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Sample records for universal parasitological diagnosis

  1. Parasitological diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania b. braziliensis in Bolivia

    Laure Dimier-David

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological diagnosis, using staned smears, culture and pathological examination of biopsy, was studied in 146 patients infected with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, in Bolivia and Peru. The most efficient parasite detecting technique appeared to be the smear examination in cutaneous lesions (33 % positive and the pathology in case of mucous lesions (28 % positive. In both, cutaneous and mucous lesions, the parasites were found most frequently in old lesions.

  2. Frontiers of parasitology research in the People's Republic of China: infection, diagnosis, protection and surveillance

    Chen Jun-Hu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Control and eventual elimination of human parasitic diseases in the People's Republic of China (P.R. China requires novel approaches, particularly in the areas of diagnostics, mathematical modelling, monitoring, evaluation, surveillance and public health response. A comprehensive effort, involving the collaboration of 188 scientists (>85% from P.R. China from 48 different institutions and universities (80% from P.R. China, covers this collection of 29 articles published in Parasites & Vectors. The research mainly stems from a research project entitled “Surveillance and diagnostic tools for major parasitic diseases in P.R. China” (grant no. 2008ZX10004-011 and highlights the frontiers of research in parasitology. The majority of articles in this thematic series deals with the most important parasitic diseases in P.R. China, emphasizing Schistosoma japonicum, Plasmodium vivax and Clonorchis sinensis plus some parasites of emerging importance such as Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Significant achievements have been made through the collaborative research programme in the following three fields: (i development of strategies for the national control programme; (ii updating the surveillance data of parasitic infections both in human and animals; and (iii improvement of existing, and development of novel, diagnostic tools to detect parasitic infections. The progress is considerable and warrants broad validation efforts. Combined with the development of improved tools for diagnosis and surveillance, integrated and multi-pronged control strategies should now pave the way for elimination of parasitic diseases in P.R. China. Experiences and lessons learned can stimulate control and elimination efforts of parasitic diseases in other parts of the world.

  3. Evaluation of different parasitological techniques in the diagnosis of canine helminthiasis

    Marcelle Temporim Novaes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Novaes M.T. & Martins I.V.F. [Evaluation of different parasitological techniques in the diagnosis of canine helminthiasis.] Avaliação de diferentes técnicas parasitológicas no diagnóstico de helmintoses caninas. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:71-76, 2015. Laboratório de Parasitologia, Hospital Veterinário, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Rua Alto Universitário, s/n, Guararema, Alegre, ES 29500-000, Brasil. E-mail: marcelle_temporim@hotmail.com Were collected 100 fecal samples from dogs from August 2014 to April 2015 from the Zoonosis Control Center (CCZ of Cachoeiro de Itapemirim-ES. These were sent to the laboratory of Parasitology of the Veterinary Hospital of UFES, and analyzed in duplicate by the techniques of Kato-Katz, Hoffman, TF-Test Modified/Dog and Willis in order to evaluate the technique that present higher sensitivity, convenience and lower expenses with materials for parasitological diagnosis. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher’s exact test and kappa the 5% significance level. Together they showed up 68 positive samples, 31, 34, 26 and 62 for technical Kato-Katz, Hoffman, TF-Test and Willis respectively. The results showed that the use of Willis technique should be adopted as the standard for egg Ancylostoma spp., since the techniques Kato-Katz, Hoffman and TF-Test showed a low sensitivity for diagnosis of this parasite, and technic of Hoffman should be used as standard for Toxocara spp. In relation to convenience and lower expenses, Willis technique, should be preferred, because the runtime and the microscope slide reading is fast, requiring only the use of a supersaturated solution.

  4. Evaluation of modified Dennis parasitological technique for diagnosis of bovine fascioliasis.

    Correa, Stefanya; Martínez, Yudy Liceth; López, Jessika Lissethe; Velásquez, Luz Elena

    2016-02-23

    Bovine fascioliasis causes important economic losses, estimated at COP$ 12,483 billion per year; its prevalence is 25% in dairy cattle. Parasitological techniques are required for it diagnosis. The Dennis technique, modified in 2002, is the one used in Colombia, but its sensitivity, specificity and validity are not known.  To evaluate the validity and performance of the modified Dennis technique for diagnosis of bovine fascioliasis using as reference test the observation of parasites in the liver.  We conducted a diagnostic evaluation study. We selected a convenience sample of discarded bovines sacrificed between March and June, 2013, in Frigocolanta for the study. We collected 25 g of feces from each animal and their liver and bile ducts were examined for Fasciola hepatica. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive positive value, predictive negative value, and validity index were calculated with 95% confidence intervals. The post-mortem evaluation was used as the gold standard.  We analyzed 180 bovines. The sensitivity and specificity of the modified Dennis technique were 73.2% (95% CI=58.4% - 87.9%) and 84.2% (95% CI= 77.7% - 90.6%), respectively. The positive predictive value was 57.7% (95% CI= 43.3% - 72.1%) and the negative one 91.4% (95% CI= 86.2% - 96.6%). The prevalence of bovine fascioliasis was 22.8% (95% CI= 16.4% - 29.2%).  The validity and the performance of the modified Dennis technique were higher than those of the traditional one, which makes it a good screening test for diagnosing fascioliasis for population and prevalence studies and during animal health campaigns.

  5. Intestinal and hepatic parasites determined in a university hospital parasitology laboratory

    Zeynep Taş Cengiz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to present the prevalence of intestinal and hepatic parasites determined in Yüzüncü Yıl University Medical Faculty Parasitology Laboratory. Methods: The study was performed in 2008, and a total of 5985 stool samples were examined. Stool samples were examined with native-Lugol, sedimentation, flotation, trichrome staining and modified acid-fast staining methods. The stool samples of patient suspected to have Entamoeba histolytica/E.dispar infection were stained by trichrome staining method and evaluated by ELISA method for the antigen. ELISA method was used to confirm the results of Fasciola hepatica positive patients in stool examination. Results: In this study intestinal parasites were identified in 29.6% out of the 5985 people. In the study Giardia intestinalis (9.4%, plenty Blastocystis hominis (5.5%, Hymenolepis nana (1.7%, Ascaris lumbricoides (1.2%, Enterobius vermicularis (0.2%; in the stool examination, F.hepatica (0.1%, Cyclospora cayetanensis (0.1%, E.histolytica/E.dispar (0.06%, Taenia saginata (0.05%, Dicrocoelium dendriticum (0.05%, Trichuris trichiura (0.03% and Cryptosporidium spp. (0.02%, pathogenic parasites, were detected. Conclusion: In the study it is also understood that pathogenic intestinal parasites have still been reported at high rates and the problem of parasitosis continues in Van Province.

  6. Teaching veterinary parasitology.

    Verster, A

    1994-08-01

    The history of parasitology and the teaching of veterinary parasitology in South Africa are reviewed briefly. Courses in veterinary parasitology are presented at the faculties of veterinary science at the University of Pretoria and the Medical University of South Africa as well as at the Pretoria Technicon. At the University of Pretoria, the three disciplines of veterinary parasitology, entomology, helminthology and protozoology, are covered in 330 core lectures; from 13 to 40% of the contact time is devoted to practical classes. Teaching veterinary parasitology is both labour intensive and costly, viz. R1700 (US$570) per student per annum. Such costs are justified by the R148.8 million (US$49.6 million) spent every year in South Africa on anthelmintics, ectoparasiticides and vaccines to control parasites. Veterinary parasitology is a dynamic subject and the curriculum must be revised regularly to incorporate new information. Because the parasite faunas are so diverse no single textbook can satisfy the requirements of the various institutions worldwide which teach the subject, with the result that extensive use is made of notes. In Australia and in Europe, ticks and tick-borne diseases are less important than they are in Africa; consequently insufficient space is devoted to them in textbooks to satisfy the requirements of the subject in African countries. Parasite control under extensive and intensive conditions is dealt with adequately at the University of Pretoria, but increasing emphasis will be given to small-scale farming systems, particularly if alternative food animals are to be kept.

  7. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology: Editorial Policies

    The Nigerian Journal of Parasitology publishes original research works on ... drug test, diagnostics parasitology, control, socio medicine and international health). ... Department of Biological Sciences University of Agriculture Makurdi, Nigeria

  8. Intestinal Parasitological infection of employee in food manufacture anddistribution centers of Ilam University of Medical Sciences

    R Nasrifar

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrand and Aims: Food centers' employee may be carrier of bacteria (eg. Salmonella, E coil,taphylococcus aureus and intestinal parasitical infection. With regard the importance of the roleof manufacturer and distribnter of food materials in enviromental health, the status and assessmentof these infections is necessary.Method:182 employee of food manufacture and distribntion centers' of Ilam University ofMedical Sciences were examined. 3 feaces sample were obtained from each porson in 3 days andby five different laboratory method (i.e. scoth-tape, direct thechuics, Ether formaline, Telmen'Flotation were examined. Date analysis was dane by SPSS Version, and chi square test.Results: 49.2 percent of employee had positive parasitical infection, which 45.1 percent hadprotoza and 9.7 percent had intestinal helminth. The most infections of protoza were due toEntamoeba coli, Endolimax nane, giardia Lamblia, blastocystis hominis, Chilomastix mesniliand Iodamoeba buetschlii. The most infection of intestinal heliminth were Oxyuris VermicularisHymenolepis nana, Ascaris Lumbericoides, Tricocephal, Tricosterongylus.Conclusion: The high occurance of intestinal protoza may be due to Low level of public healthand, not favouring of hygine basis in food manufacture and distribution rlaces.

  9. Comparison Of Clinical, Parasitological And Serological Diagnostic ...

    Comparison Of Clinical, Parasitological And Serological Diagnostic Methods For The Definitive ... Consideringthe relative significance of these methods in the diagnosis of onchocerciasis, we ... http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ari.v1i3.40835.

  10. [The scientific conference: Konstanty Janicki (1876-1932): Professor of Warsaw University, eminent zoologist and protistologist, creator of the Polish parasitological school].

    Moskwa, Bozena; Siński, Edward; Kazubski, Stanisław L

    2005-01-01

    The conference was organized for celebrating the memory of professor Konstanty Janicki, one of the most important Polish zoologist, protistologist and parasitologist. Professors Joanna Pijanowska, Edward Siński and Maria Doligalska were the hosts of the meeting at the Warsaw University. Four lectures were given during the conference. Professor Leszek Kuźnicki presented professor Janicki's life and followers who continued his research. Professor Stanisław Kazubski reminded the main topics of the parasitological studies conducted by professor Janicki. That lecture was illustrated by coloured diagrams taken from original papers published by Janicki. In the next lecture, professor Teresa Pojmańska reminded "the theory of the cercomer". She viewed some polemics and discussions made by the opponents of the theory. Professor Alicja Guttowa presented a paper on the history of the exploration of the D. latum life cycle and the main scientific researches carried out on each life stages of the broad tapeworm. Afterwards the lectures, professor Kazubski showed several pictures taken inside and outside of the Main School of the Warsaw University at the time when professor Janicki had been working there. The professor's students were also seen in these pictures. Next, associate professor Bozena Moskwa, the President of the Polish Parasitological Society presented the Konstanty Janicki Medal, awarded for outstanding activities for the benefit of parasitology. Up to data, 17 scientists and one school: the Warsaw Uniwersity was honored with this Medal. After the conference, participants visited the Powazki Cementary, where the renovated sepulchral monument of professor Konstanty Janicki was uncovered.

  11. Assessment of a novel method for teaching veterinary parasitology.

    Pereira, Mary Mauldin; Yvorchuk-St Jean, Kathleen E; Wallace, Charles E; Krecek, Rosina C

    2014-01-01

    A student-centered innovative method of teaching veterinary parasitology was launched and evaluated at the Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM) in St. Kitts, where Parasitology is a required course for second-semester veterinary students. A novel method, named Iron Parasitology, compared lecturer-centered teaching with student-centered teaching and assessed the retention of parasitology knowledge of students in their second semester and again when they reached their seventh semester. Members of five consecutive classes chose to participate in Iron Parasitology with the opportunity to earn an additional 10 points toward their final grade by demonstrating their knowledge, communication skills, clarity of message, and creativity in the Iron Parasitology exercise. The participants and nonparticipants were assessed using seven parameters. The initial short-term study parameters used to evaluate lecturer- versus student-centered teaching were age, gender, final Parasitology course grade without Iron Parasitology, RUSVM overall grade point average (GPA), RUSVM second-semester GPA, overall GPA before RUSVM, and prerequisite GPA before RUSVM. The long-term reassessment study assessed retention of parasitology knowledge in members of the seventh-semester class who had Iron Parasitology as a tool in their second semester. These students were invited to complete a parasitology final examination during their seventh semester. There were no statistically significant differences for the parameters measured in the initial study. In addition, Iron Parasitology did not have an effect on the retention scores in the reassessment study.

  12. [Scientific standards in parasitology in historical perspective].

    Lonc, Elzbieta; Płonka-Syroka, Bozena

    2005-01-01

    different theoretical interpretations. The third period in the history of parasitology lasted from the mid 19th century to the end of World War I. At that time a common agreement was established in all Europe, with regard to interpretation of standards inspired by positivism, i.e. verification of empirical statements through observation. Parasitology emerged as a separate discipline. Theoretical barriers limiting its progress and setting the questions were overcome. The contagion concept was reinstated. The colonial conquests solving demography problem provided the most important social impulse for the progress in parasitology. It was supported by governments interested in having their colonies free from diseases, mainly malaria and other tropical diseases, and thus safe for the European pioneer settlers. There was also development of parasitological scientific institutions (institutes of tropical medicine) and didactics. After World War I parasitology entered the fruitful stage of discipline development which resulted in a division into subdisciplines and a progress of new scientific fields. Its theoretical standards have become fixed and provided a basis for preventive programmes against parasite diseases, supported financially by European goverments, USA and some other countries. Those programmes were executed both in the home countries and in the colonies. After World War II, in the fourth stage of parasitology development, attention was mainly paid to local natural environment in order to diagnose parasites and their vectors. At the same time, parasitology became an applied science practiced in many specialized centres not only at universities. Presently, the main aims of parasitology are studies on biodiversity of parasites and environmental protection in the developed countries, and within tropical medicine as the travel medicine, because of rapid increase of tourism.

  13. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology

    The Journal is devoted primarily to pure and applied research and provides a medium for the publication of investigations in all aspects of Parasitology. The Journal will publish original research and technical studies carried out in the country, as well as works and documents from foreigners which are of interest to Nigeria.

  14. [The distribution of intestinal parasites in people admitted to the Yüzüncü Yıl University Parasitology Laboratory of Health Research and Training Hospital, in 2009].

    Yılmaz, Hasan; Taş-Cengiz, Zeynep; Ceylan, Abdulkadir; Ekici, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to present the distribution of intestinal parasites in parients admitted to the Parasitology Laboratory of the Health Research and Training Hospital of Yüzüncü Yıl University in 2009. A total of 6267 patients (3037 female, 3230 male; 3798 of 13 years and under, 2469 of 14 years and over) were included. The stool samples were examined by native-Lugol, flotation and sedimentation methods in the Parasitology Laboratory of the hospital. Trichrome and modified acid-fast staining methods were also applied to suspicious stools. One or more than one parasite species were found in 28.5% of 6267 examined stool samples. Parasitosis was determined in 28% of female and 29% of male. Distribution of the parasites determined in the patients was as follows: 15.4% Blastocystis hominis, 6.6% Giardia intestinalis, 4.9% Entamoeba coli, 3.2% plenty B. hominis, 1.7% Chilomastix mesnili, 1.3% Hymenolepis nana, 0.7% Iodamoeba butschlii, 0.5% Ascaris lumbricoides, 0.1% Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, 0.1% Endolimax nana, 0.1% Enteromonas hominis, 0.1% Trichomonas hominis, 0.1% Cyclospora cayetanensis, 0.1% Enterobius vermicularis, 0.03% Entamoeba hartmanni, 0.03% Dicrocoelium dendriticum,0.03% Taenia saginata and 0.02% Trichuris trichiura. This research shows that the intestinal parasitosis problem still continues in the province.

  15. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology: Submissions

    ... Keywords, Text (Introduction, Material and Methods, Results and Discussion), Acknowledgements and ... Figures (line graphs, charts, etc.) ... All works accepted for publication become the property of the Nigerian Journal of Parasitology.

  16. Nuclear and related techniques in parasitology

    Hayunga, E.G.; Stek, M. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    The course, entitled ''Atomic Energy Applications in Parasitology'', was offered by the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, USA, during the summer of 1983. The course began with an exhaustive introduction to radiation physics, then encompassed a variety of practical applications including irradiation attenuation, radioisotope labeling, tracer techniques and radioimmunoassays. This laboratory manual was written by the faculty in an attempt to document the learning experience of the training course and to provide a detailed description of state-of-the-art technology, methods and procedures with up-to-date-references. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 25 chapters in this manual

  17. Parasitología (Farmacia)

    Simón Martín, Fernando; Morchón García, Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    Materiales de clase: 1.Conceptos generales en parasitología: Concepto de organismo parásito y de parasitismo. Concepto de parasitología. Propagación parasitaria: ciclos biológicos, metamorfosis y reproducción parasitarias. Clases de parásitos y de hospedadores. Especificidad parasitaria. Epidemiología parasitaria. Respuesta del hospedador: inmunidad. Mecanismos de evasión/supervivencia desarrollados por los parásitos.; 2. Protozoos parásitos: Morfología general de protozoos parásitos. Clasifi...

  18. Princípios de biossegurança aplicados aos laboratórios de ensino universitário de microbiologia e parasitologia Principles of biosafety applied to microbiology and parasitology laboratories in universities

    Luis Antônio Sangioni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Os laboratórios de ensino de microbiologia e parasitologia nas universidades brasileiras são ambientes em que as atividades integradas, envolvendo ensino, pesquisa e extensão, demandam a convivência de pessoas, agentes e amostras biológicas, equipamentos, reagentes e resíduos num mesmo espaço, sendo inevitável a exposição das pessoas aos diferentes riscos. As atividades realizadas nesses laboratórios necessitam empregar as normas de segurança; pois, uma vez que o fator humano é susceptível aos acidentes, os programas de educação em biossegurança são imprescindíveis. Entretanto, para que esses programas sejam efetivos, é necessário que os usuários estejam devidamente informados acerca dos princípios de biossegurança, bem como aptos a colocá-los em prática de maneira correta, a fim de garantir a segurança dos profissionais, acadêmicos e do meio ambiente. Esta revisão compila os principais aspectos da biossegurança relacionados aos princípios e à classificação dos riscos, dos agentes biológicos e dos níveis de contenção laboratorial, bem como aborda as boas práticas laboratoriais nos laboratórios de ensino, pesquisa e extensão em microbiologia e parasitologia.The teaching laboratories of microbiology and parasitology in Brazilian universities are places where the integrated activities of teaching, research and extension are performed and require the coexistence in the same space, persons, biological agents and samples, equipment, reagents and waste, and where is inevitable the exposure of people to the different risks. The laboratorial activities practiced in Brazilian universities require the need for safety standards, since the human factor is likely the causes of accidents in laboratories, educational programs in biosafety become indispensable to the prevention of risks. However, for an education program become effective is necessary that the users are fully informed about the biosafety principles, as

  19. Current bioethical issues in parasitology

    Boury D.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic diseases constitute the most common infections among the poorest billion people, entailing high mortality rates and leading to long-term infirmities and poverty. Although the setting-up of public health programs implies many ethical consequences, the range of specific questions in parasitology that can be attributed to bioethics remains, to a large extent, unexplored. From the present analysis, it emerged three main issues which characterize ethical stakes in parasitology: accounting the complexity of the field of intervention, putting the principle of justice into practice and managing the changing context of research. From the research angle, medical parasitology-mycology, as other biological disciplines, is undergoing tensions derived from biological reductionism. Thanks to its links with the history and philosophy of the sciences, bioethics can help to clarify them and to explain the growing hold that technologies have over scientific thinking. On the whole, researchers as well as clinicians are called on to assume a specific responsibility, proportional to their competence and their place in the making of scientific, health, economic and social decisions.

  20. Practical parasitology courses and infection with intestinal parasites in students.

    Fallahi, Sh; Rostami, A; Mohammadi, M; Ebrahimzadeh, F; Pournia, Y

    2016-01-01

    Students who are working in research or educational laboratories of parasitology, as well as health care workers providing care for patients, are at the risk of becoming infected with parasites through accidental exposure. The main purpose of this study was to identify potential positive cases of intestinal parasitic infections among students who took practical parasitology courses compared with students who did not take any practical parasitology courses in Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran, in 2013-2014. A total of 310 subjects from various majors were invited to voluntarily participate in the study. Various demographic data were collected using questionnaires. Three stool samples were collected from each individual on alternate days. Saline wet mounts (SWM), formalin-ether sedimentation test (FEST), Sheather floatation test (SHFT) and trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used to diagnose the presence of intestinal parasites. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasites (IPs) among the students was 11.93%. There was a significant difference between majors in the infection with IPs (Pparasites in the educational course of practical parasitology could occur and must be taken into careful consideration. Copyright © 2015 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychosocial risks in university education teachers: Diagnosis and prevention

    María Matilde García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the psychosocial risks of university teachers and identify enhancement areas for a healthy organization in a sample of 621 teachers from the University of A Coruña, Spain. To achieve this aim, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (CoPsoQ adapted to the Spanish population (ISTAS21 Method was applied. The results showed an unfavorable situation for psychosocial health in five dimensions: high psychological demands, low esteem, high double presence, low social support, and high job insecurity. In contrast, a favorable situation for health is the dimension active work and development opportunities. It was also found that there is not a single profile of university teacher in psychosocial risk. To conclude, a diagnosis of psychosocial risks of university teachers is made and, in that scenario, some risk prevention strategies at university level are proposed.

  2. Histopathological diagnosis of eyelid tumors in Chiang Mai University Hospital.

    Nithithanaphat, Chanut; Ausayakhun, Sakarin; Wiwatwongwana, Damrong; Mahanupab, Pongsak

    2014-10-01

    To report the histopathological diagnosis ofeyelid tumors and to study the prevalence of eyelid tumors in Chiang Mai University Hospital Chiang Mai, Thailand. A retrospective review of medical and pathological records ofpatients diagnosed as eyelid tumor that underwent histopathological biopsy between January 2007 and December 2013 in Chiang Mai University Hospital was done. Three hundred sixteen cases of eyelid tumors were reviewed. The mean age at diagnosis was 54.2 +/- 19.6 years (range 1 month-99 years), women were 59.5% (n = 188) and men 40.5% (n = 128). The tumor sites were left lower eyelid (27.5%), right upper eyelid (24.4%), right lower eyelid (21.2%), and left upper eyelid (18.7%). There were 204 (64.6%) benign tumors and 112 (35.4%) malignant tumors. Nevi were the most common in benign group (16.4%) and basal cell carcinoma was the most common eyelid malignancy (18.0%). The most common histopathological diagnosis for benign eyelid tumor was nevus, while the most common malignant eyelid tumor was basal cell carcinoma at Chiang Mai University Hospital.

  3. A new remote-imaging diagnosis system at Komazawa University

    Shimada, Morio; Kohda, Eiichi; Yoshikawa, Kohki

    2007-01-01

    We developed a remote-imaging diagnosis system that links the highly experienced radiologists at Komazawa University with Fuji Electric Hospital, where no such radiologists are present. MRI or CT images from Fuji Electric hospital are transmitted to Komazawa University via private line (INS64). The radiologists at Komazawa University then read the MRI or CT images, and relay the results to Fuji Electric Hospital. We describe the advantages and disadvantages of this system. MRI or CT imaging data from 80 cases were used. The data were stored in the imaging system server at Fuji Electric Hospital and were evaluated by experienced radiologists at Komazawa University. The images were sent one by one to the diagnostic support system server at Komazawa University through the private INS64 line. We examined transmission time per case and the security of transmission. Transmission of MRI or CT images from the 80 cases required a mean duration of 63 minutes 30 seconds per image. The quality of all images was highly satisfactory. In addition, there was no evidence of weaknesses in security. A physician at Fuji Electric Hospital was able to readily explain to the patient the results of the images by referring to the findings written by a radiologist at Komazawa University. We were able to transmit MRI or CT images by using this system safely and readily. The primary disadvantage of this system was the slow transmission speed. This will be improved by upgrading to an optical fibers. (author)

  4. Veterinary parasitology teaching in China in the 21st century - Challenges, opportunities and perspectives.

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Long-Xian; Zou, Feng-Cai; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Hu, Min; Suo, Xun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2018-03-15

    China has made significant achievements in social-economic development in the last three decades, and the numbers of livestock and companion animals are rapidly increasing. Some advances have been made in the control and prevention of animal parasitic diseases, but there are still some significant challenges, particularly in relation to foodborne parasitic zoonoses and vector-borne diseases. In addition, new molecular (e.g., genomic and transcriptomic) technologies have been developed and are gradually being introduced into the veterinary parasitology field. Therefore, teaching of veterinary parasitology in Chinese universities has undergone significant changes over the years, in terms of topics, depth and breadth, and also in the ways in which courses are delivered. In this article, we describe the current status of veterinary parasitology teaching at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels in Chinese universities, summarise changes and improvement in veterinary parasitology teaching, and discuss the challenges and opportunities for veterinary parasitology teaching in the 21st century, including the use of new teaching technologies and the integration of the "One Health" concept into veterinary parasitology courses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Mobile Team of Parasitology-Mycology, a medical entity for educational purposes to serve sick patients.

    Desoubeaux, G; Simon, E G; Perrotin, D; Chandenier, J

    2014-06-01

    The Mobile Team of Parasitology-Mycology is a movable entity of the Parasitology-Mycology laboratory of Tours University Hospital, France. In contrast to the usual prerogatives of biomedical laboratories, the Mobile Team of Parasitology-Mycology is requested to intervene directly at bedside in various clinical departments, or even outside the hospital facility. Although its actions are of course primarily devoted to specialized diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, the Mobile Team also plays an important educational role in the medical training of undergraduate or graduate students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Pitfalls and opportunities of teaching veterinary parasitology within an integrated curriculum

    van Doorn, D.C.K.

    2018-01-01

    The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Utrecht University has seen three major curriculum changes, in 1995, 2001 and 2007. The last change was made because of the European change to a Bachelor-Master system. Almost each time teaching hours tagged for veterinary parasitology have been reduced to

  7. Preferential sampling in veterinary parasitological surveillance

    Lorenzo Cecconi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In parasitological surveillance of livestock, prevalence surveys are conducted on a sample of farms using several sampling designs. For example, opportunistic surveys or informative sampling designs are very common. Preferential sampling refers to any situation in which the spatial process and the sampling locations are not independent. Most examples of preferential sampling in the spatial statistics literature are in environmental statistics with focus on pollutant monitors, and it has been shown that, if preferential sampling is present and is not accounted for in the statistical modelling and data analysis, statistical inference can be misleading. In this paper, working in the context of veterinary parasitology, we propose and use geostatistical models to predict the continuous and spatially-varying risk of a parasite infection. Specifically, breaking with the common practice in veterinary parasitological surveillance to ignore preferential sampling even though informative or opportunistic samples are very common, we specify a two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model that adjusts for preferential sampling and we apply it to data on Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep farms in Campania region (Southern Italy in the years 2013-2014.

  8. Reference levels at diagnosis (NRD) for explorations in TC of the university Hospital Donostia

    Iriondo Igerabide, U.; Puertolas Hernandez, J. R.; Masso Odriozola, A.; Alonso Espinaco, M. t.; Pino Leon, C.; Lozano Flores, F. J.; Larretxea Etxarri, R.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is the establishment of diagnostic reference levels in TC, for the anatomical regions, in the University Hospital Donostia, in order to reduce the dose to patients and without prejudice to the required diagnosis. (Author)

  9. An Important Milestone in Parasitology: Celebrating a Hundred Volumes of Advances in Parasitology.

    Stothard, J Russell; Rollinson, David

    2018-01-01

    Beginning in 1963, the founding rationale of Advances in Parasitology was to provide authentic, well-documented reviews by leading experts, about the progress being made in their area of specialism to inform the wider cadre of parasitologists, disseminating this information across allied disciplines and all users. Some 55 years later, the Series has accumulated over 667 published articles, with just over 650 authors contributing either alone or in collaboration, and has successfully served the parasitological needs of medical, veterinary and wildlife scientific communities with equity, notwithstanding treatises on vectors or intermediate hosts, as well as 'honorary parasites' such as viruses, bacteria and fungi. The first production of Advances in Parasitology united the publishing offices of Academic Press in the USA (New York) and the UK (London), maintaining Webster or Oxford writing styles, but unlike its production, all seven editors, beginning with Professor Ben Dawes, have been UK-based. While Advances in Parasitology is now published by Elsevier from their London Office, it still follows the tradition of hard backed book production, in either eclectic or thematic volume formats. But now, following academic imperatives, the Series supports online posting, allowing chapter(s) to be downloaded ahead of final production of the hard back volume. With the 100th volume of Advances in Parasitology, in eclectic format like the very first, there is good reason to celebrate and reflect on the academic impact and enduring legacy of this Series. Seen not only as a yardstick of publishing success but also as a testament, in part, to our fascination with parasites, these cursorily simple yet wonderfully complex organisms that often cause undue harm and much suffering, is still as vibrant, expanding and relevant as ever before. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  10. The Analysis of Organizational Diagnosis on Based Six Box Model in Universities

    Hamid, Rahimi; Siadat, Sayyed Ali; Reza, Hoveida; Arash, Shahin; Ali, Nasrabadi Hasan; Azizollah, Arbabisarjou

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The analysis of organizational diagnosis on based six box model at universities. Research method: Research method was descriptive-survey. Statistical population consisted of 1544 faculty members of universities which through random strafed sampling method 218 persons were chosen as the sample. Research Instrument were organizational…

  11. The Czech External Quality Control system in medical microbiology and parasitology.

    Slosárek, M; Kríz, B

    2000-11-01

    The External Quality Control (EQC) system in activities of laboratories engaged in medical microbiology and parasitology was established in the Czech Republic in 1993 when to the first laboratories which applied coded serum samples were sent for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification. In the course of years the number of control areas increased and in 2000 there were 31 and the number of those interested in participation in EQC increased from 79 in 1993 to 434 in 2000. This year a total of 13,239 samples will be sent to laboratories. Gradually thus almost all microbiological and parasitological laboratories concerned with examination of clinical material became involved. Seven-year experience with EQC in the Czech Republic revealed that gradually the results of various examinations became more accurate, that methods became standardized and the most suitable examination sets are used.

  12. [External quality control system in medical microbiology and parasitology in the Czech Republic].

    Slosárek, M; Petrás, P; Kríz, B

    2004-11-01

    The External Quality Control System (EQAS) of laboratory activities in medical microbiology and parasitology was implemented in the Czech Republic in 1993 with coded sera samples for diagnosis of viral hepatitis and bacterial strains for identification distributed to first participating laboratories. The number of sample types reached 31 in 2003 and the number of participating laboratories rised from 79 in 1993 to 421 in 2003. As many as 15.130 samples were distributed to the participating laboratories in 2003. Currently, almost all microbiology and parasitology laboratories in the Czech Republic involved in examination of clinical material participate in the EQAS. Based on the 11-year experience gained with the EQAS in the Czech Republic, the following benefits were observed: higher accuracy of results in different tests, standardisation of methods and the use of most suitable test kits.

  13. Isotope and radiation in parasitology IV

    1981-01-01

    New developments in the application of nuclear techniques in animal parasitology and in the interactions between parasites, host genotype and the environment are reported. Nuclear techniques, used in conjunction with other standard techniques, represent important research tools for obtaining information particularly on host-parasite relationships. Nineteen papers were presented, most of which reviewed a relatively broad field. In 16 papers radioisotopes were reported as being or beginning to be employed. These have been analyzed individually for INIS. Three papers (''Influence of environmental factors on the epidemiology of helminth infections in ruminants'' by R.J. Thomas, UK; ''Factors affecting resistance to ecto- and endoparasites of cattle in tropical areas and implications for selection'' by J.E. Frisch, Australia; and ''Evaluation and potential of trypanotolerant livestock in Africa'' by J.C.M. Trail, Kenya) were fully documented reviews in which, however, no mention was made of nuclear techniques

  14. Psychiatric diagnosis – is it universal or relative to culture?

    Canino, Glorisa; Alegría, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    Background There is little consensus on the extent to which psychiatric disorders or syndromes are universal or the extent to which they differ on their core definitions and constellation of symptoms as a result of cultural or contextual factors. This controversy continues due to the lack of biological markers, imprecise measurement and the lack of a gold standard for validating most psychiatric conditions. Method Empirical studies were used to present evidence in favor of or against a universalist or relativistic view of child psychiatric disorders using a model developed by Robins and Guze to determine the validity of psychiatric disorders. Results The prevalence of some of the most common specific disorders and syndromes as well as its risk and protective factors vary across cultures, yet comorbid patterns and response to treatments vary little across cultures. Cross-cultural longitudinal data on outcomes is equivocal. Conclusions The cross-cultural validity of child disorders may vary drastically depending on the disorder, but empirical evidence that attests for the cross-cultural validity of diagnostic criteria for each child disorder is lacking. There is a need for studies that investigate the extent to which gene–environment interactions are related to specific disorders across cultures. Clinicians are urged to consider culture and context in determining the way in which children’s psychopathology may be manifested independent of their views. Recommendations for the upcoming classificatory system are provided so that practical or theoretical considerations are addressed about how culture and ethnic issues affect the assessment or treatment of specific disorders in children. PMID:18333929

  15. [Hydatid fertility and protoscolex viability in humans: study of 78 hydatid samples collected between 2005 and 2012 and analyzed at the parasitology laboratory of the Mustapha University Hospital Center of Algiers].

    Zait, H; Boulahbel, M; Zait, F; Achir, I; Guerchani, M T; Chaouche, H; Ladjadje, Y; Hamrioui, B

    2013-05-01

    An analysis at the Mustapha University Hospital Center of Algiers examined 78 hydatid samples collected between 2005 and 2012 to determine the fertility rate of metacestodes and the viability of protoscolices. The fertility rate of the hydatid cysts in humans was 88.4% and the protoscolex viability rate 74.5%. The fertility and viability rates found here are high, despite the use of scolicides.

  16. Invasion ecology meets parasitology: Advances and challenges

    Robert Poulin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions threaten the diversity and functioning of native ecosystems, and the rate at which species are being introduced to new areas shows no sign of slowing down. Parasites play roles in biological invasions, for instance when native parasites interact with exotic hosts, or when parasites themselves are introduced to new areas. However, publication trends show clearly that research on parasitism in the context of biological invasions is lagging far behind research on biological invasions in general. The different articles in this special issue of International Journal for Parasitology–Parasites and Wildlife on ‘Invasions’ address various aspects of the interface between parasitology and invasion biology, including how invasive free-living species lose or gain parasites on the invasion front as they move away from their site of introduction, how these invasive species affect the dynamics of native parasites, and how exotic parasites become established and impact native hosts. Together, they highlight the challenges facing researchers in this area, and set the agenda for the next few years of research. Keywords: alien species, Biological invasions, Enemy release, Non-natives, Parasites

  17. Nuclear and related techniques in parasitology: A laboratory manual

    Hayunga, E.G.; Stek, M. Jr. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    The course, entitled ''Atomic Energy Applications in Parasitology'', was offered by the Division of Tropical Public Health, Department of Preventive Medicine, and Biometrics, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland. It was an intensive 3-week endeavor during which students attended lectures and acquired practical hands-on experience with the most recent laboratory tools. The course began with an exhaustive introduction to radiation physics, then encompassed a variety of practical applications including irradiation attenuation, radioisotope labeling, tracer techniques and radioimmunoassays. This laboratory manual was written by the faculty in an attempt to document the learning experience of the training course and to provide a detailed description of state-of-the-art technology with up-to-date references. Clearly, the manual has value as a historical document. However, the chapters were written with the explicit intention that they be useful to future investigators who wish to apply these methods to their particular research problem.

  18. PCR/LDR/universal array platforms for the diagnosis of infectious disease.

    Pingle, Maneesh; Rundell, Mark; Das, Sanchita; Golightly, Linnie M; Barany, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Infectious diseases account for between 14 and 17 million deaths worldwide each year. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of bacterial, fungal, viral, and parasitic infections is therefore essential to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases. Classical microbiological and serological methods have long served as the gold standard for diagnosis but are increasingly being replaced by molecular diagnostic methods that demonstrate increased sensitivity and specificity and provide an identification of the etiologic agent in a shorter period of time. PCR/LDR coupled with universal array detection provides a highly sensitive and specific platform for the detection and identification of bacterial and viral infections.

  19. DIAGNOSIS OF THE PERCEPTION OF TEACHERS AT THE SIMON BOLIVAR UNIVERSITY ON THE USE OF ICT'S

    María Victoria Flores Trujillo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Globalization has been propelled by the use of communication technologies and ICT information, so this article aims to make a diagnosis to know the perception that teachers have university Simon Bolivar on its use. In line with this objective, questions associated with respondent profile variables are formulated, perception of use and level of satisfaction. It is a field, the results show an organization aligned with the use of technology, low resistance to change and ecology standards supporting among others.

  20. Veterinary parasitology teaching - Ten years of experience with the Vetsuisse curriculum.

    Schnyder, Manuela; Hertzberg, Hubertus; Mathis, Alexander; Schönmann, Marietta; Hehl, Adrian; Deplazes, Peter

    2018-03-15

    Pursuant to the Joint Declaration by 29 European education ministers in June 1999 in the city of Bologna, Italy, the so-called 'Bologna Process' was officially introduced at the Vetsuisse Faculty (Universities of Zurich and Berne) in Switzerland in 2007. The long-term goal of restructuring the study programmes was to create a common European Higher Education Area (EHEA), with uniform and clearly defined standards for degrees ("diplomas"). Accordingly, the Vetsuisse curriculum was organised as a 3-year Bachelor and a 2-year Master study program. For the final Federal examination in veterinary medicine, both programs and a master thesis have to be completed. Parasitology, as a subject, is introduced with selected examples in the ecology course during the first academic year. The second and third years of the Bachelor program comprise non-organ-centred (NOC) and integrated organ-centred (OC) course modules, respectively. In the NOC modules, parasitology is taught in consecutive courses, focussing on topics including occurrence, biology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnostics and the strategic principles of therapeutic and prophylactic interventions against major veterinary and zoonotic parasites. This syllabus is complemented with live demonstrations as well as practical laboratory exercises. Lecture notes, with defined learning objectives, are based on the textbook "Parasitology in Veterinary Medicine" which is available free of charge to students as an on-line edition in German. Furthermore, students review relevant parasitoses in the diagnostic context of OC case presentations. In another module, immunological aspects of parasitic diseases are elaborated on group sessions, supported through the use of specialist literature. The two-year Master program is divided into a core syllabus for all students, and elective subjects are chosen from six areas of specialisation (three each with clinical or non-clinical focus). Within the clinically focused

  1. Universal algorithm for diagnosis of biventricular capture in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Jastrzebski, Marek; Kukla, Piotr; Fijorek, Kamil; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2014-08-01

    An accurate and universal method for diagnosis of biventricular (BiV) capture using a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) would be useful for assessment of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) patients. Our objective was to develop and validate such an ECG method for BiV capture diagnosis that would be independent of pacing lead positions-a major confounder that significantly influences the morphologies of paced QRS complexes. On the basis of an evaluation of 789 ECGs of 443 patients with heart failure and various right ventricular (RV) and left ventricular (LV) lead positions, the following algorithm was constructed and validated. BiV capture was diagnosed if the QRS in lead I was predominantly negative and either V1 QRS was predominantly positive or V6 QRS was of negative onset and predominantly negative (step 1), or if QRS complex duration was capture. The algorithm showed good accuracy (93%), sensitivity (97%), and specificity (90%) for detection of loss of LV capture. The performance of the algorithm did not differ among apical, midseptal, and outflow tract RV lead positions and various LV lead positions. LV capture leaves diagnostic hallmarks in the fused BiV QRS related to different vectors of depolarization and more rapid depolarization of the ventricles. An accurate two-step ECG algorithm for BiV capture diagnosis was developed and validated. This algorithm is universally applicable to all CRT patients, regardless of the positions of the pacing leads. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Parasitología (Biología)

    Simón Martín, Fernando; Morchón García, Rodrigo

    2008-01-01

    1.Conceptos generales en parasitología: Concepto de organismo parásito y de parasitismo. Concepto de parasitología. Origen y evolución de los parásitos. Influencia de la vida parasitaria en los organismos correspondientes. Propagación parasitaria: ciclos biológicos, metamorfosis y reproducción parasitaria. Clases de parásitos y de hospedadores. Especificidad parasitaria. Epidemiología parasitaria. Mecanismos patogénicos de los parásitos. Respuesta del hospedador: inmunidad. Mecanismos de evas...

  3. Analyze chemistry, microbiological and parasitological of the drinking water in UNESP and wastewater from Jaboticabal – SP, Brazil

    Scandolera, Antonio João; Centro de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal; Palhares, Julio César; Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária; Lucas Junior, Jorge; Universidade Estadual Paulista; Amaral, Luiz Augusto do; Universidade Estadual Paulista; Mendonça, Rafael Paranhos de; de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal; Oliveira, Gilson Pereira de; de Pesquisas em Sanidade Animal

    2001-01-01

    The quality conditions of the water that supplies the UNESP University campus in Jaboticabal city and its wastewater from the Jaboticabal Stream were evaluated by chemical analysis bacteriological and parasitological. Samples were collected weekly from 09/24/98 through 01/28/99, water supply provided by the Municipal Government from an artesian well source and wastewater was took from the Jaboticabal Stream at a point downstream from the town. The parameters analyzed were: water pH, DO, nitra...

  4. Parasitological profile of perstans filariasis among blood donors in ...

    The study was conducted at Ile – Ife, in Osun State Southwest Nigeria between March and September, 2009 with a view to determine the prevalence of blood filariasis among blood donors. The blood samples of 250 blood donors were parasitologically examined directly with wet preparation, while the thick and thin films ...

  5. Comparison between splenic and lymph node aspirations as sampling methods for the parasitological detection of Leishmania chagasi infection in dogs

    Stella Maria Barrouin-Melo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivities of spleen and lymph node cultures for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis were compared in 64 anti-Leishmania antibody positive dogs from an endemic area in Brazil. The sensitivity of spleen cultures for Leishmania detection was 97.9%; in lymph node cultures it was 25%. Positive spleen culture was more frequent (p = 0.048, Fisher's exact probability test in symptomatic (28 out of 33 animals than in asymptomatic animals (19 out of 31 animals. These results support the use of spleen instead of lymph node aspiration as the choice method for the parasitological diagnosis of the infection.

  6. Can New Digital Technologies Support Parasitology Teaching and Learning?

    Jabbar, Abdul; Gasser, Robin B; Lodge, Jason

    2016-07-01

    Traditionally, parasitology courses have mostly been taught face-to-face on campus, but now digital technologies offer opportunities for teaching and learning. Here, we give a perspective on how new technologies might be used through student-centred teaching approaches. First, a snapshot of recent trends in the higher education is provided; then, a brief account is given of how digital technologies [e.g., massive open online courses (MOOCs), flipped classroom (FC), games, quizzes, dedicated Facebook, and digital badges] might promote parasitology teaching and learning in digital learning environments. In our opinion, some of these digital technologies might be useful for competency-based, self-regulated, learner-centred teaching and learning in an online or blended teaching environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. WAAVP/Pfizer award for excellence in teaching veterinary parasitology: teaching of veterinary parasitology--quo vadis?

    Eckert, J

    2000-02-29

    Some thoughts on training and recruitment of academic teachers and future trends in teaching veterinary parasitology are presented with emphasis on the European situation. It is underlined that research is an indispensable basis for academic teaching. Besides a broad scientific background of the teacher, motivation and teaching methods are also important. Many academic teachers do not receive formal training in teaching methods. In order to improve future education, training of staff members in teaching methods should be promoted. Quality control of teaching and research, already established in many schools, should generally be introduced. Teaching is mostly underestimated in relation to research. Therefore, more weight should be placed on the former both in selecting scientists for the career as academic teachers and in evaluating and ranking departments for their academic activities. In the future veterinary medicine will have to cope with profound changes in the society and the veterinary profession, and the progressing European unification will enhance trends for internationalizing teaching curricula. Therefore, veterinary medicine has to reconsider the teaching subjects and methods and to lay more emphasis on flexibility, skills of problem-solving and self-learning and on training for life-long learning. At present there is an ongoing discussion on the question how to teach veterinary medicine, including veterinary parasitology. There are various options, and some of them are discussed, namely, the disciplinary and the problem-based/organ-focussed approaches. It is concluded that for teaching of veterinary parasitology and related disciplines a combined disciplinary and problem-based approach offers the best chances for fulfilling the requirements of teaching for the future. In the curriculum of undergraduate teaching of veterinary medicine at least 70-90 h should be dedicated to veterinary parasitology using a disciplinary and taxonomic approach. Additional

  8. Unsticking from time to create a parasitologic amalgamation.

    Bowman, Dwight D

    2018-03-15

    Parasitology is a relevant and integral part of veterinary medicine, and the WAAVP membership has skills ranging from morphological diagnostics and routine parasite control recommendations through the cutting edges of many disciplines, e.g., pharmacology, immunology, molecular biology and genomics. We regularly face a majority of students who want only the practical information useful the moment they enter the clinics. However, we are preparing them for careers lasting 30-50 years. Thus, we also must help them prepare for their futures. There is a constant squeeze on parasitology in the curricular footprint accompanying a mandatory need to cover the licensure basics. The basic material has stood the test of time, and until the agents are eradicated or the hosts extinct, they have value. But, a critical need is the interweaving of the marvels of modern science into the parasitology regularly presented. Often this has been done with boxes, highlights, or examples within classes or texts, but asides are mentally treated as such. Also, many of those teaching parasitology are unfamiliar with many of the concepts and details of this material, but these same folks remain a grand part of the profession. Also, it is hard to sneak this apparently unwarranted material past the clinically oriented veterinary student. Somehow, WAAVP needs to work with its membership to develop and assist faculty in the presentation of a curriculum that can meld the old and the avant guard into a fusion of tastes and flavours palatable to today's veterinary student and tomorrow's practitioner. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. [Application of mind map in teaching of medical parasitology].

    Zhou, Hong-Chang; Shao, Sheng-Wen; Xu, Bo-Ying

    2012-12-30

    To improve the teaching quality of medical parasitology, mind map, a simple and effective learning method, was introduced. The mind map of each chapter was drawn by teacher and distributed to students before the class. It was helpful for teacher to straighten out the teaching idea, and for students to grasp the important learning points, perfect the class notes and improve learning efficiency. The divergent characteristics of mind map can also help to develop the students' innovation ability.

  10. Clinical Assessment and Diagnosis of Germline Predisposition to Hematopoietic Malignancies: The University of Chicago Experience

    Ami V. Desai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing use of clinical genomics to guide cancer treatment and management, there is a rise in the identification of germline cancer predisposition syndromes and a critical need for patients with germline findings to be referred for surveillance and care. The University of Chicago Hematopoietic Malignancies Cancer Risk Team has established a unique approach to patient care for individuals with hereditary hematologic malignancies through close communication and coordination between our pediatric and adult programs. Dedicated program members, including physicians, nurses, genetic counselors, and clinical research assistants, screen individuals for cancer predisposition at initial diagnosis through survivorship, in addition to testing individuals with an established family history of a cancer predisposition syndrome. Sample procurement, such as a skin biopsy at the time of bone marrow aspirate/biopsy in individuals with a positive screen, has facilitated timely identification of clinical germline findings or has served as a pipeline for translational research. Our integrated translational research program has led to the identification of novel syndromes in collaboration with other investigators, which have been incorporated iteratively into our clinical pipeline. Individuals are referred for clinical assessment based on personal and family history, identification of variants in susceptibility genes via molecular tumor testing, and during evaluation for matched related allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Upon referral, genetic counseling incorporates education with mindfulness of the psychosocial issues surrounding germline testing at different ages. The training and role of genetic counselors continues to grow, with the discovery of new predisposition syndromes, in the age of improved molecular diagnostics and new models for service delivery, such as telemedicine. With the identification of new syndromes that may predispose individuals

  11. Incorrect diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection in a university hospital in Japan.

    Mori, Nobuaki; Yoshizawa, Sadako; Saga, Tomoo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Murakami, Hinako; Iwata, Morihiro; Collins, Deirdre A; Riley, Thomas V; Tateda, Kazuhiro

    2015-10-01

    Physicians often fail to suspect Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and many microbiology laboratories use suboptimal diagnostic techniques. To estimate the extent of and reasons for incorrect diagnosis of CDI in Japan, we investigated toxigenic C. difficile isolated from all stool culture samples and clinical course. Over a 12-month period in 2010, all stool culture samples (n = 975) submitted from inpatients in a university hospital in Japan were cultured for C. difficile and routine microbiological testing was conducted. In total, 177 C. difficile isolates were recovered, and 127 isolates were toxigenic. Among the toxin-A-positive/toxin-B-positive isolates, 12 were also positive for the binary toxin gene. However, clinically important ribotypes, such as 027 and 078, were not identified. A total of 58 (45.7%) cases with toxigenic C. difficile had unformed stool, and the incidence CDI was 1.6 cases per 10,000 patient-days. Of these 58 cases, 40 were not diagnosed in routine testing due to a lack of clinical suspicion (24.1%, 14/58) or a negative C. difficile toxin assay result (44.8%, 26/58). A stool toxin assay was performed in 54 patients (78.2%, 54/69) who did not have unformed stool. The present study demonstrated that a significant number of CDI cases in Japan might be overlooked or misdiagnosed in clinical practice due to a lack of clinical suspicion and limitations of microbiological testing for CDI in Japan. Providing education to promote awareness of CDI among physicians is important to improve the accuracy of diagnosis in Japan. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Historical context of parasitological studies in tropical area, malaria as an example].

    Lonc, Elzbieta; Płonka-Syroka, Bozena

    2007-01-01

    Review paper deals with the historical analysis of intellectual activity of some famous parasitologists working in tropics on malaria in the XIX/XX century: A. Laveran (1845-1922), R. Ross (1857-1932), P. Manson (1844-1922), B. Grassi (1854-1925), and other Nobelprize researchers: P. H. Müller (1899-1965) and J. W. von Jauregg (1857-1940). Those chief investigations are interpreted from the point of view of the so-called anthropology of knowledge based on L. Fleck's (1896-1961) philosophy and sociology of science. Parasitological investigations, especially in the field of malaria, were undertaken in the developed economically countries in answer to the social demands. It was connected with development of colonies and the needs of stabilization of epidemiological situation in tropics. To mid of the eigthies of 19th century the lack of positive effects resulted from the theoretical barriers and conservative thinking style of the European academic society. It caused that great parasitological discoveries of the etiological agents of parasitic diseases (like plasmodia, life cycle in malaria) took place behind university circles. They were done by the physicians - general practitioners--in the colony areas. Doctors A. Laveran, P. Manson and R. Ross were not restricted by traditional standards and the obliging normative concepts in the academic naturalism. Those medical men worked out a new impulse for parasitology and supported an idea based on the rule that each disease should be assigned with the materialistic biological factor (pathogen). In the years 1800-1900 the old and a new concepts were competed in the natural sciences and medicine. Near year 1900 a new way in the context of modern interpretations was brought into general use. It was proved experimentally that etiological theory of parasitic disease was more practically usuful. It resulted in the formation of the effective prophylactic theory as well as the development of research in the field of chemotherapy

  13. [Analysis on theses of the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases in 2009-2012].

    Yi, Feng-Yun; Qu, Lin-Ping; Yan, He; Sheng, Hui-Feng

    2013-12-01

    The published articles at the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases in 2009-2012 were statistically analyzed. Among 547 papers published in the four years, original articles occupied 45.3% (248/547). The number of authors was 2712, with an average cooperation degree of 5.0, and the co-authorship accounted for 95.4% of the papers. Authors were mainly from colleges/universities (51.9%, 284/547), institutions for disease control (34.4%, 188/547) and hospitals health centers (13.7%, 75/547). The average publishing delay was 212, 141, 191 and 207 d in 2009-2012. Statistical analysis reflected the characteristics and academic level for improving the quality of the journal, and revealed the latest development and trends.

  14. Transfusion practice in Helsinki University Central Hospital: an analysis of diagnosis-related groups (DRG).

    Syrjälä, M T; Kytöniemi, I; Mikkolainen, K; Ranimo, J; Lauharanta, J

    2001-12-01

    Transfusion data combined with data automatically recorded in hospital databases provides an outstanding tool for blood utilization reporting. When the reporting is performed with an online analytical processing (OLAP) tool, real time reporting can be provided to blood subscribers. When this data is combined with a common patient classification system, Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRG), it is possible to produce statistical results, that are similar in different institutions and may provide a means for international transfusion bench-marking and cost comparison. We use a DRG classification to describe the transfusion practice in Helsinki University Central Hospital. The key indicators include the percentage of transfused patients, the number of transfused units and costs in different DRG groups, as well as transfusion rates per DRG weighted treatment episodes. Ninety-three per cent of all transfusions could be classified into different DRGs. The largest blood-using DRG group was acute adult leukaemia (DRG 473), which accounted for 10.4% of all transfusion costs. The 13 largest blood consuming DRGs accounted for half the total costs in 1998. Currently, there is a lack of an internationally accepted standardized way to report institutional or national transfusion practices. DRG-based transfusion reporting might serve as a means for transfusion benchmarking and thus aid studies of variations in transfusion practice.

  15. Raphaël Blanchard, parasitology, and the positioning of medical entomology in Paris.

    Osborne, M A

    2008-12-01

    The histories of medical entomology and parasitology are entwined. Raphaël Blanchard (1857-1919), Chair of Medical Natural History and Parasitology at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, organized the teaching of medical entomology and civilian colonial medicine. He also founded and edited the journal Archives de Parasitologie and started the Institute de Médecine Coloniale where he mentored many foreign students and researchers. Additionally, Blanchard is important for his scientific internationalism and medical historical work on the cultural location of parasitology and for training the future professors of parasitology Jules Guiart, Emile Brumpt, and Charles Joyeux.

  16. Diagnosis and Monitoring of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Chiang Mai University Experience.

    Tantiworawit, Adisak; Kongjarern, Supanat; Rattarittamrong, Ekarat; Lekawanvijit, Suree; Bumroongkit, Kanokkan; Boonma, Nonglak; Rattanathammethee, Thanawat; Hantrakool, Sasinee; Chai-Adisaksopha, Chatree; Norasetthada, Lalita

    2016-01-01

    A diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is made on discovery of the presence of a Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. The success of the treatment of this form of leukemia with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) is monitored by reduction of the Ph chromosome. To compare the role of conventional cytogenetic (CC) methods with a real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for diagnosis and treatment monitoring of CML patients. The secondary outcome was to analyze the treatment responses to TKI in CML patients. This was a retrospective study of CML patients who attended the Hematology clinic at Chiang Mai University Hospital from 2005-2010. Medical records were reviewed for demographic data, risk score, treatment response and the results of CC methods, FISH and RQ-PCR. One hundred and twenty three cases were included in the study, 57.7% of whom were male with a mean age of 46.9 years. Most of the patients registered as intermediate to high risk on the Sokal score. At diagnosis, 121 patients were tested using the CC method and 118 (95.9%) were identified as positive. Five patients failed to be diagnosed by CC methods but were positive for BCR-ABL1 using the FISH method. Imatinib was the first-line treatment used in 120 patients (97.6%). In most patients (108 out of 122, 88.5%), a complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) was achieved after TKI therapy and in 86 patients (70.5%) CCyR was achieved long term by the CC method. Five out of the 35 analyzed patients in which CCyR was achieved by the CC method had a positive FISH result. Out of the 76 patients in which CCyR was achieved, RQ-PCR classified patients to only CCyR in 17 patients (22.4%) with a deeper major molecular response (MMR) in 4 patients (5.3%) and complete molecular response (CMR) in 55 patients (72.4%). In the case of initial therapy, CCyR was achieved in 95 patients (79.1%) who received imatinib and in both patients who received dasatinib (100%). For the

  17. Established and novel approaches for teaching and learning of veterinary parasitology in Berlin.

    Clausen, Peter-Henning; Stelzer, Sandra; Nijhof, Ard; Krücken, Jürgen; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2018-03-15

    The teaching of veterinary parasitology to the large number of students at the Freie Universität Berlin is mainly limited to conventional face-to-face lectures, supplemented by practical classes. Extensive parasite descriptions and diagnostic techniques are at the core of the practical classes, which are also intended to emphasise key biological and veterinary aspects covered in lectures. Further in-depth and specific learning is achieved within a detailed framework of elective courses, with defined learning outcomes for small groups of students, focusing on themes such as 'diagnosis and treatment of ectoparasites in companion animals' or 'zoonotic parasites'. Additionally, structured excursions are designed to offer experience through collaborative international investigations. Organ-based approaches are also an integral part of our veterinary parasitology teaching, done in collaboration with the clinical and para-clinical departments, either via face-to-face interactions or online. Wide-ranging themes, such as 'causes of colic in horses' or 'atopic dermatitis in dogs' are covered. Recently, diverse blended learning elements were introduced into the curriculum (e.g., QuerVet), which makes teaching and learning more flexible, in terms of time and space, and fosters self-directed learning and participation among the students. A new platform to provide online lectures for students, termed VET Talks, was launched in 2015 by the International Veterinary Student's Association (IVSA), and is as a publicly available educational support system for students. Provided free to veterinary students throughout the world, this platform offers students the opportunity to access lectures on interesting topics by outstanding speakers who are nominated by their students. Finally, continuing education (CE) opportunities are provided through specific Masters courses (Master of Equine Medicine, Master of Small Animal Sciences), classical seminars and recent webinars. Copyright © 2018

  18. Parasitology of five primates in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    Kooriyama, Takanori; Hasegawa, Hideo; Shimozuru, Michito; Tsubota, Toshio; Nishida, Toshisada; Iwaki, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Parasitological surveillance in primates has been performed using coprological observation and identification of specimens from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania (Mahale). In this study, we conducted coprological surveillance to identify the fauna of parasite infection in five primate species in Mahale: red colobus (Procolobus badius tephrosceles), red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius schmidti), vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus), yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus), and chimpanzees. Fecal samples were examined microscopically, and parasite identification was based on the morphology of cysts, eggs, larvae, and adult worms. Three nematodes (Oesophagostomum spp., Strongyloides sp., and Trichuris sp.), Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba spp. were found in all five primate species. The following infections were identified: Bertiella studeri was found in chimpanzees and yellow baboons; Balantidium coli was found in yellow baboons; three nematodes (Streptopharagus, Primasubulura, an undetermined genus of Spirurina) and Dicrocoeliidae gen. sp. were found in red-tailed monkeys, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons; Chitwoodspirura sp. was newly identified in red colobus and red-tailed monkeys; Probstmayria gombensis and Troglocorys cava were newly identified in chimpanzees, together with Troglodytella abrassarti; and Enterobius sp. was newly identified in red colobus. The parasitological data reported for red colobus, vervet monkeys, and yellow baboons in Mahale are the first reports for these species.

  19. Parasitological Society of Southern Africa 36th Annual Congress of the Parasitological Society of Southern Africa (PARSA, 18-20 September 2007 : conference abstracts

    The Editorial

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The following are abstracts of papers and posters presented at the 36th Annual Congress of the Parasitological Society of Southern Africa (PARSA, 18-20 September 2007, Pestana Kruger Lodge, Malelane, South Africa

  20. [Current panorama of the teaching of microbiology and parasitology in Spain].

    Cantón, Rafael; Sánchez-Romero, María Isabel; Gómez-Mampaso, Enrique

    2010-10-01

    The training program of residents in microbiology and parasitology in Spain includes clinical skills, ranging from the diagnostic approach to the patient and adequate sample collection for diagnosis of infectious diseases to antimicrobial therapy and infection control measures. Training also includes new challenges in clinical microbiology that ensure residents' participation in infection control programs of health-care associated infections, training in the resolution of public health problems, and application of new molecular microbiology methods. Specialization in clinical microbiology may be undertaken by graduates in Medicine, Biology, Biochemistry and Chemistry. The training is performed in accredited microbiology laboratories at different hospitals (n = 61) across the country through 4-year residency programs. In the last few years, there has been a major imbalance between the number of intended residents (0.17 per 100,000 inhabitants) and those graduating as specialists in clinical microbiology (0.13 per 100,000 inhabitants), with wide variations across the country. The current tendency in Europe is to strengthen the role of clinical microbiologists as key figures in the diagnosis of infectious diseases and in public health microbiology. Training programs have been hampered by the practice of sending samples for microbiological tests to external, centralized multipurpose laboratories with few clinical microbiologists and without a core curriculum. Essential elements in the training of specialists in clinical microbiology are a close relationship between the laboratory and the clinical center and collaboration with other specialists. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Experience in teaching of radionuclide diagnosis in radiology course at Bogomolets national medical university

    Tkachenko, M.M.; Romanenko, G.O.; Morozova, N.L.; Mironova, O.V.

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights aspects of teaching radionuclide diagnosis (RND) in the study of complex radiation diagnosis and radiotherapy. Teaching of radiation at undergraduate stage is based on the results of new scientific achievements in radiology and guiding principles of evidence-based medicine. At present studying RND is intended to support the aspiration of European medical community to create a unified science-based approaches to diagnosis and it shows promise of new forms of learning that promote active creative work of a student.

  2. [An analysis on funded theses in the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases in 2009-2012].

    Yi, Feng-yun; Zhang, Zheng-yan; Sheng, Hui-feng

    2014-12-01

    The published articles of the Chinese Journal of Parasitology and Parasitic Diseases in 2009-2012 (including original articles, experimental researches, field researches and clinical researches) were statistically analyzed. Together 258 research papers were published in the 4 years, and funded papers occupied 82.2% (212/258). The number of papers funded by 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 foundations projects was 116, 58, 29, 7 and 2, respectively. 61.8% (131/212) of the foundations projects were at the national level; 28.3% (60/212) were at provincial and ministerial level. The papers supported by academy and international agencies accounted for 7.1% (15/212), 2.8% (6/212), respectively. The funded thesis mainly referred to schistosomiasis (35, 16.5%), cystic echinococcosis (29, 13.7%), malaria (24, 11.3%), toxoplasmosis (22, 10.4%), and cysticercosis (9, 4.2%). Five fields covered in these papers were as follows: epidemiology (29, 13.7%), immunology and diagnosis (53, 25%), molecular biology (75, 35.4%), etiology (28,13.2%), and pharmacology (24, 11.3%). The ratio of founded paper was 0.70, 0.67, 0.74, and 0.65 during 2009-2012, respectively. The high ratio of founded paper indicated that this journal is with domestic and abroad importance in the field of parasitology.

  3. [Parasitological, immunohistochemical and histopathological study for Leishmania chagasi detection in splenic tissues of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis].

    Tasca, Karen Ingrid; Buzetti, Wilma Aparecida Starke; Tenorio, Michely da Silva; Paulan, Silvana de Cássia; Lima, Flávia Luna; de Queiroz, Nina Mari Gual Pimenta; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Oliveira, Tricia Maria Ferreira de Souza; Neves, Maria Francisca; de Noronha, Antonio Carlos Faconti; de Assis, Juliana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work was a Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis--CVL study by parasitological direct examination of Leishmania (L.) chagasi (imprinting and histological), immunohistochemical test and histopathological analysis using spleen tissues from 34 dogs euthanized by the Zoonotic Disease Control Centre from Ilha Solteira, SP, Brazil. According to the clinical signs, the dogs were divided in three groups: asymptomatics (8 dogs), oligosymptomatics (17 dogs) and symptomatics (9 dogs). After the accomplishment of all diagnostic tests, 22 dogs were considered positives (64.7%) and 12 (35.3%) were negatives to CVL. From these positive dogs, 1/22 (4.5%) was asymptomatic, 12/22(54.5%) were oligosymptomatics and 8/22 (40.1%) were symptomatics. The histopathological study in spleen tissues from positive, especially symptomatic dogs, showed a diffuse chronic inflammation with thickness of capsular and trabecular regions and there was extensive morphologic alteration of the red and white pulp by the presence of abundant macrophages full with amastigotes, the granulomatous inflammatory reaction and haemorrhagic areas. The data of this work from histopathologic examination and direct microscopic visualization of L. (L.) chagasi showed that the spleen was an useful organ to collect sample tissues for CVL diagnosis. The immunostaining detected the highest number of positive dogs and were considered an important and conclusive method to be used in addition to parasitological methods for CVL, particularly in asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic dogs.

  4. Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in untreated chronic chagasic patients is improved by using three parasitological methods simultaneously.

    Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Valencia, Claudio; Torres, Alberto; Saavedra, Miguel; Rodríguez, Jorge; Sandoval, Lea; Martínez, Gabriela; Thieme, Patricio; Sepúlveda, Eduardo

    2011-10-01

    This study compared three parasitological methods applied simultaneously in individuals with untreated chronic Chagas' disease in order to determine their individual and combined performances. From a total of 100 chronic chagasic patients from endemic areas of Chile, with informed consent, we extracted 2 mL of peripheral venous blood for PCR (PCR-B) and applied two xenodiagnosis (XD) boxes with seven uninfected Triatoma infestans nymphs each for microscopic examination and PCR of faecal samples of the triatomines fed on each patient (PCR-XD). The PCR-B and PCR-XD reactions were performed with oligonucleotides 121 and 122, which anneal to the four constant regions of the minicircles of Trypanosoma cruzi kinetoplasts. The 330 bp PCR product was analysed by electrophoresis in a 2% agarose gel and visualized by staining with ethidium bromide. PCR-B detected T. cruzi in 58% of the cases, while PCR-XD proved to be more sensitive than XD (67% versus 14%, respectively) (P = 0.0001). There was no difference between the detection power of PCR-B and PCR-XD (P = 0.222). The percentage detected as positive was much greater when the three tests were considered (84%) (P = 0.00001). The simultaneous application of more than one technique for the parasitological diagnosis of Chagas' disease in untreated individuals increases the possibility of detection of T. cruzi.

  5. Comparison of clinical and parasitological data from controlled human malaria infection trials.

    Meta Roestenberg

    Full Text Available Exposing healthy human volunteers to Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes is an accepted tool to evaluate preliminary efficacy of malaria vaccines. To accommodate the demand of the malaria vaccine pipeline, controlled infections are carried out in an increasing number of centers worldwide. We assessed their safety and reproducibility.We reviewed safety and parasitological data from 128 malaria-naïve subjects participating in controlled malaria infection trials conducted at the University of Oxford, UK, and the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, The Netherlands. Results were compared to a report from the US Military Malaria Vaccine Program.We show that controlled human malaria infection trials are safe and demonstrate a consistent safety profile with minor differences in the frequencies of arthralgia, fatigue, chills and fever between institutions. But prepatent periods show significant variation. Detailed analysis of Q-PCR data reveals highly synchronous blood stage parasite growth and multiplication rates.Procedural differences can lead to some variation in safety profile and parasite kinetics between institutions. Further harmonization and standardization of protocols will be useful for wider adoption of these cost-effective small-scale efficacy trials. Nevertheless, parasite growth rates are highly reproducible, illustrating the robustness of controlled infections as a valid tool for malaria vaccine development.

  6. A Preliminary Parasitological Survey of Hepatozoon Spp. Infection in Dogs in Mashhad, Iran

    Amoli, AA Rahmani; Khoshnegah, J; Razmi, GhR

    2012-01-01

    Background: We attempted to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in Mashhad, northeast of Iran, via blood smear parasitology.Methods: The prevalence was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology, using blood samples collected from 254 dogs (51 strays and 203 privately owned-dogs).Results: Two stray dogs (2/51; 3.92%) and two privately-owned dogs (2/203; 0.98%) were infected with Hepatozoon spp. Therefore, as per blood smear parasitology, the prevalence of Hepato...

  7. Positive predictive value and impact of misdiagnosis of a heart failure diagnosis in administrative registers among patients admitted to a University Hospital cardiac care unit

    Mard, Shan; Nielsen, Finn Erland

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of a diagnosis of heart failure (HF) in the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP) among patients admitted to a University Hospital cardiac care unit, and to evaluate the impact of misdiagnosing HF.......To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of a diagnosis of heart failure (HF) in the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP) among patients admitted to a University Hospital cardiac care unit, and to evaluate the impact of misdiagnosing HF....

  8. Parasitological Society of Southern Africa - 34th Annual Congress : conference abstracts

    Editorial Office

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The following are abstracts of papers and posters presented at the 34th Annual Congress of the Parasitological Society of Southern Africa (PARSA, 25–28 September 2005, Magoebaskloof Hotel, Magoebaskloof.

  9. Parasitological Society of Southern Africa - 33rd Annual Congress : conference abstracts

    Editorial Office

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The following are abstracts of papers and posters presented at the 33rd Annual Congress of the Parasitological Society of Southern Africa (PARSA, 12–15 September 2004, Manyane, Pilansberg National Park.

  10. Dog and cat respiratory capilariasis - clinical, parasitological and epidemiological significance

    Ilić Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory capillariasis is a disease of domestic and wild carnivores as well as of people, caused by nematode Eucoleus aerophilus syn. Capillaria aerophila, which lives as a parasite in mucosa of trachea, bronchi and bronchioles, rarely in nasal and frontal sinuses of the host. This parasite has either direct or indirect development cycle which includes optional transition hosts - earthworms. Clinical picture is manifested in the form of a very severe respiratory disease, which is accompanied by an increased bronchovesicular sound, sneezing, gasping and chronic dry cough. Despite the fact that this nematode is widespread in all the parts of the world, that it causes a disease followed by a severe clinical picture and has a zoonotic potential as well, it has been insufficiently investigated and moreover from clinical and parasitological aspect it has not been given enough attention so far. The reason for this is the fact that C. aerophila had been considered to be a strain of very low level of pathogenicity causing only sporadic respiratory infections in dogs and cats. The interest of scientific community for this parasitosis increased the moment when its causative agent spread outside the endemic areas. From the standpoint of monitoring and health protection of both carnivores and peorle, knowledge of basic epizootiological and epidemiological characteristics of these nematodes is of crucial importance, having in mind that its prevalence has significantly increased in dogs and cats in the last ten years, both in Europe and worldwide.

  11. Parasitological Aspects of Pollution Levels in Some Equine Digestive Helminthosis

    Octavian Negrea

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Research conducted on the parasitological pollution in some digestive helminthosis in horses, (parascaridiosis,strongillidosis and oxyuriasis, made in January 2011 in the village of Crasna, Salaj county on a herd of 72 horsesfrom households (40 adults and 32 young horses, using diagnostic methods ovohelmintoscopics with enrichment offaeces taken (method Willis and the scaling technique of curettage in anal pit area, revealed a different incidence ofthe main digestive helmintoze studied in correlation with age category and area of origin of the samples. Thus, meanparascaridiosis values are of 12.5% in adults and of 34.0% in young horses and riding in strongillidosis to an averageof 82.5% in adult horses and, respectively, to 34.5% in young horses. In exchange for pinworm infection extensivityof parasitism in adult horses is 18.0% and respectively, 15.0% in young horses. Linked to the intensity of parasitismin helmintosis taken in study, the data obtained reveals different levels of pollution coproparasitologic Eggtester, incorrelation with the area of origin and age. Thus, adult and youth horse parascaridiosis, dominates the low andmedium infestations (100% and in adult horses strongilidosis dominate the medium infestations (84.0% and lowinfestations (75% in young horses.

  12. Diagnostic clinical parasitology: IV. Identification of the blood parasites?

    Garcia, L S; Voge, M

    1981-01-01

    This is the fourth article in a series of articles entitled "Diagnostic Clinical Parasitology" and contains information on the recovery and identification of human blood parasites. The organisms covered include those that cause the diseases malaria, babesiosis, leishmaniasis, and trypanosomiasis. Some of the filarial worms, which can be considered "blood parasites," have been discussed in the third article in the series, "Identification of the Helminths." Although some of these organisms may rarely be encountered in the laboratory in clinical specimens, they will probably have to be identified in proficiency testing specimens, some of which may not always be representative of patient clinical material. The differences between potential organism recovery from patients coming from endemic areas and from those individuals who become infected with no prior exposure to the organism will also be emphasized. Often, for a number of different reasons, organism recovery and subsequent identification may be more difficult than the textbook imply. It is very important for the technologist to recognize this fact, particularly when dealing with a possibly fatal infection, ie, Plasmodium falciparum.

  13. [Human trypanosomiasis focus of Vavoua (Ivory Coast). A clinical, parasitological and sero-immunological survey (author's transl)].

    Duvallet, G; Stanghellini, A; Saccharin, C; Vivant, J F

    1979-01-01

    Vavoua human trypanosomiasis focus, located 60 km north of Daloa (Ivory Coast Republic) is facing a period of hyperactivity. A medical survey has been conducted in 9 villages of this focus: 7.424 persons have been examined and 128 new cases diagnosed in the field after clinical and parasitological examinations. Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test applied to dried blood blots, in the laboratory, revealed 266 immunological suspects to be reexamined. 185 suspects were reexamined, 104 of whom were diagnosed after tyrpanosomes had been found in blood or/and in gland juice. The microhaematocrit centrifuge technique gave good results. Most of the 232 new cases were in the classical first period (unaltered CSF). Authors are insisting on the importance of survey prospections allowing an early diagnosis of sleeping sickness and on the interest of an immunodiagnostic test in addition to classical techniques to diagnose asymptomatical forms.

  14. Two different PCR approaches for universal diagnosis of brown rot and identification of Monilinia spp. in stone fruit trees.

    Gell, I; Cubero, J; Melgarejo, P

    2007-12-01

    To design a protocol for the universal diagnosis of brown rot by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in plant material and subsequently Monilinia spp. identification. Primers for discrimination of Monilinia spp. from other fungal genera by PCR were designed following a ribosomal DNA analysis. Discrimination among species of Monilinia was subsequently achieved by developing primers using SCAR (Sequence Characterised Amplified Region) markers obtained after a random amplified polymorphic DNA study. In addition, an internal control (IC) based on the utilization of a mimic plasmid was designed to be used in the diagnostic protocol of brown rot to recognize false negatives due to the inhibition of PCR. The four sets of primers designed allowed detection and discrimination of all Monilinia spp. causing brown rot in fruit trees. Addition of an IC in each PCR reaction performed increased the reliability of the diagnostic protocol. The detection protocol presented here, that combined a set of universal primers and the inclusion of the plasmid pGMON as an IC for diagnosis of all Monilinia spp., and three sets of primers to discriminate the most important species of Monilinia, could be an useful and valuable tool for epidemiological studies. The method developed could be used in programmes to avoid the spread and introduction of this serious disease in new areas.

  15. Diagnosis of the quality of service, in customer service, at the National University of Chimborazo- Ecuador

    Salazar Yépez, Wilfrido; Cabrera Vallejo, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine the quality of service of improvements in the enrollment processes at the National University of Chimborazo- Ecuador. This cross-sectional research is the result of a field work, where an analysis of the collected information was carried out, through surveys applied to the students, through the SERVQUAL model, afterwards, comparing these found aspects and determining The gap between perceptions and expectations, thus determining the quality of servi...

  16. How universal is coverage and access to diagnosis and treatment for Chagas disease in Colombia? A health systems analysis.

    Cucunubá, Zulma M; Manne-Goehler, Jennifer M; Díaz, Diana; Nouvellet, Pierre; Bernal, Oscar; Marchiol, Andrea; Basáñez, María-Gloria; Conteh, Lesong

    2017-02-01

    Limited access to Chagas disease diagnosis and treatment is a major obstacle to reaching the 2020 World Health Organization milestones of delivering care to all infected and ill patients. Colombia has been identified as a health system in transition, reporting one of the highest levels of health insurance coverage in Latin America. We explore if and how this high level of coverage extends to those with Chagas disease, a traditionally marginalised population. Using a mixed methods approach, we calculate coverage for screening, diagnosis and treatment of Chagas. We then identify supply-side constraints both quantitatively and qualitatively. A review of official registries of tests and treatments for Chagas disease delivered between 2008 and 2014 is compared to estimates of infected people. Using the Flagship Framework, we explore barriers limiting access to care. Screening coverage is estimated at 1.2% of the population at risk. Aetiological treatment with either benznidazol or nifurtimox covered 0.3-0.4% of the infected population. Barriers to accessing screening, diagnosis and treatment are identified for each of the Flagship Framework's five dimensions of interest: financing, payment, regulation, organization and persuasion. The main challenges identified were: a lack of clarity in terms of financial responsibilities in a segmented health system, claims of limited resources for undertaking activities particularly in primary care, non-inclusion of confirmatory test(s) in the basic package of diagnosis and care, poor logistics in the distribution and supply chain of medicines, and lack of awareness of medical personnel. Very low screening coverage emerges as a key obstacle hindering access to care for Chagas disease. Findings suggest serious shortcomings in this health system for Chagas disease, despite the success of universal health insurance scale-up in Colombia. Whether these shortcomings exist in relation to other neglected tropical diseases needs investigating

  17. Preliminary diagnosis, the basis for the construction of a Program Solid Waste Management at the University of San Buenaventura, Cartagena

    Rios Montes, Karina Andrea; Echeverri Jaramillo, Gustavo Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    Solid waste can generate negative impacts on environment and human being, because of inadequate management. Universities should consider handling the stages of generation, collection and disposal, including its assessment. We performed a cross-sectional study, which was made a preliminary diagnosis on the management of solid waste, including perception, knowledge and recommendations given by the community of the university, to support a solid waste program at the institution. An instrument was applied to a probability sample. The population was formed by students (84%), teachers (8.8%), and administrative staff (7.1%). The results indicate that 59.9% knows management about SW, and only 29.8% recycled. The mass media with 49.8% is the main channel to hear these. 72.1% of people recycle in a conscious way because they feel committed with the environment. Paper/cardboard (23.5%) and plastic (22.6%) are the most recycled material. 42.1% of people recommend environmental education activities, 40.1% labeling of containers, and the responsibility of its management should include the entire university community, being the student teachers (82.8%) and administrative staff (57,6%) the pioneers in leading this process.

  18. PREIMPLANTATION GENETIC DIAGNOSIS – 4 YEARS’ EXPERIENCE AT THE DEPARTMENT OF GYNECOLOGY, UNIVERSITY MEDICAL CENTRE LJUBLJANA

    Karin Writzl

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis offers early investigation of embryos in couples with a high risk for offspring affected by a genetic disease. We report indications and results associated with the PGD program conducted at Gynecology Clinic Ljubljana from June 2004 to December 2008. Methods. The retrospective analysis includes sixty cycles performed in 34 couples enrolled in the PGD programe. Embryos were biopsied on the third day and the genetic analysis was performed using the FISH and PCR methods. Embryo transfers were carried out on the fifth day. Results. The main indications were chromosomal abnormalities (67 %, followed by recurrent miscarriages (16 %, autosomal dominant and recessive diseases (9 %, and X-linked diseases (6 %. Sixty cycles were performed and 48 embryo transfer procedures. There were 15 clinical pregnancies resulting in clinical pregnancy rate 25 % per cycle and 37.5 % per embryo transfer. A total of eight unaffected children were born, and two pregnancies are still ongoing. Conclusions. PGD is technically a very challenging procedure. Superior knowledge and communication between geneticists and reproductive medicine scientists is mandatory for successful PGD procedures. PGD has gained a place among the choices offered at Gynecology Clinic Ljubljana to couples at risk of transmission of genetic disease.

  19. Optimization of Trichomonas vaginalis Diagnosis during Pregnancy at a University Hospital, Argentina.

    Testardini, Pamela; Vaulet, María Lucía Gallo; Entrocassi, Andrea Carolina; Menghi, Claudia; Eliseht, Martha Cora; Gatta, Claudia; Losada, Mirta; Touzón, María Sol; Corominas, Ana; Vay, Carlos; Tatti, Silvio; Famiglietti, Angela; Fermepin, Marcelo Rodriguez; Perazzi, Beatriz

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate different methods for Trichomonas vaginalis diagnosis during pregnancy in order to prevent maternal and perinatal complications. A total of 386 vaginal exudates from pregnant women were analyzed. T. vaginalis was investigated by 3 types of microscopic examinations direct wet mount with physiologic saline solution, prolonged May-Grunwald Giemsa (MGG) staining, and wet mount with sodium-acetate-formalin (SAF)/methylene blue method. PCR for 18S rRNA gene as well as culture in liquid medium were performed. The sensitivity and specificity of the microscopic examinations were evaluated considering the culture media positivity or the PCR techniques as gold standard. The frequency of T. vaginalis infection was 6.2% by culture and/or PCR, 5.2% by PCR, 4.7% by culture, 3.1% by SAF/methylene blue method and 2.8% by direct wet smear and prolonged MGG staining. The sensitivities were 83.3%, 75.0%, 50.0%, and 45.8% for PCR, culture, SAF/methylene blue method, and direct wet smear-prolonged MGG staining, respectively. The specificity was 100% for all the assessed methods. Microscopic examinations showed low sensitivity, mainly in asymptomatic pregnant patients. It is necessary to improve the detection of T. vaginalis using combined methods providing higher sensitivity, such as culture and PCR, mainly in asymptomatic pregnant patients, in order to prevent maternal and perinatal complications.

  20. Truncated Bovine Integrin Alpha-v/Beta-6 as a Universal Capture Ligand for FMD Diagnosis.

    Gareth Shimmon

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is endemic in many regions of the world and is one of the most prevalent epizootic animal diseases. FMD affects livestock, such as cattle, sheep, goats and pigs, and causes enormous economic losses due to reduced productivity and trade restrictions. Preparedness and early diagnosis are essential for effective control of FMD. Many diagnostic assays are dependent on raising high-affinity, anti-FMD virus (FMDV serotype-specific antibodies in small animals (rabbits and guinea pigs that give broad virus coverage. Here we show that soluble, truncated forms of bovine αvβ6 bind FMDV in an authentic RGD and divalent cation dependent interaction and can be used as the trapping reagent in a FMDV sandwich ELISA. In addition, inclusion of FLAG or His tags facilitates simple purification without the loss of virus binding. We also provide evidence that when combined with a guinea pig polyclonal serum, or serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies, the integrin can be used to detect viruses representative of all FMDV serotypes. We also show that recombinant FMDV empty capsids, with stabilising disulphide bonds, can serve as an antigen in the ELISA and can therefore replace inactivated virus antigen as a positive control for the assay. Our results demonstrate the potential use of bovine αvβ6 and FMDV empty capsids in FMD diagnostic assays.

  1. A preliminary parasitological survey of hepatozoon spp. Infection in dogs in mashhad, iran.

    Amoli, Aa Rahmani; Khoshnegah, J; Razmi, Ghr

    2012-01-01

    We attempted to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in Mashhad, northeast of Iran, via blood smear parasitology. The prevalence was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology, using blood samples collected from 254 dogs (51 strays and 203 privately owned-dogs). Two stray dogs (2/51; 3.92%) and two privately-owned dogs (2/203; 0.98%) were infected with Hepatozoon spp. Therefore, as per blood smear parasitology, the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection was 1.57% (4/254). Sixteen out of 254 dogs (6.29%) were infested with ticks; all of which were Rhipicephalus sanguineus. One of the dogs infected with Hepatozoon spp. exhibited ticks at the time of examination. Concurrent infection with Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum was not detected in the four Hepatozoon spp. infected dogs. This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in dogs in Iran.

  2. Knowledge and interests of Romanian medical students in parasitology, tropical and travel medicine.

    Neghina, Raul; Calma, Crenguta Livia; Neghina, Adriana Maria

    2011-01-01

    As travel has become easier and faster, the rate of tropical infections across the world is expected to increase; more students working abroad are going to encounter these diseases more often. Disorders of parasitic etiology play an important role in travel and tropical medicine. The aim of our study was to assess the preclinical students' knowledge regarding parasitic diseases, tropical and travel medicine in the broad context of their professional background. A total of 346 Romanian medical students completed a 13-item questionnaire on the above-mentioned topics. In order to allow for complex evaluation, the questionnaire also included items related to their extracurricular training as well as their future perspectives. The majority of the students (97.7%) declared they had prior knowledge (before studying parasitology) of malaria. Most of the responders (90.2%) knew that a journey in (sub)tropical regions requires adequate prophylactic measures. About a quarter of those interviewed (26.4%) would agree to practice tropical medicine after graduation. They were mainly interested in helping people from underdeveloped countries regardless of remuneration (52.7%). The majority of students (59.8%) wished to practice clinical medicine. It has been observed that fewer than 5% of the questioned students had ever read a scientific paper or book in the field of tropical medicine. English was the most commonly spoken foreign language (92.8%), and 99.1% of students had at least intermediate computer skills. Finally, 71.6% of students would choose to practice the specialty of travel medicine if it were available in Romania. The implementation of appropriate measures towards the globalization of medical teaching in Romanian universities should represent an important issue in this new millennium, in which borders between various nations are starting to fade; otherwise the next generations of physicians will lose the chance to gain wider experiences and share the international

  3. Efficacy of parasitological diagnosis methods in wild animals kept in captivity

    Carvalho, Aline Feola; Barnabe, Anderson Sena; Federsoni, Igor Popovic; Ferraz, Renato Ribeiro Nogueira; Marco, Rogerio Milton De; Garcia, Isabel Priscilla

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Parasitic diseases are common in wild animals kept in captivity, and the research of these parasites is a tool used in wildlife management actions. Once the method most used in the practice of veterinary laboratories is the direct examination, it was considered appropriate to report the parasitism in captivity wildlife comparing this technique with modified methods of Hoffman, Pons and Janer (HPJ) and Willis. Fresh feces were surveyed in eleven precincts with specimens of the class ...

  4. Laboratory training manual on the use of nuclear techniques in animal parasitology

    1982-01-01

    The Manual is designed for specialist training in the use of nuclear techniques in animal parasitology. The theoretical part contains a general introduction to experimental work in this field. Laboratory exercises are divided into Basic Exercises (17) and Applied Exercises (25) oriented to research in the immunology and pathogenesis of host-parasite interactions using radioisotopic methods and to disease management through the use of radiation-attenuated vaccines. The closing part contains a number of practical guidelines and data for work with radioisotopes in general and for the use of radioisotopic methods in animal parasitology

  5. [The teaching of microbiology and parasitology in undergraduate medical education and its adaptation to the European Higher Education Area].

    Ruiz, Vicente Ausina; Otero, Beatriz Mirelis; Pastor, Guillem Prats

    2010-10-01

    The creation of the European Higher Education Area provides a series of opportunities for far-reaching reform of medical education and changes in the way both students and teachers work. The Bologna process must be implemented before 2010 in signatory countries, which include Spain, and must allow education and academic titles to be homologated. Medical degrees must consist of 360 European Credit Transfer System (ECTS) credits, divided into six academic years (60 credits per academic year). The Faculty of Medicine of the Autonomous University of Barcelona has already put the finishing touches to a proposal for the distribution of subjects in the new curriculum. This proposal strengthens and reassesses the teaching of microbiology and parasitology compared with current curricula, giving these subjects appropriate weight in undergraduate medical education. The teaching of medical microbiology and parasitology is included as a core subject worth 8 ECTS in the third year and two free-choice modules of 2.5 and 3 ECTS to be taken in the first semesters of the fifth and sixth years as part of the minor in "Clinical and Experimental Laboratory"(30 ECTS). The teaching of microbiology will also play an important role in the Integrated Learning in Medicine (INTEL-M) course in the third, fourth and fifth years. INTEL-M is an innovation in the syllabus based on the joint planning, organization and evaluation of a series of subjects (24.5 ECTS) that are developed in small groups of students and in the form of problem-based learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. [Epidemiological profile of 290 cases of human cystic echinococcosis diagnosed in the Mustapha University Hospital (Algiers) from 2006 to 2011].

    Zait, H; Achir, I; Guerchani, M K; Hamrioui, B

    2013-10-01

    This study reports a series of 290 cases of hydatidosis confirmed by the surgery and/or the imagery with a positive immuno-diagnosis collected between 1st January 2006 and 31 March 2011 at parasitology-mycology laboratory of hospital university center of Mustapha of Algiers. Our aim is to specify, through the listed cases, the epidemiological aspects of this affection and compared with those obtained in two previous Algerian epidemiological investigations carried out, between 1963-1964 and 1966-1975. It is a retrospective (2006-2008) and prospective (2008-2011) study. The parasitological diagnosis was carried out by the direct macroscopic and/or microscopic identification of the parasite and indirect diagnosis based on four techniques: passive hemagglutination, Elisa IgG "Echinococcus granulosus", Western Blot IgG "Echinococcus" and electrophoresis. The study shows that this affection is still prerogative of the young adult. It bring out also in this study that the child of school age (ten years), in particular the boy, pays a heavy tribute. At the child, the preferential pulmonary seat of the hydatic disease is not devoid of risk. At adult, this parasitic disease mainly affect the active woman. Generally, the epidemiological and clinical characteristics join the endemic countries data and confirmed the row of our country among them. The transmission seems as strong as in the past, in spite of a much better social educational level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Positive predictive value and impact of misdiagnosis of a heart failure diagnosis in administrative registers among patients admitted to a University Hospital cardiac care unit

    Mard, Shan; Nielsen, Finn Erland

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of a diagnosis of heart failure (HF) in the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP) among patients admitted to a University Hospital cardiac care unit, and to evaluate the impact of misdiagnosing HF. DESIGN: The NRP was used to identify...

  8. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP): the 50th anniversary in 2013--history, achievements, and future perspectives.

    Eckert, J

    2013-08-01

    In 2013 the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) can celebrate its 50th anniversary. At this occasion in this article selected historical data are updated, and the achievements and future perspectives of the WAAVP are discussed. Although the WAAVP is a small association with only a few hundred members, it has been able to develop remarkable activities. Between 1963 and 2011 the WAAVP has organized 23 international scientific congresses, and the 24th conference will take place in Perth, Western Australia, in 2013. These conferences have achieved a high degree of international recognition as indicated by relatively large numbers of participants (up to ~800). Furthermore, the WAAVP has promoted veterinary parasitology in various ways, such as publishing international guidelines (efficacy evaluation of antiparasitic drugs, parasitological methods, standardized nomenclature of animal parasitic diseases "SNOAPAD"), stimulating international discussions on teaching and continued education ("colleges of veterinary parasitology") and by supporting the high quality journal "Veterinary Parasitology" which is the official organ of the WAAVP. In retrospect, the development of the WAAVP can be classified as very successful. New challenges associated with global changes (growth of the world population, urbanization, climate change, new developments in animal and plant production, etc.) will require new efforts in research in various fields, including veterinary parasitology. Future activities of WAAVP may include inter alia: (a) support of international parasitological networks; (b) stimulation of coordinated research aimed at the solution of defined problems; (c) increasing the exposure of WAAVP to parasitology from hitherto neglected regions of the world; (d) strengthening of official links to international organizations (FAO, WHO, etc.); (e) continuation of guideline preparation; and (d) preparation and international distribution of high

  9. New insights into the application of geographical information systems and remote sensing in veterinary parasitology

    Laura Rinaldi

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 10-15 years, significant advances have been made in the development and application of geographical information systems (GIS and remote sensing (RS. In veterinary sciences, particularly in veterinary parasitology, GIS and RS offer powerful means for disease mapping, ecological analysis and epidemiological surveillance and have become indispensable tools for processing, analysing and visualising spatial data. They can also significantly assist with the assessment of the distribution of health-relevant environmental factors via interpolation and modelling. In this review, we first summarize general aspects of GIS and RS, and emphasize the most important applications of these tools in veterinary parasitology, including recent advances in territorial sampling. Disease mapping, spatial statistics, including Bayesian inference, ecological analyses and epidemiological surveillance are summarized in the next section and illustrated with a set of figures. Finally, a set of conclusions is put forward.

  10. Universe

    2009-01-01

    The Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  11. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  12. Balancing knowledge and basic principles in veterinary parasitology - Competencies for future Danish veterinary graduates.

    Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang; Nejsum, Peter; Williams, Andrew R; Mejer, Helena

    2018-03-15

    Veterinary parasitology has always been considered to be relevant and interesting by the Danish veterinary students. Students have to acquaint themselves with many new, small creatures with complicated and varied life cycles and with intricate Latin names that are difficult to pronounce, as only a few parasites have Danish names. In our veterinary curriculum, zoology has disappeared as a discipline, and parasitology has gradually moved from the third year to the beginning of the second year, which implies that, for example, pathology and pharmacology are "unknown fields". The number of contact hours in veterinary parasitology has been gradually cut to 24 lectures (35 min each) and practical exercises (24 h), including 9 h on coprology. The course is taught and examined jointly with bacteriology and virology in a 8-week course. As a comprehensive course, it has become increasingly difficult to get students to acquire enough active knowledge of the most common parasites and an understanding of the basic principles in relation to, for example, transmission and control. Even though information is readily accessible through books and on-line resources, we still believe that a competent clinician should know a range of parasites by heart as an active resource for their work. The dilemma has been tackled (partly) by introducing a veterinary paraclinical refresher course of 18 h (half practicals and half lectures) in the fourth study year. The focus here is on host(herd)-oriented clinical and diagnostic parasitology. The students can also now select a One Health track for six months in which zoonotic parasites are obviously a relevant topic. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Aerobic Biological treatment of municipal wastewaters and pig slurry and the associated bacteriological and parasitological risks

    Venglovsky, J.; Sasokova, N.; Juris, P.; Papajova, I.; Vargova, M.; Ondrasovicova, O.; Ondrasovic, M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the bacteriological and parasitological risk associated with the products of aerobic treatment of pig slurry and municipal sewage. We focused on the quality of effluents and on sewage sludge and pig slurry solids from two wastewater treatment plants (pig slurry WWTP.1; municipal wastewater WWTP-2 with regard to place counts of selected groups of bacteria (mesophilic, coliform, faecal coliform) and the efficiency of their removal. (Author)

  14. Some parasitological, pathological and immunohistochemical examinations in sheep naturally infected by Trichuris Ovis

    P. T. Iliev; A. Ivanov; Z. Kirkova; K. Hristov; K. Dinkova; J. Ananiev

    2017-01-01

    A case of Trichuris ovis infection in a lamb is presented. In June 2012 a herd of 12 infected with T. ovis lambs in Brestnik (Southern Bulgaria) were discovered. A diarrhea and loss in body weight in 2 lambs have been observed. Despite antibiotic treatment one of the animals died. Parasitological examination was done. During necropsy of the gastro-intestinal tract, adult worms in the caecum were found. Standart staining and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the cell population in ...

  15. A Preliminary Parasitological Survey of Hepatozoon Spp. Infection in Dogs in Mashhad, Iran

    J Khoshnegah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We attempted to determine the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in Mashhad, northeast of Iran, via blood smear parasitology.Methods: The prevalence was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology, using blood samples collected from 254 dogs (51 strays and 203 privately owned-dogs.Results: Two stray dogs (2/51; 3.92% and two privately-owned dogs (2/203; 0.98% were infected with Hepatozoon spp. Therefore, as per blood smear parasitology, the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection was 1.57% (4/254. Sixteen out of 254 dogs (6.29% were infested with ticks; all of which were Rhipicephalus sanguineus. One of the dogs infected with Hepatozoon spp. exhibited ticks at the time of examination. Concurrent infection with Ehrlichia canis and Leishmania infantum was not detected in the four Hepatozoon spp. infected dogs.Conclusion: This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection in dogs in Iran.

  16. Clinical, serological, and parasitological analysis of snakes naturally infected with Cryptosporidium serpentis.

    Paiva, Philipp Ricardo S O; Grego, Kathleen F; Lima, Valéria M F; Nakamura, Alex A; da Silva, Deuvânia C; Meireles, Marcelo V

    2013-11-15

    Infection by Cryptosporidium serpentis is one of the most important diseases in reptiles and is characterized by chronic clinical or subclinical infection and the presence of hypertrophic gastritis, food regurgitation, progressive weight loss, mortality, and intermittent or continuous shedding of oocysts in the feces. The objectives of this study were to standardize an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against C. serpentis and to evaluate the clinical, parasitological, and humoral immune response in snakes naturally infected with C. serpentis. Twenty-one snakes naturally infected with C. serpentis and housed at the Butantan Institute, São Paulo, Brazil, underwent clinical and parasitological analyses for C. serpentis infection through daily records of clinical signs and a monthly survey of fecal shedding of oocysts using the Kinyoun's acid-fast staining. The serological evaluation was performed monthly by indirect ELISA using crude total antigen from oocysts of C. serpentis to detect anti-C. serpentis antibodies. Clinical symptoms consisted of food regurgitation, inappetence, and progressive weight loss. The parasitological analysis revealed intermittent fecal shedding of a variable number of oocysts in all snakes, with positivity in 85.32% (157/184) of the samples. The indirect ELISA was positive in 68.25% (86/126) of the samples. A humoral immune response was observed in most animals; however, fluctuating antibodies levels, leading to alternating positive and negative results, were observed in most snakes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Suspected acute appendicitis in female patients: Trends in diagnosis in emergency department in a University Hospital in Western region of Saudi Arabia

    Althoubaity, Fatima K.

    2006-01-01

    Objective was to determine the negative appendectomy rate; utilization, accuracy of Alvarado scale, ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) in diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Hospital records of 124 female patients admitted for suspicious of acute appendicitis from January 2003-January 2004 to the Emergency Department (ED) at King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital Jeddah, Saudi Arabia were reviewed retrospectively. We reviewed the age of patients, clinical presentation, Alvarado scale, US, CT, histopathalogical diagnosis of appendicular specimen. A total of 124 female patients aged 6-64 years were presented to ED with right iliac fossa pain. Of the total, 103 patients have appendectomies (83.1%), 21 (16.9%) patients underwent conservative treatment. Prevalence of advanced appendicitis was 13.7% and negative appendectomy rate was 27.2%. Accuracy rate of appendicitis with Alvarado scale 67.7%, US was 57.9% CT was 66.7%. Postoperative correlation was found between advanced cases and Alvarado scale (r=0.338), and hospital stay duration (r=0.250, p<0.01). Clinical findings and experiments remain of major importance in appendicitis-diagnosis. When appendicitis appears with atypical presentations, it remains a clinical challenge. In such cases, laboratory and imaging investigation may be useful in establishing a correct diagnosis. Alvarado scoring system is easy, simple and cheap complementary aid for supporting the diagnosis of acute appendicitis especially for junior surgeons. (author)

  18. Molecular diagnosis of Hepatozoon canis in symptomatic dogs in the city of Goiania, Goiás, Brazil

    S.C. Duarte

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT More than 300 species have been described in the genus Hepatozoon, occurring in different vertebrates. Among these, only Hepatozoon canis and Hepatozoon americanum are seen in dogs. Different methods may be used for laboratory diagnosis. The most common of these is direct parasitological examination of parasite stages in blood smears. The aim of this investigation was to conduct a phylogenetic study on Hepatozoon isolates from symptomatic dogs in the city of Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Blood samples were obtained from 40 symptomatic dogs that had been referred to the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Goiás. Among these, only two samples were positive for Hepatozoon spp. using the direct parasitological method. These samples were then subjected to a DNA extraction process and amplification of a fragment of the 18S rRNA by means of PCR. Subsequently, the PCR products from each sample were purified and sequenced. The sequences obtained were then analyzed using the BLASTn algorithm, which identified both sequences of this study as Hepatozoon canis. By applying the Mega4 software, it was confirmed that these isolates of H. canis from dogs in Goiânia are similar to other reference isolates of the same species from other regions of Brazil and worldwide.

  19. DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF CHILDREN ECHINOCOCCOSIS

    Veliyeva T.A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The problem of echinococcosis, despite the progress made in its diagnosis and treatment, currently remains poorly understood and highly relevant in pediatric Parasitology. Studies of many authors show that in recent years the number of patients with echinococcosis not only universally recognized endemic foci, but also among people in the European region, including in countries such as Romania, Germany, Austria. However, studies on the prevalence and structure of echinococcosis among children in Ukraine, are not held. Despite the large number of papers devoted to the treatment of echinococcosis, the problem of the treatment of this disease in children is still far from its final decision. Usually offered surgical treatment, which is not possible with multiple lesions of the liver or other organs. All this shows the relevance and importance for practical public health issues for further study of diagnosis and treatment of echinococcosis in children. The purpose of the study. A comparative analysis of the diagnostic efficacy of X-ray and ultrasound method in the diagnosis of echinococcosis in children. Material & methods. This work is based on a survey of 39 children with hepatic echinococcosis, were examined at the Department of Medical Parasitology and Tropical Diseases Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education from 2005 to 2015. Boys was 1.5 times greater (59.5% than girls - 40.5%. Children under five years of age accounted for only 4.0% of all patients, due to their limited contact with the environment when compared with older age. The greatest risk of disease was in the 10- 13 years of age, the number of children in the group reached 40.3% of the patients. The vast majority of patients (89.6% lived in rural areas. In this case, the parents of sick children from the village were engaged in farming, were in personal use livestock, dogs, which probably contributed to the invasion. Very often ill children pas¬tuhov, shepherds. 78% of

  20. [Parasitological study of 78 cases of human cystic echinococcosis collected between 2005 to 2012 in Mustapha hospital center of Algiers].

    Zait, H; Boulahbel, M; Normand, A C; Zait, F; Achir, I; Guerchani, M K; Chaouche, H; Ladjadj, Y; Hamrioui, B

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work is to know the fertility rate of the metacestodes resulting from patients suffering from hydatidosis, the one of protoscoleces's viability and by comparing the results obtained with those found elsewhere. It reports, also, the epidemiological, clinical and diagnostically aspects of the studied patients. This study has carried on 78 hydatics samples resulting from 78 patients collected between 2005 and 2012 at the laboratory of parasitology of the Mustapha hospital center of Algiers. A questionnaire on the epidemiological context (contact with an animal-host of the cycle, place of residence, presence of family cases reached of hydatidosis and knowledge on the hydatic disease) concerned 69 patients. For each sample, a direct microscopic examination is made with or without vital staining. The presence of protoscoleces made qualified the fertile cyst. Those visualized moving or resistant to eosin at 0.2% are considered viables. Indirect diagnosis is based on the techniques: passive hemagglutination, electrophoresis, Elisa IgG Echinococcus granulosus and immunoblotting IgG "Echinococcus". Molecular analysis is based on PCR and sequencing the partials fragments of two mitochondrial genes with the primers COX1 and ND1. The results obtained show that the surgical frequency of hydatidosis is significant at the young adult and at the child. The epidemiological context associated at the disease is the conjointly presence of a dog and herbivores. The fertility rate of human hydatid cysts is 88.4% and the ones of viability of the protoscoleces is 74.5%. In this series, the serology shows global positivity at 70%. The molecular characterization of five samples identify the species: E. granulosus ss. Finally, the viability and fertility rates found here are raised. Sometimes viables protoscoleses are found after use of scolicidal solution. In front of these results, the parasitical treatment is more than necessary in order to minimize the risk of occurred of

  1. Some parasitological, pathological and immunohistochemical examinations in sheep naturally infected by Trichuris Ovis

    P. T. Iliev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of Trichuris ovis infection in a lamb is presented. In June 2012 a herd of 12 infected with T. ovis lambs in Brestnik (Southern Bulgaria were discovered. A diarrhea and loss in body weight in 2 lambs have been observed. Despite antibiotic treatment one of the animals died. Parasitological examination was done. During necropsy of the gastro-intestinal tract, adult worms in the caecum were found. Standart staining and immunohistochemistry were performed to detect the cell population in the affected areas of the caecum

  2. Balancing knowledge and basic principles in veterinary parasitology - Competencies for future Danish veterinary graduates

    Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang; Nejsum, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Veterinary parasitology has always been considered to be relevant and interesting by the Danish veterinary students. Students have to acquaint themselves with many new, small creatures with complicated and varied life cycles and with intricate Latin names that are difficult to pronounce, as only...... clinician should know a range of parasites by heart as an active resource for their work. The dilemma has been tackled (partly) by introducing a veterinary paraclinical refresher course of 18 h (half practicals and half lectures) in the fourth study year. The focus here is on host(herd)-oriented clinical...

  3. AAVP Recommendations for Core Competency Standards Relating to Parasitological Knowledge and Skills.

    Snowden, Karen F; Krecek, Rosina C; Bowman, Dwight D

    As part of the accreditation process, the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education has defined nine broad areas of core competencies that must be met by graduating students earning a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine degree. To define competencies in veterinary parasitology, the American Association of Veterinary Parasitologists (AAVP) has developed a detailed list of knowledge and skills that are recommended for inclusion in professional curricula. These recommendations were developed by instructors from colleges/schools of veterinary medicine in the US, Canada, and the Caribbean, and were reviewed and endorsed following AAVP guidelines.

  4. Frequency of Blastocystis hominis and other intestinal parasites in stool samples examined at the Parasitology Laboratory of the School of Pharmaceutical Sciences at the São Paulo State University, Araraquara Freqüência de Blastocystis hominis e outros enteroparasitas em amostras de fezes examinadas no Laboratório de Parasitologia da Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara

    Júlio César Miné

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Blastocystis homins is a protozoan that causes an intestinal infection known as human blastocystosis. This infection is diagnosed by means of parasitological examination of stools and by permanent staining techniques. The present study was developed to evaluate the frequency of Blastocystis hominis infection among inhabitants of the Araraquara region, State of São Paulo, and to compare different methods for investigating this protozoan in feces samples. Evaluations on 503 stool samples were performed by means of direct fresh examination and using the techniques of Faust et al., Lutz and Rugai et al. In addition, the iron hematoxylin, trichrome and modified Kinyoun staining techniques were used. Out of the 503 samples examined, 174 (34.6% were found to be positive for the presence of intestinal parasites. The most frequent protozoa and helminths were Entamoeba coli (14.6% and Strongyloides stercoralis (6.7%, respectively. Blastocystis hominis was present in 23 (4.6% fecal samples, with a predominately pasty consistency and without characterizing a condition of diarrhea. Despite the low frequency of Blastocystis hominis found in the Araraquara region, compared with other regions of Brazil, it is important to perform laboratory diagnostic tests for this protozoan. Its finding in fecal material is indicative of food and drinking water contamination. Since the transmission route for this parasite is accepted to be oral-fecal, this implies that the population needs guidance regarding hygiene and basic sanitation measures as a means for controlling health problems caused by enteroparasites.Blastocystis hominis é um protozoário, causador de infecção intestinal denominada blastocistose humana, cujo diagnóstico é realizado pelo exame coproparasitológico e por meio de técnicas de coloração permanente. Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar a freqüência da infecção por Blastocystis hominis em habitantes da região de Araraquara/SP, bem

  5. Diagnosis of myocardial infarction using the new universal definition: is it enough for risk stratification and guiding decision for revascularization?

    Calé, Rita; Ferreira, Jorge; Aguiar, Carlos; Santos, Nuno; Carmo, Pedro; Figueira, João; Raposo, Luis; Gonçalves, Pedro; Silva, José Aniceto

    2010-12-01

    Abstract Objectives: Evaluate the new ESC/ACCF/AHA/WHF universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI) in relation to its prognostic implications and the role for guiding decision for revascularization. It was also compared with the multivariable based GRACE Risk Score (GRS). Single centre registry of 389 consecutive patients admitted with non-ST-segment elevation (NSTE) ACS. We calculated the adjusted HR & 95%CI for death/MI at 30-days and one-year follow-up, between the presence or absence of MI using: (1) universal definition: > 99th URL for cTnI (> 0.06 ng/ml) or MBm (> 3.2 ng/ml); (2) MBm > 2 × URL (> 12.2 ng/ml); 3) old WHO: MBact > 2 × URL (> 32U/l). Logistic analysis was performed to test the interaction between tertiles of biomarkers or GRS and the effect of revascularization on the outcome. The universal definition increased the incidence of MI in 3.5-fold for cTnI, but was not an independent predictor of outcome. The GRS was the only independent predictor of prognosis at 30-days and one-year. The interaction with the prognostic impact of revascularization was only present for the GRS categorized by tertiles. In a contemporary unselected population with NSTE-ACS, the universal definition of MI alone was not adequate for risk assessment and revascularization decision making. These purposes were fully addressed with the GRS.

  6. "Not a very nice subject." Changing views of parasites and parasitology in the twentieth century.

    Vickerman, Keith

    2009-10-01

    The man in-the-street who frequently asks the question "Why am I here?" finds even more difficulty with the question "Why are parasites here?" The public's distaste for parasites (and by implication, for parasitologists!) is therefore understandable, as maybe was the feeling of early 20th century biologists that parasites were a puzzle because they did not conform to the then widely held association between evolution and progress, let alone the reason why a benevolent Creator should have created them. In mid-century, the writer, contemplating a career in parasitology was taken aback when he found that extolled contemporary biologists disdained parasites or thought little of parasitology as an intellectual subject. These attitudes reflected a lack of appreciation of the important role of parasites in generating evolutionary novelty and speciation, also unawareness of the value of parasite life-cycle studies for formulating questions of wider significance in biology, deficiencies which were gratifyingly beginning to be remedied in the latter half of the century.

  7. Parasite responses to pollution: what we know and where we go in 'Environmental Parasitology'.

    Sures, Bernd; Nachev, Milen; Selbach, Christian; Marcogliese, David J

    2017-02-06

    Environmental parasitology deals with the interactions between parasites and pollutants in the environment. Their sensitivity to pollutants and environmental disturbances makes many parasite taxa useful indicators of environmental health and anthropogenic impact. Over the last 20 years, three main research directions have been shown to be highly promising and relevant, namely parasites as accumulation indicators for selected pollutants, parasites as effect indicators, and the role of parasites interacting with established bioindicators. The current paper focuses on the potential use of parasites as indicators of environmental pollution and the interactions with their hosts. By reviewing some of the most recent findings in the field of environmental parasitology, we summarize the current state of the art and try to identify promising ideas for future research directions. In detail, we address the suitability of parasites as accumulation indicators and their possible application to demonstrate biological availability of pollutants; the role of parasites as pollutant sinks; the interaction between parasites and biomarkers focusing on combined effects of parasitism and pollution on the health of their hosts; and the use of parasites as indicators of contaminants and ecosystem health. Therefore, this review highlights the application of parasites as indicators at different biological scales, from the organismal to the ecosystem.

  8. Diagnosis of the Skills of the Master’s Degree: Case Study at the University Pablo of Olavide

    Eva Ordóñez Olmedo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The work team of the Postgraduate Studies Centre (henceforth CEDEP of Pablo de Olavide University (henceforth UPO has submitted a questionnaire in order to identify the training needs of the directors of the master’s degrees which are implemented in The UPO during the academic year 2016/2017. This article aims to analyze how the lessons are planned and how the acquisition of the competencies defined in each master’s degree are achieved, in order to assess the current situation and propose solutions for university quality improvement. This research presents a mixed design: quantitative and qualitative non-experimental descriptive through a questionnaire. Further to the study analysis conducted, the need to create a manual of recommended practice to arrange curricula by competencies at the master level is presented, as 62.16% of the participants reflect a great lack of knowledge about the theoretical description of the competencies classification and 73% support a complementary material need for the design of the curriculum.

  9. Evaluation of nifurtimox treatment of chronic Chagas disease by means of several parasitological methods.

    Muñoz, Catalina; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Ortiz, Sylvia; Schijman, Alejandro G; Bisio, Margarita; Ferrada, Valentina; Herrera, Cinthya; Martínez, Gabriela; Solari, Aldo

    2013-09-01

    Currently, evaluation of drug efficacy for Chagas disease remains a controversial issue with no consensus. In this work, we evaluated the parasitological efficacy of Nifurtimox treatment in 21 women with chronic Chagas disease from an area of endemicity in Chile who were treated according to current protocols. Under pre- and posttherapy conditions, blood (B) samples and xenodiagnosis (XD) samples from these patients were subjected to analysis by real-time PCR targeting the nuclear satellite DNA of Trypanosoma cruzi (Sat DNA PCR-B, Sat DNA PCR-XD) and by PCR targeting the minicircle of kinetoplast DNA of T. cruzi (kDNA PCR-B, kDNA PCR-XD) and by T. cruzi genotyping using hybridization minicircle tests in blood and fecal samples of Triatoma infestans feed by XD. In pretherapy, kDNA PCR-B and kDNA PCR-XD detected T. cruzi in 12 (57%) and 18 (86%) cases, respectively, whereas Sat DNA quantitative PCR-B (qPCR-B) and Sat DNA qPCR-XD were positive in 18 cases (86%) each. Regarding T. cruzi genotype analysis, it was possible to observe in pretherapy the combination of TcI, TcII, and TcV lineages, including mixtures of T. cruzi strains in most of the cases. At 13 months posttherapy, T. cruzi DNA was detectable in 6 cases (29.6%) and 4 cases (19.1%) by means of Sat DNA PCR-XD and kDNA PCR-XD, respectively, indicating treatment failure with recovery of live parasites refractory to chemotherapy. In 3 cases, it was possible to identify persistence of the baseline genotypes. The remaining 15 baseline PCR-positive cases gave negative results by all molecular and parasitological methods at 13 months posttreatment, suggesting parasite response. Within this follow-up period, kDNA PCR-XD and Sat DNA qPCR-XD proved to be more sensitive tools for the parasitological evaluation of the efficacy of Nifurtimox treatment than the corresponding PCR methods performed directly from blood samples.

  10. Clinical and Technical Overview of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for Fragile X Syndrome: Experience at the University Hospital Virgen del Rocio in Spain

    Raquel M. Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS accounts for about one-half of cases of X-linked intellectual disability and is the most common monogenic cause of mental impairment. Reproductive options for the FXS carriers include preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD. However, this strategy is considered by some centers as wasteful owing to the high prevalence of premature ovarian failure in FXS carriers and the difficulties in genetic diagnosis of the embryos. Here we present the results of our PGD Program applied to FXS, at the Department of Genetics, Reproduction and Fetal Medicine of the University Hospital Virgen del Rocío in Seville. A total of 11 couples have participated in our PGD Program for FXS since 2010. Overall, 15 cycles were performed, providing a total of 43 embryos. The overall percentage of transfers per cycle was 46.67% and the live birth rate per cycle was 13.33%. As expected, these percentages are considerably lower than the ones obtained in PGD for other pathologies. Our program resulted in the birth of 3 unaffected babies of FXS for 2 of the 11 couples (18.2% supporting that, despite the important drawbacks of PGD for FXS, efforts should be devoted in offering this reproductive option to the affected families.

  11. Experience of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for Hemophilia at the University Hospital Virgen Del Rocío in Spain: Technical and Clinical Overview

    Raquel M. Fernández

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A and B are the most common hereditary hemorrhagic disorders, with an X-linked mode of inheritance. Reproductive options for the families affected with hemophilia, aiming at the prevention of the birth of children with severe coagulation disorders, include preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD. Here we present the results of our PGD Program applied to hemophilia, at the Department of Genetics, Reproduction and Fetal Medicine of the University Hospital Virgen del Rocío in Seville. A total of 34 couples have been included in our program since 2005 (30 for hemophilia A and 4 for hemophilia B. Overall, 60 cycles were performed, providing a total of 508 embryos. The overall percentage of transfers per cycle was 81.7% and the live birth rate per cycle ranged from 10.3 to 24.1% depending on the methodological approach applied. Although PGD for hemophilia can be focused on gender selection of female embryos, our results demonstrate that methodological approaches that allow the diagnosis of the hemophilia status of every embryo have notorious advantages. Our PGD Program resulted in the birth of 12 healthy babies for 10 out of the 34 couples (29.4%, constituting a relevant achievement for the Spanish Public Health System within the field of haematological disorders.

  12. Experience of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis for Hemophilia at the University Hospital Virgen Del Rocío in Spain: Technical and Clinical Overview

    Fernández, Raquel M.; Peciña, Ana; Sánchez, Beatriz; Lozano-Arana, Maria Dolores; García-Lozano, Juan Carlos; Pérez-Garrido, Rosario; Núñez, Ramiro; Antiñolo, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Hemophilia A and B are the most common hereditary hemorrhagic disorders, with an X-linked mode of inheritance. Reproductive options for the families affected with hemophilia, aiming at the prevention of the birth of children with severe coagulation disorders, include preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Here we present the results of our PGD Program applied to hemophilia, at the Department of Genetics, Reproduction and Fetal Medicine of the University Hospital Virgen del Rocío in Seville. A total of 34 couples have been included in our program since 2005 (30 for hemophilia A and 4 for hemophilia B). Overall, 60 cycles were performed, providing a total of 508 embryos. The overall percentage of transfers per cycle was 81.7% and the live birth rate per cycle ranged from 10.3 to 24.1% depending on the methodological approach applied. Although PGD for hemophilia can be focused on gender selection of female embryos, our results demonstrate that methodological approaches that allow the diagnosis of the hemophilia status of every embryo have notorious advantages. Our PGD Program resulted in the birth of 12 healthy babies for 10 out of the 34 couples (29.4%), constituting a relevant achievement for the Spanish Public Health System within the field of haematological disorders. PMID:26258137

  13. "Anisakis Simplex" Infection in Mackerel: A Reliable Laboratory Exercise to Demonstrate Important Principles in Parasitology to Undergraduates

    Coombs, I.; Tatner, M.; Paterson, V.

    2013-01-01

    Practical laboratory work in parasitology can be very limited, due to the difficulty in maintaining multi-host parasite life cycles, especially for a large, once-yearly undergraduate laboratory class for life science students. The use of mackerel, "Scomber scombrus," bought from a local fishmonger, is an ideal model to investigate important…

  14. Plasma parameter diagnosis using hydrogen emission spectra of a quartz-chamber 2.45 GHz ECRIS at Peking University

    Wu, WenBin; Ren, HaiTao; Peng, ShiXiang; Xu, Yuan; Wen, JiaMei; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, JingFeng; Zhang, AiLin; Sun, Jiang; Guo, ZhiYu; Chen, JiaEr

    2018-04-01

    A quartz-chamber 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) was designed for diagnostic purposes at Peking University [Patent Number: ZL 201110026605.4]. This ion source can produce a maximum 84 mA hydrogen ion beam at 50 kV with a duty factor of 10%. The root-mean-square (RMS) emittance of this beam is less than 0.12π mm mrad. In our initial work, the electron temperature and electron density inside the plasma chamber had been measured with the line intensity ratio of noble gases. Based on these results, the atomic and molecular emission spectra of hydrogen were applied to determine the dissociation degree of hydrogen and the vibrational temperature of hydrogen molecules in the ground state, respectively. Measurements were performed at gas pressures from 4×10-4 to 1×10-3 Pa and at input peak RF power ranging from 1000 to 1800 W. The dissociation degree of hydrogen in the range of 0.5%-10% and the vibrational temperature of hydrogen molecules in the ground state in the range of 3500-8500 K were obtained. The plasma processes inside this ECRIS chamber were discussed based on these results.

  15. Parasitological surveillance in a rat (Rattus norvegicus) colony in São Paulo Zoo animal house

    Chagas, Carolina Romeiro Fernandes; Gonzalez, Irys Hany Lima; Favoretto, Samantha Mesquita; Ramos, Patrícia Locosque

    Rattus norvegicus (Mammalia: Rodentia) is a widespread and synanthropic rodent, broadly used in medical experiments. It can also be used for feeding captive animals in zoos. Parasitological surveys are important to guarantee the health of both the animals and the staff responsible for their management. The aim of this study was to identify intestinal parasites of Rattus norvegicus offered as food to captive animals from São Paulo Zoo, and demonstrate the importance of sanitary hurdling, disease control and biosecurity. The identified protozoan parasites were Eimeria sp., Entamoeba sp., Spironucleus sp., Giardia sp., Tritrichomonas sp., Chilomastix sp., unidentified cysts and non-sporulated coccidians oocysts (Isospora/Eimeria). The following helminths were found: Syphacia muris, Rodentolepis nana and Aspiculuris tetraptera.

  16. Lizards, ticks and contributions to Australian parasitology: C. Michael Bull (1947-2016).

    Godfrey, Stephanie S; Gardner, Michael G

    2017-12-01

    Professor C. Michael Bull was a great scientist and mentor, and an Associate Editor of this journal. While his research career spanned the fields of behavioural ecology, conservation biology and herpetology, in this article, we pay tribute to his major contribution to Australian parasitology. Mike authored more than eighty articles on host-parasite ecology, and revealed major insights into the biology and ecology of ticks from his long term study of the parapatric boundary of two tick species ( Amblyomma limbatum and Bothriocroton hydrosauri ) on the sleepy lizard ( Tiliqua rugosa ). In this article, we provide an overview of how this research journey developed to become one of the longest-running studies of lizards and their ticks, totalling 35 years of continuous surveys of ticks on lizards, and the insights and knowledge that he generated along that journey.

  17. Results of complex annual parasitological monitoring in the coastal area of Kola Bay

    Kuklin, V. V.; Kuklina, M. M.; Kisova, N. E.; Maslich, M. A.

    2009-12-01

    The results of annual parasitological monitoring in the coastal area near the Abram-mys (Kola Bay, Barents Sea) are presented. The studies were performed in 2006-2007 and included complex examination of the intermediate hosts (mollusks and crustaceans) and definitive hosts (marine fish and birds) of the helminths. The biodiversity of the parasite fauna, seasonal dynamics, and functioning patterns of the parasite systems were investigated. The basic regularities in parasite circulation were assessed in relation to their life cycle strategies and the ecological features of the intermediate and definitive hosts. The factors affecting the success of parasite circulation in the coastal ecosystems were revealed through analysis of parasite biodiversity and abundance dynamics.

  18. First parasitological study of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis, Amphibia in Chile

    Cristóbal Castillo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduced species can arrive into new territories with parasites; however, these species are expected to face lower parasite richness than in their original regions. Both introduced hosts and parasites can affect native fauna. Since their release into the wild in Chile following laboratory use, Xenopus laevis Daudin, 1802 has widely spread throughout central Chile. The only pathogen described on the host is the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Longcore, Pessier, Nichols, 1999; thus, this is the first parasitological study of this species in Chile. In 10 localities in central Chile, 179 specimens of X. laevis were captured and examined for parasites in the gastrointestinal tube, cavities, lungs, liver, and skin. Only nine specimens of the genus Contracaecum Railliet, Henry, 1912 were found in six specimens of X. laevis from a private dam in La Patagua. It is likely that these parasites originated from species of native birds. This is the first record of Contracaecum sp. in Chilean amphibians.

  19. Clinical determinants of early parasitological response to ACTs in African patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    Abdulla, S.; Adam, I.; Adjei, G. O.

    2015-01-01

    values for clearance in patients from Sub-Saharan African countries with uncomplicated malaria treated with artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Methods: A literature review in PubMed was conducted in March 2013 to identify all prospective clinical trials (uncontrolled trials, controlled...... trials and randomized controlled trials), including ACTs conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa, between 1960 and 2012. Individual patient data from these studies were shared with the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) and pooled using an a priori statistical analytical plan. Factors affecting...... early parasitological response were investigated using logistic regression with study sites fitted as a random effect. The risk of bias in included studies was evaluated based on study design, methodology and missing data. Results: In total, 29,493 patients from 84 clinical trials were included...

  20. Histopathological and parasitological study of the gastrointestinal tract of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania infantum

    Pinto Aldair JW

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to provide a systematic pathological and parasitological overview of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, including the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon, of dogs naturally infected with Leishmania. Methods Twenty mongrel dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania infantum and obtained from the Control Zoonosis Center of the Municipality of Ribeirão das Neves, Belo Horizonte Metropolitan area, Minas Gerais (MG state, Brazil, were analyzed. The dogs were divided into two groups: Group 1 comprised nine clinically normal dogs and group 2 comprised 11 clinically affected dogs. After necropsy, one sample was collected from each GIT segment, namely the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, caecum and colon. Furthermore, paraffin-embedded samples were used for histological and parasitological (immunohistochemistry evaluation and a morphometrical study were carried out to determine the parasite load (immunolabeled amastigote forms of Leishmania. The Friedman and the Mann Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis. The Friedman test was used to analyze each segment of the GIT within each group of dogs and the Mann Whitney test was used to compare the GIT segments between clinically unaffected and affected dogs. Results The infected dogs had an increased number of macrophages, plasma cells and lymphocytes, but lesions were generally mild. Parasite distribution in the GIT was evident in all intestinal segments and layers of the intestinal wall (mucosal, muscular and submucosal irrespective of the clinical status of the dogs. However, the parasite load was statistically higher in the caecum and colon than in other segments of the GIT. Conclusion The high parasite burden evident throughout the GIT mucosa with only mild pathological alterations led us to consider whether Leishmania gains an advantage from the intestinal immunoregulatory response (immunological tolerance.

  1. Diagnosis of health-related physical fitness in office workers of the Federal University of Viçosa

    Cristiano Diniz da Silva

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The behavioral demands and the particularities of the activities performed by the employees from offices at the Federal University of Viçosa can offer a series of negative factors for health. The interface with the computer and task characteristics give a great body and also cognitive demands, that allied to several factors can represent the appearance or worsening repetitive lesions and/or work related problems in the skeletal muscle (Cumulative Trauma Disorders . This study aimed to diagnose the workers’ situation in relation to General Human Factors (GHF and level of Health-Related Fitness (HRFcomponents: cardiorrespiratory; flexibility; strength and percent of body fat. The sample was composed by 46 workers. For both sexes, the GHF variables of higher significance were: “posture perception”; “sensation of local pains and those from some movement or task” in the back, shoulders and arms areas. Referring to HRF, both sexes presented unsatisfactory levels for trunk-hip flexibility “ and great part of men were classified as” below average “ in the push-up test” which are risk factors for CTD. Significant portion of them presented high percent of body fat (25,0% or were “obese” (14,2%. In general terms of HFR, there should be interventions, such as physical activity and/or sports programs for this group of employees at this institution. It is suggested that actions should also be taken in the leisure activity offering, once it was shown that 39,2% of the men and 44,4% of the women have in TV their main leisure activity. RESUMO As exigências comportamentais e as particularidades das atividades desenvolvidas pelos funcionários de alguns setores caracterizados como escritórios da Universidade Federal de Viçosa podem estar potencializando uma série de fatores negativos para a saúde destes. A interface com o computador e a característica da tarefa levam a uma forte exigência física e também cognitiva, que aliadas a

  2. Comparison of Simplexa universal direct PCR with cytotoxicity assay for diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection: performance, cost, and correlation with disease.

    Landry, Marie L; Ferguson, David; Topal, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Simplexa Clostridium difficile universal direct PCR, a real-time PCR assay for the detection of the C. difficile toxin B (tcdB) gene using the 3M integrated cycler, was compared with a two-step algorithm which includes the C. Diff Chek-60 glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen assay followed by cytotoxin neutralization. Three hundred forty-two liquid or semisolid stools submitted for diagnostic C. difficile testing, 171 GDH antigen positive and 171 GDH antigen negative, were selected for the study. All samples were tested by the C. Diff Chek-60 GDH antigen assay, cytotoxin neutralization, and Simplexa direct PCR. Of 171 GDH-positive samples, 4 were excluded (from patients on therapy or from whom duplicate samples were obtained) and 88 were determined to be true positives for toxigenic C. difficile. Of the 88, 67 (76.1%) were positive by the two-step method and 86 (97.7%) were positive by PCR. Seventy-nine were positive by the GDH antigen assay only. Of 171 GDH antigen-negative samples, none were positive by PCR. One antigen-negative sample positive by the cytotoxin assay only was deemed a false positive based on chart review. Simplexa C. difficile universal direct PCR was significantly more sensitive for detecting toxigenic C. difficile bacteria than cytotoxin neutralization (P = 0.0002). However, most PCR-positive/cytotoxin-negative patients did not have clear C. difficile disease. The estimated cost avoidance provided by a more rapid molecular diagnosis was outweighed by the cost of isolating and treating PCR-positive/cytotoxin-negative patients. The costs, clinical consequences, and impact on nosocomial transmission of treating and/or isolating patients positive for toxigenic C. difficile by PCR but negative for in vivo toxin production merit further study.

  3. Implementation of a Clinical Decision Support Tool for Stool Cultures and Parasitological Studies in Hospitalized Patients.

    Nikolic, D; Richter, S S; Asamoto, K; Wyllie, R; Tuttle, R; Procop, G W

    2017-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that stool culture and parasitological examinations are of minimal to no value after 3 days of hospitalization. We implemented and studied the impact of a clinical decision support tool (CDST) to decrease the number of unnecessary stool cultures (STCUL), ova/parasite (O&P) examinations, and Giardia / Cryptosporidium enzyme immunoassay screens (GC-EIA) performed for patients hospitalized >3 days. We studied the frequency of stool studies ordered before or on day 3 and after day 3 of hospitalization (i.e., categorical orders/total number of orders) before and after this intervention and denoted the numbers and types of microorganisms detected within those time frames. This intervention, which corresponded to a custom-programmed hard-stop alert tool in the Epic hospital information system, allowed providers to override the intervention by calling the laboratory, if testing was deemed medically necessary. Comparative statistics were employed to determine significance, and cost savings were estimated based on our internal costs. Before the intervention, 129/670 (19.25%) O&P examinations, 47/204 (23.04%) GC-EIA, and 249/1,229 (20.26%) STCUL were ordered after 3 days of hospitalization. After the intervention, 46/521 (8.83%) O&P examinations, 27/157 (17.20%) GC-EIA, and 106/1,028 (10.31%) STCUL were ordered after 3 days of hospitalization. The proportions of reductions in the number of tests performed after 3 days and the associated P values were 54.1% for O&P examinations ( P < 0.0001), 22.58% for GC-EIA ( P = 0.2807), and 49.1% for STCUL ( P < 0.0001). This was estimated to have resulted in $8,108.84 of cost savings. The electronic CDST resulted in a substantial reduction in the number of evaluations of stool cultures and the number of parasitological examinations for patients hospitalized for more than 3 days and in a cost savings while retaining the ability of the clinician to obtain these tests if clinically indicated. Copyright © 2017

  4. High prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV in oral mucosal lesions of patients at the Ambulatory of Oral Diagnosis of the Federal University of Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil

    Mariana Goveia Melo RIBEIRO

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of human papillomavirus (HPV in oral carcinogenesis is still controversial as detection rates of the virus in oral cavity reported in the literature varies greatly. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of HPV infection and its genotypes in patients with oral lesions at the Ambulatory of Oral Diagnosis of the Federal University of Sergipe, Brazil. Material and Methods We conducted a molecular study with 21 patients (15 females aged from two to 83 years with clinically detectable oral lesions. Samples were collected through exfoliation of lesions and HPV-DNA was identified using MY09/11 and GP5+/6+ primers. Genotyping was performed by multiplex PCR. Results Benign, premalignant and malignant lesions were diagnosed by histopathology. HPV was detected in 17 samples. Of these, HPV-6 was detected in 10 samples, HPV-18 in four and HPV-16 in one sample. When samples were categorized by lesion types, HPV was detected in two papilloma cases (2/3, five carcinomas (5/6, one hyperplasia (1/1 and nine dysplasia cases (9/11. Conclusion Unlike other studies in the literature, we reported high occurrence of HPV in oral lesions. Further studies are required to enhance the comprehension of natural history of oral lesions.

  5. Parasitological and immunological diagnoses of strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised and non-immunocompromised children at Uberlândia, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil Diagnóstico parasitológico e imunológico da estrongiloidíase em crianças imunodeprimidas e imunocompetentes na cidade de Uberlândia, MG, Brasil

    Fabiana Martins de PAULA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological and immunological diagnoses were part of a study conducted among 151 children, 83 immunocompromised (IC and 68 non-immunocompromised (non-IC aged from zero to 12, seen at the University Hospital, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from February, 1996, to June, 1998. Three fecal samples from each child were analyzed for the parasitological diagnosis by Baermann-Moraes and Lutz methods. The immunological diagnosis to detect IgG and IgM antibodies was carried out by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT with cryo-microtome sections of Strongyloides stercoralis and Strongyloides ratti larvae as antigens and by the ELISA test with an alkaline extract of S. ratti as the antigens. Of the 151 children 5 (3.31% were infected with larvae of S. stercoralis (2 cases IC, 2.41%, and 3 cases non-IC, 4.41%. The IFAT-IgG detected 7 (8.43% serum samples positive among IC, and 2 (2.94% cases among non-IC. The ELISA-IgG test detected 10 (12.05% serum samples positive among IC, and 1 (1.47% case among non-IC. The IFAT-IgM detected 6 (7.22% positive cases among IC, and 3 (4.41% cases among non-IC. ELISA-IgM test detected 10 (12.05% positive cases among IC, and 3 (4.41% cases among non-IC. It was concluded that the immunological tests can help in the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in immunocompromised children.O diagnóstico parasitológico e imunológico da estrongiloidíase foi realizado em 151 crianças (83 imunodeprimidas -ID e 68 imunocompetentes -IC de zero a 12 anos de idade internadas no Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil, no período de fevereiro de 1996 a junho de 1998. Para o diagnóstico parasitológico três amostras de fezes de cada indivíduo foram processadas pelos métodos de Baermann-Moraes e de Lutz. O diagnóstico imunológico para a detecção de anticorpos IgG e IgM foi realizado através das reações de imunofluorescência indireta

  6. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PARASITOLOGICAL QUALITY OF “PANGA FISH" (PANGASIUS SPP.

    E. E. V. Resplandes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The goals of the study were to verify the presence of coliforms in frozen Basa fish fillets market in different cities in Mato Grosso State, Brazil and identify if they complied with the standards established by the Brazilian Food Legislation. Twenty-five samples were collected at supermarkets in eight cities in Mato Grosso State. The microbiological analyses were performed using the coagulase-positive Staphylococci count; screening for Salmonella sp., enumeration of total coliforms, thermotolerant and Escherichia coli. In addition, it proceeded to parasitological analysis by parasitic morphological structures identification. Coagulase-positive Staphylococci strains were isolated in two samples (8% with 3,8 x 10 4 and 1,4 x 10 5 CFU/g. In one sample (4%, the values obtained were 23 MPN/ g for total coliforms count, 4 MPN/ g for thermotolerant coliforms and 4 MPN/ g for E. coli. Salmonella spp. strains were not isolated. Parasitic structures were not observed. Frozen Panga fish fillets demonstrated low levels of coliform contamination; indicating that it is safe for human consumption considering that 23 (92% of the analyzed samples were within the standards established by the current Brazilian Food Legislation.

  7. Departing from PowerPoint default mode: Applying Mayer's multimedia principles for enhanced learning of parasitology.

    Nagmoti, Jyoti Mahantesh

    2017-01-01

    PowerPoint (PPT™) presentation has become an integral part of day-to-day teaching in medicine. Most often, PPT™ is used in its default mode which in fact, is known to cause boredom and ineffective learning. Research has shown improved short-term memory by applying multimedia principles for designing and delivering lectures. However, such evidence in medical education is scarce. Therefore, we attempted to evaluate the effect of multimedia principles on enhanced learning of parasitology. Second-year medical students received a series of lectures, half of the lectures used traditionally designed PPT™ and the rest used slides designed by Mayer's multimedia principles. Students answered pre and post-tests at the end of each lecture (test-I) and an essay test after six months (test-II) which assessed their short and long term knowledge retention respectively. Students' feedback on quality and content of lectures were collected. Statistically significant difference was found between post test scores of traditional and modified lectures (P = 0.019) indicating, improved short-term memory after modified lectures. Similarly, students scored better in test II on the contents learnt through modified lectures indicating, enhanced comprehension and improved long-term memory (P learning through multimedia designed PPT™ and suggested for their continued use. It is time to depart from default PPT™ and adopt multimedia principles to enhance comprehension and improve short and long term knowledge retention. Further, medical educators may be trained and encouraged to apply multimedia principles for designing and delivering effective lectures.

  8. Correlations between hematological, parasitological patterns and animal performance of sheep supplemented with protected fat

    Vivian Alves Costa Afonso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of populations of gastrointestinal parasites resistant to antihelmintics has led to seeks new alternatives its control. Stimulation of natural immunity by means of animal nutrition has shown promising results in controlling nematodes in sheep. The addition of protected fat sources, containing essential fatty acids, may be an alternative due to many effects, among them, regulation of immunity expression and regulation of the inflammatory response by immune effectors. The aim of this study was to estimate correlations between haematological and parasitological patterns, animal performance through weight and body condition, under the influence of protected fat in ewes. Fifty Santa Ines sheep, in the final third of pregnancy or postpartum, in paddocks of Panicum maximum, received, individually, 200 g per day of concentrate, isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets, with or without the addition of protected fat. In general, except for total leukocytes and eosinophils, almost all of Pearson correlation coefficients of other variables were significant. However, the protected fat, in the amount offered, had no antihelmintic effect.

  9. Microbiological and parasitological investigation among food handlers in hotels in the Dead Sea area, Jordan.

    Abdel-Dayem, Muna; Al Zou'bi, Renad; Hani, Rehan Bani; Amr, Zuhair Sami

    2014-10-01

    Intestinal parasitic and bacterial infections constitute a major health issue in developing countries. The present study investigates and assesses infection rates among food handlers with intestinal parasites and microbial agents in luxurious hotels in the Dead Sea area of Jordan. A total of 901 stool samples were collected from food handlers (35 females and 866 males) employed in four main hotels in the Dead Sea area. Fecal samples were examined microscopically for intestinal parasites. Standard culture and biochemical techniques were used for the isolation and identification of Salmonella and Shigella spp. in stool samples. Five species of protozoan (Blastocystis hominis, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, and Endolimax nana), one helminth (Hymenolepis nana), and one cylindrical worm (Enterobius vermicularis) were recovered with an overall infection rate of 3.7%. G. intestinalis was the most prevalent parasitic infection with infection rate of 2.44%. All samples were negative for both Salmonella and Shigella. Findings highlight the important role of food handlers in the transmission of intestinal parasites to high-class clients accommodated in luxury hotels, and stress the urgent need for regular health and parasitologic examination of food handlers. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Importance of molecular diagnosis in the accurate diagnosis of ...

    1Department of Health and Environmental Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Yoshida Konoecho, ... of molecular diagnosis in the accurate diagnosis of systemic carnitine deficiency. .... 'affecting protein function' by SIFT.

  11. Parasitological analyses of the male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    Muehlenbein, Michael P

    2005-02-01

    Numerous intestinal parasites identified in populations of wild nonhuman primates can be pathogenic to humans. Furthermore, nonhuman primates are susceptible to a variety of human pathogens. Because of increasing human encroachment into previously nonimpacted forests, and the potential for disease transmission between human and nonhuman primate populations, further detailed investigations of primate ecological parasitology are warranted. For meaningful comparisons to be made, it is important for methods to be standardized across study sites. One aspect of methodological standardization is providing reliable estimates of parasite prevalence and knowing how many samples are needed to adequately estimate an individual's parasite prevalence. In this study the parasitic fauna of 37 adult, adolescent, and juvenile male chimpanzees from the Ngogo group, Kibale National Park, Uganda, were assessed from 121 fecal samples collected over a 3-month period. Twelve taxa of intestinal species (five helminth and seven protozoan) were recovered from the samples. The four most prevalent species were Troglodytella abrassarti (97.3%), Oesophagostomum sp. (81.1%), Strongyloides sp. (83.8%), and Entamoeba chattoni (70.3%). No one species was found in all samples from any one animal, and Troglodytella abrassarti, the most common intestinal organism, was found in all of the serial samples of only 69.4% of the chimpanzees. The cumulative species richness for individuals significantly increased for every sequential sample (up to three to four samples) taken per animal during this study. The results indicate that to accurately diagnose total intestinal infection and evaluate group prevalence, three to four sequential samples from each individual must be collected on nonconsecutive days. This conclusion applies only to short study periods in which possible seasonal effects are not taken into consideration. Validation of these results at different study sites in different regions with

  12. Performance and Parasitology of Semi-intensively Managed West African Dwarf Sheep Exposed to Gastrointestinal Helminth Infect-ed Paddocks and Varied Protein-energy Feeds

    Adekayode Olarinwaju SONIBARE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The performance and parasitology of semi-intensively managed West African dwarf (WAD lambs were evaluated following exposure to gastrointestinal helminth infected paddock and varied protein-energy feeds.Methods: Twenty four lambs obtained from the Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics and brought to Directorate of University farm (DUFARM of Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun state, Nigeria, where the research was carried out in 2014, were grouped into four each containing six animals based on different energy-protein feed combination thus; group 1(G1 low energy low protein, group 2 (G2 low energy high protein, group 3 (G3 high energy low protein and group 4 (G4 high energy high protein. Experimental animals were supplemented with concentrate feed after grazing on daily in a nematode infected paddock. Clinical signs of infection were monitored. Live weight, faecal egg count (FEC, worm counts, packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin concentration (Hb and red blood cell count (RBC were determined using standard methods.Results: Anorexia and intermittent diarrhea were the observed signs. Worm counts did not differ significantly (P=0.309 among the groups. The weight and FEC differed significantly (P˂0.05 across the days and among the groups, while haematological parameters increased significantly (P˂0.05 across the days and among the groups.Conclusion: Lambs in G2 followed by G4 showed improved parameters and superior performance when compared to the other groups. It is therefore recommended that feed high in protein content is capable of mitigating deleterious effect of gastrointestinal helminth parasitism.

  13. Accuracy of parasitological and immunological tests for the screening of human schistosomiasis in immigrants and refugees from African countries: An approach with Latent Class Analysis.

    Anna Beltrame

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a neglected infection affecting millions of people, mostly living in sub-Saharan Africa. Morbidity and mortality due to chronic infection are relevant, although schistosomiasis is often clinically silent. Different diagnostic tests have been implemented in order to improve screening and diagnosis, that traditionally rely on parasitological tests with low sensitivity. Aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of different tests for the screening of schistosomiasis in African migrants, in a non endemic setting.A retrospective study was conducted on 373 patients screened at the Centre for Tropical Diseases (CTD in Negrar, Verona, Italy. Biological samples were tested with: stool/urine microscopy, Circulating Cathodic Antigen (CCA dipstick test, ELISA, Western blot, immune-chromatographic test (ICT. Test accuracy and predictive values of the immunological tests were assessed primarily on the basis of the results of microscopy (primary reference standard: ICT and WB resulted the test with highest sensitivity (94% and 92%, respectively, with a high NPV (98%. CCA showed the highest specificity (93%, but low sensitivity (48%. The analysis was conducted also using a composite reference standard, CRS (patients classified as infected in case of positive microscopy and/or at least 2 concordant positive immunological tests and Latent Class Analysis (LCA. The latter two models demonstrated excellent agreement (Cohen's kappa: 0.92 for the classification of the results. In fact, they both confirmed ICT as the test with the highest sensitivity (96% and NPV (97%, moreover PPV was reasonably good (78% and 72% according to CRS and LCA, respectively. ELISA resulted the most specific immunological test (over 99%. The ICT appears to be a suitable screening test, even when used alone.The rapid test ICT was the most sensitive test, with the potential of being used as a single screening test for African migrants.

  14. Comparison of Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction with Parasitological Methods for Detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in Human Fecal Samples

    Sharifdini, Meysam; Mirhendi, Hossein; Ashrafi, Keyhan; Hosseini, Mostafa; Mohebali, Mehdi; Khodadadi, Hossein; Kia, Eshrat Beigom

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR methods for detection of Strongyloides stercoralis in fecal samples compared with parasitological methods. A total of 466 stool samples were examined by conventional parasitological methods (formalin ether concentration [FEC] and agar plate culture [APC]). DNA was extracted using an in-house method, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 18S ribosomal genes were amplified by nested PCR and real-time PCR, respectively. Among 466 samples, 12.7% and 18.2% were found infected with S. stercoralis by FEC and APC, respectively. DNA of S. stercoralis was detected in 18.9% and 25.1% of samples by real-time PCR and nested PCR, respectively. Considering parasitological methods as the diagnostic gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of nested PCR were 100% and 91.6%, respectively, and that of real-time PCR were 84.7% and 95.8%, respectively. However, considering sequence analyzes of the selected nested PCR products, the specificity of nested PCR is increased. In general, molecular methods were superior to parasitological methods. They were more sensitive and more reliable in detection of S. stercoralis in comparison with parasitological methods. Between the two molecular methods, the sensitivity of nested PCR was higher than real-time PCR. PMID:26350449

  15. Bovine fasciolosis at increasing altitudes: Parasitological and malacological sampling on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda

    Howell Alison

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To clarify the extent and putative transmission zone of bovine fasciolosis on the slopes of Mount Elgon, Uganda, conjoint parasitological and malacological surveys, inclusive of inspection of animals at slaughter, were undertaken at increasing altitudes. Results A total of 239 cattle were sampled across eight locations ranging in elevation from 1112-2072 m. Faecal material was examined for presence of Fasciola eggs and sera were tested by ELISA for antibodies against Fasciola antigens. Bolstering this, 38 cattle at slaughter from 2 abattoir sites at 1150 m and 1947 m were inspected; in addition, wild buffalo stool (n = 10 opportunistically picked within Mount Elgon National Park (MENP at 3640 m was examined. By faecal egg detection, prevalence of Fasciola gigantica at low (1500 m altitude sites was 43.7% (95% CI 35.4-52.2 and 1.1% (95% CI 0.0-6.0, respectively, while by ELISA was much higher, low altitude - 77.9% (95% CI 69.7-85.4 and high altitude - 64.5% (95% CI 51.3-76.3. The decline in prevalence with increasing altitude was corroborated by abattoir sampling. Thirty seven aquatic habitats, ranging from 1139-3937 m in altitude were inspected for freshwater snails, 12 of which were within MENP. At lower altitudes, Lymnaea (Radix natalensis was common, and often abundant, but at higher altitudes became much rarer ceasing to be found above 1800 m. On the other hand, Lymnaea (Galba truncatula was found only at altitudes above 3000 m and within MENP alone. The snail identifications were confirmed by DNA analysis of the ribosomal 18S gene. Conclusions Active infections of F. gigantica in cattle are common in lower altitude settings but appear to diminish with increasing elevation. This is likely due to a growing paucity of intermediate hosts, specifically populations of L. natalensis for which a natural boundary of 1800 m appeared. Although F. hepatica was not encountered, the presence of several

  16. Interlaboratory Optimization and Evaluation of a Serological Assay for Diagnosis of Human Baylisascariasis

    Rascoe, Lisa N.; Santamaria, Cynthia; Handali, Sukwan; Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Kazacos, Kevin R.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Ndao, Momar

    2013-01-01

    A Western blot assay using a recombinant protein, recombinant Baylisascaris procyonis RAG1 protein (rBpRAG1), was developed for the diagnosis of human baylisascariasis concurrently by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, and the National Reference Centre for Parasitology (NRCP) in Montreal, Canada. Assay performance was assessed by testing 275 specimens at the CDC and 405 specimens at the NRCP. Twenty specimens from 16 cases of baylisascariasis were evalua...

  17. A COMPARATIVE EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDY OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES (IgM AND IgA AND PARASITOLOGICAL FINDINGS IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LOW TRANSMISSION OF Schistosoma mansoni

    KANAMURA Herminia Yohko

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic potential of circulating IgM and IgA antibodies against Schistosoma mansoni gut-associated antigens detected by the immunofluorescence test (IFT on adult worm paraffin sections was evaluated comparatively to the fecal parasitological method, for epidemiological purposes in low endemic areas for schistosomiasis. Blood samples were collected on filter paper from two groups of schoolchildren living in two different localities of the municipality of Itariri (São Paulo, Brazil with different histories and prevalences of schistosomiasis. The parasitological and serological data were compared to those obtained for another group of schoolchildren from a non-endemic area for schistosomiasis. The results showed poor sensitivity of the parasitological method in detecting individuals with low worm burden and indicate the potential of the serological method as an important tool to be incorporated into schistosomiasis control and vigilance programs for determining the real situation of schistosomiasis in low endemic areas.

  18. ELISA technique standardization for strongyloidiasis diagnosis

    Huapaya, P.; Espinoza, I.; Huiza, A.; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Sevilla, C.

    2002-01-01

    To standardize ELISA technique for human Strongyloides stercoralis infection diagnosis a crude antigen was prepared using filariform larvae obtained from positive stool samples cultured with charcoal. Harvested larvae were crushed by sonication and washed by centrifugation in order to obtain protein extracts to be used as antigen. Final protein concentration was 600 μg/mL. Several kinds of ELISA plates were tested and antigen concentration, sera dilution, conjugate dilution and cut off were determined to identify infection. Sera from patients with both hyper-infection syndrome and intestinal infection demonstrated by parasitological examination were positive controls and sera from people living in non-endemic areas with no infection demonstrated by parasitological examination were negative controls. Best values were 5 μg/mL for antigen, 1/64 for sera, 1/1000 for conjugate; optical density values for positive samples were 1,2746 (1,1065 - 1,4206, DS = 0,3284) and for negative samples 0,4457 (0,3324 - 0,5538, DS = 0,2230). Twenty sera samples from positive subjects and one hundred from negative subjects were examined, obtaining 90% sensitivity and 88% specificity. The results show this technique could be useful as strongyloidiasis screening test in population studies

  19. A parasitological, molecular and serological survey of Hepatozoon canis infection in dogs around the Aegean coast of Turkey.

    Karagenc, Tulin Ilhan; Pasa, Serdar; Kirli, Gulcan; Hosgor, Murat; Bilgic, Huseyin Bilgin; Ozon, Yavuz Hakan; Atasoy, Abidin; Eren, Hasan

    2006-01-30

    Canine hepatozoonosis is caused by the tick-borne protozoon Hepatozoon spp. The prevalence of the infection in the Aegean coast of Turkey was investigated by examination of blood smear parasitology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using blood samples from 349 dogs collected from Central Aydin, Kusadasi, Selcuk, Central Manisa, Bodrum and Marmaris within the Aegean coast of Turkey. The indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for the detection of Hepatozoon canis antibodies was also used to detect the exposure rate to H. canis. PCR amplifying a 666bp fragment of 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. was used in the epidemiological survey. The prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. infection was 10.6% by blood smear parasitology and 25.8% by PCR. IFAT revealed that 36.8% of serum samples were positive for antibodies reactive with Hepatozoon spp. The PCR products of 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. isolated from six infected dogs, one isolate originating from each of the six different locations, were sequenced. The results of sequence analysis indicate that they are closely related to Indian and Japanese isolates of H. canis. This is the first epidemiological study on the prevalence of H. canis infection in the dog, in Turkey.

  20. Monitoring of a tsetse and trypanosomosis control programme in plateau and Bauchi State, Nigeria, using antigen ELISA and parasitological techniques

    Ajayi, S A; Ogedengbe, J D; Dogo, G I [National Veterinary Research Inst., Vom, Plateau State (Nigeria). Parasitology Div.; Frame, I A [London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Med. Parasitol

    1997-02-01

    Between July 1994 and January 1995 a total of 1153 samples were collected from cattle in Plateau and Bauchi State, Nigeria, and analyzed for the presence of trypanosome infections using parasitological (Buffy Coat Technique [BCT] and blood film smears) and serological techniques (Ag-ELISA). A simple random sampling technique was employed. Tsetse flies and other insects were trapped during the same period using NITSE and biconical traps. Twenty two tsetse flies (6 Glossina p. palpalis, 3 G. longipalpis and 13 G. tachinoides) were caught, identified and dissected to check for trypanosomal infections. The results obtained using parasitological techniques showed an average prevalence rate in the two states surveyed of 3.4%. The antigen-capture ELISA technique (Ag-ELISA) was used to analyze 280 serum samples which were negative for trypanosomes when checked by BCT. Of these samples none were positive for T. congolense and 4 (1.4%) were detected positive for T. brucei. A subset of 120 samples was analyzed for the presence of T. vivax and 3 (2.5%) were found to be positive. The relative specificity of the Ag-ELISA for T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax was 98.5% 100% and 97.5%, respectively. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Parasitological, serological and clinical evidence for high prevalence of podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis) in Midakegn district, central Ethiopia.

    Geshere Oli, Geleta; Tekola Ayele, Fasil; Petros, Beyene

    2012-06-01

    To determine whether the elephantiasis in Midakegn district, central Ethiopia, is filarial or non-filarial (podoconiosis) using serological, parasitological and clinical examinations, and to estimate its prevalence. At house-to-house visits in 330 randomly selected households, all household members who had elephantiasis were interviewed and clinically examined at the nearby health centre to confirm the presence of elephantiasis, check the presence of scrotal swelling and rule out the other causes of lymphoedema. A midnight blood sample was obtained from each participant with elephantiasis for microscopic examination of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria. A daytime blood sample was obtained from half of the participants for serological confirmation using the immuno-chromatographic test card. Consistent with the features of podoconiosis, none of the elephantiasis cases had consistently worn shoes since childhood; 94.3% had bilateral swelling limited below the level of the knees; no individual had thigh or scrotal elephantiasis; parasitological test for microfilariae and serological tests for W. bancrofti antigen were negative in all samples. The prevalence of the disease was 7.4% and it peaked in the third decade of life, the most economically active age. Midakegn District has a high prevalence of podoconiosis and no filarial elephantiasis. Prevention, treatment and control of podoconiosis must be among the top priorities of public health programmes. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Monitoring of a tsetse and trypanosomosis control programme in plateau and Bauchi State, Nigeria, using antigen ELISA and parasitological techniques

    Ajayi, S.A.; Ogedengbe, J.D.; Dogo, G.I.; Frame, I.A.

    1997-01-01

    Between July 1994 and January 1995 a total of 1153 samples were collected from cattle in Plateau and Bauchi State, Nigeria, and analyzed for the presence of trypanosome infections using parasitological (Buffy Coat Technique [BCT] and blood film smears) and serological techniques (Ag-ELISA). A simple random sampling technique was employed. Tsetse flies and other insects were trapped during the same period using NITSE and biconical traps. Twenty two tsetse flies (6 Glossina p. palpalis, 3 G. longipalpis and 13 G. tachinoides) were caught, identified and dissected to check for trypanosomal infections. The results obtained using parasitological techniques showed an average prevalence rate in the two states surveyed of 3.4%. The antigen-capture ELISA technique (Ag-ELISA) was used to analyze 280 serum samples which were negative for trypanosomes when checked by BCT. Of these samples none were positive for T. congolense and 4 (1.4%) were detected positive for T. brucei. A subset of 120 samples was analyzed for the presence of T. vivax and 3 (2.5%) were found to be positive. The relative specificity of the Ag-ELISA for T. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax was 98.5% 100% and 97.5%, respectively. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  3. Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey.

    Tesfaye, Solomon; Belyhun, Yeshambel; Teklu, Takele; Mengesha, Tesfaye; Petros, Beyene

    2011-06-07

    In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission. Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira. For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted from October to December 2006. The entomological surveys were done from October to December 2006 and continued from April to May 2007. Both parasitological and entomological surveys were done using standard procedures. The parasitological result in all the survey months (October-December) showed an overall detection rate of 4.4% (48/1082) (CI 95%; 3.2-5.7%) malaria parasite. Among infected individuals, 32 (3.0%) of the infection was due to Plasmodium vivax and the rest 16 (1.5%) were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The highest prevalence 39(3.6%) of the parasite was observed in age groups of above 15 years old. Among the total tested, 25(2.3%) of males and 23(2.1%) of females had malaria infection. Among tested individuals, 38(5.3%) and 10 (2.7%) of infection was occurred in Misrak-Meskan (2100 m a.s.l) and Mirab-Meskan (2280 m a.s.l), respectively which was statistically significant (X2=3.72, P0.05). The entomological survey showed a collection of 602 larvae and 80 adult Anopheles. Anopheles christyi was the dominant species both in the first (45.3%) and in the second (35.4%) surveys; where as, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised 4.7% and 14.6%, in the first and second surveys, respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l comprises 55% of the adult collection, and both species were collected more from outdoors (57.5%). The number of An. christyi was higher in Mirab-Meskan (58. 3%) than Misrak-Meskan (41.7%) (Prisk of malaria and its control programme in the area must be given adequate attention to minimize potential epidemics. In addition, the current study should be

  4. Contribution of dot-blot assay to the diagnosis and management of myositis: a three-year practice at a university hospital centre.

    Martel, Clothilde; Vignaud, Guillaume; Liozon, Eric; Magy, Laurent; Gallouedec, Gael; Ly, Kim; Bezanahary, Holly; Cypierre, Anne; Lapébie, François-Xavier; Palat, Sylvain; Gondran, Guillaume; Jauberteau, Marie-Odile; Fauchais, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are heterogeneous autoimmune diseases with wide clinical spectrum that may lead to delayed diagnosis. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of IIM-specific dot-blot assay on diagnostic process of patients presenting with muscular or systemic symptoms evocating of IIM. We collected all the prescriptions of an IIM specific dot-blot assay (8 autoantigens including Jo-1, PL-7, PL-12, SRP, Mi-2, Ku, PM/Scl and Scl-70) over a 38-month period. 316 myositis dot-blot assays (MSD) were performed in 274 patients (156 women, mean age 53±10.6 years) referring for muscular and/or systemic symptoms suggesting IIM. The timing of dot prescription through the diagnostic process was highly variable: without (35%), concomitantly (16%) or after electromyographic studies (35%). Fifty-nine patients (22%) had IIM according to Bohan and Peter's criteria. Among them, 29 (49%) had positive dot (8 Jo-1, 6 PM-Scl, 5 PL-12, 5 SRP, 2 Mi-2, 2 PL-7 and 1 Ku). Various other diagnoses were performed including 35 autoimmune disease or granulomatosis (12%), 19 inflammatory rheumatic disease (7%), 16 non inflammatory muscular disorders (6%), 10 drug-induced myalgia (4%), 11 infectious myositis (4%). Except 11 borderline SRP results and one transient PM-Scl, MSD was positive only in one case of IIM. Dot allowed clinicians to correct diagnosis in 4 cases and improved the diagnosis of IIM subtypes in 4 cases. This study reflects the interest of myositis dot in the rapid diagnosis process of patients with non-specific muscular symptoms leading to various diagnoses including IIM.

  5. [Thirty years of the electron microscope investigation in zoology and parasitology in the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences].

    Shatrov, A B

    2003-01-01

    The history of the electron microscope investigations in zoology and parasitology in the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and progress in scanning and transmission electron microscope investigations in this field of biology to the moment are briefly accounted.

  6. Origin and history to date of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) African Foundation.

    Krecek, R C; Penzhorn, B L; de Waal, D T; Peter, R J; Prichard, R; Sumption, D

    2011-03-01

    The origin of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) African Foundation is described. The 16th WAAVP Conference held in South Africa in 1997 generated a surplus of ZAR 430 460 (US$ 70 116). This was invested and a foundation established to manage the fund with the intention of using it to the mutual advantage of the WAAVP and African veterinary parasitologists. To date, more than 110 scholarship applications have been screened, and 51 full and partial scholarships awarded to young African veterinary parasitologists to attend subsequent biennial WAAVP Conferences. This investment has grown into a very successful endowment currently valued at US$ 206 553. This article is written in response to many queries across the globe about the origin of this fund and how it has been invested, managed, sustained and utilised.

  7. Origin and history to date of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP African Foundation

    R. C. Krecek

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The origin of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP African Foundation is described. The 16th WAAVP Conference held in South Africa in 1997 generated a surplus of ZAR 430 460 (US$ 70 116. This was invested and a foundation established to manage the fund with the intention of using it to the mutual advantage of the WAAVP and African veterinary parasitologists. To date, more than 110 scholarship applications have been screened, and 51 full and partial scholarships awarded to young African veterinary parasitologists to attend subsequent biennial WAAVP Conferences. This investment has grown into a very successful endowment currently valued at US$ 206 553. This article is written in response to many queries across the globe about the origin of this fund and how it has been invested, managed, sustained and utilised.

  8. Bibliometric analysis of the Korean Journal of Parasitology: measured from SCI, PubMed, Scopus, and Synapse databases.

    Lee, Choon Shil

    2009-10-01

    The Korean Journal of Parasitology (KJP) is the official journal of the Korean Society for Parasitology which is celebrating its 50th anniversary in 2009. To assess the contributions and achievements of the KJP, bibliometric analysis was conducted based on the citation data retrieved from 4 major databases; SCI, PubMed, Synapse, and Scopus. It was found that the KJP articles were constantly cited by the articles published in major international journals represented in these databases. More than 60% of 1,370 articles published in the KJP from 1963 to June 2009 were cited at least once by SCI articles. The overall average times cited by SCI articles are 2.6. The rate is almost 3 times higher for the articles published in the last 10 years compared to 1.0 for the articles of the 1960s. The SCI journal impact factor for 2008 is calculated as 0.871. It is increasing and it is expected to increase further with the introduction of the KJP in the database in 2008. The more realistic h-indices were measured from the study data set covering all the citations to the KJP; 17 for SCI, 6 for PubMed, 19 for Synapse, and 17 for Scopus. Synapse extensively picked up the citations to the earlier papers not retrievable from the other 3 databases. It identified many papers published in the 1960s and in the 1980s which have been cited heavily, proving the central role of the KJP in the dissemination of the important research findings over the last 5 decades.

  9. Parasitological Confirmation and Analysis of Leishmania Diversity in Asymptomatic and Subclinical Infection following Resolution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Rosales-Chilama, Mariana; Gongora, Rafael E; Valderrama, Liliana; Jojoa, Jimena; Alexander, Neal; Rubiano, Luisa C; Cossio, Alexandra; Adams, Emily R; Saravia, Nancy G; Gomez, María Adelaida

    2015-12-01

    The contribution of individuals with subclinical infection to the transmission and endemicity of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is unknown. Immunological evidence of exposure to Leishmania in residents of endemic areas has been the basis for defining the human population with asymptomatic infection. However, parasitological confirmation of subclinical infection is lacking. We investigated the presence and viability of Leishmania in blood and non-invasive mucosal tissue samples from individuals with immunological evidence of subclinical infection in endemic areas for CL caused by Leishmania (Viannia) in Colombia. Detection of Leishmania kDNA was conducted by PCR-Southern Blot, and parasite viability was confirmed by amplification of parasite 7SLRNA gene transcripts. A molecular tool for genetic diversity analysis of parasite populations causing persistent subclinical infection based on PCR amplification and sequence analysis of an 82bp region between kDNA conserved blocks 1 and 2 was developed. Persistent Leishmania infection was demonstrated in 40% (46 of 114) of leishmanin skin test (LST) positive individuals without active disease; parasite viability was established in 59% of these (27 of 46; 24% of total). Parasite burden quantified from circulating blood monocytes, nasal, conjunctival or tonsil mucosal swab samples was comparable, and ranged between 0.2 to 22 parasites per reaction. kDNA sequences were obtained from samples from 2 individuals with asymptomatic infection and from 26 with history of CL, allowing genetic distance analysis that revealed diversity among sequences and clustering within the L. (Viannia) subgenus. Our results provide parasitological confirmation of persistent infection among residents of endemic areas of L. (Viannia) transmission who have experienced asymptomatic infection or recovered from CL, revealing a reservoir of infection that potentially contributes to the endemicity and transmission of disease. kDNA genotyping establishes proof

  10. Parasitological Confirmation and Analysis of Leishmania Diversity in Asymptomatic and Subclinical Infection following Resolution of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Mariana Rosales-Chilama

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of individuals with subclinical infection to the transmission and endemicity of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is unknown. Immunological evidence of exposure to Leishmania in residents of endemic areas has been the basis for defining the human population with asymptomatic infection. However, parasitological confirmation of subclinical infection is lacking.We investigated the presence and viability of Leishmania in blood and non-invasive mucosal tissue samples from individuals with immunological evidence of subclinical infection in endemic areas for CL caused by Leishmania (Viannia in Colombia. Detection of Leishmania kDNA was conducted by PCR-Southern Blot, and parasite viability was confirmed by amplification of parasite 7SLRNA gene transcripts. A molecular tool for genetic diversity analysis of parasite populations causing persistent subclinical infection based on PCR amplification and sequence analysis of an 82bp region between kDNA conserved blocks 1 and 2 was developed.Persistent Leishmania infection was demonstrated in 40% (46 of 114 of leishmanin skin test (LST positive individuals without active disease; parasite viability was established in 59% of these (27 of 46; 24% of total. Parasite burden quantified from circulating blood monocytes, nasal, conjunctival or tonsil mucosal swab samples was comparable, and ranged between 0.2 to 22 parasites per reaction. kDNA sequences were obtained from samples from 2 individuals with asymptomatic infection and from 26 with history of CL, allowing genetic distance analysis that revealed diversity among sequences and clustering within the L. (Viannia subgenus.Our results provide parasitological confirmation of persistent infection among residents of endemic areas of L. (Viannia transmission who have experienced asymptomatic infection or recovered from CL, revealing a reservoir of infection that potentially contributes to the endemicity and transmission of disease. kDNA genotyping

  11. Parasitology and urban livestock farming in Nigeria : prevalence of ova in faecal and soil samples and animal ectoparasites in Makurdi

    E.A. Omudu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Domestic environmental pollution resulting from urban livestock farming was investigated in Makurdi using parasitological techniques. The test tube flotation technique was used for the parasitological analysis of animal faecal matter and soil samples collected from residential premises. Ectoparasitic fauna of dogs, goats, sheep and cattle cohabiting with humans within the same residential compound were also collected and identified. The hand-picking and body brushing methods were employed to search for ticks, fleas, lice and mites. Of the 150 soil samples examined, 55 (36.7 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. There was no significant difference in the distribution of eggs in the soil samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=0.046, df=2, P>0.05. Ascaris species were the dominant parasite eggs found. Of the 180 faecal samples examined, 107 (59.4 % were positive for 1 or more eggs of helminth parasites. Chi-square analysis showed no significant difference in the level of infection of different animal faeces sampled (c2=5.74, df=4, P>0.05. Ascaris species were again the dominating helminth parasite eggs found. There was also no significant difference in the prevalence of helminth eggs in the animal faecal samples from the 3 areas sampled (c2=5.99, df=4, P>0.05. A total of 1908 ectoparasites was recovered (ticks: 32.80 %; lice: 22.43 %; fleas: 22.06% and mite: 22.69 %. There was no significant difference in infestation animals between sexes (c2=0.10, df=4, P>0.05. The predominant genus encountered for ticks were Amblyomma, while Linognathus (43.90%, Ctenocephalides (97.38% and Sarcoptes (58.89 % were most predominant for lice, fleas and mites respectively. The public health implications of the findings, especially as these relate to the increasing incidence and prevalence of zoonotic infections, are discussed.

  12. Energy analysis and failure diagnosis of the Vertigo building of the Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; Energieanalyse en foutdiagnose Vertigo-gebouw TU/e

    Peitsman, H.C. [TNO Built Environment and Geosciences, Delft (Netherlands); Van den Aker, K.P.A. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Claridge, D.E.; Bynum, J.D. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States)

    2010-06-15

    In order to reduce the decline in savings obtained from commissioning, a low cost fault detection and diagnostic tool that can continuously monitor energy consumption of buildings is required. The Energy Systems Laboratory at the Texas A and M University has developed a prototype of such a tool, known as the Automated Building Commissioning Analysis Tool (ABCAT). This prototype has been applied to the Vertigo building at the Eindhoven University of Technology. [Dutch] Omdat het wenselijk is de achteruitgang en/of degradatie van de gerealiseerde besparingen tegen te gaan die bij commissioning zijn bereikt, is er behoefte aan een goedkope tool voor foutdetectie en diagnostiek, die continu de energieprestatie (Continuous Commissioning) van een gebouw in de gaten kan houden. Het Energy Systems Laboratory, verbonden aan de Texas A and M University in de USA, heeft een prototype van zo'n tool ontwikkeld: Automated Building Commissioning Analysis Tool (ABCAT). Dit prototype is toegepast op het Vertigo gebouw van de Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.

  13. Autism: Diagnosis

    ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Donate Home What is Autism? What is Autism? ... Information Publications Awards Partners Contact Us ¿Qué es Autismo? Diagnosis Home / What is Autism? / Diagnosis Expand Medical ...

  14. Quality improvement of International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, diagnosis coding in radiation oncology: single-institution prospective study at University of California, San Francisco.

    Chen, Chien P; Braunstein, Steve; Mourad, Michelle; Hsu, I-Chow J; Haas-Kogan, Daphne; Roach, Mack; Fogh, Shannon E

    2015-01-01

    Accurate International Classification of Diseases (ICD) diagnosis coding is critical for patient care, billing purposes, and research endeavors. In this single-institution study, we evaluated our baseline ICD-9 (9th revision) diagnosis coding accuracy, identified the most common errors contributing to inaccurate coding, and implemented a multimodality strategy to improve radiation oncology coding. We prospectively studied ICD-9 coding accuracy in our radiation therapy--specific electronic medical record system. Baseline ICD-9 coding accuracy was obtained from chart review targeting ICD-9 coding accuracy of all patients treated at our institution between March and June of 2010. To improve performance an educational session highlighted common coding errors, and a user-friendly software tool, RadOnc ICD Search, version 1.0, for coding radiation oncology specific diagnoses was implemented. We then prospectively analyzed ICD-9 coding accuracy for all patients treated from July 2010 to June 2011, with the goal of maintaining 80% or higher coding accuracy. Data on coding accuracy were analyzed and fed back monthly to individual providers. Baseline coding accuracy for physicians was 463 of 661 (70%) cases. Only 46% of physicians had coding accuracy above 80%. The most common errors involved metastatic cases, whereby primary or secondary site ICD-9 codes were either incorrect or missing, and special procedures such as stereotactic radiosurgery cases. After implementing our project, overall coding accuracy rose to 92% (range, 86%-96%). The median accuracy for all physicians was 93% (range, 77%-100%) with only 1 attending having accuracy below 80%. Incorrect primary and secondary ICD-9 codes in metastatic cases showed the most significant improvement (10% vs 2% after intervention). Identifying common coding errors and implementing both education and systems changes led to significantly improved coding accuracy. This quality assurance project highlights the potential problem

  15. Parasitological detection and molecular evidence of Hepatozoon canis from canines in Manila, Philippines

    Baticados, Waren; Baticados,Waren; Carlos,; Villarba,; Subiaga,; Carlos Sr.,Enrique; Baticados,Abigail

    2011-01-01

    Abigail M Baticados1, Waren N Baticados1, Enrique T Carlos2, Sixto MEAS Carlos2, Lorelie A Villarba1, Sherlyn G Subiaga1, Jomarte M Magcalas11Department of Veterinary Paraclinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of the Philippines Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines; 2Makati Dog and Cat Hospital (MDCH), Makati City, PhilippinesAbstract: Hepatozoon canis infection in canines is allegedly an underreported disease in the Philippines. In over the past four decades, ther...

  16. Association of Implementation of a Universal Testing and Treatment Intervention With HIV Diagnosis, Receipt of Antiretroviral Therapy, and Viral Suppression in East Africa.

    Petersen, Maya; Balzer, Laura; Kwarsiima, Dalsone; Sang, Norton; Chamie, Gabriel; Ayieko, James; Kabami, Jane; Owaraganise, Asiphas; Liegler, Teri; Mwangwa, Florence; Kadede, Kevin; Jain, Vivek; Plenty, Albert; Brown, Lillian; Lavoy, Geoff; Schwab, Joshua; Black, Douglas; van der Laan, Mark; Bukusi, Elizabeth A; Cohen, Craig R; Clark, Tamara D; Charlebois, Edwin; Kamya, Moses; Havlir, Diane

    2017-06-06

    Antiretroviral treatment (ART) is now recommended for all HIV-positive persons. UNAIDS has set global targets to diagnose 90% of HIV-positive individuals, treat 90% of diagnosed individuals with ART, and suppress viral replication among 90% of treated individuals, for a population-level target of 73% of all HIV-positive persons with HIV viral suppression. To describe changes in the proportions of HIV-positive individuals with HIV viral suppression, HIV-positive individuals who had received a diagnosis, diagnosed individuals treated with ART, and treated individuals with HIV viral suppression, following implementation of a community-based testing and treatment program in rural East Africa. Observational analysis based on interim data from 16 rural Kenyan (n = 6) and Ugandan (n = 10) intervention communities in the SEARCH Study, an ongoing cluster randomized trial. Community residents who were 15 years or older (N = 77 774) were followed up for 2 years (2013-2014 to 2015-2016). HIV serostatus and plasma HIV RNA level were measured annually at multidisease health campaigns followed by home-based testing for nonattendees. All HIV-positive individuals were offered ART using a streamlined delivery model designed to reduce structural barriers, improve patient-clinician relationships, and enhance patient knowledge and attitudes about HIV. Primary outcome was viral suppression (plasma HIV RNAHIV-positive individuals, assessed at baseline and after 1 and 2 years. Secondary outcomes included HIV diagnosis, ART among previously diagnosed individuals, and viral suppression among those who had initiated ART. Among 77 774 residents (male, 45.3%; age 15-24 years, 35.1%), baseline HIV prevalence was 10.3% (7108 of 69 283 residents). The proportion of HIV-positive individuals with HIV viral suppression at baseline was 44.7% (95% CI, 43.5%-45.9%; 3464 of 7745 residents) and after 2 years of intervention was 80.2% (95% CI, 79.1%-81.2%; 5666 of 7068 residents), an

  17. Malaria prevalence pattern observed in the highland fringe of Butajira, Southern Ethiopia: A longitudinal study from parasitological and entomological survey

    Mengesha Tesfaye

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, information regarding highland malaria transmission is scarce, and no report has been presented from Butajira highland so far whether the appearance of malaria in the area was due to endemicity or due to highland malaria transmission. Thus this study aimed to determine the presence and magnitude of malaria transmission in Butajira. Methods For parasitological survey, longitudinal study was conducted from October to December 2006. The entomological surveys were done from October to December 2006 and continued from April to May 2007. Both parasitological and entomological surveys were done using standard procedures. Results The parasitological result in all the survey months (October-December showed an overall detection rate of 4.4% (48/1082 (CI 95%; 3.2-5.7% malaria parasite. Among infected individuals, 32 (3.0% of the infection was due to Plasmodium vivax and the rest 16 (1.5% were due to Plasmodium falciparum. The highest prevalence 39(3.6% of the parasite was observed in age groups of above 15 years old. Among the total tested, 25(2.3% of males and 23(2.1% of females had malaria infection. Among tested individuals, 38(5.3% and 10 (2.7% of infection was occurred in Misrak-Meskan (2100 m a.s.l and Mirab-Meskan (2280 m a.s.l, respectively which was statistically significant (X2 = 3.72, P Plasmodium species declined from October to December, the trend was non-significant (X2 for trend = 0.49, P > 0.05. The entomological survey showed a collection of 602 larvae and 80 adult Anopheles. Anopheles christyi was the dominant species both in the first (45.3% and in the second (35.4% surveys; where as, Anopheles gambiae sensu lato comprised 4.7% and 14.6%, in the first and second surveys, respectively. Anopheles gambiae s.l comprises 55% of the adult collection, and both species were collected more from outdoors (57.5%. The number of An. christyi was higher in Mirab-Meskan (58. 3% than Misrak-Meskan (41.7% (P Conclusion

  18. Prognostic value of clinical and parasitological signs for severe malaria in patients from Colombia Utilidad pronóstica para malaria grave de signos clínicos y parasitológicos en pacientes de Colombia

    Silvia Blair-Trujillo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Early recognition of danger signs in patients with malaria can reduce complications and deaths, but little is known about its prognostic value for severe malaria, especially in areas of low transmission and unstable malaria.
    Objective. Assess the prognostic value for gravity that has different clinical and parasitological signs in patients with malaria.
    Materials and methods. A prospective cohort of patients from five municipalities in Colombia with diagnosis of malaria by Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax, in whom was studied the association between clinical and parasitological signs with complicated malaria. Results. Was obtained a predictive model with a 47,4% sensitivity, 92,8% specificity, 63,2% positive predictive value and 87,1% negative predictive value, that includes jaundice, dark urine, hyperpyrexia and signs of dehydration.
    Conclusions. To impact the complicated cases caused by malaria it is proposed a strategy for the early recognition of danger signs by non-medical personnel, which could be accompanied by other elements of the healthcare, such as providing an adequate and appropriate antimalarial treatment. Also are proposed diagnostic criteria for moderate complications.
    Introducción. El reconocimiento temprano de signos de peligro en los pacientes con malaria puede reducir las complicaciones y muertes, sin embargo se conoce poco acerca de su valor pronóstico para malaria complicada, especialmente en zonas de transmisión baja e inestable de malaria.
    Objetivo. Estimar el valor pronóstico de gravedad que tienen diversos signos clínicos y parasitológicos en pacientes con malaria.
    Materiales y métodos. Cohorte prospectiva con pacientes de cinco municipios de Colombia con diagnóstico de malaria por Plasmodium falciparum y P. vivax, en quienes se estudió la asociación entre signos clínicos y parasitológicos con malaria complicada.
    Resultados. Se obtuvo un modelo predictivo con

  19. Diagnosis of the Work of Education of the Personality in the Psychology Program at the University of Sancti Spíritus

    MSc. Ariadna Veloso-Rodríguez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop strategies of educational intervention to provide answers to the problems of educational practice gross in the Psychology program at the University "Jose Marti" to Sancti Spiritus (Uniss, performs a diagnostic of the educational work in such a race. For the implementation of the methods were applied level theoretical, empirical and descriptive statistics. As the main instruments used the analysis of documents, the non-structured interviews and questionnaire. It was found that the work of character education by teachers is primarily oriented to the formation of values and stimulation of the self-management of learning, which is evidence of the professional training that it disagreed with the social demands that currently has the professional of this scienceKeywords: diagnostic, educational work, career of Psychology.

  20. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Wild Canines (Fox, Jackal, and Wolf in Northeastern Iran Using Parasitological, Serological, and Molecular Methods

    Mehdi Mohebali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although many studies had been conducted on various aspects of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL in domestic dogs in the endemic areas of Iran, investigations on CVL in wild canines are rare.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2012 to 2013 in northeast of Iran where human VL is endemic. Wild canines were trapped around the areas where human VL cases had been previously identified. Wild canines were collected and examined both clinically and serologically using direct agglutination test (DAT. Microscopically examinations were performed in all the seropositive wild canines for the presence of the amastigote form of Leishmania spp. Some Leishmania sp. which had been isolated from the spleens of wild canines, were examined analyzed by conventional PCR and sequencing techniques using α-tubulin and GAPDH genes.Results: Altogether, 84 wild canines including foxes (Vulpes vulpes, n=21, Jackals (Canis aureus, n=60 and wolves (Canis lupus, n=3 were collected. Four foxes and seven jackals showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of 1:320–1:20480 in DAT. Furthermore, one fox and one jackal were parasitologically (microscopy and culture positive and L. infantum was confirmed by sequence analysis.Conclusion: The present study showed that sylvatic cycle of L. infantum had been established in the studied endemic areas of VL in northeastern Iran.

  1. A molecular and parasitological survey on cutaneous leishmaniasis patients from historical city of Kashan in Isfahan province, center of Iran

    Mohammad Reza Shiee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL for identifying the dominant Leishmania species on CL patients referred to medical health centers of historical Kashan city and suburbs located in Isfahan province in central part of Iran during 2010 to 2011. Methods: From 137 CL cases, were microscopically positive, the skin lesion serosity materials of 103 cases were cultured in monophasic culture media (RPMI 1 640. We used the PCR-RFLP method for characterization the Leishmania isolates, by using specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 primers and HAEШ as the restriction fast enzyme. DNA was extracted from 63 samples. Results: L. tropica is main species in 58 (92.1% cases and L. major is identified in 5 (7.9% cases. Indeed randomly two isolates were the species characterized as L. major produced ulcer at the base tail of BALB/c mice after 3 weeks but from three L. tropica isolates none of them produced any lesion during 6 months post inoculation. Conclusions: The parasitological, epidemiological aspect and molecular methods of this study showed that, Kashan and suburb are anthroponetic CL area despite this city located in Isfahan province as an ancient focus of zoonotic CL in Iran.

  2. Assessing transmission of lymphatic filariasis using parasitologic, serologic, and entomologic tools after mass drug administration in American Samoa.

    Mladonicky, Janice M; King, Jonathan D; Liang, Jennifer L; Chambers, Eric; Pa'au, Molisamoa; Schmaedick, Mark A; Burkot, Thomas R; Bradley, Mark; Lammie, Patrick J

    2009-05-01

    Assessing the interruption of lymphatic filariasis transmission after annual mass drug administration (MDA) requires a better understanding of how to interpret results obtained with the available diagnostic tools. We conducted parasitologic, serologic, and entomologic surveys in three villages in American Samoa after sentinel site surveys suggested filarial antigen prevalence was < 1% after five annual MDAs with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole. Antigen and antifilarial antibody prevalence ranged from 3.7% to 4.6% and from 12.5% to 14.9%, respectively, by village. Only one person was microfilaria positive. Although no children less than 10 years of age were antigen positive, antifilarial antibody prevalence in this age group was 5.1% and antibody-positive children were detected in all three villages. Wuchereria bancrofti-infected mosquitoes were also detected in all three villages. Thus, monitoring of infections in mosquitoes and antifilarial antibody levels in children may serve as indicators of local transmission and be useful for making decisions about program endpoints.

  3. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge: Bacteriological and parasitological studies after irradiation

    Wizigmann, I.; Wuersching, F.

    1975-01-01

    Comparative bacteriological studies of sewage sludge in a sewage plant have demonstrated that mechanical-biological sewage treatment reduced the total bacterial count and those of Enterococces by 2 log and the Enterobacteriaceae by 3-4 log. Frequently Salmonella could be isolated from sewage sludge. A further reduction of viable micro-organisms could be achieved by irradiation of sewage sludge ( 60 Co, gamma-radiation, 260 krad, 210 min). This reduction amounted to an average of 2 log with Enterococces and total bacterial count, and to 5 log with Enterobacteriaceae. Out of 40 samples investigated after irradiation, two contained Salmonella. The hygienic effects of the irradiation unit were demonstrated by means of a model experiment with bacterial pure cultures. Micro-organisms of different species as well as strains of the same species differ in their sensitivity to irradiation. Parasitological experiments with eggs of Ascaris suum were carried out to test the inhibitory or killing ability of the gamma rays on the developing stages of parasites

  4. Thick Smear is a Good Substitute for the Thin Smear in Parasitological Confirmation of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    de Mello, Cintia Xavier; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Mendes Júnior, Artur Augusto Velho; Miranda, Luciana de Freitas Campos; de Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes; Madeira, Maria de Fátima

    2016-07-06

    Although direct examination methods are important for diagnosing leishmaniasis, such methods are often neglected because of their low sensitivity relative to other techniques. Our study aimed to evaluate the performance of bone marrow (BM) thick smears and cytocentrifugation tests as alternatives to direct examination for diagnosing canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Ninety-two dogs exhibiting leishmaniasis seroreactivity were evaluated. The animals were euthanized; and healthy skin, spleen, popliteal lymph node, and BM puncture samples were cultured. BM cultures were used as the reference standard. Of the 92 dogs studied, 85.9% exhibited positive cultures, and Leishmania infantum (synonym Leishmania chagasi) was confirmed in all positive culture cases. The sensitivity rates for cytocentrifugation as well as thin and thick smears were 47.1%, 52.8%, and 77%, respectively. However, no association between the dogs' clinical status and culture or direct examination results was found. To our knowledge, this was the first study to use thick smears and cytocentrifugation for diagnosing CVL. Our results indicate that BM thick smears have a good sensitivity and their use reduces the time required to read slides. Therefore, thick smears can provide a rapid and safe alternative to parasitological confirmation of seroreactive dogs. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Pathological and parasitological characterization of Prosthenorchis elegans in a free-ranging marmoset Callithrix geofroyi from the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    Ayisa R. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Prosthenorchis elegans is an acanthocephalan intestinal parasite reported in neotropical primates. Despite parasitism by P. elegans having already been described in wild marmosets in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, there are no reports of this infection in wild Geoffroy’s marmoset (Callithrix geofroyi. The aim of this study is to report one case of P. elegans parasitism in a free-ranging C. geoffroyi from Brazilian Atlantic Forest in Espírito Santo state, and characterize the pathological and parasitological findings of this infection. One Geoffroy’s marmoset necropsied at the Vila Velha University’s Veterinary Pathology Laboratory presented intense chronic transmural ulcerative enteritis associated with twenty cylindrical helminths present in the jejunum and ileum. We can conclude that parasitism by P. elegans occurs in free-ranging groups of Geoffroy’s marmosets. Its infection produced severe intestinal lesions even in free-ranging marmoset and therefore is a threat to this animal’s survival in wildlife and can have some impact on primate conservation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

  6. Experience with a pilot plant for the irradiation of sewage sludge; bacteriological and parasitological studies after irradiation

    Wizigmann, I.

    1976-01-01

    Reduction of viable micro-organisms could be achieved by irradiation of sewage sludge in a pilot plant ( 60 Co gamma-radiation 300 krad, 300 min.). The reduction amounted to an average of 2 log with Enterococces and total bacterial count and to 5 log with Enterobacteriaceae. Out of 23 sludge batches from digestor II, 21 were free of Salmonella after irradiation. Of 7 sludge batches from digester I with higher level of Enterobacteriaceae and Salmonellae 5 batches still contained Salmonella after treatment. By making some alterations in the pipe system and reloading futher Cobalt 60-sources the duration of irradiation could be reduced to 65 min. while maintaining the dose level of 300 krad. Employing this altered procedure 16 batches from digestor II and 4 from digestor I were irradiated to date. Only in one of 60 samples was Salmonella detectable. The hygenic effects of the irradiation unit were confirmed by means of a model experiment with bacterial pure cultures. Microorganisms of different species as well as strains of the same species differ in their radiation-sensitivity. Parasitological experiments were conducted with Ascaris suum ova. No embryonation was noted after radiation treatment at a dose of 300 krad. (author)

  7. Parasitological and serological studies on Amoebiasis and other intestinal parasitic infections in Recife and its suburban area, northeast Brazil

    Mitsu Okazaki

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological examinations were carried out during April to August, 1987, with 187 out-patients of the IMIP hospital, located in the center of Recife City, and 464 inhabitants of several villages around Cabo City, 50 Km southeast of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Approximately 71% of the IMIP patients and 92% of the Cabo inhabitants were infected with at least one species of intestinal parasite. There was minimum difference in the prevalence rate of Trichuris trichiura between two areas, whereas the prevalence rates of Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Strongyloides stercoralis, Schistosoma mansoni and Entamoeba histolytica were higher in the inhabitants of the Cabo City area. Only Giardia lamblia was more prevalent in the out-patients of IMIP hospital. Test tube cultivation revealed that the prevalence rate of Necator americanus in both areas was much higher than that of Ancylostoma duodenale , and also that the prevalence rate of S. stercoralis of the IMIP patients and Cabo inhabitants were 4.5% and 9.6%, respectively. Six hundred and fifteen sera were serologically examined for amoebiasis by the gel diffusion precipitation test (GDP and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the antigen prepared from axenically cultured trophozoite of E. histolytica (strain HM-ITMSS. No positive reaction was observed in all of the sera as examined by GDP, while 32 out of 615 sera were positive on ELISA.

  8. Parasitological and biochemical studies on cutaneous leishmaniasis in Shara'b District, Taiz, Yemen.

    Asmaa, Qhtan; Al-Shamerii, Salwa; Al-Tag, Mohammed; Al-Shamerii, Adam; Li, Yiping; Osman, Bashir H

    2017-07-04

    The leishmaniasis is a group of diseases caused by intracellular haemoflagellate protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Leishmaniasis has diverse clinical manifestations; cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most common form of leishmaniasis which is responsible for 60% of disability-adjusted life years. CL is endemic in Yemen. In Shara'b there is no reference study available to identify the prevalence of endemic diseases and no investigation has been conducted for diagnosing the diseases. This study was conducted in villages for CL which collected randomly. The study aimed at investigating the epidemiological factors of CL in Shara'b by using questioner. Symptoms of lesions in patients suffering from CL, confirmed by laboratory tests, gave a new evidence of biochemical diagnosis in 525 villagers aged between 1 and 60 years old. Venous bloods were collected from 99 patients as well as from 51 control after an overnight fast. The percentage prevalence of CL was found 18.8%. The prevalence rate of infection among males (19.3%) was higher than females (18.40%). Younger age group (1-15) had a higher prevalence rate (20.3%) than the other age groups. Furthermore, the population with no formal education had the higher rate of infection (61% of the total). A significant increase of serum malondialdehyde (P < 0.001) in CL patients was obtained. The highest level of MDA may be due to over production of ROS and RNS results in oxidative stress and the acceleration of lipid peroxidation in CL patients. There were high prevalence rates of CL in Shara'b. The patient who had CL has been found with many changes in some biochemical levels. This study provides a clear indication on the role of MDA as an early biochemical marker of peroxidation damage occurring during CL. Increased uric acid, and catalase activity was provided of free radical.

  9. Parasitological indicators of onchocerciasis relevant to ivermectin control programmes in the Amazonian focus of Southern Venezuela.

    Vivas-Martínez, S; Basáñez, M G; Botto, C; Villegas, L; García, M; Curtis, C F

    2000-11-01

    In the previous paper it was concluded that those aged > or = 15 years of both sexes could comprise the indicator group for rapid epidemiological assessment (REA) of onchocerciasis in the Amazonian focus. This paper explores relationships between community microfilarial (mf) prevalence, intensity, and nodule prevalence in 20 Yanomami communities, that would allow identification of REA methods in the region. The mean nodule ratio (prevalence of nodules/prevalence of mf) was 0.54 when onchocercomata in the indicator group were considered. The Spearman correlation coefficient between mf and nodule prevalence was 0.686 (P = 0.001). Palpation of nodules had 92 % specificity and 32 % sensitivity when compared to skin-snipping for the diagnosis of onchocerciasis. The predictive value positive increased from 75 % to 81 % when the indicator group was used. A microfilarial prevalence > 75 % in this group would be indicative of hyperendemic status in the village, between 30 and 75 % of mesoendemicity, and 10 % would suggest a community mf prevalence > 20 % with a sensitivity of 85 % and a specificity of 71 %. A multiple linear regression model of the arc-sine transformed mf prevalence in the village (all ages) on nodule prevalence in those aged > or = 15 years and altitude of the village explained 72 % of the variance. The model combining nodule and altitudinal information had a sensitivity of 92 % and a specificity of 71 % in comparison to an estimated mf prevalence of 21 % or more. It is suggested that the usefulness of the REA methods proposed be assessed in other areas of the Amazonian onchocerciasis focus.

  10. Strongyloidiasis in Po valley: serological and parasitological screening in blood donors of Cremona

    Paolo Mangoni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud. Strongyloides stercoralis is a ubiquitous nematode that is present also in Italy in a hypoendemic form, especially in the Po Valley. It is responsable for strongyloidiasis, an intestinal parasitosis usually asymptomatic or paucy-symptomatic that occasionally can cause a hyperinfestation syndrome and disseminated disease. Objectives. To determine the presence of S. stercoralis in asympomatic people afferent to the Cremona hospital by serological screening and direct microscopic search. Study Design. In the period from December 1, 2010 to June 30, 2011 we screened 154 donors with absolute eosinophilia >500/μL and percentage of eosinophils 9%. The research of anti-S. stercoralis antibodies was performed through an ELISA method (S.ratti Bordier Products. Donors positive to the screening test were tested for direct parasite search through with phormol-ethyl acetate stool concentration (FEA and culture on S. stercoralis Agar (Biolife, Milan. Results. 13 donors were positive to the screening test (8.4%. 10 of these 13 donors performed coproparassitologic examination. S. stercoralis was identified in the stools of 3/10 tested patients through culture and in 2/10 through FEA. Conclusions. The study results are in line with the data reported in the literature for similar geographic areas. Among the risk factors are to be counted the type of job (agriculture, and the domicile in the rural environment. The culture in S. stercoralis Agar has proved much more sensitive than FEA. The serological diagnosis represent a valuable contribution to traditional coproparassitologic examination, particularlywhen screening asymptomatic individuals at risk.

  11. Diagnosis and Incidence of Spondylosis and Cervical Disc Disorders in the University Clinical Hospital in Olsztyn, in Years 2011–2015

    Włodarczyk, Andrzej; Wojtkiewicz, Joanna

    2018-01-01

    Background Disorders connected with the musculoskeletal and central nervous system dysfunction are the most significant clinical problem worldwide. Our earlier research has shown that back and spinal disorders and lumbar disc disorders were most frequently diagnosed using MRI scanner at the University Clinical Hospital (UCH) in Olsztyn in years 2011–2015. We have also observed that another two diseases of spinal column, spondylosis and cervical disc disorders, were also very prevalent. The main objective of this work was to analyze the prevalence of spondylosis and cervical disc disorders in the study population diagnosed at UCH in years 2011–2015. Methods The digital database including patients' diagnostic and demographic information was generated based on MRI reports from years 2011–2015 and analyzed using SPSS software. Results Within the study group (n = 13298) the most frequently MRI-diagnosed diseases were musculoskeletal group (M00–M99; n = 7711; 57,98%) and cervical disc disorders (M50; n = 1659; 12,47%) and spondylosis (M47, n = 611; 4,59%). More women (67%) than men (33%) were enrolled in the study, and the largest fraction of the study population was in the range of 51–60 years, with about 1/3 of cases of both diseases diagnosed in early age range of 31–40 years. Conclusion Significant number of patients presenting with either of the spine disorders at the young age of 31–40 years points to the necessity of introducing methods preventing disorders of the vertebral column at younger age, preferably at school age. PMID:29770333

  12. Diagnosis and Incidence of Spondylosis and Cervical Disc Disorders in the University Clinical Hospital in Olsztyn, in Years 2011–2015

    Małgorzata Kolenkiewicz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Disorders connected with the musculoskeletal and central nervous system dysfunction are the most significant clinical problem worldwide. Our earlier research has shown that back and spinal disorders and lumbar disc disorders were most frequently diagnosed using MRI scanner at the University Clinical Hospital (UCH in Olsztyn in years 2011–2015. We have also observed that another two diseases of spinal column, spondylosis and cervical disc disorders, were also very prevalent. The main objective of this work was to analyze the prevalence of spondylosis and cervical disc disorders in the study population diagnosed at UCH in years 2011–2015. Methods. The digital database including patients’ diagnostic and demographic information was generated based on MRI reports from years 2011–2015 and analyzed using SPSS software. Results. Within the study group (n=13298 the most frequently MRI-diagnosed diseases were musculoskeletal group (M00–M99; n=7711; 57,98% and cervical disc disorders (M50; n=1659; 12,47% and spondylosis (M47, n=611; 4,59%. More women (67% than men (33% were enrolled in the study, and the largest fraction of the study population was in the range of 51–60 years, with about 1/3 of cases of both diseases diagnosed in early age range of 31–40 years. Conclusion. Significant number of patients presenting with either of the spine disorders at the young age of 31–40 years points to the necessity of introducing methods preventing disorders of the vertebral column at younger age, preferably at school age.

  13. Accuracy of molecular biology techniques for the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Buonfrate, Dora; Requena-Mendez, Ana; Angheben, Andrea; Cinquini, Michela; Cruciani, Mario; Fittipaldo, Andrea; Giorli, Giovanni; Gobbi, Federico; Piubelli, Chiara; Bisoffi, Zeno

    2018-02-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis infection is a neglected tropical disease which can lead to severe symptoms and even death in immunosuppressed people. Unfortunately, its diagnosis is hampered by the lack of a gold standard, as the sensitivity of traditional parasitological tests (including microscopic examination of stool samples and coproculture) is low. Hence, alternative diagnostic methods, such as molecular biology techniques (mostly polymerase chain reaction, PCR) have been implemented. However, there are discrepancies in the reported accuracy of PCR. A systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the accuracy of PCR for the diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (record: CRD42016054298). Fourteen studies, 12 of which evaluating real-time PCR, were included in the analysis. The specificity of the techniques resulted high (ranging from 93 to 95%, according to the reference test(s) used). When all molecular techniques were compared to parasitological methods, the sensitivity of PCR was assessed at 71.8% (95% CI 52.2-85.5), that decreased to 61.8% (95% CI 42.0-78.4) when serology was added among the reference tests. Similarly, sensitivity of real-time PCR resulted 64.4% (95% CI 46.2-77.7) when compared to parasitological methods only, 56.5% (95% CI 39.2-72.4) including serology. PCR might not be suitable for screening purpose, whereas it might have a role as a confirmatory test.

  14. Parasitological and molecular detection of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs of Recife, Pernambuco and evaluation of risk factors associated

    Vanessa Carla Lima da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to detect the presence of Babesia canis vogeli in dogs from Recife, Pernambuco via molecular and parasitological detection methods, and to assess the risk factors associated with this parasite. A total of 146 dogs (male and female of varying breeds and ages that presented clinical symptoms of babesiosis were assessed at a clinical care center in the Veterinary School Hospital. Blood was obtained via venopuncture for hemoparasite detection and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Using a commercial kit, DNA was extracted from blood samples. For the PCR reaction, an approximately 590 base pair long genetic sequence was used to detect the presence of B. canis vogeli. The forward primer, denoted as BAB1 (5’-GTG AAC CTT ATC ACT TAA AGG-3’, was specific for a conserved region on the 18S rRNA gene of Babesia spp., and the antisense primer was denoted as BAB4 (5’-CAA CTC CTC CAC GCA ATC G-3’. PCR results suggested that the percentage of Babesia canis vogeli infection was 4.8%. Through descriptive statistical analysis of the data, we observed that there was higher frequency of parasite infection associated with male dogs above two years of age, with a defined breed, from the countryside, are domiciled, and also suffer from tick infestation. We conclude that regardless of the type of risk factor, babesiosis can be found throughout Recife, Pernambuco, and its prevalence does not vary in most regions of Brazil. Our results indicate that PCR is a sensitive test for the detection of blood parasites, and should be performed as a clinical routine.

  15. Anthrax: Diagnosis

    ... Diagnosis Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Doctors in the United States rarely see a patient with anthrax. CDC Guidance and case definitions are available to help doctors diagnose anthrax, take ...

  16. Application of radioisotopes in the diagnosis of fascioliasis. Part of a coordinated programme on isotopes and radiation in animal parasitology and immunology

    Tomanek, J.

    1977-02-01

    Fascioliasis is an important parasitic disease of grazing cattle and sheep. The experimental approach included the production of metacercariae of Fasciola hepatica from Lymnae tomentosa, infection of experimental animals, separation of fractions from whole Fasciola hepatica antigen by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100 and G-200, labelling of antigens with 125 I and examination of experimentally infected sheep and other animals for antibodies by modified radioactive single radial diffusion, indirect radioimmunodiffusion and radioactive antigen microprecipitin assay by means of direct radioimmunodiffusion and immunodiffusion using unlabelled antigen. Sufficient quantities of fluke for the production of antigen were obtained only from sheep. Infected rabbits, guinea pigs and rats yielded relatively few flukes. Labelling of the antigenic fraction can be regarded as fairly successful but the specific radioactivity of the fractions needs to be increased. Results from antibodies in infected animals by indirect radioimmunodiffusion and modified radioactive single diffusion proved not fully specific. Radioactive antigen microprecipitin assay would appear to differentiate between negative and positive sera

  17. Fascioliasis - a contribution to the differential diagnosis of focal liver lesions

    Schleppi, V.; Neufang, O.; Scheerer, W.; Lossnitzer, K.

    1987-02-01

    The case of a 60 years old patient with a rare parasitosis, fascioliasis hepatica, is presented. The clinical, parasitologic, radiologic and histologic findings are discussed with reference to the literature. The diagnosis was established by examination of the faeces of the patient. The radiologic examinations document the extent of the organic involvement, in the presented case that of the liver. The finding of circumscribed hypodense liver lesions can be decisive for the further diagnostic proceedings only in the light of an appropriate history and typical laboratory findings.

  18. Fascioliasis - a contribution to the differential diagnosis of focal liver lesions

    Schleppi, V.; Neufang, O.; Scheerer, W.; Lossnitzer, K.

    1987-01-01

    The case of a 60 years old patient with a rare parasitosis, fascioliasis hepatica, is presented. The clinical, parasitologic, radiologic and histologic findings are discussed with reference to the literature. The diagnosis was established by examination of the faeces of the patient. The radiologic examinations document the extent of the organic involvement, in the presented case that of the liver. The finding of circumscribed hypodense liver lesions can be decisive for the further diagnostic proceedings only in the light of an appropriate history and typical laboratory findings. (orig.) [de

  19. Fault diagnosis

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  20. Simple, but not easy - Opportunities and challenges from teachers' and students' perspectives in the 21st century of veterinary parasitology teaching.

    Strube, Christina; Raue, Katharina; Janecek, Elisabeth

    2018-03-15

    One of the main goals in academia is, and has been, high quality education of students to provide theoretical and practical knowledge essential for professional life. Achieving this goal is highly dependent on teaching procedures and, consequently, on a constant adaptation of teaching styles to align to technical advances and cutting-edge topics. Technical advances can strongly influence teaching and learning in the complex subject area of veterinary parasitology. Today's students are provided with extensive, digital lecture notes, and e-learning offers including virtual microscope technology to independently obtain intensified theoretical knowledge and understanding. As veterinary parasitology is also highly reliant on proficient practical skills, lectures with integrated diagnostic exercises are mandatory. Nowadays, such practical skills, such as carrying out faecal examination procedures, can be strengthened by having access to clinical skills labs. Advances such as digital lecture notes, e-learning and virtual microscopes do not only provide new, innovative opportunities, but can also comprise challenges. In this context, provision of sufficient relevant studying material may discourage students to take on responsibilities for autonomous gathering of information. Besides technical advances, 'Zeitgeist' changes are shaping teaching contents, which are progressively expanding as zoonoses are increasingly being focused on. With the aim of adopting the one-health concept, students today are expected not only to bear responsibilities for animals, but also for their owners and public health. This article will cast light on some key challenges and opportunities in modern veterinary parasitology teaching from the teachers´ and the students´ perspectives. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prenatal Diagnosis

    Ozge Ozalp Yuregir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal diagnosis is the process of determining the health or disease status of the fetus or embryo before birth. The purpose is early detection of diseases and early intervention when required. Prenatal genetic tests comprise of cytogenetic (chromosome assessment and molecular (DNA mutation analysis tests. Prenatal testing enables the early diagnosis of many diseases in risky pregnancies. Furthermore, in the event of a disease, diagnosing prenatally will facilitate the planning of necessary precautions and treatments, both before and after birth. Upon prenatal diagnosis of some diseases, termination of the pregnancy could be possible according to the family's wishes and within the legal frameworks. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(1.000: 80-94

  2. Molecular diagnosis of cattle trypanosomes in Venezuela: evidences of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax infections.

    Ramírez-Iglesias, J R; Eleizalde, M C; Reyna-Bello, A; Mendoza, M

    2017-06-01

    In South America Trypanosoma evansi has been determined by molecular methods in cattle from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Peru, reason for which the presence of this parasite is not excluded in Venezuelan livestock. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform parasitological and molecular diagnosis of cattle trypanosomosis in small livestock units from two regions in this country. The parasitological diagnosis was carried out by MHCT and the molecular by PCR using genus-specific ITS1 primers that differentiate T. vivax and T. evansi infections. 47 cattle were evaluated in the "Laguneta de la Montaña" sector, Miranda State, where 3 animals were diagnosed as positive (6.4 %) by MHCT and 14 (30 %) by PCR as Trypanosoma spp., out of which 9 animals resulted positive for T. vivax , 3 for T. evansi and 2 with double infections. Whilst in the "San Casimiro" sector, State of Aragua, out of the 38 cattle evaluated 7 animals were diagnosed as positive (18.4 %) by MHCT and 19 (50 %) by PCR, determining only the presence of T. evansi in this locality. The molecular diagnosis by PCR using ITS1 primers allowed T. evansi detection in cattle field populations, which suggests the possible role of these animals as reservoirs in the epidemiology of the disease caused by T. evansi in Venezuela.

  3. Ecological aspects of parasitology

    Kennedy, Clive Russell

    1976-01-01

    ... of these habitats that enable them to cope with and overcome these difficulties. The third section is concerned with population ecology, and emphasises that although individual parasites have to face and overcome particular problems, parasitism is essentially a dynamic relationship between two species populations.

  4. Journal of Parasitology

    Cheadle, M. A.; Lindsay, D. S.; Greiner, E. C.

    2006-01-01

    Serum was collected from laboratory-reared Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) to determine whether experimentally infected opossums shedding Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts develop serum antibodies to S. neurona merozoite antigens. Three opossums were fed muscles from nine-banded armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), and 5 were fed muscles from striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis). Serum was also collected from 26 automobile-killed opossums to determine whether antibodies to S. neurona were p...

  5. Journal of Parasitology

    Dubey, J. P.; Lindsay, D. S.; Kwok, O. C. H.; Shen, S. K.

    2001-01-01

    The dose-related infectivity of Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts and merozoites. of 2 recent isolates of S. neurona was compared in gamma interferon knockout (KO) mice. Tenfold dilutions of sporocysts or merozoites were bioassayed in mice, cell culture, or both. All 8 mice, fed 1,000 sporocysts, developed neurological signs with demonstrable S. neurona in their tissues. Of 24 mice fed low numbers of sporocysts. (100, 10, 1), 18 became ill by 4 wk postinoculation, and S. neurona was demonstrated...

  6. Ecological aspects of parasitology

    Kennedy, Clive Russell

    1976-01-01

    .... The second section is concerned with the specific problems and difficulties posed by the major organs and tissues occupied by parasites, and the tactical solutions adopted by parasites in each...

  7. SARS - Diagnosis

    SARS - Diagnosis. Mainly by exclusion of known causes of atypical pneumonia; * X ray Chest; * PCR on body fluids- primers defined by WHO centres available from website.-ve result does not exclude SARS. * Sequencing of amplicons; * Viral Cultures – demanding; * Antibody tests.

  8. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e parasitológicos da doença de Chagas em Mato Grosso do Sul Epidemiological, clinical and parasitological aspects of Chagas' disease in Mato Grosso do Sul State

    Maurício Antonio Pompilio

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e parasitológicos da doença de Chagas crônica, em pacientes do Hospital Universitário da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, realizamos um estudo seccional envolvendo 120 chagásicos e 120 controles não-chagásicos, de ambos os sexos, com idades de 16 a 82 anos. Os aspectos epidemiológicos foram avaliados por questionário, a cardiopatia por exame clínico, eletrocardiograma convencional, radiologia e ecodopplercardiograma e a presença de Trypanosoma cruzi no sangue por xenodiagnóstico e teste da reação em cadeia da polimerase. Os resultados mostraram predominância de alóctones com baixa escolaridade e referência de contato prévio com triatomíneos entre os chagásicos. Abortamento espontâneo foi mais freqüente nas mulheres chagásicas. A cardiopatia devido ao componente chagásico foi estimada em 20,2%. Apresentou-se com 7,5% de cardiomegalia, 6,2% de aneurisma de ventrículo esquerdo e com predominância de dispnéia, palpitações e hipertensão arterial. O xenodiagnóstico foi positivo em 26,1% dos chagásicos enquanto a PCR foi positiva em 53,7%. A análise dos resultados indicou que a doença de Chagas no grupo estudado apresenta características clínicas e parasitológicas que revelam peculiaridades regionais.With the objective of evaluating epidemiologic, clinical and parasitologic aspects of chronic Chagas' disease in patients from the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, a cross-sectional study was performed with groups of 120 chagasic and non-chagasic patients aged from 16 to 82 years. Epidemiologic aspects were evaluated by means of a questionnaire, cardiopathy by clinical examination, conventional electrocardiogram, radiology and Doppler echocardiograms (only in chagasic patients and the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi in the blood stream by way of xenodiagnosis and polymerase chain reaction test. The results

  9. Course of Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi Infection after Treatment Based on Parasitological and Serological Tests: A Systematic Review of Follow-Up Studies.

    Yanina Sguassero

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi. It is endemic in Latin American countries outside the Caribbean. The current criterion for cure in the chronic phase of the disease is the negativization of at least two serological tests such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IIF and indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA. The serological evolution of treated subjects with chronic T. cruzi infection is variable. Treatment failure is indicated by a positive parasitological and/or molecular test (persistence of parasitemia.To summarize the pattern of response to treatment of parasitological, molecular and serological tests performed during the follow-up of subjects with chronic T. cruzi infection.Electronic searches in relevant databases and screening of citations of potentially eligible articles were accomplished. Organizations focusing on neglected infectious diseases were asked for help in identifying relevant studies. Included studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs, quasi-RCTs, and cohort studies involving adults and children with chronic infection who received trypanocidal treatment (benznidazole or nifurtimox and were followed over time. The assessment of risk of bias was performed separately for each study design. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool and the guidelines developed by Hayden et al. were used. Two reviewers extracted all data independently. A third review author was consulted in case of discordant opinion. Additional analyses were defined in ad-hoc basis. Scatter plots for percentage of positive parasitological and molecular tests and for negative serological tests were developed by using the lowess curve technique. Heterogeneity was measured by I2. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO, an international prospective register of systematic review protocols (Registration Number CRD42012002162.Out of 2,136 citations screened, 54 studies (six RCTs

  10. Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: clinical, parasitological, therapeutical and epidemiological findings (1977-1983

    Mauro C. A. Marzochi

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Forty dogs from the periphery of the city of Rio de Janeiro were studied. All dogs where diagnosed as positive for leishmaniasis either parasitologically and/or serologically. Among them, 19 came from areas where only Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL occurs (Realengo, Bangu, Senador Camará. Clinical signs of the disease were seen in 36.8% of the cases, including emaciation - 100%, lymphadenopathy and depilation - 85.7%. The other 21 dogs came from an area (Campo Grande where both diseases (VL, and American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis - ACL occur. Clinical signs of the disease, mainly cutaneous or mucocutaneous ulcers were seen in 76.2% of the cases. Leishmania parasites were found in 39 cases: 22% in viscera, 42.5% in viscera and normal skin and 35% in cutaneous or mucocutaneous ulcers. All the Leishmania stocks isolated from dogs which came from Realengo, Bangu, Senador Camará (VL area, and from Campo Grande (VL + ACL area were characterized as L. donovani (except in one case according to their schizodeme, zymodeme and serodeme. The only stock characterized as L. b. braziliensis, was isolated from the lymph node of a dog from Campo Grande with visceral disease and without skin lesions. Antimony therapy attempted in eight Leishmania donovani positive dogs was unsuccessful.Durante inquéritos caninos realizados na periferia da cidade do Rio de Janeiro, foram estudados clínica e laboratorialmente 40 cães. Todos apresentavam diagnóstico parasitológico e/ou sorológico de leishmaniose. Dentre esses, 19 procediam de áreas de ocorrência de leishmaniose visceral (LV - Realengo, Bangu e Senador Camará. Sinais clínicos sugestivos da infecção foram observados em 36,8% deles (incluindo emagrecimento - 100%, linfadenopatia e depilação - 85,7%. Outros 21 cães procediam da área de Campo Grande onde tanto a LV como a leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA ocorrem. Sinais clínicos da infecção por Leishmania, principalmente ulcerações cutâneas e

  11. Paediatric neuro-imaging: Diagnosis

    S.K. Misser

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We congratulate Professor Savvas Andronikou of the Department of Radiology, University of Pretoria, for his spot-on diagnosis, for which he receives the award of R1 000 from the RSSA. Dr Misser elaborates below on the images and findings. Please refer to page 45 of the March 2013 issue of the SAJR for the investigative images.

  12. EAMJ Diagnosis Sep 09.indd

    2009-09-01

    Sep 1, 2009 ... East African Medical Journal Vol. 86 No. 9 September 2009. DIAGNOSIS OF DUAL HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS TYPES 1 AND 2 INFECTIONS IN A RESOURCE-. LIMITED SETTING. K. W. C. Sagoe, MSc, Lecturer, Department of Microbiology (Clinical Virology Laboratory), University of Ghana ...

  13. Assessment of laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin in pregnancy

    2014-01-01

    Background The different laboratory methods used in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis have variable sensitivity and specificity. There is no evidence to prove that maternal treatment reduces the risk of fetal infection. The purpose of this study was to assess methods for the confirmation of congenital toxoplasmosis after maternal treatment with spiramycin during pregnancy, and to evaluate the effect of this treatment on clinical manifestations of the disease in newborns (NB). Methods This was a community-based, cross-sectional study of acute toxoplasmosis in newborns at risk of acquiring congenital infection. Participating newborns were born in the Clinical Hospital Maternity Ward of the Federal University of Goiás. Eligible participants were divided into 2 groups: group 1 consisted of 44 newborns born to mothers treated with spiramycin during pregnancy and group 2 consisted of 24 newborns born to mothers not treated with spiramycin during pregnancy because the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was not performed. The sensitivity and specifity of PCR for T. gondii DNA in peripheral blood and serological testing for specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgA, and the effects of maternal spiramycin treatment on these parameters, were determined by associating test results with clinical manifestations of disease. Results The sensitivity of the markers (T. gondii DNA detected by PCR, and the presence of specific anti-T. gondii IgM and IgA) for congenital toxoplasmosis was higher in group 2 than in group 1 (31.6, 68.4, 36.8% and 3.7, 25.9, 11.1% respectively). Even with a low PCR sensitivity, the group 2 results indicate the importance of developing new techniques for the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns. Within group 1, 70.4% of the infected newborns were asymptomatic and, in group 2, 68.4% showed clinical manifestations of congenital toxoplasmosis. Conclusions The higher proportion of infants without clinical symptoms in group 1 (70.4%) suggests the

  14. prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of discordant occipital encephalocele

    drclement

    PRENATAL ULTRASOUND DIAGNOSIS OF DISCORDANT OCCIPITAL. ENCEPHALOCELE IN MULTIPLE PREGNANCY - A CASE REPORT. *O.U Ogbeide (MBBS, FMCR), *EJ IKUBOR (MBBS). *Department of Radiology University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin-City, Nigeria. Correspondence: Dr Ogbeide Osesogie ...

  15. Evaluation of PCR for cutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis and species identification using filter paper samples in Panama, Central America.

    Miranda, A; Saldaña, A; González, K; Paz, H; Santamaría, G; Samudio, F; Calzada, J E

    2012-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major vectorborne disease in Panama. In this study, the diagnostic performance and usefulness of two DNA extraction procedures from skin scraping samples collected on FTA filter paper for subsequent PCR diagnosis of CL was evaluated. A positive CL laboratory diagnosis was based on a positive parasitological test (Giemsa-stained smears or in vitro culture) and/or positive PCR test performed from skin scrapings collected in TE buffer (PCR-TE). Of 100 patients with skin lesions suggestive of CL, 82 (82%) were confirmed as CL positive. The sensitivity was calculated for each of the PCR approaches from samples collected on filter paper. The highest sensitivity was achieved by PCR-FTA processed by Chelex 100 (PCR-Chelex) (0.94). PCR-FTA extracted using the FTA purification reagent presented a lower sensitivity (0.60). Good concordance between routine PCR-TE and PCR-Chelex was observed (percent agreement=0.88, κ index=0.65). In conclusion, use of FTA filter paper for skin scraping collection combined with PCR is a reliable and convenient method for CL diagnosis in Panama, with comparable performance to the routine PCR method and with improved sensitivity compared with those of conventional parasitological methods. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Blastocystis Isolates from Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and from Asymptomatic Carriers Exhibit Similar Parasitological Loads, but Significantly Different Generation Times and Genetic Variability across Multiple Subtypes.

    Gie-Bele Vargas-Sanchez

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp is a common intestinal parasite of humans and animals that has been associated to the etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS; however, some studies have not found this association. Furthermore, many biological features of Blastocystis are little known. The objective of present study was to assess the generation times of Blastocystis cultures, from IBS patients and from asymptomatic carriers. A total of 100 isolates were obtained from 50 IBS patients and from 50 asymptomatic carriers. Up to 50 mg of feces from each participant were cultured in Barret's and in Pavlova's media during 48 h. Initial and final parasitological load were measured by microscopy and by quantitative PCR. Amplicons were purified, sequenced and submitted to GenBank; sequences were analysed for genetic diversity and a Bayesian inference allowed identifying genetic subtypes (ST. Generation times for Blastocystis isolates in both media, based on microscopic measures and molecular assays, were calculated. The clinical symptoms of IBS patients and distribution of Blastocystis ST 1, 2 and 3 in both groups was comparable to previous reports. Interestingly, the group of cases showed scarce mean nucleotide diversity (π as compared to the control group (0.011±0.016 and 0.118±0.177, respectively, whilst high gene flow and small genetic differentiation indexes between different ST were found. Besides, Tajima's D test showed negative values for ST1-ST3. No statistical differences regarding parasitological load between cases and controls in both media, as searched by microscopy and by qPCR, were detected except that parasites grew faster in Barret's than in Pavlova's medium. Interestingly, slow growth of isolates recovered from cases in comparison to those of controls was observed (p<0.05. We propose that generation times of Blastocystis might be easily affected by intestinal environmental changes due to IBS probably because virulent strains with slow growth may be

  17. Issues in practical model-based diagnosis

    Bakker, R.R.; Bakker, R.R.; van den Bempt, P.C.A.; van den Bempt, P.C.A.; Mars, Nicolaas; Out, D.-J.; Out, D.J.; van Soest, D.C.; van Soes, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The model-based diagnosis project at the University of Twente has been directed at improving the practical usefulness of model-based diagnosis. In cooperation with industrial partners, the research addressed the modeling problem and the efficiency problem in model-based reasoning. Main results of

  18. Concussion diagnosis and management

    Mann, Aneetinder; Tator, Charles H.; Carson, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the knowledge of, attitudes toward, and learning needs for concussion diagnosis and management among family medicine residents. Design E-mail survey. Setting University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants Family medicine residents (N = 348). Main outcome measures To describe relationships between awareness of concussion management and lifestyle, education background, and residency placement, t tests and 2 tests were used as appropriate. Linear regression was used to compare self-reported concussion knowledge with knowledge scores. Thematic analysis was used to interpret answers to the qualitative question asking residents to describe challenges they foresee physicians facing when diagnosing and managing concussion. Results The residents who responded (n = 73, response rate 21%) correctly answered an average of 5.2 questions out of 9 (58%) regarding the diagnosis and management of concussion. Postgraduate year, sex, personal history of concussion, and clinical exposure to concussion were not significant factors in predicting the number of correct answers. Several misconceptions and knowledge gaps were revealed. Of residents who responded, 71% did not recognize chronic traumatic encephalopathy and only 63% recognized second-impact syndrome as consequences of repetitive concussions. Moreover, 32% of residents did not think that every individual with a concussion should see a physician as part of management. Knowledge scores did not predict self-reported concussion knowledge. Thematic analysis revealed 4 themes related to the challenges of concussion diagnosis and management: the nonspecificity and vagueness of symptoms, lack of formal diagnostic criteria, patient compliance with management, and counseling patients with respect to return to play, work, or learning. Conclusion We found substantial gaps in knowledge surrounding concussion diagnosis and management among family medicine residents. This lack of knowledge should be addressed at

  19. Adoption of rapid diagnostic tests for the diagnosis of malaria, a preliminary analysis of the Global Fund program data, 2005 to 2010.

    Jinkou Zhao

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization Guidelines for the Treatment of Malaria, in 2006 and 2010, recommend parasitological confirmation of malaria before commencing treatment. Although microscopy has been the mainstay of malaria diagnostics, the magnitude of diagnostic scale up required to follow the Guidelines suggests that rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs will be a large component. This study analyzes the adoption of rapid diagnostic testing in malaria programs supported by the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund, the leading international funder of malaria control globally.We analyzed, for the period 2005 to 2010, Global Fund programmatic data for 81 countries on the quantity of RDTs planned; actual quantities of RDTs and artemisinin-based combination treatments (ACTs procured in 2009 and 2010; RDT-related activities including RDTs distributed, RDTs used, total diagnostic tests including RDTs and microscopy performed, health facilities equipped with RDTs; personnel trained to perform rapid diagnostic malaria test; and grant budgets allocated to malaria diagnosis. In 2010, diagnosis accounted for 5.2% of malaria grant budget. From 2005 to 2010, the procurement plans include148 million RDTs through 96 malaria grants in 81 countries. Around 115 million parasitological tests, including RDTs, had reportedly been performed from 2005 to 2010. Over this period, 123,132 health facilities were equipped with RDTs and 137,140 health personnel had been trained to perform RDT examinations. In 2009 and 2010, 41 million RDTs and 136 million ACTs were purchased. The ratio of procured RDTs to ACTs was 0.26 in 2009 and 0.34 in 2010.Global Fund financing has enabled 81 malaria-endemic countries to adopt WHO guidelines by investing in RDTs for malaria diagnosis, thereby helping improve case management of acute febrile illness in children. However, roll-out of parasitological diagnosis lags behind the roll-out of ACT-based treatment, and will

  20. Differential diagnosis

    Abdallah Adra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal uterine bleeding may be acute or chronic accounting for up to 30% of outpatient visits to gynecologists. Hyperprolactinemia is one of the most common endocrine disorders associated with ovulatory dysfunction that results in menstrual irregularities. Prior to initiating treatment, the various causes (physiologic, pathologic, pharmacologic, or idiopathic of hyperprolactinemia must be elucidated. Prolactin is a stress hormone that increases in response to stressful conditions; therefore, while collecting samples it is necessary to reduce venipuncture stress. A thorough patient history and physical examination will help to identify the cause and to direct therapy. Imaging results must always be assessed along with a patient’s clinical history and biochemical parameters when a pituitary tumor is suspected. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice for the diagnosis of microprolactinomas and macroprolactinomas in both initial assessment and follow-up. Several drugs may cause a significant increase in serum prolactin concentration. If clinically feasible, the drug should be discontinued; if this is not possible, it should be substituted with a drug of similar action that does not cause hyperprolactinemia. Prolactinomas are the most common cause of pituitary adenomas affecting women of fertile age leading to significant elevations in prolactin that warrant treatment. Idiopathic hyperprolactinemia may be observed in the presence of elevated serum prolactin levels and in the absence of any other recognized cause of increased prolactin secretion. Dopamine agonists are the mainstay of therapy in prolactinomas and symptomatic idiopathic hyperprolactinemia because they normalize serum prolactin, effectively shrink prolactinomas and normalize gonadal function (i.e. menstruation.

  1. Computed tomography (CT) and diastematomyelia's diagnosis

    Santos, M.B. dos; Luca, V. de; Ferreira, M.A.S.; Barros, A.P. de

    1982-01-01

    After a case of diastematomyelia observed at the University Hospital (Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) a review is done of the pertaining literature, and the contribution of the computed tomography for the diagnosis of this disease is emphasized. (Author) [pt

  2. Molecular Diagnosis of Phytoplasmas

    C. Marzachì

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplasmas are wall-less prokaryotes associated with diseases in numerous plant species worldwide. In nature they are transmitted by phloem-sucking insects. Yellowing, decline, witches’ broom, leaf curl, floral virescence and phyllody are the most conspicuous symptoms associated with phytoplasmas, although infections are sometimes asymptomatic. Since phytoplasmas cannot be cultured in vitro, molecular techniques are needed for their diagnosis and characterization. The titer of phytoplasma cells in the phloem of infected plants may vary according to the season and the plant species, and it is often very low in woody hosts. Different DNA extraction procedures have therefore been tried out to obtain phytoplasma DNA at a concentration and purity high enough for effective diagnosis. DNA/DNA hybridization methods were reported in the nineties to be appropriate for the detection of phytoplasmas, but at present PCR is considered the most suitable. Universal and group-specific primers have been designed on the rRNA operon of the phytoplasma genome and on plasmid sequences. RFLP analysis of the obtained amplicons has classified these pathogens into major 16Sr RNA groups. Group-specific primers have also been designed on other genomic sequences. PCR is a very sensitive technique, but due to the low titre of phytoplasmas a further increase in sensitivity may be required for accurate diagnosis. This is routinely obtained with a second round of PCR (nested PCR. The drawback of nested PCR is that there is a greater chance of obtaining false positives due to contamination. Many authors have therefore developed protocols based on hybridization (PCR/dot blot or serological approaches (PCR/ELISA to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the direct PCR, reducing the risks due to nested PCR. Real time PCR protocols may also improve the sensitivity and specificity of the direct PCR assay.

  3. Early diagnosis of leptospirosis

    Andrea Babic-Erceg

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 25-years old man from Zagreb, Croatia, was admitted to the University Hospital for Infectious Diseases four days after the onset of symptoms such as fever, intense pain in the calves and anuria. The patient owned a rabbit and, before the onset of the disease, repaired some rubber pipes damaged by rodents. At admission, he had a severe clinical picture with fever, hypotension, jaundice, immobility, and pain in leg muscles. Treatment with ceftriaxone was initiated in combination with volume restitution. Renal failure soon ensued. Consequently continuous venovenous hemodiaphiltration therapy was performed. Due to acute respiratory distress syndrome, the patient was mechanically ventilated. The patient’s condition gradually improved and he recovered fully from multi-organ failure. Diagnosis was confirmed by a microscopic agglutination test (MAT covering 15 leptospira serovars and real-time polymerase-chain reaction (PCR. The first serum sample taken on day 6 tested negative for leptospira, while PCR showed positive results for leptospiral DNA. The second serum sample taken on day 13 tested positive for serovar Canicola serogroup Canicola, serovar Patoc, serovar Grippotyphosa serogroup Grippotyphosa and serovar Tarassovi serogroup Tarassovi (titre 4000, 4000, 1000 and 2000, respectively, while PCR was negative. This report highlights the benefits of combining MAT and PCR methods in early diagnosis of leptospirosis.

  4. A case of probable mixed-infection with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp.: CT and parasitological findings.

    Kim, Tae Yun; Lee, Yun-Sik; Yun, Ji Hye; Kim, Jeong Ju; Choi, Won Hyung; Oh, In Hwan; Song, Hyun Ouk; Chu, Jong Phil

    2010-06-01

    We report here a human case probably mixed-infected with Clonorchis sinensis and Fasciola sp. who was diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) scan, serological findings, and/or fecal examination. The patient was a 43-year-old Korean female and was admitted to Kyung Hee University Hospital with the complaints of fever and abdominal pain. On admission, marked eosinophilia was noted in her peripheral blood. CT scan showed specific lesions for clonorchiasis and fascioliasis in the liver, along with lesions suggestive of amebic abscess. Micro-ELISA revealed positive results for the 2 helminthic infections. Eggs of C. sinensis and trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica were observed in the stool. Treatment with praziquantel followed by metronidazole and tinidazole reduced abnormalities in the liver and eosinophilia. This is the first case report of a possible co-infection with 2 kinds of liver flukes in the Republic of Korea.

  5. Parasitological and immunological effects induced by immunization of Mandrillus sphinx against the human filarial Loa loa using infective stage larvae irradiated at 40 krad

    Akue J.P

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Six mandrills were immunized with 150 Loa loa infective stage larvae (L3 irradiated with 40 Krad, and challenged with 100 L3, 60 days after initial vaccination. The parasitological outcome of this immunization was compared to results from six mandrills infected with normal L3. No clear association was seen between vaccination and microfilaremia until day 245 when a significant drop in the level of microfilaria occured in vaccinated compared to infected animals (5 vs 10 mf/ml; p = 0.012. A one-year follow-up of the humoral immune response showed a strong adult, microfilariae (Mf and L3 specific IgG response, with distinct profiles for each extract. In immunized animal a significant decrease in antibody level was systematically observed between days 90-145 for the anti-L3 and anti-adult IgG. However, in the same group anti-Mf antibody levels that peaked around 160-175 days post-challenge, were inversely correlated with the decrease in Mf density between day 200 and day 386. These results suggest that immunization with irradiated L3 using these specific conditions may affect the appearance of Mf.

  6. A serological, parasitological and clinical evaluation of untreated Chagas disease patients and those treated with benznidazole before and thirteen years after intervention

    Machado-de-Assis, Girley Francisco; Diniz, Glaucia Alessio; Montoya, Roberto Araújo; Dias, João Carlos Pinto; Coura, José Rodrigues; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Albajar-Viñas, Pedro; Torres, Rosália Morais; de Lana, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The etiological treatment of Chagas disease is recommended for all patients with acute or recent chronic infection, but controversies remain regarding the benefit of chemotherapy and interpretations of the parasitological cure after etiological treatment. This study compares the laboratory and clinical evaluations of Chagas disease patients who were diagnosed 13 years earlier. Fifty-eight Chagas disease patients (29 treated with benznidazole and 29 untreated) were matched at the time of treatment based on several variables. Conventional serology revealed the absence of seroconversion in all patients. However, lower serological titres were verified in the treated group, primarily among patients who had the indeterminate form of the disease. Haemoculture performed 13 years after the intervention was positive for 6.9% and 27.6% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction tests were positive for 44.8% and 13.8% of the treated and untreated patients, respectively. Patients who presented with the indeterminate form of the disease at the beginning of the study exhibited less clinical progression (17.4%) compared with the untreated group (56.5%). Therefore, this global analysis revealed that etiological treatment with benznidazole may benefit patients with respect to the clinical progression of Chagas disease and the prognosis, particularly when administered to patients with the indeterminate form of the disease. PMID:24037109

  7. First parasitological, histopathological and molecular characterization of Echinococcus vogeli Rausch and Bernstein, 1972 from Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766 in the Cerrado biome (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil).

    Bittencourt-Oliveira, Fernanda; Teixeira, Paulo; Alencar, Alba; Menezes, Rodrigo; Corrêa, Christiane; Neves, Leandro; Almeida, Fernanda; Daipert-Garcia, Daniel; Machado-Silva, José Roberto; Rodrigues-Silva, Rosângela

    2018-01-30

    Polycystic echinococcosis (PE) is caused by Echinococcus vogeli metacestodes (larval stage) in Neotropical countries. E. vogeli is trophically-transmitted between predators bush dogs (Speothos venaticus) and prey pacas (Cuniculus paca). In Brazil, reported PE cases are restricted to the Amazon biome. In this study, metacestodes from a paca hunted in Mato Grosso do Sul state (Cerrado biome) were identified morphological and histopathological techniques and further confirmed by molecular testing (sequencing of cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene) for the first time. Images of the whole liver showed superficial bubble-like hepatic masses. The parasitological analysis revealed large hooks (41.3 ± 1.2 μm length/12.8 ± 0.8 μm width) and small hooks (33.0 ± 1.5 μm length/11.1 ± 1.2 μm width), consistent with E. vogeli. Microscopically, the liver showed protoscoleces, a thick laminated layer, fibrosis, and inflammatory infiltrate in the adventitial layer. The DNA sequencing confirmed E. vogeli with 99% homology with sequences deposited in the GenBank. In addition, this finding greatly extends the geographic range of animal polycystic echinococcosis into the Cerrado. It is likely to occur in new biomes, where bush dogs and pacas share a given area in a trophic relationship. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Scratch that itch: revisiting links between self-directed behaviour and parasitological, social and environmental factors in a free-ranging primate.

    Duboscq, Julie; Romano, Valéria; Sueur, Cédric; MacIntosh, Andrew J J

    2016-11-01

    Different hypotheses explain variation in the occurrence of self-directed behaviour such as scratching and self-grooming: a parasite hypothesis linked with ectoparasite load, an environmental hypothesis linked with seasonal conditions and a social hypothesis linked with social factors. These hypotheses are not mutually exclusive but are often considered separately. Here, we revisited these hypotheses together in female Japanese macaques ( Macaca fuscata fuscata ) of Kōjima islet, Japan. We input occurrences of scratching and self-grooming during focal observations in models combining parasitological (lice load), social (dominance rank, social grooming, aggression received and proximity), and environmental (rainfall, temperature and season) variables. Using an information-theory approach, we simultaneously compared the explanatory value of models against each other using variation in Akaike's information criterion and Akaike's weights. We found that evidence for models with lice load, with or without environmental-social parameters, was stronger than that for other models. In these models, scratching was positively associated with lice load and social grooming whereas self-grooming was negatively associated with lice load and positively associated with social grooming, dominance rank and number of female neighbours. This study indicates that the study animals scratch primarily because of an immune/stimulus itch, possibly triggered by ectoparasite bites/movements. It also confirms that self-grooming could act as a displacement activity in the case of social uncertainty. We advocate that biological hypotheses be more broadly considered even when investigating social processes, as one does not exclude the other.

  9. [A new parasitological index for the estimation of peculiarities of the relationships between parasite and its host, and biotope of the host].

    Bogdanov, I I; Chachina, S B; Korallo, N P; Dmitriev, V V

    2006-01-01

    A new parasitological index (hostal-topical index) for the estimation of the degree of ectoparasite's relationship with its host and biotope of the host is proposed: [formula: see text], where [formula: see text]--hostal-topical index; n--amount of ectoparasites of the given species on the given host species in the biotope; N--amount of ectoparasites of all species from the given taxonomic group on the given host species in the biotope; n1--amount of hosts of the given species in the biotope; N1--amount of hosts of all species from the given taxonomic group in the biotope; n2--amount of ectoparasites of the given species in the biotope; N2--amount of ectoparasites of all species from the given taxonomic group in the biotope. Values [formula: see text] 0.5 indicate a significant relationship with the host. By means of this index we have analyzed peculiarity of several parasitic species of fleas and gamasid mites to their hosts, biotopes, and biotope through the host. As it was found on the materials from different native zones and subzones of the Omsk Region (Western Siberia, Russia), values of the hostal-topical index for polyhostal parasitic species are lesser than those for oligohostal species. Values of this index can be different for the same species in the different native zones and subzones as well as in the different biotopes of the same native zone (subzone).

  10. Twelve-month longitudinal parasitological assessment of lymphatic filariasis-positive individuals: impact of a biannual treatment with ivermectin and albendazole.

    Kanamitie, John N; Ahorlu, Collins S; Otchere, Joseph; Aboagye-Antwi, Fred; Kwansa-Bentum, Bethel; Boakye, Daniel A; Biritwum, Nana-Kwadwo; Wilson, Michael D; de Souza, Dziedzom K

    2017-11-01

    Mass drug administration (MDA) for the control of lymphatic filariasis (LF), in Ghana, started in the year 2000. While this had great success in many implementation units, there remain areas with persistent transmission, after more than 10 years of treatment. A closer examination of the parasite populations could help understand the reasons for persistent infections and formulate appropriate strategies to control LF in these areas of persistent transmission. In a longitudinal study, we assessed the prevalence of microfilaraemia (mf) in two communities with 12 years of MDA in Ghana. In baseline surveys 6 months after the National MDA in 2014, 370 consenting individuals were tested for antigenaemia using immunochromatographic test (ICT) cards and had their mf count determined through night blood surveys. 48 ICT positives, of whom, 17 were positive for mf, were treated with 400 μg/kg ivermectin + 400 mg albendazole and subsequently followed for parasitological assessment at 3-month intervals for 1 year. This overlapped with the National MDA in 2015. There was a 68% parasite clearance 3 months after treatment. The pre-treatment mf count differed significantly from the post-treatment mf counts at 3 months (P = 0.0023), 6 months (P = 0.0051), 9 months (P = 0.0113) and 12 months (P = 0.0008). In these settings with persistent LF transmission, twice-yearly treatment may help accelerate LF elimination. Further large-scale evaluations are required to ascertain these findings. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. University Internationalization and University Autonomy

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gulieva, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability are d......, dissimilar, and sometimes conflicting dimensions of the financial, legal, organisational, staffing, and academic autonomy of the host country, are compromising key aspects of their own autonomy and core mission?......Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability...... are determined by the structure and exercise of university autonomy settings at home and in the host countries, and that the process itself cannot be successfully achieved and maintained without changes in the autonomy settings. The key question the authors ask is to what degree universities, in embracing new...

  12. An analysis of forensic entomological specimens by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.

    Syamsa, R A; Ahmad, F M S; Marwi, M A; Zuha, R M; Omar, B

    2010-09-01

    This study reviews forensic entomological specimens analysed by the Department of Parasitology & Medical Entomology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for the year 2004. A total of 10 cases (6 males and 4 females) were observed for the entomological specimens. Various types of death scenes were obtained including indoor and outdoor area such as bushes field, rubbish dumping site, and aquatic areas. Identified fly species collected from the death sites were blow flies, Chrysomya megacephala, Chrysomya rufifacies and Lucilia cuprina and unknown sarcophagid larvae, with Ch. megacephala being the most common species found in the ecologically varied death scene habitats. The post-mortem interval (PMI) estimation ranged from one to five days, based on the entomological specimens collected.

  13. Studies on the epidemiology, diagnosis and control of Echinococcus granulosus infections

    Lalic, R.; Petrovic, M.; Movsesijan, M.; Jovanovic, B.; Radulovic, S.

    1988-01-01

    Serological and parasitological studies indicate that hydatidosis is a significant health and economic problem in Yugoslavia and that the percentage of infected sheep varies between regions. In some areas of the country the prevalence of hydatidosis is about 90%. Results of studies on the development of different serological tests for in vivo diagnosis of hydatidosis showed that the most reliable results were obtained with a radioactive antibody test if a metabolic antigen was used. No difference in worm burden or antibody titre was observed between sheep infected with Echinococcus granulosus and control animals after challenge with Dictyocaulus filaria infective larvae. Vaccination of dogs with two doses of irradiated protoscolices given over an interval of 30 days resulted in significantly reduced numbers of parasites developing from a challenge infection with normal parasites. Also, eggs removed from the terminal segments of tapeworms collected from the small intestine of vaccinated dogs were not developed. (author). 14 refs, 2 figs, 6 tabs

  14. Rapid diagnosis of schistosomiasis in Yemen using a simple questionnaire and urine reagent strips.

    Bassiouny, H K; Hasab, A A; El-Nimr, N A; Al-Shibani, L A; Al-Waleedi, A A

    2014-05-01

    Schistosomiasis ranks second to malaria in terms of socioeconomic and public health importance in Yemen. This study assessed the validity of a morbidity questionnaire and urine reagent strips as a rapid tool for screening schoolchildren for urinary schistosomiasis as compared with the presence of eggs in urine as the gold-standard parasitological diagnosis. The study examined urine samples and interviewed 696 children (mean age 12.5 years) attending a primary-preparatory school in south Yemen. Urinary schistosomiasis was confirmed in 126 (18.1%) children. Diagnostic performance was poor for 2 items in the morbidity questionnaire (self-reported history of previous infection and self-reported history of antischistosomal treatment). However, self-reported dysuria, self-reported haematuria in the questionnaire and microhaematuria by reagent strips (alone or with macrohaematuria) revealed good diagnostic performance. The results indicated that reagent strips are a valid method for detection of microhaematuria for identifying individuals and communities infected with Schistosoma haematobium.

  15. Diagnosis and Change or Change and Diagnosis.

    Cammann, Cortlandt

    Organizational consultation is often viewed as a four-stage process: entry, diagnosis, intervention, and evaluation. A fifth stage, preparation of organizations to conduct diagnosis and change, is frequently neglected. In the preparation stage, organizational consultants must deal with resistance by creating conditions for the consideration of the…

  16. Comparison of parasitological and productive traits of Criollo lambs native to the central Mexican Plateau and Suffolk lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Alba-Hurtado, F; Romero-Escobedo, E; Muñoz-Guzmán, M A; Torres-Hernández, G; Becerril-Pérez, C M

    2010-09-20

    The study compares the parasitological and productive traits of Criollo lambs native to the central Mexican Plateau (CNCMP) and Suffolk (SU) lambs experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus. CNCMP lambs (n=20) and SU lambs (n=15) were infected with L3 of H. contortus while five lambs of each genotype were kept as controls. Fecal egg count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), blood eosinophil number (BEN), ocular mucous membrane color (as measured by the FAMACHA index), changes in body condition score (BCS) and cumulative live weight gain (CLWG) were measured weekly during a 20-week period. On week 20, all animals were euthanized and the number of adult worms (AW) in the abomasum was counted. Infected SU lambs had higher (p<0.05) FEC and AW mean values compared to CNCMP lambs, which had a higher mean BEN count (p<0.05). Infected lambs had lower PCV values than controls, regardless of genotype, and had a negative correlation (r=-0.84, p<0.05) with the FAMACHA index. BCS tended to decline for infected SU lambs and increased slightly for infected CNCMP lambs. CLWG differed in all groups (p<0.05); infected SU lambs gained 12.1+/-1.9kg, infected CNCMP lambs gained 18.8+/-0.7kg, control SU lambs gained 34.6+/-1.6kg, and control CNCMP lambs gained 26.9+/-0.8kg. In conclusion, CNCMP lambs had a smaller worm burden, a better ability to maintain their productive traits, and were less affected by infection with Haemonchus contortus.

  17. Detection of Leishmania spp. using parasitological, serological and molecular assays in asymptomatic and sick cats from an endemic area of visceral leishmaniosis in Brazil

    Maria Fernanda Alves-Martin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the prevalence of feline leishmaniosis in 55 asymptomatic cats or assess clinical disease in a visceral leishmaniasis-endemic area using parasitological, serological and molecular techniques. Methods: Fifty-five adult domestic and non-purebred cats held at an animal shelter in a rural area of the municipality of Ilha Solteira, São Paulo, Brazil, a region endemic for canine visceral leishmaniosis, were evaluated. A total of 5 mL of blood was collected from each animal, for blood culture, serological (indirect fluorescent antibody test, soluble extract ELISA, ELISA recombinant K39 antigen and molecular tests (PCR. At the time of blood collection, the cats underwent clinical evaluation for the presence of clinical signs. Results: Flagellate protozoa were found in nine blood cultures (16.4%. Seropositivity by indirect fluorescent antibody test was observed in 32 serum samples (62.7%. ELISA-SE showed seropositivity in 37 cats (72.5%, while ELISA-rK39 revealed positive results in 11 cats (21.6%. Leishmania spp. was detected by PCR in whole blood samples from five cats (9.1%. Based on clinical evaluation, it was possible to detect the presence of clinical signs (alopecia, emaciation, pinna lesions, nose lesions, skin lesions in 30 animals (54.5%. Conclusions: To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first report of Leishmania spp. in domestic cats in the epidemiological cycle of leishmaniosis in the studied area, requiring more attention in the establishment of preventive steps to control this disease.

  18. A study of onchocerciasis with severe skin and eye lesions in a hyperendemic zone in the forest of southwestern Cameroon: clinical, parasitologic, and entomologic findings.

    Somo, R M; Enyong, P A; Fobi, G; Dinga, J S; Lafleur, C; Agnamey, P; Ngosso, A; Ngolle, E M

    1993-01-01

    Prior to the initiation of an onchocerciasis control program based on the mass administration of ivermectin in the rain forest of southwestern Cameroon, a preliminary baseline study of the area was conducted. The results of this study showed that onchocerciasis was hyperendemic in the area. Skin symptoms and signs were observed including pruritus (67.4% of the population examined), onchocerca nodules (51.6%), skin depigmentation (18.5%), and hanging groins (5.7%). Except for pruritus, the prevalence of these symptoms increased with age. Of the eyes examined, 44.9% had microfilariae in the anterior chamber, 33.5% had choroidoretinitis, 28.0% had punctate keratitis, 8.3% had papillary abnormalities, and 3.6% had sclerosing keratitis. Vision in 10.5% of the eyes examined was classified as blind or very poor (visual acuity = 0-0.10), in 15.7% as poor (visual acuity = 0.11-0.39), and in 73.8% as good (visual acuity = 0.4-1.00). Unlike previous reports that have linked serious ocular damage mainly to savanna onchocerciasis, the present study showed that forest onchocerciasis also caused significant ocular pathology, including blindness. Parasitologically, positive skin snips were recorded for 92.7% of the persons examined, with both sexes being equally infected. The parasite load, expressed as the geometric mean number of microfilariae per skin snip, was 53.6, and was much higher in males than in females. The flv vector, Simulium squamosum, had a high infection rate of 7.5% infective females in Bakumba and 6.8% infective females in Ngbandi, the two fly-catching points. The transmission potential was 266 infective larvae per person per month in Bakumba and 189 in Ngbandi.

  19. Cooperia punctata trickle infections: parasitological parameters and evaluation of a Cooperia recombinant 14.2 kDa protein ELISA for estimating cumulative exposure of calves.

    Yatsuda, A P; Kooyman, F N J; Ploeger, H W; Vieira-Bressan, M C R; de Vries, E; Eysker, M

    2002-04-30

    Three groups of four calves each were trickle infected with three different levels of Cooperia punctata: 310 (group A), 1250 (group B) and 5000 (group C) third stage infective larvae (L3) twice a week over a 17-week period. Group D was the non-infected control group. Parasitological parameters as faecal egg counts (epg), worm burdens, size of worms and number of eggs per female were collected and the differences between the groups compared. Serological analyses were also conducted to investigate the efficiency of a recombinant C. oncophora CoES 14.2kDa protein in an ELISA to detect C. punctata antibodies. Group C had higher faecal egg counts until week 9 when the values decreased to those in group B. Mean faecal egg counts in group A were always lower than in the two other infected groups. The worm burdens were highest in group C, and lowest in group A, although the number of worms as a percentage of total larval intake was higher for the lower group. The mean length of the worms was shorter and the number of eggs per female lower for group C than for both other groups. ELISA using the CoES 14.2kDa proved to be efficient in measuring C. punctata antibodies. For group C it took 4 weeks to get increased levels of antibodies and this was one and 2 months more for groups B and A, respectively. Overall, there was a congruent relation between C. punctata antibodies and the cumulative exposure to the three different levels of trickle infections.

  20. The use of bivariate spatial modeling of questionnaire and parasitology data to predict the distribution of Schistosoma haematobium in Coastal Kenya.

    Hugh J W Sturrock

    Full Text Available Questionnaires of reported blood in urine (BIU distributed through the existing school system provide a rapid and reliable method to classify schools according to the prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, thereby helping in the targeting of schistosomiasis control. However, not all schools return questionnaires and it is unclear whether treatment is warranted in such schools. This study investigates the use of bivariate spatial modelling of available and multiple data sources to predict the prevalence of S. haematobium at every school along the Kenyan coast.Data from a questionnaire survey conducted by the Kenya Ministry of Education in Coast Province in 2009 were combined with available parasitological and environmental data in a Bayesian bivariate spatial model. This modeled the relationship between BIU data and environmental covariates, as well as the relationship between BIU and S. haematobium infection prevalence, to predict S. haematobium infection prevalence at all schools in the study region. Validation procedures were implemented to assess the predictive accuracy of endemicity classification.The prevalence of BIU was negatively correlated with distance to nearest river and there was considerable residual spatial correlation at small (~15 km spatial scales. There was a predictable relationship between the prevalence of reported BIU and S. haematobium infection. The final model exhibited excellent sensitivity (0.94 but moderate specificity (0.69 in identifying low (<10% prevalence schools, and had poor performance in differentiating between moderate and high prevalence schools (sensitivity 0.5, specificity 1.Schistosomiasis is highly focal and there is a need to target treatment on a school-by-school basis. The use of bivariate spatial modelling can supplement questionnaire data to identify schools requiring mass treatment, but is unable to distinguish between moderate and high prevalence schools.

  1. Biochemical and Parasitological Studies on the Effect of hUCB-Selected CD34+ Progenitor/Stem Cells in Mice Infected with Schistosoma mansoni

    Abou-Zied, Akram M.; Soliman, Rasha H.; Hefila, Shorouk M.; Imam, Samir A.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Placenta and blood that remained in the umbilical cord is routinely available as a discarded tissue after deliveries and it is free of any legal, moral, ethical or religious objections, providing a high number of multipotent CD34+ progenitor and stem cells. Using ex vivo isolated CD34+ cells from human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) have emerged as promising candidates to treat various diseases, including exogenous pathogenic infections. We have expanded to build a rational approach to study the effect of CD34+ cells after damaged liver tissues by the devastating human parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. Methods and Results: Experimental studies were conducted in the Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science and Departments of Parasitology and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, SCU, Egypt. We have studied the impact of ex vivo preparation of CD34+ cells from hUCB on S. mansoni-induced liver fibrosis de novo, and treated for shorter and longer periods in vivo. Ova count, ALT and albumin were measured at specific time interval and histopathological examination of liver was conducted to confirm the biochemical results. The data obtained were statistically analyzed by ANOVA between groups. It was found that the administration of CD34+ cells have modestly reduced liver damage; reduced the S. mansoni infection associated elevation in serum levels of ALT; significantly improved serum levels of albumin and reduced egg granuloma diameter in the livers. Conclusions: We demonstrated that CD34+ cells can markedly ameliorated liver fibrosis in vivo and may be beneficial for therapy to recover organ structure and/or function of S. mansoni-infected mice. PMID:25473447

  2. Parasitological and histological analysis of a new species of the genus Thalohanellus and description of a myxozoan parasite (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida from cultured ornamental goldfish, Carassius auratus L.

    Mandira Saha

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An ornamental fish parasitological survey of West Bengal, India during the year 2014–16 revealed that goldfish, Carassius auratus, was the most susceptible species for myxozoan infestation. This communication revealed the presence of two myxosporean species belonging to the genera Myxobolus and Thelohanellus. Although myxozoan infestation has been determined by isolating small to large, spherical to ellipsoidal plasmodia up to 0.5–2.5 mm were filled with disporic pansporoblasts and mature spores. M. ichkeulensis and one new species T. dipaki n. sp. have been isolated infecting the ornamental goldfish (Carassius auratus for the first time in India. In the present study, new host, and new locality for M. ichkeulensis have been reported. The description of M. ichkeulensis is being considered as a first report from India. Spore of T. dipaki n. sp. measures uniquely 13.99 ± 0.60 × 9.82 ± 0.60 μm in size, having a one globular pyriform polar capsule measuring 7.45 ± 0.62 × 5.91 ± 0.39 μm. The severity of newly isolated myxozoan infestation has also been assessed by the histopathological changes of fins of the hostfish. A combination of light and scanning electron microscopic observation along with its severity of infestation, comparison of same and closely related species has been incorporated to identify the new species. The paper deals with the diversity, distribution and taxonomic descriptions of new and known myxozoan species along with new host, locality records and incidence of infestation.

  3. Health centre versus home presumptive diagnosis of malaria in southern Ghana: implications for home-based care policy.

    Dunyo, S K; Afari, E A; Koram, K A; Ahorlu, C K; Abubakar, I; Nkrumah, F K

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1997 to compare the accuracy of presumptive diagnosis of malaria in children aged 1-9 years performed by caretakers of the children to that of health centre staff in 2 ecological zones in southern Ghana. Similar symptoms were reported in the children at home and at the health centre. In the home setting, symptoms were reported the same day that they occurred, 77.6% of the children with a report of fever were febrile (axillary temperature > or = 37.5 degrees C) and 64.7% of the reports of malaria were parasitologically confirmed. In the health centre, the median duration of symptoms before a child was seen was 3 days (range 1-14 days), 58.5% of the children with a report of fever were febrile and 62.6% of the clinically diagnosed cases were parasitologically confirmed. In the 2 settings almost all the infections were due to Plasmodium falciparum. Parasite density was 3 times higher in the health centre cases compared to the home-diagnosed cases. Early and appropriate treatment of malaria detected in children by caretakers may prevent complications that arise as a result of persistence of symptoms and attainment of high parasitaemic levels.

  4. Immunodetection of Fasciola gigantica Circulating Antigen in Sera of Infected Individuals for Laboratory Diagnosis of Human Fascioliasis

    Attallah, Abdelfattah M.; Bughdadi, Faisal A.; El-Shazly, Atef M.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of human fascioliasis is based on the parasitological examination of parasite eggs in stool specimens and serological detection of specific antibodies in serum samples, which are often unreliable diagnostic approaches. Ideally, a sensitive and specific diagnostic test for Fasciola infection should be based on the detection of circulating Fasciola antigen, which implies active infection. Here, a 27-kDa-molecular-mass antigen was identified in a Fasciola gigantica adult worm antigen preparation, excretory-secretory products, and sera from F. gigantica-infected individuals, and it was not detected in antigenic extracts of other parasites and sera from noninfected individuals. The target antigen was isolated and partially characterized as a protein. Immunoperoxidase staining located the target epitope within teguments and guts of F. gigantica adult worms. The performance characteristics of a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on F. gigantica circulating antigen detection in serum (FgCA-27 ELISA) were investigated using sera of 120 parasitologically diagnosed F. gigantica-infected individuals and 80 noninfected individuals. The area under the receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for ELISA was significantly high (AUC = 0.961, P 93%), and a significant correlation (r = 0.715, P fascioliasis. PMID:23945158

  5. Immunodetection of Fasciola gigantica circulating antigen in sera of infected individuals for laboratory diagnosis of human fascioliasis.

    Attallah, Abdelfattah M; Bughdadi, Faisal A; El-Shazly, Atef M; Ismail, Hisham

    2013-10-01

    Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of human fascioliasis is based on the parasitological examination of parasite eggs in stool specimens and serological detection of specific antibodies in serum samples, which are often unreliable diagnostic approaches. Ideally, a sensitive and specific diagnostic test for Fasciola infection should be based on the detection of circulating Fasciola antigen, which implies active infection. Here, a 27-kDa-molecular-mass antigen was identified in a Fasciola gigantica adult worm antigen preparation, excretory-secretory products, and sera from F. gigantica-infected individuals, and it was not detected in antigenic extracts of other parasites and sera from noninfected individuals. The target antigen was isolated and partially characterized as a protein. Immunoperoxidase staining located the target epitope within teguments and guts of F. gigantica adult worms. The performance characteristics of a newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on F. gigantica circulating antigen detection in serum (FgCA-27 ELISA) were investigated using sera of 120 parasitologically diagnosed F. gigantica-infected individuals and 80 noninfected individuals. The area under the receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) for ELISA was significantly high (AUC = 0.961, P 93%), and a significant correlation (r = 0.715, P fascioliasis.

  6. Dual Diagnosis - Multiple Languages

    ... National Library of Medicine Comorbidity or dual diagnosis - Opioid addiction, part 9 - English PDF Comorbidity or dual diagnosis - Opioid addiction, part 9 - español (Spanish) PDF Comorbidity or dual ...

  7. Universe symmetries

    Souriau, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The sky uniformity can be noticed in studying the repartition of objects far enough. The sky isotropy description uses space rotations. The group theory elements will allow to give a meaning at the same time precise and general to the word a ''symmetry''. Universe models are reviewed, which must have both of the following qualities: - conformity with the physic known laws; - rigorous symmetry following one of the permitted groups. Each of the models foresees that universe evolution obeys an evolution equation. Expansion and big-bang theory are recalled. Is universe an open or closed space. Universe is also electrically neutral. That leads to a work hypothesis: the existing matter is not given data of universe but it appeared by evolution from nothing. Problem of matter and antimatter is then raised up together with its place in universe [fr

  8. Concurrent Liver Hodgkin Lymphoma and Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia on an Explanted Liver with Clinical Diagnosis of Alcoholic Cirrhosis at University Hospital Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá

    R. López

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver involvement by Hodgkin lymphoma (HL is well documented. However, secondary liver failure to this neoplastic process is rare and usually presents late in the course of the disease. We present a case of a HL associated with nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH diagnosed on an explanted liver from a 53-year-old patient with clinical diagnosis of alcoholic cirrhosis. Hematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E showed abnormal liver architecture with hepatocytes nodules highlighted by reticulin stain with absent fibrosis on the trichrome stain. The portal spaces had diffuse infiltration by Reed-Sternberg cells positive for CD15, CD30, and latent membrane protein (LMP on immunohistochemical studies. The patient also had a concurrent hilar lymph node biopsy that also showed HL involvement. Liver failure as the initial presentation of Hodgkin’ lymphoma is rare. We believe that more research about the utility of performing liver biopsies in patients candidates for transplantation with noncirrhotic hepatic failure is needed in order to establish the etiology and the optimal treatment.

  9. [Ways of improving the education of specialists from the health care organizations, agencies, and institutions of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, in the area of parasitology].

    Astanina, S Iu; Dovgalev, A S; Avdiukhina, T I

    2014-01-01

    The intensive modern Russian reforms in professional education require that stafftraining in medicine should be also improved. The main directions and ways of improving education in the specialty of Parasitology are as follows:--to update professional education, by applying a competence approach, in terms of which the main focus is on mastering the activity and obtaining the experience in make this activity in different situations;--to apply the modular principle in the design of educational programs and a teaching process;--to improve the fundamental training of staff in the area ofparasitology;--to enhance the integration of special, related, and basic disciplines in stafftraining.

  10. Our Universe

    Stern, Alan

    2001-03-01

    The Universe in which we live is unimaginably vast and ancient, with countless star systems, galaxies, and extraordinary phenomena such as black holes, dark matter, and gamma ray bursts. What phenomena remain mysteries, even to seasoned scientists? Our Universe is a fascinating collection of essays by some of the world's foremost astrophysicists. Some are theorists, some computational modelers, some observers, but all offer their insights into the most cutting-edge, difficult, and curious aspects of astrophysics. Compiled, the essays describe more than the latest techniques and findings. Each of the ten contributors offers a more personal perspective on their work, revealing what motivates them and how their careers and lives have been shaped by their desire to understand our universe. S. Alan Stern is Director of the Department of Space Studies at Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado. He is a planetary scientist and astrophysicist with both observational and theoretical interests. Stern is an avid pilot and a principal investigator in NASA's planetary research program, and he was selected to be a NASA space shuttle mission specialist finalist. He is the author of more than 100 papers and popular articles. His most recent book is Pluto & Charon (Wiley, 1997). Contributors: Dr. John Huchra, Harvard University Dr. Esther Hu, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Dr. John Mather, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Dr. Nick Gnedin, University of Colorado, Boulder Dr. Doug Richstone, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Dr. Bohdan Paczynski, Princeton University, NJ Dr. Megan Donahue, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Dr. Jerry Ostriker, Princeton University, New Jersey G. Bothun, University of Oregon, Eugene

  11. Knowledge and practice on magnitude, diagnosis, treatment and ...

    unhcc

    8Department of Medical Microbiology Immunology and Parasitology, College of ... Cirrhosis followed by hepatotoxic indigenous drugs and viral hepatitis were ... screening ,lack of skill to differentially diagnose HCC ...... Curr Stem Cell Res Ther.

  12. Intelligent Universe

    Hoyle, F

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: chance and the universe (synthesis of proteins; the primordial soup); the gospel according to Darwin (discussion of Darwin theory of evolution); life did not originate on earth (fossils from space; life in space); the interstellar connection (living dust between the stars; bacteria in space falling to the earth; interplanetary dust); evolution by cosmic control (microorganisms; genetics); why aren't the others here (a cosmic origin of life); after the big bang (big bang and steady state); the information rich universe; what is intelligence up to; the intelligent universe.

  13. Diagnosis and understanding of chronic biofilm infections

    Thomsen, Trine Rolighed

    2016-01-01

    Title: Diagnosis and understanding of chronic biofilm infections. Name: Trine Rolighed Thomsen Aalborg University and Danish Technological Institute, Denmark Recent evidence suggests that the microbial community, its spatial distribution and activity play an important role in the prolongation......, anaerobic or unculturable bacteria living in biofilms. Thus, diagnosis of chronic infections is challenged by lack of appropriate sampling strategies and by limitations in microbiological testing methods. The purpose of this study was to improve sampling and diagnosis of chronic infections, especially...... considering the biofilm issue. Systematic and optimized sampling of various specimen types was performed. Extended culture, optimized DNA extraction, quantitative PCR, cloning, next generation sequencing and PNA FISH were applied on different types of specimens for optimized diagnosis. For further...

  14. Knowledge-based diagnosis for aerospace systems

    Atkinson, David J.

    1988-01-01

    The need for automated diagnosis in aerospace systems and the approach of using knowledge-based systems are examined. Research issues in knowledge-based diagnosis which are important for aerospace applications are treated along with a review of recent relevant research developments in Artificial Intelligence. The design and operation of some existing knowledge-based diagnosis systems are described. The systems described and compared include the LES expert system for liquid oxygen loading at NASA Kennedy Space Center, the FAITH diagnosis system developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the PES procedural expert system developed at SRI International, the CSRL approach developed at Ohio State University, the StarPlan system developed by Ford Aerospace, the IDM integrated diagnostic model, and the DRAPhys diagnostic system developed at NASA Langley Research Center.

  15. USAID University

    US Agency for International Development — USAID University is USAID's learning management system. Features include 1) Access online courses 2) Register for instructor-led courses 3)Access your student...

  16. Runaway universe

    Davies, P

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: the emerging universe (general introduction, history of astronomical and cosmological research, origins, the expanding universe, stars, galaxies, electromagnetic radiation); primeval fire (the big bang model, origin of the elements, properties of the elements and of sub-atomic particles); order out of chaos (galactic evolution, star formation, nuclear fusion, the solar system, origin of life on Earth); a star called Sol (properties of the sun and of other stars); life in the universe; the catastrophe principle (the rise and fall of cosmic order); stardoom (star evolution, neutron stars); black holes and superholes (gravitational collapse); technology and survival; the dying universe (second law of thermodynamics); worlds without end (cosmological models).

  17. Rhodes University

    Samridhi Sharma

    2013-10-29

    Oct 29, 2013 ... been taken may improve the reception, by the target audience, of the intended communication. This may ... alcohol marketing. Similarly .... of the intended users (Rhodes University support staff ..... Digital Human Modeling and.

  18. Undulant Universe

    Barenboim, Gabriela; /Valencia U.; Mena, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    If the equation of state for ''dark energy'' varies periodically, the expansion of the Universe may have undergone alternating eras of acceleration and deceleration. We examine a specific form that survives existing observational tests, does not single out the present state of the Universe as exceptional, and suggests a future much like the matter-dominated past: a smooth expansion without a final inflationary epoch.

  19. Celiac Disease: Diagnosis.

    Byrne, Greg; Feighery, Conleth F

    2015-01-01

    Historically the diagnosis of celiac disease has relied upon clinical, serological, and histological evidence. In recent years the use of sensitive serological methods has meant an increase in the diagnosis of celiac disease. The heterogeneous nature of the disorder presents a challenge in the study and diagnosis of the disease with patients varying from subclinical or latent disease to patients with overt symptoms. Furthermore the related gluten-sensitive disease dermatitis herpetiformis, while distinct in some respects, shares clinical and serological features with celiac disease. Here we summarize current best practice for the diagnosis of celiac disease and briefly discuss newer approaches. The advent of next-generation assays for diagnosis and newer clinical protocols may result in more sensitive screening and ultimately the possible replacement of the intestinal biopsy as the gold standard for celiac disease diagnosis.

  20. Diagnosis of type 1 and type 2 myocardial infarction using a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I assay with sex-specific 99th percentiles based on the third universal definition of myocardial infarction classification system.

    Sandoval, Yader; Smith, Stephen W; Schulz, Karen M; Murakami, MaryAnn M; Love, Sara A; Nicholson, Jennifer; Apple, Fred S

    2015-04-01

    The frequency and characteristics of myocardial infarction (MI) subtypes per the Third Universal Definition of MI (TUDMI) classification system using high-sensitivity (hs) cardiac troponin assays with sex-specific cutoffs is not well known. We sought to describe the diagnostic characteristics of type 1 (T1MI) and type 2 (T2MI) MI using an hs-cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay with sex-specific cutoffs. A total of 310 consecutive patients with serial cTnI measurements obtained on clinical indication were studied with contemporary and hs-cTnI assays. Ninety-ninth percentile sex-specific upper reference limits (URLs) for the hs-cTnI assay were 16 ng/L for females and 34 ng/L for males. The TUDMI consensus recommendations were used to define and adjudicate MI based on each URL. A total of 127 (41%) patients had at least 1 hs-cTnI exceeding the sex-specific 99th percentiles, whereas 183 (59%) had hs-cTnI within the reference interval. Females had more myocardial injury related to supply/demand ischemia than males (39% vs 18%, P = 0.01), whereas males had more multifactorial or indeterminate injury (52% vs 33%, P = 0.05). By hs-cTnI, there were 32 (10%) acute MIs, among which 10 (3%) were T1MI and 22 (7%) were T2MI. T2MI represented 69% (22 out of 32) of all acute MIs, whereas T1MI represented 31% (10 out of 32). Ninety-five patients (31%) had an increased hs-cTnI above the 99th percentile but did not meet criteria for acute MI. The most common triggers for T2MI were tachyarrhythmias, hypotension/shock, and hypertension. By contemporary cTnI, more MIs (14 T1MI and 29 T2MI) were diagnosed. By contemporary cTnI, there were 43 MIs, 14 T1MI, and 29 T2MI. Fewer MI diagnoses were found with the hs-cTnI assay, contrary to the commonly accepted idea that hs-cTnI will lead to excessive false-positive diagnoses. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  1. Comparison of clinical samples for visceral Leishmaniasis diagnosis in asymptomatic dogs by PCR hybridization

    Ferreira, Sidney A.; Ituassu, Leonardo T.; Melo, Maria N. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia], e-mail: saninoalmeida@gmail.com, e-mail: Itituassu@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: melo@icb.ufmg.br; Leite, Rodrigo S.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: rleite2005@gmail.com, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    The canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis still represents a challenge because of complexity of this disease. The aim of present study was to compare different clinical samples for diagnosis of CVL by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) combined with hybridization of {sup 32}P labeled probes. Bone marrow (BM), skin biopsy (SB), peripheral blood (PB) and conjunctival swab (CS) were used in this work. With this purpose 40 asymptomatic dogs, all positive by parasitological test, were obtained. From each animal were collected SB with sterile punches from ear internal surface, 1.0 mL of PB, BM aspirates from sternum and CS from both lower eyelid. Each clinical sample was submitted to suitable DNA purification process and PCR-hybridization assays. The positive results obtained with PCR were 55%, 25%, 30% and 22.5% for CS, BM, SB and PB respectively while the PCR followed by hybridization showed a positivity of 87.5%, 50%, 45% and 27.5% respectively. The hybridization assay was able to increase the PCR positivity in all kinds of clinical samples. The best performance was obtained using CS samples. We concluded that the PCR associated with DNA radioactive probes was a very sensitive tool for diagnosis of CVL in asymptomatic dogs and the CS has an important potential for regular screening of dogs. (author)

  2. Utility of Western Blot Analysis for the Diagnosis of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    Marzieh ASHRAFMANSOURI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a parasitic disease with a relatively wide distribution in different areas of the world, including Iran. The parasite is mainly diagnosed microscopically, but serological approaches might be useful for diagnosis as well.  This study aimed to assess the efficacy of an immunoblotting system for serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran.Methods: Sixty-one sera samples from parasitologically confirmed CL patients and 50 sera samples from healthy controls along with 50 sera sample from non-CL patients were collected. Native strain of Leishmania major was cultured in Schnei­der medium and soluble Leishmania antigens were prepared from amastigotes-like parasites. All of sera samples were evaluated by an immunoblot­ting system.Results: Components of 14 to 135 kDa were detectable by the sera of CL pa­tients. From 61 sera of CL patients, 59 cases (96.7% detected a 63 kDa subunit and 51 cases (83.6% recognized a 32-35 kDa component. Among all subunits, the 63 kDa band showed the highest sensitivity (96.7% and a 75 kDa band had the highest (98% specificity.Conclusion: Immunoblotting has a satisfactory performance in diagnosis of CL and this test can be used, as an aid, for proper diagnosis of CL.

  3. Comparison of clinical samples for visceral Leishmaniasis diagnosis in asymptomatic dogs by PCR hybridization

    Ferreira, Sidney A.; Ituassu, Leonardo T.; Melo, Maria N.

    2009-01-01

    The canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis still represents a challenge because of complexity of this disease. The aim of present study was to compare different clinical samples for diagnosis of CVL by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) combined with hybridization of 32 P labeled probes. Bone marrow (BM), skin biopsy (SB), peripheral blood (PB) and conjunctival swab (CS) were used in this work. With this purpose 40 asymptomatic dogs, all positive by parasitological test, were obtained. From each animal were collected SB with sterile punches from ear internal surface, 1.0 mL of PB, BM aspirates from sternum and CS from both lower eyelid. Each clinical sample was submitted to suitable DNA purification process and PCR-hybridization assays. The positive results obtained with PCR were 55%, 25%, 30% and 22.5% for CS, BM, SB and PB respectively while the PCR followed by hybridization showed a positivity of 87.5%, 50%, 45% and 27.5% respectively. The hybridization assay was able to increase the PCR positivity in all kinds of clinical samples. The best performance was obtained using CS samples. We concluded that the PCR associated with DNA radioactive probes was a very sensitive tool for diagnosis of CVL in asymptomatic dogs and the CS has an important potential for regular screening of dogs. (author)

  4. Sonographic diagnosis of lissencephaly

    Motte, J.; Morville, P.; Gomes, H.; Cymbalista, M.

    1987-01-01

    Lissencephaly is a developmental malformation characterized by absence of sulci in dysmorphic or epileptic infants. Real time ultrasonographic findings correlated with typical electroencephalographic abnormalities established the diagnosis. (orig.)

  5. Sonographic diagnosis of lissencephaly

    Motte, J.; Morville, P.; Gomes, H.; Cymbalista, M.

    1987-07-01

    Lissencephaly is a developmental malformation characterized by absence of sulci in dysmorphic or epileptic infants. Real time ultrasonographic findings correlated with typical electroencephalographic abnormalities established the diagnosis.

  6. The laboratory diagnosis and follow up of strongyloidiasis: a systematic review.

    Ana Requena-Méndez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Strongyloidiasis is frequently under diagnosed since many infections remain asymptomatic and conventional diagnostic tests based on parasitological examination are not sufficiently sensitive. Serology is useful but is still only available in reference laboratories. The need for improved diagnostic tests in terms of sensitivity and specificity is clear, particularly in immunocompromised patients or candidates to immunosuppressive treatments. This review aims to evaluate both conventional and novel techniques for the diagnosis of strongyloidiasis as well as available cure markers for this parasitic infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The search strategy was based on the data-base sources MEDLINE, Cochrane Library Register for systematic review, EmBase, Global Health and LILACS and was limited in the search string to articles published from 1960 to August 2012 and to English, Spanish, French, Portuguese and German languages. Case reports, case series and animal studies were excluded. 2003 potentially relevant citations were selected for retrieval, of which 1649 were selected for review of the abstract. 143 were eligible for final inclusion. CONCLUSIONS: Sensitivity of microscopic-based techniques is not good enough, particularly in chronic infections. Furthermore, techniques such as Baermann or agar plate culture are cumbersome and time-consuming and several specimens should be collected on different days to improve the detection rate. Serology is a useful tool but it might overestimate the prevalence of disease due to cross-reactivity with other nematode infections and its difficulty distinguishing recent from past (and cured infections. To evaluate treatment efficacy is still a major concern because direct parasitological methods might overestimate it and the serology has not yet been well evaluated; even if there is a decline in antibody titres after treatment, it is slow and it needs to be done at 6 to 12 months after

  7. Plasma universe

    Alfven, H.

    1986-04-01

    Traditionally the views in our cosmic environment have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasma. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If we try to base a model of the universe on the plasma phenomena mentioned we find that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasma. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasma are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model we apply it to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4-5 bilions years ago with an accuracy of better than 1 percent

  8. Production of Monoclonal Antibody Against Excretory-Secretory Antigen of Fasciola hepatica and Evaluation of Its Efficacy in the Diagnosis of Fascioliasis.

    Abdolahi Khabisi, Samaneh; Sarkari, Bahador; Moshfe, Abdolali; Jalali, Sedigheh

    2017-02-01

    Parasitological methods are not helpful for the diagnosis of fascioliasis in acute and invasive periods of the disease. Detection of coproantigens seems to be a suitable alternative approach in the diagnosis of fascioliasis. The present study aimed to develop a reliable antigen detection system, using monoclonal antibodies raised against excretory-secretory (ES) antigen of Fasciola hepatica, for the diagnosis of fascioliasis. Fasciola adult worms were collected from the bile ducts of infected animals. Species of the fluke was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR). ES antigen of F. hepatica was prepared. For production of monoclonal antibodies, mice were immunized with ES antigens of F. hepatica. Spleen cells from the immunized mice were fused with NS-1 myeloma cells, using polyethylene glycol. Hybridoma cells secreting specific antibody were expanded and cloned by limiting dilution. Moreover, polyclonal antibody was produced against F. hepatica ES antigen in rabbits. A capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) system, using produced monoclonal antibody, was designed and stool samples of infected animals along with control samples were tested by the system. The capture ELISA detected the coproantigen in 27 of 30 (90%) parasitologically confirmed fascioliasis cases, while 4 of 39 (10.25%) samples infected with other parasitic infections showed a positive reaction in this system. No positive reactivity was found with healthy control samples. Accordingly, sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94.2% were obtained for the capture ELISA system. The results were compared with those obtained with commercial BIO-X ELISA, and a very good (kappa = 0.9) agreement was found between the commercial kit and the developed capture ELISA. Findings of this study showed that the produced monoclonal antibody has appropriate performance for the detection of Fasciola coproantigen in stool samples and can be appropriately

  9. Acute schistosomiasis diagnosis: a new tool for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in a group of travelers recently infected in a new focus of Schistosoma mansoni

    Rafaella Fortini Queiroz Grenfell

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni on early stages of infection is important to prevent late morbidity. A simple, cheap, sensitive and specific assay for routine diagnosis of schistosome infection based on the detection of specific IgG for schistosomula tegument antigens (ELISA-SmTeg was developed by our group. Methods We describe here an acute outbreak involving a travel group of 80 individuals from a non-endemic area of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. These individuals were in contact with a freshwater pool where Biomphalaria glabrata was found. Results obtained from our new methodology were compared to IgG antibody titers against soluble worm antigenic preparation (SWAP by ELISA and, also to parasitological examination, nuclear magnetic resonance and clinical findings. Results ELISA-SmTeg was capable of detecting 64 positive cases among the 80 individuals participating at the survey with a positivity ratio of 80% and a higher sensitivity than ELISA-SWAP that was only sensitive for 56% of positive cases. Besides, a significant correlation was found for the severity of the infection and the specific IgG titers against SmTeg. Conclusions Our data showed that ELISA-SmTeg might serve as the initial diagnostic tool for acute stages of the infection in community-based helminth control programs or for the surveillance of individuals from non-endemic areas.

  10. Information Based Fault Diagnosis

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2008-01-01

    Fault detection and isolation, (FDI) of parametric faults in dynamic systems will be considered in this paper. An active fault diagnosis (AFD) approach is applied. The fault diagnosis will be investigated with respect to different information levels from the external inputs to the systems. These ...

  11. Baby universes

    Strominger, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses how the subject of baby universes and their effects on spacetime coupling constants is in its infancy and rapidly developing. The subject is based on the non-existent (even by physicists' standards) Euclidean formulation of quantum gravity, and it is therefore necessary to make a number of assumptions in order to proceed. Nevertheless, the picture which has emerged is quite appealing: all spacetime coupling constants become dynamical variables when the effects of baby universes are taken into account. This fact might even solve the puzzle of the cosmological constant. The subject therefore seems worth further investigation

  12. Stiegler's University

    Featherstone, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Mark Featherstone proposes to explore Bernard Stiegler's work through the lens of the politics of education and in particular the idea of the university, which becomes a pharmacological space of, on the one hand, utopian possibility, and, on the other hand, dystopian limitation, destruction, and death in his recent "States of…

  13. MAT FOR LEPTOSPIROSIS DIAGNOSIS

    Esti Rahardianingtyas.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is a disease caused by bacterial infection leptospira interrogans.Leptospira bacteria is a spiral bacterium with solid strands with two flagella periplasmik.Septicaemic phase patient samples taken from the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, whereassamples taken at phase immune extracted from urine. The diagnosis of leptospirosis occurdirectly or indirectly. Diagnosis is done by directly isolate and identify the causative agents ofthe agent. Diagnosis is done indirectly by detecting specific antibodies from the patient's body.Gold Standard of the diagnosis of leptospirosis is MAT. Mat made by reacting antibodies toleptospira antigen. Positive results seen with clump formed.Key words: Leptospirosis, Leptospirosis Diagnostic, MAT (Microscopic Agglutination Test Leptospirosis merupakan penyakit yang disebabkan karena infeksi bakteri leptospirainterrogans. Bakteri leptospira merupakan bakteri spiral dengan untaian yang padat dengan duaflagella periplasmik. Sampel pasien pada fase septicaemic diambil dari darah dan cairanserebrospinal, sedangkan sampel yang diambil pada fase immune diambil dari urine. Diagnosisleptospirosis dilakukan secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Diagnosis secara langsungdilakukan dengan cara mengisolasi agen penyebab dan mengidentifikasi agen tersebut. Diagnosissecara tidak langsung dilakukan dengan cara mendeteksi antibodi spesiflk dari dalam tubuhpasien. Gold Standart dari diagnosis leptospirosis adalah MAT. Mat dilakukan dengan caramereaksikan antibodi dengan antigen leptospira. Hasil positif dilihat dengan terbentuk gumpalanagglutinasiKata kunci: Leptospirosis, Leptospira, Leptospirosis Diagnosis.

  14. Plant diagnosis device

    Tozuka, Shin-ichi.

    1996-01-01

    Standard data approximately defined are inputted as 1:1 functional data between at least two or more plant data and each of plant data are inputted. Diagnosis data corresponding to each of process data are formed based on the functional data. Limit value data to be a threshold value which determines whether the diagnosis data are in a predetermined state or not are formed. The diagnosis data and the limit value data are displayed in a recognizable state. If diagnosis data of a plurality of plants are displayed simultaneously, all of the plant data are substantially the same value with one standard datum if the plant is in a normal state. When abnormality should occur in the plant, the difference between the diagnosis data and the standard data is remarkable, and the difference between the diagnosis data of other normal plant data and the standard data are also made remarkably, accordingly, the display of a plurality of diagnosis data is scattered thereby capable of diagnosing the abnormality of the plant. (N.H.)

  15. Electrical machines diagnosis

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  16. Laboratory Diagnosis Of Sarcoidosis

    Dutta S.K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is not an uncommon disease. Unfortunately, the awareness amongst clinicians is lacking and due to overwhelming prevalence of tuberculosis, a disease with many similar features, the diagnosis is missed and often delayed. The gold standard investigation finding in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis is the presence of noncaseating tuberculoid granuloma, also known as sarcoid or sarcoid-like granuloma. Some classical chest X-ray findings, clinico-radiological dissociation. Suggestive organ lesions, negative Mantoux test (MT, development of MT site granuloma, hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and raised serum angiotensin converting enzyme (SACE value and negative tests for tuberculosis are usually hekpful in the diagnosis of sarcoidosis.

  17. Performance of an ELISA and Indirect Immunofluorescence Assay in Serological Diagnosis of Zoonotic Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Iran

    Bahador Sarkari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Serological assays have been extensively evaluated for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL and considered as a routine method for diagnosis of VL while these methods are not properly evaluated for diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL. This study aimed to assess the performance of indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test (IFA and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for serodiagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. Sixty-one sera samples from parasitologically confirmed CL patients and 50 sera from healthy controls along with 50 sera from non-CL patients were collected. Antigen was prepared from promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania major. IFA was used to detect anti-Leishmania IgG while ELISA was used to detect anti-Leishmania IgM, total IgG, or IgG subclasses (IgG1 and 4. ELISA, for detection of total IgG and IgM, showed sensitivity of 83.6% and 84.7% and specificity of 62.7% and 54.6%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of ELISA for detecting IgG1 and IgG4 were 64%, 75% and 85%, 49%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of IFA were 91.6% and 81%. Conclusion. Findings of this study demonstrated that serological test, especially IFA, can be used for proper diagnosis of CL.

  18. [Universal electrogustometer EG-2].

    Wałkanis, Andrzej; Czesak, Michał; Pleskacz, Witold A

    2011-01-01

    Electrogustometry is a method for taste diagnosis and measurement. The EG-2 project is being developed in cooperation between Warsaw University of Technology and Military institute of Medicine in Warsaw. The device is an evolution of the recent universal electrogustometer EG-1 prototype. Due to considerations and experiences acquired during prototype usage, many enhancements have been incorporated into device. The aim was to create an easy-to-use, portable, battery powered device, enabled for fast measurements. Developed electrogustometer is using innovative, low-power microprocessor system, which control whole device. User interface is based on 5.7" graphical LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) and touchscreen. It can be directly operated by finger or with optional stylus. Dedicated GUI (Graphical User Interface) offers simple, predefined measurements and advance settings of signal parameters. It is also possible to store measurements results and patients data in an internal memory. User interface is multilanguage. Signals for patients examinations, supplied with bipolar electrode, are generated by an on-board circuit using DDS (Direct-Digital Synthesis) and DAC (Digital-to-Analog Converter). Electrogustometer is able to generate DC, sinus, triangle or rectangle signals with current amplitude from 0 to 500 pA and frequency form 0 to 500 Hz. Device is designed for manual and automeasurement modes. By using USB (Universal Serial Bus) port it is possible to retrieve data stored in internal memory and charging of built-in Li-lon battery as a source of power.

  19. University writing

    Miguel Zabalza Beraza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done. The article also discusses the contributions of writing for both students and teachers together: writing to investigate. Finally, going beyond what writing is as academic tool, we conclude with a more playful and creative position: writing for pleasure and enjoyment.

  20. Universe unfolding

    King, I.R.

    1976-01-01

    Topics covered the setting; looking at the stars; the earth; time, place and the sky; our satellite, the moon; orbits and motion; the motions of the planets; the Copernican revolution; the planets; the other bodies of the solar system; ages, origins, and life; introducing the stars; sorting out the stars; binary stars--two are better than one; variable stars--inconstancy as a virtue; the secrets of starlight--unraveling the spectrum; the sun--our own star; the structure of a star; interstellar material; the Milky Way, our home galaxy; galaxies--the stellar continents; cosmic violence--from radio galaxies to quasars; the universe; and epilogue. The primary emphasis is on how we have come to know what we know about the universe. Star maps are included

  1. University physics

    Arfken, George

    1984-01-01

    University Physics provides an authoritative treatment of physics. This book discusses the linear motion with constant acceleration; addition and subtraction of vectors; uniform circular motion and simple harmonic motion; and electrostatic energy of a charged capacitor. The behavior of materials in a non-uniform magnetic field; application of Kirchhoff's junction rule; Lorentz transformations; and Bernoulli's equation are also deliberated. This text likewise covers the speed of electromagnetic waves; origins of quantum physics; neutron activation analysis; and interference of light. This publi

  2. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis

    Bay, Bjorn; Ingerslev, Hans Jakob; Lemmen, Josephine Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether women conceiving after preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and their children have greater risks of adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes compared with children conceived spontaneously or after IVF with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). DESIGN...

  3. Plague Diagnosis and Treatment

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Plague Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Plague Home Ecology & Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis & Treatment Maps & Statistics ...

  4. DSS FOR ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGNOSIS

    FROWEIN, JC; POSTMA, TJBM

    1992-01-01

    Information technology in relation to organizational diagnosis and organizational change is the subject of extensive and increasing discussion. A condition for change is insight into organizational problems. This paper discusses the relation between the concepts ''problem'', ''decision making'' and

  5. Atrial Fibrillation: Diagnosis

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Atrial Fibrillation Atrial Fibrillation: Diagnosis Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents ... of your body's cells and organs. Read More "Atrial Fibrillation" Articles Atrial Fibrillation / Who Is at Risk for ...

  6. Laparoscopic diagnosis of endometriosis.

    Wood, Carl; Kuhn, Raphael; Tsaltas, Jim

    2002-08-01

    To consider and explain the possibility of difficulties in diagnosis of endometriosis at previous laparoscopy Retrospective patient record review. The Endometriosis Care Centre of Australia and the private practices of authors. Two hundred and fifteen patients with clinical evidence of endometriosis examined laparoscopically between March 1999 and May 2001. Confirmation of endometriosis by histological biopsy. Endometriosis was confirmed in 168 of the 215 women. Of these women 38 had a previous negative laparoscopy within 12 months of the current laparoscopy. It is possible that in some of the patients, who previously had a negative laparoscopy, endometriosis was not recognised. Possible reasons for difficulty in diagnosis have been identified and techniques to improve diagnosis suggested. This retrospective study was performed to consider and explain the possibility of difficulties in diagnosis of endometriosis at previous laparoscopy.

  7. Dementia: Diagnosis and Tests

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Dementia Diagnosis & Tests If you or someone you care ... To determine whether an older adult might have dementia, a healthcare professional will: Ask about the person’s ...

  8. Microanalysis in cancer diagnosis

    Tkacheva, G A [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Nauchnyj Tsentr

    1984-11-01

    An analysis of the diagnosis accuracy of malignant gastric, rectal, liver and prostatic tumors was performed with relation to the sensitivity and specificity of radioimmunological and immunoenzyme commercial kits of reagents manufactured by different companies and used to determine the concentration of the carcinoembryonic antigen, ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein and acid phosphatase of the prostate. With an increase of the test specificity its diagnostic sensitivity decreases, i.e. the percentage of false-negative results increases. The use of highly specific monoclonal antibodies in serological tests results in a marked decrease of the accuracy of tumor diagnosis. It is necessary to strictly determine indications for the use of the serological and immunodiagnostic kits: for the identification of risk populations, early diagnosis of tumors, differential diagnosis or the monitoring of patients.

  9. Molecular Diagnosis of Tuberculosis.

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Handayani, Diah; Burhan, Erlina; Yunus, Faisal

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of adult death in the Asia-Pacific Region, including Indonesia. As an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), TB remains a major public health issue especially in developing nations due to the lack of adequate diagnostic testing facilities. Diagnosis of TB has entered an era of molecular detection that provides faster and more cost-effective methods to diagnose and confirm drug resistance in TB cases, meanwhile, diagnosis by conventional culture systems requires several weeks. New advances in the molecular detection of TB, including the faster and simpler nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS), have resulted in a shorter time for diagnosis and, therefore, faster TB treatments. In this review, we explored the current findings on molecular diagnosis of TB and drug-resistant TB to see how this advancement could be integrated into public health systems in order to control TB.

  10. Urological diagnosis using clinical PACS

    Mills, Stephen F.; Spetz, Kevin S.; Dwyer, Samuel J., III

    1995-05-01

    Urological diagnosis using fluoroscopy images has traditionally been performed using radiographic films. Images are generally acquired in conjunction with the application of a contrast agent, processed to create analog films, and inspected to ensure satisfactory image quality prior to being provided to a radiologist for reading. In the case of errors the entire process must be repeated. In addition, the radiologist must then often go to a particular reading room, possibly in a remote part of the healthcare facility, to read the images. The integration of digital fluoroscopy modalities with clinical PACS has the potential to significantly improve the urological diagnosis process by providing high-speed access to images at a variety of locations within a healthcare facility without costly film processing. The PACS additionally provides a cost-effective and reliable means of long-term storage and allows several medical users to simultaneously view the same images at different locations. The installation of a digital data interface between the existing clinically operational PACS at the University of Virginia Health Sciences Center and a digital urology fluoroscope is described. Preliminary user interviews that have been conducted to determine the clinical effectiveness of PACS workstations for urological diagnosis are discussed. The specific suitability of the workstation medium is discussed, as are overall advantages and disadvantages of the hardcopy and softcopy media in terms of efficiency, timeliness and cost. Throughput metrics and some specific parameters of gray-scale viewing stations and the expected system impacts resulting from the integration of a urology fluoroscope with PACS are also discussed.

  11. Human universe

    Cox, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  12. [Diagnosis: synovial fluid analysis].

    Gallo Vallejo, Francisco Javier; Giner Ruiz, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Synovial fluid analysis in rheumatological diseases allows a more accurate diagnosis in some entities, mainly infectious and microcrystalline arthritis. Examination of synovial fluid in patients with osteoarthritis is useful if a differential diagnosis will be performed with other processes and to distinguish between inflammatory and non-inflammatory forms. Joint aspiration is a diagnostic and sometimes therapeutic procedure that is available to primary care physicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Ileocecal endometriosis: diagnosis and management

    Ana López Carrasco

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Variability in symptoms hinders diagnosis. The gold standard for diagnosis is MRI, but clinical suspicion optimizes imaging test diagnosis. Segmental resection should be indicated in the majority of the cases.

  14. Radiological diagnosis and differential diagnosis of headache

    Langner, S.; Kirsch, M.

    2015-01-01

    Headache is very common and affects almost everyone at some point. It is one of the most common disorders that leads patients to see their physician. All different forms have the nociception via trigeminal nerve fibers in common. Beside the clinical course headaches are classified as either primary or secondary, with the latter having an identifiable structural or biochemical cause. Imaging has a low diagnostic yield in primary headache but play an important role in the differential diagnosis of secondary forms. An overview of different forms of secondary headache is given, outlining diagnostic procedures and the morphologic imaging features of each syndrome.

  15. Parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines: Lessons for monitoring the outcome of Community-Led Total Sanitation.

    Belizario, Vicente Y; Liwanag, Harvy Joy C; Naig, June Rose A; Chua, Paul Lester C; Madamba, Manuel I; Dahildahil, Roy O

    2015-01-01

    While preventive chemotherapy remains to be a major strategy for the prevention and control of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) comprise the long-term strategy to achieve sustained control of STH. This study examined the parasitological and nutritional status of school-age and preschool-age children in four villages in Southern Leyte, Philippines where two of the villages attained Open-Defecation-Free (ODF) status after introduction of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS). A total of 341 children (89.0% of the total eligible population) submitted stool samples which were examined using the Kato-Katz technique. Results showed that 27.9% of the total stool samples examined had at least one type of STH (cumulative prevalence), while 7.9% had moderate-heavy intensity infections. Between the two villages where CLTS was introduced, Buenavista had a significantly higher cumulative prevalence of STH at 67.4% (pnutritional parameters, as well as the presence of CLTS in the village, suggesting the need to monitor the ODF status of villages on a regular basis even after the end of CLTS activities to ensure the sustainability of the CLTS approach. In order to achieve effective control of STH, deeper collaboration between the WASH and STH sectors are recommended where partners can work together in the area of monitoring and evaluation that may include improved parasitological and nutritional status in high-risk groups, as well as sustainable behavior change as outcome indicators. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Intestinal parasitosis among non-permanent resident students in Tunisia: a review of 23 years of monitoring in the department of Parasitology-Mycology at the Rabta Hospital of Tunisia].

    Dridi, Kalthoum; Fakhfakh, Najla; Belhadj, Sleh; Kaouech, Emira; Kallel, Kalthoum; Chaker, Emna

    2015-07-01

    In order to fight digestive parasitism in Tunisia, a national program of surveillance of non-permanent resident students in Tunisia has been found to detect these parasitosis in this target population. To determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among non-permanent resident students in Tunisia, to identify the different parasitic species founded and to show the interest of this screening. During a period of 23 years (1990-2012), 7386 parasitological examinations of stools has been made among students essentially from or had visited tropical Africa, Maghreb and Middle-East, at the laboratory of Parasitology-Mycology at the Rabta Hospital of Tunis. The prevalence of intestinal parasitism found was 34.45% (i.e. 2545 infested students). Among the protozoa that have been isolated in the majority of cases (78.75%), amoebae were most frequently found (86.4%) represented mainly by Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nanus in respectively, 25.62 and 23.33% of parasites isolated; while Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, only pathogenic Amoeba was found in 8.05% of the total of parasites isolated. Regarding helminths, found in 21.25% of parasites isolated, Ankylostome was predominant (34.5%) represented by the species of Necator americanus. A single case of Ancylostom duodenale has been isolated. Among the identified parasite species, 38.7% were known parasitic pathogens for humans. These results note the interest of the control of the non-permanent resident students in Tunisia. The precocious tracking and treatment of affected subjects permits to avoid the introduction and the dissemination of parasites already rare and virulent strains in our country.

  17. Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminthiasis in an Amazonic community of Peru using multiple diagnostic techniques.

    Machicado, Jorge D; Marcos, Luis A; Tello, Raul; Canales, Marco; Terashima, Angelica; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2012-06-01

    An observational descriptive study was conducted in a Shipibo-Conibo/Ese'Eja community of the rainforest in Peru to compare the Kato-Katz method and the spontaneous sedimentation in tube technique (SSTT) for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites as well as to report the prevalence of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections in this area. A total of 73 stool samples were collected and analysed by several parasitological techniques, including Kato-Katz, SSTT, modified Baermann technique (MBT), agar plate culture, Harada-Mori culture and the direct smear examination. Kato-Katz and SSTT had the same rate of detection for Ascaris lumbricoides (5%), Trichuris trichiura (5%), hookworm (14%) and Hymenolepis nana (26%). The detection rate for Strongyloides stercoralis larvae was 16% by SSTT and 0% by Kato-Katz, but 18% by agar plate culture and 16% by MBT. The SSTT also had the advantage of detecting multiple intestinal protozoa such as Blastocystis hominis (40%), Giardia intestinalis (29%) and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar (16%). The most common intestinal parasites found in this community were B. hominis, G. intestinalis, H. nana, S. stercoralis and hookworm. In conclusion, the SSTT is not inferior to Kato-Katz for the diagnosis of common STH infections but is largely superior for detecting intestinal protozoa and S. stercoralis larvae. Copyright © 2012 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis: a comparative study of three methods using skin and spleen from dogs with natural Leishmania infantum infection.

    Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; Coura-Vital, Wendel; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Bouillet, Leoneide Érica Maduro; Ker, Henrique Gama; Fortes de Brito, Rory Cristiane; Resende, Daniela de Melo; Carneiro, Mariângela; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro; Marques, Marcos José; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa

    2013-11-08

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its variations represent highly sensitive and specific methods for Leishmania DNA detection and subsequent canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis. The aim of this work was to compare three different molecular diagnosis techniques (conventional PCR [cPCR], seminested PCR [snPCR], and quantitative PCR [qPCR]) in samples of skin and spleen from 60 seropositive dogs by immunofluorescence antibody test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Parasitological analysis was conducted by culture of bone marrow aspirate and optical microscopic assessment of ear skin and spleen samples stained with Giemsa, the standard tests for CVL diagnosis. The primers L150/L152 and LINR4/LIN17/LIN19 were used to amplify the conserved region of the Leishmania kDNA minicircle in the cPCR, and snPCR and qPCR were performed using the DNA polymerase gene (DNA pol α) primers from Leishmania infantum. The parasitological analysis revealed parasites in 61.7% of the samples. Sensitivities were 89.2%, 86.5%, and 97.3% in the skin and 81.1%, 94.6%, and 100.0% in spleen samples used for cPCR, snPCR, and qPCR, respectively. We demonstrated that the qPCR method was the best technique to detect L. infantum in both skin and spleen samples. However, we recommend the use of skin due to the high sensitivity and sampling being less invasive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sustainable Universities

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...

  20. Open University

    Pentz,M

    1975-01-01

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  1. Geneva University

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 9 March 2009 COLLOQUIUM at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Are We Descended From Heavy Neutrinos? Prof. Boris Kayser / Fermilab (Fermi National Accelerator Center, Geneva, Illinois, USA) Neutrinos are among the most abundant particles in the universe. The discovery that they have nonzero masses has raised a number of very interesting questions about them, and about their connections to other areas of physics and to cosmology. After briefly reviewing what has been learned about the neutrinos so far, we will identify the major open questions, explain why they are interesting, and discuss ideas and plans for answering them through future experiments. We will highlight a particularly intriguing question: Are neutrinos the key to understanding why the universe contains matter but almost no antimatter, making it s...

  2. Geneva University

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 13 May 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Observing the extreme universe with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Prof. Olaf Reimer / Stanford University The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST, formerly GLAST) is an international observatory-type satellite mission with a physics program spanning from gamma-ray astronomy to particle astrophysics and cosmology. FGST was launched on June 11, 2008 and is successfully conducting science observations of the high-energy gamma-ray sky since August 2008. A varienty of discoveries has been made already, including monitoring rapid blazar variability, the existence of GeV gamma-ray bursts, and numerous new gamma-ray sources of different types, including those belonging to previously unknown gamma-ray source classes like msPSRs, globula...

  3. Radiological diagnosis of fractures

    Finlay, D.B.L.; Allen, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    This book is about radiology of fractures. While it contains sections of clinical features it is not intended that readers should rely entirely upon these for the diagnosis and management of the injured patient. As in the diagnosis and treatment of all medical problems, fracture management must be carried out in a logical step-by-step fashion - namely, history, examination, investigation, differential diagnosis, diagnosis and then treatment. Each section deals with a specific anatomical area and begins with line drawings of the normal radiographs demonstrating the anatomy. Accessory views that may be requested, and the indications for these, are included. Any radiological pitfalls for the area in general are then described. The fractures in adults are then examined in turn, their radiological features described, and any pitfalls in their diagnosis discussed. A brief note of important clinical findings is included. A brief mention is made of pediatric fractures which are of significance and their differences to the adult pattern indicated. Although fractures can be classified into types with different characteristics, in life every fracture is individual. Fractures by and large follow common patterns, but many have variations

  4. Molecular diagnosis and immunotherapy.

    Sastre, Joaquín; Sastre-Ibañez, Marina

    2016-12-01

    To describe recent insights into how molecular diagnosis can improve indication and selection of suitable allergens for specific immunotherapy and increase the safety of this therapy. As specific allergen immunotherapy targets specific allergens, identification of the disease-eliciting allergen is a prerequisite for accurate prescription of treatment. In areas of complex sensitization to aeroallergens or in cases of hymenoptera venom allergy, the use of molecular diagnosis has demonstrated that it may lead to a change in indication and selection of allergens for immunotherapy in a large proportion of patients when compared with diagnosis based on skin prick testing and/or specific IgE determination with commercial extracts. These changes in immunotherapy prescription aided by molecular diagnosis have been demonstrated to be cost-effective in some scenarios. Certain patterns of sensitization to grass or olive pollen and bee allergens may identify patients with higher risk of adverse reaction during immunotherapy. Molecular diagnosis, when used with other tools and patients' clinical records, can help clinicians better to select the most appropriate patients and allergens for specific immunotherapy and, in some cases, predict the risk of adverse reactions. The pattern of sensitization to allergens could potentially predict the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy provided that these immunotherapy products contain a sufficient amount of these allergens. Nevertheless, multiplex assay remains a third-level approach, not to be used as screening method in current practice.

  5. [Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of bronchial asthma].

    Gillissen, A; Bauer, T; Richter, F; Leonhardt, P

    2001-11-01

    Asthma and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) are the most important obstructive pulmonary diseases. Patient's history and physical evaluation give major hints of the underlying disease. Further diagnostic measures comprise lung function analysis including spirometry, plethysmography and--in severe cases--blood gas analysis. Bronchial hyperreactivity may be quantified with an unspecific inhalative provocation test. In many cases allergic diseases are accompanied by asthma. Thus, allergy tests--particularly skin prick tests--have to be carried out. To further define an underlying allergy, in some cases even specific inhalative provocation tests have to be performed. X-ray of the thorax and other imaging techniques, detailed blood analysis, further diagnosis of the upper respiratory tract and the cardiac system may have to be carried out a) to quantify the effects of a severe form of asthma or COPD on other organs, and b) for differential diagnostic examinations.

  6. CT diagnosis of hepatoma

    Itai, Yuji [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1982-04-01

    In hepatocellular carcinoma, present status of CT diagnosis was discussed. Hepatocellular carcinoma is sometimes imaged in same concentration as that of surrounding tissues, and the detection rate ranged from 79 to 94%. The rate of differential diagnosis between primary and metastatic carcinoma was only 83% (includes 22% of false diagnosis) using contrast enhancement. The rates of detection of hepatocellular carcinoma and metastatic one were also only 87% and 75%, respectively, even by the combined use of arterial infusion CT and dynamic CT. However, the CT images is reproducible, and is supplemented by the information of US. Thus, the combination of these methods is useful in diagnosing the presence, extension, and nature of liver carcinoma.

  7. Human prenatal diagnosis

    Filkins, K.; Russo, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The multiauthor text is written as a ''guide to rationalize and clarify certain aspects of diagnosis, general counseling and intervention'' for ''health professionals who provide care to pregnant women.'' The text is not aimed at the ultrasonographer but rather at the physicians who are clinically responsible for patient management. Chapters of relevance to radiologists include an overview of prenatal screening and counseling, diagnosis of neural tube defects, ultrasonographic (US) scanning of fetal disorders in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy, US scanning in the third trimester, multiple gestation and selective termination, fetal echo and Doppler studies, and fetal therapy. Also included are overviews of virtually all currently utilized prenatal diagnostic techniques including amniocentesis, fetal blood sampling, fetoscopy, recombinant DNA detection of hemoglobinopathies, chorionic villus sampling, embryoscopy, legal issues, and diagnosis of Mendelian disorders by DNA analysis

  8. [Prenatal diagnosis of sirenomelia].

    Ladure, H; D'hervé, D; Loget, P; Poulain, P

    2006-04-01

    Sirenomelia sequence associates a fusion of inferior legs with renal anomalies until bilateral agenesis. It is a rare and lethal polymalformation. The purpose of the ultrasonographic study is to identify the sirenomelia as early as possible during pregnancy and to differentiate it from caudal regression syndrome. A case of sirenomelia diagnosed early is reported together with a review of the literature. The ultrasonographic diagnosis, associated defects, the interest of color Doppler study of abdominal vasculature are discussed. Antenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis should be obtained as early as possible, before 20th gestational week at the latest. Color Doppler is helpful to confirm the diagnosis in case of bilateral renal agenesis. The main differences between sirenomelia and caudal regression syndrome (which requires a very different genetic counselling) are summarized in a table.

  9. Diagnosis of venous disorders

    Minar, E.

    1993-01-01

    Limited accuracy in the clinic diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (VT) makes such diagnostic tests such as duplex sonography or venography necessary. Exact information on the age and extent of the thrombus are necessary for the clinician to optimize the therapeutric management. The correct diagnosis of calf vein thrombosis and of recurrent VT in patients with postphlebitis changes also has implications for treatment. After exclusion of thrombosis, the radiologist should evaluate the leg for other possible causes of symptoms besides VT. Investigation of the venous sytem also has a role in the diagnosis in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. In patients with chronic venous insuffficiency the deep venous system should assessed for patency and venous valve function. The superficial veins should be differentiated in segments with sufficient or insufficient venous valves, and it is also necessary to look for insufficiency of the perforrating veins. In patients with superficial phlebitis there is risk of propagation into the deep venous system. (orig.) [de

  10. Diagnosis of epitheliod leiomyoma

    Tret'yakov, A.E.; Shevyakov, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Epithelioid leiomyoma (EL) is unusual and rarely met tumor of the stomach. From International histological classification it belongs to benign tumors of smooth muscular tissue. As other nonepithelial tumors EL can grow endogastral, intramural and exogastral. Exogastral type of tumor growth presents difficulties for diagnosis as changes of mucous and sometimes muscular layers of stomach wall are absent. An observation was given of a patient with mentioned disease. Primary diagnosis was mechanical jaundice, chronic cholecystitis. Tumor formation (10x8x9 sm) was revealed in the stomach during operation

  11. [Laboratory diagnosis of mucormycosis].

    Garcia-Hermoso, Dea

    2013-03-01

    Mucormycosis are deep infections caused by ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the order of Mucorales. The disease occurs mostly in immunocompromised, diabetic or solid organ transplant recipients. There are currently no specific diagnostic guidelines for mucormycosis. The histological examination and culture of the clinical sample remain the most useful approaches for diagnosis. Furthermore, alternative methods to the fungal culture are yet to be standardized. Here we review the current microbiological approaches used for the diagnosis and identification of Mucorales. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  12. Structural analysis for Diagnosis

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential technique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is re-considered in this paper. Matching is re-formulated as a problem...... of relating faults to known parameters and measurements of a system. Using explicit fault modelling, minimal over-determined subsystems are shown to provide necessary redundancy relations from the matching. Details of the method are presented and a realistic example used to clearly describe individual steps...

  13. Structural analysis for diagnosis

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential tech-nique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is reconsidered in this paper. Matching is reformulated as a problem...... of relating faults to known parameters and measurements of a system. Using explicit fault modelling, minimal overdetermined subsystems are shown to provide necessary redundancy relations from the matching. Details of the method are presented and a realistic example used to clearly describe individual steps....

  14. Diagnosis of Pompe disease

    Vissing, John; Lukacs, Zoltan; Straub, Volker

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of Pompe disease (acid maltase deficiency, glycogen storage disease type II) in children and adults can be challenging because of the heterogeneous clinical presentation and considerable overlap of signs and symptoms found in other neuromuscular diseases. This review evaluates some...... to identify late-onset Pompe disease often leads to false-negative results and subsequent delays in identification and treatment of the disorder. Serum creatine kinase level can be normal or only mildly elevated in late-onset Pompe disease and is not very helpful alone to suggest the diagnosis...

  15. Geneva University

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 7 December 2009 PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Topological insulators and topological superconductors Professor Shoucheng Zhang Department of Physics, Stanford University, CA   Recently, a new class of topological states has been theoretically predicted and experimentally realized. The topological insulators have an insulating gap in the bulk, but have topologically protected edge or surface states due to the time reversal symmetry. In two dimensions the edge states give rise to the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, in the absence of any external magnetic field. I shall review the theoretical prediction of the QSH state in HgTe/CdTe semiconductor quantum wells, and its recent experimental observation. The edge states of the QSH state supports fr...

  16. Geneva University

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 18 November  2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Highlights of the European Strategy Workshop for Future Neutrino Physics Dr Ilias Efthymiopoulos, CERN   Seminar cancelled! Information Organizer : J.-S. Graulich Monday 7 December 2009 PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Topological insulators and topological superconductors Professor Shoucheng Zhang Department of Physics, Stanford University, CA   Recently, a new class of topological states has been theoretically predicted and experimentally realized. The topological insulators have an insulating gap in the bulk, but have topologically protected edge or surface states due to the time reversal symmetry. In two dimensions the edge s...

  17. Geneva University

    2008-01-01

    Ecole de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 28 April 2008 PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM at 17.00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Gravity : an Emergent Perspective by Prof. Thanu Padmanabhan, Pune University Dean, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India I will motivate and describe a novel perspective in which gravity arises as an emergent phenomenon, somewhat like elasticity. This perspective throws light on several issues which are somewhat of a mystery in the conventional approach. Moreover it provides new insights on the dark energy problem. In fact, I will show that it is necessary to have such an alternative perspective in order to solve the cosmological constant problem.Information: http://theory.physics.unige.ch/~fiteo/seminars/COL/collist.html

  18. Universal Alienation

    David Harvey

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a debate between David Harvey, Michael Hardt and Toni Negri. It takes Marx’s bicentenary as occasion for an update of his concept of alienation. The paper asks: how are we to interpret universal alienation and from whence does it come? Marx radically reformulated the concept of alienation in the Grundrisse. The humanism of the early Marx can be re-rooted and reconceptualised in the scientific mode proposed in the Grundrisse. In the Grundrisse, the universality of alienation is specific to capitalism’s historical evolution. Today, alienation exists almost everywhere. It exists at work in production, at home in consumption, and it dominates much of politics and daily life. Such trends intensify through the application of information technologies and artificial intelligence. Widespread alienation has resulted in Occupy movements as well as right-wing populism and bigoted nationalist and racist movements. Donald Trump is the President of alienation. The circulation of capital as totality consists of the three key moments of production, circulation and distribution. A lot of contemporary economic struggles are now occurring at the point of realisation rather than at the point of production. Protests are therefore today often expressions of broad-based discontent. Our future is dictated by the need to redeem our debts. Under such conditions democracy becomes a sham. The big question is what forms of social movement can help us get out of the state-finance nexus. The theory of objective alienation along with an understanding of its subjective consequences is one vital key to unlock the door of a progressive politics for the future.

  19. O processo de implementação do diagnóstico de enfermagem no Hospital Universitário da Universidade de São Paulo El proceso de implementar el diagnóstico de enfermería en el Hospital Universitario de la Universidad de Sao Paulo The nursing diagnosis implementation process at the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo

    Antônio Fernandes Costa Lima

    2006-03-01

    un sistema patronizado de lenguaje del proceso asistencial a fin de que se pueda realizar la captura, agrupación y clasificación de los datos para el análisis y transformación en informaciones. El presente estudio tiene como objetivo compartir con otros enfermeros esa experiencia en el proceso de implemen-tación del Diagnóstico de Enfermería como segunda etapa del SAE.More than two decades ago the Nursing Department at the University Hospital of the University of São Paulo implemented the care model called Nursing Care System (NCS, which is comprised of three phases: Background, Evaluation and Nursing Prescription. Since then, it is being developed by the Nursing Department nurses as a guiding instrument for care, teaching and research. Having in mind the automation of the NCS, the nurses began to discuss the need for changes that could speed up the work process with the proposal of implementation of the Nursing Diagnosis as another step of the NCS and with the review of nursing action/interventions. In order to do so, the adoption of a standardized system of the care process language became essential so as to make possible data capture, grouping and classification for analysis and their transformation into information. The present study aims at sharing with other nurses this experience on the implementation process of the Nursing Diagnosis as a second step of the NCS.

  20. Imaging diagnosis in jaundice

    Schulman, A.

    1985-01-01

    For a patient presenting with jaundice, ultrasonography is the most rapid and sure way of ascertaining whether the jaundice is due to biliary obstruction of a macroscopic surgical nature rather than of an intrahepatic microscopic nature. Diagnosis could be done by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or computed tomography. These methods as well as radionuclide scintigraphy are discussed

  1. Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Leukemia/Lymphoma Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Leukemia Symptoms Frequent infections Fever and chills Anemia Easy ...

  2. Differential diagnosis diphtheria adults

    Yu. I. Liashenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,824 human cases of diphtheria, treated at the Clinical Infectious Diseases Hospital SP Botkin (St. Petersburg during 1993, as well as 19 deaths in 1994. It is known that early diagnosis of infectious diseases, especially diphtheria, contributes to the favorable outcome of the disease. The diagnosis of diphtheria at the prehospital stage is always difficult. Presented in detail the differential diagnosis of the disease, clinically similar to diphtheria: Lacunal angina, angina Simanovsky, infectious mononucleosis, angina Ludwig’s angina Dugue, syphilis, non-infectious with clinical «masks» of diphtheria and other. Diphtheria epidemic of 1993–1994 in Russia and, in particular, in St. Petersburg, showed that the late admission of patients with diphtheria infection in hospitals, usually associated with irregular differential diagnosis of this dangerous disease.

  3. Body imaging: Diagnosis

    Pfannenstiel incision for caesarean section was noted. No synchronous lesions were identified. Based on the location of the lesion, sonar features and MRI enhancement pattern, the principal radiological diagnosis was that of a desmoid tumour of the left rectus muscle. In fact, the initial sonar-guided core biopsy specimen ...

  4. Diagnosis of Mood Disorders.

    Seligman, Linda; Moore, Bonita Marcus

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of mood disorders according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (fourth edition) criteria and other relevant information. Differential diagnosis is facilitated through discussion of differences and similarities among mental disorders, age and gender-related patterns of mood disorders, and useful diagnostic tools. (Author)

  5. Serological diagnosis of brucellosis.

    Nielsen, K; Yu, W L

    2010-01-01

    To present a review and to describe the most widely used laboratory tests for serology diagnosis of brucellosis along with their pros and cons. Review the recent literature on brucellosis serology diagnostic tests. The choice of the testing strategy depends on the prevailing brucellosis epidemiological situation and the goal of testing. The 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of brucellosis is isolation and identification of the causative bacterium, a member of Brucella sp. Isolation of Brucella sp. requires high security laboratory facilities (biological containment level 3), highly skilled personnel, an extended turnaround time for results and it is considered a hazardous procedure. Hence brucellosis is generally diagnosed by detection of an elevated level of antibody in serum or other body fluid. This is a presumptive diagnosis as other microorganisms and perhaps environmental factors can also cause increased antibody levels. A large number of serological tests for brucellosis have been devised over the 100+ years since its initial isolation, starting with a simple agglutination test and progressing to sophisticated primary binding assays available today. However, no test devised to date is 100% accurate so generally serological diagnosis consists of testing sera by several tests, usually a screening test of high sensitivity, followed by a confirmatory test of high specificity.

  6. Hints for Diagnosis

    Poulsen, Lars K

    2015-01-01

    /or caretakers. Based on this, a provisional decision to pursue a food allergy diagnosis may be made after carefully considering other possible reasons for an adverse reaction to a food: aversion, infection, intoxication, or an underlying metabolic disease. To respond to the next question, the anamnesis...

  7. Performance based fault diagnosis

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2002-01-01

    Different aspects of fault detection and fault isolation in closed-loop systems are considered. It is shown that using the standard setup known from feedback control, it is possible to formulate fault diagnosis problems based on a performance index in this general standard setup. It is also shown...

  8. [Autoimmune hepatitis: Immunological diagnosis].

    Brahim, Imane; Brahim, Ikram; Hazime, Raja; Admou, Brahim

    2017-11-01

    Autoimmune hepatopathies (AIHT) including autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune cholangitis (AIC), represent an impressive entities in clinical practice. Their pathogenesis is not perfectly elucidated. Several factors are involved in the initiation of hepatic autoimmune and inflammatory phenomena such as genetic predisposition, molecular mimicry and/or abnormalities of T-regulatory lymphocytes. AIHT have a wide spectrum of presentation, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severe acute liver failure. The diagnosis of AIHT is based on the presence of hyperglobulinemia, cytolysis, cholestasis, typical even specific circulating auto-antibodies, distinctive of AIH or PBC, and histological abnormalities as well as necrosis and inflammation. Anti-F actin, anti-LKM1, anti-LC1 antibodies permit to distinguish between AIH type 1 and AIH type 2. Anti-SLA/LP antibodies are rather associated to more severe hepatitis, and particularly useful for the diagnosis of seronegative AIH for other the antibodies. Due to the relevant diagnostic value of anti-M2, anti-Sp100, and anti-gp210 antibodies, the diagnosis of PBC is more affordable than that of PSC and AIC. Based on clinical data, the immunological diagnosis of AIHT takes advantage of the various specialized laboratory techniques including immunofluorescence, immunodot or blot, and the Elisa systems, provided of a closer collaboration between the biologist and the physician. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Sonographic diagnosis of pneumothorax

    Lubna F Husain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung sonography has rapidly emerged as a reliable technique in the evaluation of various thoracic diseases. One important, well-established application is the diagnosis of a pneumothorax. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of a pneumothorax in the management of a critical patient can prevent the progression into a life-threatening situation. Sonographic signs, including ′lung sliding′, ′B-lines′ or ′comet tail artifacts′, ′A-lines′, and ′the lung point sign′ can help in the diagnosis of a pneumothorax. Ultrasound has a higher sensitivity than the traditional upright anteroposterior chest radiography (CXR for the detection of a pneumothorax. Small occult pneumothoraces may be missed on CXR during a busy trauma scenario, and CXR may not always be feasible in critically ill patients. Computed tomography, the gold standard for the detection of pneumothorax, requires patients to be transported out of the clinical area, compromising their hemodynamic stability and delaying the diagnosis. As ultrasound machines have become more portable and easier to use, lung sonography now allows a rapid evaluation of an unstable patient, at the bedside. These advantages combined with the low cost and ease of use, have allowed thoracic sonography to become a useful modality in many clinical settings.

  10. Laboratory Diagnosis of Pertussis

    Schellekens, Joop F. P.; Mooi, Frits R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The introduction of vaccination in the 1950s significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality of pertussis. However, since the 1990s, a resurgence of pertussis has been observed in vaccinated populations, and a number of causes have been proposed for this phenomenon, including improved diagnostics, increased awareness, waning immunity, and pathogen adaptation. The resurgence of pertussis highlights the importance of standardized, sensitive, and specific laboratory diagnoses, the lack of which is responsible for the large differences in pertussis notifications between countries. Accurate laboratory diagnosis is also important for distinguishing between the several etiologic agents of pertussis-like diseases, which involve both viruses and bacteria. If pertussis is diagnosed in a timely manner, antibiotic treatment of the patient can mitigate the symptoms and prevent transmission. During an outbreak, timely diagnosis of pertussis allows prophylactic treatment of infants too young to be (fully) vaccinated, for whom pertussis is a severe, sometimes fatal disease. Finally, reliable diagnosis of pertussis is required to reveal trends in the (age-specific) disease incidence, which may point to changes in vaccine efficacy, waning immunity, and the emergence of vaccine-adapted strains. Here we review current approaches to the diagnosis of pertussis and discuss their limitations and strengths. In particular, we emphasize that the optimal diagnostic procedure depends on the stage of the disease, the age of the patient, and the vaccination status of the patient. PMID:26354823

  11. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis

    H.J. Veeze

    1995-01-01

    textabstractApplying the sweat-test as the first choice of test when a diagnosis of cystic fibrosis is suspected is still common practice and advisable. Since the cloning of the CFTR gene more than 400 different cystic fibrosis (CF) mutations have already been identified. The use of CF mutation

  12. Diagnosis and management of bronchiolitis.

    2006-10-01

    Bronchiolitis is a disorder most commonly caused in infants by viral lower respiratory tract infection. It is the most common lower respiratory infection in this age group. It is characterized by acute inflammation, edema, and necrosis of epithelial cells lining small airways, increased mucus production, and bronchospasm. The American Academy of Pediatrics convened a committee composed of primary care physicians and specialists in the fields of pulmonology, infectious disease, emergency medicine, epidemiology, and medical informatics. The committee partnered with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the RTI International-University of North Carolina Evidence-Based Practice Center to develop a comprehensive review of the evidence-based literature related to the diagnosis, management, and prevention of bronchiolitis. The resulting evidence report and other sources of data were used to formulate clinical practice guideline recommendations. This guideline addresses the diagnosis of bronchiolitis as well as various therapeutic interventions including bronchodilators, corticosteroids, antiviral and antibacterial agents, hydration, chest physiotherapy, and oxygen. Recommendations are made for prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection with palivizumab and the control of nosocomial spread of infection. Decisions were made on the basis of a systematic grading of the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. The clinical practice guideline underwent comprehensive peer review before it was approved by the American Academy of Pediatrics. This clinical practice guideline is not intended as a sole source of guidance in the management of children with bronchiolitis. Rather, it is intended to assist clinicians in decision-making. It is not intended to replace clinical judgment or establish a protocol for the care of all children with this condition. These recommendations may not provide the only appropriate approach to the management of children

  13. Diagnosis of shoulder impingement syndrome

    Hodler, J.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews the pathogenesis and clinical and imaging findings in shoulder impingement syndrome. Different stages of impingement syndrome are described. Stage I relates to edema and hemorrhage of the supraspinatus tendon. Stage II is characterized by bursal inflammation and fibrosis, as well as tendinopathy. In stage III there is a tear of the rotator cuff. Clinical signs many overlap. Moreover, calcifying tendinitis, fractures and pain originating from the cervical spine may mimic shoulder impingement syndrome. Imaging is important for the exact diagnosis. Standard radiographs are the basis of imaging in shoulder impingement syndrome. They may demonstrate subchondral sclerosis of the major tuberosity, subacromial spurs, and form anomalies of the acromion. They are also important in the differential diagnosis of shoulder impingement syndrome and demonstrate calcifying tendinitis, fractures and neoplasm. Ultrasonography has found acceptance as a screening tool and even as a final diagnostic method by many authors. However, there is a high interobserver variability in the demonstration of rotator cuff tears. Its usefulness has therefore been questioned. MR imaging is probably the method of choice in the evaluation of the rotator cuff and surrounding structures. Several investigations have demonstrated that differentiation of early findings, such as tendinopathy versus partial tears, may be difficult with MR imaging. However, reproducibility for fullthickness tears appears to be higher than for sonography. Moreover, specificity appears to be superior to sonography. MR arthrography is not universally accepted. However, it allows for more exact differentiation of discrete findings and may be indicated in preoperative planning. Standard arthrography and CT have a limited role in the current assessment of the rotator cuff. (orig.) [de

  14. Geneva University

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 25 March 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Hunting for the Higgs with D0 at the Tevatron Prof. Gustaaf Brooijmans / Columbia University The search for the Higgs boson is one of the most important endeavors in current experimental particle physics. At the eve of the LHC start, the Tevatron is delivering record luminosity allowing both CDF and D0 to explore a new region of possible Higgs masses. In this seminar, the techniques used to search for the Higgs boson at the Tevatron will be explained, limiting factors will be examined, and the sensitivity in the various channels will be reviewed. The newly excluded values of the standard model Higgs mass will be presented. Information : http://dpnc.unige.ch/seminaire/annonce.html Organizer : J.-S. Graulich

  15. Geneva University

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Lundi 6 avril 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR àt 17:00 – Auditoire Stückelberg Hospital superbugs, nanomechanics and statistical physics Prof. Dr G. Aeppli / University College London The alarming growth of the antibiotic-resistant superbug, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is driving the development of new technologies to investigate antibiotics and their modes of action. We report silicon cantilever based studies of self-assembled monolayers of mucopeptides which model drug-sensitive and resistant bacterial walls. The underlying concepts needed to understand the measurements will simplify the design of cantilevers and coatings for biosensing and could even impact our understanding of drug action on bacteria themselves. (Une verrée en compagnie du conférencier sera offerte après le colloque.) Organizer : Prof. Markus Büttiker ...

  16. Geneva University

    2008-01-01

    Ecole de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 29 October 2008 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Precision measurements of low-energy neutrino-nucleus interactions with the SciBooNE experiment at Fermilab by Dr Michel Sorel, IFIC (CSIC and University of Valencia) «Do all modern accelerator-based neutrino experiments need to make use of kiloton-scale detectors and decade-long exposure times? In order to study the full pattern of neutrino mixing via neutrino oscillation experiments, the answer is probably yes, together with powerful proton sources. Still, to push the sensitivity of future neutrino oscillation searches into unchartered territory, those are necessary, but not sufficient, ingredients. In addition, accurate knowledge of neutrino interactions and neutrino production is mandatory. This knowledge can be acquired via small-scale and short-term dedicated n...

  17. Geneva University

    2010-01-01

    Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tel: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 14 April 2010 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium Dark Matter and the XENON Experiment By Dr. Marc Schumann, Physik Institut, Universität Zürich There is convincing astrophysical and cosmological evidence that most of the matter in the Universe is dark: It is invisible in every band of the electromagnetic spectrum. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are promising Dark Matter candidates that arise naturally in many theories beyond the Standard Model. Several experiments aim to directly detect WIMPs by measuring nuclear recoils from WIMPs scattered on target nuclei. In this talk, I will give an overview on Dark Matter and direct Dark Matter detection. Then I will focus on the XENON100 experiment, a 2-phase liquid/gas time projection chamber (TPC) that ...

  18. Geneva University

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél. 022 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 14 October 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Long-lived particle searches at colliders Dr. Philippe Mermod / Oxford University The discovery of exotic long-lived particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics such as the origin and composition of dark matter and the unification of the fundamental forces. This talk will focus on searches for long-lived charged massive particles, where "charged" refers to the magnetic, electric or colour charge. Previous searches at the LEP and Tevatron Colliders allowed to put mass and cross section limits on various kinds of long-lived particles, such as Magnetic Monopoles and metastable leptons and up-type quarks. The new energy regime made available at the LHC will probe physics regions well beyond these limits. F...

  19. Universal algebra

    Grätzer, George

    1979-01-01

    Universal Algebra, heralded as ". . . the standard reference in a field notorious for the lack of standardization . . .," has become the most authoritative, consistently relied on text in a field with applications in other branches of algebra and other fields such as combinatorics, geometry, and computer science. Each chapter is followed by an extensive list of exercises and problems. The "state of the art" account also includes new appendices (with contributions from B. Jónsson, R. Quackenbush, W. Taylor, and G. Wenzel) and a well-selected additional bibliography of over 1250 papers and books which makes this a fine work for students, instructors, and researchers in the field. "This book will certainly be, in the years to come, the basic reference to the subject." --- The American Mathematical Monthly (First Edition) "In this reviewer's opinion [the author] has more than succeeded in his aim. The problems at the end of each chapter are well-chosen; there are more than 650 of them. The book is especially sui...

  20. Geneva University

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 29 April 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium Search for spin-1 excited bosons at the LHC Mihail V. Chizhov (Physics Department, Sofia University, Bulgaria) I will discuss the resonance production of new type spin-1 excited bosons, Z*, at hadron colliders. They can be observed as a Breit-Wigner resonance peak in the invariant dilepton mass distribution in the same way as the well-known hypothetical gauge bosons, Z�. This makes them very interesting objects for early searches with the LHC first data. Moreover, they have unique signatures in transverse momentum and angular distributions, which allow to distinguish them from other resonances. Information : http://dpnc.unige.ch/seminaire/annonce.html Organizer: J.-S. Graulich

  1. Publication Productivity of Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University ...

    35.9% (631/1756) of the total publications followed by Pediatrics and Parasitology. The median number of ... for example, publications belonging to veterinary, dentistry, nursing, and pharmacy .... General surgery. 60. 3.4 ... Anesthesia. 33. 1.9.

  2. Radioimmunoassays for tumor diagnosis

    Dressler, J.

    1983-01-01

    Aside from imaging techniques several (radio-)immunological analyses are used for tumor diagnosis. Oncofetal antigens, for instance the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), have become the most important substances for many malignancies. However, nearly all of the so-called tumor markers are not suitable for early diagnosis or screening either because of low sensitivity or low tumor specifity. On the other hand follow-up measurements give a very sensitive index of the success of treatment and may indicate tumor progression when other signs are still not present. In some carcinomas and under some clinical circumstances tumorspecific markers are available and mandatory for detection and/or staging: AFP in hepatoma, acid phosphatase in metastasizing carcinoma of the prostate and serum thyreoglobulin in differentiated thyroid cancer. (orig.) [de

  3. Classification, disease, and diagnosis.

    Jutel, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    Classification shapes medicine and guides its practice. Understanding classification must be part of the quest to better understand the social context and implications of diagnosis. Classifications are part of the human work that provides a foundation for the recognition and study of illness: deciding how the vast expanse of nature can be partitioned into meaningful chunks, stabilizing and structuring what is otherwise disordered. This article explores the aims of classification, their embodiment in medical diagnosis, and the historical traditions of medical classification. It provides a brief overview of the aims and principles of classification and their relevance to contemporary medicine. It also demonstrates how classifications operate as social framing devices that enable and disable communication, assert and refute authority, and are important items for sociological study.

  4. Achieving diagnosis by consensus

    Kane, Bridget

    2009-08-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the collaborative work conducted at a multidisciplinary medical team meeting, where a patient’s definitive diagnosis is agreed, by consensus. The features that distinguish this process of diagnostic work by consensus are examined in depth. The current use of technology to support this collaborative activity is described, and experienced deficiencies are identified. Emphasis is placed on the visual and perceptual difficulty for individual specialities in making interpretations, and on how, through collaboration in discussion, definitive diagnosis is actually achieved. The challenge for providing adequate support for the multidisciplinary team at their meeting is outlined, given the multifaceted nature of the setting, i.e. patient management, educational, organizational and social functions, that need to be satisfied.

  5. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors

    Richter, E.I.; Loesch, H.

    1987-09-01

    Of 155 patients with adrenal disorders, 120 (77%) were correctly diagnosed as negative. There were no correlations between the results of computer tomography and phlebography or between computer tomography and laboratory tests. In 31 patients (20%) a correct diagnosis was obtained and these patients were sent to surgery. Four cases (3%) were shown to be false positive. In these cases (with one exception), both the computer tomography and phlebography results had been overinterpreted. Computer tomography was shown to be a method of high sensitivity and almost as great specificity. Tumors cannot be distinguished by phlebography; only pheochromocytoma shows a characteristic alteration of vessels in arteriograms. In general, an accurate diagnosis requires positive angiography (arterio- or phlebography) results and clear evidence of elevated hormone levels. Only then is surgery indicated.

  6. Diagnosis of adrenal tumors

    Richter, E.I.; Loesch, H.

    1987-01-01

    Of 155 patients with adrenal disorders, 120 (77%) were correctly diagnosed as negative. There were no correlations between the results of computer tomography and phlebography or between computer tomography and laboratory tests. In 31 patients (20%) a correct diagnosis was obtained and these patients were sent to surgery. Four cases (3%) were shown to be false positive. In these cases (with one exception), both the computer tomography and phlebography results had been overinterpreted. Computer tomography was shown to be a method of high sensitivity and almost as great specificity. Tumors cannot be distinguished by phlebography; only pheochromocytoma shows a characteristic alteration of vessels in arteriograms. In general, an accurate diagnosis requires positive angiography (arterio- or phlebography) results and clear evidence of elevated hormone levels. Only then is surgery indicated. (orig.) [de

  7. Diagnosis of scrub typhus.

    Janardhanan, Jeshina; Trowbridge, Paul; Varghese, George M

    2014-12-01

    Scrub typhus is an acute febrile illness that, if untreated, can result in considerable morbidity and mortality. One of the primary reasons for delays in the treatment of this potentially fatal infection is the difficulty in diagnosing the condition. Diagnosis is often complicated because of the combination of non-specific symptoms that overlap with other infections commonly found in endemic areas and the poor available diagnostics. In the majority of the endemic settings, diagnosis still relies on the Weil-Felix test, which is neither sensitive nor specific. Other methods of testing have become available, but at this time, these remain insufficient to provide the rapid point-of-care diagnostics that would be necessary to significantly change the management of this infection by providers in endemic areas. This article reviews the currently available diagnostic tools for scrub typhus and their utility in the clinical setting.

  8. The diagnosis and treatment of dermatitis herpetiformis

    Antiga E

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Emiliano Antiga, Marzia Caproni Department of Surgery and Translational Medicine, Section of Dermatology, University of Florence, Florence, Italy Abstract: Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH is an inflammatory cutaneous disease with a chronic relapsing course, pruritic polymorphic lesions, and typical histopathological and immunopathological findings. According to several evidences, DH is considered the specific cutaneous manifestation of celiac disease, and the most recent guidelines of celiac disease have stated that, in celiac patients with a proven DH, a duodenal biopsy is unnecessary for the diagnosis. In this review, the most recent data about the diagnosis and the management of DH have been reported and discussed. In particular, in patients with clinical and/or histopathological findings suggestive for DH, the finding of granular IgA deposits along the dermal–epidermal junction or at the papillary tips by direct immunofluorescence (DIF assay, together with positive results for anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody testing, allows the diagnosis. Thereafter, a gluten-free diet should be started in association with drugs, such as dapsone, that are able to control the skin manifestations during the first phases of the diet. In conclusion, although DH is a rare autoimmune disease with specific immunopathological alterations at the skin level, its importance goes beyond the skin itself and may have a big impact on the general health status and the quality of life of the patients. Keywords: dermatitis herpetiformis, celiac disease, diagnosis, treatment, autoimmune disease, inflammatory cutaneous disease 

  9. Ion beam diagnosis

    Strehl, P.

    1994-04-01

    This report is an introduction to ion beam diagnosis. After a short description of the most important ion beam parameters measurements of the beam current by means of Faraday cups, calorimetry, and beam current transformers and measurements of the beam profile by means of viewing screens, profile grids and scanning devices, and residual gas ionization monitors are described. Finally measurements in the transverse and longitudinal phase space are considered. (HSI)

  10. Imaging diagnosis of hepatoma

    Ashizawa, Tatsuto

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear medicine (NM), ultrasonography (US), and computed tomography (CT) were evaluated as screening methods for hepatoma, and the characteristics of each modality were compared. Qualitative diagnosis of hepatoma by measuring the quantitative time-lapse changes in 67 Ga-citrate accumulation was also investigated. A prospective analysis using the above modalities was conducted for 70 patients with hepatoma, with the following results: sensitivities of NM, US and CT were 91.1% ; 91.8% ; and 96.9% respectively. In comparing the characteristics of the three modalities, however, it was concluded that the combined use of NM and US was recommended for screening, and that CT should be used for more detailed examination of a tumor indicated by NM and/or US. In the diagnosis of hepatoma by 67 Ga-citrate, a sensitivity rate of 73.7% and a specificity rate of 92.5% were obtained, indicating 67 Ga-citrate's considerable significance for qualitative diagnosis of hepatoma. A decision tree was also made for those patients with chronic liver disease in whom positive hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was detected or in whom serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) showed an increasing tendency. (author)

  11. Culture and psychiatric diagnosis.

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Aggarwal, Neil Krishan

    2013-01-01

    Since the publication of DSM-IV in 1994, neurobiologists and anthropologists have criticized the rigidity of its diagnostic criteria that appear to exclude whole classes of alternate illness presentations, as well as the lack of attention in contemporary psychiatric nosology to the role of contextual factors in the emergence and characteristics of psychopathology. Experts in culture and mental health have responded to these criticisms by revising the very process of diagnosis for DSM-5. Specifically, the DSM-5 Cultural Issues Subgroup has recommended that concepts of culture be included more prominently in several areas: an introductory chapter on Cultural Aspects of Psychiatric Diagnosis - composed of a conceptual introduction, a revised Outline for Cultural Formulation, a Cultural Formulation Interview that operationalizes this Outline, and a glossary on cultural concepts of distress - as well as material directly related to culture that is incorporated into the description of each disorder. This chapter surveys these recommendations to demonstrate how culture and context interact with psychiatric diagnosis at multiple levels. A greater appreciation of the interplay between culture, context, and biology can help clinicians improve diagnostic and treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 APA*

  12. BRAIN DEATH DIAGNOSIS

    Calixto Machado

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Brain death (BD diagnosis should be established based on the following set of principles, i.e. excluding major confusing factors, identifying the cause of coma, determining irreversibility, and precisely testing brainstem reflexes at all levels of the brainstem. Nonetheless, most criteria for BD diagnosis do not mention that this is not the only way of diagnosing death. The Cuban Commission for the Determination of Death has emphasized the aforesaid three possible situations for diagnosing death: a outside intensive care environment (without life support physicians apply the cardio-circulatory and respiratory criteria; b in forensic medicine circumstances, physicians utilize cadaveric signs (they do not even need a stethoscope; c in the intensive care environment (with life support when cardiorespiratory arrest occurs physicians utilize the cardio-circulatory and respiratory criteria. This methodology of diagnosing death, based on finding any of the death signs, is not related to the concept that there are different types of death. The irreversible loss of cardio-circulatory and respiratory functions can only cause death when ischemia and anoxia are prolonged enough to produce an irreversible destruction of the brain. The sign of irreversible loss of brain functions, that is to say BD diagnosis, is fully reviewed.

  13. FINANCIAL DIAGNOSIS OF STOCKS

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial diagnosis is a part of a company’s general diagnosis. The role of the financial diagnosis is to establish the situation of the company at a given time, to see if it is viable, to help the decision-makers to take the best measures to continue or cease the activity, or to sell, buy or liquidate the company. Each entity is unique and arbitrarily applying some analysis models used by other companies can lead to significant errors. One cannot analyze in the same way a company that produces household products and a trade company. In the first one, the working capital must be positive, because permanent capitals must finance the fixed assets which have a high value, and the working capital will finance the operating cycle. In case of a trade company, a negative working capital might represent a positive activity, because the duration of the operating cycle is much shorter, and short term sources can also finance the company’s tangible assets.

  14. Elementwise Business Diagnosis of Enterprise Activity

    Skrynkovskyy Ruslan M.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents methodological and indicator apparatus for elementwise business diagnosis of enterprise activity directed at achieving such elementwise diagnostic objectives: diagnosis of return on assets; diagnosis of return on equity capital; diagnosis of production profitability; diagnosis of gross profit margin of product sales; diagnosis of operating margin of product sales; diagnosis of net margin of product sales; diagnosis of absolute liquidity; diagnosis of instant liquidity; diagnosis of overall liquidity; diagnosis of coverage; diagnosis of financial independence; diagnosis of equity capital maneuverability; diagnosis of financial leverage; diagnosis of the long-term investment structure; diagnosis of accounts payable turnover; diagnosis of the accounts payable repayment period, diagnosis of receivables turnover; diagnosis of receivables repayment period; diagnosis of assets turnover; diagnosis of inventories turnover; diagnosis of the inventories turnover period; diagnosis of equity capital turnover; diagnosis of fixed assets turnover (return on assets; diagnosis of capital coefficient; diagnosis of the ratio of output value to the materials cost; diagnosis of material consumption; diagnosis of the total production cost; diagnosis of enterprise market share; diagnosis of fixed assets wear; diagnosis of fixed assets renewal; diagnosis of fixed assets retirement; performance diagnosis; diagnosis of labor intensity, diagnosis of the capital-labour ratio; diagnosis of efficiency; diagnosis of conducting the business; diagnosis of business relations; diagnosis of administrative-legal relations; diagnosis of knowledge management. The elementwise diagnostic objectives of the enterprise system of diagnostic objectives are aimed at a narrow highly detailed diagnostics of individual indicators of the enterprise activity, i.e. the evaluation of specific analytical indicators,monitoring (research of their dynamics, comparison of the planned

  15. The Department of Surgery: Stellenbosch University

    Enrique

    of the areas in which the breast clinic, in particular, played a leading role was to pioneer fine-needle aspiration cytology as diagnostic modality for the diagnosis of breast cancer.4 Early. General Surgery. The Department of Surgery: Stellenbosch. University. BRIAN L. WARREN, M.MED. (CHIR.), F.C.S. (S.A.), F.R.C.S. (EDIN.).

  16. [Universal electrogustometer EG-1].

    Pleskacz, Witold A; Wałkanis, Andrzej; Rapiejko, Piotr; Jurkiewicz, Dariusz

    2009-01-01

    Electrogustometry has been used as a clinical tool for diagnosis and assessment of a variety of conditions. Since the lack of versatile electrogustometer for research and diagnosis, the new electrogustometer EG-1 was developed in 2006. It was done in cooperation between Warsaw University of Technology and Military Institute of Medicine in Warsaw. EG-1 allows quantitative estimation of taste perception threshold using both static and impulse electrogustometry with bipolar electrode. It is a fully autonomous, battery powered and portable instrument. Because of small size and weight, it can be easily placed in any environment. Microprocessor controlled measurement system and user-friendly interface (LCD display with simple keyboard) make EG-1 electrogustometer very handy and flexible in operation. Data obtained during measurements is stored in the internal device memory. After taste examinations measurement data can be transferred to a personal computer via inbuilt USB port for further analysis and storage. EG-1 can generate three predefined variously shaped current impulses: sinus-, saw- and rectangle-shaped. There is an optional possibility of creating own shapes of stimulus puls by the user. The electrical parameters of generated pulses are as follow: current amplitude 1-2000 microA regulated with 1 microA step, stimulus frequency 0(DC)-500 Hz regulated with 5 Hz step, controlable fulfillment factor and signal rise time (optional for automatic measurements). The operator can trigger the stimuli via a hand switch on the bipolar electrode (with gold-plated endings), via keyboard or via additional independent hand switch. Three years of experience collected during EG-1 exploitation allowed to design a new version of electrogustometer EG-2 with a touch panel and color graphical display.

  17. Early prenatal diagnosis of ischiopagus conjoined twins

    Ahmet Mete Ergenoğlu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conjoined twins are very rare and the incidence of them vary about 1/50,000 and 1/100,000. They are named according to the joint parts. Embryos are conjoined at the level of ischium in ischiopagus. A case of ischiopagus will be presented in this article. Case: A twenty-seven year old women who is 9-10 weeks pregnant with a history of 1 abortus applied to the Ege University Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology for routine follow-up. Ultrasonography revealed a twin pregnancy but the embryos were attached at the pelvic region. 3D Doppler sonography confirmed the diagnosis of ischiopagus tetrapus. The patient's decision of termination of pregnancy is concluded at Perinatology Council of the clinic. Conclusion: Ischiopagus conjoined twins are very rare. Early prenatal diagnosis will prevent the maternal complications during the termination of the pregnancy.

  18. Comparative Study of the Accuracy of Different Techniques for the Laboratory Diagnosis of Schistosomiasis Mansoni in Areas of Low Endemicity in Barra Mansa City, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Maria Cristina Carvalho Espírito-Santo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis constitutes a major public health problem, with an estimated 200 million people infected worldwide. Many areas of Brazil show low endemicity of schistosomiasis, and the current standard parasitological techniques are not sufficiently sensitive to detect the low-level helminth infections common in areas of low endemicity (ALEs. This study compared the Kato-Katz (KK; Hoffman, Pons, and Janer (HH; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay- (ELISA- IgG and ELISA-IgM; indirect immunofluorescence technique (IFT-IgM; and qPCR techniques for schistosomiasis detection in serum and fecal samples, using the circumoval precipitin test (COPT as reference. An epidemiological survey was conducted in a randomized sample of residents from five neighborhoods of Barra Mansa, RJ, with 610 fecal and 612 serum samples. ELISA-IgM (21.4% showed the highest positivity and HH and KK techniques were the least sensitive (0.8%. All techniques except qPCR-serum showed high accuracy (82–95.5%, differed significantly from COPT in positivity P<0.05, and showed poor agreement with COPT. Medium agreement was seen with ELISA-IgG (Kappa = 0.377 and IFA (Kappa = 0.347. Parasitological techniques showed much lower positivity rates than those by other techniques. We suggest the possibility of using a combination of laboratory tools for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in ALEs.

  19. Simple questionnaire and urine reagent strips compared to microscopy for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium in a community in northern Ghana.

    Bogoch, Isaac I; Andrews, Jason R; Dadzie Ephraim, Richard K; Utzinger, Jürg

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the utility of a simple questionnaire and urine reagent strip testing for the rapid diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium in rural northern Ghana. Cross-sectional parasitological and questionnaire survey in a community in northern Ghana. Participants provided two urine specimens that were examined under a microscope using a centrifugation method. The first urine sample was additionally subjected to reagent strip testing. A short questionnaire was administered to all participants. Microscopy of urine samples obtained from 208 individuals aged 1-77 years revealed an S. haematobium prevalence of 6.8%. The presence of any blood or protein on a urine reagent strip was 100% and 42% sensitive, and 93% and 80% specific for S. haematobium diagnosis. Questionnaires were completed by 198 individuals. Self-reported haematuria showed a sensitivity of 53% and a specificity of 85%. A dichotomous two-question panel was helpful in S. haematobium diagnosis, with working and playing near the river significantly associated with S. haematobium infection (P < 0.001). The use of urine reagent strips, coupled with questions pertaining to water contact patterns, might be considered for point-of-contact diagnosis of S. haematobium where microscopy is unavailable. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. A novel duplex ddPCR assay for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica: proof of concept in an experimental mouse model.

    Weerakoon, Kosala G; Gordon, Catherine A; Cai, Pengfei; Gobert, Geoffrey N; Duke, Mary; Williams, Gail M; McManus, Donald P

    2017-07-01

    The current World Health Organization strategic plan targets the elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025 and accurate diagnostics will play a pivotal role in achieving this goal. DNA-based detection methods provide a viable alternative to some of the commonly used tests, notably microscopy and serology, for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. The detection of parasite cell-free DNA in different clinical samples is a recent valuable advance, which provides significant benefits for accurate disease diagnosis. Here we validated a novel duplex droplet digital PCR assay for the diagnosis of Chinese (SjC) and Philippine (SjP) strains of Schistosoma japonicum infection in a mouse model. The assay proved applicable for both SjC and SjP infections and capable of detecting infection at a very early intra-mammalian stage in conveniently obtainable samples (urine and saliva) as well as in serum and feces. The target DNA copy numbers obtained in the assay showed a positive correlation with the infection burden assessed by direct traditional parasitology. The potential to detect parasite DNA in urine and saliva has important practical implications for large-scale epidemiological screening programmes in the future, particularly in terms of logistical convenience, and the assay has the potential to be a valuable additional tool for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis japonica.

  1. Seasonal Allergies: Diagnosis, Treatment & Research

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Seasonal Allergies Diagnosis, Treatment & Research Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of Contents Diagnosis Testing for Allergies Knowing exactly what you are allergic to can ...

  2. Distribution of Parasites Detected in Stool Samples of Patients Admitted to Our Parasitology Laboratory during a Three-Year Period between 2012 and 2014.

    Selek, Mehmet Burak; Bektöre, Bayhan; Karagöz, Ergenekon; Baylan, Orhan; Özyurt, Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Parasitic diseases are among the major public health issues worldwide. A number of tests are available for diagnosis, but the sentivity and specifity of these tests are assumed to be insufficient. Nevertheless, the most common diagnostic method is microscopic examination. In this study, we aimed to introduce the distribution of parasites detected in stool samples of patients admitted to our laboratory on the basis of parameters such as, age, and gender during a 3-year period between 2012 and 2014. In total, 6757 stool samples were included in the study. After macroscopic examination, wet mounts of all samples were examined under a light microscope using ×100 and ×400 magnification lenses. Wet mounts were prepared with physiological saline and Lugol's iodine. Parasites were detected in 3.7% (252) of the samples, while no parasites were detected in 96.3% (6505) of the samples. The distribution of intestinal parasites was as follows: Blastocystis hominis (63.5%), Giardia intestinalis (26.2%), Taenia sp. (4.8%), Enterobius vermicularis (2.4%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (1.6%), and Hymenolepis nana (1.6%). When the burden of intestinal parasites on public health is considered, they are still a major health issue in Turkey. The frequency of parasitic diseases can be reduced by the education of individuals and implementation of effective diagnostic methods, treatments, and preventive measures.

  3. Tarsaltunnel syndrome - MRI diagnosis

    Trattnig, S.; Helbich, T.; Imhof, H.

    1995-01-01

    Clinical findings and symptoms of tarsal tunnel are commonly vague and diffuse and electrodiagnostic studies do not provide definitive diagnosis. MR imaging with its excellent soft tissue contrast can demonstrate clearly the anatomy of the tarsal tunnel and its contents. MRI is able to demonstrate a space-occypyinglesion and its relationship to the posterior tibial nerve and its branches. This information aids in surgical planning by determining the extent of the decompression required. MR imaging may also be used to follow up non-surgical causes of tarsal tunnel syndrome such as tenosynovitis. (orig.) [de

  4. Differential diagnosis of hyponatraemia.

    Thompson, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The appropriate management of hyponatraemia is reliant on the accurate identification of the underlying cause of the hyponatraemia. In the light of evidence which has shown that the use of a clinical algorithm appears to improve accuracy in the differential diagnosis of hyponatraemia, the European Hyponatraemia Network considered the use of two algorithms. One was developed from a nephrologist\\'s view of hyponatraemia, while the other reflected the approach of an endocrinologist. Both of these algorithms concurred on the importance of assessing effective blood volume status and the measurement of urine sodium concentration in the diagnostic process. To demonstrate the importance of accurate diagnosis to the correct treatment of hyponatraemia, special consideration was given to hyponatraemia in neurosurgical patients. The differentiation between the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH), acute adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency, fluid overload and cerebral salt-wasting syndrome was discussed. In patients with SIADH, fluid restriction has been the mainstay of treatment despite the absence of an evidence base for its use. An approach to using fluid restriction to raise serum tonicity in patients with SIADH and to identify patients who are likely to be recalcitrant to fluid restriction was also suggested.

  5. The missed diagnosis

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    One of the questions that haunts the radiologist as he shuffles through piles of films is ''What am I missing?'' This same question takes on even more meaning when the radiologist is pressed for time, when he reluctantly checks the night work of the resident, when the patient left before more or better films could be obtained; or when the radiologist is involved in a subspecialty in which he is not properly trained. According to Dr. Berlin's survey, the missed diagnosis category accounted for the largest number of radiology malpractice cases. We all know that many diagnoses are more easily made using the ''retrospectoscope.'' But is the plaintiff attorney also adept at using this instrument? Just how knowledgeable must the radiologist be in the use of the ''prospectoscope''? A familiarity with cases that have already been tried should at least alert radiologists to the chances of their own involvement in litigation. While the missed diagnosis is by no means peculiar to the radiologist, it is one of the principal reasons that he may find himself in court

  6. Water quality diagnosis system

    Nagase, Makoto; Asakura, Yamato; Sakagami, Masaharu

    1989-01-01

    By using a model representing a relationship between the water quality parameter and the dose rate in primary coolant circuits of a water cooled reactor, forecasting for the feature dose rate and abnormality diagnosis for the water quality are conducted. The analysis model for forecasting the reactor water activity or the dose rate receives, as the input, estimated curves for the forecast Fe, Ni, Co concentration in feedwater or reactor water pH, etc. from the water quality data in the post and forecasts the future radioactivity or dose rate in the reactor water. By comparing the result of the forecast and the setting value such as an aimed value, it can be seen whether the water quality at present or estimated to be changed is satisfactory or not. If the quality is not satisfactory, it is possible to take an early countermeasure. Accordingly, the reactor water activity and the dose rate can be kept low. Further, the basic system constitution, diagnosis algorithm, indication, etc. are identical between BWR and PWR reactors, except for only the difference in the mass balance. (K.M.)

  7. Image diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism

    Morikawa, Mitsuru; Saga, Yuuji; Watabe, Yoshihiko; Fujisawa, Makoto; Kaneko, Shigeo; Tokunaka, Sohei; Yachiku, Sunao

    1989-01-01

    Between January, 1983 and January 1988, the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism was made on 14 patients (8 primary and 6 secondary), and was identified operatively in all. The procedures for image diagnosis were computed tomography (CT), ultrasonography and scintigraphy. Scintigraphy was performed using Tc-99m and T1-201 by a subtraction technique. For primary hyperparathyroidism, the accuracy of localization was 100% by CT, 87.5% by ultrasonography, 100% by scintigraphy, and 100% by the combination of these three methods. For secondary hyperparathyroidism, it was 68% by CT, 68% by ultrasonography, 36% by scintigraphy and 84% by the combination of these three methods. Ultrasonography and CT were quite useful for imaging of small abnormal parathyroid glands. The accuracy of scintigraphy in secondary hyperparathyroidism was low. Because the swellings of glands do not occur equally in most secondary hyperparathyroidism cases, we consider that large glands absorb the majority of injected radionuclides. Some discussion on merits and demerits of each image procedure was done. (author)

  8. Diagnosis in progressive hirsutism

    Soerensen, R.; Moltz, L.

    1981-09-01

    Catheterization of adrenal and ovarian veins in combination with hormone concentration analyses was performed in seventy hirsute women. There was suspicion of tumor in 30 cases because of excess androgen production (plasma testosterone more than 1.5 ng/ml and/or plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate more than 7000 ng/ml in peripheral blood samplings). Catheterization and blood sampling was done with a femoro-visceral catheter by the transfemoral approach. Contributary blood flows from many different venous systems were found to be more often to the right ovarian and to the left adrenal veins in comparison to the other side. Catheterization of the wrong vessels occurred without being recognized immediately (circumaortic renal collar, inferior phrenic vein, ascending lumbar vein). These pitfalls might falsify blood samplings. There were no significant complications. Seven ovarian tumors were localized. Their size ranged from 0.5 to 2.5 cm in diameter. They were not recognized during laparoscopy. There were 10 hyperthecoses, four adrenogenital syndromes, one abortive testis, one adrenal adenoma, one Cushing's syndrome and one Cushing's disease due to an adenoma of the picture gland. In five patients a diagnosis could not be made. Tumor was excluded in forty patients. Their virilization was of adrenal origin in 32%, of ovarian origin in 29%, and of both adrenal and ovarian origin in 22%. In 17% a source of the excess androgen production was not found. This differential diagnosis is not important for the patient therapy.

  9. Diagnosis and management of feline hyperthyroidism: current perspectives

    Grauer, Gregory F; Schermerhorn,Thomas; Armbrust,Laura; Vaske,Heather

    2014-01-01

    Heather H Vaske, Thomas Schermerhorn, Laura Armbrust, Gregory F Grauer Department of Clinical Sciences, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA Abstract: Previous and ongoing research has provided insights to the pathophysiology and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism as well as new treatment modalities. This paper reviews the etiology, clinical presentation, and clinicopathologic changes associated with hyperthyroidism, and provides a thorough explanation of confirmatory testing and treatment ...

  10. Role of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in diagnosis of ...

    Aim of the work: To assess the role of multidetector computed tomographic imaging in the diagnosis of secondary intussusception with pathological leading points in children. Materials and methods: This study is a retrospective study including 12 children referred to the radiodiagnosis department at Alexandria University ...

  11. The Learning University.

    Patterson, Glenys

    1999-01-01

    As universities make cross-sectoral alliances, various models for integrating postsecondary education into universities arise: contract, brokerage, collaborative, validation, joint program, dual-sector institution, tertiary university, metaphoric, and federal. The integrated, comprehensive university is the learning university of the 21st century.…

  12. Transmission of Leishmania infantum in the Canine Leishmaniasis Focus of Mont-Rolland, Senegal: Ecological, Parasitological and Molecular Evidence for a Possible Role of Sergentomyia Sand Flies.

    Massila Wagué Senghor

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania (L. infantum is the causative agent in an endemic focus of canine leishmaniasis in the Mont-Rolland district (Thiès, Senegal. In this area, the transmission cycle is well established and more than 30% of dogs and 20% of humans are seropositive for L. infantum. However, the sand fly species involved in L. infantum transmission cycle are still unknown. Between 2007 and 2010, 3654 sand flies were collected from different environments (indoor, peridomestic, farming and sylvatic areas to identify the main L. infantum vector(s. Nine sand fly species were identified. The Phlebotomus genus (n = 54 specimens; Phlebotomus (Ph duboscqi and Phlebotomus (Ph. rodhaini was markedly under-represented in comparison to the Sergentomyia genus (n = 3600 specimens; Sergentomyia (Se adleri, Se. clydei, Se. antennata, Se. buxtoni, Se. dubia, Se. schwetzi and Se. magna. Se. dubia and Se. schwetzi were the dominant species indoor and in peridomestic environments, near humans and dogs. Blood-meal analysis indicated their anthropophilic behavior. Some Se. schwetzi specimens fed also on dogs. The dissection of females in the field allowed isolating L. infantum from sand flies of the Sergentomyia genus (0.4% of Se. dubia and 0.79% of Se. schwetzi females. It is worth noting that one Se. dubia female not engorged and not gravid revealed highly motile metacyclic of L. infantum in the anterior part of the midgut. PCR-based diagnosis and sequencing targeting Leishmania kinetoplast DNA (kDNA highlighted a high rate of L. infantum-positive females (5.38% of Se. dubia, 4.19% of Se. schwetzi and 3.64% of Se. magna. More than 2% of these positive females were unfed, suggesting the parasite survival after blood-meal digestion or egg laying. L. infantum prevalence in Se. schwetzi was associated with its seroprevalence in dogs and humans and L. infantum prevalence in Se. dubia was associated with its seroprevalence in humans. These evidences altogether strongly suggest that

  13. Radium diagnosis campaign - 59327

    Gabillaud Poillion, Florence

    2012-01-01

    In line with the approaches already adopted in France during the 90's on various sites where research and/or radium-extraction activities were mostly conducted in the past, the French public authorities wish from now on to pursue their prevention and site-rehabilitation approach inherited from the French craftsman and medical sectors that used that radioelement. As a matter of fact, radium has been in use in several medical activities, notably in the initial methods of cancer therapy. Similarly, it was also used in some craftsman activities, such as the clock industry, for its radioluminescent properties, the fabrication of lightning conductors or cosmetics until the 60's. Those activities have generated various traces of pollution that have remained today. On the basis of the different inventories of industrial sites where radium may have been held or used, and notably the inventory updated by the French Institute for Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire - IRSN) in 2007 at the request of the French Nuclear Safety Authority (Autorite de surete nucleaire - ASN), French State services have potentially identified 134 sites that hosted radium-related activities in France. The radiological status of those sites is either unknown or very partially known by State services. Sites include both dwellings or commercial premises and derelict lands. The 'Radium Diagnosis Campaign' (Operation Diagnostic Radium), consists of a radiological survey carried out by the IRSN. In cases where traces of radium are detected, plans call for the implementation of precautionary measures and of a medical follow-up of the relevant populations. Lastly, radium-contaminated sites are rehabilitated by the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Agence nationale pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs - Andra). That voluntary and positive approach on the part of public authorities is fully financed by public funds, and consequently

  14. CT Diagnosis of Appendicitis

    Christopher Libby

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 19-year-old male with no previous medical history presented with 7/10 non-radiating, constant, sharp, periumbilical pain associated with nausea, and four episodes of vomiting. He was seen at urgent care where his labs showed a WBC of 16,000/mcL. He was subsequently sent to the emergency department (ED for concern of appendicitis. Of note, his pain worsened with bumps during the drive to the ED. After arriving to the ED the pain migrated to the right lower quadrant. Computed tomography (CT revealed acute appendicitis and the patient was admitted to the surgery service and taken to the operating room (OR for an appendectomy. Significant findings: The CT abdomen/pelvis with IV contrast shows a dilated appendix (see red outline with thickened, hyperenhancing wall (see blue outline best visualized in the axial and coronal planes. Discussion: Appendicitis is a common diagnosis in the emergency department in patients presenting with abdominal pain, occurring most frequently in young adults with a peak incidence in those aged 10-19.1 Failure to quickly diagnose acute appendicitis can result in perforation rates as high as 80 percent.2 While the diagnosis of appendicitis can be made clinically, CT is a non-invasive modality that improves the detection of appendicitis with sensitivities of 88–100%, specificities of 91–99%, positive predictive values of 92–98%, negative predictive values of 95–100%, and accuracies of 94–98%.3-8 The major advantage of CT over both clinical exam and ultrasound is the ability of the radiologist to exclude acute appendicitis if the appendix appears normal. However, CT carries the risks associated with ionizing radiation. While previously there was some debate on the best choice for type of CT scan and use of IV and oral contrast, recent studies have shown that CT abdomen/pelvis with IV contrast alone is sufficient for diagnosis of appendicitis.9, 10

  15. Molecular and Parasitological Survey of Bovine Piroplasms in the Black Sea Region, Including the First Report of Babesiosis Associated with Babesia divergens in Turkey.

    Aktas, M; Ozubek, S

    2015-11-01

    Clinical cases of babesiosis were evaluated, and the frequency of bovine Babesia and Theileria parasites was determined in cattle. Blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from 23 cattle exhibiting clinical signs of babesiosis. In addition, tick and blood samples were collected from 100 apparently healthy cattle cograzing from the same area. Egg masses obtained from fully engorged female ticks were included. DNA isolated from blood and tick samples was screened for Babesia and Theileria by reverse line blot assay. Piroplasms compatible with Babesia spp. were observed microscopically for symptomatic cattle as circular, oval, elongated, or pear-shaped bodies. Parasitemia ranged from 0.08 to 0.9% for Babesia bovis, 2.5 to 15.4% for Babesia bigemina, and 7.4% for Babesia divergens. Reverse line blot showed positivity in 13 (13%) of the sampled clinically normal cattle and revealed the presence of three Babesia species. Babesia bovis was the most prevalent (9/100, 9%), followed by Babesia occultans (3/100, 3%) and B. bigemina (1/100, 1%). One animal infected with B. bigemina was also infected with B. bovis. The single animal infected with B. divergens showed symptoms of babesiosis. Ticks were identified as Rhipicephalus annulatus, Rhipicephalus turanicus, and Ixodes ricinus. One female R. annulatus and its egg mass were infected with B. bigemina. Neither Theileria annulata nor Theileria buffeli/orientalis infections were observed in cattle or ticks. This is the first report of clinical babesiosis caused by B. divergens in cattle from Turkey. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Definition of the Diagnosis Osteomyelitis-Osteomyelitis Diagnosis Score (ODS)].

    Schmidt, H G K; Tiemann, A H; Braunschweig, R; Diefenbeck, M; Bühler, M; Abitzsch, D; Haustedt, N; Walter, G; Schoop, R; Heppert, V; Hofmann, G O; Glombitza, M; Grimme, C; Gerlach, U-J; Flesch, I

    2011-08-01

    The disease "osteomyelitis" is characterised by different symptoms and parameters. Decisive roles in the development of the disease are played by the causative bacteria, the route of infection and the individual defense mechanisms of the host. The diagnosis is based on different symptoms and findings from the clinical history, clinical symptoms, laboratory results, diagnostic imaging, microbiological and histopathological analyses. While different osteomyelitis classifications have been published, there is to the best of our knowledge no score that gives information how sure the diagnosis "osteomyelitis" is in general. For any scientific study of a disease a valid definition is essential. We have developed a special osteomyelitis diagnosis score for the reliable classification of clinical, laboratory and technical findings. The score is based on five diagnostic procedures: 1) clinical history and risk factors, 2) clinical examination and laboratory results, 3) diagnostic imaging (ultrasound, radiology, CT, MRI, nuclear medicine and hybrid methods), 4) microbiology, and 5) histopathology. Each diagnostic procedure is related to many individual findings, which are weighted by a score system, in order to achieve a relevant value for each assessment. If the sum of the five diagnostic criteria is 18 or more points, the diagnosis of osteomyelitis can be viewed as "safe" (diagnosis class A). Between 8-17 points the diagnosis is "probable" (diagnosis class B). Less than 8 points means that the diagnosis is "possible, but unlikely" (class C diagnosis). Since each parameter can score six points at a maximum, a reliable diagnosis can only be achieved if at least 3 parameters are scored with 6 points. The osteomyelitis diagnosis score should help to avoid the false description of a clinical presentation as "osteomyelitis". A safe diagnosis is essential for the aetiology, treatment and outcome studies of osteomyelitis. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. [Headache: classification and diagnosis].

    Carbaat, P A T; Couturier, E G M

    2016-11-01

    There are many types of headache and, moreover, many people have different types of headache at the same time. Adequate treatment is possible only on the basis of the correct diagnosis. Technically and in terms of content the current diagnostics process for headache is based on the 'International Classification of Headache Disorders' (ICHD-3-beta) that was produced under the auspices of the International Headache Society. This classification is based on a distinction between primary and secondary headaches. The most common primary headache types are the tension type headache, migraine and the cluster headache. Application of uniform diagnostic concepts is essential to come to the most appropriate treatment of the various types of headache.

  18. Radiological diagnosis in traumatology

    Frahm, R.

    2001-01-01

    This loose-leaf publication covers all radiological problems that may possibly occur in accident surgery. The focus is on conventional radiological diagnosis. The physical and technical fundamentals of diagnostic examination methods are discussed, followed by practical hints on radiation protection, technical equipment and quality assurance, as well as accurate information on the procedure of taking and interpreting standard X-ray pictures. The indications for standard X-raying, tomography, CT and MRT are presented in consideration of the radiation exposure incurred by the patient. The reader is also informed on the dynamics and varying morphology of bone fracture healing, potential disturbances of callus formation and reconstruction, as well as on possible complications. The main section of the book discusses injuries of the skull, spinal cord, pectoral girdle, upper arm, elbow and lower arm, wrist and hands, pelvis, hip joint, knee and upper and lower leg, ankle joint and foot, thorax and abdomen. (orig.)

  19. Radiological diagnosis of neurotuberculosis

    Backmund, H.

    1983-01-01

    An important role is attributed to computer tomography in the neuroradiological diagnosis of central tuberculosis today. Tuberculomas are impressive as areas of pathological tissue with pronounced storage of contrast medium. Additional angiography may be necessary for the delimination of original brain tumors and metastases. In tuberculous meningitis an internal hydrocephalus is the most frequent finding. Depending on the duration and acuity of the disease process a contrast storage in the region of the basal subarachnoid spaces may appear as a characteristic sign. Among our own patients we found in 3 with confirmed tuberculous meningitis, circulation-dependent necroses in the region of the knee of the internal capsule, sometimes with extension into the anterior nuclear area of the thalamus. (orig.) [de

  20. Diagnosis of fatty liver

    Saitoh, Shuichi; Nagamine, Takeaki; Takagi, Hitoshi

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostic values of various ultrasonographic findings were evaluated from fatty infiltration ratio calculated by liver specimens in 42 patients. The ratio of the CT number of liver to those of spleen were also compared with fatty infiltration ratio in 11 patients. Fatty bandless sign one plus (perirenal bright echo between the liver and the right kidney is masked partially) or more and the fatty score 3 (it is calculated by several ultrasonographic findings) and the less than 0.90 of the ratio of CT number of liver to those of spleen were useful for diagnosis of fatty liver, the sensitivity was 100%, 87.5%, 85.7% and the accuracy was 78.1%, 81.8%, 81.8% respectively. It was considered that these criteria were suitable in screening study of fatty liver. (author)

  1. DIAGNOSIS OF FINANCIAL EQUILIBRIUM

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis based on the balance sheet tries to identify the state of equilibrium (disequilibrium that exists in a company. The easiest way to determine the state of equilibrium is by looking at the balance sheet and at the information it offers. Because in the balance sheet there are elements that do not reflect their real value, the one established on the market, they must be readjusted, and those elements which are not related to the ordinary operating activities must be eliminated. The diagnosis of financial equilibrium takes into account 2 components: financing sources (ownership equity, loaned, temporarily attracted. An efficient financial equilibrium must respect 2 fundamental requirements: permanent sources represented by ownership equity and loans for more than 1 year should finance permanent needs, and temporary resources should finance the operating cycle.

  2. Cancer diagnosis program

    Hackett, A.J.; Smith, H.S.; Sartorius, O.W.; Snow, L.; Stampfer, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    The Peralta Cancer Research Institute has organized the Breast Diagnostic Center (BDC) to make available to women information about the breast, and to conduct clinical research to improve methods for early diagnosis and treatment of breast disease. Women entering the center are educated about the anatomy and physiology of the breast, signs of both benign and malignant disease, and factors that influence the risk of developing cancer. The BDC program proposes to demonstrate that the combined use of various diagnostic modalities, when each modality is used at maximum potential, can detect cancers at an earlier stage. Emphasis is placed on the physical examination, using nipple aspiration cytology, contrast ductography, fine-needle aspirations, and mammography. With the financial participation of the Clorox Company, it is shown that the concept of the BDC is economically sound and fills a need in the community

  3. Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Kravets, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Hyperthyroidism is an excessive concentration of thyroid hormones in tissues caused by increased synthesis of thyroid hormones, excessive release of preformed thyroid hormones, or an endogenous or exogenous extrathyroidal source. The most common causes of an excessive production of thyroid hormones are Graves disease, toxic multinodular goiter, and toxic adenoma. The most common cause of an excessive passive release of thyroid hormones is painless (silent) thyroiditis, although its clinical presentation is the same as with other causes. Hyperthyroidism caused by overproduction of thyroid hormones can be treated with antithyroid medications (methimazole and propylthiouracil), radioactive iodine ablation of the thyroid gland, or surgical thyroidectomy. Radioactive iodine ablation is the most widely used treatment in the United States. The choice of treatment depends on the underlying diagnosis, the presence of contraindications to a particular treatment modality, the severity of hyperthyroidism, and the patient's preference.

  4. Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile

    Jensen, M B F; Olsen, K E P; Nielsen, X C

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) requires the detection of toxigenic C. difficile or its toxins and a clinical assessment. We evaluated the performance of four nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) detecting toxigenic C. difficile directly from faeces compared to routine...... ribotyping and toxinotyping (TT) were performed on culture-positive samples. In parallel, the samples were analysed by four NAATs; two targeting tcdA or tcdB (illumigene® C. difficile and PCRFast® C. difficile A/B) and two multi-target real-time (RT) PCR assays also targeting cdt and tcdC alleles...... characteristic of epidemic and potentially more virulent PCR ribotypes 027, 066 and 078 (GeneXpert® C. difficile/Epi and an 'in-house RT PCR' two-step algorithm). The multi-target assays were significantly more sensitive compared to routine toxigenic culture (p 

  5. [Clinical diagnosis of dyslexia].

    Martínez Hermosillo, A; Balderas Gil, A

    1980-01-01

    In 5 years of experience at the Instituto Nacional de la Comunicacion Humana, 302 clinical histories showed the diagnosis of dyslexia. The following parameters were studied: age, sex, heredofamilial history, gestation, psychomotor development, clinical picture, examination of the language (type, reading, spontaneous writing, dictation, mathematic concepts), laterality, scholarship, scholar failures, psychological study. The following results were obtained: Dyslexia was more important or frequent between 5 to 8.9 years of age. Males predominated 3:1. The heredofamilial history was important. Dyslexia prevailed in products of the first gestations. A high disturbance was found in the psychomotor development of a large percent of dyslexic patients. Examination of language was also important. Dyslexia was more frequent in right-handed patients. Scholar failures in one or more instances were found. The psychological study must be done. If dyslexia is diagnosed on time, it may be prevented and all unwanted sequelae may be avoided.

  6. [Visual diagnosis: Waardenburg syndrome].

    Hager, T; Walter, H-S; Seitz, B; Käsmann-Kellner, B

    2010-07-01

    Waardenburg syndrome (WS) is a rare disease characterized by a sensorineural hearing loss and pigment anomalies of the iris, skin and hair due to mutations in PAX3. WS can be subdivided into four groups according to major and minor clinical signs. We report the case of a 2 1/2-year-old coloured patient who presented in our department of paediatric ophthalmology for a syndrome search. The patient presented with hearing loss, brilliant blue iris colour and dystopia canthorum. The patient was slightly hypermetropic. Visual acuity was within normal limits according to the Cardiff acuity test. The ocular fundus examination revealed no abnormalities. According to the major and minor criteria defined by the Waardenburg consortium our patient showed the major criteria of WS1, i.e. hearing loss, hypopigmentation of the pigment epithelium of the iris and dystopic canthi. Diagnosis of WS is usually based on the clinical presentation. An additional molecular genetic analysis is possible.

  7. Clinical diagnosis versus autopsy diagnosis in head trauma

    Velnic Andreea-Alexandra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The correct and complete diagnosis is essential for the adequate care and the favourable clinical evolution of the patients with head trauma. Purpose: To identify the error rate in the clinical diagnosis of head injuries as shown in comparison with the autopsy diagnosis and to identify the most common sources of error. Material and method: We performed a retrospective study based on data from the medical files and the autopsy reports of patients with head trauma who died in the hospital and underwent forensic autopsy. We collected: demographic data, clinical and laboratory data and autopsy findings. To quantify the concordance rate between the clinical diagnosis of death and the autopsy diagnosis we used a 4 classes classification, which ranged from 100% concordance (C1 to total discordance (C4 and two classes of partial discordance: C2 (partial discordance in favour of the clinical diagnosis- missing injuries in the autopsy reports and C3 (partial discordance in favor of the necroptic diagnosis- missing injuries in the medical files. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 20.0. Results: We analyzed 194 cases of death due to head injuries. We found a total concordance between the clinical death diagnosis and autopsy diagnosis in 30.4% of cases and at least one discrepancy in 69.6% of cases. Increasing the duration of hospitalization directly correlates with the amount of the imaging investigations and these in turn correlates with an increased rate of diagnosis concordance. Among the patients with stage 3 coma who associated a spinal cord injury, we found a partial diagnosis discordance in 50% of cases and a total discordance in 50% of cases, possibly due to the need for conducting emergency imaging investigation and the need for surgical treatment. In cases with partial and total discordant diagnosis, at least one lesion was omitted in 45.1% of the cases. The most commonly omitted injuries in C2 cases were subdural hematoma, intracerebral

  8. Meanings of the nursing diagnosis implementation process for nurses at a university hospital Significados del proceso de implementación del diagnóstico de enfermeria para enfermeras de un hospital universitario Significados do processo de implementação do diagnóstico de enfermagem para enfermeiras de um hospital universitário

    Antônio Fernandes Costa Lima

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative study aims to understand the meanings nurses at a university hospital attribute to the implementation process of the Nursing Diagnosis Classification System (DEn as a phase in the Nursing Care System (NCS. Data were collected through interviews with eight nurses from the Medical Clinical Unit, who participated in the creation of an instrument to implement the DEn in the NCS. In their reports, the respondents expressed a positive change in their feelings, from initial discomfort and adverse perception of the change proposal. The stepwise appropriation of the process stages allowed them, besides the sharing of feelings, decisions and responsibilities for the results, to develop the belief that they would able to overcome the difficulties.Este estudio cualitativo busca comprender los significados atribuidos por enfermeras de un hospital universitario al proceso de implementación del diagnóstico de enfermería (DEn como etapa del Sistema de Atención de Enfermería (NCS. La recolecta de datos fue realizada por medio de entrevistas con ocho enfermeras de la unidad de Clínica Médica, que participaron de la construcción de un instrumento para la implementación del DEn en la NCS. Durante las narraciones, las colaboradoras explicitaron una transformación positiva de sus sentimientos, a partir del desconforto inicial y de la percepción desfavorable con relación a la propuesta de mudanza. En virtud de la apropiación gradual de las etapas del proceso por la cual pasaron, permitieron además de compartir sentimientos, decisiones, responsabilidades por los resultados, fundamentalmente alcanzaron el desarrollo de la creencia de que serian capaces de superar las dificultades.Este estudo qualitativo busca compreender os significados atribuídos por enfermeiras, de um hospital universitário, ao processo de implementação do sistema de classificação de diagnósticos de enfermagem (DEn como etapa do Sistema de Assistência de

  9. In vitro diagnosis of sepsis: a review

    Guido M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Marcello Guido,1 Maria Rosaria Tumolo,2 Antonella De Donno,1 Tiziano Verri,3 Francesca Serio,1 Francesco Bagordo,1 Antonella Zizza2 1Laboratory of Hygiene, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Sciences, University of Salento, Lecce, Italy; 2National Research Council, Institute of Clinical Physiology, 3Laboratory of Physiology, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technologies, Faculty of Sciences, University of Salento, Lecce, ItalyAbstract: Sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock, systemic inflammatory response, and other related manifestations represent a relevant medical problem with high morbidity and mortality, despite the improvements in diagnosis, treatment, and preventive measures over the last few decades. The limited knowledge of the pathophysiology in association with the lack of in vitro diagnostic methods for the certain and quick determination of the causative microbiological agents and their antibiotic resistance means the condition is still critical and of high impact in health care. The current gold standard method to detect the sepsis-causing pathogens, which is based on blood culture, is still insufficiently sensitive and slow. The new culture-independent molecular biology-based techniques can lead to the identification of a broad range of microorganisms and resistance markers within a few hours and with high sensitivity and specificity; nevertheless, limitations of, for example, the polymerase chain reaction-based methods still hamper their application in the clinical routine. This review summarizes the in vitro diagnostic methods and their approach in the clinical diagnosis of the bloodstream infections, and explores their advantages and disadvantages at the current state of the art. A quick analysis of the future prospective in multiplex technologies for microbiological diagnosis of sepsis is also provided. Keywords: PCR, PCR/ESI-MS, microarray, MALDI-TOF, next

  10. Diagnosis of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis

    Lopez, Myriam Consuelo; Quiroz, Damian Arnoldo; Pinilla, Analida Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The objective is to carry out a review of the national and international literature as of the XXth century in order to update the advances for the diagnosis of complex odd Entamoeba histolytic / Entamoeba dispar and that of intestinal and extra intestinal amoebiasis that may be of use to the scientific community. As well as to unify the diagnostic criteria of this parasitosis known as a public health problem, and as a consequence of that, optimize the quality of population care. Data source: there was a systematic search for the scientific literature Publisher in Spanish and English since 1960 until today, this selection started on the first semester of 2006 until 2007, in the development of the line on intestinal and extra-intestinal amoebiasis of the Medical School of the National University of Colombia. A retrospective search process was carried out, systematically reviewing the most relevant articles as well as the products of this research line. In deciding how to make this article, there was a continuous search in different data bases such as Medline, SciELO and other bases in the library of the National University of Colombia, as well as other classical books related to the subject. For that purpose the terms amoebiasis, odd Entamoeba histolytic, Entamoeba, diagnosis, epidemiology, dysentery, amoebic liver abscess, were used. Studies selection: titles and abstracts were reviewed to select the original publications and the most representative ones related to this article's subject. Data extraction: the articles were classified according to the subject, the chronology and the authors according to the scientific contribution to solve the problem. Synthesis of the data: in the fi rst instance, a chronological critical analysis was carried out to order and synthesize the progress made in the diagnosis until confirmation of the experts' agreements in the field of amoebiasis was obtained throughout the world. Conclusion: this article summarizes what has taken place

  11. Consistency between referral diagnosis and post-ENMG diagnosis in children

    Komur, M.; Okuyaz, C.; Makharoblidze, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the degree of consistency between the referral diagnosis and that based on electroneuromyography. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Paediatric Neurology Laboratory of Mersin University School of Medicine, Turkey, and comprised all electroneuromyographies carried out between January 2005 and December 2010. Demographic data, referral diagnosis and post-procedure diagnosis were recorded for each patient, and were classified into groups. Consistency between the two groups was compared using SPSS 13. Results: Of the total 294 patients, polyneuropathy was the reason for referral in 104 (35.4%), peripheral nerve injury in 54 (18.4%), brachial plexus injury in 52 (17.7%), myopathy in 52 (17.7%), hypotonia in 23 (7.8%), and facial paralysis in 9 (3.0%) patients. There was consistency between the two diagnoses in 179 (60.9%) patients. Conclusion: Electroneuromyography is an uneasy, painful and stressfull procedure for children, and, therefore, it should be recommended only in cases where the result may be beneficial in the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of a patient. (author)

  12. Current approaches on non-invasive prenatal diagnosis: Prenatal genomics, transcriptomics, personalized fetal diagnosis

    Tuba Günel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in molecular genetics improved our knowledge on fetal genome and physiology. Novel scientific innovations in prenatal diagnosis have accelerated in the last decade changing our vision immensely. Data obtained from fetal genomic studies brought new insights to fetal medicine and by the advances in fetal DNA and RNA sequencing technology novel treatment strategies has evolved. Non-invasive prenatal diagnosis found ground in genetics and the results are widely studied in scientific arena. When Lo and colleges proved fetal genetic material can be extracted from maternal plasma and fetal DNA can be isolated from maternal serum, the gate to many exciting discoveries was open. Microarray technology and advances in sequencing helped fetal diagnosis as well as other areas of medicine. Today it is a very crucial prerequisite for physicians practicing prenatal diagnosis to have a profound knowledge in genetics. Prevailing practical use and application of fetal genomic tests in maternal and fetal medicine mandates obstetricians to update their knowledge in genetics. The purpose of this review is to assist physicians to understand and update their knowledge in fetal genetic testing from maternal blood, individualized prenatal counseling and advancements on the subject by sharing our experiences as İstanbul University Fetal Nucleic Acid Research Group.

  13. The use of immunoassay method to improve the diagnosis of African trypanosomosis and its application to monitor disease control programmes: A summary

    Dwinger, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The traditional diagnostic techniques for detecting trypanosomes in animals have been the microscopic examination of wet blood films or of thin and thick bloodsmears following fixation and Giemsa staining. The development of concentration methods such as the microhaematocrit centrifuge technique (MHCT) or the buffy coat technique (BCT) using a phase contrast/darkground microscope has improved diagnosis considerably. All these parasitological techniques are very specific (a positive result indicates the true presence of a trypanosome and few false positives are encountered), but generally lack sensitivity. However, in chronically infected animals low parasitaemias often occur, which could not be detected by the most sensitive technique, the BCT method. In 1971 the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and various applications of the technique soon proved to be highly sensitive and specific as well as reliable and flexible methods for screening large number of samples. The technique was modified for the detection of trypanosomal antigens and applied for the diagnosis of T. vivax, T. congolense and T. brucei infections in cattle. In experimental infections the test proved to be a sensitive technique for the diagnosis of animal trypanosomosis. Moreover, indications were that the test was well suited for application in developing countries. Consequently, the ELISA was transferred to the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture for distribution to various African research institutes for extensive validation under tropical conditions. 17 refs, 2 tabs

  14. The use of immunoassay method to improve the diagnosis of African trypanosomosis and its application to monitor disease control programmes: A summary

    Dwinger, R H [Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna (Austria). Animal Production and Health Section

    1997-02-01

    The traditional diagnostic techniques for detecting trypanosomes in animals have been the microscopic examination of wet blood films or of thin and thick bloodsmears following fixation and Giemsa staining. The development of concentration methods such as the microhaematocrit centrifuge technique (MHCT) or the buffy coat technique (BCT) using a phase contrast/darkground microscope has improved diagnosis considerably. All these parasitological techniques are very specific (a positive result indicates the true presence of a trypanosome and few false positives are encountered), but generally lack sensitivity. However, in chronically infected animals low parasitaemias often occur, which could not be detected by the most sensitive technique, the BCT method. In 1971 the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and various applications of the technique soon proved to be highly sensitive and specific as well as reliable and flexible methods for screening large number of samples. The technique was modified for the detection of trypanosomal antigens and applied for the diagnosis of T. vivax, T. congolense and T. brucei infections in cattle. In experimental infections the test proved to be a sensitive technique for the diagnosis of animal trypanosomosis. Moreover, indications were that the test was well suited for application in developing countries. Consequently, the ELISA was transferred to the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture for distribution to various African research institutes for extensive validation under tropical conditions. 17 refs, 2 tabs.

  15. Dengue fever: diagnosis and treatment.

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2010-07-01

    Dengue fever is a common tropical infection. This acute febrile illness can be a deadly infection in cases of severe manifestation, causing dengue hemorrhagic shock. In this brief article, I will summarize and discuss the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. For diagnosis of dengue, most tropical doctors make use of presumptive diagnosis; however, the definite diagnosis should be based on immunodiagnosis or viral study. Focusing on treatment, symptomatic and supportive treatment is the main therapeutic approach. The role of antiviral drugs in the treatment of dengue fever has been limited, but is currently widely studied.

  16. Laboratory Diagnosis of Infective Endocarditis

    Liesman, Rachael M.; Pritt, Bobbi S.; Maleszewski, Joseph J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infective endocarditis is life-threatening; identification of the underlying etiology informs optimized individual patient management. Changing epidemiology, advances in blood culture techniques, and new diagnostics guide the application of laboratory testing for diagnosis of endocarditis. Blood cultures remain the standard test for microbial diagnosis, with directed serological testing (i.e., Q fever serology, Bartonella serology) in culture-negative cases. Histopathology and molecular diagnostics (e.g., 16S rRNA gene PCR/sequencing, Tropheryma whipplei PCR) may be applied to resected valves to aid in diagnosis. Herein, we summarize recent knowledge in this area and propose a microbiologic and pathological algorithm for endocarditis diagnosis. PMID:28659319

  17. Qualidade física, microbiológica e parasitológica de alfaces (Lactuca sativa de diferentes sistemas de cultivo Physical, microbiological and parasitological quality of lettuce (Lactuca sativa from different growing processes

    Ligia Regina R. de Santana

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A alface (Lactuca sativa é a hortaliça folhosa mais comercializada no Brasil. Seu baixo valor calórico a qualifica para diversas dietas, o que favorece o seu consumo sob a forma crua, possibilitando a ocorrência de enfermidades intestinais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma avaliação física, microbiológica e parasitológica de amostras de alfaces, variedade crespa, provenientes dos sistemas de cultivo orgânico, tradicional e hidropônico, comercializadas nos principais supermercados da cidade de Salvador (BA, no período de setembro de 2003 a junho de 2004. As amostras do cultivo hidropônico apresentaram o menor peso total e da parte bio-comestível, diferindo significativamente (pThe lettuce (Lactuca sativa has economic importance to the people in Brazil. The aim of this study was to carry out a physical, microbiological and parasitological evaluations in the lettuce samples - crisp variety, according to organic, traditional and hydroponics growing processes, commercialized at the supermarkets of the City of Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, collected from September/2003 until June/2004. The hydroponics lettuce samples showed the lowest total and edible part weight; they were inserted into Extra rate quality standard, according to the current legislation, whereas the organic and traditional lettuce samples were inserted into First and Second rate quality standard, respectively. The lettuce samples, independently of the growing process, showed low hygienic conditions, indicated by the presence of parasites of animal or human origin, and high concentration of fecal coliforms; the organic lettuce samples showed the highest frequencies of enteroparasities and fecal coliforms concentration, followed by the traditional and hydroponics lettuce samples. Considering the obtained results, the importance of this kind of food in the transmission of enteroparasities is stressed, as well as the need of actions which improve the sanitary conditions

  18. Enseñanza de la parasitología veterinaria a partir del uso de organismos vivos y tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación (TIC

    Efraín Benavides Ortiz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los parásitos son organismos que viven en otros organismos vivos o sobre ellos para obtener nutrientes sin brindar compensación a cambio. En las ciencias médicas y veterinarias, generalmente, se acepta como “parásito” solamente a eucariotas y metazoarios; es decir, protozoarios, helmintos y artrópodos. Algunos incluyen bacterias transmitidas por artrópodos, las rickettsias. La enseñanza de esta disciplina ha hecho hincapié en componentes taxonómicos de los organismos y ha descuidado aspectos del entendimiento de la relación huéspedparásito, la comprensión de interacciones ecológicas y ciclos silvestres, la coevolución en los nichos, que sustenta la posible selección de animales resistentes a los parásitos y los argumentos de genética de poblaciones, que permiten comprender la problemática del desarrollo de resistencia a los antiparasitarios. En este artículo se presentan experiencias docentes de la cátedra de Parasitología Veterinaria en la cual, aunque se continúan utilizando especímenes fijados en alcohol y formol para demostrar estructuras parasitarias, cada vez usa más organismos vivos como base del proceso didáctico, junto con tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC para facilitar la comprensión sobre los procesos parasitarios en condiciones naturales del trópico.

  19. DIAGNOSIS OF CULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    ALBU MĂDĂLINA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cultural institution management is to direct the organization to a specific cultural profile purpose, namely production values esthetic sense, artistic, moral, spiritual, distribution, promotion of these values, protection and circulation of cultural heritage. In this regard, an analysis in the diagnosis cultural organizations aims to determine the main strengths and weaknesses, assess the potential and making recommendations focused on the root causes of failures and positive aspects. This paper presents considerations diligence activity Culture House "IL Caragiale "in Ploiesti. The mission of this organization is to contribute to the cultural development of the community by initiating projects and cultural programs, offer development programs and services to meet cultural needs, increase public access to diverse cultural life, providing a constant presence institution circuit local, national, European and international level. Conclusions drawn from the analysis shows that in a world of economic globalization, information and culture in a company in constant change, in a competitive market where there is information readily available means and leisure, but not cultural consistency in a social environment where interest in culture of people is declining, the situation of the population is impaired, the remuneration of staff working in the field of cultural education is demotivating, the funds allocated to culture have grown lately effectively lead a cultural institution is a challenge.

  20. Edema: diagnosis and management.

    Trayes, Kathryn P; Studdiford, James S; Pickle, Sarah; Tully, Amber S

    2013-07-15

    Edema is an accumulation of fluid in the interstitial space that occurs as the capillary filtration exceeds the limits of lymphatic drainage, producing noticeable clinical signs and symptoms. The rapid development of generalized pitting edema associated with systemic disease requires timely diagnosis and management. The chronic accumulation of edema in one or both lower extremities often indicates venous insufficiency, especially in the presence of dependent edema and hemosiderin deposition. Skin care is crucial in preventing skin breakdown and venous ulcers. Eczematous (stasis) dermatitis can be managed with emollients and topical steroid creams. Patients who have had deep venous thrombosis should wear compression stockings to prevent postthrombotic syndrome. If clinical suspicion for deep venous thrombosis remains high after negative results are noted on duplex ultrasonography, further investigation may include magnetic resonance venography to rule out pelvic or thigh proximal venous thrombosis or compression. Obstructive sleep apnea may cause bilateral leg edema even in the absence of pulmonary hypertension. Brawny, nonpitting skin with edema characterizes lymphedema, which can present in one or both lower extremities. Possible secondary causes of lymphedema include tumor, trauma, previous pelvic surgery, inguinal lymphadenectomy, and previous radiation therapy. Use of pneumatic compression devices or compression stockings may be helpful in these cases.

  1. CRD lifetime diagnosis device

    Konno, Takahiro.

    1990-01-01

    Reliability analysis has been conducted by retrieving information concerning disadvantages and failures in the past of instruments and parts, and average life time, rate of failure and state of failures have been analized. Further remaining life time has been estimated for each of them independently by the trend control and reliability analysis for the instruments and parts. However, there were neither actual cases that disadvantages and failures occurred in the past for the CRD (control rod drives) nor such cases of conducting the remaining life diagnosis method, e.g., trend control and reliability analysis in comparison for one instrument collectively. Then, in the present invention, information analyzing data base obtained by an acceleration test for CRD and trend analyzing data base comprising the trend information are used to constitute a means for obtaining the remaining life for reliability and that for the trend, and a means for estimating the remaining life of CRD by comparing both of the remaining lives, thereby enabling to obtain a desired value at a high accuracy. (N.H.)

  2. Radiological diagnosis of pneumoconiosis

    Hering, K.G.; Wiebe, V.

    1990-01-01

    Radiology is extremely important in the diagnosis of occupational lung disease. Owing to its general availability and international comparability, the roentgenographic pa view of the chest obtained by the high-voltage technique is still the basis of the radiologic examination. Supplementary investigations are necessary for medical reasons, however, as well as for documentation of experts' certification. Valuable diagnostic information is supplied by oblique views of the thorax and by conventional X-ray tomography, though not by scintigraphic examinations or - up to now - by digital luminescence radiography. Ultrasound helps in the differentiation of free pleural fluid, organized pleural effusion, and pleural malignancy. In addition, computed tomography (CT) can be guided by ultrasound. CT has emerged as the method of choice for examination and for support of medical expert's certification of pneumoconiotic pleural disease, and high-resolution CT (HRCT) is also increasing used for examination of pneumoconiotic lung foci as well. Diagnostic accurcay in pneumoconiosis is further improved by shorter CT scanning times in combination with HRCT. (orig.) [de

  3. The Global University Press

    Dougherty, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world's understanding of American university press has long been shaped by university-press books. American university-press books are good international advertisements for the universities whose logos grace their spines. The growth of transnational scholarship and the expansion of digital communications networks are converging in ways…

  4. Analysis of the accuracy of different laboratory methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites from stray and domiciled cats (Felis catus domesticus in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

    Jaqueline Ataíde Silva Lima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cats are carriers of zoonotic agents to humans, including intestinal parasites. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of different laboratory methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites. Fecal samples were processed by the Willis, Sheather, Faust and Hoffman-Janer-Pons-Lutz (HJPL methods. Accuracy analysis was performed determining the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and Kappa. A total of 149 fecal samples were collected, 65 from stray cats and 84 from domiciled cats. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray cats was 60% while in domiciled cats it was 17%. In the analysis of accuracy, the techniques that showed the greatest accuracy for Ancylostomids were Willis and Faust, for Cystoisospora spp. Sheather with Faust or HPJL, and Toxoplasma gondii/Hammondia hammondi the association between Willis and Faust. Therefore, for a reliable evaluation of the prevalence of intestinal parasites, at least two different techniques should be used in parasitological exams of feces.

  5. Experimental mesenteric ischemia. Radioisotopic diagnosis

    Alberti, Carlos; Dallaglio, Juan; Sarra, Luis; Obiols, Eugenio; Rodriguez Santos, Emilio; Delgado, Eduardo; Castelleti, Luis

    1995-01-01

    A non-invasive radionuclide technique with 99-Tc-DMP for the early diagnosis of small bowel infarction due to mesenteric artery compression, was evaluated. The usefulness of 99-Tc-DMP and critical pressure of mesenteric artery were demonstrated. The diagnosis was performed before one hour had passed from the beginning of the ischemia

  6. Fetal tachycardia : diagnosis and treatment

    Oudijk, Martijn Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Part I: Fetal tachyarrhythmias Diagnosis Fetal tachycardia is a serious condition warranting specialized evaluation. In chapter 2, methods of diagnosis of fetal tachycardia are described, including doppler and M-mode echocardiography and fetal magnetocardiography. The study presented in chapter 3

  7. Enlistment Propensities of University Students

    Moskos, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Enlistment propensities of undergraduates were assessed through surveys conducted at Northwestern University, University of Arizona, University of California-Los Angeles, and University of Illinois-Chicago...

  8. Study on diagnosis of HD

    Chen Shuran; Yang Yumei; Zhang Guangli

    1994-01-01

    The study suggests a three-step diagnostic method for diagnosing HD. The first step is to make TgA, TmA examination; the second step is to make differential diagnosis for the cases of negative TgA, TmA through FNAB examination; the third step is to make TgA, TmA and FNAB examination for dynamic observation of controversial cases left over in the former two steps to achieve accurate diagnosis. Differential diagnosis has been made with the method in 87 cases of HD (clinical diagnosis only). The result shows that 7 cases have been diagnosed as thyropathy through comprehensive evaluation; definite diagnosis of HD has been made in 62 cases through TgA, TmA and in 77 cases through FNAB; 3 cases of negative TgA and TmA failed to accept FNAB examination, and were later diagnosed as HD through operation pathology or clinical treatment

  9. Onychomycosis: Diagnosis and management

    Archana Singal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis is a common nail ailment associated with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Increased prevalence in the recent years is attributed to enhanced longevity, comorbid conditions such as diabetes, avid sports participation, and emergence of HIV. Dermatophytes are the most commonly implicated etiologic agents, particularly Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, followed by Candida species and non dermatophytic molds (NDMs. Several clinical variants have been recognized. Candida onychomycosis affects fingernails more often and is accompanied by paronychia. NDM molds should be suspected in patients with history of trauma and associated periungual inflammation. Diagnosis is primarily based upon KOH examination, culture and histopathological examinations of nail clippings and nail biopsy. Adequate and appropriate sample collection is vital to pinpoint the exact etiological fungus. Various improvisations have been adopted to improve the fungal isolation. Culture is the gold standard, while histopathology is often performed to diagnose and differentiate onychomycosis from other nail disorders such as psoriasis and lichen planus. Though rarely used, DNA-based methods are effective for identifying mixed infections and quantification of fungal load. Various treatment modalities including topical, systemic and surgical have been used.Topically, drugs (ciclopirox and amorolfine nail lacquers are delivered through specialized transungual drug delivery systems ensuring high concentration and prolonged contact. Commonly used oral therapeutic agents include terbinafine, fluconazole, and itraconazole. Terbinafine and itraconazole are given as continuous as well as intermittent regimes. Continuous terbinafine appears to be the most effective regime for dermatophyte onychomycosis. Despite good therapeutic response to newer modalities, long-term outcome is unsatisfactory due to therapeutic failure, relapse

  10. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of hydrocephalus in adults

    Langner, Soenke; Mensel, Birger; Kuehn, Jens Peter; Kirsch, Michael; Fleck, Steffen; Baldauf, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Hydrocephalus is caused by an imbalance of production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or obstruction of its pathways, resulting in ventricular dilatation and increased intracranial pressure. Imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and planning of treatment. This review article presents the different types of hydrocephalus und their typical imaging appearance, describes imaging techniques, and discusses differential diagnoses of the different forms of hydrocephalus. Imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. While magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the first-line imaging modality, computed tomography (CT) is often the first-line imaging test in emergency patients.

  11. Ergonomics: case study in a university library

    Daniela Capri; Eliana Maria dos Santos Bahia; Adilson Luiz Pinto

    2012-01-01

    This final paper aimed to analyze the real ergonomics of a university library from Florianópolis and compare it with the ergonomics perceived by the user to perform an ergonomic diagnosis. In order to meet this goal two specific goals were established such as: describe the physical and environmental aspects of the library related to the real ergonomics and verify the actual perception of users about the library. As a theoretical approach, aspects of ergonomics and environmental ergonomics wer...

  12. Voice Disorders: Etiology and Diagnosis.

    Martins, Regina Helena Garcia; do Amaral, Henrique Abrantes; Tavares, Elaine Lara Mendes; Martins, Maira Garcia; Gonçalves, Tatiana Maria; Dias, Norimar Hernandes

    2016-11-01

    Voice disorders affect adults and children and have different causes in different age groups. The aim of the study is to present the etiology and diagnosis dysphonia in a large population of patients with this voice disorder.for dysphonia of a large population of dysphonic patients. We evaluated 2019 patients with dysphonia who attended the Voice Disease ambulatories of a university hospital. Parameters assessed were age, gender, profession, associated symptoms, smoking, and videolaryngoscopy diagnoses. Of the 2019 patients with dysphonia who were included in this study, 786 were male (38.93%) and 1233 were female (61.07). The age groups were as follows: 1-6 years (n = 100); 7-12 years (n = 187); 13-18 years (n = 92); 19-39 years (n = 494); 41-60 years (n = 811); and >60 years (n = 335). Symptoms associated with dysphonia were vocal overuse (n = 677), gastroesophageal symptoms (n = 535), and nasosinusal symptoms (n = 497). The predominant professions of the patients were domestic workers, students, and teachers. Smoking was reported by 13.6% patients. With regard to the etiology of dysphonia, in children (1-18 years old), nodules (n = 225; 59.3%), cysts (n = 39; 10.3%), and acute laryngitis (n = 26; 6.8%) prevailed. In adults (19-60 years old), functional dysphonia (n = 268; 20.5%), acid laryngitis (n = 164; 12.5%), and vocal polyps (n = 156; 12%) predominated. In patients older than 60 years, presbyphonia (n = 89; 26.5%), functional dysphonia (n = 59; 17.6%), and Reinke's edema (n = 48; 14%) predominated. In this population of 2019 patients with dysphonia, adults and women were predominant. Dysphonia had different etiologies in the age groups studied. Nodules and cysts were predominant in children, functional dysphonia and reflux in adults, and presbyphonia and Reinke's edema in the elderly. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Radiological diagnosis in AIDS - associated diseases: survey and differential diagnosis

    Rademaker, J.; Frahm, C.

    1997-01-01

    Acute manifestations of illnesses in patients with HIV-infection or AIDS will benefit from rapid diagnosis. Radiologic examinations provide substantial information to narrow the differential diagnosis. This article reviews clinically important HIV-associated diseases for the radiologist. The braod spectrum of possible manifestations is illustrated by the accompanying case reports that typify the complexity of diagnoses in this growing problem worldwide. (orig.) [de

  14. Morquio syndrome: A radiological diagnosis

    Sadhanandham Shrinuvasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS are a family of inherited metabolic diseases that results from the deficiency of lysosomal enzymes involved in the degradation of the glycosaminoglycans (MPS. We report here a 7-year-old female child who presented with complaints of short stature, skeletal deformities, and difficulty in walking with normal intelligence. A clinical diagnosis with differential diagnosis of achondroplasia/rickets was considered. Skeletal survey showed radiological features characteristic of Morquio syndrome (MPS IV which lead to diagnosis in this case.

  15. Network Fault Diagnosis Using DSM

    Jiang Hao; Yan Pu-liu; Chen Xiao; Wu Jing

    2004-01-01

    Difference similitude matrix (DSM) is effective in reducing information system with its higher reduction rate and higher validity. We use DSM method to analyze the fault data of computer networks and obtain the fault diagnosis rules. Through discretizing the relative value of fault data, we get the information system of the fault data. DSM method reduces the information system and gets the diagnosis rules. The simulation with the actual scenario shows that the fault diagnosis based on DSM can obtain few and effective rules.

  16. Lactose intolerance: diagnosis, genetic, and clinical factors

    Mattar R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Rejane Mattar, Daniel Ferraz de Campos Mazo, Flair José CarrilhoDepartment of Gastroenterology, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Most people are born with the ability to digest lactose, the major carbohydrate in milk and the main source of nutrition until weaning. Approximately 75% of the world's population loses this ability at some point, while others can digest lactose into adulthood. This review discusses the lactase-persistence alleles that have arisen in different populations around the world, diagnosis of lactose intolerance, and its symptomatology and management.Keywords: hypolactasia, lactase persistence, lactase non-persistence, lactose, LCT gene, MCM6 gene

  17. Inquérito parasitológico na CECAP, distrito-sede de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Parasitological survey at CECAP, Botucatu County, S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Ednir Salata

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudo da prevalência de parasitas intestinais realizado em 370 indivíduos residentes na CECAP, distrito-sede de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, permitiu verificar que 41,62% encontravam-se infestados por uma ou mais espécies de parasitas intestinais. Foram encontrados os seguintes parasitas: Entamoeba histolytica 0,54%, E. coli 6,21%, I. butschlii 0,27%, Giardia lamblia 9,72%, Ancylostomidae 5,94%, Strongyloides stercoralis 6,75%, Trichuris trichiura 17,29%, Ascaris lumbricoides 7,56%, Enterobius vermicularis 3,78%, Hymenolepis nana 5,40% e Taenia sp. 1,62%. Apresentam-se dados sobre a distribuição dos parasitas em relação à idade e ao sexo dos indivíduos. O atributo cor não permite maiores considerações por serem os não brancos significantemente pouco numerosos. Dos indivíduos examinados, 25,67% apresentavam apenas uma espécie de parasita e entre as associações parasitárias mais freqüentes encontramos as de Ascaris lumbricoides - Trichuris trichiura e Trichuris trichiura - Giardia lamblia.A parasitological survey among 370 persons was carried out at CECAP, Botucatu County, S. Paulo State, Brazil. It was found that 41.62% of the examinated persons were infected with one or more species of intestinal parasites. The parasite's prevalence was: Entamoeba hystolytica 0.54%, E. coli 6.21%, I. butschlii 0.27%, Giardia lamblia 9.72%, Ancylostomidae 5.94%, Strongyloide stercoralis 6.75%, Trichuris trichiura 17.29%, Ascaris lumbricoides 7.56%, Enterobius vermicularis 3.78%, Hymenolepis nana 5.40% e Taenia sp. 1.62%. Tables are presented showing the distribution of the parasites according to age and sex. Race was not considered because the number of "not white" was significantly low. Of the examinated persons, 25.67% were infected with only one species of parasite and the parasitic associations most frequently found were Ascaris lumbricoides - Trichuris tricriura and Trichuris trichiura - Giardia lamblia.

  18. Whither the African University

    Sam

    reform. 1. Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Addis Ababa University ..... reduce African universities to virtually vocational schools. The World ..... theories, established institutions, and widely held beliefs according to the cannons ...

  19. Origin (?) of the Universe

    cal models of the universe are based on the idea, which is supported by ... Only the continuous distribution was clearly ... displaced from their natural locations, their observed wave- .... universe? Mathematical Models: Basic Assumptions.

  20. The Alien University

    Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard

    2018-01-01

    - they are alien. The conditions of universities today is not one of crisis and upheaval, as with the postmodern universities, it is one of night travel and exile. The alien university leaves behind the epistemological skirmishes of the postmodern university with all its rhetoric and knowledge activism. Thinking...... in the alien university is a move into a whirlpool of nothingness, a “nocturnal space”, where “[d]arkness fills it like a content; it is full, but full of the nothingness of everything.” (Levinas, 2001, p.53). In the alien university thinking is not situated, and instead of rhizomes, and assemblages of thought......, there is merely an imposing and nightly “swarming of points.” (ibid.). There is no place for the alien university, and exactly this exile of thought makes possible the move beyond postmodernism and the mentality of political crisis. The alien university is not in the future as such, but it is not entirely...

  1. Gambling with the Universe

    Hawking, Stephen

    2002-05-01

    This is an excerpt from Stephen Hawking's book The Universe in a Nutshell. Roger Penrose and Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, were able to show that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied that the universe and time itself must have had a beginning in a tremendous explosion. The discovery of the expansion of the universe is one of the great intellectual revolutions of the twentieth century.

  2. Inflation in the Universe

    Barrow, J.D.; California Univ., Berkeley; Turner, M.S.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1981-01-01

    The problems of explaining the observed isotropy, homogeneity, flatness and specific entropy of the Universe are discussed in the context of an inflationary Universe which has recently been suggested. It is shown that the isotropy cannot be ignored as a Universe with a large amount of anisotropy will not undergo the inflationary phase. A Universe with only moderate anistropy will undergo inflation and will be rapidly isotropized. (U.K.)

  3. Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Parkinson's Disease Parkinson's Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment Past Issues / Winter 2014 ... live productive lives and maintain mobility. How is Parkinson's Diagnosed? There are no blood or laboratory tests ...

  4. Case management of malaria: Diagnosis

    triggering control programme action, and detecting gametocyte carriers, who may ... clinical malaria does not generally apply to local-born populations, although it ... deficiencies in the quality of malaria diagnosis in routine laboratories. Quality ...

  5. Computer tomographic diagnosis of echinococcosis

    Haertel, M.; Fretz, C.; Fuchs, W.A.

    1980-08-01

    The computer tomographic appearances and differential diagnosis in 22 patients with echinococcosis are described; of these, twelve were of the cystic and ten of the alveolar type. The computer tomographic appearances are characterised by the presence of daughter cysts (66%) within the sharply demarkated parasitic cyst of water density. In the absence of daughter cysts, a definite aetiological diagnosis cannot be made, although there is a tendency to clasification of the occassionally multiple echinococcus cysts. The computer tomographic appearances of advanced alveolar echinococcosis are characterised by partial collequative necrosis, with clacification around the necrotic areas (90%). The absence of CT evidence of partial necrosis and calsification of the pseudotumour makes it difficult to establish a specific diagnosis. The conclusive and non-invasive character of the procedure and its reproducibility makes computer tomography the method of choice for the diagnosis and follow-up of echinococcosis.

  6. Pediatric Hypothyroidism: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Wassner, Ari J

    2017-08-01

    Thyroid hormone has important physiologic functions in nearly every organ system. The critical role of thyroid hormone in growth and in physical and neurologic development lends particular importance to the prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment of hypothyroidism in infants and children. Congenital hypothyroidism is common and has potentially devastating neurologic consequences. While the approach to diagnosis and treatment of severe congenital hypothyroidism is well established, data continue to emerge about the genetic causes, clinical significance, and prognosis of the milder forms of congenital hypothyroidism that are increasingly being diagnosed by newborn screening. Similarly, the diagnosis and treatment of severe acquired hypothyroidism is straightforward and clearly of clinical benefit, but uncertainty remains about the optimal management of mild subclinical hypothyroidism. This review summarizes current knowledge of the causes, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of hypothyroidism in infants and children, with a focus on recent developments and areas of uncertainty in this field.

  7. [Microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection].

    López-Bernaldo de Quirós, Juan Carlos; Delgado, Rafael; García, Federico; Eiros, José M; Ortiz de Lejarazu, Raúl

    2007-12-01

    Currently, there are around 150,000 HIV-infected patients in Spain. This number, together with the fact that this disease is now a chronic condition since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy, has generated an increasing demand on the clinical microbiology laboratories in our hospitals. This increase has occurred not only in the diagnosis and treatment of opportunistic diseases, but also in tests related to the diagnosis and therapeutic management of HIV infection. To meet this demand, the Sociedad de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clinica (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) has updated its standard Procedure for the microbiological diagnosis of HIV infection. The main advances related to serological diagnosis, plasma viral load, and detection of resistance to antiretroviral drugs are reviewed in this version of the Procedure.

  8. Prenatal Diagnosis of Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    Özgür Özyüncü

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal dysplasias are a group of diseases with a wide spectrum related to bone and cartilage. Some forms are lethal whereas some forms have milder clinical progression. Prenatal diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias may be possible especially when there is an index case in the family. Ultrasonography plays the central role in prenatal diagnosis and most common sonographic features are angulation of long bones, bending of femur or bowing signin the long bones. We present a case whose follow up for fetal short extremities ended with termination of pregnancy. The differential diagnosis is hard and depend especially on the fetal x-ray. Final diagnosis was lethal type osteogenesis imperfecta.

  9. Fault diagnosis of induction motors

    Faiz, Jawad; Joksimović, Gojko

    2017-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive, structural approach to fault diagnosis strategy. The different fault types, signal processing techniques, and loss characterisation are addressed in the book. This is essential reading for work with induction motors for transportation and energy.

  10. Inclusion-Body Myositis: Diagnosis

    ... for MDA Blog Donate Search MDA.org Close Inclusion-Body Myositis (IBM) Diagnosis As with other muscle diseases, a doctor diagnoses inclusion-body myositis (IBM) by considering the individual’s personal ...

  11. Missed diagnosis-persistent delirium

    Aseem Mehra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Delirium is in general considered as an acute short lasting reversible neuropsychiatric syndrome. However, there is some evidence to suggest that in a small proportion of cases delirium may be a chronic or persistent condition. However, making this diagnosis requires clinical suspicion and ruling other differential diagnosis. In this report, we present a case of a 55-year-old man who had cognitive symptoms, psychotic symptoms and depressive symptoms along with persistent hypokalemia and glucose intolerance. He was seen by 3 psychiatrists with these symptoms and was initially diagnosed as having depressive disorder and later diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder (current episode mania, and psychosis were considered by the third psychiatrist. However, despite the presence of persistent neurocognitive deficits, evening worsening of symptoms, hypokalemia and glucose intolerance diagnosis of delirium was not suspected.

  12. Diagnosis of antenatal Bartter syndrome.

    Narayan, R; Peres, M; Kesby, G

    2016-01-01

    Bartter syndrome is a rare heterogeneous group of autosomal-recessive salt-losing renal tubular disorders that can present in fetal life (antenatal Bartter syndrome; ABS) as "unexplained" early-onset polyhydramnios, often associated with growth restriction. Prenatal diagnosis of the condition involves assessment of amniotic fluid biochemistry in a setting of polyuric polyhydramnios; with elevated chloride levels considered a consistent and diagnostic finding. Other amniotic fluid biochemical markers have been described, notably increased aldosterone levels, and low total protein levels. NOVEL INSIGHT: Antenatal Bartter syndrome is a heterogeneous group of renal disorders. While certain biochemical features in amniotic fluid might heighten suspicion, final diagnosis can only be made in the postnatal setting. In the setting of unexplained severe polyhydramnios, clinicians should continue to entertain the diagnosis of antenatal Bartter Syndrome and maintain neonatal surveillance, even if amniotic fluid markers do not support the diagnosis.

  13. Image diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma

    Niimi, Akiko; Ueno, Keiko; Isobe, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Akira

    1987-01-01

    3 cases of malignant mesothelioma confirmed by pathological examination were reported. CT showed solid mass with moderate enhancement by contrast medium. CT appears to be a very useful tool to make a diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. (author)

  14. Development and Assessment of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for the Diagnosis of Human Visceral Leishmaniasis in Iran.

    Ghasemian, Mehrdad; Gharavi, Mohammad Javad; Akhlaghi, Lame; Mohebali, Mehdi; Meamar, Ahmad Reza; Aryan, Ehsan; Oormazdi, Hormozd

    2014-03-01

    Parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) require invasive procedures, so serological and molecular approaches have been developed but are not generally applicable in the field. We evaluated a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay using blood from VL patients and compared it to nested PCR. Forty-seven subjects with clinical features (fever, hepatosplenomegaly and anemia) were confirmed positive for VL by the direct agglutination test (DAT) at titers >3200. Forty DAT negative individuals from non-endemic areas with no clinical signs or symptoms of VL served as controls. A LAMP assay was performed using a set of six primers targeting Leishmania infantum kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircle gene under isothermal (64 °C) conditions. For nested PCR we used primers targeting the kDNA minicircle gene. The LAMP assay provided a detection limit of 1 parasite in 1 ml of peripheral blood and detected L. infantum DNA in 44 of 47 DAT-confirmed VL cases, with diagnostic sensitivity of 93.6% (95% CI). No L. infantum DNA was amplified in controls, indicating a specificity of 100%. The nested PCR yielded sensitivity of 96% (95% CI) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI). The LAMP assay gave results similar to those of nested PCR but in a shorter time. The LAMP method is simple; requires no sophisticated equipment; has a short reaction time; and results, indicated by turbidity of the reaction mixture, are observable with the naked eye.

  15. Development and Assessment of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP Assay for the Diagnosis of Human Visceral Leishmaniasis in Iran.

    Mehrdad Ghasemian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasitological methods for the diagnosis of Visceral leishmaniasis (VL require invasive procedures, so serological and molecular approaches have been developed but are not generally applicable in the field. We evaluated a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay using blood from VL patients and compared it to nested PCR.Forty-seven subjects with clinical features (fever, hepatosplenomegaly and anemia were confirmed positive for VL by the direct agglutination test (DAT at titers >3200. Forty DAT negative individuals from non-endemic areas with no clinical signs or symptoms of VL served as controls. A LAMP assay was performed using a set of six primers targeting Leishmania infantum kinetoplast DNA (kDNA minicircle gene under isothermal (64 °C conditions. For nested PCR we used primers targeting the kDNA minicircle gene.The LAMP assay provided a detection limit of 1 parasite in 1 ml of peripheral blood and detected L. infantum DNA in 44 of 47 DAT-confirmed VL cases, with diagnostic sensitivity of 93.6% (95% CI. No L. infantum DNA was amplified in controls, indicating a specificity of 100%. The nested PCR yielded sensitivity of 96% (95% CI and a specificity of 100% (95% CI.The LAMP assay gave results similar to those of nested PCR but in a shorter time. The LAMP method is simple; requires no sophisticated equipment; has a short reaction time; and results, indicated by turbidity of the reaction mixture, are observable with the naked eye.

  16. 42 CFR 493.917 - Parasitology.

    2010-10-01

    ... vermicularis Entamoeba histolytica Entamoeba coli Giardia lamblia Endolimax nana Dientamoeba fragilis Iodamoeba... Diphyllobothrium latum Cryptosporidium sp. Plasmodium falciparum (3) For laboratories specified in paragraph (a)(1...

  17. Trypanosoma evansi: A clinical, parasitological and immunological ...

    Ibrahim Eldaghayes

    2012-08-13

    Aug 13, 2012 ... serum proteins in g/dl using a refractometer, haematocrit ... evansi IgG titer by indirect ELISA immunoassay, from both infected ... disease can be observed and the three characteristic stages, ... trypanosomosis caused by T. evansi have used horses .... The parasitemia as estimated by DME and MHCT for.

  18. Invasion ecology meets parasitology: Advances and challenges

    Robert Poulin

    2017-01-01

    Biological invasions threaten the diversity and functioning of native ecosystems, and the rate at which species are being introduced to new areas shows no sign of slowing down. Parasites play roles in biological invasions, for instance when native parasites interact with exotic hosts, or when parasites themselves are introduced to new areas. However, publication trends show clearly that research on parasitism in the context of biological invasions is lagging far behind research on biological ...

  19. Parasitological Contamination of Wastewater Irrigated and Raw ...

    Tadesse

    Occurrence of infective stages of intestinal parasites on wastewater- irrigated vegetables ..... reported the health hazards of agricultural reuse of untreated wastewater through detection of .... State of knowledge in land treatment of wastewater.

  20. Keeping parasitology under the One Health umbrella.

    Robertson, Lucy J; Utaaker, Kjersti Selstad; Goyal, Kapil; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2014-08-01

    The One Health concept is no longer new, but remains an accepted concept in modern disease control - where the interactions between animal health, human health, and the environment in which we live are recognised as being of importance. However, emerging infectious diseases often garner the greatest attention and resources. Parasitic infections, many of which are zoonotic but cannot truly be considered as emerging, must ensure that they retain their place under the One Health umbrella. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Etiology, diagnosis, and clinical management of vulvodynia

    Sadownik LA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Leslie A Sadownik University of British Columbia, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vancouver, BC, Canada Abstract: Chronic vulvar pain or discomfort for which no obvious etiology can be found, ie, vulvodynia, can affect up to 16% of women. It may affect girls and women across all age groups and ethnicities. Vulvodynia is a significant burden to society, the health care system, the affected woman, and her intimate partner. The etiology is multifactorial and may involve local injury or inflammation, and peripheral and or central sensitization of the nervous system. An approach to the diagnosis and management of a woman presenting with chronic vulvar pain should address the biological, psychological, and social/interpersonal factors that contribute to her illness. The gynecologist has a key role in excluding other causes for vulvar pain, screening for psychosexual and pelvic floor dysfunction, and collaborating with other health care providers to manage a woman's pain. An important component of treatment is patient education regarding the pathogenesis of the pain and the negative impact of experiencing pain on a woman's overall quality of life. An individualized, holistic, and often multidisciplinary approach is needed to effectively manage the woman's pain and pain-related distress. Keywords: vulvodynia, diagnosis, treatment, etiology, sexual pain disorder, dyspareunia, vestibulodynia, assessment, treatment, multidisciplinary

  2. Psoriasis: epidemiology, natural history, and differential diagnosis

    Basko-Plluska JL

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Juliana L Basko-Plluska, Vesna Petronic-RosicDepartment of Medicine, Section of Dermatology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: Psoriasis is a chronic, immune-mediated, inflammatory disease which affects primarily the skin and joints. It occurs worldwide, but its prevalence varies considerably between different regions of the world. Genetic susceptibility as well as environmental factors play an important role in determining the development and prognosis of psoriasis. Genome-wide association studies have identified many genetic loci as potential psoriasis susceptibility regions, including PSORS1 through PSORS7. Histocompatibility antigen (HLA studies have also identified several HLA antigens, with HLA-Cw6 being the most frequently associated antigen. Epidemiological studies identified several modifiable risk factors that may predispose individuals to developing psoriasis or exacerbate pre-existing disease. These include smoking, obesity, alcohol consumption, diet, infections, medications and stressful life events. The exact mechanism by which they trigger psoriasis remains to be elucidated; however, existing data suggest that they are linked through Th1-mediated immunological pathways. The natural history of psoriasis varies depending on the clinical subtype as well as special circumstances, including pregnancy and HIV infection. In general, psoriasis is a chronic disease with intermittent remissions and exacerbations. The differential diagnosis is vast and includes many other immune-mediated, inflammatory disorders.Keywords: psoriasis, epidemiology, natural history, differential diagnosis

  3. Entrepreneurship in Finnish Universities

    Nurmi, Piia; Paasio, Kaisu

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of universities in fostering and promoting entrepreneurship in Finland. In particular it seeks to examine the university-entrepreneurship relationship: its nature and how universities are addressing the entrepreneurship agenda. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a large…

  4. Our Particle Universe

    and “why is the universe the way it is?” Not long before ... to each other. The interactions of particles in the universe ... theory by Jean Perrin in 1908 convinced people that atoms and ..... ing the origin and evolution of our universe13. This is an ...

  5. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi

    2017-01-01

    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  6. Establishing a University Foundation.

    Lemish, Donald L.

    A handbook on how to establish a university foundation is presented. It presupposes that a foundation will be used as the umbrella organization for receiving all private gifts, restricted and unrestricted, for the benefit of a public college or university; and hence it chiefly addresses readers from public colleges and universities. Information is…

  7. The University Culture

    Simplicio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…

  8. Motivating University Researchers

    Hendriks, P.H.J.; Alves de Sousa, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation into how universities approach the need and means for motivating university researchers through their management practices. The role of work motivation for this group deserves attention because pressures from outside and within the universities are said

  9. A Universal Reactive Machine

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  10. The early universe

    Steigman, G.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the physics of the early universe: the production and survival of relics from the big bang. The author comments on relic WIMPs as the dark matter in the universe. The remainder of this discussion is devoted to a review of the status of the only predictions from the early evolution of the universe that are accessible to astronomical observation: primordial nucleosynthesis

  11. Dropout Phenomena at Universities

    Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Kornbeck, Kasper Pihl; Kristensen, Rune

    Dropout from university studies comprises a number of complex phenomena with serious complex consequences and profound political attention. Further analysis of the field is, therefore, warranted. Such an analysis is offered here as a systematic review which gives answers based on the best possible...... such dropout phenomena occur at universities? What can be done by the universities to prevent or reduce such dropout phenomena?...

  12. Antimatter in the universe

    Stigman, G.

    1973-01-01

    The means of detecting the presence of antimatter in the universe are discussed. Both direct, annihilation processes, and indirect, cosmic ray particles, were analyzed. All results were negative and it was concluded that no antimatter exists, if the universe is in fact symmetric. If the universe is not symmetric then matter and antimatter are well separated from each other.

  13. Universities as Development Hubs

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Lindegaard, Klaus; Lehmann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Capacity-building in environment and development has been implemented and tested over the last decade through university and university consortia networking. Universities from Africa (Botswana and South Africa), Asia (Malaysia and Thailand), Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador and Nicaragua...

  14. [Etiological diagnosis of leg ulcers].

    Debure, Clélia

    2010-09-20

    Etiological diagnosis of leg ulcers must be the first step of treatment, even if we know that veinous disease is often present. We can build a clinical decisional diagram, which helps us to understand and not forget the other causes of chronic wounds and choose some basic examination, like ultrasound and histological findings. This diagnosis helps to choose the right treatment in order to cure even the oldest venous ulcers. Educational programs should be improved to prevent recurrence.

  15. Endoscopic tissue diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma.

    Harewood, Gavin C

    2008-09-01

    The extremely poor outcome in patients with cholangiocarcinoma, in large part, reflects the late presentation of these tumors and the challenging nature of establishing a tissue diagnosis. Establishing a diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma requires obtaining evidence of malignancy from sampling of the epithelium of the biliary tract, which has proven to be challenging. Although endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration performs slightly better than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma, both endoscopic approaches demonstrate disappointing performance characteristics.

  16. Business processes in organizational diagnosis

    Janićijević, Nebojša

    2010-01-01

    The paper points out why and how it is necessary to include business processes into organizational diagnosis as a first step in the process of organizational change management. First, the necessity of including business processes into diagnostic models which are used during the performing of organizational changes is proved in the paper. Next, the business processes’ components and characteristics which need to be included into organizational diagnosis are defined, and the way in which they a...

  17. DNA Sensors for Malaria Diagnosis

    Hede, Marianne Smedegaard; Fjelstrup, Søren; Knudsen, Birgitta R.

    2015-01-01

    In the field of malaria diagnosis much effort is put into the development of faster and easier alternatives to the gold standard, blood smear microscopy. Nucleic acid amplification based techniques pose some of the most promising upcoming diagnostic tools due to their potential for high sensitivity......, robustness and user-friendliness. In the current review, we will discuss some of the different DNA-based sensor systems under development for the diagnosis of malaria....

  18. Diagnosis of vulvovaginitis: comparison of clinical and microbiological diagnosis.

    Esim Buyukbayrak, Esra; Kars, Bulent; Karsidag, Ayse Yasemin Karageyim; Karadeniz, Bernan Ilkay; Kaymaz, Ozge; Gencer, Serap; Pirimoglu, Zehra Meltem; Unal, Orhan; Turan, Mehmet Cem

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the current diagnostic clinical and laboratory approaches to women with vulvovaginal discharge complaint. The secondary outcomes were to determine the prevalence of infections in our setting and to look for the relation between vulvovaginal infections and predisposing factors if present. Premenopausal women applying to our gynecology outpatient clinic with vaginal discharge complaint were enrolled prospectively into the study. Each patient evaluated clinically with direct observation of vaginal secretions, wet mount examination, whiff test, vaginal pH testing and chlamydia rapid antigen test. Each patient also evaluated microbiologically with vaginal discharge culture and gram staining. Clinical diagnosis was compared with the microbiological diagnosis (the gold standard). Diagnostic accuracy was measured with sensitivity, specificity, positive (ppv) and negative predictive values (npv). 460 patients were included in the study. 89.8% of patients received a clinical diagnosis whereas only 36% of them had microbiological diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, ppv, npv of clinical diagnosis over microbiological culture results were 95, 13, 38, 82%, respectively. The most commonly encountered microorganisms by culture were Candida species (17.4%) and Gardnerella vaginalis (10.2%). Clinically, the most commonly made diagnoses were mixed infection (34.1%), bacterial vaginosis (32.4%) and fungal infection (14.1%). Symptoms did not predict laboratory results. Predisposing factors (DM, vaginal douching practice, presence of IUD and usage of oral contraceptive pills) were not found to be statistically important influencing factors for vaginal infections. Clinical diagnosis based on combining symptoms with office-based testing improves diagnostic accuracy but is insufficient. The most effective approach also incorporates laboratory testing as an adjunct when a diagnosis is in question or treatment is failing.

  19. Five misconceptions in cancer diagnosis

    Hamilton, William

    2009-01-01

    Much investment has been put into facilities for early cancer diagnosis. It is difficult to know how successful this investment has been. New facilities for rapid investigation in the UK have not reduced mortality, and may cause delays in diagnosis of patients with low-risk, or atypical, symptoms. In part, the failure of new facilities to translate into mortality benefits can be explained by five misconceptions. These are described, along with suggested research and organisational remedies. The first misconception is that cancer is diagnosed in hospitals. Consequently, secondary care data have been used to drive primary care decisions. Second, GPs are thought to be poor at cancer diagnosis, yet the type of education on offer to improve this may not be what is needed. Third, symptomatic cancer diagnosis has been downgraded in importance with the introduction of screening, yet screening identifies only a small minority of cancers. Fourth, pressure is put on GPs to make referrals for those with an individual high risk of cancer — disenfranchising those with ‘low-risk but not no-risk’ symptoms. Finally, considerable nihilism exists about the value of early diagnosis, despite considerable observational evidence that earlier diagnosis of symptomatic cancer is beneficial. PMID:19520027

  20. Epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of polycystic ovary syndrome

    Sirmans SM; Pate KA

    2013-01-01

    Susan M Sirmans, Kristen A PateDepartment of Clinical and Administrative Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA, USAAbstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common heterogeneous endocrine disorder characterized by irregular menses, hyperandrogenism, and polycystic ovaries. The prevalence of PCOS varies depending on which criteria are used to make the diagnosis, but is as high as 15%–20% when the European Society for Human Reproduction and...

  1. The inflationary universe

    Guth, A.; Steinhardt, P.

    1993-01-01

    According to the inflationary model, the universe had a brief period of extraordinary rapid expansion, or inflation, during which its diameter increased by a factor at least 10 25 times larger (and perhaps much larger still) than had been previously thought. All the matter and energy in the universe could have been created from virtually nothing. Features of this article are: comparison of standard and inflationary modes, the horizon problem, the geometry of the universe, spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism (energy density of the Higgs fields), the flatness problem, the new inflationary universe (new Higgs fields and false vacuum), conserved quantities in the universe. 12 figs., 11 refs

  2. The inflationary universe

    Linde, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    According to the inflationary universe scenario the universe in the very early stages of its evolution was exponentially expanding in the unstable vacuum-like state. At the end of the exponential expansion the energy of the unstable vacuum transforms into the energy of hot dense matter. Recently it was realised that the exponential expansion of the universe naturally occurs in a wide class of realistic theories of elementary particles. The inflationary universe scenario makes it possible to obtain a simple solution to many longstanding cosmological problems and leads to a crucial modification of the standard point of view of the large-scale structure of the universe. (author)

  3. The expanding universe

    Lew, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    People have always been fascinated with the stars above and the universe that contains them. Over the years, astronomers have developed numerous theories to explain how the universe began, how it works, and what its ultimate fate will be. But all of the scientists' questions are far from answered. The Expanding Universe goes beyond the creation of the universe to explain how scientists think the universe works, grows, and changes, including what great thinkers Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein had to say about its fate. Readers will also learn about how researchers are slowly shedding light on

  4. The universe a biography

    Gribbin, John

    2008-01-01

    The Universe: A Biography makes cosmology accessible to everyone. John Gribbin navigates the latest frontiers of scientific discovery to tell us what we really know about the history of the universe. Along the way, he describes how the universe began; what the early universe looked like; how its structure developed; and what emerged to hold it all together. He describes where the elements came from; how stars and galaxies formed; and the story of how life emerged. He even looks to the future: is the history of the universe going to end with a Big Crunch or a Big Rip.

  5. Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Hydrocephalus in Adults.

    Langner, Sönke; Fleck, Steffen; Baldauf, Jörg; Mensel, Birger; Kühn, Jens Peter; Kirsch, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Purpose  Hydrocephalus is caused by an imbalance of production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or obstruction of its pathways, resulting in ventricular dilatation and increased intracranial pressure. Imaging plays a crucial role in the diagnosis, differential diagnosis and planning of treatment. Methods  This review article presents the different types of hydrocephalus und their typical imaging appearance, describes imaging techniques, and discusses differential diagnoses of the different forms of hydrocephalus. Results and Conclusion  Imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis of hydrocephalus. While magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is the first-line imaging modality, computed tomography (CT) is often the first-line imaging test in emergency patients. Key points   · Occlusive hydrocephalus is caused by obstruction of CSF pathways.. · Malabsorptive hydrocephalus is caused by impaired CSF absorption.. · The MR imaging protocol should always include sagittal high-resolution T2-weighted images.. · When an inflammatory etiology is suspected, imaging with contrast agent administration is necessary.. Citation Format · Langner S, Fleck S, Baldauf J et al. Diagnosis and Differential Diagnosis of Hydrocephalus in Adults. Fortschr Röntgenstr 2017; 189: 728 - 739. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. A lightweight universe?

    Bahcall, Neta A.; Fan, Xiaohui

    1998-01-01

    How much matter is there in the universe? Does the universe have the critical density needed to stop its expansion, or is the universe underweight and destined to expand forever? We show that several independent measures, especially those utilizing the largest bound systems known—clusters of galaxies—all indicate that the mass-density of the universe is insufficient to halt the expansion. A promising new method, the evolution of the number density of clusters with time, provides the most powerful indication so far that the universe has a subcritical density. We show that different techniques reveal a consistent picture of a lightweight universe with only ∼20–30% of the critical density. Thus, the universe may expand forever. PMID:9600898

  7. Diagnosis and Treatment of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura ...

    Diagnosis and Treatment of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura. ... by features of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia. ... Current knowledge in the etiopathogenesis, epidemiology, trends in the diagnosis and ...

  8. General knowledge structure for diagnosis

    Steinar Brendeford, T.

    1996-01-01

    At the OECD Halden Reactor Project work has been going on for several years in the field of automatic fault diagnosis for nuclear power plants. Continuing this work, studies are now carried out to combine different diagnostic systems within the same framework. The goal is to establish a general knowledge structure for diagnosis applied to a NPP process. Such a consistent and generic storage of knowledge will lighten the task of combining different diagnosis techniques. An integration like this is expected to increase the robustness and widen the scope of the diagnosis. Further, verification of system reliability and on-line explanations of hypotheses can be helped. Last but not least there is a potential in reuse of both specific and generic knowledge. The general knowledge framework is also a prerequisite for a successful integration of computerized operator support systems within the process supervision and control complex. Consistency, verification and reuse are keywords also in this respect. Systems that should be considered for integration are; automatic control, computerized operator procedures, alarm - and alarm filtering, signal validation, diagnosis and condition based maintenance. This paper presents three prototype diagnosis systems developed at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. A software arrangement for process simulation with these three systems attached in parallel is briefly described. The central part of this setup is a 'blackboard' system to be used for representing shared knowledge. Examples of such knowledge representations are included in the paper. The conclusions so far in this line of work are only tentative. The studies of existing methodologies for diagnosis, however, show a potential for several generalizations to be made in knowledge representation and use. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs

  9. General knowledge structure for diagnosis

    Steinar Brendeford, T [Institutt for Energiteknikk, Halden (Norway). OECD Halden Reaktor Projekt

    1997-12-31

    At the OECD Halden Reactor Project work has been going on for several years in the field of automatic fault diagnosis for nuclear power plants. Continuing this work, studies are now carried out to combine different diagnostic systems within the same framework. The goal is to establish a general knowledge structure for diagnosis applied to a NPP process. Such a consistent and generic storage of knowledge will lighten the task of combining different diagnosis techniques. An integration like this is expected to increase the robustness and widen the scope of the diagnosis. Further, verification of system reliability and on-line explanations of hypotheses can be helped. Last but not least there is a potential in reuse of both specific and generic knowledge. The general knowledge framework is also a prerequisite for a successful integration of computerized operator support systems within the process supervision and control complex. Consistency, verification and reuse are keywords also in this respect. Systems that should be considered for integration are; automatic control, computerized operator procedures, alarm - and alarm filtering, signal validation, diagnosis and condition based maintenance. This paper presents three prototype diagnosis systems developed at the OECD Halden Reactor Project. A software arrangement for process simulation with these three systems attached in parallel is briefly described. The central part of this setup is a `blackboard` system to be used for representing shared knowledge. Examples of such knowledge representations are included in the paper. The conclusions so far in this line of work are only tentative. The studies of existing methodologies for diagnosis, however, show a potential for several generalizations to be made in knowledge representation and use. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs.

  10. Diagnosis and management of xerostomia and hyposalivation

    Villa A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro Villa,1,2 Christopher L Connell,3 Silvio Abati4 1Division of Oral Medicine and Dentistry, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 2Department of Oral Medicine, Infection and Immunity, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3Department of General Dentistry, Boston University Henry M Goldman School of Dental Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 4Dental Clinic, Department of Health Sciences, University of Milan, Milano, Italy Abstract: Xerostomia, the subjective complaint of dry mouth, and hyposalivation remain a significant burden for many individuals. Diagnosis of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction is dependent upon a careful and detailed history and thorough oral examination. There exist many options for treatment and symptom management: salivary stimulants, topical agents, saliva substitutes, and systemic sialogogues. The aim of this review is to investigate the current state of knowledge on management and treatment of patients affected by xerostomia and/or hyposalivation. Keyword: saliva stimulation, dry mouth, saliva substitutes, sialogogues

  11. Adherence to malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines among healthcare workers in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Oluyomi F. Bamiselu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria case management remains a vital component of malaria control strategies. Despite the introduction of national malaria treatment guidelines and scale-up of malaria control interventions in Nigeria, anecdotal evidence shows some deviations from the guidelines in malaria case management. This study assessed factors influencing adherence to malaria diagnosis and treatment guidelines among healthcare workers in public and private sectors in Ogun State, Nigeria. Methods A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among 432 (216 public and 216 private healthcare workers selected from nine Local Government Areas using a multistage sampling technique. A pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect information on availability and use of malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (mRDT and artemisinin combination therapy (ACT, for management of uncomplicated malaria. Adherence was defined as when choice of antimalarials for parasitological confirmed malaria cases was restricted to recommended antimalarial medicines. Association between adherence and independent variables were tested using Chi-square at 5 % level of significance. Results Malaria RDT was available in 81.9 % of the public health facilities and 19.4 % of the private health facilities (p = 0.001. Its use was higher among public healthcare workers (85.2 % compared to 32.9 % in private facilities (p = 0.000. Presumptive diagnosis of malaria was higher among private healthcare workers (94.9 % compared to 22.7 % public facilities (p = <0.0001. The main reason for non-usage of mRDT among private healthcare workers was its perceived unreliability of mRDT (40.9 %. Monotherapy including artesunate (58.3 % vs 12.5 %, amodiaquine (38.9 % vs 8.3 % and chloroquine (26.4 % vs 4.2 % were significantly more available in private than public health facilities, respectively. Adherence to guidelines was significantly higher among public

  12. Universities scale like cities.

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  13. Universities scale like cities.

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  14. Nucleomedical diagnosis of lung cancer

    Ito, Yasuhiko [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)

    1982-06-01

    /sup 67/Ga citrate is most often used in the diagnosis of lung cancer. As judged from reported cases, the accuracy rate was 90%, with a false negative rate being about 5%. Lung ventilation and blood flow scintigraphy are valuable in assessing the degree of damage to lung function and the therapeutic effect rather than in finding lung cancer. In aerosol scintigraphy, sup(99m)Tc labelled aerosols with different particle size depending on the purpose of diagnosis are used; the large particles deposit at the center of the trachea and small size aerosols on the periphery. Aerosol-inhaled scintigraphy is highly valuable for the diagnosis of hilus lung cancer. sup(99m)Tc methylene diphosphate is used in bone scintigraphy to detect bone metastasis. But it sometimes gives false positive results such as in the case of senile bone changes. Another valuable method of diagnosis is emission CT by which various substances having affinity for the tumor can be detected by labelling them with a proton emitting nuclear species such as 11 C, /sup 13/N, /sup 15/O and /sup 18/F. Some cases of lung cancer, and the radionuclide methods used in the diagnosis are shown.

  15. Echography in appendicitis acute diagnosis

    Ripolles Gonzalez, T.; Sanguesa Nebot, C.; Ambit Capdevila, S.; Lazaro y de Molina, S.

    1993-01-01

    Over an 18-month period, high resolution ultrasound was used to assess 220 patients with doubtful clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis. The ultrasonographic findings were correlated with the surgical results and the pathological results in 115 cases, and with clinical follow-up in the rest. This technique has been found to be effective in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis, with a sensitivity of 90.4%, and similar specificity and reliability (90.2%). The positive predictive value of the test was 89% and the negative predictive value, 91%. The ultrasonographic criteria applied for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was the detection of an understood appendix measuring over 6 mm. All cases with perforation were correctly diagnosed as acute appendicitis. The observation of an accumulation of fluid pooled in DIF in patients with ultrasonographic findings suggestive of appendicitis points to a diagnosis of perforation or complicated (gangrenous) appendicitis. A relationship between complicated appendicitis and the detection of appendicoliths within the enlarged appendix was also observed. The results obtained demonstrate that high resolution ultrasound is indicated in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in all cases in which the clinical findings are doubtful

  16. Ontology-Based Method for Fault Diagnosis of Loaders.

    Xu, Feixiang; Liu, Xinhui; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Chen; Cao, Bingwei

    2018-02-28

    This paper proposes an ontology-based fault diagnosis method which overcomes the difficulty of understanding complex fault diagnosis knowledge of loaders and offers a universal approach for fault diagnosis of all loaders. This method contains the following components: (1) An ontology-based fault diagnosis model is proposed to achieve the integrating, sharing and reusing of fault diagnosis knowledge for loaders; (2) combined with ontology, CBR (case-based reasoning) is introduced to realize effective and accurate fault diagnoses following four steps (feature selection, case-retrieval, case-matching and case-updating); and (3) in order to cover the shortages of the CBR method due to the lack of concerned cases, ontology based RBR (rule-based reasoning) is put forward through building SWRL (Semantic Web Rule Language) rules. An application program is also developed to implement the above methods to assist in finding the fault causes, fault locations and maintenance measures of loaders. In addition, the program is validated through analyzing a case study.

  17. Ethics in medicine: students' opinions on disclosure of true diagnosis.

    Pulanić, Drazen; Vrazić, Hrvoje; Cuk, Mario; Petrovecki, Mladen

    2002-02-01

    To determine students opinions about diagnosis disclosure to the patient and other interested parties. During 2000/2001 academic year, an anonymous survey was conducted among the first-year (200 questionnaires) and sixth-year medical students (200 questionnaires) at the Zagreb University School of Medicine. Students were asked what they would say about the diagnosis to the patient, patients family, friend, employer, colleague from work, health insurance agent, another physician, or medical student, if the diagnosis was inoperable lung carcinoma in a 20- and 66-year-old patient vs bacterial pneumonia in patients of the same age. The possibilities were to tell the truth, lie, or refuse to disclose the diagnosis. The response rate was 55%. Students would disclose the true diagnosis to the patient, patients family, friend, and employer in case of benign disease more often than in case of malignant disease (pemployer, and rarely to the patient's colleague from work. First-year students would generally tell the truth more often than sixth-year students (pethical issues should be discussed during the studies.

  18. Drug-induced parkinsonism: diagnosis and management

    Blanchet PJ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pierre J Blanchet,1–3 Veronika Kivenko1–3 1Department of Stomatology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Montreal, 2Andre-Barbeau Movement Disorders Unit, University of Montreal Hospital Center (CHU Montreal, 3Montreal Mental Health University Institute, Montreal, QC, Canada Abstract: Drug-induced parkinsonism (DIP has been known for >60 years. It is the second leading cause of parkinsonism, but still underdiagnosis is likely to influence reported incidence figures. Since DIP is clinically undistinguishable from Lewy-body Parkinson’s disease, any new case of parkinsonism should prompt the search for an offending antipsychotic, hidden neuroleptic, or nonneuroleptic agent that may produce DIP. DIP is reversible upon drug withdrawal in most cases. There is no consensus regarding the duration of the recovery period to allow motor signs to fully remit in order to confirm the diagnosis of DIP following removal of the causative agent, but a drug-free interval of at least 6 months is generally recommended. Interestingly, up to 30% of DIP cases may show persisting or worsening motor signs beyond 6 months following drug withdrawal or adjustment, due to complex postsynaptic and presynaptic factors that may variably interact to negatively influence nigrostriatal dopamine transmission in a so-called “double-hit” hypothesis. The condition significantly impacts on quality of life and increases the risks of morbidity and mortality. Management is challenging in psychiatric patients and requires a team approach to achieve the best outcome. Keywords: neuroleptic drugs, extrapyramidal side effects, second generation antipsychotics, calcium channel blockers, valproic acid, tetrabenazine 

  19. University of Maryland MRSEC - Collaborations

    . University of Maryland Materials Research Science and Engineering Center Home About Us Leadership , National Nanotechnology Lab, Neocera, NIST, Rowan University, Rutgers University, Seagate, Tokyo Tech

  20. Achalasia-an unnecessary long way to diagnosis.

    Niebisch, S; Hadzijusufovic, E; Mehdorn, M; Müller, M; Scheuermann, U; Lyros, O; Schulz, H G; Jansen-Winkeln, B; Lang, H; Gockel, I

    2017-05-01

    Although achalasia presents with typical symptoms such as dysphagia, regurgitation, weight loss, and atypical chest pain, the time until first diagnosis often takes years and is frustrating for patients and nevertheless associated with high costs for the healthcare system. A total of 563 patients were interviewed with confirmed diagnosis of achalasia regarding their symptoms leading to diagnosis along with past clinical examinations and treatments. Included were patients who had undergone their medical investigations in Germany. Overall, 527 study subjects were included (male 46%, female 54%, mean age at time of interview 51 ± 14.8 years). Dysphagia was present in 86.7%, regurgitation in 82.9%, atypical chest pain in 79%, and weight loss in 58% of patients before diagnosis. On average, it took 25 months (Interquartile Range (IQR) 9-65) until confirmation of correct diagnosis of achalasia. Though, diagnosis was confirmed significantly quicker (35 months IQR 9-89 vs. 20 months IQR 8-53; p surgical myotomy. Endoscopic dilatation was realized significantly faster compared to esophageal myotomy (1 month IQR 0-4 vs. 3 months IQR 1-11; p achalasia was significantly faster in the past 15 years, it still takes almost 2 years until the correct diagnosis of achalasia is confirmed. Alarming is the fact that although esophageal manometry is known as the gold standard to differentiate primary motility disorders, only three out of four patients had undergone this diagnostic pathway during their diagnostic work-up. Better education of medical professionals and broader utilization of highly sensitive diagnostic tools, such as high-resolution manometry, are strictly necessary in order to correctly diagnose affected patients and to offer therapy faster. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Plague: Clinics, Diagnosis and Treatment.

    Nikiforov, Vladimir V; Gao, He; Zhou, Lei; Anisimov, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Plague still poses a significant threat to human health and as a reemerging infection is unfamiliar to the majority of the modern medical doctors. In this chapter, the plague is described according to Dr. Nikiforov's experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of patients, and also a review of the relevant literature on this subject is provided. The main modern methods and criteria for laboratory diagnosis of plague are briefly described. The clinical presentations include the bubonic and pneumonic form, septicemia, rarely pharyngitis, and meningitis. Early diagnosis and the prompt initiation of treatment reduce the mortality rate associated with bubonic plague and septicemic plague to 5-50 %; although a delay of more than 24 h in the administration of antibiotics and antishock treatment can be fatal for plague patients. Most human cases can successfully be treated with antibiotics.

  2. Celiac Disease Diagnosis and Management

    Leffler, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Celiac disease is one of the most prevalent autoimmune gastrointestinal disorders but as the case of Ms. J illustrates, diagnosis is often delayed or missed. Based on serology studies, the prevalence of celiac disease in many populations is estimated to be approximately 1% and has been increasing steadily over the last 50 years. Evaluation for celiac disease is generally straightforward, and uses commonly available serologic tests, however the signs and symptoms of celiac disease are nonspecific and highly heterogeneous making diagnosis difficult. While celiac disease is often considered a mild disorder treatable with simple dietary changes, in reality celiac disease imparts considerable risks including reduced bone mineral density, impaired quality of life, and increased overall mortality. In addition, the gluten free diet is highly burdensome and can profoundly affect patients and their families. For these reasons, care of individuals with celiac disease requires prompt diagnosis and ongoing multidisciplinary management. PMID:21990301

  3. Imaging diagnosis of chondromyxoid fibroma

    Guo Maofeng; Li Li; Xie Daohai; Zhang Wen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of imaging diagnosis of chondromyxoid fibroma. Methods: Eight cases verified by surgery and pathology were respectively evaluated. Results: The important characters were as follows: (1) the age of incidence was in the 2nd decade of life; (2) the lesion located at the metaphysics of the long tubular bone (6/8); (3) the shape of lesion was round or geographic bone destruction, some had compartment (3/8); (4) the border of some cases had sclerotic rim (mainly the face close to morrow); (5) CT, MR were helpful in finding punctuate calcification and soft tissue mass. Conclusion: Authors' results suggest that pathological and imaging diagnosis combined with clinical diagnosis could be an ideal way to diagnose chondromyxoid fibroma in clinical practice

  4. Incidental radiological diagnosis of rickets.

    Rennie, L M; Beattie, T F; Wilkinson, A G; Crofton, P; Bath, L E

    2005-08-01

    Rickets fortunately remains rare in the United Kingdom, although its actual incidence is currently undetermined.1 Many still consider it to be a disease of poverty prevalent during the Victorian era. However, a number of recent articles have highlighted concern among British health professionals about the number of cases still being diagnosed in this country. These cases have nearly all involved non-Caucasian children who are considered to be at high risk due to skin colour, prolonged breast feeding, and low maternal vitamin D levels. Their presentations are variable ranging from failure to thrive, bone deformities, seizures, and even stridor. The diagnosis is usually made in babies and toddlers.We present a series of patients attending our accident and emergency (A&E) department, over a five month period, where the diagnosis of rickets was primarily a radiological diagnosis.

  5. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)); Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-01-01

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  6. MRI diagnosis for prostate cancer

    Tamada, Tsutomu; Nagai, Kiyohisa; Imai, Shigeki; Kajihara, Yasumasa; Jo, Yoshimasa; Tanaka, Hiroyoshi; Fukunaga, Masao [Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan); Matsuki, Takakazu

    1998-12-31

    Recently, in Japan, both the Westernization of life styles and the advent of an aged-society have led to an increase in the incidence of prostate cancer. In making a localizing diagnosis of prostate cancer, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which has excellent contrast resolution, and transrectal ultrasonography, are used clinically, and their usefulness is being established. MRI is employed in the diagnosis of prostate cancer to detect tumors, and to determine the stage of such tumors. For the visualization of prostate cancer by MRI, T2-weighted axial images are used exclusively. After becoming familiar with normal prostate images, it is important to evaluate the localization of a tumor, and the invasion of the capsule and seminal vesicles. Future applications of new techniques for MRI will undoubtedly be found. In this paper, the present state of MRI diagnosis of prostate cancer at Kawasaki Medical School Hospital will be reviewed. (author)

  7. Diagnosis of human visceral pentastomiasis.

    Dennis Tappe

    Full Text Available Visceral pentastomiasis in humans is caused by the larval stages (nymphs of the arthropod-related tongue worms Linguatula serrata, Armillifer armillatus, A. moniliformis, A. grandis, and Porocephalus crotali. The majority of cases has been reported from Africa, Malaysia, and the Middle East, where visceral pentastomiasis may be an incidental finding in autopsies, and less often from China and Latin America. In Europe and North America, the disease is only rarely encountered in immigrants and long-term travelers, and the parasitic lesions may be confused with malignancies, leading to a delay in the correct diagnosis. Since clinical symptoms are variable and serological tests are not readily available, the diagnosis often relies on histopathological examinations. This laboratory symposium focuses on the diagnosis of this unusual parasitic disease and presents its risk factors and epidemiology.

  8. [Diagnosis. History and physical examination].

    Pérez Martín, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    Family physicians play a key role in the diagnosis and management of patients with osteoarthritis. Diagnosis is mainly clinical and radiological. A complete history should be taken with meticulous physical examination of the joints. The history-taking should aim to detect risk factors and compatible clinical symptoms. Pain characteristics should be identified, distinguishing between mechanical and inflammatory pain, and an exhaustive examination of the joints should be performed, with evaluation of the presence of pain, deformity, mobility restrictions (both active and passive), crepitus, joint effusion, and inflammation. A differential diagnosis should be made with all diseases that affect the joints and/or produce joint stiffness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Misleading diagnosis of retroperitoneal actinomycosis

    Berchtenbreiter, C.; Bruening, R.; Reiser, M. [Inst. of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Auernhammer, A. [Medical Clinic II, Univ. Hospital Grosshadern, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    A 34-year-old woman presented with a left-sided suprarenal space-occupying lesion on sonography. Culture of material obtained during sonographic-guided puncture of the retroperitoneal lesion yielded a mixed flora of Actinomyces and Peptostreptococcus. Initially, a misleading diagnosis of an adrenal pheochromocytoma was initiated by highly positive metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy after chemical chemistry vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) test showed elevated values for adrenaline and its derivatives. Retroperitoneal actinomycosis with yet unproven spread into thoracic and cervical compartments is a particular unusual presentation of an infection with these organisms. Because it may mimic subacute infections or malignant masses in terms of clinical and laboratory findings, radiological diagnosis of this entity may be difficult. The diagnosis was based on results of culture and the response of the patient to long-term penicillin-derivate therapy after surgical drainage of the suprarenal abscess formation. (orig.)

  10. Creep-Fatigue Failure Diagnosis

    Holdsworth, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Failure diagnosis invariably involves consideration of both associated material condition and the results of a mechanical analysis of prior operating history. This Review focuses on these aspects with particular reference to creep-fatigue failure diagnosis. Creep-fatigue cracking can be due to a spectrum of loading conditions ranging from pure cyclic to mainly steady loading with infrequent off-load transients. These require a range of mechanical analysis approaches, a number of which are reviewed. The microstructural information revealing material condition can vary with alloy class. In practice, the detail of the consequent cracking mechanism(s) can be camouflaged by oxidation at high temperatures, although the presence of oxide on fracture surfaces can be used to date events leading to failure. Routine laboratory specimen post-test examination is strongly recommended to characterise the detail of deformation and damage accumulation under known and well-controlled loading conditions to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of failure diagnosis. PMID:28793676

  11. Rectors of European universities

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Several rectors of European universities visited CERN recently while in Geneva for a conference on coordination between their institutions. The visit began with a welcome by Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of Collider Programmes,and continued with tours of CMS, ALICE and the LHC magnet assembly hall. Photos 01, 02: The visitors in the ALICE assembly hall: (left to right) Dr. Raymond Werlen, Deputy Secretary-General of the Conference of Rectors of Swiss Universities; visit guide Prof. Alain Blondel, Department of Nuclear and Corpuscular Physics, University of Geneva; Prof. Adriano Pimpão, Rector of the University of Algarve, President of the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities; Prof. Jean-Pierre Finance, Conference of University Presidents, France; Prof. Jean-Paul Lehners, Vice-President of the Centre Universitaire, Luxemburg.

  12. Universities as Research Partners

    Hall, Bronwyn; Link, Albert; Scott, John

    2010-01-01

    Universities are a key institution in the U.S. innovation system, and an important aspect of their involvement is the role they play in public-private partnerships. This note offers insights into the performance of industry-university research partnerships, using a survey of precommercial research projects funded by the Advanced Technology Program. Although results must be interpreted cautiously because of the small size of the sample, the study finds that projects with university involvement...

  13. Geometry of the Universe

    Gurevich, L.Eh.; Gliner, Eh.B.

    1978-01-01

    Problems of investigating the Universe space-time geometry are described on a popular level. Immediate space-time geometries, corresponding to three cosmologic models are considered. Space-time geometry of a closed model is the spherical Riemann geonetry, of an open model - is the Lobachevskij geometry; and of a plane model - is the Euclidean geometry. The Universe real geometry in the contemporary epoch of development is based on the data testifying to the fact that the Universe is infinitely expanding

  14. Autism Diagnosis and Screening: Factors to Consider in Differential Diagnosis

    Matson, Johnny L.; Beighley, Jennifer; Turygin, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    There has been an exponential growth in assessment methods to diagnose disorders on the autism spectrum. Many reasons for this trend exist and include advancing knowledge on how to make a diagnosis, the heterogeneity of the spectrum, the realization that different methods may be needed based on age and intellectual disability. Other factors…

  15. University Advertising and Universality in Messaging

    Diel, Stan R.; Katsinas, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    University and college institutional advertisements, which typically are broadcast as public service announcements during the halftime of football games, were the subject of a quantitative analysis focused on commonality in messaging and employment of the semiotic theory of brand advertising. Findings indicate advertisements focus on students'…

  16. From Universal Access to Universal Proficiency.

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2003-01-01

    Panel of five education experts--Elliot Eisner, John Goodlad, Patricia Graham, Phillip Schlechty, and Warren Simons--answer questions related to recent school reform efforts, such as the No Child Left Behind Act, aimed at achieving universal educational proficiency. (PKP)

  17. [Pleural effusion: diagnosis and management].

    Pastré, J; Roussel, S; Israël Biet, D; Sanchez, O

    2015-04-01

    Pleural effusion management is a common clinical situation associated with numerous pulmonary, pleural or extra-pulmonary diseases. A systematic approach is needed to enable a rapid diagnosis and an appropriate treatment. Pleural fluid analysis is the first step to perform which allows a presumptive diagnosis in most cases. Otherwise, further analysis of the pleural fluid or thoracic imaging or pleural biopsy may be necessary. This review aims at highlighting the important elements of the work-up required by a pleural effusion. Copyright © 2014 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Rhabdomyolysis: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatment

    Torres, Patrick A.; Helmstetter, John A.; Kaye, Adam M.; Kaye, Alan David

    2015-01-01

    Background Rhabdomyolysis is a complex medical condition involving the rapid dissolution of damaged or injured skeletal muscle. Methods This review focuses on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, causes, presentation, diagnosis, complications, management, and anesthetic considerations related to rhabdomyolysis. Results Any form of muscle damage––and by extension any entity that causes muscle damage––can initiate rhabdomyolysis. One of the most important treatment goals when rhabdomyolysis is suspected is avoiding acute kidney injury. Conclusion All clinicians should be aware of common causes, diagnosis, and treatment options. PMID:25829882

  19. Isotopic diagnosis of peripheral thrombosis

    Cornu, Pierre; Scalet, Michel

    1975-01-01

    Radio-isotope diagnosis of peripheral venous thrombosis, using tracer doses of iodine-labelled fibrinogen, provides an important contribution to the solution of the worrying problem of pulmonary embolism due to latent phlebitis. This elegant and precise technique permits early diagnosis of venous thrombosis of the lower limbs at a subclinical stage. It has permitted determination of the frequency, both after surgery and after myocardial infarction, and above all, it provides an objective criterion for assessment of the efficacy of prophylactic measures proposed [fr

  20. Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions

    Sofronov, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    Review for book by M.P. Zakharchenko, S.A. Lopatin, G.N. Novozhilov, V.I. Zakharov Hygienic diagnosis in extreme conditions is presented discussing the problem of people health preservation under extreme conditions. Hygienic diagnosis is considered illustrated by cases of hostilities (Afghan War), earthquake response in Armenia (1988) and Chernobyl accident response. Attention is paid to the estimation of radiation doses to people and characteristics of main types of dosimeters. The high scientific level of the book is marked

  1. Antenatal diagnosis of congenital deafness.

    Isaacson, G

    1988-01-01

    Advances in the field of antenatal diagnosis have made possible the detection of profound sensorineural hearing loss prior to birth. Fetal motion in response to sound and auditory evoked potential testing can determine the presence of fetal hearing in the third trimester of pregnancy. Imaging modalities including ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging hold promise for the diagnosis of some forms of congenital deafness in the second trimester fetus. The methods by which congenital deafness soon may be diagnosed and the implications for the otologist are discussed.

  2. Psychiatric diagnosis in legal settings

    Alfred Allan

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available When asked to give a diagnosis in legal settings practitioners should be mindful of the tentative nature of psychiatric diag- noses and that courts require that such a diagnosis must have scientific credibility. South African courts are not explicit about the test they will apply to determine whether a diagno- sis is scientifically credible, but some guidance can be found in United States case law. This paper examines these criteria with reference to the disorders included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR.

  3. Diagnosis and management of prolactinomas

    Blackwell, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    A summary is presented of the contemporary view of the diagnosis and treatment of pituitary prolactinomas. The use of radiotherapy is discussed in detail. Radiation sources include radiocobalt teletherapy and 4-MEV linear accelerators. Complications following radiotherapy include epilation, optic nerve and chiasm injury, brain necrosis, and sarcoma formation. Additionally there is loss of trophic hormone secretion. In addition to conventional radiotherapy techniques, Bragg peak proton hypophysectomy has been used successfully and appears to have the lowest mortality rate. CAT scans are used for diagnosis and follow-up. 93 references, 8 figures

  4. Breast cancer: Diagnosis and treatment

    Ariel, I.M.; Clearly, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    This is a publication about the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer with an appeal for unified reporting of end results. Nine chapters cover historical reviews, risk factors, pathology-receptors-immunology, detection and diagnosis, treatment of the potentially curable patient, and treatment of the patient with advanced disease. The three concluding chapters discuss reconstruction, special clinical situations, and support for the patient. The role of radiation therapy is presented well. The current status of chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and combined therapies is also addressed by authoritative authors

  5. Radiological diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension

    Huebsch, P.; Jenny, C.; Schwaighofer, B.; Seidl, G.; Burghuber, O.C.

    1987-01-01

    In 43 patients with obstructive and restrictive lung disease a catheterisation of the right heart with measurement of pulmonary artery pressure was performed. In a retrospective study several radiological parameters of pulmonary hypertension were evaluated on the chest radiographs of these patients. Considering those parameters on the p.a. and lateral chest radiograph, the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension in patients with elevated pulmonary artery pressure at rest can be made with great accuracy. When pulmonary artery pressure is elevated only during exercise, the accuracy of radiological diagnosis is much lower. (orig.) [de

  6. Laboratorial diagnosis of lymphocytic meningitis

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    Full Text Available Meningitis is the main infectious central nervous system (CNS syndrome. Viruses or bacteria can cause acute meningitis of infectious etiology. The term "Aseptic Meningitis" denotes a clinical syndrome with a predominance of lymphocytes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, with no common bacterial agents identified in the CSF. Viral meningitis is considered the main cause of lymphocyte meningitis. There are other etiologies of an infectious nature. CSF examination is essential to establish the diagnosis and to identify the etiological agent of lymphocytic meningitis. We examined CSF characteristics and the differential diagnosis of the main types of meningitis.

  7. Imagining the Future University

    Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Barnett, Ronald

    'Imagining the Future University' is a special issue in the journal Philosophy and Theory in Higher Education, published by Peter Lang. Editor in Chief of the journal is John Petrovic, University of Alabama. The speciale issue is edited by Søren Bengtsen and Ronald Barnett.......'Imagining the Future University' is a special issue in the journal Philosophy and Theory in Higher Education, published by Peter Lang. Editor in Chief of the journal is John Petrovic, University of Alabama. The speciale issue is edited by Søren Bengtsen and Ronald Barnett....

  8. Mathematics at University

    Winsløw, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is studied in universities by a large number of students. At the same time it is a field of research for a (smaller) number of university teachers. What relations, if any, exist between university research and teaching of mathematics? Can research “support” teaching? What research...... and what teaching? In this presentation we propose a theoretical framework to study these questions more precisely, based on the anthropological theory of didactics. As a main application, the links between the practices of mathematical research and university mathematics teaching are examined...

  9. University of Washington

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  10. University Technology Transfer

    Mike Cox

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the experiences and general observations of the author at Heriot-Watt University and concerns the transfer of university technology for the purposes of commercialisation. Full commercial exploitation of a university invention generally requires transferring that technology into the industrial arena, usually either by formation of a new company or licensing into an existing company. Commercialisation activities need to be carried out in unison with the prime activities of the university of research and teaching. Responsibility for commercialising university inventions generally rests with a specific group within the university, typically referred to as the technology transfer group. Each technology transfer should be considered individually and appropriate arrangements made for that particular invention. In general, this transfer process involves four stages: identification, evaluation, protection and exploitation. Considerations under these general headings are outlined from a university viewpoint. A phased approach is generally preferred where possible for the evaluation, protection and exploitation of an invention to balance risk with potential reward. Evaluation of the potential opportunity for a university invention involves essentially the same considerations as for an industrial invention. However, there are a range of commercial exploitation routes and potential deals so that only general guidelines can be given. Naturally, the final deal achieved is that which can be negotiated. The potential rewards for the university and inventor are both financial (via licensing income and equity realisation and non-financial.

  11. [Comparison of conventional and non-conventional serological tests for the diagnosis of imported Chagas disease in Spain].

    Flores-Chávez, María; Cruz, Israel; Rodríguez, Mercedes; Nieto, Javier; Franco, Elena; Gárate, Teresa; Cañavate, Carmen

    2010-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a major imported parasitic disease in Spain, because of the increase of immigrants from endemic areas. Since the laboratory diagnosis during the chronic phase is based on detection of anti-T. cruzi IgG antibodies, our aims were to compare 10 tests for determining anti-T. cruzi antibodies, to assess their cross-reactivity with related diseases, and to evaluate the rk39-ELISA and IFAT-Leishmania tests as tools for the differential diagnosis of leishmaniasis due to Leishmania infantum. A total of 223 sera were tested: 40 had been previously characterized by Qpanel, and 183 were obtained from the serum library of the Parasitology Department, Centro Nacional de Microbiología (66 chagasic, 97 healthy, 30 visceral leishmaniasis, and 30 malaria). Samples were examined using in-house IFAT and ELISA, 5 commercial ELISAs (Certest/Abbot Laboratories/BiosChile; Ortho Clinical Diagnostics; BLK Diagnostic; bioMérieux; and Biokit), particle gel agglutination (ID-PaGIA), and two immunochromatographic assays (Operon and CTK Biotech). The last 4 tests are based in recombinant antigens (non-conventional tests). The IFAT and ELISAs showed a sensitivity of 97% to 100%. The immunochromatographic tests had somewhat lower sensitivity (92%-96%). All non-conventional tests presented a smaller number of cross-reactions. Leishmania-Rk39-ELISA did not show cross-reactivity with chagasic sera. In general, our results confirm the data obtained by other authors. The sensitivity of ELISA is higher than other tests; therefore, these techniques would be the most appropriate for screening of T. cruzi infection. A suitable approach is the combination of a test using total antigen with another based on either recombinant antigens or synthetic peptides. (c) 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. Presymptomatic diagnosis of Fabry's disease

    Hasselbalch, Rasmus Bo; Lav Madsen, Per; Bundgaard, Henning

    2016-01-01

    differential diagnoses in patients presenting with cardiac hypertrophy. In boys, onset has been reported in early childhood with complaints initially comprising neuropathic pain, reduced sweat production, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Later the cardiac, renal, and central nervous systems may become affected...... inheritable cardiomyopathies. The specific - precise - diagnosis may be crucial for the patient as well as the relatives....

  13. Terminological problems in radiation diagnosis

    Rozenfel'd, L.G.

    1991-01-01

    It was noted the necessity of regulation of medical termonilogy. The introduction of terms radiation diagnosis, radiation therapy was justified, usage of terms xeroroentgenography, reconstructive tomography was recommended. In author's opinion it was expedient to exclude from utilization the terms diagnostic radiology, skiagraphy, electroroentgenography, computerized tomography

  14. Pneumococcal Disease: Diagnosis and Treatment

    ... the cause. In the case of pneumococcal disease, antibiotics can help prevent severe illness. Diagnosis If doctors suspect invasive ... In addition to the vaccine, appropriate use of antibiotics may also slow or reverse drug-resistant pneumococcal infections. Related Links ... Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, ...

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of haemorrhoids

    Buntzen, Steen; Christensen, Peter Quist; Khalid, Ali

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines provide a review of diagnosis, conservative and surgical treatment of haemorrhoids with primary focus on the surgical treatment. In symptomatic hemorrhoids it is recommended, that conservative treatment is used as basic treatment regardless of grading. The vast majority of grade II...

  16. Diagnosis of asthma: diagnostic testing.

    Brigham, Emily P; West, Natalie E

    2015-09-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease, encompassing both atopic and non-atopic phenotypes. Diagnosis of asthma is based on the combined presence of typical symptoms and objective tests of lung function. Objective diagnostic testing consists of 2 components: (1) demonstration of airway obstruction, and (2) documentation of variability in degree of obstruction. A review of current guidelines and literature was performed regarding diagnostic testing for asthma. Spirometry with bronchodilator reversibility testing remains the mainstay of asthma diagnostic testing for children and adults. Repetition of the test over several time points may be necessary to confirm airway obstruction and variability thereof. Repeated peak flow measurement is relatively simple to implement in a clinical and home setting. Bronchial challenge testing is reserved for patients in whom the aforementioned testing has been unrevealing but clinical suspicion remains, though is associated with low specificity. Demonstration of eosinophilic inflammation, via fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurement, or atopy, may be supportive of atopic asthma, though diagnostic utility is limited particularly in nonatopic asthma. All efforts should be made to confirm the diagnosis of asthma in those who are being presumptively treated but have not had objective measurements of variability in the degree of obstruction. Multiple testing modalities are available for objective confirmation of airway obstruction and variability thereof, consistent with a diagnosis of asthma in the appropriate clinical context. Providers should be aware that both these characteristics may be present in other disease states, and may not be specific to a diagnosis of asthma. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  17. Diagnosis and management of impetigo.

    VanRavenstein, Kathy; Durham, Catherine OʼConnor; Williams, Tiffany H; Smith, Whitney

    2017-03-07

    Impetigo, a bacterial skin infection that involves the superficial layers of the skin, is one of the most common skin infections in children ages 2 to 5 but can occur in individuals across the lifespan. This article discusses the diagnosis and management of impetigo in primary care.

  18. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy

    Bilo, BM; Rueff, F; Mosbech, H; Bonifazi, F; Oude Elberink, JNG

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of diagnostic procedure is to classify a sting reaction by history, identify the underlying pathogenetic mechanism, and identify the offending insect. Diagnosis of Hymenoptera venom allergy thus forms the basis for the treatment. In the central and northern Europe vespid (mainly Vespula

  19. Prenatal ultrasound diagnosis of omphalocele

    Rio Romero, Luskenia del; Blanco Figueredo, Nadia; Rodriguez Dominguez, Zulay

    2014-01-01

    Omphalocele is an abdominal wall defect at the midline characterized by herniation of abdominal contents and covered by peritoneum and amnion. The aim of this paper is to present a case of omphalocele with gestational age of 23 weeks and prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography. Using ultrasound diagnosis in a patient inquest made 40 years of age in the second trimester (gestational age 23 weeks) showed a level of the anterior fetal echogenic image that sticks through the abdominal wall and then locate the cord umbilical. Stomach is seen displaced and loss of normal anatomy of the abdominal circumference. Genetic counseling was conducted at the Municipal Center for Genetics of Manzanillo. Pathologically the fetus presented short and wide neck, low-set ears, defect omphalomesenteric of ductal closure, hernia sac occupied by the caudate lobe of the liver and gallbladder bed, wide base heart dissection showing cava-cava absence of interventricular septum was observed pulmonary valve stenosis most dilation of supravalvular pulmonary artery, large defect and aorta intraventricular septum ride, which speaks in favor of a heart rate troncoconal fallop trilogy over the omphalocele. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is an efficient and reliable method for prenatal diagnosis of omphalocele

  20. Physical Health and Dual Diagnosis

    Robson, Debbie; Keen, Sarah; Mauro, Pia

    2008-01-01

    The physical health of people with mental illness may be neglected for a variety of reasons. This paper looks at the common physical health problems experienced by people with a dual diagnosis of substance misuse and serious mental illness, and suggests ways of assessing and managing them.