures with the typical thickness up to 10 nm was studied. It was shown that the width of quasi-elastic peak of neutron scattering decreases due to the process of cell proliferation, i.e., with an increase of the membrane size (including the membrane thickness. Thus, neutron studies could serve as an additional diagnostic test for the

  18. Universal health coverage in ‘One ASEAN’: are migrants included?

    Guinto, Ramon Lorenzo Luis R.; Curran, Ufara Zuwasti; Suphanchaimat, Rapeepong; Pocock, Nicola S.

    2015-01-01

    Background As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC) reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. Design A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. Results In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as they redefine UHC

  19. Universal health coverage in ‘One ASEAN’: are migrants included?

    Ramon Lorenzo Luis R. Guinto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN gears toward full regional integration by 2015, the cross-border mobility of workers and citizens at large is expected to further intensify in the coming years. While ASEAN member countries have already signed the Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers, the health rights of migrants still need to be addressed, especially with ongoing universal health coverage (UHC reforms in most ASEAN countries. This paper seeks to examine the inclusion of migrants in the UHC systems of five ASEAN countries which exhibit diverse migration profiles and are currently undergoing varying stages of UHC development. Design: A scoping review of current migration trends and policies as well as ongoing UHC developments and migrant inclusion in UHC in Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand was conducted. Results: In general, all five countries, whether receiving or sending, have schemes that cover migrants to varying extents. Thailand even allows undocumented migrants to opt into its Compulsory Migrant Health Insurance scheme, while Malaysia and Singapore are still yet to consider including migrants in their government-run UHC systems. In terms of predominantly sending countries, the Philippines's social health insurance provides outbound migrants with portable insurance yet with limited benefits, while Indonesia still needs to strengthen the implementation of its compulsory migrant insurance which has a health insurance component. Overall, the five ASEAN countries continue to face implementation challenges, and will need to improve on their UHC design in order to ensure genuine inclusion of migrants, including undocumented migrants. However, such reforms will require strong political decisions from agencies outside the health sector that govern migration and labor policies. Furthermore, countries must engage in multilateral and bilateral dialogue as

  20. A case study of global health at the university: implications for research and action

    Andrew D. Pinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global health is increasingly a major focus of institutions in high-income countries. However, little work has been done to date to study the inner workings of global health at the university level. Academics may have competing objectives, with few mechanisms to coordinate efforts and pool resources. Objective: To conduct a case study of global health at Canada's largest health sciences university and to examine how its internal organization influences research and action. Design: We drew on existing inventories, annual reports, and websites to create an institutional map, identifying centers and departments using the terms ‘global health’ or ‘international health’ to describe their activities. We compiled a list of academics who self-identified as working in global or international health. We purposively sampled persons in leadership positions as key informants. One investigator carried out confidential, semi-structured interviews with 20 key informants. Interview notes were returned to participants for verification and then analyzed thematically by pairs of coders. Synthesis was conducted jointly. Results: More than 100 academics were identified as working in global health, situated in numerous institutions, centers, and departments. Global health academics interviewed shared a common sense of what global health means and the values that underpin such work. Most academics interviewed expressed frustration at the existing fragmentation and the lack of strategic direction, financial support, and recognition from the university. This hampered collaborative work and projects to tackle global health problems. Conclusions: The University of Toronto is not exceptional in facing such challenges, and our findings align with existing literature that describes factors that inhibit collaboration in global health work at universities. Global health academics based at universities may work in institutional siloes and this limits both

  1. Universal Health Insurance Coverage in Vietnam: A Stakeholder Analysis From Policy Proposal (1989) to Implementation (2014).

    Hoang, Chi K; Hill, Peter; Nguyen, Huong T

    In 1989, health insurance (HI) was introduced in Vietnam and began to be implemented in 1992. There was limited progress until the 2014 Law on HI that was revised with the aim of universal health insurance coverage (UHIC) by 2020. This article explores stakeholder roles and positions from the initial introduction of HI to the implementation of the Master Plan accelerating UHIC. To better understand the influence of stakeholders in accelerating UHIC to achieve equity in health care. Using a qualitative study design, we conducted content analysis of HI-related documents and interviewed social security and health system key informants, government representatives, and community stakeholders to determine their positions and influence on UHIC. Our findings demonstrate different levels of support of stakeholders that influence in the HI formulation and implementation, from opposition when HI was first introduced in 1989 to collaboration of stakeholders from 2013 when the Master Plan for UHIC was implemented. Despite an initial failure to secure the support of the Parliament for a Law on HI, a subsequent series of alternative legislative strategies brought limited increases in HI coverage. With government financial subsidization, the involvement of multiple stakeholders, political commitment, and flexible working mechanisms among stakeholders have remained important, with an increasing recognition that HI is not only a technical aspect of the health system but also a broader socioeconomic and governance issue. The different levels of power and influence among stakeholders, together with their commercial and political interests and their different perceptions of HI, have influenced stakeholders' support or opposition to HI policies. Despite high-level policy support, stakeholders' positions may vary, depending on their perceptions of the policy implications. A shift in government stakeholder positions, especially at the provincial level, has been necessary to accelerate

  2. Mental health, behavioural problems and treatment seeking among students commencing university in Northern Ireland.

    Margaret McLafferty

    Full Text Available Mental health and behavioural problems are common among students commencing university. University life can be stressful and problems often exacerbate during their course of study, while others develop disorders for the first time. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project aims to conduct longitudinal research to examine and monitor student mental health and wellbeing. The Ulster University Student Wellbeing study, which commenced in September 2015 in Northern Ireland (NI, was conducted as part of this initiative (wave 1, n = 739, using the WMH-CIDI to examine psychopathology. Baseline prevalence rates of lifetime and 12-month mental health and substance disorders, ADHD and suicidality were high, with more than half of new undergraduate students reporting any lifetime disorder. Co-morbidity was common with 19.1% of students experiencing three or more disorders. Logistic regression models revealed that females, those over 21, non-heterosexual students, and those from a lower SES background were more likely to have a range of mental health and behavioural problems. Overall, 10% of new entry students received treatment for emotional problems in the previous year. However, 22.3% of students with problems said they would not seek help. The study provides important information for universities, policy makers and practice, on mental health and wellbeing in young people generally but particularly for students commencing university. The findings will assist in the development and implementation of protection and prevention strategies in the university setting and beyond.

  3. Mental health, behavioural problems and treatment seeking among students commencing university in Northern Ireland.

    McLafferty, Margaret; Lapsley, Coral R; Ennis, Edel; Armour, Cherie; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan P; Bjourson, Anthony J; Murray, Elaine K; O'Neill, Siobhan M

    2017-01-01

    Mental health and behavioural problems are common among students commencing university. University life can be stressful and problems often exacerbate during their course of study, while others develop disorders for the first time. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project aims to conduct longitudinal research to examine and monitor student mental health and wellbeing. The Ulster University Student Wellbeing study, which commenced in September 2015 in Northern Ireland (NI), was conducted as part of this initiative (wave 1, n = 739), using the WMH-CIDI to examine psychopathology. Baseline prevalence rates of lifetime and 12-month mental health and substance disorders, ADHD and suicidality were high, with more than half of new undergraduate students reporting any lifetime disorder. Co-morbidity was common with 19.1% of students experiencing three or more disorders. Logistic regression models revealed that females, those over 21, non-heterosexual students, and those from a lower SES background were more likely to have a range of mental health and behavioural problems. Overall, 10% of new entry students received treatment for emotional problems in the previous year. However, 22.3% of students with problems said they would not seek help. The study provides important information for universities, policy makers and practice, on mental health and wellbeing in young people generally but particularly for students commencing university. The findings will assist in the development and implementation of protection and prevention strategies in the university setting and beyond.

  4. Mental health, behavioural problems and treatment seeking among students commencing university in Northern Ireland

    McLafferty, Margaret; Lapsley, Coral R.; Ennis, Edel; Armour, Cherie; Murphy, Sam; Bunting, Brendan P.; Bjourson, Anthony J.; O'Neill, Siobhan M.

    2017-01-01

    Mental health and behavioural problems are common among students commencing university. University life can be stressful and problems often exacerbate during their course of study, while others develop disorders for the first time. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys International College Student Project aims to conduct longitudinal research to examine and monitor student mental health and wellbeing. The Ulster University Student Wellbeing study, which commenced in September 2015 in Northern Ireland (NI), was conducted as part of this initiative (wave 1, n = 739), using the WMH-CIDI to examine psychopathology. Baseline prevalence rates of lifetime and 12-month mental health and substance disorders, ADHD and suicidality were high, with more than half of new undergraduate students reporting any lifetime disorder. Co-morbidity was common with 19.1% of students experiencing three or more disorders. Logistic regression models revealed that females, those over 21, non-heterosexual students, and those from a lower SES background were more likely to have a range of mental health and behavioural problems. Overall, 10% of new entry students received treatment for emotional problems in the previous year. However, 22.3% of students with problems said they would not seek help. The study provides important information for universities, policy makers and practice, on mental health and wellbeing in young people generally but particularly for students commencing university. The findings will assist in the development and implementation of protection and prevention strategies in the university setting and beyond. PMID:29236727

  5. Active Involvement of Students in the Learning Process of the American Health Care System.

    Poirier, Sylvie

    1997-01-01

    Over 200 pharmacy students in a University of Georgia class on the American health care system engaged in debates on health care issues, discussed newspaper articles, conducted client home visits, analyzed county health statistics, and completed exercises on pharmacists' compensation and health care planning. Most participating students responded…

  6. Exploring Digital Health Use and Opinions of University Students: Field Survey Study.

    Montagni, Ilaria; Cariou, Tanguy; Feuillet, Tiphaine; Langlois, Emmanuel; Tzourio, Christophe

    2018-03-15

    During university, students face some potentially serious health risks, and their lifestyle can have a direct effect on health and health behaviors later in life. Concurrently, university students are digital natives having easy access to the internet and new technologies. Digital health interventions offer promising new opportunities for health promotion, disease prevention, and care in this specific population. The description of the current use of and opinions on digital health among university students can inform future digital health strategies and interventions within university settings. The aim of this exploratory study was to report on university students' use and opinions regarding information and communication technologies for health and well-being, taking into account sociodemographic and self-rated general and mental health correlates. This field survey was conducted from March to April 2017. An informed consent form and a paper questionnaire were given to students aged 18 to 24 years in 4 university campuses in Bordeaux, France. The survey was formulated in 3 sections: (1) sociodemographic characteristics and self-rated general and mental health, (2) information about the use of digital health, and (3) opinions about digital health. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and tests of independence. A total of 59.8% (303/507 females) students completed the questionnaire. Concerning digital health use, 34.9% (174/498) had at least 1 health app mostly for physical activity (49.4%, 86/174) and general health monitoring (41.4%, 72/174,), but only 3.9% (20/507) of students had a wearable device. Almost all (94.8%, 450/476) had searched for Web-based health-related information at least once in the last 12 months. The most sought health-related topics were nutrition (68.1%, 324/476); pain and illnesses (64.5%, 307/476); and stress, anxiety, or depression (51.1%, 243/476). Although Wikipedia (79.7%, 357/448) and general health websites (349/448, 77

  7. Exploring Digital Health Use and Opinions of University Students: Field Survey Study

    Cariou, Tanguy; Feuillet, Tiphaine; Langlois, Emmanuel; Tzourio, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    Background During university, students face some potentially serious health risks, and their lifestyle can have a direct effect on health and health behaviors later in life. Concurrently, university students are digital natives having easy access to the internet and new technologies. Digital health interventions offer promising new opportunities for health promotion, disease prevention, and care in this specific population. The description of the current use of and opinions on digital health among university students can inform future digital health strategies and interventions within university settings. Objective The aim of this exploratory study was to report on university students’ use and opinions regarding information and communication technologies for health and well-being, taking into account sociodemographic and self-rated general and mental health correlates. Methods This field survey was conducted from March to April 2017. An informed consent form and a paper questionnaire were given to students aged 18 to 24 years in 4 university campuses in Bordeaux, France. The survey was formulated in 3 sections: (1) sociodemographic characteristics and self-rated general and mental health, (2) information about the use of digital health, and (3) opinions about digital health. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and tests of independence. Results A total of 59.8% (303/507 females) students completed the questionnaire. Concerning digital health use, 34.9% (174/498) had at least 1 health app mostly for physical activity (49.4%, 86/174) and general health monitoring (41.4%, 72/174,), but only 3.9% (20/507) of students had a wearable device. Almost all (94.8%, 450/476) had searched for Web-based health-related information at least once in the last 12 months. The most sought health-related topics were nutrition (68.1%, 324/476); pain and illnesses (64.5%, 307/476); and stress, anxiety, or depression (51.1%, 243/476). Although Wikipedia (79.7%, 357/448) and

  8. Business planning for university health science programs: a case study.

    Austin, Michael; Milos, Nadine; Raborn, G Wayne

    2002-02-01

    Many publicly funded education programs and organizations have developed business plans to enhance accountability. In the case of the Department of Dentistry at the University of Alberta, the main impetus for business planning was a persistent deficit in the annual operating fund since a merger of a stand-alone dental faculty with the Faculty of Medicine. The main challenges were to balance revenues with expenditures, to reduce expenditures without compromising quality of teaching, service delivery and research, to maintain adequate funding to ensure future competitiveness, and to repay the accumulated debt owed to the university. The business plan comprises key strategies in the areas of education, clinical practice and service, and research. One of the strategies for education was to start a BSc program in dental hygiene, which was accomplished in September 2000. In clinical practice, a key strategy was implementation of a clinic operations fee, which also occurred in September 2000. This student fee helps to offset the cost of clinical practice. In research, a key strategy has been to strengthen our emphasis on prevention technologies. In completing the business plan, we learned the importance of identifying clear goals and ensuring that the goals are reasonable and achievable; gaining access to high-quality data to support planning; and nurturing existing positive relationships with external stakeholders such as the provincial government and professional associations.

  9. The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston

    Adebimpe Oyeyemi

    elucidates on the scholarship of discovery, the scholarship of application, the scholarship of integration and the scholarship of ... Science and professional education in medicine and health are .... approaches, modification of an existing approach that results in .... Their Teaching to Advance Practice and Improve Students.

  10. Faculty Perceptions of Critical Thinking at a Health Sciences University

    Rowles, Joie; Morgan, Christine; Burns, Shari; Merchant, Christine

    2013-01-01

    The fostering of critical thinking skills has become an expectation of faculty, especially those teaching in the health sciences. The manner in which critical thinking is defined by faculty impacts how they will address the challenge to promote critical thinking among their students. This study reports the perceptions of critical thinking held by…

  11. The importance of Leadership towards universal health coverage

    to travel over 10 km to reach the nearest public health centre and the distance .... that failure to implement the promise should breed pressure from parliaments, civil .... McCoy, D., H. Ashwood-Smith, E. Ratsma, and J. Kemp. Going from bad to ...

  12. aculty of Pharmacy, Muhirnbili University College of Health Sciences

    The quality of pharmacy practice provided by dispensers in private pharmacies was studied. Parameters used include levels of education of the dispensers, access to health information, knowledge and practice regarding dispensing of drugs to patients, and disposal of expired drugs. A total of 150 dispensers selected from ...

  13. Indonesia's road to universal health coverage: A political journey

    Pisani, E. (Elizabeth); Kok, M.O. (Maarten Olivier); Nugroho, K. (Kharisma)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn 2013 Indonesia, the world's fourth most populous country, declared that it would provide affordable health care for all its citizens within seven years. This crystallised an ambition first enshrined in law over five decades earlier, but never previously realised. This paper explores

  14. Attitudes and behaviors related to introduction of Electronic Health Record (EHR among Shiraz University students in 2014

    Mohtaram Nematollahi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electronic Health Record contains all the information related to the health of citizens, from before birth to death have been consistently over time is electronically stored and will be available without regard to location or time all or part of it to authorized persons. The acceptance of EHR by citizens is important in successful implementation of it. The aim of this study was to determine the attitudes and behaviors related to the introduction of electronic health records among Shiraz university student. Method:The present study is a cross-sectional descriptive survey. The study population consisted of all Shiraz University students. The data gathering tool was a questionnaire and data were analyzed in SPSS v.16 software, using descriptive statistical tests. Also, the samples, i.e. 384 students, were selected through convenient sampling. Results: The results showed that most of the students kept their medical records at home to show them to a specialist and only 15% of them were familiar with the Electronic Health Records term. The use of Electronic Health Records for Maintenance of drug prescriptions was of the most importance. Conclusion: Among the students who are educated class and the source of change, the university students’ familiarity with Electronic Health Records is too low and most of them were not even familiar with its name and it is very important to implement this system familiarize the users on how to use it sufficiently

  15. Integrated System Health Management Development Toolkit

    Figueroa, Jorge; Smith, Harvey; Morris, Jon

    2009-01-01

    This software toolkit is designed to model complex systems for the implementation of embedded Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) capability, which focuses on determining the condition (health) of every element in a complex system (detect anomalies, diagnose causes, and predict future anomalies), and to provide data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) to control systems for safe and effective operation.

  16. A universal DNA-based protein detection system.

    Tran, Thua N N; Cui, Jinhui; Hartman, Mark R; Peng, Songming; Funabashi, Hisakage; Duan, Faping; Yang, Dayong; March, John C; Lis, John T; Cui, Haixin; Luo, Dan

    2013-09-25

    Protein immune detection requires secondary antibodies which must be carefully selected in order to avoid interspecies cross-reactivity, and is therefore restricted by the limited availability of primary/secondary antibody pairs. Here we present a versatile DNA-based protein detection system using a universal adapter to interface between IgG antibodies and DNA-modified reporter molecules. As a demonstration of this capability, we successfully used DNA nano-barcodes, quantum dots, and horseradish peroxidase enzyme to detect multiple proteins using our DNA-based labeling system. Our system not only eliminates secondary antibodies but also serves as a novel method platform for protein detection with modularity, high capacity, and multiplexed capability.

  17. Setting-based interventions to promote mental health at the university: a systematic review.

    Fernandez, A; Howse, E; Rubio-Valera, M; Thorncraft, K; Noone, J; Luu, X; Veness, B; Leech, M; Llewellyn, G; Salvador-Carulla, L

    2016-09-01

    Universities are dynamic environments. But university life presents challenges that may affect the mental health of its community. Higher education institutions provide opportunities to promote public health. Our objective is to summarise the current evidence on strategies to promote mental health at the university, following a setting-based model. We conducted a systematic literature review following standard methods. Published literature that evaluated structural and organizations strategies to promote mental health at the university was selected. 19 papers were included. The majority of the studies were targeting the students, with only four aiming to promote employees' mental health. The most promising strategies to promote mental wellbeing included changes in the way students are taught and assessed. On the other hand, social marketing strategies had not impact on mental health. There is inconclusive evidence related to the effectiveness of policies to promote mental health. Universities should invest in creating supportive physical, social and academic environments that promote student and staff mental wellbeing. However, the current body of evidence is scarce and more research is needed to recommend what are the best strategies.

  18. Utilization of Oral Health Care Services by University Undergraduates in Lagos, Nigeria.

    Makanjuola, J O; Uti, O G; Sofola, O O

    2015-01-01

    Data on the utilization of the available oral health facilities by university undergraduates is scarce in Nigeria. To determine the level of utilization of oral health care services and to identify the barriers to seeking treatment among University of Lagos students. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among University of Lagos undergraduates. Systematic sampling was used to select participants after randomly selecting a male and female hostel. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to participants and collected immediately. The data was analyzed using Epi info version 6.04 software. Statistical significance was evaluated with chi square test and p-value facilities.

  19. Health in Southeast Asia 6 Health-financing reforms in southeast Asia: challenges in achieving universal coverage

    Tangcharoensathien, V; Patcharanarumol, W; Ir, P; Aljunid, SM; Mukti, AG; Akkhavong, K; Banzon, E; Huong, DB; Thabrany, H; Mills, A

    2011-01-01

    In this sixth paper of the Series, we review health-financing reforms in seven countries in southeast Asia that have sought to reduce dependence on out-of-pocket payments, increase pooled health finance, and expand service use as steps towards universal coverage. Laos and Cambodia, both resource-poor countries, have mostly relied on donor-supported health equity funds to reach the poor, and reliable funding and appropriate identification of the eligible poor are two major challenges for natio...

  20. A Case for Open Network Health Systems: Systems as Networks in Public Mental Health.

    Rhodes, Michael Grant; de Vries, Marten W

    2017-01-08

    Increases in incidents involving so-called confused persons have brought attention to the potential costs of recent changes to public mental health (PMH) services in the Netherlands. Decentralized under the (Community) Participation Act (2014), local governments must find resources to compensate for reduced central funding to such services or "innovate." But innovation, even when pressure for change is intense, is difficult. This perspective paper describes experience during and after an investigation into a particularly violent incident and murder. The aim was to provide recommendations to improve the functioning of local PMH services. The investigation concluded that no specific failure by an individual professional or service provider facility led to the murder. Instead, also as a result of the Participation Act that severed communication lines between individuals and organizations, information sharing failures were likely to have reduced system level capacity to identify risks. The methods and analytical frameworks employed to reach this conclusion, also lead to discussion as to the plausibility of an unconventional solution. If improving communication is the primary problem, non-hierarchical information, and organizational networks arise as possible and innovative system solutions. The proposal for debate is that traditional "health system" definitions, literature and narratives, and operating assumptions in public (mental) health are 'locked in' constraining technical and organization innovations. If we view a "health system" as an adaptive system of economic and social "networks," it becomes clear that the current orthodox solution, the so-called integrated health system, typically results in a "centralized hierarchical" or "tree" network. An overlooked alternative that breaks out of the established policy narratives is the view of a 'health systems' as a non-hierarchical organizational structure or 'Open Network.' In turn, this opens new technological and

  1. Volleyball and emotional health of students of pedagogical university

    Y.Y. Muskharina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The features of valueological pedagogical influence of volleyball lessons on the emotional state of pedagogical university students. In the experiment involved 96 students aged 18-20 years. It was found that 72% of students feel the satisfaction of most emotional needs during the game, 86.4% indicate a bright splash of feelings and a sense of mutual aid during the game, 24% of students met the best friends among the players section. 89.3% of students say that skill, sense of humor, energy, example and support of teacher (trainer during exercise can affect the emotional state of the team and each student. Professional and personal qualities of the coach, to encourage students to employment volleyball positive impact on the physical, mental performance, improve attention, ability to work in a team, to overcome emotional stress, feelings of fatigue, improves emotional state of students.

  2. Volleyball and emotional health of students of pedagogical university

    Muskharina Y.Y.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The features of valueological pedagogical influence of volleyball lessons on the emotional state of pedagogical university students. In the experiment involved 96 students aged 18-20 years. It was found that 72% of students feel the satisfaction of most emotional needs during the game, 86.4% indicate a bright splash of feelings and a sense of mutual aid during the game, 24% of students met the best friends among the players section. 89.3% of students say that skill, sense of humor, energy, example and support of teacher (trainer during exercise can affect the emotional state of the team and each student. Professional and personal qualities of the coach, to encourage students to employment volleyball positive impact on the physical, mental performance, improve attention, ability to work in a team, to overcome emotional stress, feelings of fatigue, improves emotional state of students.

  3. Universality of emergent states in diverse physical systems

    Guidry, Mike

    2017-12-01

    Our physics textbooks are dominated by examples of simple weakly-interacting microscopic states, but most of the real world around us is most effectively described in terms of emergent states that have no clear connection to simple textbook states. Emergent states are strongly-correlated and dominated by properties that emerge as a consequence of interactions and are not part of the description of the corresponding weakly-interacting system. This paper proposes a connection of weakly-interacting textbook states and realistic emergent states through fermion dynamical symmetries having fully-microscopic generators of the emergent states. These imply unique truncation of the Hilbert space for the weakly-interacting system to a collective subspace where the emergent states live. Universality arises because the possible symmetries under commutation of generators, which transcend the microscopic structure of the generators, are highly restricted in character and determine the basic structure of the emergent state, with the microscopic structure of the generators influencing emergent state only parametrically. In support of this idea we show explicit evidence that high-temperature superconductors, collective states in heavy atomic nuclei, and graphene quantum Hall states in strong magnetic fields exhibit a near-universal emergent behavior in their microscopically-computed total energy surfaces, even though these systems share essentially nothing in common at the microscopic level and their emergent states are characterized by fundamentally different order parameters.

  4. Health indicators associated with poor sleep quality among university students

    Márcio Flávio Moura de Araújo

    Full Text Available Objective To associate the sleep quality of Brazilian undergraduate students with health indicators. Method A cross-sectional study was developed with a random sample of 662 undergraduate students from Fortaleza, Brazil. The demographic data, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and health data indicators (smoking, alcoholism, sedentary lifestyle, nutritional condition and serum cholesterol were collected through a self-administered questionnaire. Blood was collected at a clinical laboratory. In order to estimate the size of the associations, a Poisson Regression was used. Results For students who are daily smokers, the occurrence of poor sleep was higher than in non-smokers (p<0.001. Prevalence rate values were nevertheless close to 1. Conclusion The likelihood of poor sleep is almost the same in smokers and in alcoholics.

  5. A universal approach to the study of nonlinear systems

    Hwa, Rudolph C.

    2004-07-01

    A large variety of nonlinear systems have been treated by a common approach that emphasizes the fluctuation of spatial patterns. By using the same method of analysis it is possible to discuss the chaotic behaviors of quark jets and logistic map in the same language. Critical behaviors of quark-hadron phase transition in heavy-ion collisions and of photon production at the threshold of lasing can also be described by a common scaling behavior. The universal approach also makes possible an insight into the recently discovered phenomenon of wind reversal in cryogenic turbulence as a manifestation of self-organized criticality.

  6. Research on the Teaching System of the University Computer Foundation

    Ji Xiaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inonal students, the teaching contents, classification, hierarchical teaching methods with the combination of professional level training, as well as for top-notch students after class to promote comprehensive training methods for different students, establish online Q & A, test platform, to strengthen the integration professional education and computer education and training system of college computer basic course of study and exploration, and the popularization and application of the basic programming course, promote the cultivation of university students in the computer foundation, thinking methods and innovative practice ability, achieve the goal of individualized educ the College of computer basic course teaching, the specific circumstances of the need for students, professiation.

  7. Health literacy among Danish university students enrolled in health-related study programmes

    Elsborg, Lea; Krossdal, Fie; Kayser, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Aims: It is important to address people’s health literacy when providing health care. Health professionals should be aware of, and have insight into, people’s health literacy when they provide health services. Health professionals need to be health literate themselves. We examined the level...

  8. [Public health competencies and contents in pharmacy degree programs in Spanish universities].

    Lumbreras, Blanca; Davó-Blanes, María Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Bosch, Félix

    2015-01-01

    To identify public health core competencies and contents in pharmacy degrees at a meeting of public health lecturers in pharmacy degrees from various public and private universities. The first Meeting of the Forum of University Teaching Staff in Pharmacy Degrees was held at the Faculty of Medicine in the Complutense University, Madrid, Spain on the 19(th) and 20(th) of November 2013. The meeting was attended by 17 lecturers. Participants brought their own teaching programs and were given two previous studies on public health competencies for analysis of public health contents and competencies in pharmacy degrees. Working groups were formed and the results were shared. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the following functions: "Assessment of the population's health needs" and "Developing health policies". The final program included basic contents organized into 8 units: Concept of Public Health, Demography, Epidemiological Method, Environment and Health, Food Safety, Epidemiology of Major Health Problems, Health Promotion and Education, and Health Planning and Management. Representation of almost all the Spanish Pharmacy Faculties and the consensus reached in the description of competences and program contents will greatly improve the quality of teaching in this area. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Microfluidic Mixing Technology for a Universal Health Sensor

    Chan, Eugene Y.; Bae, Candice

    2009-01-01

    A highly efficient means of microfluidic mixing has been created for use with the rHEALTH sensor an elliptical mixer and passive curvilinear mixing patterns. The rHEALTH sensor provides rapid, handheld, complete blood count, cell differential counts, electrolyte measurements, and other lab tests based on a reusable, flow-based microfluidic platform. These geometries allow for cleaning in a reusable manner, and also allow for complete mixing of fluid streams. The microfluidic mixing is performed by flowing two streams of fluid into an elliptical or curvilinear design that allows the combination of the flows into one channel. The mixing is accomplished by either chaotic advection around micro - fluidic loops. All components of the microfluidic chip are flow-through, meaning that cleaning solution can be introduced into the chip to flush out cells, plasma proteins, and dye. Tests were performed on multiple chip geometries to show that cleaning is efficient in any flowthrough design. The conclusion from these experiments is that the chip can indeed be flushed out with microliter volumes of solution and biological samples are cleaned readily from the chip with minimal effort. The technology can be applied in real-time health monitoring at patient s bedside or in a doctor s office, and real-time clinical intervention in acute situations. It also can be used for daily measurement of hematocrit for patients on anticoagulant drugs, or to detect acute myocardial damage outside a hospital.

  10. Managing Health Information System | Campbell | Nigerian ...

    The effective planning, management monitoring and evaluation of health services, health resources and indeed the health system requires a wealth of health information, with its simultaneous effective and efficient management. It is an instrument used to help policy-making, decision making and day to day actions in the ...

  11. Synergy between indigenous knowledge systems, modern health ...

    ... the people of this country should harness a synergy between indigenous health care systems, scientific research and modern health care methods. This article attempts to address the historical evolution of health care methods in South Africa, its effect on the community as well as challenges facing the health professions.

  12. Military Health System Transformation Implications on Health Information Technology Modernization.

    Khan, Saad

    2018-03-01

    With the recent passage of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017, Congress has triggered groundbreaking Military Health System organizational restructuring with the Defense Health Agency assuming responsibility for managing all hospitals and clinics owned by the Army, Navy, and Air Force. This is a major shift toward a modern value-based managed care system, which will require much greater military-civilian health care delivery integration to be in place by October 2018. Just before the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017 passage, the Department of Defense had already begun a seismic shift and awarded a contract for the new Military Health System-wide electronic health record system. In this perspective, we discuss the implications of the intersection of two large-scope and large-scale initiatives, health system transformation, and information technology modernization, being rolled out in the largest and most complex federal agency and potential risk mitigating steps. The Military Health System will require an expanded unified clinical leadership to spearhead short-term transformation; furthermore, developing, organizing, and growing a cadre of informatics expertise to expand the use and diffusion of novel solutions such as health information exchanges, data analytics, and others to transcend organizational barriers are still needed to achieve the long-term aim of health system reform as envisioned by the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2017.

  13. Integrating ICTs within health systems | IDRC - International ...

    2016-06-10

    Jun 10, 2016 ... But for too long, ICT and health system researchers have worked in isolation ... be used to enable the governance and functioning of health systems in ... most African countries adopted direct payment for health services as the ...

  14. Policy Choices for Progressive Realization of Universal Health Coverage; Comment on “Ethical Perspective: Five Unacceptable Trade-offs on the Path to Universal Health Coverage”

    Viroj Tangcharoensathien

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In responses to Norheim’s editorial, this commentary offers reflections from Thailand, how the five unacceptable trade-offs were applied to the universal health coverage (UHC reforms between 1975 and 2002 when the whole 64 million people were covered by one of the three public health insurance systems. This commentary aims to generate global discussions on how best UHC can be gradually achieved. Not only the proposed five discrete tradeoffs within each dimension, there are also trade-offs between the three dimensions of UHC such as population coverage, service coverage and cost coverage. Findings from Thai UHC show that equity is applied for the population coverage extension, when the low income households and the informal sector were the priority population groups for coverage extension by different prepayment schemes in 1975 and 1984, respectively. With an exception of public sector employees who were historically covered as part of fringe benefits were covered well before the poor. The private sector employees were covered last in 1990. Historically, Thailand applied a comprehensive benefit package where a few items are excluded using the negative list; until there was improved capacities on technology assessment that cost-effectiveness are used for the inclusion of new interventions into the benefit package. Not only costeffectiveness, but long term budget impact, equity and ethical considerations are taken into account. Cost coverage is mostly determined by the fiscal capacities. Close ended budget with mix of provider payment methods are used as a tool for trade-off service coverage and financial risk protection. Introducing copayment in the context of feefor-service can be harmful to beneficiaries due to supplier induced demands, inefficiency and unpredictable out of pocket payment by households. UHC achieves favorable outcomes as it was implemented when there was a full geographical coverage of primary healthcare coverage in all

  15. Occupational Health Record-keeping System (OHRS)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Occupational Health Record-keeping System (OHRS) is part of the Clinical Information Support System (CISS) portal framework and the initial CISS partner system. OHRS...

  16. [A Maternal Health Care System Based on Mobile Health Care].

    Du, Xin; Zeng, Weijie; Li, Chengwei; Xue, Junwei; Wu, Xiuyong; Liu, Yinjia; Wan, Yuxin; Zhang, Yiru; Ji, Yurong; Wu, Lei; Yang, Yongzhe; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Bin; Huang, Yueshan; Wu, Kai

    2016-02-01

    Wearable devices are used in the new design of the maternal health care system to detect electrocardiogram and oxygen saturation signal while smart terminals are used to achieve assessments and input maternal clinical information. All the results combined with biochemical analysis from hospital are uploaded to cloud server by mobile Internet. Machine learning algorithms are used for data mining of all information of subjects. This system can achieve the assessment and care of maternal physical health as well as mental health. Moreover, the system can send the results and health guidance to smart terminals.

  17. Promoting universal financial protection: health insurance for the poor in Georgia--a case study.

    Zoidze, Akaki; Rukhazde, Natia; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Gotsadze, George

    2013-11-15

    The present study focuses on the program "Medical Insurance for the Poor (MIP)" in Georgia. Under this program, the government purchased coverage from private insurance companies for vulnerable households identified through a means testing system, targeting up to 23% of the total population. The benefit package included outpatient and inpatient services with no co-payments, but had only limited outpatient drug benefits. This paper presents the results of the study on the impact of MIP on access to health services and financial protection of the MIP-targeted and general population. With a holistic case study design, the study employed a range of quantitative and qualitative methods. The methods included document review and secondary analysis of the data obtained through the nationwide household health expenditure and utilisation surveys 2007-2010 using the difference-in-differences method. The study findings showed that MIP had a positive impact in terms of reduced expenditure for inpatient services and total household health care costs, and there was a higher probability of receiving free outpatient benefits among the MIP-insured. However, MIP insurance had almost no effect on health services utilisation and the households' expenditure on outpatient drugs, including for those with MIP insurance, due to limited drug benefits in the package and a low claims ratio. In summary, the extended MIP coverage and increased financial access provided by the program, most likely due to the exclusion of outpatient drug coverage from the benefit package and possibly due to improper utilisation management by private insurance companies, were not able to reverse adverse effects of economic slow-down and escalating health expenditure. MIP has only cushioned the negative impact for the poorest by decreasing the poor/rich gradient in the rates of catastrophic health expenditure. The recent governmental decision on major expansion of MIP coverage and inclusion of additional drug

  18. [The Health Plan for Catalonia: an instrument to transform the health system].

    Constante i Beitia, Carles

    2015-11-01

    The Department of Health of the Generalitat in Catalonia periodically draws up the Health Plan, which is the strategic document that brings together the reference framework for initiatives concerning public health in terms of the Catalan health administration. The 2011-2015 version of the Health Plan incorporates key care and system governance-related elements, which, in conjunction with health goals, make up the complete picture of what the health system in Catalonia should look like until 2015. The Plan was drawn up at a time when the environmental conditions were extremely particular, given the major economic crisis that began in 2007. This has meant that the system has been forced to address public health problems using a significant reduction in the economic resources available, while aiming to maintain the level of care provided, both quantitatively and qualitatively, and preserve the sustainability of the system whose defining traits are its universality, equity and the wide range of services on offer. The Health Plan focuses on three areas of action, 9 major courses of action and 32 strategic projects designed to respond to new social needs: addressing the most common health issues, comprehensive care for chronic patients and organizational modernization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Mobile health monitoring system for community health workers

    Sibiya, G

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available of hypertension as it provides real time information and eliminates the need to visit a healthcare facility to take blood pressure readings. Our proposed mobile health monitoring system enables faster computerization of data that has been recorded... pressure, heart rate and glucose readings. These reading closely related to most common NCDs. D. Feedback to health worker and the subject of care Community health workers are often not professionally trained on health. As a result they are not expected...

  20. Mental health system in Saudi Arabia: an overview

    Qureshi NA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Naseem Akhtar Qureshi,1 Abdulhameed Abdullah Al-Habeeb,2 Harold G Koenig3 1General Administration for Research and Studies, 2Mental Health and Social Services, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 3Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Background: There is evidence that mapping mental health systems (MHSs helps in planning and developing mental health care services for users, families, and other caregivers. The General Administration of Mental Health and Social Services of the Ministry of Health over the past 4 years has sought to streamline the delivery of mental health care services to health consumers in Saudi Arabia. Objective: We overview here the outcome of a survey that assessed the Saudi MHS and suggest strategic steps for its further improvement. Method: The World Health Organization Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems was used systematically to collect information on the Saudi MHS in 2009–2010, 4 years after a baseline assessment. Results: Several mental health care milestones, especially provision of inpatient mental health services supported by a ratified Mental Health Act, were achieved during this period. However, community mental health care services are needed to match international trends evident in developed countries. Similarly, a larger well-trained mental health workforce is needed at all levels to meet the ever-increasing demand of Saudi society. Conclusion: This updated MHS information, discussed in light of international data, will help guide further development of the MHS in Saudi Arabia in the future, and other countries in the Eastern Mediterranean region may also benefit from Saudi experience. Keywords: Saudi Arabia, mental health system, organization, legal issues, research, training