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Sample records for universal moral principles

  1. Culture and the quest for universal principles in moral reasoning.

    Sachdeva, Sonya; Singh, Purnima; Medin, Douglas

    2011-06-01

    The importance of including cultural perspectives in the study of human cognition has become apparent in recent decades, and the domain of moral reasoning is no exception. The present review focuses on moral cognition, beginning with Kohlberg's model of moral development which relies heavily on people's justifications for their judgments and then shifting to more recent theories that rely on rapid, intuitive judgments and see justifications as more or less irrelevant to moral cognition. Despite this dramatic shift, analyses of culture and moral decision-making have largely been framed as a quest for and test of universal principles of moral judgment. In this review, we discuss challenges that remain in trying to understand crosscultural variability in moral values and the processes that underlie moral cognition. We suggest that the universalist framework may lead to an underestimation of the role of culture in moral reasoning. Although the field has made great strides in incorporating more and more cultural perspectives in order to understand moral cognition, theories of moral reasoning still do not allow for substantial variation in how people might conceptualize the domain of the moral. The processes that underlie moral cognition may not be a human universal in any simple sense, because moral systems may play different roles in different cultures. We end our review with a discussion of work that remains to be done to understand cultural variation in the moral domain.

  2. In defence of moral imperialism: four equal and universal prima facie principles.

    Dawson, A; Garrard, E

    2006-04-01

    Raanan Gillon is a noted defender of the four principles approach to healthcare ethics. His general position has always been that these principles are to be considered to be both universal and prima facie in nature. In recent work, however, he has made two claims that seem to present difficulties for this view. His first claim is that one of these four principles, respect for autonomy, has a special position in relation to the others: he holds that it is first among equals. We argue that this claim makes little sense if the principles are to retain their prima facie nature. His second claim is that cultural variation can play an independent normative role in the construction of our moral judgments. This, he argues, enables us to occupy a middle ground between what he sees as the twin pitfalls of moral relativism and (what he calls) moral imperialism. We argue that there is no such middle ground, and while Gillon ultimately seems committed to relativism, it is some form of moral imperialism (in the form of moral objectivism) that will provide the only satisfactory construal of the four principles as prima facie universal moral principles.

  3. Balancing the principles: why the universality of human rights is not the Trojan horse of moral imperialism.

    Semplici, Stefano

    2013-11-01

    The new dilemmas and responsibilities which arise in bioethics both because of the unprecedented pace of scientific development and of growing moral pluralism are more and more difficult to grapple with. At the 'global' level, the call for the universal nature at least of some fundamental moral values and principles is often being contended as a testament of arrogance, if not directly as a new kind of subtler imperialism. The human rights framework itself, which provided the basis for the most relevant international declarations and documents, is not exempt from the charge. However, the refusal of a top-down conception of the universal as a sort of product for exportation should not be confused with a relativistic landscape, where all the cows can be indifferently black or white. This contribution aims at outlining an approach, which reconciles universalism as enshrined in founding human rights declarations with respect for cultural diversity. In order to do so, two conceptual frameworks are discussed: the 'tool-kit' model and the morals/ethics difference. The example of the right to quality health care confirms the argument that striking a balance between cherishing pluralism and defending some fundamental rights and obligations does not amount to an assertion of moral imperialism.

  4. Discussing the theological grounds of moral principles.

    Heller, Jan C

    2005-01-01

    Discussing the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles can make some people uncomfortable, even while others will appreciate it. But these reactions will sometimes be revealed not as the emotions they are, but as objections to the relative independence or dependence of morality on foundational beliefs. In the end, context should dictate whether one displays the theological beliefs that ground Catholic moral principles.

  5. How moral disagreement may ground principled moral compromise

    Kappel, Klemens

    2018-01-01

    In an influential article, Simon C. May forcefully argued that, properly understood, there can never be principled reasons for moral compromise (May, 2005). While there may be pragmatic reasons for compromising that involve, for instance, concern for political expediency or for stability, there a......In an influential article, Simon C. May forcefully argued that, properly understood, there can never be principled reasons for moral compromise (May, 2005). While there may be pragmatic reasons for compromising that involve, for instance, concern for political expediency or for stability......, there are properly speaking no principled reasons to compromise. My aim in the article is to show how principled moral compromise in the context of moral disagreements over policy options is possible. I argue that when we disagree, principled reasons favoring compromises or compromising can assume a more significant...... part of what makes a position all things considered best, and in this way disagreement can ground moral compromise....

  6. Teaching Moral Education: Principles of Instruction.

    Doris, Dennis A.

    1978-01-01

    A nonindoctrinating, sound theoretical and practical base upon which to develop the teaching of moral education relies on several principles: discussion of moral conflict situations; knowledge of the student's stage of moral development; guidance of developmental matches; encouragement of role taking; and focus on rational thinking. (JMF)

  7. 1 The Necessity of Moral Principles in Moral Education Emmanuel ...

    NGOZI

    their attempts at moral education of their children and wards. .... opposed to relative or related to a particular culture. ... principles is quite compatible with change and “relativity” at a ... The strength of the emotive theory of ethics derives from the ...

  8. How "moral" are the principles of biomedical ethics?--a cross-domain evaluation of the common morality hypothesis.

    Christen, Markus; Ineichen, Christian; Tanner, Carmen

    2014-06-17

    The principles of biomedical ethics - autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice - are of paradigmatic importance for framing ethical problems in medicine and for teaching ethics to medical students and professionals. In order to underline this significance, Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress base the principles in the common morality, i.e. they claim that the principles represent basic moral values shared by all persons committed to morality and are thus grounded in human moral psychology. We empirically investigated the relationship of the principles to other moral and non-moral values that provide orientations in medicine. By way of comparison, we performed a similar analysis for the business & finance domain. We evaluated the perceived degree of "morality" of 14 values relevant to medicine (n1 = 317, students and professionals) and 14 values relevant to business & finance (n2 = 247, students and professionals). Ratings were made along four dimensions intended to characterize different aspects of morality. We found that compared to other values, the principles-related values received lower ratings across several dimensions that characterize morality. By interpreting our finding using a clustering and a network analysis approach, we suggest that the principles can be understood as "bridge values" that are connected both to moral and non-moral aspects of ethical dilemmas in medicine. We also found that the social domain (medicine vs. business & finance) influences the degree of perceived morality of values. Our results are in conflict with the common morality hypothesis of Beauchamp and Childress, which would imply domain-independent high morality ratings of the principles. Our findings support the suggestions by other scholars that the principles of biomedical ethics serve primarily as instruments in deliberated justifications, but lack grounding in a universal "common morality". We propose that the specific manner in which the principles

  9. The Form of Law: Practical Principles and the Foundations of Kant’s Moral Theory

    Reckner, William Leland

    2017-01-01

    Immanuel Kant argued that morality requires us to act on principles that we can will as universal laws. However, there has always been profound disagreement about how to apply this requirement, and about why this demand should be morally fundamental. This dissertation offers new answers to these questions by developing a deeper understanding of the “practical” principles that Kant wants us to be able to will as universal laws.My primary thesis is that practical principles state three things: ...

  10. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: Exploring the Role of Moral Principles

    Blais, Ann-Renee; Thompsom, Megan

    2008-01-01

    We sought to answer two questions via this exploratory study. First, we investigated whether or not individual differences in moral principle selection/preference existed in response to six moral dilemmas...

  11. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: Exploring the Role of Moral Principles

    Blais, Ann-Renee; Thompsom, Megan

    2008-01-01

    .... As part of a larger study on moral decision making, 64 participants read and reflected upon six ethical dilemmas, rated the extent to which 5 moral principles influenced their decisions regarding...

  12. Freedom and the principles of morality

    Golubović Zagorka T.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Freedom as an authentic and willed process, characteristic of man as a human rational being, enables the individual to act in accordance with the principles of morality, since the individual can choose between good and evil (between two possibilities, and in this way to get out of the sphere of the given to which the rest of the living world is limited. We should recall the forgotten Marx and his famous text on the essential difference between the animal world and humanity as a genus: "The animal is immediately united with its vital activity. It does not differ from it. It is vital activity. Man makes his own vital activity the subject of his will and consciousness. He has conscious vital activity. This is not a determination with which he merges immediately. Conscious vital activity distinguishes man directly from animal vital activity. It is exactly in this way alone that he is a generic being. Or a conscious being, i.e. his own life is a subject for him precisely because he is a generic being. It is only for this reason that his activity is free activity..." (K. Marx, "Alienation", Early Works. In other words, while animals live just the life of their species and cannot choose anything else, since the choice has been made by the fact of their belonging to a species, man can choose the world in which to live, overcoming in this way the natural givens. Here lies the core of the anthropological explanation of the principle of morality, inconceivable without man's ability to be an authentic free being.

  13. APPRAISING THE CONDITIONS OF UNIVERSAL MORALITY ...

    The hub of our discussion of the conditions of universal morality is predicated upon the fact that the argument that a society's social life can only be measured by the peculiarities of its ... The call for a context-bound conception of morality has lost much of its hold in view of the interlocking network of our contemporary life.

  14. Moral dilemmas and moral principles: when emotion and cognition unite.

    Manfrinati, Andrea; Lotto, Lorella; Sarlo, Michela; Palomba, Daniela; Rumiati, Rino

    2013-01-01

    Traditional studies on moral judgement used resolutions of moral dilemmas that were framed in terms of acceptability of the consequentialist action promoting a greater good, thus overlooking the deontological implications (choices cannot be justified by their consequences). Recently, some authors have suggested a parallelism between automatic, unreflective emotional responses and deontological moral judgements. In this study, we developed a novel experimental paradigm in which participants were required to choose between two resolutions of a moral dilemma (consequentialist and deontological). To assess whether emotions are engaged in each of the two resolutions, we asked participants to evaluate their emotional experience through the ratings of valence and arousal. Results showed that emotion is involved not only in deontological but also in consequentialist resolutions. Moreover, response times pointed out a different interplay between emotion and cognition in determining a conflict in the dilemma's resolution. In particular, when people were faced with trolley-like dilemmas we found that decisions leading to deontological resolutions were slower than decisions leading to consequentialist resolutions. We propose that this finding reflects the special (but not accepted) permission provided by the doctrine of the double effect for incidentally causing death for the sake of a good end.

  15. Morality, Inquiry, and the University

    Mourad, Roger P.

    2016-01-01

    Given that human suffering persists globally on a massive scale, are scholars doing all they ought to be in the pursuit of knowledge? To explore this question, the author analyzes works by Alasdair MacIntyre, Nicholas Maxwell, and Bill Readings. Based on implications derived from their moral critiques of higher education, an alternative, broadened…

  16. Mach's principle and rotating universes

    King, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the Bianchi 9 model universe satisfies the Mach principle. These closed rotating universes were previously thought to be counter-examples to the principle. The Mach principle is satisfied because the angular momentum of the rotating matter is compensated by the effective angular momentum of gravitational waves. A new formulation of the Mach principle is given that is based on the field theory interpretation of general relativity. Every closed universe with 3-sphere topology is shown to satisfy this formulation of the Mach principle. It is shown that the total angular momentum of the matter and gravitational waves in a closed 3-sphere topology universe is zero

  17. The Moral Universes of Libertarian Press Theory.

    Wuliger, Gregory T.

    1991-01-01

    Uses Kantian logic to analyze the statement of Libertarian press theory "Truth beats falsehood in a free marketplace of ideas" as a definition, an observation, and a universal truth. Notes three corresponding moral universes, with differing ethical obligations. Discusses strengths and weaknesses of each. Cautions media ethics analysts…

  18. The measurement of principled morality by the Kohlberg Moral Dilemma Questionnaire.

    Heilbrun, A B; Georges, M

    1990-01-01

    The four stages preceding the postconventional level in the Kohlberg (1958, 1971, 1976) system of moral development are described as involving moral judgments that conform to external conditions of punishment, reward, social expectation, and conformity to the law. No special level of self-control seems necessary to behave in keeping with these conditions of external reinforcement. In contrast, the two stages of postconventional (principled) mortality involve defiance of majority opinion and defiance of the law--actions that would seem to require greater self-control. This study was concerned with whether postconventional moral reasoning, as measured by the Kohlberg Moral Dilemma Questionnaire (MDQ), can be associated with higher self-control. If so, prediction of principled moral behavior from the MDQ would be based not only on postconventional moral reasoning but bolstered by the necessary level of self-control as well. College students who came the closest to postconventional moral reasoning showed better self-control than college students who were more conventional or preconventional in their moral judgments. These results support the validity of the MDQ for predicting principled moral behavior.

  19. Beyond Divestment: The Moral University.

    Pifer, Alan

    1986-01-01

    Issues in university divestment of stock in American corporations doing business in South Africa, in protest of apartheid, are discussed in light of the American experience with discrimination. Divestment options are examined. (MSE)

  20. The Contact Principle and Utilitarian Moral Judgments in Young Children

    Pellizzoni, Sandra; Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca

    2010-01-01

    In three experiments involving 207 preschoolers and 28 adults, we investigated the extent to which young children base moral judgments of actions aimed to protect others on utilitarian principles. When asked to judge the rightness of intervening to hurt one person in order to save five others, the large majority of children aged 3 to 5 years…

  1. Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: Exploring the Role of Moral Principles

    2008-08-01

    by definition decisions that explicitly involve the welfare of others, invoked the greater use of care-based moral principles (concern for others...the Internet and you find out that the company makes many of its products in sweatshops in a foreign country, where the employees work for very low

  2. Moral Judgment Development across Cultures: Revisiting Kohlberg's Universality Claims

    Gibbs, John C.; Basinger, Karen S.; Grime, Rebecca L.; Snarey, John R.

    2007-01-01

    This article revisits Kohlberg's cognitive developmental claims that stages of moral judgment, facilitative processes of social perspective-taking, and moral values are commonly identifiable across cultures. Snarey [Snarey, J. (1985). "The cross-cultural universality of social-moral development: A critical review of Kohlbergian research."…

  3. Universal prescriptivism: traditional moral decision-making theory revisited.

    Crigger, N J

    1994-09-01

    Universal prescriptivism is a recently developed moral decision-making theory that combines utilitarian and Kantian theories with two levels of moral thinking. A combined approach offers a creative solution to the weaknesses inherent in traditional moral theories. The paper describes the theory and discusses important implications for nursing education, practical ethical decision-making, and research. The relationship of an ethical theory of caring to traditional moral theory is discussed.

  4. Beyond the principles of bioethics: facing the consequences of fundamental moral disagreement

    H. Tristram Engelhardt

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2012v11n1p13   Given intractable secular moral pluralism, the force and significance of the four principles (autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice of Tom Beauchamp and James Childress must be critically re-considered. This essay examines the history of the articulation of these four principles of bioethics, showing why initially there was an illusion of a common morality that led many to hold that the principles could give guidance across cultures. But there is no one sense of the content or the theoretical justification of these principles. In addition, a wide range of secular moral and bioethical choices has been demoralized into lifestyle choices; the force of the secular moral point of view has also been deflated, thus compounding moral pluralism. It is the political generation of the principles that provides a common morality in the sense of an established morality. The principles are best understood as embedded not in a common morality, sensu stricto, but in that morality that is established at law and public policy in a particular polity. Although moral pluralism is substantive and intractable at the level of moral content, in a particular polity a particular morality and a particular bioethics can be established, regarding which health care ethics consultants can be experts. Public morality and bioethics are at their roots a political reality.

  5. Geographic Literacy and Moral Formation among University Students

    Bascom, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    This study extends analysis of geographic literacy further by examining the relationship of geographic knowledge with the primary goal of geographic educators--cultivation of cultural understanding and moral sensitivity for global citizenry. The main aim is to examine contributors to moral formation during the university years based on a survey…

  6. Moral education and citizenship education at pre-university schools

    Leenders, H.; Veugelers, W.; de Kat, E.; Oser, F.; Veugelers, W.

    2008-01-01

    This survey investigates the objectives, practical application and learning outcomes of moral education at three pre-university (VWO) schools with differing views on citizenship. We explore teachers’ and students’ pedagogical, socialpolitical and moral development objectives, and how they deal with

  7. How “moral” are the principles of biomedical ethics? – a cross-domain evaluation of the common morality hypothesis

    2014-01-01

    Background The principles of biomedical ethics – autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice – are of paradigmatic importance for framing ethical problems in medicine and for teaching ethics to medical students and professionals. In order to underline this significance, Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress base the principles in the common morality, i.e. they claim that the principles represent basic moral values shared by all persons committed to morality and are thus grounded in human moral psychology. We empirically investigated the relationship of the principles to other moral and non-moral values that provide orientations in medicine. By way of comparison, we performed a similar analysis for the business & finance domain. Methods We evaluated the perceived degree of “morality” of 14 values relevant to medicine (n1 = 317, students and professionals) and 14 values relevant to business & finance (n2 = 247, students and professionals). Ratings were made along four dimensions intended to characterize different aspects of morality. Results We found that compared to other values, the principles-related values received lower ratings across several dimensions that characterize morality. By interpreting our finding using a clustering and a network analysis approach, we suggest that the principles can be understood as “bridge values” that are connected both to moral and non-moral aspects of ethical dilemmas in medicine. We also found that the social domain (medicine vs. business & finance) influences the degree of perceived morality of values. Conclusions Our results are in conflict with the common morality hypothesis of Beauchamp and Childress, which would imply domain-independent high morality ratings of the principles. Our findings support the suggestions by other scholars that the principles of biomedical ethics serve primarily as instruments in deliberated justifications, but lack grounding in a universal “common morality”. We

  8. The importance of moral construal: moral versus non-moral construal elicits faster, more extreme, universal evaluations of the same actions.

    Jay J Van Bavel

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, intuitionist models of morality have challenged the view that moral reasoning is the sole or even primary means by which moral judgments are made. Rather, intuitionist models posit that certain situations automatically elicit moral intuitions, which guide moral judgments. We present three experiments showing that evaluations are also susceptible to the influence of moral versus non-moral construal. We had participants make moral evaluations (rating whether actions were morally good or bad or non-moral evaluations (rating whether actions were pragmatically or hedonically good or bad of a wide variety of actions. As predicted, moral evaluations were faster, more extreme, and more strongly associated with universal prescriptions-the belief that absolutely nobody or everybody should engage in an action-than non-moral (pragmatic or hedonic evaluations of the same actions. Further, we show that people are capable of flexibly shifting from moral to non-moral evaluations on a trial-by-trial basis. Taken together, these experiments provide evidence that moral versus non-moral construal has an important influence on evaluation and suggests that effects of construal are highly flexible. We discuss the implications of these experiments for models of moral judgment and decision-making.

  9. Moral principles or consumer preferences? Alternative framings of the trolley problem.

    Rai, Tage S; Holyoak, Keith J

    2010-03-01

    We created paired moral dilemmas with minimal contrasts in wording, a research strategy that has been advocated as a way to empirically establish principles operative in a domain-specific moral psychology. However, the candidate "principles" we tested were not derived from work in moral philosophy, but rather from work in the areas of consumer choice and risk perception. Participants were paradoxically less likely to choose an action that sacrifices one life to save others when they were asked to provide more reasons for doing so (Experiment 1), and their willingness to sacrifice lives depended not only on how many lives would be saved, but on the number of lives at risk (Experiment 2). The latter effect was also found in a within-subjects design (Experiment 3). These findings suggest caution in the use of artificial dilemmas as a key testbed for revealing principled bases for moral judgment. Copyright © 2009 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Semiclassical universe from first principles

    Ambjorn, J.; Jurkiewicz, J.; Loll, R.

    2005-01-01

    Causal dynamical triangulations in four dimensions provide a background-independent definition of the sum over space-time geometries in non-perturbative quantum gravity. We show that the macroscopic four-dimensional world which emerges in the Euclidean sector of this theory is a bounce which satisfies a semiclassical equation. After integrating out all degrees of freedom except for a global scale factor, we obtain the ground state wave function of the universe as a function of this scale factor

  11. The Morality of University Decision-Makers

    Hatier, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    Ethical failures in UK higher education have recently made the news but are not a recent development. University decision-makers can, in order to adopt an ethical way of reasoning, resort to several ethical traditions. This article focuses, through the use of concrete examples, on three which have had a significant impact in recent higher…

  12. A waste of time: the problem of common morality in Principles of Biomedical Ethics.

    Karlsen, Jan Reinert; Solbakk, Jan Helge

    2011-10-01

    From the 5th edition of Beauchamp and Childress' Principles of Biomedical Ethics, the problem of common morality has been given a more prominent role and emphasis. With the publication of the 6th and latest edition, the authors not only attempt to ground their theory in common morality, but there is also an increased tendency to identify the former with the latter. While this stratagem may give the impression of a more robust, and hence stable, foundation for their theoretical construct, we fear that it comes with a cost, namely the need to keep any theory in medical ethics open to, and thereby aware of, the challenges arising from biomedical research and clinical practice, as well as healthcare systems. By too readily identifying the moral life of common morality with rule-following behaviour, Beauchamp and Childress may even be wrong about the nature of common morality as such, thereby founding their, by now, classic theory on quicksand instead of solid rock.

  13. A Reply on Behalf of the Relativist to Mark Mason's Justification of Universal Ethical Principles

    MacKenzie, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Mark Mason, in his "A Justification, After the Postmodern Turn, of Universal Ethical Principles and Educational Ideals" Educational Philosophy and Theory, 37 (2005), attempts to justify transcultural multiculturalism. In this paper I argue that he fails to refute moral relativism, and that multiculturalism as he interprets it is not morally…

  14. Implementing the Fundamental Principle of Islamic Finance PLS in Order to Reduce Moral Hazard on the Financial Services Market

    Dariusz Piotrowski

    2014-01-01

    Moral hazard is a situation where agent takes a risky actions, knowing that potential costs will be born by principal. In finance, moral hazard arises when advisers take risky decisions come to believe that they will not have to carry the full burden of potential loses. Implementing the fundamental principle of Islamic finance PLS could reduce moral hazard on financial services market.

  15. Universalismo versus relativismo no julgamento moral Universalism versus relativism in moral judgment

    Angela M. B. Biaggio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho analisa a posição de diversos autores que têm-se destacado no estudo do julgamento moral, quanto à questão do universalismo versus relativismo. Há valores universais? Há uma seqüência evolutiva de estágios de maturidade moral que se encontre em todas as culturas? Com base em análises e críticas de James Rest, Orlando Lourenço, Lutz Eckensberger e John Snarey, são analisadas posições universalistas, como as de Piaget e Kohlberg (com seus fundamentos em Kant e as posições relativistas, tendo como ponto extremo a de Shweder. Entre os dois campos extremos são comentadas as posições de Turiel, Gilligan, e outros autores.This article analyses positions of distinguished authors in the field of moral development, regarding the issue of universalism versus relativism. Based on analyses and critiques by James Rest, Orlando Lourenço, Lutz Eckensberger, and John Snarey, the author reviews unversalistic positions such as those of Piaget and Kohlberg (with their roots in Kant, and relativistic positions, having as their extreme the position of Shweder. Between the two extremes,the stands of Turiel, Gilligan and other authors are discussed.

  16. The University and Morality: A Revised Approach to University Autonomy and Its Limits.

    Alexander, Jeffrey C.

    1986-01-01

    The "critical" and "established" positions on university morality leave important questions unanswered. A revised position distinguishing between the corporate and intellectual bodies of the university is offered. Three social conditions for maintaining a value-rational debate are proposed. (Author/MLW)

  17. Moral status, justice, and the common morality: challenges for the principlist account of moral change.

    Hodges, Kevin E; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2013-09-01

    The theory of principlism elaborated by Beauchamp and Childress in Principles of Biomedical Ethics has become extremely influential in bioethics. The theory employs the idea of the common morality as a foundation for the principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. According to this account, the content of the common morality is universal and constant, while variability in morals is due to the fact that the issue of who is included within the scope of moral status evolves over time. This suggests that issues of moral status are not part of the common morality at all, and this presents a conundrum: questions of moral status seem central to any substantive account of justice, and any conception of the common morality that excludes moral status therefore seems inadequate for supporting a robust principle of justice. We argue that proponents of common morality theory are left with four options: (1) making moral status a part of the objective common morality and ignoring evidence that views about moral status do seem to vary over time and place; (2) excluding justice from the substantive content of the common morality; (3) taking common morality to be an imperfect approximation of an independently justified and universal foundationalist ethic against which the common morality is judged; or (4) weakening claims about the universality of common morality, thereby allowing the common morality to support a variety of principles of justice applicable only within particular communities that have specified the scope of moral status. We suspect that proponents of common morality theory will not view any of these options favorably, which raises questions about the ultimate contribution of that account.

  18. Universal Instructional Design Principles for Moodle

    Tanya Elias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies a set of universal instructional design (UID principles appropriate to distance education (DE and tailored to the needs of instructional designers and instructors teaching online. These principles are then used to assess the accessibility level of a sample online course and the availability of options in its LMS platform (Moodle to increase course accessibility. Numerous accessibility-sensitive plug-in modules are found to be available to Moodle users, though relatively few features were included in the sample course analysed. This may be because they have not been made available to instructors at the institutional level. The paper offers a series of recommendations to improve the accessibility of online DE to learners with diverse abilities, disabilities, and needs.

  19. From prejudice to reasonable judgement: integrating (moral) value discussions in university courses

    Aalberts, J.M.C.; Koster, E.; Boschhuizen, R.

    2012-01-01

    The central question addressed in this article is how (moral) values discussions in university courses can be integrated in a systematic way. Discussion of (moral) values is fundamental to the Dublin descriptor about judgement formation in use in European universities. To integrate this descriptor

  20. Positing a difference between acts and omissions: the principle of justice, Rachels' cases and moral weakness.

    Mohindra, R

    2009-05-01

    The difficulty in discovering a difference between killing and letting die has led many philosophers to deny the distinction. This paper seeks to develop an argument defending the distinction between killing and letting die. In relation to Rachels' cases, the argument is that (a) even accepting that Smith and Jones may select equally heinous options from the choices they have available to them, (b) the fact that the choices available to them are different is morally relevant, and (c) this difference in available choices can be used to distinguish between the agents in certain circumstances. It is the principle of justice, as espoused by Aristotle, which requires that equal things are treated equally and that unequal things are treated unequally that creates a presumption that Smith and Jones should be treated differently. The magnitude of this difference can be amplified by other premises, making the distinction morally relevant in practical reality.

  1. From metaphysical to political: Does political culture make Rawls's principle of tolerance morally relativistic?

    Vranić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze Rawls's conception of political (public culture, exploring whether his principle of tolerance (Political Liberalism falls in moral relativism. The analysis consists of three sections. Firstly, the author introduces different critical accounts on Rawls's theory and identifies where they go wrong. Secondly, the author delineates the intellectual tradition of social liberalism from which sprang Rawls's conception, showing that he significantly alters the key ideas of dominant liberal justice of the Western world. In the final section of the paper it is argued that Rawls's idea of political culture is a cornerstone of just society and the spring of tolerance, providing arguments in favor of the idea that Rawls's conception of political liberalism is not morally relativistic but it is, however, in line with liberal pluralism.

  2. One Hundred Dissertations: A Review of the Morale Research Project, University of New England.

    Smith, Kevin R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of the "staff morale questionnaires" developed at University of New England from 100 graduate student dissertations on morale in a variety of educational institutions. The project helped off-campus students develop their academic critical abilities and enabled school administrators to understand the importance of…

  3. Moral Values Education in Terms of Graduate University Students' Perspectives: A Jordanian Sample

    Jarrar, Amani

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on how moral values differ and vary according to variants such as education, culture, thoughts, religion, gender and family relations. It handles the issue of moral education in Jordan, from the perspective of graduate students in Petra University. Since we are facing new challenges in this era and region of the world, we are…

  4. THE IMPACT OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION ON THE MORAL DEVELOPMENT OF ACCOUNTING STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY

    Umaru Zubairu

    2016-01-01

    Two decades of financial scandals have seriously damaged the credibility of accountants as guardians of financial information. To repair this credibility, the Malaysian government released a blueprint that mandated Malaysian educational institutions to produce morally competent professionals. This study assessed the progress of Malaysian universities in meeting this important mandate by evaluating the moral development of accounting students enrolled at the International Islami...

  5. Towards a Moral Ecology of Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement in British Universities.

    Vagwala, Meghana Kasturi; Bicquelet, Aude; Didziokaite, Gabija; Coomber, Ross; Corrigan, Oonagh; Singh, Ilina

    2017-01-01

    Few empirical studies in the UK have examined the complex social patterns and values behind quantitative estimates of the prevalence of pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE). We conducted a qualitative investigation of the social dynamics and moral attitudes that shape PCE practices among university students in two major metropolitan areas in the UK. Our thematic analysis of eight focus groups ( n  = 66) suggests a moral ecology that operates within the social infrastructure of the university. We find that PCE resilience among UK university students is mediated by normative and cultural judgments disfavoring competitiveness and prescription drug taking. PCE risk can be augmented by social factors such as soft peer pressure and normalization of enhancement within social and institutional networks. We suggest that moral ecological dynamics should be viewed as key mechanisms of PCE risk and resilience in universities. Effective PCE governance within universities should therefore attend to developing further understanding of the moral ecologies of PCE.

  6. THE IMPACT OF UNIVERSITY EDUCATION ON THE MORAL DEVELOPMENT OF ACCOUNTING STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY

    Umaru Zubairu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two decades of financial scandals have seriously damaged the credibility of accountants as guardians of financial information. To repair this credibility, the Malaysian government released a blueprint that mandated Malaysian educational institutions to produce morally competent professionals. This study assessed the progress of Malaysian universities in meeting this important mandate by evaluating the moral development of accounting students enrolled at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM. The results of the survey revealed that there was so significant difference in the moral competencies of 2nd-year and final-year accounting students at IIUM. The implication of this result is that IIUM's current crop of final-year accounting students were not morally competent enough to deal with the inevitable moral dilemmas they would face in the work place.

  7. Design Principles of Open Innovation Concept – Universal Design Viewpoint

    Mustaquim, Moyen; Nyström, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    The concept of open innovation is becoming an increasingly popular topic of interest and seems to promise a lot in organizational development. However, to date there are no certain design principles that can be followed by organizations on how to use open innovation successfully. In this paper seven design principles of open innovation concept have been proposed. The derived principles are the outcome which is based on the principles of universal design. The open innovation design, based on t...

  8. Morality, Responsibility, and the University. Studies in Academic Ethics.

    Cahn, Steven M., Ed.

    This book presents 14 essays from American philosophers who critically investigate the moral issues generated by academic life. Topics addressed include free speech on campus, justifications for tenure, faculty appointment and evaluation procedures, the differing demands of research and teaching, sexual harassment, parietal rules,…

  9. Journalism Ethics in Secondary Education: Principles and Guidelines for Decision Making within a Systematic Framework of Moral Alternatives.

    Herlong, Ann

    In response to rising public criticism of the media and demand for accountability, leaders among professional journalists are calling for a renewed emphasis on codes of ethics and deliberate attention to moral action. In examining the importance and relevance of ethics to high school journalism, three principles for the teaching of ethics emerge:…

  10. Urban Environment Development based on Universal Design Principles

    Harsritanto, Bangun Ir

    2018-02-01

    Universal Design is a design which facilitated full range of human diversity. By applying Universal design principles, urban environment can be more functional and more user-friendly for everyone. This study examined five urban streets of South Korea as a country experienced on developing various urban street designs based on universal design. This study aimed to examine and compare the South Korea cases using seven principles of universal design. The research methods of this study are literature study, case study, and site observation. The results of this study are: South Korea cases are good practices, urgency of implementing the direction into local regulations; and change of urban development paradigm.

  11. Zasada podwójnego skutku i zasada moralnej symetrii a kwestia legalizacji eutanazji [Principles of Double Effect and Moral Symmetry and Legalization of Euthanasia

    Wacław Janikowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I scrutinize importance of Principles of Double Effect and MoralSymmetry in regard to the question of moral acceptance of euthanasia legalization.My conclusion is that although there is no substantially moral difference betweenpassive and active euthanasia, the problem of morally justifiable legalization ofeuthanasia is still not resolved. That is because some reasons suggest the possibilityof special discrepancy between moral acceptability of euthanasia in certain cases andmoral demand to preserve legal prohibition of euthanasia in general. In the paperI criticize the popular opinion that utilitarianism cannot account of why we giveweight to the question of moral permissibility of intentions. I claim that contraryto this false platitude utilitarianism can even accommodate practical relevance ofPrinciple of Double Effect, but not as a valid per se principle.

  12. The Applicability of Corporate Strategic Principles to Diversified University Campuses.

    Brock, David M.; Harvey, William B.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of the use of principles of business administration in university planning looks both at differences between businesses and universities and at broad and practical similarities, then presents a variety of corporate strategic techniques and suggests how they might be adapted to higher education. (MSE)

  13. Developing the moral competencies of accounting students: a case study of International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM

    Umaru Zubairu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two decades of financial scandals have seriously damaged the credibility of accountants as guardians of financial information. To repair this credibility, the Malaysian government released a blueprint that mandated Malaysian educational institutions to produce morally competent professionals. This study sought to assist the accounting department at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM in achieving this mandate by evaluating the moral competencies of 2nd-year students enrolled in the department. The evaluation revealed that the students' had below par levels of moral competencies in dealing with ethical dilemmas in an accounting context. The implication of these results is that IIUM's accounting department has to critically assess the ethical content of its curriculum in order to ensure that it is capable of developing the moral competencies of these students to an excellent level. Additionally, there is a need for IIUM to institutionalize the measurement of students' moral competencies so that an objective determination can be made as to how effective the department is in developing the moral competencies of its students. 

  14. The four-principle formulation of common morality is at the core of bioethics mediation method.

    Ahmadi Nasab Emran, Shahram

    2015-08-01

    Bioethics mediation is increasingly used as a method in clinical ethics cases. My goal in this paper is to examine the implicit theoretical assumptions of the bioethics mediation method developed by Dubler and Liebman. According to them, the distinguishing feature of bioethics mediation is that the method is useful in most cases of clinical ethics in which conflict is the main issue, which implies that there is either no real ethical issue or if there were, they are not the key to finding a resolution. I question the tacit assumption of non-normativity of the mediation method in bioethics by examining the various senses in which bioethics mediation might be non-normative or neutral. The major normative assumption of the mediation method is the existence of common morality. In addition, the four-principle formulation of the theory articulated by Beauchamp and Childress implicitly provides the normative content for the method. Full acknowledgement of the theoretical and normative assumptions of bioethics mediation helps clinical ethicists better understand the nature of their job. In addition, the need for a robust philosophical background even in what appears to be a purely practical method of mediation cannot be overemphasized. Acknowledgement of the normative nature of bioethics mediation method necessitates a more critical attitude of the bioethics mediators towards the norms they usually take for granted uncritically as valid.

  15. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights and…

  16. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs.

    Verrinder, Joy M; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J C

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students' preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress.

  17. Differences in Moral Judgment on Animal and Human Ethics Issues between University Students in Animal-Related, Human Medical and Arts Programs

    Verrinder, Joy M.; Ostini, Remo; Phillips, Clive J. C.

    2016-01-01

    Moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues has rarely been investigated. Among the research that has been conducted, studies of veterinary students have shown greater use of reasoning based on universal principles for animal than human ethics issues. This study aimed to identify if this was unique to students of veterinary and other animal-related professions. The moral reasoning of first year students of veterinary medicine, veterinary technology, and production animal science was compared with that of students in non-animal related disciplines of human medicine and arts. All students (n = 531) completed a moral reasoning test, the VetDIT, with animal and human scenarios. When compared with reasoning on human ethics issues, the combined group of students evaluating animal ethics issues showed higher levels of Universal Principles reasoning, lower levels of Personal Interest reasoning and similar levels of Maintaining Norms reasoning. Arts students showed more personal interest reasoning than students in most animal-related programs on both animal and human ethics issues, and less norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues. Medical students showed more norms-based reasoning on animal ethics issues than all of the animal-related groups. There were no differences in principled reasoning on animal ethics issues between program groups. This has implications for animal-related professions and education programs showing that students’ preference for principled reasoning on animal ethics issues is not unique to animal-related disciplines, and highlighting the need to develop student (and professional) capacity to apply principled reasoning to address ethics issues in animal industries to reduce the risk of moral distress. PMID:26934582

  18. Global ethics and principlism.

    Gordon, John-Stewart

    2011-09-01

    This article examines the special relation between common morality and particular moralities in the four-principles approach and its use for global ethics. It is argued that the special dialectical relation between common morality and particular moralities is the key to bridging the gap between ethical universalism and relativism. The four-principles approach is a good model for a global bioethics by virtue of its ability to mediate successfully between universal demands and cultural diversity. The principle of autonomy (i.e., the idea of individual informed consent), however, does need to be revised so as to make it compatible with alternatives such as family- or community-informed consent. The upshot is that the contribution of the four-principles approach to global ethics lies in the so-called dialectical process and its power to deal with cross-cultural issues against the background of universal demands by joining them together.

  19. Gravitational Lagrangians, Mach's Principle, and the Equivalence Principle in an Expanding Universe

    Essén, Hanno

    2014-08-01

    Gravitational Lagrangians as derived by Fock for the Einstein-Infeld-Hoffmann approach, and by Kennedy assuming only a fourth rank tensor interaction, contain long range interactions. Here we investigate how these affect the local dynamics when integrated over an expanding universe out to the Hubble radius. Taking the cosmic expansion velocity into account in a heuristic manner it is found that these long range interactions imply Mach's principle, provided the universe has the critical density, and that mass is renormalized. Suitable higher order additions to the Lagrangians make the formalism consistent with the equivalence principle.

  20. Harming others : universal subjectivism and the expanding moral circle

    Berg, Floris van den

    2011-01-01

    Harming Others expounds what the author calls universal subjectivism, which is a cosmopolitan theory of political philosophy that deals with global justice, non-human animals and future generations. Although its main focus is political philosophy, the theory has wide applications to contemporary

  1. Birth of a closed universe, and the anthropogenic principle

    Zel'dovich, Y.

    1981-01-01

    A scenario is proposed for the evolution of the universe, starting with the quantum birth of a closed world at a minimum in the self-consistent de Sitter cosmological solution with vacuum polarization. The closure of the universe and the permanently supercritical value of its density follow directly from a single condition: that quantum birth take place. The perturbations must be small in order that the de Sitter phase may be sufficiently prolonged to ensure a protracted Friedmann plasma-matter expansion. Thus a universe having the properties we observe may in fact have been singled out by the anthropogenic principle

  2. Universal Principles of Media Ethics: South African and German Perspectives

    Lea-Sophie Borgmann

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly globalised nature of media and journalism has led to a review of ethical standards, mainly to find universal ethical values which are applicable in a world with countless different cultures. This article attempts to address this field of research in comparing South African and German approaches to the topic of media ethics. Firstly, it outlines theories of universal and specific cultural ethical principles in journalism. Secondly, it shows how the conception of universal ethical principles, so called protonorms, is interpreted differently in the two cultures and how specific cultural values of media ethics are rated among the two cultural frameworks of Germany and South Africa. An online survey conducted among German and South African journalism students found significant differences in the ranking of media ethics principles as well as similarities and differences in the interpretations of protonorms. The results support existing normative theories of universal media ethics, such as the theory of protonorms, in contributing explorative empirical data to this field of mainly theoretical research.

  3. On Moral Luck and Nonideal Moral Education

    Chinnery, Ann

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the Kantian principle that we are morally accountable only for those actions over which we have control, Bernard Williams, Thomas Nagel, and others have argued that luck plays a significant role in the moral life. Put briefly, moral luck is at play when we are appropriately praised or blamed for our moral actions despite the fact…

  4. Morality and Values in Support of Universal Healthcare Must be Enshrined in Law; Comment on “Morality and Markets in the NHS”

    Allyson M Pollock

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a commentary on Gilbert and colleagues’ (1 paper on morality and markets in the National Health Service (NHS. Morality and values are not ephemeral qualities and universal healthcare is not simply an aspiration; it has to be enshrined in law. The creation of the UK NHS in 1948 was underpinned by core legal duties which required a system of public funding and delivery to follow. The moral values of the citizens in support of social solidarity were thus transformed into a political and legal contract for citizens. The NHS still survives in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland but the coalition government abolished it in England in 2012, reducing the NHS to a funding stream, a logo and a set of market regulators. This paper describes and explains the Health and Social Care (HSC Act 2012 in England and how the NHS is withering away and health services are being remodeled along US Health Maintenance Organization (HMO lines. There was nothing moral about this extraordinary act of savagery and violence against the public in England, and against common values and widely held beliefs in public ownership funding and provision of universal healthcare. The public health consequences will be catastrophic which is why after the election on May seventh a new Bill is required to Reinstate the NHS and the Secretary of State’s legal duty to provide listed health services throughout England.

  5. Alberto Bonet and his study on the moral conscience of the child (1927: A propos of the first works on moral education at the University of Barcelona

    Monserrat PAYÁ SÁNCHEZ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the authors present a historical analysis of the Catalan philosophical tradition (Ramón Martí de Eixalá, Francisco J. Llorens Barba, Tomás Carreras Artau et al. characterised by a philosophy of the conscience and its undeniable educational consequences. If Krausism was triumphing in Madrid, in Catalonia the school of common sense was taking hold, distinguished by conscience both in the order of knowledge and in moral praxis. When Tomás Carreras Artau took over the chair of Ethics at the University of Barcelona in 1912, a Seminar began that featured the work by Albert Bonet (the future leader of Spain’s Catholic Action on the moral conscience of the child (1927 as one of its most outstanding contributions. Although to a certain extent the Ethics Seminar was later discarded in favour of the Pedagogy Seminar which Joaquín Xirau began in 1930, it is true that the teachings of Alejandro Sanvisens (Tomás Carreras Artau’s prize pupil permitted the configuration of a pedagogy of the conscience which is found in the roots of studies on moral education generated at the University of Barcelona by the GREM (Moral Education Research Group, founded in 1988.

  6. Universal uncertainty principle in the measurement operator formalism

    Ozawa, Masanao

    2005-01-01

    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle has been understood to set a limitation on measurements; however, the long-standing mathematical formulation established by Heisenberg, Kennard, and Robertson does not allow such an interpretation. Recently, a new relation was found to give a universally valid relation between noise and disturbance in general quantum measurements, and it has become clear that the new relation plays a role of the first principle to derive various quantum limits on measurement and information processing in a unified treatment. This paper examines the above development on the noise-disturbance uncertainty principle in the model-independent approach based on the measurement operator formalism, which is widely accepted to describe a class of generalized measurements in the field of quantum information. We obtain explicit formulae for the noise and disturbance of measurements given by measurement operators, and show that projective measurements do not satisfy the Heisenberg-type noise-disturbance relation that is typical in the gamma-ray microscope thought experiments. We also show that the disturbance on a Pauli operator of a projective measurement of another Pauli operator constantly equals √2, and examine how this measurement violates the Heisenberg-type relation but satisfies the new noise-disturbance relation

  7. Actualizing Moral Education in Japan's Tertiary Sector: Reitaku University's Response to Today's Challenges

    Nakayama, Osamu

    2015-01-01

    While moral education is taught in the primary--and some in--the secondary grades, morality and ethics education has not been a subject since World War II in tertiary grades. Neverless Japanese universities have neither academic departments nor courses solely devoted to scholarship or instruction in the area of moral studies. In this article, the…

  8. Correlation of Managers' Value Systems and Students' Moral Development in High Schools and Pre-University Centers

    Alavi, Hamid Reza; Rahimipoor, Tahereh

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research was to understand the managers' value system, the students' moral development, and their relationship in the high schools and pre-universities of District One in Kerman City. The research method used was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population was composed of high school and pre-university managers and…

  9. Morality Principles for Risk Modelling: Needs and Links with the Origins of Plausible Inference

    Solana-Ortega, Alberto; Solana, Vicente

    2009-12-01

    In comparison with the foundations of probability calculus, the inescapable and controversial issue of how to assign probabilities has only recently become a matter of formal study. The introduction of information as a technical concept was a milestone, but the most promising entropic assignment methods still face unsolved difficulties, manifesting the incompleteness of plausible inference theory. In this paper we examine the situation faced by risk analysts in the critical field of extreme events modelling, where the former difficulties are especially visible, due to scarcity of observational data, the large impact of these phenomena and the obligation to assume professional responsibilities. To respond to the claim for a sound framework to deal with extremes, we propose a metafoundational approach to inference, based on a canon of extramathematical requirements. We highlight their strong moral content, and show how this emphasis in morality, far from being new, is connected with the historic origins of plausible inference. Special attention is paid to the contributions of Caramuel, a contemporary of Pascal, unfortunately ignored in the usual mathematical accounts of probability.

  10. Purpose in the Universe the moral and metaphysical case for ananthropocentric purposivism

    Mulgan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Two familiar worldviews dominate Western philosophy: materialist atheism and the benevolent God of the Abrahamic faiths. Tim Mulgan explores a third way. Ananthropocentric Purposivism claims that there is a cosmic purpose, but human beings are irrelevant to it. Purpose in the Universe develops a philosophical case for Ananthropocentric Purposivism that it is at least as strong as the case for either theism or atheism. The book borrows traditional theist arguments to defend a cosmic purpose. These include cosmological, teleological, ontological, meta-ethical, and mystical arguments. It then borrows traditional atheist arguments to reject a human-centred purpose. These include arguments based on evil, diversity, and the scale of the universe. Mulgan also highlights connections between morality and metaphysics, arguing that evaluative premises play a crucial and underappreciated role in metaphysical debates about the existence of God, and Ananthropocentric Purposivism mutually supports an austere consequentialis...

  11. Screening for infectious diseases of asylum seekers upon arrival: the necessity of the moral principle of reciprocity.

    Beeres, Dorien T; Cornish, Darren; Vonk, Machiel; Ravensbergen, Sofanne J; Maeckelberghe, Els L M; Boele Van Hensbroek, Pieter; Stienstra, Ymkje

    2018-03-02

    With a large number of forcibly displaced people seeking safety, the EU is facing a challenge in maintaining solidarity. Europe has seen millions of asylum seekers crossing European borders, the largest number of asylum seekers since the second world war. Endemic diseases and often failing health systems in their countries of origin, and arduous conditions during transit, raise questions around how to meet the health needs of this vulnerable population on arrival in terms of screening, vaccination, and access to timely and appropriate statutory health services. This paper explores the potential role of the principle of reciprocity, defined as the disposition 'to return good in proportion to the good we receive, and to make reparations for the harm we have done', as a mid-level principle in infectious disease screening policies. More than half of the European countries implemented screening programmes for newly arrived asylum seekers. Screening may serve to avoid potential infectious disease risks in the receiving countries as well as help identify health needs of asylum seekers. But screening may infringe upon basic rights of those screened, thus creating an ethical dilemma. The use of the principle of reciprocity can contribute to the identification of potential improvements for current screening programmes and emphasizes the importance of certain rights into guidelines for screening. It may create a two way moral obligation, upon asylum seekers to actively participate in the programme, and upon authorities to reciprocate the asylum seekers' participation and the benefits for the control of public health. The authors argue that the reciprocity principle leads to a stronger ethical justification of screening programmes and help achieve a balance between justifiable rights claims of the host population and the asylum seekers. The principle deserves a further and more thorough exploration of its potential use in the field of screening, migration and infectious

  12. The Role of Social Networking Sites in Creating Moral Crisis and the Role of the University in Confronting It from the View Point of Qassim University Faculty Members

    Al-Smadi, Hend Sam'an Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed at recognizing the effect of the social networking sites (henceforth snss) in creating moral crisis and the role of the university in its confrontation from the view point of faculty members at Qassim University. Two tests were constructed; the first included (29 items) developed to identify the role of snss in creating moral…

  13. Development of L. Kohlberg's idea of moral formation of cross-cultural universality of judgments in modern research

    N.A. Baykovskaya

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the ideas of foreign researchers (J. Gibbs, K. Basinger, J. Flavel, J. Snarey, who reconsider L. Kohlberg's statements on cognitive development, which forms the basis of moral judgments formation, recognizable usually across cultures. We show the intersection points for various contemporary approaches. We describe the results of empirical studies of moral judgments development in children of primary school age. The sample consisted of Moscow secondary schools students and students of National Jewish Education Center (total 367 people: 198 girls and 169 boys aged 8 to 10 years. We used method of presentation of moral dilemma situations. The study results confirm the relevance of L. Kohlberg main statements on the content of pre-conventional level of moral reasoning in children, on the laws of transition to conventional level. They also demonstrate the features of interpretation of crosscultural universality, discussed by modern foreign authors.

  14. The Use of Operational Excellence Principles in a University Hospital.

    Edelman, Eric R; Hamaekers, Ankie E W; Buhre, Wolfgang F; van Merode, Godefridus G

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of Operational Excellence in the Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+) has been the first of its kind and scale for a university hospital. The policy makers of the MUMC+ have combined different elements from various other business, management, and healthcare philosophies and frameworks into a unique mix. This paper summarizes the journey of developing this system and its most important aspects. Special attention is paid to the role of the operating rooms and the improvements that have taken place there, because of their central role in the working of the hospital. The MUMC+ is the leading tertiary healthcare center for the South-East region of The Netherlands and beyond. Regional, national, and international developments encouraged the MUMC+ to start significantly reorganizing its care processes from 2009 onward. First experiments with Lean Six Sigma and Business Modeling were combined with lessons learned from other centers around the world to form the MUMC+'s own type of Operational Excellence. At the time of writing, many improvement projects of different types have been successfully completed. Every single department in the hospital now uses Operational Excellence and design thinking in general as a method to develop new models of care. An evaluation in 2014 revealed several opportunities for improvement. A large number of projects were in progress, but 75% of all projects had not been completed, despite the first projects being initiated back in 2012. This led to a number of policy changes, mainly focusing on more intensive monitoring of projects and trying to do more improvement projects directly under the responsibility of the line manager. Focusing on patient value, continuous improvement, and the reduction of waste have proven to be very fitting principles for healthcare in general and specifically for application in a university hospital. Approaching improvement at a systems level while directly involving the people on the work

  15. The Use of Operational Excellence Principles in a University Hospital

    Eric R. Edelman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Operational Excellence in the Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC+ has been the first of its kind and scale for a university hospital. The policy makers of the MUMC+ have combined different elements from various other business, management, and healthcare philosophies and frameworks into a unique mix. This paper summarizes the journey of developing this system and its most important aspects. Special attention is paid to the role of the operating rooms and the improvements that have taken place there, because of their central role in the working of the hospital. The MUMC+ is the leading tertiary healthcare center for the South-East region of The Netherlands and beyond. Regional, national, and international developments encouraged the MUMC+ to start significantly reorganizing its care processes from 2009 onward. First experiments with Lean Six Sigma and Business Modeling were combined with lessons learned from other centers around the world to form the MUMC+’s own type of Operational Excellence. At the time of writing, many improvement projects of different types have been successfully completed. Every single department in the hospital now uses Operational Excellence and design thinking in general as a method to develop new models of care. An evaluation in 2014 revealed several opportunities for improvement. A large number of projects were in progress, but 75% of all projects had not been completed, despite the first projects being initiated back in 2012. This led to a number of policy changes, mainly focusing on more intensive monitoring of projects and trying to do more improvement projects directly under the responsibility of the line manager. Focusing on patient value, continuous improvement, and the reduction of waste have proven to be very fitting principles for healthcare in general and specifically for application in a university hospital. Approaching improvement at a systems level while directly involving the

  16. The moral problem of health disparities.

    Jones, Cynthia M

    2010-04-01

    Health disparities exist along lines of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic class in US society. I argue that we should work to eliminate these health disparities because their existence is a moral wrong that needs to be addressed. Health disparities are morally wrong because they exemplify historical injustices. Contractarian ethics, Kantian ethics, and utilitarian ethics all provide theoretical justification for viewing health disparities as a moral wrong, as do several ethical principles of primary importance in bioethics. The moral consequences of health disparities are also troubling and further support the claim that these disparities are a moral wrong. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights provides additional support that health disparities are a moral wrong, as does an analogy with the generally accepted duty to provide equal access to education. In this article, I also consider and respond to 3 objections to my thesis.

  17. The ‘Last Resort’: A Moral and/or Legal Principle?

    Panu Minkkinen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses critically the constitutional status of the so-called ‘last resort’ principle on three different levels: in the jurisprudence of the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany, in the criminal justice principles at a European level, and, finally, in select human rights instruments at a global level. The paper claims that the penal sanction that the ‘last resort’ principle allegedly delimits, i.e. imprisonment, is a highly polymorphous sanction. In addition to the deprivation of liberty, imprisonment involves elements of corporal punishment and shaming that usually go unrecognised. Correspondingly, the basic right protected by the principle is not exclusively personal freedom as is usually claimed but an equally polymorphous human dignity. The polymorphosity of both imprisonment and human dignity, both the sanction and the right it threatens, introduces a ‘fuzziness’ into the ‘last resort’ that is typical of the principles of liberal constitutionalism. El artículo aborda críticamente la situación constitucional del principio llamado “último recurso”, a partir de tres niveles diferentes: en la jurisprudencia de la Corte Constitucional Federal de Alemania, en los principios de la justicia penal en el ámbito europeo, y, por último, en determinados instrumentos de los derechos humanos a nivel mundial. En el artículo se afirma que la sanción penal que el principio de "último recurso" supuestamente delimita, por ejemplo el encarcelamiento, es una sanción que asume múltiples formas. Además de la privación de libertad, el encarcelamiento implica elementos de castigo corporal y vergüenza que suelen pasar desapercibidos. En consecuencia, el derecho fundamental protegido por el principio no es exclusivamente la libertad personal como se suele afirmar, sino la dignidad humana, igualmente polimorfa. Las numerosas formas que adoptan tanto el encarcelamiento como la dignidad humana, la sanción como el derecho

  18. A comparative analysis of moral principles and behavioral norms in eight ethical codes relevant to health sciences librarianship, medical informatics, and the health professions.

    Byrd, Gary D; Winkelstein, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Based on the authors' shared interest in the interprofessional challenges surrounding health information management, this study explores the degree to which librarians, informatics professionals, and core health professionals in medicine, nursing, and public health share common ethical behavior norms grounded in moral principles. Using the "Principlism" framework from a widely cited textbook of biomedical ethics, the authors analyze the statements in the ethical codes for associations of librarians (Medical Library Association [MLA], American Library Association, and Special Libraries Association), informatics professionals (American Medical Informatics Association [AMIA] and American Health Information Management Association), and core health professionals (American Medical Association, American Nurses Association, and American Public Health Association). This analysis focuses on whether and how the statements in these eight codes specify core moral norms (Autonomy, Beneficence, Non-Maleficence, and Justice), core behavioral norms (Veracity, Privacy, Confidentiality, and Fidelity), and other norms that are empirically derived from the code statements. These eight ethical codes share a large number of common behavioral norms based most frequently on the principle of Beneficence, then on Autonomy and Justice, but rarely on Non-Maleficence. The MLA and AMIA codes share the largest number of common behavioral norms, and these two associations also share many norms with the other six associations. The shared core of behavioral norms among these professions, all grounded in core moral principles, point to many opportunities for building effective interprofessional communication and collaboration regarding the development, management, and use of health information resources and technologies.

  19. Smith D., 2000, Moral Geographies. Ethics in a World of Difference, Edinburgh University Press, 244 p.

    Milhaud, Olivier

    2003-01-01

    The deeply geographical nature of moral issues « Our choices are, in effect, guided by a map of moral alternatives, a map of which we are not aware. Through our everyday interactions, we trace the moral geography of our lives » Stephen Birdsall, 1996 “This book explores the interface between geography, ethics, and morality” and David Smith helps us to understand “how geographical context is significant to moral practice, and how ethical deliberation is incomplete without recognition of the ge...

  20. Representing Clarity: Using Universal Design Principles to Create Effective Hybrid Course Learning Materials

    Spiegel, Cheri Lemieux

    2012-01-01

    This article describes how the author applied principles of universal design to hybrid course materials to increase student understanding and, ultimately, success. Pulling the three principles of universal design--consistency, color, and icon representation--into the author's Blackboard course allowed her to change the types of reading skills…

  1. [Is autonomy a universal value principle? The study of concrete clinical cases in perinatology].

    Tilmans-Cabiax, Chantal

    2007-09-01

    Certain perinatalogy situations make one confront cultural differences and, in particular, the relative importance of the value of female autonomy. This leads to the following question: should autonomy have as much weight everywhere as it is given in Western health ethics? The passionate, philosophical and historical work by J.B. Schneewind, The Invention of Autonomy: A History of Modern Moral Philosophy, is used to assist in the understanding of the important cultural evolutions which have interacted to support the idea of moral autonomy in the West. This return to our roots brings us, not to question moral autonomy through its claim to universality, but to dare to relativize the modalities according to cultural contexts. And especially to rehabilitate other values--for example caring for one another--prominent in other more community orientated societies in which the West can be inspired.

  2. Military Ethics: Reflections on Principles - the Profession of Arms, Military Leadership, Ethical Practices, War and Morality, Educating the Citizen-Soldier,

    1987-09-01

    lyric outcry: "Vietnam horrors, moral bankruptcy." Surely, the principal strength of the essay is to be found in that compressed passion, for Gabriel...and societal acts, revealing deepest-held principles through conduct. As the essays in this book attest, when we ques- tion personal, community, or... essays to that continuing examination of ethical issues which is so crucial to military life. Bradley C. Hosmer Lieutenant General, US Air Force

  3. Foundations for Moral Relativism

    Velleman, J. David

    2015-01-01

    In this new edition of Foundations for Moral Relativism, a distinguished moral philosopher tames a bugbear of current debate about cultural difference. J. David Velleman shows that different communities can indeed be subject to incompatible moralities, because their local mores are rationally binding. At the same time, he explains why the mores of different communities, even when incompatible, are still variations on the same moral themes. The book thus maps out a universe of many moral world...

  4. Exploration on Effective Ways of Moral Education in University Physical Education Class

    Xionghuai Guo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical education (PE can improve the students’ physical quality and it is meanwhile an important means of developing the students’ moral quality. In PE teaching activities, we should use proper teaching method to foster PE spirit and mind the details in teaching which contribute to the formation of the students’ PE spirit. In a period when teaching reform keeps deepening, developing PE spirit is a higher goal in PE teaching. It not only toughens the students but also enhances the students’ moralities of discipline, honesty, intelligence, activity and enterprise, to grasp PE characteristics and deliberately co-mingle moral education (ME.

  5. Compression as a Universal Principle of Animal Behavior

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon; Hernández-Fernández, Antoni; Lusseau, David; Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Hsu, Minna J.; Semple, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    A key aim in biology and psychology is to identify fundamental principles underpinning the behavior of animals, including humans. Analyses of human language and the behavior of a range of non-human animal species have provided evidence for a common pattern underlying diverse behavioral phenomena: Words follow Zipf's law of brevity (the…

  6. Moral Communities and Moral Leadership.

    Chambers, David W

    2015-01-01

    The American College of Dentists is embarking on a multiyear project to improve ethics in dentistry. Early indications are that the focus will be on actual moral behavior rather than theory, that we will include organizations as ethical units, and that we will focus on building moral leadership. There is little evidence that the "telling individuals how to behave" approach to ethics is having the hoped-for effect. As a profession, dentistry is based on shared trust. The public level of trust in practitioners is acceptable, but could be improved, and will need to be strengthened to reduce the risk of increasing regulation. While feedback from the way dentists and patients view ethics is generally reassuring, dentists are often at odds with patients and their colleagues over how the profesion manages itself. Individuals are an inconsistent mix of good and bad behavior, and it may be more helpful to make small improvements in the habits of all dentists than to try to take a few certifiably dishonest ones off the street. A computer simulation model of dentistry as a moral community suggests that the profession will always have the proportion of bad actors it will tolerate, that moral leadership is a difficult posture to maintain, that massive interventions to correct imbalances through education or other means will be wasted unless the system as a whole is modified, and that most dentists see no compelling benefit in changing the ethical climate of the profession because they are doing just fine. Considering organiza-tions as loci of moral behavior reveals questionable practices that otherwise remain undetected, including moral distress, fragmentation, fictitious dentists, moral fading, decoupling, responsibility shifting, and moral priming. What is most needed is not phillosophy or principles, but moral leadership.

  7. A legitimação moral dos direitos humanos: uma análise dos princípios de justiça de John Rawls / The moral legitimation of human rights: an analysis on John Rawls’ principles of justice

    Ana Paula Barbosa-Fohrmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo analisará, em primeiro lugar, o significado kantiano de legitimação e a sua distinção em relação à legitimidade. Num segundo momento, tratará de aspectos centrais da teoria de John Rawls, o qual influenciado por Kant, Locke e Rousseau, construiu uma teoria universalista e procedimental baseada em princípios morais de justiça. Por fim, serão ainda apresentadas algumas críticas à teoria rawlsiana. Palavras-chave: legitimação; teoria da justiça; elementos estruturadores; princípios morais de justiça; críticas à teoria rawlsiana. Abstract This paper will examine, first, the Kantian notion of legitimation, and the distinction between legitimation and legitimacy. Secondly, it will address some key aspects of John Rawls’ theory, who influenced by Kant, Locke and Rousseau, built a universal and proceduralist theory grounded on the moral principles of justice. Finally, some critics on Rawlsian theory will be also presented. Keywords: legitimacy; a theory of justice; structuring elements; the moral principles of justice; critics on Rawlsian theory.  

  8. Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) Universe of Chemicals and General Validation Principles

    This document was developed by the EPA to provide guidance to staff and managers regarding the EDSP universe of chemicals and general validation principles for consideration of computational toxicology tools for chemical prioritization.

  9. From Needs to Rights : A Socio-Legal Account of Bridging Moral and Legal Universalism via Ethical Pluralism

    Zwitter, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The question of the universality of human rights has much in common with the question of the universality of ethics. In the form of a multidisciplinary reflexive survey, the aim of this article is to show how human rights discourses derive from more basic principles related to basic needs. These

  10. [Universal ethical principles and their application in clinical drug trials].

    Gonorazky, Sergio Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    Since 1931, and especially since the Nuremberg Code of 1947, an increasing number of declarations, regulations, norms, guidelines, laws, resolutions, and rules intended to create conditions for better protection of subjects participating in research studies have been published, although some have meant setbacks in the human rights of vulnerable populations. As such, violations of the dignity of experimental subjects in clinical trials continue. What researchers investigate and how the research is done, the quality and transparency of the data, and the analysis and the publication of results (of both raw and processed data) respond to the financial interests of the pharmaceutical companies, coming into permanent tension with bioethical principles and the needs of society. The active participation of civil society is necessary to make it so that pharmaceutical research, results and applications subordinate economic benefits to the protection of human rights.

  11. The Gewirthian Principle of Generic Consistency as a Foundation for Human Fulfillment: Unveiling a Rational Path for Moral and Political Hope

    Robert A. Montaña

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Followers of traditional modes of ethical thinking rightly approachpostmodern philosophical methodologies with a certain enigma andsuspicion due to the latter’s tendency to swipe clean basic assumptionswhich had been historically accepted without question. Contemporarytheorists conceptually dig their way into complex labyrinths of noveldefinitions not only to establish the neotericity of their paradigms but also to disengage themselves from the tyranny of dogmatic conclusions that may inhibit their suppositions from being enclosed by established systems of thought. When the Principle of Generic Consistency (PGC was introduced by Alan Gewirth in his most popular work Reason and Morality (1978, it spurred numerous reactions, both pros and cons,1 as the principle offered to fulfill the utopian dream of establishing a rational foundation for human rights. The latter part of the book, together with subsequent articles and works, explained in detail how the principle could be applied to the intricacies of applied morality, such as the promotion of man’s well-being, and consequently, the fulfillment of his existence. This paper deals with the same path of Gewirth; only this time, it seeks to construct a rational bridge between a PGC-basedhuman self-fulfillment and the creation of a habitat that embodies hope for political harmony. Moreover, the PGC would not only be construed as the foundation for human rights, but also as a rational trail by which man’s relation with his fellow could serve to develop an intersubjective enhancement of freedom and well-being.

  12. Cultural considerations and child maltreatment: in search of universal principles.

    Kolhatkar, Gauri; Berkowitz, Carol

    2014-10-01

    Cultural diversity poses challenges within the health care setting, particularly regarding the question of how health professionals can resolve the tension between respecting cultural norms or child-rearing practices and the importance of determining what constitutes harm and child maltreatment. Cultural competency and respect for cultural diversity does not imply universal tolerance of all practices. The United Nations provides a standard of universal child rights, protecting them from harmful practices. Pediatric providers must respect cross-cultural differences while maintaining legal and ethical standards of safety and wellbeing for children, promoting evidence-based prevention of maltreatment, and advocating for child wellness across all cultures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An Investigation of Moral Principles and Mental Training in the Pāli Nikāyas and Their Implications for Behaviour Modification and Mental Health.

    Sumanacara, Ashin

    2017-08-12

    This article explicates the fundamental moral principles and mental training of Buddhism that have implications for behavioural transformation and mental health promotion. These techniques are considered to be effective for transforming the unwholesome thoughts and overcoming the afflictions (āsavas). It investigates some methods of mental training that can be designed to fit the behaviour of a practitioner. It also investigates the three key interdependent elements of mindfulness techniques and, in particular, how a simple practice of mindfulness (sati), full awareness (sampajañña), and proper attention (yoniso-manasikāra) can help us modify our behaviour and achieve mental health.

  14. Joachim Heinrich Campe’s Robinson the Younger: Universal Moral Foundations and Intercultural Relations

    Claudia Nitschke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In his adaptation of Robinson Crusoe, Campe sets out to examine the legitimacy of his contemporary social reality (in Europe in the broadest sense by tracing its origin back to the most basic roots conceivable. The experimental character of his book is emphasised and—to an extent—explicitly introduced through the frame narrative which constitutes Campe’s most important addition to Defoe’s story: Here the emergence of the rules and routines are extensively mooted by the father (who relates Robinson’s story as a framed narrative and his children who still have to internalise, grasp, and situate the moral rules around them and frequently offer divergent perspectives in the process. The frame narrative connects the moral “ontogeny” of the children to the “phylogenetics” of civilisation and suggests that both can be superimposed on one another. I will work with concepts that focus on the differentiation between “innate” moral characteristics and their social transformation on a cognitive, evolutionary level, from which Campe clearly deviates. However, his short-circuiting of the individual and the phylogeny leads to very similar specifications as laid out by, for instance, Moral Foundations Theory.

  15. The Application of Moral Judgments to Other Cultures: Relativism and Universality.

    Wainryb, Cecilia

    1993-01-01

    Sixth and tenth graders and college students were asked to apply moral judgments which they had made about a familiar context to contexts in cultures different from their own. Most subjects contextualized their judgments with respect to cultures with different informational beliefs but made nonrelativistic judgments with respect to cultures with…

  16. Cultural Conceptions of Morality: Examining Laypeople's Associations of Moral Character

    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Wilson, Marc; Fischer, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Whether moral conceptions are universal or culture-specific is controversial in moral psychology. One option is to refrain from imposing theoretical constraints and to ask laypeople from different cultures how "they" conceptualize morality. Our article adopts this approach by examining laypeople's associations of moral character in…

  17. Explaining Moral Behavior.

    Osman, Magda; Wiegmann, Alex

    2017-03-01

    In this review we make a simple theoretical argument which is that for theory development, computational modeling, and general frameworks for understanding moral psychology researchers should build on domain-general principles from reasoning, judgment, and decision-making research. Our approach is radical with respect to typical models that exist in moral psychology that tend to propose complex innate moral grammars and even evolutionarily guided moral principles. In support of our argument we show that by using a simple value-based decision model we can capture a range of core moral behaviors. Crucially, the argument we propose is that moral situations per se do not require anything specialized or different from other situations in which we have to make decisions, inferences, and judgments in order to figure out how to act.

  18. Moral Emotions and Morals

    Rocío Orsi Portalo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to explore the ambivalent role played by the so called moral emotions in moral thinking, overall when the concept of responsibility is concerned. In the first part of this paper I show how moral emotions such as guilt and shame can appear in circumstances that are not under the agent’s control, and therefore the agent could be though of free or responsibility for them. By contrast, in the second part of this essay I put how the absence of moral emotions, or their twisted development, makes as well the flourishing of individual morality impossible.

  19. Moral intuitions, moral expertise, and moral reasoning

    Musschenga, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I examine the consequences of the dominance of intuitive thinking in moral judging and deciding for the role of moral reasoning in moral education. I argue that evidence for the reliability of moral intuitions is lacking. We cannot determine when we can trust our intuitive moral

  20. Selective Moral Disengagement in the Exercise of Moral Agency.

    Bandura, Albert

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the issue of selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Argues that moral functioning is governed by self-reactive selfhood rather than by dispassionate abstract reasoning. Concludes that the massive threats to human welfare stem mainly from deliberate acts of principle rather than from unrestrained acts of impulse.…

  1. Is There a Moral Skill?

    Gotz, Ignacio L.

    1989-01-01

    The nature of skill, distinguished from habit, is sketched. Moral skill is defined as the skill, born of genetically rooted talent, which masterminds subsidiary skills into moral action (action conforming to certain moral principles). Training this skill is possible, but results will be uneven because talent varies. (IAH)

  2. Moral Intelligence in the Schools

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2009-01-01

    Moral intelligence is newer and less studied than the more established cognitive, emotional and social intelligences, but has great potential to improve our understanding of learning and behavior. Moral intelligence refers to the ability to apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. The construct of moral intelligence consists…

  3. Pursuing Pleasures of Productivity: University Students' Use of Prescription Stimulants for Enhancement and the Moral Uncertainty of Making Work Fun.

    Petersen, Margit Anne; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M

    2015-12-01

    This article presents ethnographic data on the use of prescription stimulants for enhancement purposes by university students in New York City. The study shows that students find stimulants a helpful tool in preventing procrastination, particularly in relation to feeling disinterested, overloaded, or insecure. Using stimulants, students seek pleasure in the study situation, for example, to get rid of unpleasant states of mind or intensify an already existing excitement. The article illustrates the notion that enhancement strategies do not only concern productivity in the quantitative sense of bettering results, performances, and opportunities. Students also measure their own success in terms of the qualitative experience of working hard. The article further argues that taking an ethnographic approach facilitates the study of norms in the making, as students experience moral uncertainty-not because they improve study skills and results-but because they enhance the study experience, making work fun. The article thereby seeks to nuance simplistic neoliberal ideas of personhood.

  4. Mapping the Moral Domain

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  5. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status?

    Rossi, John

    2010-09-01

    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration.

  6. Fabrications, Time-Consuming Bureaucracy and Moral Dilemmas--Finnish University Employees' Experiences on the Governance of University Work

    Jauhiainen, Arto; Jauhiainen, Annukka; Laiho, Anne; Lehto, Reeta

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how the university workers of two Finnish universities experienced the range of neoliberal policymaking and governance reforms implemented in the 2000s. These reforms include quality assurance, system of defined annual working hours, outcome-based salary system and work time allocation system. Our point of view regarding…

  7. In Search of a Universal Human Rights Metaphor: Moral Conversations across Differences

    Gordon, Mordechai

    2018-01-01

    This article takes up the educational challenge of the framers of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Specifically, the author explores the question of: how can we talk about a universal conception of human rights in a way that both respects the need for cultural pluralism and the necessity to protect those rights and freedoms that all…

  8. The metaphysics of morality : a dispositionalist account

    Robinson, William Luke

    2005-01-01

    Each of the following theses is independently plausible: Principle. Morality is principled: right-making factors or moral reasons entail corresponding moral principles. Conflict. Conflicts of moral obligation are possible and metaphysically unproblematic (even if they can be quite difficult--or even impossible--to resolve). Holism. Whether a given factor contributes to the rightness or wrongness of an action may depend on factors other than itself; hence, what is a right-making factor or mora...

  9. PRINCIPLE OF THE ELECTRONIC EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT SECURITY IN THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Valery G. Tylets

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the problem of professional training of students in e-learning environment in accordance with the principle of security. The authors offer the essay technology of multiple difficulty levels. In the article the description of each level of technology proves its conformity to the positions of principle of security. The main methods of measurement performance were made by expert assessment and subjective scaling. The analysis of results of approbation of essay technology of multiple difficulty levels in the experimental sample showed an increase of objective and subjective indicators. Positive methodological and personal effects of the introduction of technology into the process of university education were identified, corresponding to the positions of principle of security. Methodical recommendations of application of technology were formulated.

  10. Norm Acquisition, Rational Judgment and Moral Particularism

    Westphal, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Moral particularism, defined as the view that moral judgment does not require moral principles, has become prominent both in moral philosophy and in philosophy of education. This article re-examines Nussbaum's case for particularism, based on Sophocles' "Antigone", because her stress on sensitive appreciation of circumstantial specifics is…

  11. THE PHILOSOPHY OF MORALITY: UKRAINIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Volodymyr Kafarskyi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of historiosophy, whose subject matter is human and social world view, its historical, religious, intellectual, ethical and aesthetical aspects. Hence historiographical interpretation of the concept of morality, ethical criteria, and distinction between morality and ethics. These issues are viewed from the perspective of spiritual morality. Assuming that spiritual values affect deepest human feelings, our life principles and attitude to God in a special way , morality may be defined as the system of interrelationship among people, which comprises spiritual values, life experience, ways and traditions. Such an approach helps to comprehend the degree to which spiritual values influence morality and religious views of the Ukrainian people, the specific way in which the system of ethical values was built in the time of the Messianic Christianity. The formation of world view, morality and ethics is closely related to the issues of faith and social life, as well as to the development of the national philosophy and theology, both in the past and nowadays; these processes and phenomena are a significant factor in the way Ukrainians perceive themselves, the world around them and the Universe.

  12. Investigating the actor effect in moral emotion expectancies across cultures: a comparison of Chinese and Canadian adolescents.

    Krettenauer, Tobias; Jia, Fanli

    2013-09-01

    The study investigated adolescents' moral emotion expectancies for actions versus inactions across cultures (Chinese vs. Canadian) and different moral rule contexts (rules that prohibit antisocial behaviour vs. rules that prescribe prosocial actions) while controlling for judgements of obligatoriness of moral actions. The sample consisted of 372 teenagers from three grade levels (7-8, 10-11, and 1st-2nd year university). Participants were provided with scenarios depicting moral and immoral actions of self or others. Moral emotion expectancies were assessed following each scenario by asking participants to rate the intensity of various emotions they anticipate for themselves in the given situation. Actions were related to stronger self-evaluative and other-evaluative moral emotion expectancies than inactions in both cultures. Whereas perceived obligatoriness of moral actions was associated with moral emotion expectancies, it did not account for the actor effect. Moreover, Chinese adolescents tended to report stronger negatively charged other-evaluative emotions when observing others engaging in antisocial behaviour and less positive emotions for moral actions. Overall, the study indicates that moral emotion expectancies hinge upon universal moral principles (as exemplified by the actor effect) that interact with cultural values and individuals' moral judgement in complex ways. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  13. THE EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL MORALITY AND INTERNAL CONTROL ON THE PROPENSITY TO COMMIT FRAUD: EVIDENCE FROM LOCAL GOVERNMENTS

    Novita Puspasari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the influence of individual morality and internal controls on individuals’ propensity to commit accounting fraud at the local government level. This is a quasi-experimental research paper. Individual morality and internal controls are hypothesized to be having an interaction with each other in influencing the propensity to commit accounting fraud. Individuals who have low levels of moral principles are hypothesized to have the tendency to commit accounting fraud in the absence of any internal controls. To test this, a 2x2 factorial experiment was conducted involving 57 students from the Masters in Economics Development programme at Gadjah Mada University. The result shows that there is an interaction between individual morality and internal controls. The absence of internal controls does not cause an individual with high moral principles to commit accounting fraud. However, individuals with low morality levels tend to commit accounting fraud when internal controls are absent.

  14. Moral Life and Education

    Noddings, Nel

    2016-01-01

    Nel Noddings, Lee Jacks Professor of Education, Emerita, at Stanford University, agrees with Professors Lapsley and Woodbury that moral aims are central to education. She has argued that the main aim of education is to produce better people--better in "all aspects of a complete life: moral, physical, social, vocational, aesthetic,…

  15. Teaching Morally and Teaching Morality

    Fenstermacher, Gary D.; Osguthorpe, Richard D.; Sanger, Matthew N.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce what they believe is an important distinction between teaching morality and teaching morally. In P-12 schools, the moral education debate often focuses on character education programs or other moral curricula. Such programs and curricula are championed as a means of teaching morality and transmitting moral…

  16. Nietos Morales

    Arriaga

    2015-01-01

    1 Toma en 2 revelados O.I. V. DE GARCIA- Carlota R. 80 años MORALES- Pedro J. 12 años MORALES- Francisco de S. 10 años 6mes. MORALES- Beatriz 09 años Morales- Antonio 07 años MORALES- Manuel 04 años 6mes. MORALES- José 01 año

  17. The Peñalosa Principle of Transportation Democracy: Lessons from Bogotá on the Morality of Urban Mobility.

    Epting, Shane

    2017-08-01

    The mayor of Bogotá, Enrique Peñalosa strives to deliver transit services that promote social equity through bicycle lanes, improved sidewalks, and a world-famous Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system, "TransMilenio." Through examining the principles that guide his planning, we can flesh out a starting point for socially just transit systems. While such measures can alleviate several harms that transit systems cause, they rest on an incomplete foundation due to their top-down nature. To amend this situation, the author argues for a restorative justice approach to transportation democracy, using examples from Peñalosa's mayoral tenure. In turn, lessons from Bogotá's transportation history reveal how to develop transit systems that strongly favor justice.

  18. The growth of language: Universal Grammar, experience, and principles of computation.

    Yang, Charles; Crain, Stephen; Berwick, Robert C; Chomsky, Noam; Bolhuis, Johan J

    2017-10-01

    Human infants develop language remarkably rapidly and without overt instruction. We argue that the distinctive ontogenesis of child language arises from the interplay of three factors: domain-specific principles of language (Universal Grammar), external experience, and properties of non-linguistic domains of cognition including general learning mechanisms and principles of efficient computation. We review developmental evidence that children make use of hierarchically composed structures ('Merge') from the earliest stages and at all levels of linguistic organization. At the same time, longitudinal trajectories of development show sensitivity to the quantity of specific patterns in the input, which suggests the use of probabilistic processes as well as inductive learning mechanisms that are suitable for the psychological constraints on language acquisition. By considering the place of language in human biology and evolution, we propose an approach that integrates principles from Universal Grammar and constraints from other domains of cognition. We outline some initial results of this approach as well as challenges for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Case Study of Academic Writing Development Through Principled Versus Standard Clt Method at Binus University

    Almodad Biduk Asmani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research project is to investigate how far the academic writing skills of Binus University students can be developed through two conflicting CLT methods: standard and principled. The research project is expected to result in computer-animated format which can be used as one of the main tools in teaching and learning grammar at Binus University. The research project uses the qualitative approach, and thus uses verbal data. The research project involves two subject groups (experimental and control. The experimental group will receive the treatment of grammar learning by using the Principled CLT approach, while the control group receives the standard CLT approach. Survey is then conducted to the two groups so as to find out their comments on the two teaching methods. From the results of the questionnaires, it is found that Principled CLT method is favored for its knowledge and accuracy factors, while the Standard CLT is preferred for its fun and independence factors.   

  20. Gender Differences in Moral Motivation

    Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

    2007-01-01

    Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

  1. Medical Disease or Moral Defect? Stigma Attribution and Cultural Models of Addiction Causality in a University Population.

    Henderson, Nicole L; Dressler, William W

    2017-12-01

    This study examines the knowledge individuals use to make judgments about persons with substance use disorder. First, we show that there is a cultural model of addiction causality that is both shared and contested. Second, we examine how individuals' understanding of that model is associated with stigma attribution. Research was conducted among undergraduate students at the University of Alabama. College students in the 18-25 age range are especially at risk for developing substance use disorder, and they are, perhaps more than any other population group, intensely targeted by drug education. The elicited cultural model includes different types of causes distributed across five distinct themes: Biological, Self-Medication, Familial, Social, and Hedonistic. Though there was cultural consensus among respondents overall, residual agreement analysis showed that the cultural model of addiction causality is a multicentric domain. Two centers of the model, the moral and the medical, were discovered. Differing adherence to these centers is associated with the level of stigma attributed towards individuals with substance use disorder. The results suggest that current approaches to substance use education could contribute to stigma attribution, which may or may not be inadvertent. The significance of these results for both theory and the treatment of addiction are discussed.

  2. Going to the doctor with enhancement in mind – An ethnographic study of university students’ use of prescription stimulants and their moral ambivalence

    Petersen, Margit Anne; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2015-01-01

    ) enhancement purposes. Methods: The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork and in-depth interviews with 20 university students from multiple universities in New York City, from which the case is drawn. Findings: Three main themes were identified in the analysis. “The doctor prescribed them” illustrates how...... these students use doctors as easy access to study drugs, and legitimize their use of stimulants because they were prescribed. The second theme, “A good cause”, shows that the purpose is what counts as a measure for whether stimulant use is considered morally acceptable or not. The third theme, “Being......Aims: With this article, we aim to use students’ moral ambivalence towards prescription stimulants and the doctor’s who prescribe them to problematize the distinction between enhancement and treatment. We do this by investigating a case in which students obtain legitimate prescriptions for (covert...

  3. Harry Potter's Provocative Moral World: Is There a Place for Good and Evil in Moral Education?

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2008-01-01

    In a challenging critique of moral education in public schools, James Davison Hunter argues that the unspoken imperative of all moral education is to teach only those virtues, principles, and other moral teachings about which there is essentially no disagreement in American society. Hunter claims that almost every major form of moral education in…

  4. Universal Health Coverage and the Right to Health: From Legal Principle to Post-2015 Indicators.

    Sridhar, Devi; McKee, Martin; Ooms, Gorik; Beiersmann, Claudia; Friedman, Eric; Gouda, Hebe; Hill, Peter; Jahn, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is widely considered one of the key components for the post-2015 health goal. The idea of UHC is rooted in the right to health, set out in the International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights. Based on the Covenant and the General Comment of the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, which is responsible for interpreting and monitoring the Covenant, we identify 6 key legal principles that should underpin UHC based on the right to health: minimum core obligation, progressive realization, cost-effectiveness, shared responsibility, participatory decision making, and prioritizing vulnerable or marginalized groups. Yet, although these principles are widely accepted, they are criticized for not being specific enough to operationalize as post-2015 indicators for reaching the target of UHC. In this article, we propose measurable and achievable indicators for UHC based on the right to health that can be used to inform the ongoing negotiations on Sustainable Development Goals. However, we identify 3 major challenges that face any exercise in setting indicators post-2015: data availability as an essential criterion, the universality of targets, and the adaptation of global goals to local populations. © SAGE Publications 2015.

  5. Universal Huygens's principle of synchronization and coordination in the DNA and cell molecules

    Gareev, F.A.; Gareeva, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Many objects in Nature - elementary particles, nuclei, atoms, molecules, DNA, proteins, etc. are build as self-consistent hierarchical systems and have the same homological construction in the sense that they are found by the same fundamental physical laws: energy-momentum conservation law and sectoral conservation law (the second Kepler law). Schroedinger wrote that an interaction between microscopic physical objects is controlled by specific resonance laws. According to these laws any interaction in a microscopic hierarchic wave system exhibits the resonance character. Due to above said the corresponding partial motion are determinate. This determinism arises as a consequences of the energy conservation law. As the resonance condition arises from the fundamental energy conservation law, the rhythms and synchronization of the majority of phenomena to be observed are the reflection of the universal property of self-organization of the Universe. The Huygens synchronization principle is substantiated at the microscopic level as the consequence of energy conservation law and resonance character of any interaction between wave systems. In this paper we demonstrated the universality of the Huygens synchronization principle independent of substance, fields, and interactions for microsystems. Thereby, webbing some arguments in favor of the mechanism - ORDER from ORDER, declared by Schrodinger is fundamental problem of contemporary science. We came to conclusion that a stable proton and neutron play the role of standard for other elementary particles and nuclei. They contain all necessary information about structure of other particles and nuclei. This information is used and reproduced by simple rational relations, according to the fundamental conservation law of energy momentum. We originated from the principles of commensurability and self-similarity. The commensurability and self-similarity result in the very unity of the world. The principle of

  6. Universo moral de jovens internos da Febem Moral universe of juvenile offenders in internment at the São Paulo state Fundação do Bem-Estar do Menor

    Natália Felix de Carvalho Noguchi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, apresentamos elementos do universo moral de jovens internos da Fundação do Bem-Estar do Menor do Estado de São Paulo. Entrevistamos 14 sujeitos sobre o tema do 'Seguro', uma forma de organização criada pelos próprios jovens internos, que está baseada em regras precisas cuja desobediência implica a exclusão do transgressor. Procuramos verificar as formas de legitimação da referida organização, e os valores morais que a sustentam. As categorias de análise dos dados foram: autonomia/heteronomia, virtudes e personalidade moral. Os dados apontam para o predomínio de formas heteronômicas de legitimação das regras, para a valorização de certos traços de caráter (virtudes como a 'firmeza', a 'virilidade', a 'coragem' e para a franca desvalorização de seus contrários (fraqueza, homossexualidade, medo. Os dados também apontam para a construção de uma identidade que inclui valores do chamado 'mundo do crime' e que se opõe claramente ao 'mundão', que inclui as pessoas que não são os 'malandros'.This study describes the moral universe of juvenile offenders in internment at the São Paulo State Fundação do Bem-Estar do Menor. Fourteen male adolescents were interviewed on the subject of 'Seguro', i.e., an organisational code created by themselves, involving a precise set of rules whose inobservance implies the exclusion of the transgressor. We aimed at investigating this code legitimacy, as well as the moral values supporting it. The categories devised for data analysis were: autonomy/heteronomy; virtues, and moral self. The data show a prominence of heteronomous forms of legitimation of rules; the valorization of certain character traits (virtues such as strength, virility, and courage, and the sharp devaluation of their opposites: weakness, homosexuality, and fear. Our results also point out to the construction of an identity which encompasses values in the so-called "crime world", clearly opposed to those

  7. KANTIAN CONSTRUCTIVISM IN MORAL THEORY

    Rawls, John

    2005-01-01

    The author outlines the chief features of the constructivist moral conception in its Kantian variant and argues that such a moral conception had been unjustifiably looked over in relation to the traditional moral conceptions such as utilitariarism, intuitionism and perfectionism. The central idea of Kantian constructivism is linking certain notions of the person and principles of justice that should regulate basic social institutions by means of the constructivist procedure. The author’s star...

  8. Psychology as a Moral Science

    Brinkmann, Svend

    What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations,...... as a Moral Science contains enough controversial ideas to spark great interest among researchers and scholars in psychology and the philosophy of science.......What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...

  9. Moral Education in Japan

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    ‘religion’ is not a subject in schools. So, how do the Japanese go about the business of teaching values and morality? Using the Japanese example, this volume looks at moral education from the basic point of view of universal and common human values, with due attention given to culture-specific traits...... in the legal frame work (the Fundamental Law on Education was revised in 2006) and the ministerial guidelines and policies (new curriculum guidelines have been issued after the law change, and new proposals for strengthening the position of moral education come on a regular basis) have reflected the increased......What is a ‘good’ person and how do we educate ‘good’ persons? This question of morality is central to any society and its government and educational system including the Japanese. In many societies it has been customary to teach about morality from a religious standpoint, but not so in Japan, where...

  10. The AU Model Law on Universal Jurisdiction: An African Response to Western Prosecutions based on the Universality Principle

    Angelo Dube

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The African continent has been consistent in placing its concerns regarding the manner in which international criminal justice is administered on the international platform. For the past decade, the continent has minced no words about its misgivings concerning the use of universal jurisdiction (UJ by both foreign States and the International Criminal Court (ICC. The African Union (AU has been very supportive of UJ and its utility in fighting impunity and affording justice to victims of the core crimes of international law, namely, genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity. Often referred to as core crimes, these are regarded as customary law crimes which are an affront to entire humankind. These crimes were also codified by the Rome Statute of the ICC. However, the political and selective use of the principle of universality by foreign States to prosecute perpetrators of these crimes was seen as causing conflicts and undermining peace efforts, reconciliation and regional stability. As a result the African continent voiced its concerns at various public platforms, including under the auspices of the UN and it therefore called for reforms. This prompted the AU to produce its own model law on UJ, which African States could adapt to their own socio-political circumstances and legal context. The debates that ensued around UJ on the African continent offered African States a chance to contribute to the development of international law, especially on the rules concerning UJ. This paper analyses the interaction amongst African states that eventually led to the development of UJ regulations within their individual legal systems, and tries to determine if there is indeed an African signature in those legal rules.

  11. Moral sensitivity and moral distress in Iranian critical care nurses.

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohamadi, Elham; Ghasemi, Erfan; Hoseinabad-Farahani, Mohammad Javad

    2017-06-01

    Moral sensitivity is the foremost prerequisite to ethical performance; a review of literature shows that nurses are sometimes not sensitive enough for a variety of reasons. Moral distress is a frequent phenomenon in nursing, which may result in paradoxes in care, dealing with patients and rendering high-quality care. This may, in turn, hinder the meeting of care objectives, thus affecting social healthcare standards. The present research was conducted to determine the relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress of nurses in intensive care units. This study is a descriptive-correlation research. Lutzen's moral sensitivity questionnaire and Corley Moral Distress Questionnaire were used to gather data. Participants and research context: A total of 153 qualified nurses working in the hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were selected for this study. Subjects were selected by census method. Ethical considerations: After explaining the objectives of the study, all the participants completed and signed the written consent form. To conduct the study, permission was obtained from the selected hospitals. Nurses' average moral sensitivity grade was 68.6 ± 7.8, which shows a moderate level of moral sensitivity. On the other hand, nurses also experienced a moderate level of moral distress (44.8 ± 16.6). Moreover, there was no meaningful statistical relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress (p = 0.26). Although the nurses' moral sensitivity and moral distress were expected to be high in the intensive care units, it was moderate. This finding is consistent with the results of some studies and contradicts with others. As moral sensitivity is a crucial factor in care, it is suggested that necessary training be provided to develop moral sensitivity in nurses in education and practical environments. Furthermore, removing factors that contribute to moral distress may help decrease it in nurses.

  12. Moral Cognition

    Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Research on moral cognition is a growing and heavily multidisciplinary field. This section contains chapters addressing foundational psychological, neuroscientific, and philosophical issues of research on moral decision-making. Further- more, beyond summarizing the state of the art of their

  13. Teaching of Moral Values in Geography.

    Hall, Robin

    1983-01-01

    A framework for teaching morality within subject areas (specifically, geography) at the college level is proposed. The author suggests that rationality is the basis for substantive principles of morality; one can identify good reasons as opposed to poor ones. Examples of tensions that exist between geographical and moral education are provided.…

  14. Moral politics

    Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....

  15. LAWS AND PRINCIPLES OF UNIVERSAL VALUE IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS ANALYSIS

    Andreea CONSTANTINESCU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Each extension of the scope of laws and principles that allow both mathematical and statistical remodeling as well as reaffirming the appropriateness of proven methods, stirs up a special study interest. The ever-expanding computational power of laws of power offers to the scientific universe possibility of new approach to the crucial relationship between quantity and quality, between micro and macro dimensions. Boosting broadening the use of quasi-universal value theories in research in order to deepen the analysis of sustainable development indicators can lead to a greater understanding of all aspects of this area and to facilitate understanding of the arguments which underlie any responsible decision making. This assumption underlies the logical conclusion that sustainability becomes even stronger as it benefits from scientific arguments support resulting from research. Although we have confined ourselves in drafting some coordinates for application of each method presented to particular issues of sustainable development, this research theme will be strengthened and pursued through appropriate extensive analysis.

  16. Transfer of Teaching Materials between Universities: Where Is the Boundary between Legitimate Transaction and Violation of Moral Intellectual Property Rights?

    Maiwald, Matthias; Harrington, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Intellectual property rights have various facets. The best-known one is copyright, enabling the owner to legally utilise intellectual materials. However, there is a separate set of legal entitlements, termed moral intellectual property rights. The purpose of these is to prevent false attribution, damage to an author's reputation and some forms of…

  17. Moral satisficing: rethinking moral behavior as bounded rationality.

    Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2010-07-01

    What is the nature of moral behavior? According to the study of bounded rationality, it results not from character traits or rational deliberation alone, but from the interplay between mind and environment. In this view, moral behavior is based on pragmatic social heuristics rather than moral rules or maximization principles. These social heuristics are not good or bad per se, but solely in relation to the environments in which they are used. This has methodological implications for the study of morality: Behavior needs to be studied in social groups as well as in isolation, in natural environments as well as in labs. It also has implications for moral policy: Only by accepting the fact that behavior is a function of both mind and environmental structures can realistic prescriptive means of achieving moral goals be developed. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. The problem of moral choice personality

    I. A. Kadievskaya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Article is dedicated to the comprehension of the problems of the moral selection of personality. It is substantiated, that the moral consciousness is the complex system, because of which in the society are established the specific rules of interrelations between the people.   The concepts are analyzed: morals, relativity, moral absolutism, general human values, globalization, manipulation by consciousness, spiritual­ moral training. The specific character of the moral relativity, which denies absolute nature, i.e., is established universality and compulsion of morals, emphasizing conditionality and situationality of moral n. Moral absolutism is contradicted to moral relativity. Moral absolutism corresponds to persuasion, that there are absolute standards, which can be used for the permission of questions of morals, and that the specific actions can be correct or incorrect by themselves independent of their context. The two­digit (positive and negative axiological understanding of the phenomenon of globalization, which dually influences our consciousness, spiritual peace and moral selection, is represented. Under the conditions for large­scale information manipulations the translation of moral values as information, modifies their essence. Is shown the role of spiritual­ moral training in the formation, which must be variative and voluntary, allow for the possibility of ideological selection. The moral freedom of each person is manifested in the transformation of moral requirements into the internal needs of personality, into its own persuasions.

  19. Moral Progress: A Present-day Perspective on the Leading Enlightenment Idea

    Andrzej Elżanowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most Enlightenment thinkers believed that the World’s order (as ultimately based on divine laws is good and thus every gain of knowledge will have good consequences. Scientific process was assumed to entail moral progress. In fact some moral progress did occur in the Western civilization and science contributed to it, but it is widely incommensurate with the progress of science. The Enlightenment’s concept of a concerted scientific and moral progress proved largely wrong for several reasons. (1 Public morality and science evolve largely independently and may either enhance or inhibit each other. (2 There are no objective values to be read in the World’s order and simply followed. Instead, our real, subjective values and the moral systems they fuel have all been generated and shaped by evolution rather than designed to be universally good, and thus ought to be managed rather than simply followed. (3 Our evolved morality is flawed, deficient, prone to doctrinal manipulation and refractory to progress. (4 The majority of people show metaethical incompetence in failing to take a reasoned critical stand toward the principles and assumptions of received morals. This makes moral progress largely dependent on those who reach metaethical competence by transcending the conventional stages of moral development.

  20. Moral knowledge and moral factuality

    Ron Wilburn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2008v7n1p69For naturalistic and non-intuitionistic moral realists, moral knowledge is more problematic than ordinary and scientific factual knowledge. For without special faculties of moral discernment, how could we ever detect moral facts and properties? Physical facts and properties may be accessible to perceptual recognition. But how could moral facts and properties ever be similarly accessible? To address this challenge, we need a meta-ethical account that does two things. First, it must explain how the discernment of moral facts and properties ultimately consists only of the detection of appropriate physical items. Second, it must explain why, despite this fact, moral perception seems so very puzzling. In this paper I endeavor to provide such an account. It is largely because of the relational nature of moral properties, and the corresponding externalistically determined normative content of moral property terms, I argue, that our epistemic access to moral knowledge appears mysterious. The metaphysics of moral factuality does a lot to explain the seeming elusiveness of moral knowledge, and in ways that are surprisingly mundane.

  1. A Cultural Look at Moral Purity: Wiping the Face Clean

    Spike W. S. eLee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morality is associated with bodily purity in the custom of many societies. Does that imply moral purity is a universal psychological phenomenon? Empirically, it has never been examined, as all prior experimental data came from Western samples. Theoretically, we suggest the answer is not so straightforward—it depends on the kind of universality under consideration. Combining perspectives from cultural psychology and embodiment, we predict a culture-specific form of moral purification. Specifically, given East Asians’ emphasis on the face as a representation of public self-image, we hypothesize that facial purification should have particularly potent moral effects in a face culture. Data show that face-cleaning (but not hands-cleaning reduces guilt and regret most effectively against a salient East Asian cultural background. It frees East Asians from guilt-driven prosocial behavior. In the wake of their immorality, they find a face-cleaning product especially appealing and spontaneously choose to wipe their face clean. These patterns highlight both culturally variable and universal aspects of moral purification. They further suggest an organizing principle that informs the vigorous debate between embodied and amodal perspectives.

  2. DILEMAS MORALES

    Sandra Realpe Quintero

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Antes del siglo XX la tradición filosófica moral ha reconocido la existencia de los conflictos morales pero ha rechazado la posibilidad de los auténticos dilemas morales. Para poder entender por qué hoy el tema de los dilemas morales ha reclamado para sí tanta atención, es importante ponernos de acuerdo en la definición de algunos conceptos. Un conflicto moral es una situación en la que un(a agente se ve confrontado(a con dos obligaciones morales que le instan a actuar. Un dilema moral es una situación extrema de conflicto moral en la que nuestro(a agente no puede seguir un curso de acción que sea conforme con sus dos obligaciones en conflicto. Para que un conflicto moral tenga el carácter de ser un auténtico dilema moral (genuine moral dilemma y no simplemente un aparente dilema moral (apparent moral di- DILEMAS MORALES SANDRA REALPE Licenciada en Filosofía, Univalle, Maestría en Filosofía, Univalle, Diplomado en Psicología Aplicada, Universidad de Londres, Diplomado en Etica de los Negocios Universidad de Colorado, profesora Universidad Icesi, Facultad de Derecho y Humanidades. E-mail: sandrarealpe@hotmail.com lemma, ninguna de las obligaciones en conflicto es en efecto más fuerte o logra invalidar a la otra obligación. A raíz de un artículo escrito en 1962 por E. J. Lemmon, titulado precisamente “Dilemas morales” (Moral Dilemmas, se abrió un debate entre los filósofos anglosajones contemporáneos acerca de la existencia o no de los auténticos dilemas morales. Informar sobre este debate reciente, esclarecer los argumentos de sus principales protagonistas, y hacer presente en nuestro medio un novedoso debate que es importante para reflexionar sobre un buen número de problemas morales, son nuestros principales propósitos en el presente ensayo. ...

  3. Common morality and moral reform.

    Wallace, K A

    2009-01-01

    The idea of moral reform requires that morality be more than a description of what people do value, for there has to be some measure against which to assess progress. Otherwise, any change is not reform, but simply difference. Therefore, I discuss moral reform in relation to two prescriptive approaches to common morality, which I distinguish as the foundational and the pragmatic. A foundational approach to common morality (e.g., Bernard Gert's) suggests that there is no reform of morality, but of beliefs, values, customs, and practices so as to conform with an unchanging, foundational morality. If, however, there were revision in its foundation (e.g., in rationality), then reform in morality itself would be possible. On a pragmatic view, on the other hand, common morality is relative to human flourishing, and its justification consists in its effectiveness in promoting flourishing. Morality is dependent on what in fact does promote human flourishing and therefore, could be reformed. However, a pragmatic approach, which appears more open to the possibility of moral reform, would need a more robust account of norms by which reform is measured.

  4. A homogeneous assay principle for universal substrate quantification via hydrogen peroxide producing enzymes

    Zscharnack, Kristin; Kreisig, Thomas; Prasse, Agneta A.; Zuchner, Thole

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of the TRF-based PATb system for universal oxidase substrate detection. • H 2 O 2 generated by choline or glucose oxidase quenches the TRF signal of PATb. • The assay time is only limited by the oxidase catalysis rate. • Glucose is precisely detected in human serum consistent to a commercial assay. • A reliable quantification of choline in infant formula is shown. - Abstract: H 2 O 2 is a widely occurring molecule which is also a byproduct of a number of enzymatic reactions. It can therefore be used to quantify the corresponding enzymatic substrates. In this study, the time-resolved fluorescence emission of a previously described complex consisting of phthalic acid and terbium (III) ions (PATb) is used for H 2 O 2 detection. In detail, glucose oxidase and choline oxidase convert glucose and choline, respectively, to generate H 2 O 2 which acts as a quencher for the PATb complex. The response time of the PATb complex toward H 2 O 2 is immediate and the assay time only depends on the conversion rate of the enzymes involved. The PATb assay quantifies glucose in a linear range of 0.02–10 mmol L −1 , and choline from 1.56 to 100 μmol L −1 with a detection limit of 20 μmol L −1 for glucose and 1.56 μmol L −1 for choline. Both biomolecules glucose and choline could be detected without pretreatment with good precision and reproducibility in human serum samples and infant formula, respectively. Furthermore, it is shown that the detected glucose concentrations by the PATb system agree with the results of a commercially available assay. In principle, the PATb system is a universal and versatile tool for the quantification of any substrate and enzyme reaction where H 2 O 2 is involved

  5. Moral Education and Education for the Citizenship

    Áurea Maria de Oliveira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available he Moral Education and the Education for the Citizenship imply in the reflection on which are the society that we want. It is only from this definition that it becomes possible to argue the school institution contribution in the process of social transformation and, therefore the organization of a pedagogical environment aiming at the formation of the citizen as individual inserted in a universal context propitiating the necessary conditions to the development of solidary people, fraternity, with capacity to argue, to question, to cooperate and to transform the way where it lives. When establishing a relation between Moral Education and Education for the Citizenship I am prioritizing, in the pedagogical action, the work with the construction of the cooperation concept, equality and justice, concepts that will allow the understanding and the construction, for the citizen, of the human rights underlying ethical principles and the democracy concept while pillars of a free society organization, with equality and justice.

  6. A Comparison of Principles of Economics Curriculum across U.S. Colleges and Universities

    Prante, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    This paper compares principles of economics curriculum in 2015-16 academic catalogues among the Princeton Review's "The Best 380 Colleges 2016 Edition." The paper finds that 76 percent of schools on the list offer separate principles courses for microeconomics and macroeconomics, while 25 percent offer a single principles course covering…

  7. Considering Moral Intelligence as Part of a Holistic Education

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2010-01-01

    Morality and moral intelligence are important in our society and schools. Moral intelligence is discussed in the context of Gardener's theory of multiple intelligences. Moral intelligence helps apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. It consists of four competencies related to integrity, three to responsibility, two to…

  8. Universality and Realistic Extensions to the Semi-Analytic Simulation Principle in GNSS Signal Processing

    O. Jakubov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Semi-analytic simulation principle in GNSS signal processing bypasses the bit-true operations at high sampling frequency. Instead, signals at the output branches of the integrate&dump blocks are successfully modeled, thus making extensive Monte Carlo simulations feasible. Methods for simulations of code and carrier tracking loops with BPSK, BOC signals have been introduced in the literature. Matlab toolboxes were designed and published. In this paper, we further extend the applicability of the approach. Firstly, we describe any GNSS signal as a special instance of linear multi-dimensional modulation. Thereby, we state universal framework for classification of differently modulated signals. Using such description, we derive the semi-analytic models generally. Secondly, we extend the model for realistic scenarios including delay in the feed back, slowly fading multipath effects, finite bandwidth, phase noise, and a combination of these. Finally, a discussion on connection of this semi-analytic model and position-velocity-time estimator is delivered, as well as comparison of theoretical and simulated characteristics, produced by a prototype simulator developed at CTU in Prague.

  9. Designing an Interactive OER Course Development at Athabasca University Based on ODL Principles

    Hongxin Yan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Failure rates in first year calculus courses are high in most post-secondary institutions across North America and other parts of the world. This Inukshuk-funded open education project involved the development of five stand-alone pre-calculus learning modules. The design and revision phases of this project occurred between the fall of 2007 and late spring of 2009. These modules were designed to support learners enrolled in first year calculus by providing just-in-time instruction in five areas: algebraic operations, factorization, polynomials and rational expressions, radical expressions, linear and quadratic equations. One of the major challenges of the project was developing dynamic activities that could support the display of a variety of mathematical formulas. To this end an open source Flash-based authoring tool was developed called the Athabasca University Tutor Authoring Tool (AUTAT. This paper explores the design and development of the AUTAT based on the needs assessment and design principles discussed.

  10. Development and application of a universal Hemoplasma screening assay based on the SYBR green PCR principle.

    Willi, Barbara; Meli, Marina L; Lüthy, Ruedi; Honegger, Hanspeter; Wengi, Nicole; Hoelzle, Ludwig E; Reusch, Claudia E; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2009-12-01

    Hemotropic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas) are the causative agents of infectious anemia in several mammalian species. Their zoonotic potential has recently been substantiated by the identification of a feline hemoplasma isolate in an immunocompromised human patient. Although species-specific diagnostic molecular methods have been developed, their application as screening tools is limited due to the species diversity of hemoplasmas. The goals of this study were to develop a universal hemoplasma screening assay with broad specificity based on the SYBR green PCR principle, to compare the assay with hemoplasma-specific TaqMan PCR, and to analyze potential tick vectors and human blood samples to address the zoonotic potential. The newly developed PCR assay based on the 16S rRNA gene amplified feline, canine, bovine, porcine, camelid, and murine hemoplasmas, as well as Mycoplasma penetrans and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The lower detection limit for feline and canine hemoplasmas was 1 to 10 copies/PCR. The assay exhibited 98.2% diagnostic sensitivity and 92.1% diagnostic specificity for feline hemoplasmas. All 1,950 Ixodes ticks were PCR negative, suggesting that Ixodes ticks are not relevant vectors for the above-mentioned hemoplasma species in Switzerland. None of the 414 blood samples derived from anemic or immunocompromised human patients revealed a clear positive result. The SYBR green PCR assay described here is a suitable tool to screen for known and so-far-undiscovered hemoplasma species. Positive results should be confirmed by specific TaqMan PCR or sequencing.

  11. PROJECTING PRINCIPLES OF «MATHEMATICAL AND PHYSICAL BASICS IN INFORMATICS» MODULE AS PART OF A UNIVERSAL BACCALAUREATE PROGRAM

    E. K. Samerkhanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a presentation of “Mathematical and Physical Basics in Informatics” Module projected as part of universal baccalaureate model realized in Minin State Pedagogical University, Nizhny Novgorod, within the educational program for an extended group of qualifications “Informatics and Calculating Machines”. Module authors defined a strategy for baccalaureates preparation in the field of informational technology, which is realized due to a bunch of principles: education fundamentalization, learning systematization, activity, integration and student-centration. The principle of education fundamentalization requires consolidation of scientific and methodological preparation of students. The principle of learning systematization guarantees formation of students’ holistic ideology. The principle of integration is directed onto qualitative interdisciplinary conversion based on mutual enrichment of knowledge and skills. The principle of activity considers student personality, its formation and growth with respect to practical activity as a special form of psychical activity. The principle of student-centration is displayed as social-humanistic purpose of the educational process.

  12. Personal factors of moral responsibility in adolescence

    Sergey V. Molchanov

    2017-12-01

    and the nature of the consequences (damage or profit to the participant of the dilemma on the adolescents’ willingness to accept moral responsibility, as well as the role of moral value orientation in the principle of care and moral self-esteem. It was revealed that the self-esteem of such moral qualities as responsibility, honesty, responsiveness, caring is higher in adolescents, showing a high willingness to accept moral responsibility in a moral dilemma. Moral identity is proved to be a desire to maintain a high positive self-esteem of moral qualities according to the accepted system of values develops the basis of the normative moral self-regulation of the individual.

  13. Religiosity And Moral Competence: A Study Of Malaysia's Accounting Students

    Umaru Mustapha ZUBAIRU

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the earliest part of the twenty-first century, the world was rocked by several financial scandals; from Enron to WorldCom; Tyco to Parmalat; Arthur Andersen to Shell, and more recently, the global financial crisis; these scandals directed the world’s attention towards the seemingly ever-growing moral malaise amongst accountants and business people. In order to address this alarming increase in unethical and immoral behaviours among accountants and business people in Malaysia, the government mandated the teaching of Islamic and Moral studies at all levels of education. The underlying assumption was that an increased level of religiosity would translate into higher levels of moral competency. This paper sought to assess the effectiveness of Malaysia's educational policy of mandatory Islamic studies in developing the moral competencies of the country's future Muslim accountants. This was achieved by determining whether a positive relationship existed between the religiosity and moral competencies of Muslim accounting students enrolled at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM. The results revealed that although a small and positive correlation existed between the students' religiosity and moral competencies, a knowledge gap existed preventing them from being able to fully apply Islamic principles in an accounting context

  14. Moral Hindsight.

    Fleischhut, Nadine; Meder, Björn; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2017-03-01

    How are judgments in moral dilemmas affected by uncertainty, as opposed to certainty? We tested the predictions of a consequentialist and deontological account using a hindsight paradigm. The key result is a hindsight effect in moral judgment. Participants in foresight, for whom the occurrence of negative side effects was uncertain, judged actions to be morally more permissible than participants in hindsight, who knew that negative side effects occurred. Conversely, when hindsight participants knew that no negative side effects occurred, they judged actions to be more permissible than participants in foresight. The second finding was a classical hindsight effect in probability estimates and a systematic relation between moral judgments and probability estimates. Importantly, while the hindsight effect in probability estimates was always present, a corresponding hindsight effect in moral judgments was only observed among "consequentialist" participants who indicated a cost-benefit trade-off as most important for their moral evaluation.

  15. Moral vindications.

    Kumar, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Psychologists and neuroscientists have recently been unearthing the unconscious processes that give rise to moral intuitions and emotions. According to skeptics like Joshua Greene, what has been found casts doubt on many of our moral beliefs. However, a new approach in moral psychology develops a learning-theoretic framework that has been successfully applied in a number of other domains. This framework suggests that model-based learning shapes intuitions and emotions. Model-based learning explains how moral thought and feeling are attuned to local material and social conditions. Philosophers can draw on these explanations, in some cases, in order to vindicate episodes of moral change. Explanations can support justifications by showing that they are not mere rationalizations. In addition, philosophical justifications are a fertile source for empirical hypotheses about the rational learning mechanisms that shape moral intuitions and emotions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Moral virtues

    Georg Spielthenner

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much has been published on virtues in recent years, there is still considerable uncertainty in philosophy (and even more among philosophical laymen about the concept of a virtue and especially about moral virtues. In this article, I will try to clarify these notions. In particular, I want to answer the question: When are virtues moral virtues? Clearly, not every practical virtue is a moral virtue. Why was the courage of the Nazi soldiers in the second world war not a moral virtue, but yet is presumably one if included among the cardinal virtues? To clarify this question, this article will deal with the concept of a virtue but I will also investigate the notion of virtues being of a moral nature. To this end, I propose and explain (I a definition of moral virtues and clarify this definition further in section (II, by explaining why I did not include qualities, which others have considered as essential.

  17. The Moral Arc of the Universe: Salvation as Emancipation (El arco del universo moral: la salvación como emancipación

    James W. Ward

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Muchas interpretaciones modernas de la salvación trasfiguran y personalizan la salvación. La estancia eterna de un alma en el cielo es posible por medio de la salvación. Las ideas judías y cristianas son más profundas y complicadas e incluyen una idea de la salvación como una emancipación de "poderes y principios." La salvación llega después de una adaptación por el dirigente legítimo del universo y una liberación de la esclavitud a otros dirigentes falsos. Yo resumo el significado del Éxodo y las interpretaciones cristianas del reino de Dios en tres de los movimientos más importantes de la emancipación en la historia de los Estados Unidos, y hasta se podría decir del mundo: la Revolución Americana, la campaña abolicionista y el movimiento por los derechos civiles.Abstract: Many modern Christian understandings of salvation spiritualize and personalize salvation. Salvation is what makes it possible for an individual soul to spend eternity in heaven. Jewish and Christian notions of salvation are richer and more complicated, and include an understanding of salvation as emancipation from "powers and principalities." To be saved is to be adopted by the rightful ruler of the universe and liberated from servitude to all other false rulers. I briefly outline the significance of the Exodus and Christian understandings of the kingdom of God for three of the major emancipation movements in the history of the United States, and arguably the world, namely the American Revolution, the abolitionist movement, and the Civil Rights movement.

  18. MacIntyre's Moral Theory and Moral Relativism

    Ali Abedi Renani

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I seek to explain the similarity and disparity between MacIntyre’s moral theory and moral relativism. I will argue that MacIntyre’s moral theory can escape the charge of moral relativism because both his earlier social and his later metaphysical approaches appeal to some criteria, the human telos or universal human qualities respectively. The notion of telos is wider than the notion of function which is defined in social contexts. If there is a context-transcending notion of te...

  19. A homogeneous assay principle for universal substrate quantification via hydrogen peroxide producing enzymes

    Zscharnack, Kristin; Kreisig, Thomas; Prasse, Agneta A. [Institute of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Universität Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Zuchner, Thole, E-mail: Thole.Zuechner@octapharma.com [Institute of Bioanalytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry and Mineralogy, Universität Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany); Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Universität Leipzig, Deutscher Platz 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-01-07

    Highlights: • Application of the TRF-based PATb system for universal oxidase substrate detection. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated by choline or glucose oxidase quenches the TRF signal of PATb. • The assay time is only limited by the oxidase catalysis rate. • Glucose is precisely detected in human serum consistent to a commercial assay. • A reliable quantification of choline in infant formula is shown. - Abstract: H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is a widely occurring molecule which is also a byproduct of a number of enzymatic reactions. It can therefore be used to quantify the corresponding enzymatic substrates. In this study, the time-resolved fluorescence emission of a previously described complex consisting of phthalic acid and terbium (III) ions (PATb) is used for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} detection. In detail, glucose oxidase and choline oxidase convert glucose and choline, respectively, to generate H{sub 2}O{sub 2} which acts as a quencher for the PATb complex. The response time of the PATb complex toward H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is immediate and the assay time only depends on the conversion rate of the enzymes involved. The PATb assay quantifies glucose in a linear range of 0.02–10 mmol L{sup −1}, and choline from 1.56 to 100 μmol L{sup −1} with a detection limit of 20 μmol L{sup −1} for glucose and 1.56 μmol L{sup −1} for choline. Both biomolecules glucose and choline could be detected without pretreatment with good precision and reproducibility in human serum samples and infant formula, respectively. Furthermore, it is shown that the detected glucose concentrations by the PATb system agree with the results of a commercially available assay. In principle, the PATb system is a universal and versatile tool for the quantification of any substrate and enzyme reaction where H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is involved.

  20. On the Complexity of the Universal Order in Vico’s Establishing Principles

    Taha Al-Douri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In his seminal work The Principles of a New Science of the Common Nature of Nations (Principii di una scienza nuova d’intorno alla natura delle nazioni, published in 1725 then again in 1730 and posthumously in 1744, Giambattista Vico (Born in 1668 wrote to qualify the scientific to include the humanities and their complexity beyond the popular Cartesian circumscription within the laws of physics—divinely instituted and set in motion—in describing its phenomena. The work is, for one, a manifesto of the essential complexity inherent in universal order, and against a reduction of scholarship to the pure sciences, in which elimination is key. Vico proposed a structure that afforded the organic integration of the humanities within the laws of physics as parts of “a tree of knowledge” whose trunk branched out into a progression toward certainty, drawn out of the most fluid humanities at the roots, in an order of premise and conclusion. The tree metaphor is the juncture of early moments of disparity and interdependence between complexity, on the one hand, and certainty on the other. Starting at the unknown, the immeasurably immense ultimate uncertainty, perception is shaped through fear, self-protection and subject to survival instincts. And so, crude metaphysics makes the trunk rooted in “poetic wisdom” with a natural mixture of limited sensuous cognition and unlimited imagination—or one striving beyond the fetters of immediate reality, logic, ethics, economics and politics which are all poetic sciences to Vico—branch out. On the other side of those branches, physics extends into chronology and geography—the most certain—in agreement that the faculties of the human mind, including imagination, may not be outside of physics: the trunk from whence all knowledge cometh, and by the laws of which life is governed. Past validating human uncertainty as a measure of complexity—not lack of knowledge—in scientific inquiry, key concepts

  1. Morality, Moral Luck and Responsibility. Fortune's Web

    Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Nafsika Athanassoulis bog: Morality, Moral Lock and Responsibility (Palgrave MacMillian 2010)......Anmeldelse af Nafsika Athanassoulis bog: Morality, Moral Lock and Responsibility (Palgrave MacMillian 2010)...

  2. What does morality require when we disagree?

    Andersen, Martin Marchman

    2017-01-01

    In “Principled Compromise and the Abortion Controversy” Simon C. May argues that we do not have a principled moral reason to compromise. While I seek to understand how more precisely we are to understand this suggestion, I also object to it: I argue that we have a principled moral reason to accept...... democratic decisions that we disagree with, and that this can only be so if disagreement can change what the all things considered right political position is. But if this is so, then also a principled moral reason to compromise is possible. I suggest that there is a class of procedures, including compromise...

  3. Moral emotions and moral behavior.

    Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeff; Mashek, Debra J

    2007-01-01

    Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced "self-conscious" emotions-shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions. Several new areas of research are highlighted: research on the domain-specific phenomenon of body shame, styles of coping with shame, psychobiological aspects of shame, the link between childhood abuse and later proneness to shame, and the phenomena of vicarious or "collective" experiences of shame and guilt. In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions-elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process-other-oriented empathy.

  4. MORALE Assignment

    Carienvt

    some aspects of military life are so ingrained in military culture that the ... Military and political leaders around the world regard high morale of the armed .... expensive modern centralised practices borrowed from contemporary business will ..... psychological plan for the management of morale of SANDF soldiers during an.

  5. Individual Moral Judgment and Cultural Ideologies.

    Narvaez, Darcia; Getz, Irene; Rest, James R.; Thoma, Stephen J.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies examined how moral judgment and cultural ideology combine to predict moral thinking in members of a conservative church and a liberal church, and in a secular sample of university undergraduates. Found that a combination of religious ideology, political identity, and moral judgment predicted the church members' opinions on human-rights…

  6. Has Richard Rorty a moral philosophy?

    Mohammad Asghari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available I try to show that Richard Rorty, although is not a moral philosopher like Kant, nerveless, has moral philosophy that must be taken seriously. Rorty was not engaged with moral philosophy in the systematic manner common among leading modern and contemporary moral philosophers. This paper has two parts: first part, in brief, is concerned with principles of his philosophy such as anti-essentialism, Darwinism, Freudism, and historicism. Second part which be long and detailed, considers many moral themes in Rorty's thought such as critique of Kantian morality, solidarity, moral progress, cruelty and concept of other, etc. Subsequently, I will try to answer the research question of the article namely, has Rorty a moral philosophy?

  7. Universal Internet-based prevention for alcohol and cannabis use reduces truancy, psychological distress and moral disengagement: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Newton, Nicola C; Andrews, Gavin; Champion, Katrina E; Teesson, Maree

    2014-08-01

    A universal Internet-based preventive intervention has been shown to reduce alcohol and cannabis use. The aim of this study was to examine if this program could also reduce risk-factors associated with substance use in adolescents. A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in Sydney, Australia in 2007-2008 to assess the effectiveness of the Internet-based Climate Schools: Alcohol and Cannabis course. The evidence-based course, aimed at reducing alcohol and cannabis use, consists of two sets of six lessons delivered approximately six months apart. A total of 764 students (mean 13.1years) from 10 secondary schools were randomly allocated to receive the preventive intervention (n=397, five schools), or their usual health classes (n=367, five schools) over the year. Participants were assessed at baseline, immediately post, and six and twelve months following the intervention on their levels of truancy, psychological distress and moral disengagement. Compared to the control group, students in the intervention group showed significant reductions in truancy, psychological distress and moral disengagement up to twelve months following completion of the intervention. These intervention effects indicate that Internet-based preventive interventions designed to prevent alcohol and cannabis use can concurrently reduce risk-factors associated with substance use in adolescents. Australian Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN: 012607000312448. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing Veterinary and Animal Science Students' Moral Judgment Development on Animal Ethics Issues.

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2015-01-01

    Little has been done to assess veterinarians' moral judgment in relation to animal ethics issues. Following development of the VetDIT, a new moral judgment measure for animal ethics issues, this study aimed to refine and further validate the VetDIT, and to identify effects of teaching interventions on moral judgment and changes in moral judgment over time. VetDIT-V1 was refined into VetDIT-V2, and V3 was developed as a post-intervention test to prevent repetition. To test these versions for comparability, veterinary and animal science students (n=271) were randomly assigned to complete different versions. The VetDIT discriminates between stages of moral judgment, condensed into three schemas: Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP). There were no differences in the scores for MN and UP between the versions, and we equated PI scores to account for differences between versions. Veterinary science students (n=130) who completed a three-hour small-group workshop on moral development theory and ethical decision making increased their use of UP in moral reasoning, whereas students (n=271) who received similar information in a 50-minute lecture did not. A longitudinal comparison of matched first- and third-year students (n=39) revealed no moral judgment development toward greater use of UP. The VetDIT is therefore useful for assessing moral judgment of animal and human ethics issues in veterinary and other animal-related professions. Intensive small-group workshops using moral development knowledge and skills, rather than lectures, are conducive to developing veterinary students' moral judgment.

  9. Assédio moral entre docentes de instituição pública de ensino superior do Brasil Asedio moral entre docentes de una institución pública de enseñanza universitaria en Brasil Moral harassment among professors in a public university in Brazil

    Vânia Cláudia Spoti Caran

    2010-01-01

    individualidades deben ser superadas por valores, como equidad y solidaridad para que no sucedan este tipo de situaciones.OBJECTIVE: To identify the existence of moral harassment (SA among professors in a public university in Brazil. METHODS: This was a quantitative, descriptive and sectional research; the sample consisted of 54 professors (62.8% who answered questions about moral harassment at work. RESULTS: Most were women (92.6%, between 40 and 59 years (72.2%, working at the institution less than 15 years (61.1, 40.7% admitted being victims of SA at work, 59.3% knew the fellow who had suffered SA and 70.4% stated that it is a common problem in the institution. The cases described participation of: chiefs, superiors, peers, teachers and advisers. CONCLUSION: Universities are places where there is competition for positions and for research/publication resources, which facilitates the occurrence of this phenomenon. The individualities must be overcome with ethical values such as equity and solidarity to avoid the happening of moral harassment.

  10. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621

  11. Moral Judgment Reloaded: A Moral Dilemma validation study

    Julia F. Christensen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability and Intention and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan and Danish. The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set.

  12. Historical-Philosophical Components of Policy and Mo-Rality Relations

    Dmytro V. Usov

    2014-06-01

    principles appear both as formal and procedurally - material ones, but the necessary for politicians mental attitude not only to their close, but also to other people requires the willingness to be honest and open. Conclusions. The understanding of the ways of combining the morality and politics through the achievements of a compromise of completive views and life strategies is essential for the development of real, but not apparent "legal state" in which the ruling authority represents not the interests of citizens, but only their own interests and goods. Concerning the public discourse of social agreement, it goes about the need for compromise and consideration of individual life plans, and the problem of legitimacy of power and necessary for the operation of universal principles of sense of justice and trust.

  13. HISTORICAL-PHILOSOPHICAL COMPONENTS OF POLICY AND MO-RALITY RELATIONS

    Dmytro V. Usov

    2014-06-01

    principles appear both as formal and procedurally - material ones, but the necessary for politicians mental attitude not only to their close, but also to other people requires the willingness to be honest and open. Conclusions. The understanding of the ways of combining the morality and politics through the achievements of a compromise of completive views and life strategies is essential for the development of real, but not apparent "legal state" in which the ruling authority represents not the interests of citizens, but only their own interests and goods. Concerning the public discourse of social agreement, it goes about the need for compromise and consideration of individual life plans, and the problem of legitimacy of power and necessary for the operation of universal principles of sense of justice and trust.

  14. The morality of assisted reproduction and genetic manipulation

    Mori Maurizio

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the pros and cons of various forms of assisted reproduction, including the use of so-called 'genetic manipulation'. He shows how in ethics the only arguments with any chance of reaching a consensus (or at least an agreement are those of the rational type, based on universally acceptable ethical principles or corroborated by empirical facts and real life experience (as the starting point for identifying problems requiring analysis. After an analysis in which he identifies the incoherence and inconsistency of arguments against assisted reproduction, the author defends the right of human beings to decide autonomously about the most healthy forms of procreation, including those involving genetic manipulation. His starting point is the moral principle by which it is morally preferable to intervene in natural processes (as opposed to not intervening whenever this implies preventing and reducing disease and suffering

  15. The morality of assisted reproduction and genetic manipulation

    Maurizio Mori

    Full Text Available The author analyzes the pros and cons of various forms of assisted reproduction, including the use of so-called 'genetic manipulation'. He shows how in ethics the only arguments with any chance of reaching a consensus (or at least an agreement are those of the rational type, based on universally acceptable ethical principles or corroborated by empirical facts and real life experience (as the starting point for identifying problems requiring analysis. After an analysis in which he identifies the incoherence and inconsistency of arguments against assisted reproduction, the author defends the right of human beings to decide autonomously about the most healthy forms of procreation, including those involving genetic manipulation. His starting point is the moral principle by which it is morally preferable to intervene in natural processes (as opposed to not intervening whenever this implies preventing and reducing disease and suffering

  16. Epidemiology and moral philosophy.

    Westrin, C G; Nilstun, T; Smedby, B; Haglund, B

    1992-01-01

    To an increasing extent ethical controversies affect and sometimes obstruct public health work and epidemiological research. In order to improve communication between the concerned parties a model for identification and analysis of ethical conflicts in individual-based research has been worked out in co-operation between epidemiologists and moral philosophers. The model has two dimensions. One dimension specifies relevant ethical principles (as beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justi...

  17. Evaluation of Urban Spaces from the Perspective of Universal Design Principles: The Case of Konya/Turkey

    H. Filiz Alkan Meshur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During the process of accessing services provided within urban interior and outer spaces the elderly and disabled individuals encounter with a myriad of problems due to the limitations posed by structured environments. This limitation hinders elderly and disabled individuals from mobility without assistance, which in turn negatively affects their full participation to urban and social life. Rearrangement of urban spaces to meet the needs of elderly and disabled individuals would correspondingly bolster life quality of the entire range of users. Within the scope of present research, as mandated by universal design principles to stick to plans and designs approaches inclusive for all users, it is aimed to conduct evaluations on the use of urban outer spaces situated within Konya city center. In the hypothetical and theoretical part of this paper, the perception of disability throughout historical process has been examined from a sociological perspective. In addition, concept of universal design, its principles and gravity have also been elaborated. In the part dealing with the case study, outer spaces within Konya city center have been analyzed with respect to universal design principles and a range of suggestions have been developed.

  18. Inability and Obligation in Moral Judgment

    Buckwalter, Wesley; Turri, John

    2015-01-01

    It is often thought that judgments about what we ought to do are limited by judgments about what we can do, or that “ought implies can.” We conducted eight experiments to test the link between a range of moral requirements and abilities in ordinary moral evaluations. Moral obligations were repeatedly attributed in tandem with inability, regardless of the type (Experiments 1–3), temporal duration (Experiment 5), or scope (Experiment 6) of inability. This pattern was consistently observed using a variety of moral vocabulary to probe moral judgments and was insensitive to different levels of seriousness for the consequences of inaction (Experiment 4). Judgments about moral obligation were no different for individuals who can or cannot perform physical actions, and these judgments differed from evaluations of a non-moral obligation (Experiment 7). Together these results demonstrate that commonsense morality rejects the “ought implies can” principle for moral requirements, and that judgments about moral obligation are made independently of considerations about ability. By contrast, judgments of blame were highly sensitive to considerations about ability (Experiment 8), which suggests that commonsense morality might accept a “blame implies can” principle. PMID:26296206

  19. Morale Hazard

    Hanming Fang; Giuseppe Moscarini

    2003-01-01

    We interpret workers' confidence in their own skills as their morale, and investigate the implication of worker overconfidence on the firm's optimal wage-setting policies. In our model, wage contracts both provide incentives and affect worker morale, by revealing private information of the firm about worker skills. We provide conditions for the non-differentiation wage policy to be profit-maximizing. In numerical examples, worker overconfidence is a necessary condition for the firm to prefer ...

  20. The dual moral self: moral centrality and internal moral motivation.

    Krettenauer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between two aspects of the moral self, moral centrality and internal moral motivation, was analyzed. It is argued that these 2 aspects are conceptually distinct but nonetheless empirically related. Based on a cross-sectional study of 205 adolescents (M age = 14.83 years, SD = 2.21 years) it was found that moral centrality and internal moral motivation, even though substantially correlated, interacted in predicting moral emotion expectancies. Even though moral centrality was unrelated to adolescents' age it predicted a longitudinal increase in internal moral motivation over a 1-year interval. Overall, the findings call for a differentiation of moral centrality and internal moral motivation as 2 distinct but interrelated aspects of moral self-development that follow different developmental trajectories and are differentially related to age. At the same time, the study points out that adolescence may be less important for the development of the moral self than commonly assumed.

  1. Realismo y constructivismo en la teoría moral kantiana: el ejemplo de la ética del discurso

    Lafont, Cristina

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue against the metaethical view of moral Kantianism as a form of constructivism or antirealism. Given that Kantians do not share the expressivism characteristic of standard moral antirealism, Kantian constructivism seems to be an inherently unstable position, which can only be fully developed into either a consistently antirealist or a consistently realist approach. Taking Habermas’ discourse ethics as an example, I contrast a realist with an antirealist interpretation of the principle of universalization, and try to show that only the former is compatible with the moral cognitivism characteristic of Kantian moral theory, whereas the latter unavoidably leads to a decisionist (i.e., relativist approach.

    En este artículo se argumenta contra la interpretación metaética del kantianismo moral como una forma de constructivismo o antirealismo moral. Dado que los kantianos no comparten el expresivismo característico del antirealismo moral estándar, el constructivismo kantiano parece llevar a una posición inherentemente inestable que sólo puede desarrollarse o bien en un realismo consistente con el cognitivismo moral kantiano o en un decidido antirealismo moral. Tomando la ética del discurso de Habermas como ejemplo, aquí se contrasta una interpretación realista con una interpretación antirealista del principio moral de universalización con la intención de mostrar que sólo la primera es compatible con el cognitivismo moral característico de las éticas kantianas, mientras que la segunda lleva inevitablemente a un planteamiento decisionista y, con ello, a un claro relativismo moral.

  2. Impacts of Socratic questioning on moral reasoning of nursing students.

    Torabizadeh, Camellia; Homayuni, Leyla; Moattari, Marzieh

    2018-03-01

    Nurses are often faced with complex situations that made them to make ethical decisions; and to make such decisions, they need to possess the power of moral reasoning. Studies in Iran show that the majority of nursing students lack proper ethical development. Socratic teaching is a student-centered method which is strongly opposed to the lecturing method. This study was conducted to evaluate the impacts of Socratic questioning on the moral reasoning of the nursing students. In a quasi-experimental study, Crisham's Nursing Dilemma Test was used to evaluate the results of three groups before, immediately after, and 2 months after intervention. The data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software (v 15). Participants and research context: Through random allocation, 103 nursing students were divided into three groups. In experiment group 1 (37 students), intervention consisted of Socratic questioning-based sessions on ethics and how to deal with moral dilemmas; experiment group 2 (33 students) attended a 4-h workshop; and the control group (33 students) was not subject to any interventions. Signed informed consent forms: This research was approved by the Ethics Committee of the University. All the participants signed written informed consents. There were significant differences between experiment group 1 and experiment group 2's pre-test and post-test scores on moral reasoning (p ≤ 0.001, p ≤ 0.001), nursing principled thinking (p ≤ 0.001, p ≤ 0.001), and practical considerations (p ≤ 0.001, p ≤ 0.031). Both the teaching approaches improved the subjects' moral reasoning; however, Socratic questioning proved more effective than lecturing. Compared to other similar studies in Iran and other countries, the students had inadequate moral reasoning competence. This study confirms the need for the development of an efficient course on ethics in the nursing curriculum. Also, it appears that Socratic questioning is an effective method to teach nursing ethics

  3. Resourse Allocation and Pricing Principles for a University Computer Centre. Working Paper Series Number 6819.

    Possen, Uri M.; And Others

    As an introduction, this paper presents a statement of the objectives of the university computing center (UCC) from the viewpoint of the university, the government, the typical user, and the UCC itself. The operating and financial structure of a UCC are described. Three main types of budgeting schemes are discussed: time allocation, pseudo-dollar,…

  4. Universal Design for Instruction: The Paradigm, Its Principles, and Products for Enhancing Instructional Access

    McGuire, Joan M.; Scott, Sally S.; Shaw, Stan F.

    2003-01-01

    Universal Design for Instruction (UDI), a construct that serves as the foundation for the work of a federally funded project at the University of Connecticut, offers an approach to inclusive instruction that is responsive to the diverse learning needs of a changing postsecondary population. In this article elements relating to the implementation…

  5. Individual moral development and moral progress

    Schinkel, Anders; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    At first glance, one of the most obvious places to look for moral progress is in individuals, in particular in moral development from childhood to adulthood. In fact, that moral progress is possible is a foundational assumption of moral education. Beyond the general agreement that moral progress is

  6. Individual Moral Development and Moral Progress

    Schinkel, Anders; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2017-01-01

    At first glance, one of the most obvious places to look for moral progress is in individuals, in particular in moral development from childhood to adulthood. In fact, that moral progress is possible is a foundational assumption of moral education. Beyond the general agreement that moral progress is

  7. Comparing the cognitive, personality and moral characteristics of high school and graduate medical entrants to the Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran.

    Nedjat, Saharnaz; Bore, Miles; Majdzadeh, Reza; Rashidian, Arash; Munro, Don; Powis, David; Karbakhsh, Mojgan; Keshavarz, Hossein

    2013-12-01

    Tehran University of Medical Sciences has two streams of medical student admission: an established high school entry (HSE) route and an experimental graduate entry (GE) route. To compare the cognitive skills, personality traits and moral characteristics of HSE and GE students admitted to this university. The personal qualities assessment tool (PQA; www.pqa.net.au ) was translated from English to Persian and then back-translated. Afterwards 35 individuals from the GE and 109 individuals from the 2007 to 2008 HSE completed the test. The results were compared by t-test and Chi-square. The HSE students showed significantly higher ability in the cognitive skills tests (p libertarian (p = 0.022), but had lower ability to confront stress and unpleasant events (p < 0.001), and had lower self-awareness and self-control (p < 0.001). On the basis of their personal qualities, the GE students had more self-control and strength when coping with stress than the HSE students, but the latter had superior cognitive abilities. Hence it may be useful to include cognitive tests in GE students' entry exam and include tests of personal qualities to exclude those with unsuitable characteristics.

  8. Normative foundations of technology transfer and transnational benefit principles in the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Faunce, Thomas Alured; Nasu, Hitoshi

    2009-06-01

    The United Nations Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) expresses in its title and substance a controversial linkage of two normative systems: international human rights law and bioethics. The UDBHR has the status of what is known as a "nonbinding" declaration under public international law. The UDBHR's foundation within bioethics (and association, e.g., with virtue-based or principlist bioethical theories) is more problematic. Nonetheless, the UDBHR contains socially important principles of technology transfer and transnational benefit (articles 14, 15, and 21). This paper is one of the first to explore how the disciplines of bioethics and international human rights law may interact in the UDBHR to advance the policy relevance and health impact of such principles. It investigates their normative ancestry in the UDBHR, as well as relevant conceptual differences between bioethics and public international law in this respect, and how these may be relevant to their conceptual evolution and application.

  9. Universal principles governing multiple random searchers on complex networks: The logarithmic growth pattern and the harmonic law

    Weng, Tongfeng; Zhang, Jie; Small, Michael; Harandizadeh, Bahareh; Hui, Pan

    2018-03-01

    We propose a unified framework to evaluate and quantify the search time of multiple random searchers traversing independently and concurrently on complex networks. We find that the intriguing behaviors of multiple random searchers are governed by two basic principles—the logarithmic growth pattern and the harmonic law. Specifically, the logarithmic growth pattern characterizes how the search time increases with the number of targets, while the harmonic law explores how the search time of multiple random searchers varies relative to that needed by individual searchers. Numerical and theoretical results demonstrate these two universal principles established across a broad range of random search processes, including generic random walks, maximal entropy random walks, intermittent strategies, and persistent random walks. Our results reveal two fundamental principles governing the search time of multiple random searchers, which are expected to facilitate investigation of diverse dynamical processes like synchronization and spreading.

  10. Testing the Copernican and Cosmological Principles in the local universe with galaxy surveys

    Sylos Labini, Francesco; Baryshev, Yuri V.

    2010-01-01

    Cosmological density fields are assumed to be translational and rotational invariant, avoiding any special point or direction, thus satisfying the Copernican Principle. A spatially inhomogeneous matter distribution can be compatible with the Copernican Principle but not with the stronger version of it, the Cosmological Principle which requires the additional hypothesis of spatial homogeneity. We establish criteria for testing that a given density field, in a finite sample at low redshifts, is statistically and/or spatially homogeneous. The basic question to be considered is whether a distribution is, at different spatial scales, self-averaging. This can be achieved by studying the probability density function of conditional fluctuations. We find that galaxy structures in the SDSS samples, the largest currently available, are spatially inhomogeneous but statistically homogeneous and isotropic up to ∼ 100 Mpc/h. Evidences for the breaking of self-averaging are found up to the largest scales probed by the SDSS data. The comparison between the results obtained in volumes of different size allows us to unambiguously conclude that the lack of self-averaging is induced by finite-size effects due to long-range correlated fluctuations. We finally discuss the relevance of these results from the point of view of cosmological modeling

  11. Individual moral development and moral progress

    Schinkel, Anders; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2017-01-01

    At first glance, one of the most obvious places to look for moral progress is in individuals, in particular in moral development from childhood to adulthood. In fact, that moral progress is possible is a foundational assumption of moral education. Beyond the general agreement that moral progress is not only possible but even a common feature of human development things become blurry, however. For what do we mean by ‘progress’? And what constitutes moral progress? Does the idea of individual m...

  12. Statistical mechanics and the description of the early universe II. Principle of detailed balance and primordial 4He formation

    Pessah, Martin Elias; F. Torres, Diego

    2001-01-01

    If the universe is slightly non-extensive, and the distribution functions are not exactly given by those of Boltzmann-Gibbs, the primordial production of light elements will be non-trivially modified. In particular, the principle of detailed balance (PDB), of fundamental importance in the standard...... the formation of Helium and Deuterium, and study the kind of deviation one could expect from the standard regime. The correction to the capture time, the moment in which Deuterium can no longer be substantially photo-disintegrated, is also presented. This allows us to take into account the process of the free...

  13. The HERA Approach To Morally Competent Robots

    Lindner, Felix; Bentzen, Martin Mose; Nebel, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    for implementation in robots. The novelty is that HERA implements multiple ethical principles like utilitarianism, the principle of double effect, and a Pareto-inspired principle. These principles can be used to automatically assess moral situations represented in a format we call causal agency models. We discuss......To address the requirement for autonomous moral decision making, we introduce a software library for modeling hybrid ethical reasoning agents (short: HERA). The goal of the HERA project is to provide theoretically well-founded and practically usable logic-based machine ethics tools...... how to model moral situations using our approach, and how it can cope with uncertainty about moral values. Finally, we briefly outline the architecture of our robot IMMANUEL, which implements HERA and is able to explain ethical decisions to humans....

  14. The moral foundation of collective action against economic crimes

    Daud Vicary Abdullah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, economic and financial crimes have been increasing at a fast pace. No country, society, culture or community has been immune from its ravages, yet the international community has failed to cooperate in finding a solution. The main reason for failure may be the lack of a clearly articulated moral foundation. A universal moral principle that could serve as the foundation must be concerned with “harm” and its prevention, and attract universal “consent.” We argue that the Golden Rule satisfies these requirements. The golden rule of “no harm” buttressed by the specificity of the four categories of “generic rights” and “basic good,” i.e. human dignity, trust, contract, and property, could emerge as a consensual global moral principle and allow the development of legislations, laws, standards, codes and conventions that would be accepted and respected by the entire international community in the fight against economic crimes.

  15. Moral repugnance, moral distress, and organ sales.

    Taylor, James Stacey

    2015-06-01

    Many still oppose legalizing markets in human organs on the grounds that they are morally repugnant. I will argue in this paper that the repugnance felt by some persons towards sales of human organs is insufficient to justify their prohibition. Yet this rejection of the view that markets in human organs should be prohibited because some persons find them to be morally repugnant does not imply that persons' feelings of distress at the possibility of organ sales are irrational. Eduardo Rivera-Lopez argues that such instinctive distress is an appropriate response to the (rationally defensible) perception that certain kinds of arguments that are offered in favor of legalizing organ sales are "in an important sense, illegitimate." Having argued that repugnance should not ground the prohibition of markets in human organs, I will also argue that the moral distress that some feel towards certain arguments that favor such markets is not rationally defensible, either. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Ethics and Moral

    Antônio Macena Figueiredo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics and moral are terms frequently used in our every-day life; however, defining their meanings is not an easy task. If we just ask people whether there is any distinction between these terms, we will notice that it is very difficult for them to answer. This essay has the objective to present the theoretical-philosophical principles related to the conceptual inaccuracies from the analysis of the primitive root of the terms. Thus, it begins from a brief review on the etymological origin of the terms ethos and mos. The several meanings in which these terms can be employed and the concepts used are presented. At the end, there is a reflection on the comprehension of Ethics as science or as a branch of study of philosophy. Keywords: Ethics; Moral; Virtues; Social values

  17. Learning from moral inconsistency.

    Campbell, Richmond

    2017-10-01

    Moral inconsistency is an understudied phenomenon in cognitive moral psychology and deserves in depth empirical study. Moral inconsistency, as understood here, is not formal inconsistency but inconsistency in moral emotion and belief in response to particular cases. It occurs when persons treat cases as morally different that are really morally the same, even from their moral perspective. Learning to recognize and avoid such moral inconsistency in non-trivial but is a form of moral learning that complements and enhances other psychological and social mechanisms through which persons learn how to apply shared moral norms when their applications are uncertain and threaten to lapse into moral inconsistency. The same psychological process also can function to revise current moral norms when their straightforward applications are morally inconsistent with more basic moral commitments. Through this moral learning and related kinds, people can learn how to identify issues of moral priority when moral norms conflict and, when necessary, how to revise their moral norms. The recent revolution in dominant moral norms around gay sex and gay marriage in Europe and North America provides a possible illustration. When coupled with other modes of moral learning in the context of ambiguous but deeply rooted moral norms, such as those of sanctity and authority, reflection on moral inconsistency can help to justify this large-scale moral change, even among those who find gay sex, by its nature, morally repugnant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Action Plan for the Development of Civic Morality

    Chinese Education and Society, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the action plan for the development of civic morality. Here, the importance, substance, ideology and policy principles guiding the development of civic morality is elaborated. In order to strengthen the development of civic morality, it is a must to adapt to the requirements of the developing situation; seize good…

  19. Universal cervical length screening for singleton pregnancies with no history of preterm delivery, or the inverse of the Pareto principle.

    Rozenberg, P

    2017-06-01

    Ultrasound measurement of cervical length in the general population enables the identification of women at risk for spontaneous preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone is effective in reducing the risk of preterm delivery in this population. This screening associated with treatment by vaginal progesterone is cost-effective. Universal screening of cervical length can therefore be considered justified. Nonetheless, this screening will not appreciably reduce the preterm birth prevalence: in France or UK, where the preterm delivery rate is around 7.4%, this strategy would make it possible to reduce it only to 7.0%. This small benefit must be set against the considerable effort required in terms of screening ultrasound scans. Universal ultrasound screening of cervical length is the inverse of Pareto's principle: a small benefit against a considerable effort. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. Developing Inclusive Teaching and Learning Through the Principles of Universal Design.

    Knarlag, Kjetil; Olaussen, Elinor

    2016-01-01

    For decades, the term reasonable accommodations has been the lead strategy and praxis in addressing diversity and disabilities in Higher Education. Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is a well-known theory and a practical approach which challenges these traditions in order to improve inclusive teaching and learning in the American school system. A European funded project, UDLL, has transferred these theories to a European context, and developed best practice guidelines for key stakeholders in European Higher Education Institutions. This universal approach challenges established traditions, methods and mindsets in addressing the diverse student population.

  1. The Impact of the Social, Academic, and Moral Development Programs of an Achievable Dream on Students during Their College and University Experience

    Runge, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    This evaluation case study explores the impact of the An Achievable Dream social, academic, and moral program on college student's performance in college. Through this study, the researcher was able to provide insight on college student and college student advocates perceptions of An Achievable Dream's social, academic, and moral program's impact…

  2. Age Friendly Universities and Engagement with Older Adults: Moving from Principles to Practice

    Talmage, Craig A.; Mark, Rob; Slowey, Maria; Knopf, Richard C.

    2016-01-01

    The global society is facing a new burgeoning element: an ageing population. Response to the educational needs and interests of older adults requires innovative pedagogies and practices of teaching, research, and community engagement. While traditionally geared towards provision for younger adults, the case is presented that universities have the…

  3. ‘Nature’ as a humanistic principle of universal communication? A European case study regarding natural law

    Georg Essen

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The conference, “Humankind at the Intersection of Nature and Culture”, presented in the Kruger National Park in South Africa, forms part of the project “Humanism in the era of globalisation: An intercultural dialogue on culture, humanity and values”. This project works on the premise that there is a “need for a new kind of humanism, the aim is to create an understanding of humankind in an era of globalisation that encompasses all civilisations while at the same time emphasising their particularity and diversity”. Among the problems of an intercultural hermeneutics that have been in discussion, and that we should regard as essential to the understanding of humanism demanded here, there belongs the basic intuition that there needs to be universally valid norms and values that are based upon mutual recognition of cultural diversity. In order to establish such basic norms, humanism has to appeal to basic anthropological principles that can make a claim to cross-cultural legitimacy. On the one hand, the justificatory ground discerned in these principles must be unconditional and universalisable. On the other hand, these basic anthropological principles have to be evident and intelligible within each culture’s horizon of understanding. The determining ground of the will, through which each human being can endorse this set of norms, has to be compatible with his, or her, free consent.

  4. Justifying group-specific common morality.

    Strong, Carson

    2008-01-01

    Some defenders of the view that there is a common morality have conceived such morality as being universal, in the sense of extending across all cultures and times. Those who deny the existence of such a common morality often argue that the universality claim is implausible. Defense of common morality must take account of the distinction between descriptive and normative claims that there is a common morality. This essay considers these claims separately and identifies the nature of the arguments for each claim. It argues that the claim that there is a universal common morality in the descriptive sense has not been successfully defended to date. It maintains that the claim that there is a common morality in the normative sense need not be understood as universalist. This paper advocates the concept of group specific common morality, including country-specific versions. It suggests that both the descriptive and the normative claims that there are country-specific common moralities are plausible, and that a country-specific normative common morality could provide the basis for a country's bioethics.

  5. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  6. Lessons Learned on University Education Programs of Chemical Engineering Principles for Nuclear Plant Operations - 13588

    Ryu, Jun-hyung

    2013-01-01

    University education aims to supply qualified human resources for industries. In complex large scale engineering systems such as nuclear power plants, the importance of qualified human resources cannot be underestimated. The corresponding education program should involve many topics systematically. Recently a nuclear engineering program has been initiated in Dongguk University, South Korea. The current education program focuses on undergraduate level nuclear engineering students. Our main objective is to provide industries fresh engineers with the understanding on the interconnection of local parts and the entire systems of nuclear power plants and the associated systems. From the experience there is a huge opportunity for chemical engineering disciple in the context of giving macroscopic overview on nuclear power plant and waste treatment management by strengthening the analyzing capability of fundamental situations. (authors)

  7. Universal huygen's principle of synchronization andcoordination in the DNA and cell molecules

    Gareev, F.A.; Gareeva, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    Many objects in Nature elementary particles, nuclei, atoms, molecules, DNA, proteins, etc. are built as self-consistent hierarchical systems and have the same homological constructions in the sense that they are found by the same fundamental physical laws: energy-momentum conservation law and sectoral conservation law (the second Kepler law). Schroedinger wrote that an interaction between microscopic physical objects is controlled by specific resonance laws. According to these laws any interaction in a microscopic hierarchic wave system exhibits the resonance character. Due to the above-said the corresponding partial motions are determinate. This determinism arises as a consequence of the energy conservation law. As the resonance condition arises from the fundamental energy conservation law, the rhythms and synchronization of the majority of phenomena to be observed are the reflection of the universal property of self-organization of the Universe

  8. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  9. The relationship of ethics education to moral sensitivity and moral reasoning skills of nursing students.

    Park, Mihyun; Kjervik, Diane; Crandell, Jamie; Oermann, Marilyn H

    2012-07-01

    This study described the relationships between academic class and student moral sensitivity and reasoning and between curriculum design components for ethics education and student moral sensitivity and reasoning. The data were collected from freshman (n = 506) and senior students (n = 440) in eight baccalaureate nursing programs in South Korea by survey; the survey consisted of the Korean Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire and the Korean Defining Issues Test. The results showed that moral sensitivity scores in patient-oriented care and conflict were higher in senior students than in freshman students. Furthermore, more hours of ethics content were associated with higher principled thinking scores of senior students. Nursing education in South Korea may have an impact on developing student moral sensitivity. Planned ethics content in nursing curricula is necessary to improve moral sensitivity and moral reasoning of students.

  10. Teoría moral y anomia

    Riba, Jordi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available From the distinction between the concept of anomie of Durkheim and Guyau, is exposed as Guyau taking that concept describes the need of the moral theory to take a turn in his conception. For Guyau the moral stops configured as a universal law, to become an individualistic conception of morality. For Guyau the process is not only inevitable, also it is desirable.

    A partir de la distinción entre la concepción de anomia de Durkheim y Guyau, en este texto se expone como Guyau tomando dicho concepto describe la necesidad que tiene la teoría moral de dar un giro en su concepción. Para Guyau la moral deja de configurarse como ley universal, para convertirse en una concepción individualista de la moral. Para Guyau el proceso no solo es inevitable sino deseable.

  11. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2008-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview...

  12. The ABC of moral development: an attachment approach to moral judgment

    Govrin, Aner

    2014-01-01

    As with other cognitive faculties, the etiology of moral judgment and its connection to early development is complex. Because research is limited, the causative and contributory factors to the development of moral judgment in preverbal infants are unclear. However, evidence is emerging from studies within both infant research and moral psychology that may contribute to our understanding of the early development of moral judgments. Though its finding are preliminary, this proposed paradigm synthesizes these findings to generate an overarching, model of the process that appears to contribute to the development of moral judgment in the first year of life. I will propose that through early interactions with the caregiver, the child acquires an internal representation of a system of rules that determine how right/wrong judgments are to be construed, used, and understood. By breaking moral situations down into their defining features, the attachment model of moral judgment outlines a framework for a universal moral faculty based on a universal, innate, deep structure that appears uniformly in the structure of almost all moral judgments regardless of their content. The implications of the model for our understanding of innateness, universal morality, and the representations of moral situations are discussed. PMID:24478739

  13. The Misfortunes of Moral Enhancement.

    Azevedo, Marco Antonio

    2016-10-01

    In Unfit for the Future, Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu present a sophisticated argument in defense of the imperative of moral enhancement. They claim that without moral enhancement, the future of humanity is seriously compromised. The possibility of ultimate harm, caused by a dreadful terrorist attack or by a final unpreventable escalation of the present environmental crisis aggravated by the availability of cognitive enhancement, makes moral enhancement a top priority. It may be considered optimistic to think that our present moral capabilities can be successfully improved by means of moral education, moral persuasion, and fear of punishment. So, without moral enhancement, drastic restrictions on human freedom would become the only alternative to prevent those dramatic potential outcomes. In this article, I will try to show that we still have reason to be less pessimistic and that Persson & Savulescu's arguments are fortunately unconvincing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Consequences, norms, and generalized inaction in moral dilemmas: The CNI model of moral decision-making.

    Gawronski, Bertram; Armstrong, Joel; Conway, Paul; Friesdorf, Rebecca; Hütter, Mandy

    2017-09-01

    Research on moral dilemma judgments has been fundamentally shaped by the distinction between utilitarianism and deontology. According to the principle of utilitarianism, the moral status of behavioral options depends on their consequences; the principle of deontology states that the moral status of behavioral options depends on their consistency with moral norms. To identify the processes underlying utilitarian and deontological judgments, researchers have investigated responses to moral dilemmas that pit one principle against the other (e.g., trolley problem). However, the conceptual meaning of responses in this paradigm is ambiguous, because the central aspects of utilitarianism and deontology-consequences and norms-are not manipulated. We illustrate how this shortcoming undermines theoretical interpretations of empirical findings and describe an alternative approach that resolves the ambiguities of the traditional paradigm. Expanding on this approach, we present a multinomial model that allows researchers to quantify sensitivity to consequences (C), sensitivity to moral norms (N), and general preference for inaction versus action irrespective of consequences and norms (I) in responses to moral dilemmas. We present 8 studies that used this model to investigate the effects of gender, cognitive load, question framing, and psychopathy on moral dilemma judgments. The findings obtained with the proposed CNI model offer more nuanced insights into the determinants of moral dilemma judgments, calling for a reassessment of dominant theoretical assumptions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. From Folk Morality to Moral Philosophy

    J Peikani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to our terminology, the mechanism people follow in moral judgments, which is far from the sayings and rules of moral philosophers, is folk morality. Above all, people in moral judgments regard human moral capacity and do not expect full morality of any one. People suppose that perfect moral life is an ideal which is beyond human abilities. This hidden presupposition forms the foundation of human moral behavior. On the other hand, it seems that the moral systems originating from moral philosophy have been constructed a priori and, assuming a perfect man, they expect people to become such a person. It seems that it is necessary for moral philosophers to change their way and begin speculation with respect to people’s moral capacities. In this paper, we argue that minimal ethical speculation increases the level of morality in society. The basis of this turn is new progresses and findings in the field of psychology and the connection between psychology and moral philosophy a connection which will be more and more important for moral philosophers parallel to scientific progresses. Of course, this is an immature idea and therefore confronts with some critiques.

  16. Operations management and reform combining with the principles of public service of the university sports venue

    Keyi Jin

    2015-01-01

    Due to the low utilization rate of opening-use, backward management and unreasonable configurations, university sports venue cannot produce some economic benefits, which makes the operating expenses in college stadiums extremely tense. Even sometimes it comes to the precarious situation. Therefore, there should be an operations management reform for college sports venue. Firstly, the article analyzes the current situation of stadium operations management. Secondly, with the actual experience of the authors, this essay discussed on how to strengthen the operation and management of modem college sports venues and reform, which includes the way enhancing the training about modem operational management knowledge of college stadiums, strengthening the diversified operation of college stadiums, highlighting the "people-oriented" in college sports venue design concepts and vigorously developing the training services about stylistic aspects of youth and, etc.,

  17. PRINCIPLES OF MODERN UNIVERSITY "ACADEMIC CLOUD" FORMATION BASED ON OPEN SOFTWARE PLATFORM

    Olena H. Hlazunova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article approaches to the use of cloud technology in teaching of higher education students are analyzed. The essence of the concept of "academic cloud" and its structural elements are justified. The model of academic clouds of the modern university, which operates on the basis of open software platforms, are proposed. Examples of functional software and platforms, that provide the needs of students in e-learning resources, are given. The models of deployment Cloud-oriented environment in higher education: private cloud, infrastructure as a service and platform as a service, are analyzed. The comparison of the cost of deployment "academic cloud" based on its own infrastructure of the institution and lease infrastructure vendor are substantiated.

  18. Ubuntu as a Moral Theory: Reply to Four Critics | Metz | South ...

    a harmonious relationship; what makes a moral theory count as “African”; how the existing literature on African ethics relates to the aim of analytically developing and defending a single foundational moral principle; whether the intuitions I appeal to ground an African moral theory are pro tanto rightmakers or general moral ...

  19. When Moral Awareness Isn't Enough: Teaching Our Students to Recognize Social Influence

    Baker, Diane F.

    2014-01-01

    The traditional case-based method used to teach ethics in business classrooms gives students valuable practice identifying and applying key moral principles. This approach builds on a rational model of decision making and emphasizes moral awareness and moral judgment, encouraging students to describe moral dilemmas and assess the consequences of…

  20. The Debate Continues: Are There Gender Differences in Moral Reasoning as Defined by Kohlberg?

    Bruess, Brian J.; Pearson, Frances C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines changes in moral reasoning among college students and seeks to determine whether there are gender differences in the process. Women scored higher than men on both Principled moral reasoning and Davison's moral index and graduating students scored higher than first-year students on Davison's moral index. Discusses whether Kohlberg's theory…

  1. Virtue ethics: an approach to moral dilemmas in nursing

    E Arries

    2005-01-01

    Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and nonmalificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consider...

  2. Equity or equality? Moral judgments follow the money

    DeScioli, Peter; Massenkoff, Maxim; Shaw, Alex; Petersen, Michael Bang; Kurzban, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Previous research emphasizes people's dispositions as a source of differences in moral views. We investigate another source of moral disagreement, self-interest. In three experiments, participants played a simple economic game in which one player divides money with a partner according to the principle of equality (same payoffs) or the principle of equity (payoffs proportional to effort expended). We find, first, that people's moral judgment of an allocation rule depends on their role in the g...

  3. The moral ties that bind . . . Even to out-groups: the interactive effect of moral identity and the binding moral foundations.

    Smith, Isaac H; Aquino, Karl; Koleva, Spassena; Graham, Jesse

    2014-08-01

    Throughout history, principles such as obedience, loyalty, and purity have been instrumental in binding people together and helping them thrive as groups, tribes, and nations. However, these same principles have also led to in-group favoritism, war, and even genocide. Does adhering to the binding moral foundations that underlie such principles unavoidably lead to the derogation of out-group members? We demonstrated that for people with a strong moral identity, the answer is "no," because they are more likely than those with a weak moral identity to extend moral concern to people belonging to a perceived out-group. Across three studies, strongly endorsing the binding moral foundations indeed predicted support for the torture of out-group members (Studies 1a and 1b) and withholding of necessary help from out-group members (Study 2), but this relationship was attenuated among participants who also had a strong moral identity. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Death, dignity, and moral nonsense.

    Pullman, Daryl

    2004-01-01

    Although the concept of human dignity is widely invoked in discussions regarding end-of-life decision making, the content of the notion is ambiguous. Such ambiguity has led some to conclude that human dignity is a redundant or even useless concept that we would be better off without. This paper argues, to the contrary, that the concept of human dignity is indispensable to moral discourse. Far from dispensing with human dignity, we must work to clarify the concept. The paper outlines two distinct but related conceptions of dignity that are often conflated in contemporary moral discourse. These conceptions are labelled "basic dignity" and "personal dignity", respectively. It is argued that basic dignity functions as a universal meaning constraint on moral discourse in general. Hence, to dispense with the notion could reduce us to speaking moral nonsense. Throughout the discussion, some implications for our understanding of end-of-life decision making are explored.

  5. Beyond the Virtues-Principles Debate.

    Keat, Marilyn S.

    1992-01-01

    Indicates basic ontological assumptions in the virtues-principles debate in moral philosophy, noting Aristotle's and Kant's fundamental ideas about morality and considering a hermeneutic synthesis of theories. The article discusses what acceptance of the synthesis might mean in the theory and practice of moral pedagogy, offering examples of…

  6. Moral Development in Adolescence

    Hart, Daniel; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Themes in the papers in this special issue of the "JRA" on moral development are identified. We discuss the intersection of moral development research with policy concerns, the distinctive qualities of moral life in adolescence that warrant investigation, the multiple connotations of "moral", the methods typical of moral development research, and…

  7. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  8. Law and the sources of morality.

    Hinde, Robert A

    2004-01-01

    This paper argues that morality is a product of basic human psychological characteristics shaped over prehistorical and historical time by diachronic dialectical transactions between what individuals do and what they are supposed to do in the culture in which they live. Some principles are pancultural: individuals are motivated to look after their own interests, to be cooperative and kind to other group members and to look after their children. The moral precepts of every society are based on these principles, but may differ according to the vicissitudes that the society has experienced. Thus the basic principles can be seen as absolute; the precepts based on them may be specific to particular societies. Moral precepts, and the laws derived from them, are mostly such as to maintain the cohesion of the society, but some have been formulated to further the interests of those in power. The evidence suggests that laws have been developed, by common consent or by rulers, from generally accepted moral intuitions. In general, legal systems have been formulated to deal with the more extreme infringements of moral codes. Morality prescribes how people should behave; the law is concerned with how they should not. New laws, if not imposed by force, must generally be in tune with public conceptions of morality. PMID:15590610

  9. Teaching the Hitler Period: History and Morality.

    Mork, Gordon R.

    1980-01-01

    Outlines six approaches used in a university history course which address the problems of teaching the Hitler period. The assumption underlying all the approaches is that Americans are not entirely different from Germans and that they may be faced with similar moral choices. The approaches avoid the didactic moralism often taught about this era.…

  10. Reflections on Narrative Approaches to Moral Development.

    Lourenco, Orlando

    1996-01-01

    Compares narrative approaches to Kohlberg's theory of moral development along five dimensions: values relevance, legitimacy, universality, rationality, and commensurability. Argues that, contrary to Kohlberg's theory, narrative approaches may lead to contradiction in epistemology, nihilism in moral choices, and opportunism in relationships.…

  11. Towards a Theory of Moral Education

    Hand, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this inaugural lecture, delivered at the University of Birmingham in January 2014, I sketch the outline of a theory of moral education. The theory is an attempt to resolve the tension between two thoughts widely entertained by teachers, policy-makers and the general public. The first thought is that morality must be learned: children must come…

  12. Moral Luck from Bernard Williams’ Point of View

    Zahra Khazai ; Fatemeh Tamaddon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Moral luck is an important issue in meta- ethics. Its conflict to principle of control make challenges to moral moral assessment, moral judgment and moral responsibility. Bernard Williams is the first philosopher who uses the expression "moral luck" and tries to show that the contradiction between “moral” and “luck” is not so serious. Against Kantian’s idea and also our intuitions Williams doesn’t believe that morality is immune of luck and that unlike other values, is accessible to all people. If moral value is accessible to all, according to his idea, it should be not only immune of luck but also supreme. Giving some examples, Williams by concepts like justification, regret and retrospective, shows that morality hasn’t these characteristics. Dividing moral luck into four types: resultant, circumstantial, constitutive and causal, Thomas Nagel puts Williams' moral luck under the first type and criticizes it. This study seeks to explain Bernard Williams’ viewpoint on moral luck. At first it clears types of moral luck, principle of control and its contradiction with moral luck, then after explaining Williams’ account of moral luck criticizes it. Nagel’s criticisms and others show that although they accept the existence of moral luck and also their account is compatible to williams’ but they deny williams’ success in defending of this phenomenon. Finally, despite of all critiques, it seems that Williams’ failure in defense of moral luck didn’t decrease the importance of this matter, but made some stronger ideas were appeared by Thomas Nagel in this regard.

  13. Morality in everyday life.

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Wisneski, Daniel C; Brandt, Mark J; Skitka, Linda J

    2014-09-12

    The science of morality has drawn heavily on well-controlled but artificial laboratory settings. To study everyday morality, we repeatedly assessed moral or immoral acts and experiences in a large (N = 1252) sample using ecological momentary assessment. Moral experiences were surprisingly frequent and manifold. Liberals and conservatives emphasized somewhat different moral dimensions. Religious and nonreligious participants did not differ in the likelihood or quality of committed moral and immoral acts. Being the target of moral or immoral deeds had the strongest impact on happiness, whereas committing moral or immoral deeds had the strongest impact on sense of purpose. Analyses of daily dynamics revealed evidence for both moral contagion and moral licensing. In sum, morality science may benefit from a closer look at the antecedents, dynamics, and consequences of everyday moral experience. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Is moral bioenhancement dangerous?

    Drake, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In a recent response to Persson and Savulescu's Unfit for the Future, Nicholas Agar argues that moral bioenhancement is dangerous. His grounds for this are that normal moral judgement should be privileged because it involves a balance of moral subcapacities; moral bioenhancement, Agar argues, involves the enhancement of only particular moral subcapacities, and thus upsets the balance inherent in normal moral judgement. Mistaken moral judgements, he says, are likely to result. I argue that Agar's argument fails for two reasons. First, having strength in a particular moral subcapacity does not necessarily entail a worsening of moral judgement; it can involve strength in a particular aspect of morality. Second, normal moral judgement is not sufficiently likely to be correct to be the standard by which moral judgements are measured. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Bracketed morality revisited: how do athletes behave in two contexts?

    Kavussanu, Maria; Boardley, Ian D; Sagar, Sam S; Ring, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The concept of bracketed morality has received empirical support in several sport studies (e.g., Bredemeier & Shields, 1986a, 1986b). However, these studies have focused on moral reasoning. In this research, we examined bracketed morality with respect to moral behavior in sport and university contexts, in two studies. Male and female participants (Study 1: N = 331; Study 2: N = 372) completed questionnaires assessing prosocial and antisocial behavior toward teammates and opponents in sport and toward other students at university. Study 2 participants also completed measures of moral disengagement and goal orientation in both contexts. In most cases, behavior in sport was highly correlated with behavior at university. In addition, participants reported higher prosocial behavior toward teammates and higher antisocial behavior toward opponents in sport than toward other students at university. The effects of context on antisocial behavior were partially mediated by moral disengagement and ego orientation. Our findings extend the bracketed morality concept to prosocial and antisocial behavior.

  16. Non-Homogenous Moral Space (from Bentham toSen

    Piotr (Peter Boltuc

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The notion of moral space covers all thin (universal and thick (particular characteristics that may plausibly be seen as morally relevant. In this paper, I investigate certain properties of moral space so defined. These properties are not easily visible if we analyze moral characteristics individually, but become clear once we consider them collectively. In particular, following Amartya Sen, I claim that the value of moral properties is, in part, a function of positional characteristics. I call this notion the non-homogeneity of moral space.

  17. On Shermer on morality.

    Miller, Christian B

    2016-11-01

    This is my critical commentary on Michael Shermer's paper "Morality is real, objective, and natural." Shermer and I agree that morality is both real and objective. Here I raise serious reservations about both Shermer's account of where morality comes from and his account of what morality tells us to do. His approach to the foundations of morality would allow some very disturbing behaviors to count as moral, and his approach to what morality says does not provide the action guidance we need from a moral theory. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Moralization Through Moral Shock: Exploring Emotional Antecedents to Moral Conviction.

    Wisneski, Daniel C; Skitka, Linda J

    2017-02-01

    The current research tested whether exposure to disgusting images increases moral conviction and whether this happens in the presence of incidental disgust cues versus disgust cues relevant to the target of moralization. Across two studies, we exposed participants to one of the four sets of disgusting versus control images to test the moralization of abortion attitudes: pictures of aborted fetuses, animal abuse, non-harm related disgusting images, harm related disgusting images, or neutral pictures, at either sub- or supraliminal levels of awareness. Moral conviction about abortion increased (compared with control) only for participants exposed to abortion-related images at speeds slow enough to allow conscious awareness. Study 2 replicated this finding, and found that the relationship between attitudinally relevant disgust and moral conviction was mediated by disgust, and not anger or harm appraisals. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for intuitionist theories of morality and moral theories that emphasize harm.

  19. Shared perceptions: morality is embedded in social contexts.

    Carnes, Nate C; Lickel, Brian; Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie

    2015-03-01

    Morality helps make social life possible, but social life is embedded in many social contexts. Research on morality has generally neglected this and instead has emphasized people's general beliefs. We therefore investigated the extent to which different moral principles are perceived as embedded in social contexts. We conducted two studies investigating how diverse social contexts influence beliefs about the operative moral principles in distinct group types. Study 1 examined these perceptions using a within-subjects design, whereas Study 2 utilized a between-subjects design. We found a high degree of consensus among raters concerning the operative moral principles in groups, and each group type was characterized by a qualitatively distinct pattern of applicable moral principles. Political orientation, a focus of past research on morality, had a small influence on beliefs about operative moral principles. The implications of these findings for our understanding of morality and its functional role in groups are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. On Moral Education in the Finnish Comprehensive School Curriculum.

    Hakkarainen, Pentti

    1978-01-01

    Basic values of moral education in Finnish schools come from the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Moral tenets are taught in religion and civics. The textbooks deal with moral questions mainly on the individual level and provide limited opportunities for practice necessary for the internalization of values. (Author/SJL)

  1. Dimensi moral dalam kekuasaan politik

    Muchson AR

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The oldest legitimation of authority is religious legitimation, a doctrine of the Middle Ages. The King is believed as the figure manifested of God authority. like the religious concept, the Javanese mystical concepts believe that the King authority comes from the supernatural power, not from people support. Although that opinion is considered as religious legitimation, but Islam is not like it. The Holy Qur'an more emphasizes for justice and morality in political system. In the Javanese mystical perception, King is looked as a microcosm who can reserves the power of a macrocosm and then emanates it. The King's character should indicate natural power, such as power of the sun, moon, star, etc. The other side of harmony with whole world, the King must be able to create a social harmony.  Political ethics in democracy political system based on Pancasila also emphasizes that the legitimation of authority comes from people mandate, as a principle of democracy. Even though, the authority's moral and moral responsibility of authority must be appreciated and respected. The opinion that authority is not a moral legitimation and the authority is not personification of moral goodness should be rejected

  2. Moral Motivation, Moral Judgment, and Antisocial Behavior

    Brooks, Jeff; Bock, Tonia; Narvaez, Darcia

    2013-01-01

    The link between judgment and action is weak throughout psychology, including moral psychology. That is, people often do not act in accordance with their reasoning. Might moral judgment development be better viewed as a capacity that inhibits "immoral" behavior? One model that helps account for the moral judgment-action gap is Rest's…

  3. Book Review: Equal Recognition: The Moral Foundations of Minority Rights, by Alan Patten

    Lægaard, Sune

    2017-01-01

    Review of Equal Recognition: The Moral Foundations of Minority Rights, by Alan Patten. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014.......Review of Equal Recognition: The Moral Foundations of Minority Rights, by Alan Patten. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2014....

  4. The harm principle as a mid-level principle?: three problems from the context of infectious disease control.

    Krom, André

    2011-10-01

    Effective infectious disease control may require states to restrict the liberty of individuals. Since preventing harm to others is almost universally accepted as a legitimate (prima facie) reason for restricting the liberty of individuals, it seems plausible to employ a mid-level harm principle in infectious disease control. Moral practices like infectious disease control support - or even require - a certain level of theory-modesty. However, employing a mid-level harm principle in infectious disease control faces at least three problems. First, it is unclear what we gain by attaining convergence on a specific formulation of the harm principle. Likely candidates for convergence, a harm principle aimed at preventing harmful conduct, supplemented by considerations of effectiveness and always choosing the least intrusive means still leave ample room for normative disagreement. Second, while mid-level principles are sometimes put forward in response to the problem of normative theories attaching different weight to moral principles, employing a mid-level harm principle completely leaves open how to determine what weight to attach to it in application. Third, there appears to be a trade-off between attaining convergence and finding a formulation of the harm principle that can justify liberty-restrictions in all situations of contagion, including interventions that are commonly allowed. These are not reasons to abandon mid-level theorizing altogether. But there is no reason to be too theory-modest in applied ethics. Morally justifying e.g. if a liberty-restriction in infectious disease control is proportional to the aim of harm-prevention, promptly requires moving beyond the mid-level harm principle. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Moral relativism and the premisibility of promoting moral judgments across divergent value systems

    Nilsen, Kine

    2005-01-01

    "When in Rome do as the Romans do - but what if the Romans go in for some rather nasty doings" (Blackburn 2003:12)? This is Simon Blackburn's challenge towards relativism. The relativist position is often presented as the ultimate example of moral tolerance promptly stating that "anything goes". Because no universally acknowledged hierarchy of moral vaues can be discovered or referred to, all moral claims are judged only in reference to the social context from which they originate (Shafer-Lan...

  6. Refining moral agency: Insights from moral psychology and moral philosophy.

    Milliken, Aimee

    2018-01-01

    Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory. In this paper, I review some of Paley's (Nursing Philosophy, 13, 2012, 80) critique, focusing on the argument that theories of nursing ethics have failed to account for the role of context; both in terms of its impact on the way nurses make moral judgements and in terms of the environment's influence on the way the mind works. I then examine nursing literature on moral agency, and focus on the role of the environment and context play within existing theory. I argue that theories of moral agency have often accounted for the role of context on the way nurses make decisions; however, less attention has been paid to its impact on the mind. With this background, I use insights from the fields of moral philosophy and moral psychology to refine the conceptualization of nurse moral agency in a way that is reflective of current cognitive, philosophical and nursing practice-based science. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Moral Education in Taiwan.

    Meyer, Jeffrey F.

    1988-01-01

    Reports the attitudes of 80 Taiwanese teachers of morality about moral education in the face of drastic social change and modernization. Discusses the content and nature of traditional Chinese morality, the effects of contemporary culture on children's moral development, and teaching methods. Contains 18 references. (SV)

  8. Moral motivation within groups

    Lee, Romy van der

    2013-01-01

    Morality is of particular importance to people: People want to be considered moral and want to belong to moral groups. Consequently, morality judgments have the potential to motivate individuals to behave in ways that are considered to be ‘good’. In the current dissertation, I examined the impact of

  9. Morality in everyday life

    Hofmann, W.; Wisneski, D.C.; Brandt, M.J.; Skitka, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The science of morality has drawn heavily on well-controlled but artificial laboratory settings. To study everyday morality, we repeatedly assessed moral or immoral acts and experiences in a large (N = 1252) sample using ecological momentary assessment. Moral experiences were surprisingly frequent

  10. A Critique of MacIntyrean Morality From a Kantian Perspective

    Krishna Mani Pathak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a critical examination of MacIntyre’s notion of morality in reference to Kant’s deontological moral theory. The examination shows that MacIntyre (a criticizes Kant’s moral theory to defend virtue ethics or neo-Aristotelian ethics with a weak notion of morality; (b favors the idea of local morality, which does not leave any room for moral assessment and reciprocity in an intercultural domain; and (c fails to provide good arguments for his moral historicism and against Kant’s moral universalism.

  11. Development of a moral judgment measure for veterinary education.

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2014-01-01

    Veterinarians increasingly face animal ethics issues, conflicts, and dilemmas, both in practice and in policy, such as the tension between clients' and animals' interests. Little has been done to measure the capacity of veterinarians to make ethical judgments to prevent and address these issues or to identify the effectiveness of strategies to build this capacity. The objectives of this study were, first, to develop a test to identify the capacity of veterinarians to make ethical decisions in relation to animal ethics issues and, second, to assess students' perceptions of the usefulness of three methods for the development of ethical decision making. The Veterinary Defining Issues Test (VetDIT) was piloted with 88 first-year veterinary students at an Australian university. The veterinary students were at a variety of reasoning stages in their use of the Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP) reasoning methods in relation to both human ethics and animal ethics issues and operated at a higher level of reasoning for animal than human ethics. Thirty-eight students assessed three methods for developing ethical decision-making skills and identified these as being helpful in clarifying their positions, clarifying others' positions, increasing awareness of the complexity of making ethical decisions, using ethical frameworks and principles, and improving moral reasoning skills, with two methods identified as most helpful. These methods and the VetDIT have the potential to be used as tools for development and assessment of moral judgment in veterinary education to address animal ethics issues.

  12. Medicine, Morality, and Mortality: The Challenges of Moral Diversity.

    Cherry, Mark J

    2015-10-01

    This issue of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy assesses the deep and abiding tensions that exist among the competing epistemic perspectives that bear on medicine and morality. Concepts of health and disease, as well as the theoretical framing of medical ethics and health care policy, intersect with an overlapping set of culturally situated communities (scientific, political, moral, and religious), striving to understand and manipulate the world in ways that each finds explanatory, appropriate, or otherwise befitting. The articles explore the complexities of framing public health care policy to guide bioethical decision making in the face of the plurality of ethical viewpoints and moral rationalities--including health enhancing supplements, continuous sedation until death, medical futility, the protection of vulnerable populations, and competing professional obligations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Educating Moral Emotions or Moral Selves: A False Dichotomy?

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2010-01-01

    In the post-Kohlbergian era of moral education, a "moral gap" has been identified between moral cognition and moral action. Contemporary moral psychologists lock horns over how this gap might be bridged. The two main contenders for such bridge-building are moral emotions and moral selves. I explore these two options from an Aristotelian…

  14. Defining Legal Moralism

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  15. Common morality: comment on Beauchamp and Childress.

    Rauprich, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    The notion of common morality plays a prominent role in some of the most influential theories of biomedical ethics. Here, I focus on Beauchamp and Childress's models in the fourth and fifth edition of Principles of Biomedical Ethics as well as on a revision that Beauchamp proposed in a recent article. Although there are significant differences in these works that require separate analysis, all include a role for common morality as starting point and normative framework for theory construction in combination with a coherence theory of moral justification. I defend to some extent the existence and empirical significance of common morality, as delineated by Beauchamp and Childress in different versions, but criticize its normative role. It is neither convincing as a moral foundation nor well compatible with a standard coherentist justification. I suggest that the authors should give up the foundational account for a more modest account of common morality as resource of well-established moral insights and experiences, which have proved generally valid but neither sufficient nor infallible. Beauchamp's latest proposal appears as a step in this direction; indeed, it may be the beginning of the end of his common-morality theory.

  16. Choosy moral punishers.

    Christine Clavien

    Full Text Available The punishment of social misconduct is a powerful mechanism for stabilizing high levels of cooperation among unrelated individuals. It is regularly assumed that humans have a universal disposition to punish social norm violators, which is sometimes labelled "universal structure of human morality" or "pure aversion to social betrayal". Here we present evidence that, contrary to this hypothesis, the propensity to punish a moral norm violator varies among participants with different career trajectories. In anonymous real-life conditions, future teachers punished a talented but immoral young violinist: they voted against her in an important music competition when they had been informed of her previous blatant misconduct toward fellow violin students. In contrast, future police officers and high school students did not punish. This variation among socio-professional categories indicates that the punishment of norm violators is not entirely explained by an aversion to social betrayal. We suggest that context specificity plays an important role in normative behaviour; people seem inclined to enforce social norms only in situations that are familiar, relevant for their social category, and possibly strategically advantageous.

  17. Practical moral codes in the transgenic organism debate.

    Cooley, D R; Goreham, Gary; Youngs, George A

    2004-01-01

    In one study funded by the United States Department of Agriculture, people from North Dakota were interviewed to discover which moral principles they use in evaluating the morality of transgenic organisms and their introduction into markets. It was found that although the moral codes the human subjects employed were very similar, their views on transgenics were vastly different. In this paper, the codes that were used by the respondents are developed, compared to that of the academically composed Belmont Report, and then modified to create the more practical Common Moral Code. At the end, it is shown that the Common Moral Code has inherent inconsistency flaws that might be resolvable, but would require extensive work on the definition of terms and principles. However, the effort is worthwhile, especially if it results in a common moral code that all those involved in the debate are willing to use in negotiating a resolution to their differences.

  18. Sociological concept of morale

    Marjanović Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author first discusses the overall unity of the total normative regulation, from which it is separated in the late Roman empire the right, but only in the new century and the morale. There are analyzed the relationship between the moral and ethical reflection and Weber's distinction between pure ethics will (Gesinnungsethik and ethics of responsibility (Verantwortungsethik. The morale is determined by the good as the highest value, as a specific form of social norms but also as a kind of human behavior. These three definitions can be combined in an integrative approach. There are examined the dimensions of moral statements, subjective and objective side of morality, as well as the difference between morale and morality. A general notion of morale can not be defined in substantive but only in formal way . The formal definition is a constituent of general as well as of sociological concept of morale and it is related to morality as a social phenomenon. Its essence is to define the morale by specific norms, the characteristics of the internal and external mandatory (with the pricks of conscience as the most distinctive moral sanction and control exercised by the formal not institutionalized or diffuse society , and in consideration of morality as a social process (actions of people associated moral norms . The basic types of social moral process - being, education, functioning and changing of morale are described. There are briefly analyzed the influence of society to the morale and social function of morale, with special emphasis on the relationship between law and morale.

  19. Reconciling the self and morality: an empirical model of moral centrality development.

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Walker, Lawrence J

    2009-11-01

    Self-interest and moral sensibilities generally compete with one another, but for moral exemplars, this tension appears to not be in play. This study advances the reconciliation model, which explains this anomaly within a developmental framework by positing that the relationship between the self's interests and moral concerns ideally transforms from one of mutual competition to one of synergy. The degree to which morality is central to an individual's identity-or moral centrality-was operationalized in terms of values advanced implicitly in self-understanding narratives; a measure was developed and then validated. Participants were 97 university students who responded to a self-understanding interview and to several measures of morally relevant behaviors. Results indicated that communal values (centered on concerns for others) positively predicted and agentic (self-interested) values negatively predicted moral behavior. At the same time, the tendency to coordinate both agentic and communal values within narrative thought segments positively predicted moral behavior, indicating that the 2 motives can be adaptively reconciled. Moral centrality holds considerable promise in explaining moral motivation and its development.

  20. What makes moral dilemma judgments "utilitarian" or "deontological"?

    Gawronski, Bertram; Beer, Jennifer S

    2017-12-01

    The distinction between utilitarianism and deontology has become a prevailing framework for conceptualizing moral judgment. According to the principle of utilitarianism, the morality of an action depends on its outcomes. In contrast, the principle of deontology states that the morality of an action depends on its consistency with moral norms. To identify the processes underlying utilitarian and deontological judgments, research in psychology and neuroscience has investigated responses to moral dilemmas that pit one principle against the other (e.g., trolley dilemma). However, the interpretation of responses in this paradigm is ambiguous, because the defining aspects of utilitarianism and deontology, outcomes and norms, are not manipulated. We illustrate how this shortcoming distorts interpretations of empirical findings and describe an alternative approach that overcomes the limitations of the traditional paradigm.

  1. A moral profession.

    Newham, Roger; Terry, Louise; Atherley, Siobhan; Hahessy, Sinead; Babenko-Mould, Yolanda; Evans, Marilyn; Ferguson, Karen; Carr, Graham; Cedar, S H

    2017-01-01

    Lack of compassion is claimed to result in poor and sometimes harmful nursing care. Developing strategies to encourage compassionate caring behaviours are important because there is evidence to suggest a connection between having a moral orientation such as compassion and resulting caring behaviour in practice. This study aimed to articulate a clearer understanding of compassionate caring via nurse educators' selection and use of published texts and film. This study employed discourse analysis. Participants and research context: A total of 41 nurse educators working in universities in the United Kingdom (n = 3), Ireland (n = 1) and Canada (n = 1) completed questionnaires on the narratives that shaped their understanding of care and compassion. The desire to understand others and how to care compassionately characterised educators' choices. Most narratives were examples of kindness and compassion. A total of 17 emphasised the importance of connecting with others as a central component of compassionate caring, 10 identified the burden of caring, 24 identified themes of abandonment and of failure to see the suffering person and 15 narratives showed a discourse of only showing compassion to those 'deserving' often understood as the suffering person doing enough to help themselves. These findings are mostly consistent with work in moral philosophy emphasising the particular or context and perception or vision as well as the necessity of emotions. The narratives themselves are used by nurse educators to help explicate examples of caring and compassion (or its lack). To feel cared about people need to feel 'visible' as though they matter. Nurses need to be alert to problems that may arise if their 'moral vision' is influenced by ideas of desert and how much the patient is doing to help himself or herself.

  2. Brogaard's Moral Contextualism

    Binderup, Lars Grassme

    2008-01-01

    Brogaard's non-indexical version of moral contextualism has two related problems. It is unable to account for the function of truth-governed assertoric moral discourse, since it leaves two (semantically clearheaded) disputants without any incentive to resolve seemingly contradictory moral claims....... The moral contextualist could explain why people do feel such an incentive by ascribing false beliefs about the semantic workings of their own language. But, secondly, this leaves Brogaard's moral contextualism looking weaker than a Mackie-style invariantist error theory about morals. The latter is equally...

  3. Utilitarianism and the idea of university: A short ethical analysis

    Cekić Nenad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard objection to the utilitarian vision of morality is that utilitarian so-called “Greatest-Happiness Principle” could justify counter-intuitive practices such as punishing and sacrifice of innocents, breaking of promises and manipulation. The underlying presumption is that the greatest cause (general utility, “happiness” must be capable of justifying causing suffering of the few. The fact is that, in the upbringing and education of humans (children, some degree of manipulation is needed. Instead, in that process, we use concepts which belong to deontological prescriptions (“obligations,” “duties” such as “Do not lie” or “Do not steal.” Our question is: Can we imagine the University guided by the simple utility principle. We must remember that a University is for adults, not for children. Why now not be open and at the University say that everything we do we do for the sake of hedonistic “happiness,” not for the sake of duty. That seems suspicious for several reasons. Maybe the most noteworthy objection is that Mill’s version of the utilitarianism tends to divide humanity into two classes: moral aristocracy, which seeks “higher pleasures,” and others who do not. Does that mean that utilitarians must organize secret utilitarian universities for moral aristocracy? Does it mean that moral aristocracy, according to the utility principle, should organize “deontological,” manipulative public universities for lower classes?

  4. Is Teaching Neoclassical Economics as "the" Science of Economics Moral?

    Parvin, Manoucher

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the morality of teaching neoclassical theory as the only science of economics. Argues that the teaching of neoclassical theory violates moral principles unless each and every attribute of neoclassical theory is proven superior to corresponding attributes of competing theories. Criticizes neoclassical economics for teaching what rather…

  5. Moral Learning for the Workplace: A Role for VET

    James, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores ways that vocational education and training (VET) might become involved in the development of moral "know-how", ready for workplace practice. The primary concern here is the transformation of earlier-learnt ethical principles to their applied moral behaviour, essential for appropriate practice within workplace…

  6. Foundationalism in Moral Rules and the Problem of Relativism ...

    In this paper we undertake a deep critical analysis of the foundations of moral principles. In it we have established that moral rules guiding human conduct are derivable from either the precepts of some religious belief system, societal norms or from the contemplative dispositions of the individual. The conclusion drawn from ...

  7. Cosmological principle

    Wesson, P.S.

    1979-01-01

    The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8πGl 2 rho/c 2 , 8πGl 2 rho/c 4 , and 2 Gm/c 2 l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution

  8. The Relationship between Intuitive Action Choices and Moral Reasoning on Animal Ethics Issues in Students of Veterinary Medicine and Other Relevant Professions.

    Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C

    2018-01-01

    With growing understanding of animals' capabilities, and public and organizational pressures to improve animal welfare, moral action by veterinarians and other relevant professionals to address animal issues is increasingly important. Little is known about how their action choices relate to their moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. A moral judgment measure, the VetDIT, with three animal and three non-animal scenarios, was used to investigate the action choices of 619 students in five animal- and two non-animal-related professional programs in one Australian university, and how these related to their moral reasoning based on Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), or Universal Principles (UP) schemas. Action choices showed significant relationships to PI, MN, and UP questions, and these varied across program groups. Having a previous degree or more experience with farm animals had a negative relationship, and experience with horses or companion animals a positive relationship, with intuitive action choices favoring life and bodily integrity of animals. This study helps to explain the complex relationship between intuitive moral action choices and moral reasoning on animal ethics issues. As a useful research and educational tool for understanding this relationship, the VetDIT can enhance ethical decision making.

  9. Human morality and temperament.

    Kagan, Jerome

    2005-01-01

    This chapter has tried to make two points. First, the concept of morality refers to a developmental cascade of phenomena whose essential features are (a) inhibition of punished acts; (b) a representation of prohibited actions; (c) the emotions of uncertainty, empathy, shame, and guilt; (d) the semantic concepts of good and bad; (e) accepting the moral obligations of social categories; and (f) the concepts of fairness and the ideal. The inhibition of prohibited actions and the cognitive representation of prohibited behaviors, as well as the affect states that follow violations, appear by the end of the second year of life. The concepts of good and bad appear early in the third year, the experience of guilt and awareness of social categories by 4-6 years, and the notions of fairness, the ideal, and relational social categories during the school years. Second, some of the variation in the intensity and frequency of the moral emotions is attributable to the child's temperament. Eleven-year-old children who had been high-reactive infants and admitted to feelings of guilt when they violated a family standard were cortically and autonomically more aroused than the low reactives who reported equally frequent experiences of guilt. Further, high reactives who were perceived by their mothers as highly sensitive to punishment were biologically more aroused than high reactives perceived as less sensitive. Both universal developmental phenomena tied to brain maturation and temperamental variation associated with neurochemistry contribute to the complex phenomena that constitute the moral domain. The role of affect in promoting the adherence to standards remains controversial. Kant believed that people acted morally because acceptance of the categorical imperative required proper behavior-reason was the guardian of social harmony. Peirce and Dewey, by contrast, argued that anticipation of the emotions of anxiety, shame, and guilt motivated loyalty to the community's ethical

  10. Moral Education as Intercultural Moral Education

    Frisancho, Susana; Delgado, Guillermo Enrique

    2018-01-01

    In a diverse country such as Peru, moral education should reflect social, cultural, political and spiritual dilemmas of both indigenous and non-indigenous peoples and their communities. To promote understanding and respect amongst people from different sociocultural backgrounds, moral education should encourage a dialogue between indigenous values…

  11. Moral Appearances: Emotions, Robots, and Human Morality.

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Can we build ‘moral robots’? If morality depends on emotions, the answer seems negative. Current robots do not meet standard necessary conditions for having emotions: they lack consciousness, mental states, and feelings. Moreover, it is not even clear how we might ever establish whether robots

  12. Objectivity And Moral Relativism

    Magni, Sergio Filippo

    2017-01-01

    The relativity of morals has usually been taken as an argument against the objectivity of ethics. However, a more careful analysis can show that there are forms of moral objectivism which have relativistic implications, and that moral relativism can be compatible with the objectivity of ethics. Such an objectivity is not always in contrast to moral relativism and it is possible to be relativists without having to give up the claim of objectivity in ethics

  13. Reactions to morally motivated deviance

    Cramwinckel, F.M.; Van den Bos, K.; Van Dijk, E.

    2015-01-01

    People value morality in themselves and others. They want to be moral and good individuals, associate themselves with others who share their moral values, and belong to moral groups. As an ironic consequence of the importance of morality, people sometimes respond negatively to morally motivated

  14. The role of moral utility in decision making: An interdisciplinary framework

    Tobler, P.N.; Kalis, A.; Kalenscher, T.

    2008-01-01

    What decisions should we make? Moral values, rules, and virtues provide standards for morally acceptable decisions, without prescribing how we should reach them. However, moral theories do assume that we are, at least in principle, capable of making the right decisions. Consequently, an empirical

  15. Can Morality be Separated from Religion in the Teaching of Values?

    Nucci, Larry; Junker, Linda

    The author argues that morality can be taught in public schools without retreating into moral relativism and without compromising our cultural and constitutional principles of freedom of speech and the separation of church and state. The paper draws from philosophy and psychological theory to illustrate that concepts of the moral constitute a…

  16. [Bioethics of principles].

    Pérez-Soba Díez del Corral, Juan José

    2008-01-01

    Bioethics emerges about the tecnological problems of acting in human life. Emerges also the problem of the moral limits determination, because they seem exterior of this practice. The Bioethics of Principles, take his rationality of the teleological thinking, and the autonomism. These divergence manifest the epistemological fragility and the great difficulty of hmoralñ thinking. This is evident in the determination of autonomy's principle, it has not the ethical content of Kant's propose. We need a new ethic rationality with a new refelxion of new Principles whose emerges of the basic ethic experiences.

  17. Moral challenges in managed care

    Leandri Hattingh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Managed health care in South Africa is faced with complex moral challenges, where different stakeholders appeal to different ethics principles to guide decision making. The traditional bio-medical ethics principles of beneficence, non-maleficence and respect for autonomy are typically emphasised in clinical practice, while third party funders appeal to the principle of justice to guide the allocation of limited, pooled resources. Health care professionals working in managed care are particularly exposed to these conflicts, vis-à-vis incongruence between the ethics guidelines from their professional bodies and the legislation pertaining to managed care. Common understanding of the claims and responsibilities of each of the stakeholders may promote a more coherent, sustainable health care system. 

  18. Neural correlates of moral judgment in pedophilia

    Massau, Claudia; Kärgel, Christian; Weiß, Simone; Walter, Martin; Ponseti, Jorge; HC Krueger, Tillmann; Walter, Henrik; Schiffer, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pedophilia is a sexual preference that is often associated with child sex offending (CSO). Sexual urges towards prepubescent children and specifically acting upon those urges are universally regarded as immoral. However, up until now, it is completely unknown whether moral processing of sexual offenses is altered in pedophiles. A total of 31 pedophilic men and 19 healthy controls were assessed by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination with a moral judgment ...

  19. Moral counselling: a method in development.

    de Groot, Jack; Leget, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a method of moral counselling developed in the Radboud University Medical Centre Nijmegen (The Netherlands). The authors apply insights of Paul Ricoeur to the non-directive counselling method of Carl Rogers in their work of coaching patients with moral problems in health care. The developed method was shared with other health care professionals in a training course. Experiences in the course and further practice led to further improvement of the method.

  20. Morale and Productivity

    2015-06-01

    account for valuation of highly technical skill sets and variation among job descriptions. 9 Once morale can be effectively measured and linked to...morale progression through phases (arrival, engagement, acceptance, and reentry), which have corresponding peaks and valleys for morale and, by

  1. Moral Education and Caring

    Noddings, Nel

    2010-01-01

    Michael Slote's very interesting work on moral sentimentalism and moral education raises some important questions on the meaning of empathy, the limitations of "inductions", and the development of moral education from the perspective of care ethics. These questions are addressed in this commentary. (Contains 5 notes.)

  2. Moral Education in Pakistan.

    Haq, Shafiqua

    1980-01-01

    This report describes formal and informal methods of moral education operative in Pakistan. The nation's Islamic environment is explained; school policy, objectives, and practices are outlined; and informal moral education efforts through the mass media are noted. Problems in moral education in Pakistan and proposals for the future are discussed.…

  3. Sentimentalist Moral Education

    Slote, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Care ethics, and moral sentimentalism more generally, have not developed a picture of moral education that is comparable in scope or depth to the rationalist/Kantian/Rawlsian account of moral education that has been offered by Lawrence Kohlberg. But it is possible to do so if one borrows from the work of Martin Hoffman and makes systematic use of…

  4. Making the Case for Moral Development Education

    O'Flaherty, Joanne; Doyle, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    The importance of education in developing ethically sensitive individuals who use principled moral reasoning when facing dilemmas has been widely acknowledged (Pascarella and Terenzini 1991; Rest et al. 1999b). However, ethics is typically omitted from the higher level curriculum and, if raised at all, comprises a very minor element of the course…

  5. Investigating Morals and Values in Today's Society.

    Garnett, Paul D.

    This responsibility education activity book for grades 5-10 offers a set of materials that reflect students' interests and motivation for values education. The book is built around three moral principles: (1) "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you" (Confucius, 513 B.C.); (2) "The end does not justify the means" (Immanuel Kant, "The…

  6. Religion, morality, evolution.

    Bloom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    How did religion evolve? What effect does religion have on our moral beliefs and moral actions? These questions are related, as some scholars propose that religion has evolved to enhance altruistic behavior toward members of one's group. I review here data from survey studies (both within and across countries), priming experiments, and correlational studies of the effects of religion on racial prejudice. I conclude that religion has powerfully good moral effects and powerfully bad moral effects, but these are due to aspects of religion that are shared by other human practices. There is surprisingly little evidence for a moral effect of specifically religious beliefs.

  7. A moral framework for multicultural education in healthcare.

    Vaught, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this paper is two-fold. First, I begin by reviewing several of the major points of emphasis among health educators as they begin to incorporate multicultural issues into healthcare education. I then consider the role of moral relativism, which is currently being endorsed by some health educators, as the foundation for resolving cross-cultural conflicts in healthcare. I argue that moral relativism is ultimately inconsistent with the stated goals in multicultural curricular proposals and fails to provide an effective framework for considering moral conflicts in cross-cultural settings. Instead, I propose that those methods seeking to establish a common morality, built upon mutually shared values, offer the most promising means of resolving cross-cultural conflicts. This leads to my second goal, to compare recent work in moral pragmatism with what is now widely known in bioethics as moral "principlism." I argue that while proponents of principlism and pragmatism each seek to establish a common foundation for moral deliberation, they fail to appreciate significant similarities between their respective approaches. Instead of offering two completely unique and independent methods of moral deliberation, I suggest that principlism and pragmatism embrace common themes that point us in a positive direction, providing an effective framework useful for considering cross-cultural conflicts in healthcare.

  8. Virtue ethics: an approach to moral dilemmas in nursing.

    Arries, E

    2005-08-01

    Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and non-malificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consideration for the interpersonal nature of clinical nursing practice on the one hand, and is not always clear on how to judge which consequences are best on the other hand. When principles are in conflict it is not always easy to decide which principle should dominate. Furthermore, these frameworks do not take into account the importance of the interpersonal and emotional element of human experience. On the contrary, decision-making about moral issues in healthcare demands that nurses exercise rational control over emotions. This clearly focuses the attention on the nurse as moral agent and in particular their character. In this article I argue that virtue ethics as an approach, which focus of the character of a person, might provide a more holistic analysis of moral dilemmas in nursing and might facilitate more flexible and creative solutions when combined with other theories of moral decision-making. Advancing this argument, firstly, I provide the central features of virtue ethics. Secondly I describe a story in which a moral dilemma is evident. Lastly I apply virtue ethics as an approach to this moral dilemma and in particular focusing on the virtues inherent in the nurse as moral agent in the story.

  9. Virtue ethics: an approach to moral dilemmas in nursing

    E Arries

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and nonmalificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consideration for the interpersonal nature of clinical nursing practice on the one hand, and is not always clear on how to judge which consequences are best on the other hand. When principles are in conflict it is not always easy to decide which principle should dominate. Furthermore, these frameworks do not take into account the importance of the interpersonal and emotional element of human experience. On the contrary, decision making about moral issues in healthcare demands that nurses exercise rational control over emotions. This clearly focuses the attention on the nurse as moral agent and in particular their character. In this article I argue that virtue ethics as an approach, which focus of the character of a person, might provide a more holistic analysis of moral dilemmas in nursing and might facilitate more flexible and creative solutions when combined with other theories of moral decision-making. Advancing this argument, firstly, I provide the central features of virtue ethics. Secondly I describe a story in which a moral dilemma is evident. Lastly I apply virtue ethics as an approach to this moral dilemma and in particular focusing on the virtues inherent in the nurse as moral agent in the story.

  10. A philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress.

    Thomas, Tessy A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2015-02-01

    Moral distress is one of the core topics of clinical ethics. Although there is a large and growing empirical literature on the psychological aspects of moral distress, scholars, and empirical investigators of moral distress have recently called for greater conceptual clarity. To meet this recognized need, we provide a philosophical taxonomy of the categories of what we call ethically significant moral distress: the judgment that one is not able, to differing degrees, to act on one's moral knowledge about what one ought to do. We begin by unpacking the philosophical components of Andrew Jameton's original formulation from his landmark 1984 work and identify two key respects in which that formulation remains unclear: the origins of moral knowledge and impediments to acting on that moral knowledge. We then selectively review subsequent literature that shows that there is more than one concept of moral distress and that explores the origin of the values implicated in moral distress and impediments to acting on those values. This review sets the stage for identifying the elements of a philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress. The taxonomy uses these elements to create six categories of ethically significant moral distress: challenges to, threats to, and violations of professional integrity; and challenges to, threats to, and violations of individual integrity. We close with suggestions about how the proposed philosophical taxonomy of ethically significant moral distress sheds light on the concepts of moral residue and crescendo effect of moral distress and how the proposed taxonomy might usefully guide prevention of and future qualitative and quantitative empirical research on ethically significant moral distress. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Moral absolutism and abortion: Alan Donagan on the hysterectomy and craniotomy cases.

    Reynolds, Terrence

    1985-07-01

    Reynolds argues that the nonconsequentialist moral theory proposed by Alan Donagan in his book The Theory of Morality (University of Chicago Press; 1977) does not resolve the cases in which craniotomy or removal of a cancerous uterus appears necessary to save the life of a pregnant woman. Donagan's absolute prohibition against the murder of the innocent and his rejection of the principle of double effect have led him to view the fetus as a pursuer or assailant or to assert the theory of proleptic agreement--that in risk taking ventures the parties may agree that killing one person to save the lives of the others will be accepted. Reynolds holds these arguments to be inapplicable in therapeutic abortions involving craniotomy or hysterectomy and concludes that Donagan's absolutist theory must be reexamined.

  12. Neural correlates of moral judgment in pedophilia.

    Massau, Claudia; Kärgel, Christian; Weiß, Simone; Walter, Martin; Ponseti, Jorge; Hc Krueger, Tillmann; Walter, Henrik; Schiffer, Boris

    2017-09-01

    Pedophilia is a sexual preference that is often associated with child sex offending (CSO). Sexual urges towards prepubescent children and specifically acting upon those urges are universally regarded as immoral. However, up until now, it is completely unknown whether moral processing of sexual offenses is altered in pedophiles. A total of 31 pedophilic men and 19 healthy controls were assessed by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in combination with a moral judgment paradigm consisting of 36 scenarios describing different types of offenses.Scenarios depicting sexual offenses against children compared to those depicting adults were associated with higher pattern of activation in the left temporo-parietal-junction (TPJ) and left posterior insular cortex, the posterior cingulate gyrus as well as the precuneus in controls relative to pedophiles, and vice versa. Moreover, brain activation in these areas were positively associated with ratings of moral reprehensibility and negatively associated with decision durations, but only in controls. Brain activation, found in key areas related to the broad network of moral judgment, theory of mind and (socio-)moral disgust - point to different moral processing of sexual offenses in pedophilia in general. The lack of associations between brain activation and behavioral responses in pedophiles further suggest a biased response pattern or dissected implicit valuation processes. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  13. Moral education through literature

    Pantić Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a variety of perspectives on the role of literature in moral education. These proceed from general considerations to more specific issues that remain contested to the present day, such as distinction between individual and social morality. Others bring any literature under suspicion in the post-structuralist era, such as the cultural relativity of morality, distinctions between aesthetic and moral dimensions of literary works, and between moral awareness and behavior. The discussion is illustrated through considerations of the place of literature in English moral education from the Victorians to the present day. The discussion of dilemmas that policy makers and educators face today focuses on three dilemmas that often serve to question a possibility of justifying the morally educative power of literature: cultural relativism in literature and ideology (and its implications for the canon, the distinction between an aesthetic and moral power of literature, and finally, the doubts about the transferability of moral awareness acquired through literature to actual moral conduct. .

  14. The construction of a normative instrument for the measurement of moral reasoning

    J. C. White

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to construct a normative instrument for the measurement of different levels of moral reasoning.The sample comprised 426 undergraduate students in Industrial Psychology and Personnel Management from two Afrikaans speaking universities. A questionnaire was developed to measure different levels of moral reasoning on a normative scale. A factor analysis on 90 items yielded two factors.These factors were interpreted as principled moral reasoning and prescriptive moral reasoning.The two scales were subjected to an item analysis and yielded reliability coeficients of 0,936 and 0,937.The implications of these findings are discussed. Opsomming Die hoofdoel van die studie was om’n normatiewe meetinstrument te konstrueer vir die meting van verskillende vlakke van morele redenering. Die steekproef het uit 426 voorgraadse students in Bedryfsielkunde en Personeelbestuur aan twee Afrikaanstalige universiteite bestaan. ’n Normatiewe skaal is ontwikkel om verskillende vlakke van morele redenering temeet.’n Faktorontleding van die 90 items in die skaal het twee faktore tot gevolg gehad, naamlik principiele morele redenering en voorskriftelikemorele redenering. Die skale is vervolgens aan’n itemontleding onderwerp en het betroubaarhede van 0,936 en 0,947, onderskeidelik, opgelewer. Die implikasies van die bevindinge word bespreek.

  15. Moral Action as Social Capital, Moral Thought as Cultural Capital

    Kang, Min Ju; Glassman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that moral thought/reasoning and moral actions are actually two separate phenomena that have little relationship to each other. The idea that moral thinking does or can control moral action creates a difficult dualism between our knowledge about morality and our everyday actions. These differences run parallel to the…

  16. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  17. How to make moral choices.

    Chambers, David W

    2011-01-01

    Moral choice is committing to act for what one believes is right and good. It is less about what we know than about defining who we are. Three cases typical of those used in the principles or dilemmas approach to teaching ethics are presented. But they are analyzed using an alternative approach based on seven moral choice heuristics--approaches proven to increase the likelihood of locating the best course of action. The approaches suggested for analyzing moral choice situations include: (a) identify the outcomes of available alternative courses of action; (b) rule out strategies that involve deception, coercion, reneging on promises, collusion, and contempt for others; (c) be authentic (do not deceive yourself); (d) relate to others on a human basis; (e) downplay rational justifications; (f) match the solution to the problem, not the other way around; (g) execute on the best solution, do not hold out for the perfect one; and (h) take action to improve the choice after it has been made.

  18. The presence of communication in the basic organizational principles of the University of Zulia towards the student sector

    Laura Castellano Ramírez

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is centered in detecting the presence of comunication towards the student sector, like a formal element in the redaccion of the organization basic principles (OBP of La Universidad del Zulia, such as Mision, Vision, Values, Polítics, Objectives and Strategies. Starting from the theoric approach of that the OBP conform the basic component of the Corporative Identity, in wish are rised the other three: the organizational beheivier, the simbology or visual identity and the comunication. Through the documentary research it has concluded that the communication towards the student community is not taken in count in the redaction of the basic principles, it is mentioned only in the comunicational politic but in a very general way.

  19. Is Moral Philosophy an Educationally Worthwhile Activity? Toward a Liberal Democratic Theory of Teacher Education

    Martin, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This paper looks at the case of moral philosophy in order to assess the extent to which and ways in which teacher education should respond to the liberal principle of justification. This principle states that moral and political decisions made by citizens with special kinds of influence and other coercive powers should be accountable to other…

  20. Morality as the Substructure of Social Justice: Religion in Education as a Case in Point

    Potgieter, Ferdinand J.

    2011-01-01

    Moral issues and principles do not only emerge in cases of conflict among, for instance, religious communities or political parties; indeed they form the moral substructure of notions of social justice. During periods of conflict each opponent claims justice for his/her side and bases the claim on certain principles. In this article, reference is…

  1. Conception and syllabus on radiochemistry and radioecology principles for general student groups of a university chemical department

    Bogdanov, R.V.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of basic principles of selecting materials for general courses on diverse subjects in chemical science is discussed. Relying on certain general rules and proceeding from specificity of radiochemistry, the author suggests a variant of syllabus including radiochemical and radioecological blocks intented for 48 academic hours. In methodical respect emphasis is made on theoretical material presentation in close combination with various nuclear methods used in chemical studies. 6 refs., 1 fig

  2. Pierre Sikivie from the University of Florida invented the working principle of all magnetic axion telescopes, such as CAST.

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2006-01-01

    The possible existence of axions in the universe means that they are a candidate for (very) cold dark matter, as another axion pioneer, Pierre Sikivie, from the University of Florida explained during the first Joint ILIAS-CAST-CERN Axion Training workshop. He also described the technique that he invented in 1983 for detecting axions. The idea is that axions in the galactic halo may be resonantly converted to microwave photons in a cavity permeated by a strong magnetic field.

  3. Moral realism in nursing.

    Edwards, Steven D

    2014-04-01

    For more than 15 years Professor Per Nortvedt has been arguing the case for moral realism in nursing and the health-care context more generally. His arguments focus on the clinical contexts of nursing and medicine and are supplemented by a series of persuasive examples. Following a description of moral realism, and the kinds of considerations that support it, criticisms of it are developed that seem persuasive. It is argued that our moral responses are explained by our beliefs as opposed to moral realities. In particular, two key arguments presented by Nortvedt are challenged: the so-called argument from convergence and the argument from clinical sensitivity. Both of these key planks in the case for moral realism are rejected, and an alternative 'social conditioning' account briefly sketched, which, it is claimed, has the same explanatory power as Nortvedt's thesis but does not rest on an appeal to independently existing moral properties. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Advertisement without Ethical Principles?

    Wojciech Słomski

    2007-01-01

    The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipientís consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It...

  5. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Con...

  6. Between Relativism and Imperialism: Navigating Moral Diversity in Cross-Cultural Bioethics.

    Beck, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    The need for explicit theoretical reflection on cross-cultural bioethics continues to grow as the spread of communication technologies and increased human migration has made interactions between medical professionals and patients from different cultural backgrounds much more common. I claim that this need presents us with the following dilemma. On the one hand, we do not want to operate according to an imperialist ethical framework that denies and silences the legitimacy of cultural values other than our own. On the other hand, we do not want to backslide into a form of cultural relativism that is unable to critically appraise cultural practices that are harmful, unjust, or oppressive. I examine two prominent attempts - the principlism of Tom Beauchamp and James Childress and the Contractarianism of Robert Baker - to frame cross-cultural bioethics between these two extremes and argue that both approaches have significant flaws. The principlist approach fails to provide a non-question begging way to identify cross-cultural norms that does not already assume the universal legitimacy of moral principles dominant in North American society. Baker's contractarianism cannot grapple with the realities of political power imbalances that often characterize cross-cultural moral disputes. I suggest that a naturalized feminist framework, though not free of its own theoretical difficulties, provides the best alternative for approaching moral diversity respectfully and critically. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Spiritual well-being and moral distress among Iranian nurses.

    Soleimani, Mohammad Ali; Sharif, Saeed Pahlevan; Yaghoobzadeh, Ameneh; Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Panarello, Bianca; Win, Ma Thin Mar

    2016-06-16

    Moral distress is increasingly recognized as a problem affecting healthcare professionals, especially nurses. If not addressed, it may create job dissatisfaction, withdrawal from the moral dimensions of patient care, or even encourage one to leave the profession. Spiritual well-being is a concept which is considered when dealing with problems and stress relating to a variety of issues. This research aimed to examine the relationship between spiritual well-being and moral distress among a sample of Iranian nurses and also to study the determinant factors of moral distress and spiritual well-being in nurses. A cross-sectional, correlational design was employed to collect data from 193 nurses using the Spiritual Well-Being Scale and the Moral Distress Scale-Revised. This study was approved by the Regional Committee of Medical Research Ethics. The ethical principles of voluntary participation, anonymity, and confidentiality were considered. Mean scores of spiritual well-being and moral distress were 94.73 ± 15.89 and 109.56 ± 58.70, respectively. There was no significant correlation between spiritual well-being and moral distress (r = -.053, p = .462). Marital status and job satisfaction were found to be independent predictors of spiritual well-being. However, gender and educational levels were found to be independent predictors for moral distress. Age, working in rotation shifts, and a tendency to leave the current job also became significant after adjusting other factors for moral distress. This study could not support the relationship between spiritual well-being and moral distress. However, the results showed that moral distress is related to many elements including individual ideals and differences as well as organizational factors. Informing nurses about moral distress and its consequences, establishing periodic consultations, and making some organizational arrangement may play an important role in the identification and management of moral distress and

  8. Morale in the market

    Ognedal, Tone

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest in morale as a potential substitute for sanctions, encouraged by exerimental evidence that people's morale affect their economic decisions. I show that while morale may be a substitute for sanctions for each citizen, it is not a substitute in the market. In a model where employed and self-employed differ in their opportunities for tax evasion, I demonstrate that a higher fraction of tax compliant citizens may reduce social surplus and tax revenues. In contrast to s...

  9. Context, Moral Orientation and Self- Esteem: Impacting the Moral ...

    Context, Moral Orientation and Self- Esteem: Impacting the Moral Development of ... The purpose of this study was to compare moral orientation and a measure of self-esteem with the degree of consideration ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  10. Charisma and Moral Reasoning

    Jessica Flanigan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Charisma is morally problematic insofar as it replaces followers’ capacity to engage in genuine moral reasoning. When followers defer to charismatic leaders and act in ways that are morally wrong they are not only blameworthy for wrongdoing but for failing in their deliberative obligations. Even when followers defer to charismatic leaders and do the right thing, their action is less praiseworthy to the extent that it was the result of charisma rather than moral deliberation. Therefore, effective charismatic leadership reliably undermines the praiseworthiness and amplifies the blameworthiness of follower’s actions.

  11. O celu i granicach rozwoju moralnego (ON THE PURPOSE AND BOUNDARIES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT

    Dorota Czyżowska

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Kohlberg, the father of one of the most significant theories of moral development, assumed a cognitive-developmental perspective in his studies of morality, placing the concept of moral reasoning in the very heart of his research. A key feature in his theory of moral development, with justice as its core component, is the idea of moral universals. The general conception of moral universals has its reflection in a few distinct propositions. In the theory of L. Kohlberg, the concept of moral universals serves as an useful tool for the description of the highest stage of moral development. From this vantage point, development can be seen as a progression in moral reasoning from entirely subjective and culturally determined judgements, beliefs and rules of behaviour to general rules that can be universally applied to all people and all situations. In her paper the authoress would like to present an understanding of moral universals in the context of moral development. She would like to focus on the description of the postconventional stages of moral development with an emphasis on some of the controversies concerning the highest stages of Kohlberg's theory.

  12. The calculation of costs of postal network and universal postal service based on standard and average cost principles

    Blagojević Mladenka Z.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The provision of universal postal service involves high costs for operator, especially in rural areas. The aim of this paper is to propose and test tool for managing the cost of providing universal postal service and maintaining the postal network in order to facilitate understanding of the problem in the sector. The proposed approach use standard prices and standard quantities (the redefined number of postal units, the number of employees, etc. as well as average costs for calculation of the costs of the universal postal service and postal network. The methodology provides the efficiency analysis, benchmarking and identification of causes of poor performance of management and resource allocation. It can be used for postal operators that do not have modern accounting systems.

  13. Segmenting and targeting American university students to promote responsible alcohol use: a case for applying social marketing principles.

    Deshpande, Sameer; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn

    2011-10-01

    The current study contributes to the social marketing literature in the American university binge-drinking context in three innovative ways. First, it profiles drinking segments by "values" and "expectancies" sought from behaviors. Second, the study compares segment values and expectancies of two competing behaviors, that is, binge drinking and participation in alternative activities. Third, the study compares the influence of a variety of factors on both behaviors in each segment. Finally, based on these findings and feedback from eight university alcohol prevention experts, appropriate strategies to promote responsible alcohol use for each segment are proposed.

  14. The Invisibility of Evil: Moral Progress and the 'Animal Holocaust ...

    ... while for others it articulates the challenge of bringing non-human sentient beings into the same moral universe as their human counterparts. The paper concludes by asking whether such moral progress can ever render the death of human beings and animals similar in kind. Philosophical Papers Vol.32(2) 2003: 109-131 ...

  15. Testing Moral Foundation Theory: Are Specific Moral Emotions Elicited by Specific Moral Transgressions?

    Landmann, Helen; Hess, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    Moral foundation theory posits that specific moral transgressions elicit specific moral emotions. To test this claim, participants (N = 195) were asked to rate their emotions in response to moral violation vignettes. We found that compassion and disgust were associated with care and purity respectively as predicted by moral foundation theory.…

  16. 10 principles for an innovative model for the 21st century university: the «educational campus»

    Pablo CAMPOS CALVO-SOTELO

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available University education has a higher purpose – to reinforce the formation of human beings and to provide the individual with an overall integrated training. This mission necessitates giving special attention to the correct arrangement of the physical space in which this central undertaking occurs.

  17. Extent of Implementing the Total Quality Management Principles by Academic Departments Heads at Najran University from Faculty Members' Perspectives

    Al-Din, Hesham Moustafa Kamal; Abouzid, Mohamed Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the implementing degree of Total Quality Management (TQM) principals by Academic Departmental Heads (ADH) at the Najran University from faculty members' perspectives. It also aimed to determine significant differences between the average estimate of sample section of faculty members about the implementing degree of TQM…

  18. Universal design and the challenge of diversity: reflections on the principles of UD, based on empirical research of people's mobility.

    Winance, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    The author analyses some theoretical presuppositions of the Universal Design approach. She shows that it is based on two paradoxes: (1) it reduces diversity to the "universal", (2) it depends on an asymmetrical view of abilities and disabilities. The author suggests a way of changing this concept in order to take into account uniqueness and diversity, in order to allow the shaping of abilities. The data are taken from an ethnographical survey carried out between 2007 and 2009 made up of in-depth interviews with wheelchair users and their families. The interviews were analysed inductively using the Nvivo© programme. The mobility of people in wheelchairs, and their capacity to act, are linked to their particular experience and are the result of a process of adjustment and arrangement. This process involves specific and varied resources and leads to changes in the individuals, in their dis/abilites, but also in their perceptions. This analysis leads to a change in the question of policy. This question is no longer "how to include diversity using the definition of 'universal'", but "how to bring out and articulate this diversity, so as to vary the qualities of persons and the world in which they live". Implications for Rehabilitation "Inaccessibility" is analysed in terms of a discrepancy between the user and her/his environment and in terms of experience. Accessibility is analysed as a process of adjustment and practical arrangements between the person and her/his environment. The universalism of Universal Design is criticized in the way it tries to force the variety of users into the uniqueness of one materiality. Emphasis is put on diversity and the necessity of articulating this diversity in a plural world offering various resources that individuals can call upon to act, depending on what they are and on what they want to become.

  19. [Moral responsibility of hospital management].

    Schmidt-Wilcke, Heinrich Alyosius

    2009-03-15

    The self-concept of hospitals today includes the role of service providers, and so they act accordingly. This attitude is chiefly held by hospital administrators. It means that at management level there is a shift of values toward business ethics. However, hospital management is responsible not only for the business aspects of the hospital but also for the provision of adequate medical care to patients. Therefore, hospitals as service providers must be governed by the principles of medical as well as of business ethics. These principles, although from different areas, can be made to largely coincide, but can also lead to divergent positions within a hospital. The result is what within the scope of medical ethics, too, is experienced as a conflict of principles, e.g., the principle of beneficence versus the principle of autonomy. A reconciliation of such divergent moral positions can often be effected by analyzing the actual conflict situation and thus reaching consensus. The conflict between the principles of medical ethics and business ethics takes place chiefly within the sphere of activity of those providing medical and nursing care. As a consequence, a necessary business decision taken by the management to improve the productivity of medical and nursing activities can lead to serious deficits on the staff side. In terms of business ethics, this is a lack of beneficence toward individual staff members that are perhaps overtaxed, and at the same time, in terms of medical ethics, a potential lack of beneficence toward hospital patients is implicitly accepted. In general, management has the responsibility for bringing about, in the day-to-day operation of a hospital, a plausible reconciliation of the ethical principles of two spheres of activity that are only apparently independent of each other.

  20. Discourse, Justification, and Education: Jürgen Habermas on Moral Epistemology and Dialogical Conditions of Moral Justification and Rightness

    Okshevsky, Walter C.

    2016-01-01

    In this essay Walter Okshevsky addresses the question of whether a certain form of dialogically derived agreement can function as an epistemic (universal and necessary) criterion of moral judgment and ground of moral authority. Okshevsky examines arguments for and against in the literature of educational philosophy and develops Jürgen Habermas's…

  1. Responding to moral dilemmas: the roles of empathy and collectivist values among the Chinese.

    Mann, Stephen K F; Cheng, Viviana

    2013-08-01

    The present study assessed how empathy and vertical collectivism are related to moral competency in a sample of Hong Kong Chinese university students (N = 153; 70 men, 83 women). The Emotional Tendency Scale, Individualism-Collectivism Scale, and Moral Judgment Test were used to quantify empathy, vertical collectivism, and moral competency, respectively. Results showed that empathy was not statistically significantly correlated with moral judgment. The interaction of vertical collectivism and empathy predicted a theoretically important portion of the variance in moral competency. The role of culture in moral development was discussed.

  2. Moral education and values education in curriculum reform In China

    Zhu Xiaoman

    2006-01-01

    In the new curriculum reform in China,moral education and values education have been defined from the angles of the integrity and conformity of curriculum functions.Accordingly, a new education concept based on complete/integral curriculum functions is established.By discussing the essences of the curriculum,the basis of moral and values education,integrated curriculum setting in instruction structure,the presence of emotional and attitudinal goals in the subject standards,and teaching methods,this text points out that this curriculum reform looks to moral and values education in schools.The reform also emphasizes and will guarantee moral and values education in schools.Finally,the article recommends to elementary and secondary schools the studies on moral education in class conducted by the Research Institute of Moral Education of Nanjing Normal University,one of the Key Bases for Humanities and Social Sciences Research for the Ministry of Education.

  3. Communicating moral reasoning in medicine as an expression of respect for patients and integrity among professionals.

    Kaldjian, Lauris Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The communication of moral reasoning in medicine can be understood as a means of showing respect for patients and colleagues through the giving of moral reasons for actions. This communication is especially important when disagreements arise. While moral reasoning should strive for impartiality, it also needs to acknowledge the individual moral beliefs and values that distinguish each person (moral particularity) and give rise to the challenge of contrasting moral frameworks (moral pluralism). Efforts to communicate moral reasoning should move beyond common approaches to principles-based reasoning in medical ethics by addressing the underlying beliefs and values that define our moral frameworks and guide our interpretations and applications of principles. Communicating about underlying beliefs and values requires a willingness to grapple with challenges of accessibility (the degree to which particular beliefs and values are intelligible between persons) and translatability (the degree to which particular beliefs and values can be transposed from one moral framework to another) as words and concepts are used to communicate beliefs and values. Moral dialogues between professionals and patients and among professionals themselves need to be handled carefully, and sometimes these dialogues invite reference to underlying beliefs and values. When professionals choose to articulate such beliefs and values, they can do so as an expression of respectful patient care and collaboration and as a means of promoting their own moral integrity by signaling the need for consistency between their own beliefs, words and actions.

  4. A cybernetic theory of morality and moral autonomy.

    Chambers, J

    2001-04-01

    Human morality may be thought of as a negative feedback control system in which moral rules are reference values, and moral disapproval, blame, and punishment are forms of negative feedback given for violations of the moral rules. In such a system, if moral agents held each other accountable, moral norms would be enforced effectively. However, even a properly functioning social negative feedback system could not explain acts in which individual agents uphold moral rules in the face of contrary social pressure. Dr. Frances Kelsey, who withheld FDA approval for thalidomide against intense social pressure, is an example of the degree of individual moral autonomy possible in a hostile environment. Such extreme moral autonomy is possible only if there is internal, psychological negative feedback, in addition to external, social feedback. Such a cybernetic model of morality and moral autonomy is consistent with certain aspects of classical ethical theories.

  5. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  6. Moral og videnproduktion

    Munch, Birgitte

    Research report concerning moral and ethical problems inherent in the consulting engineers' profession. Based upon 25 in-depth interviews in 11 firms, the report is contributing to the understanding of the concepts and meaning of moral and ethics in a world of technical rationality. The objectivity...

  7. Emotion and moral judgment

    Avramova, Y.R.; Inbar, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Research in psychology and cognitive science has consistently demonstrated the importance of emotion in a wide range of everyday judgments, including moral judgment. Most current accounts of moral judgment hold that emotion plays an important role, but the nature and extent of this role are still

  8. The Breakdown of Morale

    N. Vikander (Nick)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies how morale in teams can break down. It interprets high morale as team members working together productively, either because of a sense of fairness or because of implicit incentives from repeated interactions. Team members learn that lay-offs will occur at a fixed

  9. Moral distress and moral conflict in clinical ethics.

    Fourie, Carina

    2015-02-01

    Much research is currently being conducted on health care practitioners' experiences of moral distress, especially the experience of nurses. What moral distress is, however, is not always clearly delineated and there is some debate as to how it should be defined. This article aims to help to clarify moral distress. My methodology consists primarily of a conceptual analysis, with especial focus on Andrew Jameton's influential description of moral distress. I will identify and aim to resolve two sources of confusion about moral distress: (1) the compound nature of a narrow definition of distress which stipulates a particular cause, i.e. moral constraint, and (2) the distinction drawn between moral dilemma (or, more accurately, moral conflict) and moral distress, which implies that the two are mutually exclusive. In light of these concerns, I argue that the definition of moral distress should be revised so that moral constraint should not be a necessary condition of moral distress, and that moral conflict should be included as a potential cause of distress. Ultimately, I claim that moral distress should be understood as a specific psychological response to morally challenging situations such as those of moral constraint or moral conflict, or both. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Is It Time Well Spent? The Relationship between Time Management Behaviours, Perceived Effectiveness and Work-Related Morale and Distress in a University Context

    Kearns, Hugh; Gardiner, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Despite the high "guru-factor" in time management, few claims have been subjected to empirical investigation. This study tests the claims that people who manage their time well perceive themselves to be more effective and feel less stressed. University staff and students were utilized to investigate the relationship between time management related…

  11. Why Bioethics Needs a Disability Moral Psychology.

    Stramondo, Joseph A

    2016-05-01

    The deeply entrenched, sometimes heated conflict between the disability movement and the profession of bioethics is well known and well documented. Critiques of prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion are probably the most salient and most sophisticated of disability studies scholars' engagements with bioethics, but there are many other topics over which disability activists and scholars have encountered the field of bioethics in an adversarial way, including health care rationing, growth-attenuation interventions, assisted reproduction technology, and physician-assisted suicide. The tension between the analyses of the disabilities studies scholars and mainstream bioethics is not merely a conflict between two insular political groups, however; it is, rather, also an encounter between those who have experienced disability and those who have not. This paper explores that idea. I maintain that it is a mistake to think of this conflict as arising just from a difference in ideology or political commitments because it represents a much deeper difference-one rooted in variations in how human beings perceive and reason about moral problems. These are what I will refer to as variations of moral psychology. The lived experiences of disability produce variations in moral psychology that are at the heart of the moral conflict between the disability movement and mainstream bioethics. I will illustrate this point by exploring how the disability movement and mainstream bioethics come into conflict when perceiving and analyzing the moral problem of physician-assisted suicide via the lens of the principle of respect for autonomy. To reconcile its contemporary and historical conflict with the disability movement, the field of bioethics must engage with and fully consider the two groups' differences in moral perception and reasoning, not just the explicit moral and political arguments of the disability movement. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  12. Moral imperatives for academic medicine.

    Thompson, J N

    1997-12-01

    As the health care system becomes dominated by managed care, academic medicine must do more than simply learn how to continue to offer the same level of care with ever-tightening resources and in new practice environments. Three moral imperatives must guide how medicine is practiced and taught: (1) patients' health and well-being must always be foremost, centered in quality of care and respect for life; (2) the emotional and spiritual needs of patients must be considered, not just the physical needs; (3) academic medicine must instill in its trainees discipline, passion, and skills to meet their obligation to be lifelong learners. These imperatives make it more important than ever for medical educators to tackle two crucial questions: What kind of person makes the best possible physician? And what constitutes the best possible training for that person? Taking these questions seriously in the new era of health care may mean that medical educators need to rethink the teaching of medicine. One example of how this might be done is the Curriculum for 2002 Committee recently formed at the Wake Forest University School of Medicine. It is becoming clear that medical educators can do a better and more comprehensive job of helping future physicians uncover and strengthen their own morality and, in the face of managed care's pressures, renew their loyalty to medicine as a service rather than a business. Morally sensitized physicians can better deal with the hard issues of medicine, such as euthanasia and abortion, and can help their students examine these issues. Most important, they can show their students that physicians are members of a moral community dedicated to something other than its own self-interest.

  13. Medicine, morality, and the market.

    Owen, D

    1984-07-07

    In extracts from a lecture given at McGill University, the author describes the rise of a marketing or corporate ethos in medicine, stemming from economic constraints and the demographic pressures of aging populations in the U.S., Canada, and the United Kingdom. To counter the trend to corporate rather than public policy making in medicine, he advocates a holistic approach to health care, a revival of interest in preventive health, and encouragement of the self-help movement. Owen calls for a reorientation of medical attitudes so that traditional moral values of medicine present a "counterweight to the mechanistic, technological, cost-effectiveness of the market place."

  14. The Metaphysics of Morals: between the a priori and a practical anthropology

    Maria Borges

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I analyze the place of the Metaphysics of morals in the Kantian system. I claim that this work is the passage between a pure part of ethics and a practical anthropology. Although this book was first conceived to be a pure moral theory - moralia pura-, it ended up dealing with principle of applications of the moral law to sensible moral beings- philosophia moralis applicata. I also hold that the Doctrine of Virtue presents some sensible elements that are important to understand how morality affects us.

  15. Moral Psychology and the Problem of Moral Criteria

    Welch, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended as an initial investigation into the foundations of moral psychology. I primarily examine a recent work in moral education, Daniel Lapsley's and Darcia Narvaez"s "Character education", whose authors seem to assume at points that criteria for discerning moral actions and moral traits can be derived apart from ethics or…

  16. Children's Moral Emotions and Moral Cognition: Towards an Integrative Perspective

    Malti, Tina; Latzko, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief introduction to the developmental and educational literature linking children's moral emotions to cognitive moral development. A central premise of the chapter is that an integrative developmental perspective on moral emotions and moral cognition provides an important conceptual framework for understanding children's…

  17. The Moral Development of Moral Philosophers

    Bunzl, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg thinks that Utilitarianism and Rawls' theory of justice are formal elaborations of different stages in the psychological development of moral reasoning. Also that there are psychological reasons to favor the stage of reasoning of which he thinks Rawls' theory is an elaboration. Attempts to show that Kohlberg has confused ethics…

  18. Ethical Justification of Moral Norms in Scientific Research: Scientists' External Responsibilities

    Mehmet AKÖZER

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Scientists' moral responsibilities have become a focus for the scientific community over the postwar decades. International and regional networks of leading academic bodies have responded to a widely perceived increase in scientific fraud and the ensued loss of public trust in science during the 1980s, and initiated a discussion with a view to codifying good practice in research. While scientists' “external” responsibilities towards society and the humankind have been variously addressed, codes drafted since then mainly dwell on problems of misconduct concerning scientists' “internal” responsibilities towards science and to the scientific community. They also reflect an ethical pluralism, which declines justifying moral standards in research with reference to universal ethical principles. However, the need for such justification has been first recognized decades ago, during the Doctor's Trial in Nuremberg, where the shortcomings of the established ethos of science and the inadequacy of the Hippocratic ethics in safeguarding human rights in research had become flagrant, with the resultant Nuremberg Code of 1947 introducing a human rights perspective into Hippocratic ethics. This paper argues for the necessity of an integral ethical justification of scientists' both external and inner responsibilities, as put down or assumed by internationally acclaimed codes of conduct. Such necessity is validated by the evidence that a historical current to monopolize ethical thinking in the name of science and nullify philosophical ethics lies at the root of an anti–morality that relativized human worth and virtually legitimized human rights violations in scientific practice. Kantian ethics based on humans' absolute inner worth, and Popperian epistemology rooted in respect for truth and for humans as rational beings, pledge an ethical justification of moral norms in science so as to reinforce the latter against intrusions of anti–morality. The paper

  19. Moral Philosophy, Moral Expertise, and the Argument from Disagreement.

    Cross, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Several recent articles have weighed in on the question of whether moral philosophers can be counted as moral experts. One argument denying this has been rejected by both sides of the debate. According to this argument, the extent of disagreement in modern moral philosophy prevents moral philosophers from being classified as moral experts. Call this the Argument From Disagreement (AD). In this article, I defend a version of AD. Insofar as practical issues in moral philosophy are characterized by disagreement between moral philosophers who are more or less equally well credentialed on the issue, non-philosophers have no good reasons to defer to their views. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Religion and morality.

    McKay, Ryan; Whitehouse, Harvey

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose "religion" and "morality" into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts-in particular, sanitized conceptions of "prosocial" behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories "religion" and "morality" must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Revisiting Folk Moral Realism.

    Pölzler, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Moral realists believe that there are objective moral truths. According to one of the most prominent arguments in favour of this view, ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming, and we have therefore prima facie reason to believe that realism is true. Some proponents of this argument have claimed that the hypothesis that ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming is supported by psychological research on folk metaethics. While most recent research has been thought to contradict this claim, four prominent earlier studies (by Goodwin and Darley, Wainryb et al., Nichols, and Nichols and Folds-Bennett) indeed seem to suggest a tendency towards realism. My aim in this paper is to provide a detailed internal critique of these four studies. I argue that, once interpreted properly, all of them turn out in line with recent research. They suggest that most ordinary people experience morality as "pluralist-" rather than realist-seeming, i.e., that ordinary people have the intuition that realism is true with regard to some moral issues, but variants of anti-realism are true with regard to others. This result means that moral realism may be less well justified than commonly assumed.

  2. The Foundations of Common Moral life: Some Conservative Perspectives

    Pedersen, Søren Hviid

    2010-01-01

    One cannot fail to notice an abundance of liberal approaches trying to formulate the conditions of how to create a common moral life in the face of deep value pluralism. What is more or less missing is a principled and theoretically informed modern conservative approach. The purpose of this paper...... is to remedy this lack of a conservative voice in this conversation of trying to draw the contours of how to create a common moral life....

  3. La experiencia moral: una ética sin verdades absolutas

    Barroso Fernández, Óscar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to reconstruct the Zubirian approach to the moral kind of knowledge. It is, therefore, necessary to examine Zubiri’s writings on moral anthropology from the 1950s, starting from the most complete one, namely Sentient intelligence. If there is the possibility of contemplating a moral knowledge, we should discover its reference system and determine how it is built upon the contents given in the primordial impression of reality, mediated by the logos and its particular form of knowledge, with all the outlines, experiences and truths. On this basis, we prove that is impossible to found morality in a universal and absolute sense. In any case, the possibility of a universal sphere should not be conceived as something a priori, but rather as a regulative ideal of moral experience, that is, something that reason always tends towards, but never reaches.En este trabajo se pretende reconstruir la propuesta zubiriana de un saber de tipo moral. Este objetivo exige mirar los textos de antropología moral escritos por Zubiri en los años cincuenta desde su obra más acabada: Inteligencia sentiente. Si efectivamente se puede hablar de un saber moral, habrá que descubrir cuál es su sistema de referencia, constituido por determinados contenidos dados en impresión primordial de realidad y mediados por el logos, y su forma de conocimiento, con sus esbozos, experiencias y verdades. A partir de aquí, el autor muestra que no es posible, desde la filosofía de Zubiri, proponer una fundamentación de la moral en sentido universal y absoluto. En todo caso, la posibilidad de un ámbito universal de moralidad no puede ser entendida como algo dado a priori, sino más bien como un ideal regulativo de la experiencia moral, algo a lo que la razón apunta pero nunca llega.

  4. The principles for the implementation of information literacy at the universities in Slovenia : the role of libraries in an information literate university

    Karmen Stopar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the many years an information literate student has been one of the main goals of the universities’ educational endeavours around the world. Information literacy,being the foundation of lifelong learning, is becoming increasingly important with the Bologna process. Libraries have always played a significant role in the process of more efficient and effective use of information. The Librarianship Act in Slovenia stipulates that libraries support and carry out educational and information literacy tasks. In accordance with their capabilities and the level of development of the information environment, the libraries have performed library-pedagogical tasks and have trained their users for efficient and effective use of information. Nevertheless, there is a greater need for more intensive and more comprehensive information literacy activities. The requirements of the education process through all the years of the university education should lead to better information literacy among students. All subjects, institutions and individuals, who are responsible for the realization of information literacy programmes, should join in order to implement the information literacy programmes.

  5. From medical manners to moral reasoning: an historical overview of bioethics in the University of Cape Town's Faculty of Health Sciences.

    Benatar, Solomon R; Benatar, David

    2012-03-02

    The history of bioethics in the Faculty of Health Sciences of the University of Cape Town (UCT) follows a similar pattern to elsewhere. At first, bioethics received little formal attention, but there has been a flowering of interest over the last few decades. There has also been a shift from a professionally insular view of bioethics to one informed by non-medical disciplines. While this pattern is to be found in many parts of the world, there are some distinctive, but not unique, features of bioethics at South Africa's oldest medical school.

  6. Inverting the moral economy

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  7. Inverting the moral economy

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  8. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts

    Siegal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  9. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  10. Kant's Account of Moral Education

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    While Kant's pedagogical lectures present an account of moral education, his theory of freedom and morality seems to leave no room for the possibility of an education for freedom and morality. In this paper, it is first shown that Kant's moral philosophy and his educational philosophy are developed within different theoretical paradigms: whereas…

  11. Moral Beliefs and Cognitive Homogeneity

    Nevia Dolcini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Emotional Perception Model of moral judgment intends to account for experientialism about morality and moral reasoning. In explaining how moral beliefs are formed and applied in practical reasoning, the model attempts to overcome the mismatch between reason and action/desire: morality isn’t about reason for actions, yet moral beliefs, if caused by desires, may play a motivational role in (moral agency. The account allows for two kinds of moral beliefs: genuine moral beliefs, which enjoy a relation to desire, and motivationally inert moral beliefs acquired in ways other than experience. Such etiology-based dichotomy of concepts, I will argue, leads to the undesirable view of cognition as a non-homogeneous phenomenon. Moreover, the distinction between moral beliefs and moral beliefs would entail a further dichotomy encompassing the domain of moral agency: one and the same action might possibly be either genuine moral, or not moral, if acted by individuals lacking the capacity for moral feelings, such as psychopaths.

  12. Felt Moral Obligation and the Moral Judgement-Moral Action Gap: Toward a Phenomenology of Moral Life

    Williams, Richard N.; Gantt, Edwin E.

    2012-01-01

    The step-off point for this article is the problem of the "moral judgement-moral action gap" as found in contemporary literature of moral education and moral development. We argue that this gap, and the conceptual problems encountered by attempts to bridge it, reflects the effect of a different, deeper and more problematic conceptual gap: the…

  13. Improving moral judgments: philosophical considerations

    Kalis, A.

    2010-01-01

    In contemporary moral psychology, an often-heard claim is that knowing how we make moral judgments can help us make better moral judgments. Discussions about moral development and improvement are often framed in terms of the question of which mental processes have a better chance of leading to good

  14. Who Engages with Moral Beauty?

    Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…

  15. Mitigating the Tyranny, a Moral Responsibility

    2009-12-01

    to their society they must be physically and emotionally equipped to handle life outside the warzone; it is, therefore, the military’s obligation...Moral Responsibilities of Victors in War, Warfare studies AY10 Coursebook , edited by Sharon McBride, (Maxwell AFB, Al: Air University Press, October... Coursebook , edited by Sharon McBride, page156-167. Maxwell AFB, AL [or Ala.]: Air University Press, October 2009. Myhr, Kjell-Ivar. ―Norsk F-16 pilot

  16. The Epistemology of Moral Bioenhancement.

    Crutchfield, Parker

    2016-07-01

    Moral bioenhancement is the potential practice of manipulating individuals' moral behaviors by biological means in order to help resolve pressing moral issues such as climate change and terrorism. This practice has obvious ethical implications, and these implications have been and continue to be discussed in the bioethics literature. What have not been discussed are the epistemological implications of moral bioenhancement. This article details some of these implications of engaging in moral bioenhancement. The argument begins by making the distinction between moral bioenhancement that manipulates the contents of mental states (e.g. beliefs) and that which manipulates other, non-representational states (e.g. motivations). Either way, I argue, the enhanced moral psychology will fail to conform to epistemic norms, and the only way to resolve this failure and allow the moral bioenhancement to be effective in addressing the targeted moral issues is to make the moral bioenhancement covert. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Database Security and the Problem of Polyinstantiation: a moral scrutiny

    Mikko Siponen

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available In the area of computer security the problem of polyinstantiation is widely recognized. The research on polyinstantiation can be considered morally questionable, since it involves lying. This being the case, a moral scrutiny on the problem of polyinstantiation is warranted. The morality of polyinstantiation shall be critically analysed from the viewpoint of a moral philosophical framework. The moral philosophical framework used includes 1 Kantian ethics, 2 the universality theses advocated by Hare, Rawls, Gewirth, Jewish-Christian ethics, and Confucian ethics, 3 utilitarianism, and 4 Theory of Information Ethics (IE by Floridi. The result of this analysis suggests that research and practice on polyinstantiation is morally questionable, at least in the light of the chosen moral philosophical theories. The aim of the paper is not, however, to deem polyinstantiation as morally wrong altogether, but to provide researchers and practitioners with tools and insights for analyzing the morality of polyinstantiation in different cases. Moreover, the results suggest that, as far as polyinstantiation is concerned, traditional ethics theories seem to be at least as adequate as IE.

  18. Ethical principles and theories.

    Schultz, R C

    1993-01-01

    Ethical theory about what is right and good in human conduct lies behind the issues practitioners face and the codes they turn to for guidance; it also provides guidance for actions, practices, and policies. Principles of obligation, such as egoism, utilitarianism, and deontology, offer general answers to the question, "Which acts/practices are morally right?" A re-emerging alternative to using such principles to assess individual conduct is to center normative theory on personal virtues. For structuring society's institutions, principles of social justice offer alternative answers to the question, "How should social benefits and burdens be distributed?" But human concerns about right and good call for more than just theoretical responses. Some critics (eg, the postmodernists and the feminists) charge that normative ethical theorizing is a misguided enterprise. However, that charge should be taken as a caution and not as a refutation of normative ethical theorizing.

  19. Moral Hazard in Pediatrics.

    Brunnquell, Donald; Michaelson, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    "Moral hazard" is a term familiar in economics and business ethics that illuminates why rational parties sometimes choose decisions with bad moral outcomes without necessarily intending to behave selfishly or immorally. The term is not generally used in medical ethics. Decision makers such as parents and physicians generally do not use the concept or the word in evaluating ethical dilemmas. They may not even be aware of the precise nature of the moral hazard problem they are experiencing, beyond a general concern for the patient's seemingly excessive burden. This article brings the language and logic of moral hazard to pediatrics. The concept reminds us that decision makers in this context are often not the primary party affected by their decisions. It appraises the full scope of risk at issue when decision makers decide on behalf of others and leads us to separate, respect, and prioritize the interests of affected parties.

  20. Before Ethics and Morality

    Prescott, James W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of sensory deprivation in humans is discussed as well as the need for developing a moral education curriculum designed to rear children in an affectional environment of positive reinforcements. (JB)

  1. Demographic factors associated with moral sensitivity among nursing students.

    Tuvesson, Hanna; Lützén, Kim

    2017-11-01

    Today's healthcare environment is often characterized by an ethically demanding work situation, and nursing students need to prepare to meet ethical challenges in their future role. Moral sensitivity is an important aspect of the ethical decision-making process, but little is known regarding nursing students' moral sensitivity and its possible development during nursing education. The aims of this study were to investigate moral sensitivity among nursing students, differences in moral sensitivity according to sample sub-group, and the relation between demographic characteristics of nursing students and moral sensitivity. A convenience sample of 299 nursing students from one university completed a questionnaire comprising questions about demographic information and the revised Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire. With the use of SPSS, non-parametric statistics, including logistic regression models, were used to investigate the relationship between demographic characteristics and moral sensitivity. Ethical considerations: The study followed the regulations according to the Swedish Ethical Review Act and was reviewed by the Ethics Committee of South-East Sweden. The findings showed that mean scores of nursing students' moral sensitivity were found in the middle to upper segment of the rating scale. Multivariate analysis showed that gender (odds ratio = 3.32), age (odds ratio = 2.09; 1.73), and parental status (odds ratio = 0.31) were of relevance to nursing students' moral sensitivity. Academic year was found to be unrelated to moral sensitivity. These demographic aspects should be considered when designing ethics education for nursing students. Future studies should continue to investigate moral sensitivity in nursing students, such as if and how various pedagogical strategies in ethics may contribute to moral sensitivity in nursing students.

  2. Cosmological principles. II. Physical principles

    Harrison, E.R.

    1974-01-01

    The discussion of cosmological principle covers the uniformity principle of the laws of physics, the gravitation and cognizability principles, and the Dirac creation, chaos, and bootstrap principles. (U.S.)

  3. A virtue ethics approach to moral dilemmas in medicine

    Gardiner, P

    2003-01-01

    Most moral dilemmas in medicine are analysed using the four principles with some consideration of consequentialism but these frameworks have limitations. It is not always clear how to judge which consequences are best. When principles conflict it is not always easy to decide which should dominate. They also do not take account of the importance of the emotional element of human experience. Virtue ethics is a framework that focuses on the character of the moral agent rather than the rightness of an action. In considering the relationships, emotional sensitivities, and motivations that are unique to human society it provides a fuller ethical analysis and encourages more flexible and creative solutions than principlism or consequentialism alone. Two different moral dilemmas are analysed using virtue ethics in order to illustrate how it can enhance our approach to ethics in medicine. PMID:14519840

  4. A virtue ethics approach to moral dilemmas in medicine.

    Gardiner, P

    2003-10-01

    Most moral dilemmas in medicine are analysed using the four principles with some consideration of consequentialism but these frameworks have limitations. It is not always clear how to judge which consequences are best. When principles conflict it is not always easy to decide which should dominate. They also do not take account of the importance of the emotional element of human experience. Virtue ethics is a framework that focuses on the character of the moral agent rather than the rightness of an action. In considering the relationships, emotional sensitivities, and motivations that are unique to human society it provides a fuller ethical analysis and encourages more flexible and creative solutions than principlism or consequentialism alone. Two different moral dilemmas are analysed using virtue ethics in order to illustrate how it can enhance our approach to ethics in medicine.

  5. Moral psychology (ethics).

    Andreou, Chrisoula

    2010-07-01

    This article examines a selection of currently lively debates in the quickly evolving, interdisciplinary field of moral psychology. Topics discussed include the possibility of amoralism, the nature of rationality, the (ir)rationality of emotions and intuitions, the psychology of cooperation and of (rational) commitment, weakness of will, free will, and the assignment of moral responsibility. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  7. Interests versus morality in politics

    Radojčić Mirjana S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this individual project the relationship between interests and moral in politics will be considered, taking into consideration the disintegration of former Yugoslavia and the processes of globalization. The starting thesis of the research is that the main actors of global politics are still guided by the modern principles of real-politics with interests as its basic category and power as its supreme value. In that context the main elements of external politics of USA as the key actor of the processes will be specially considered. In the concluding part of the research author will be argue in favor of the affirmation of a new model of global politics, matching the character and scope of the problems faced by humanity at the turn of the century and the millenium.

  8. At the heart of morality lies neuro-visceral integration: lower cardiac vagal tone predicts utilitarian moral judgment.

    Park, Gewnhi; Kappes, Andreas; Rho, Yeojin; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-01

    To not harm others is widely considered the most basic element of human morality. The aversion to harm others can be either rooted in the outcomes of an action (utilitarianism) or reactions to the action itself (deontology). We speculated that the human moral judgments rely on the integration of neural computations of harm and visceral reactions. The present research examined whether utilitarian or deontological aspects of moral judgment are associated with cardiac vagal tone, a physiological proxy for neuro-visceral integration. We investigated the relationship between cardiac vagal tone and moral judgment by using a mix of moral dilemmas, mathematical modeling and psychophysiological measures. An index of bipolar deontology-utilitarianism was correlated with resting heart rate variability (HRV)-an index of cardiac vagal tone-such that more utilitarian judgments were associated with lower HRV. Follow-up analyses using process dissociation, which independently quantifies utilitarian and deontological moral inclinations, provided further evidence that utilitarian (but not deontological) judgments were associated with lower HRV. Our results suggest that the functional integration of neural and visceral systems during moral judgments can restrict outcome-based, utilitarian moral preferences. Implications for theories of moral judgment are discussed. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Neural basis of moral verdict and moral deliberation

    Borg, Jana Schaich; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2011-01-01

    How people judge something to be morally right or wrong is a fundamental question of both the sciences and the humanities. Here we aim to identify the neural processes that underlie the specific conclusion that something is morally wrong. To do this, we introduce a novel distinction between “moral deliberation,” or the weighing of moral considerations, and the formation of a “moral verdict,” or the commitment to one moral conclusion. We predict and identify hemodynamic activity in the bilateral anterior insula and basal ganglia that correlates with committing to the moral verdict “this is morally wrong” as opposed to “this is morally not wrong,” a finding that is consistent with research from economic decision-making. Using comparisons of deliberation-locked vs. verdict-locked analyses, we also demonstrate that hemodynamic activity in high-level cortical regions previously implicated in morality—including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and temporoparietal junction—correlates primarily with moral deliberation as opposed to moral verdicts. These findings provide new insights into what types of processes comprise the enterprise of moral judgment, and in doing so point to a framework for resolving why some clinical patients, including psychopaths, may have intact moral judgment but impaired moral behavior. PMID:21590588

  10. Educação moral: adestramento ou reflexão comunicativa? Moral education: training or communicative reflection?

    Pedro Goergen

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O texto busca elucidar alguns dos mais relevantes aspectos da educação moral no contexto do mundo plural contemporâneo. Parte-se do suposto de que a educação moral é possível e necessária, mesmo no cenário atual de desestabilização dos valores fixos e universais da tradição. Esta educação moral, portanto, já não pode ser concebida como transmissão de valores e comportamentos morais, mas como a introdução dos educandos no mundo conflitante das concepções morais, objetivando consensos mínimos que sirvam de base para o seu agir moral. Por meio de uma relação pedagógica reflexivo/comunicativa espera-se sensibilizar os alunos para a problemática da moralidade, bem como promover a estruturação de uma subjetividade a partir da qual cada um possa tomar suas decisões morais com responsabilidade.This text seeks to elucidate some of the most relevant aspects of moral education in the context of our contemporaneous, plural world. It assumes that moral education is possible and necessary, even in the current setting where the fixed, universal values of tradition are destabilized. Such moral education, which can no longer be considered as the transmission of moral values and behaviors, consists of the introduction of learners into the conflicting world of moral conceptions, aiming at minimum consensuses that lay the bases for their moral actions. Through a reflexive-communicative pedagogical relationship one hopes to heighten the students awareness of the morality problems, as well as structure a subjectivity that allows anyone to responsibly make their own moral decisions.

  11. Framing the issues: moral distress in health care.

    Pauly, Bernadette M; Varcoe, Colleen; Storch, Jan

    2012-03-01

    Moral distress in health care has been identified as a growing concern and a focus of research in nursing and health care for almost three decades. Researchers and theorists have argued that moral distress has both short and long-term consequences. Moral distress has implications for satisfaction, recruitment and retention of health care providers and implications for the delivery of safe and competent quality patient care. In over a decade of research on ethical practice, registered nurses and other health care practitioners have repeatedly identified moral distress as a concern and called for action. However, research and action on moral distress has been constrained by lack of conceptual clarity and theoretical confusion as to the meaning and underpinnings of moral distress. To further examine these issues and foster action on moral distress, three members of the University of Victoria/University of British Columbia (UVIC/UVIC) nursing ethics research team initiated the development and delivery of a multi-faceted and interdisciplinary symposium on Moral Distress with international experts, researchers, and practitioners. The goal of the symposium was to develop an agenda for action on moral distress in health care. We sought to develop a plan of action that would encompass recommendations for education, practice, research and policy. The papers in this special issue of HEC Forum arose from that symposium. In this first paper, we provide an introduction to moral distress; make explicit some of the challenges associated with theoretical and conceptual constructions of moral distress; and discuss the barriers to the development of research, education, and policy that could, if addressed, foster action on moral distress in health care practice. The following three papers were written by key international experts on moral distress, who explore in-depth the issues in three arenas: education, practice, research. In the fifth and last paper in the series, we highlight

  12. Gambaran Kejujuran sebagai Landasan Keutamaan Moral Mahasiswa yang sudah Pernah Mengambil Mata Kuliah Character Building

    Antonina Pantja Juni Wulandari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This research sees an overview of honesty as the basis of students’ moral virtue who had taken courses Character Building at Bina Nusantara University. An honest person is one who has the power of the heart goes to the rules and principles of righteous living. Gea, Wulandari, & Babari (2002 conclude that if people have the virtue of honesty, they will not lie or cheat, even though they had the opportunity to do so. Moral virtue is a permanent and stable trend. Virtue is a good trait ingrained in one. The virtue relates to the will, as it relates to the will of the intent or motivation of the performer to be very important, so it is definitely virtuous behaviors with good intentions. The virtue is gained through the process of getting used to and practices. Virtue makes people be good personally (Bertens, 2002. By doing honest means the individual is said to have a moral virtue. The results were distributed to students who got the courses. From the results of the data on the questionnaire distributed to the students who got CB courses as 161 people, results of their honesty are not low. Most of the honesty they got was 61.7%, while the highest honesty is 38.3%. 

  13. Moral Decision-Making among Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) Case Managers

    Lerbæk, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette Braendstrup

    2015-01-01

    The context of care in assertive community treatment (ACT) can be precarious and generate ethical issues involving the principles of autonomy and paternalism. This focus group study examined case managers' situated accounts of moral reasoning. Our findings show how they expressed strong moral...... obligation towards helping the clients. Their moral reasoning reflected a paternalistic position where, on different occasions, the potential benefits of their interventions would be prioritised at the expense of protecting the clients' personal autonomy. The case managers' reasoning emphasised situational...

  14. Social Justice and Social Order: Binding Moralities across the Political Spectrum.

    Ronnie Janoff-Bulman

    Full Text Available Two studies explored the relationship between political ideology and endorsement of a range of moral principles. Political liberals and conservatives did not differ on intrapersonal or interpersonal moralities, which require self-regulation. However differences emerged on collective moralities, which involve social regulation. Contrary to Moral Foundations Theory, both liberals and conservatives endorsed a group-focused binding morality, specifically Social Justice and Social Order respectively. Libertarians were the group without a binding morality. Although Social Justice and Social Order appear conflictual, analyses based on earlier cross-cultural work on societal tightness-looseness suggest that countries actually benefit in terms of economic success and societal well-being when these group-based moralities co-exist and serve as counterweights in social regulation.

  15. Social Justice and Social Order: Binding Moralities across the Political Spectrum.

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Carnes, Nate C

    2016-01-01

    Two studies explored the relationship between political ideology and endorsement of a range of moral principles. Political liberals and conservatives did not differ on intrapersonal or interpersonal moralities, which require self-regulation. However differences emerged on collective moralities, which involve social regulation. Contrary to Moral Foundations Theory, both liberals and conservatives endorsed a group-focused binding morality, specifically Social Justice and Social Order respectively. Libertarians were the group without a binding morality. Although Social Justice and Social Order appear conflictual, analyses based on earlier cross-cultural work on societal tightness-looseness suggest that countries actually benefit in terms of economic success and societal well-being when these group-based moralities co-exist and serve as counterweights in social regulation.

  16. The use of supernatural entities in moral conversations as a cultural-psychological attractor.

    Tófalvy, Tamás; Viciana, Hugo

    2009-06-01

    Social behavior in most human societies is characterized by the following of moral rules explicitly justified by religious belief systems. These systems constitute the diverse domain of human sacred values. Supernatural entities as founders or warranty of moral principles may be seen as a form of "conversation stoppers," considerations that can be dropped into a moral decision process in order to prevent endlessly reconsidering and endlessly asking for further justification. In this article we offer a general naturalistic framework toward answering the question of why supernatural entities are so attractive in moral argumentation. We present an explanatory model based on the phenomena of multiple channels of moral reasoning, the suspension of epistemic vigilance, and relevance assumptions through the attractiveness of the sacred, moral dumbfounding, and the expression of social coalitionary commitment. Thus, in light of much of current cognitive theory, sacred values make sense as basins in the evolutionary landscape of human morality.

  17. The Moral Dimensions of Infrastructure.

    Epting, Shane

    2016-04-01

    Moral issues in urban planning involving technology, residents, marginalized groups, ecosystems, and future generations are complex cases, requiring solutions that go beyond the limits of contemporary moral theory. Aside from typical planning problems, there is incongruence between moral theory and some of the subjects that require moral assessment, such as urban infrastructure. Despite this incongruence, there is not a need to develop another moral theory. Instead, a supplemental measure that is compatible with existing moral positions will suffice. My primary goal in this paper is to explain the need for this supplemental measure, describe what one looks like, and show how it works with existing moral systems. The secondary goal is to show that creating a supplemental measure that provides congruency between moral systems that are designed to assess human action and non-human subjects advances the study of moral theory.

  18. Moral sensitivity, moral distress, and moral courage among baccalaureate Filipino nursing students.

    Escolar-Chua, Rowena L

    2018-06-01

    Moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral courage among healthcare professionals have been explored considerably in recent years. However, there is a paucity of studies exploring these topics among baccalaureate nursing students. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between and among moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral courage of undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students. The research employed a descriptive-correlational design to explore the relationships between and among moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral courage of undergraduate nursing students. Participants and research context: A total of 293 baccalaureate Filipino nursing students who have been exposed to various clinical areas participated in the study. Ethical considerations: Institutional review board approval was sought prior to the conduct of the study. Self-determination was assured and anonymity and confidentiality were guaranteed to all participants. Results indicate that a majority of the nursing students in the clinical areas encounter morally distressing situations that compromise quality patient care. However, despite the fact that they want to do what is in the best interest of their patients, their perception of being the inexperienced among the healthcare team drives the majority of them to ignore morally distressing situations to avoid conflict and confrontation. Another interesting finding is that 79.20% of the respondents hardly consider quitting the nursing profession even if they frequently encounter morally distressing situations. Analysis also shows associations between moral distress intensity and frequency ( r = 0.13, p < 0.05) and moral distress intensity and moral sensitivity ( r = 0.25, p < 0.05). The dimensions of moral courage are also related to both moral distress and moral sensitivity. Results of the study imply that moral distress is a reality among all healthcare professionals including nursing students and requires more

  19. Proscriptive versus prescriptive morality: two faces of moral regulation.

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Sheikh, Sana; Hepp, Sebastian

    2009-03-01

    A distinction is made between two forms of morality on the basis of approach-avoidance differences in self-regulation. Prescriptive morality is sensitive to positive outcomes, activation-based, and focused on what we should do. Proscriptive morality is sensitive to negative outcomes, inhibition-based, and focused on what we should not do. Seven studies profile these two faces of morality, support their distinct motivational underpinnings, and provide evidence of moral asymmetry. Both are well-represented in individuals' moral repertoire and equivalent in terms of moral weight, but proscriptive morality is condemnatory and strict, whereas prescriptive morality is commendatory and not strict. More specifically, in these studies proscriptive morality was perceived as concrete, mandatory, and duty-based, whereas prescriptive morality was perceived as more abstract, discretionary, and based in duty or desire; proscriptive immorality resulted in greater blame, whereas prescriptive morality resulted in greater moral credit. Implications for broader social regulation, including cross-cultural differences and political orientation, are discussed.

  20. Moral Geography and Exploration of the Moral Possibility Space

    Bongrae Seok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Owen Flanagan’s latest book “The Geography of Morals, Varieties of Moral Possibilities” (2017. By exploring the space of moral possibility (i.e., diverse options and viewpoints of morality from different philosophical and religious traditions throughout the world, Flanagan argues that ethics is not simply a study of a priori conditions of normative rules and ideal values but a process of developing a careful understanding of varying conditions of human ecology and building practical views on living good life. The goal of this geographical exploration of the moral possibility space is surveying different traditions of morality and finding tractable ways of human flourishing. This article, by following the chapters of his book, explains his views on moral diversity and his interdisciplinary and naturalistic approach to ethics. It also discusses interactive and dynamic ways to expand the moral possibility space.

  1. Deontological and utilitarian inclinations in moral decision making: a process dissociation approach.

    Conway, Paul; Gawronski, Bertram

    2013-02-01

    Dual-process theories of moral judgment suggest that responses to moral dilemmas are guided by two moral principles: the principle of deontology states that the morality of an action depends on the intrinsic nature of the action (e.g., harming others is wrong regardless of its consequences); the principle of utilitarianism implies that the morality of an action is determined by its consequences (e.g., harming others is acceptable if it increases the well-being of a greater number of people). Despite the proposed independence of the moral inclinations reflecting these principles, previous work has relied on operationalizations in which stronger inclinations of one kind imply weaker inclinations of the other kind. The current research applied Jacoby's (1991) process dissociation procedure to independently quantify the strength of deontological and utilitarian inclinations within individuals. Study 1 confirmed the usefulness of process dissociation for capturing individual differences in deontological and utilitarian inclinations, revealing positive correlations of both inclinations to moral identity. Moreover, deontological inclinations were uniquely related to empathic concern, perspective-taking, and religiosity, whereas utilitarian inclinations were uniquely related to need for cognition. Study 2 demonstrated that cognitive load selectively reduced utilitarian inclinations, with deontological inclinations being unaffected. In Study 3, a manipulation designed to enhance empathy increased deontological inclinations, with utilitarian inclinations being unaffected. These findings provide evidence for the independent contributions of deontological and utilitarian inclinations to moral judgments, resolving many theoretical ambiguities implied by previous research. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. The role of the judicial function in cases of public morals

    Carlos Manuel Rosales

    2013-01-01

    The present work will analyze the moral grounds to the application of sanctions for behaviors that alter and injure the public order. This essay will study the paper of the judges, when they judge and value those facts, under the principle of damage to the public moral.

  3. Morality, Religious Writings, and Entrepreneurship Education: An Integrative Proposal Using the Example of Christian Narratives

    Toledano, Nuria; Karanda, Crispen

    2017-01-01

    Success and failure in entrepreneurship affects not only entrepreneurs but also many participants in their entrepreneurial relationships. Studies have led us to consider the social and moral dimensions within entrepreneurship education. Doubts arise, however, when one asks how moral principles can be included in entrepreneurship education in order…

  4. The role of the judicial function in cases of public morals

    Carlos Manuel Rosales

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work will analyze the moral grounds to the application of sanctions for behaviors that alter and injure the public order. This essay will study the paper of the judges, when they judge and value those facts, under the principle of damage to the public moral.

  5. Nudging the Public Sphere: A Habermasian Perspective on Public Deliberation as an Aim of Moral Education

    Martin, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an account of the understanding citizens need in order to justify moral principles in the public sphere and it identifies an important role for moral education in the promotion of that civic understanding. I develop this account through a contrastive analysis of Phillip Kitcher's conception of public knowledge and Jurgen…

  6. Universe

    2009-01-01

    The Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  7. Moral Geography and Exploration of the Moral Possibility Space

    Bongrae Seok

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews Owen Flanagan’s latest book “The Geography of Morals, Varieties of Moral Possibilities” (2017). By exploring the space of moral possibility (i.e., diverse options and viewpoints of morality from different philosophical and religious traditions throughout the world), Flanagan argues that ethics is not simply a study of a priori conditions of normative rules and ideal values but a process of developing a careful understanding of varying conditions of human ecology and build...

  8. Relative Contribution of Odour Intensity and Valence to Moral Decisions.

    Cecchetto, Cinzia; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida; Parma, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analytic evidence showed that the chemical senses affect moral decisions. However, how odours impact on morality is currently unclear. Through a set of three studies, we assess whether and how odour intensity biases moral choices (Study 1a), its psychophysiological responses (Study 1b), as well as the behavioural and psychophysiological effects of odour valence on moral choices (Study 2). Study 1a suggests that the presence of an odour plays a role in shaping moral choice. Study 1b reveals that of two iso-pleasant versions of the same neutral odour, only the one presented sub-threshold (vs. supra-threshold) favours deontological moral choices, those based on the principle of not harming others even when such harm provides benefits. As expected, this odour intensity effect is tracked by skin conductance responses, whereas no difference in cardiac activity - proxy for the valence dimension - is revealed. Study 2 suggests that the same neutral odour presented sub-threshold increases deontological choices even when compared to iso-intense ambiguous odour, perceived as pleasant or unpleasant by half of the participants, respectively. Skin conductance responses, as expected, track odour pleasantness, but cardiac activity fails to do so. Results are discussed in the context of mechanisms alternative to disgust induction underlying moral choices.

  9. Semiclassical universe from first principles

    Ambjørn, J.; Jurkiewicz, J.; Loll, R.

    2004-01-01

    Causal Dynamical Triangulations in four dimensions provide a backgroundindependent definition of the sum over space-time geometries in nonperturbative quantum gravity. We show that the macroscopic four-dimensional world which emerges in the Euclidean sector of this theory is a bounce which

  10. From moral agents to moral factors: the structural ethics approach

    Brey, Philip A.E.; Kroes, P.; Verbeek, P.P.C.C.

    2014-01-01

    It has become a popular position in the philosophy of technology to claim that some or all technological artifacts can qualify as moral agents. This position has been developed to account for the moral role of technological artifacts in society and to help clarify the moral responsibility of

  11. What Develops in Moral Development? A Model of Moral Sensibility

    Sherblom, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The field of moral psychology would benefit from an integrative model of what develops in moral development, contextualized within the larger scope of social science research. Moral sensibility is proposed as the best concept to embody stated aims, but the content of this concept must be more finely articulated and conceptualized as a dynamic…

  12. Popper's Third World: Moral Habits, Moral Habitat and Their Maintenance

    Ozolins, Janis Talivaldis

    2010-01-01

    If we accept Popper's idea that the human habitat is described in terms of three worlds, and that there are overlaps between these three worlds, our moral actions and values will also be subject to the same kinds of consideration as a repertoire of behaviours exhibited in a physical environment. We will develop moral habits in a moral habitat and…

  13. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  14. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  15. Moralizing Food Technology

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2015-01-01

    Food technologies are common on many levels in society and used by both food professionals and consumers. Food technologies are not neutral. They inform and shape the behaviour of people. This paper presents a theoretical framework for analysing the mediating role of food technology and its...... influence on food ethics. Post-phenomenology and the idea of a technologically mediated morality are central theoretical approaches. Four elements are included in the analytical framework: perception, interpretation, intentionality, and mediated morality. The framework is applied to two cases; food safety...

  16. Models of morality

    Crockett, Molly J.

    2013-01-01

    Moral dilemmas engender conflicts between two traditions: consequentialism, which evaluates actions based on their outcomes, and deontology, which evaluates actions themselves. These strikingly resemble two distinct decision-making architectures: a model-based system that selects actions based on inferences about their consequences; and a model-free system that selects actions based on their reinforcement history. Here, I consider how these systems, along with a Pavlovian system that responds reflexively to rewards and punishments, can illuminate puzzles in moral psychology. PMID:23845564

  17. Forgiveness and moral development.

    Satne, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Forgiveness is clearly an important aspect of our moral lives, yet surprisingly Kant, one of the most important authors in the history of Western ethics, seems to have very little to say about it. Some authors explain this omission by noting that forgiveness sits uncomfortably in Kant’s moral thought: forgiveness seems to have an ineluctably ‘elective’ aspect which makes it to a certain extent arbitrary; thus it stands in tension with Kant’s claim that agents are autonomous beings, capable of...

  18. Imaginary on International Migrants’ Human Rights in the Legal System: Some Limitations to the Principle of Universality in the Case of Argentina

    Anahí Patricia González

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze social representations of members of the legal system about human rights of international immigrants arrived to Argentina in the second half of 20th century. A qualitative methodological strategy was implemented; semistructured interviews to members of the legal institution of Buenos Aires metropolitan area were used. The interviews were transcribed and processed with qualitative criteria by implementing the Strauss and Corbin's (2002 methodology. This article analyses two relevant dimensions: citizens’ rights and migration policies. Among the main findings in the discourse of the subjects interviewed, it can be said that negative social representations about foreign people and their arrival to the country prevail. Even though there is a gradient of opinions whose extremes meet. On the one hand, there are those affirming equality (formal in the access to all rights for native and migrant population. On the other hand, there are those who propose the priority of access to these rights for native subjects. The principle of universality from a human rights perspective is dwarfed when compared to the position of those who consider the migration control, the restriction of the arrival of migrants, and the closure of national borders as essential

  19. Critical reflections on the principle of beneficence in biomedicine

    raoul

    2012-02-18

    Feb 18, 2012 ... Medical ethics as a scholarly discipline and a system of moral principles ... Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which ..... the principle like other ethical principles is only fine in theory, but putting it.

  20. Cultural universals: So what?

    M. Elaine Botha

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for the elusive "cultural universal s” in a variety of academic disciplines has been motivated b y the spectre of relativism in its diverse guises. The problem of relativism has been thrust upon us inter alia by the inability of our epistemological models to account for social and cultural, moral and cognitive diversity and to provide us with criteria by means of which to judge aberrations like ideologies. Contrary to the general trend I would like to argue that it is not the spectre of relativism in its various guises which necessitates the search for cultural universals, nor is this the only motivation for a Christian to argue in favour of the recognition of cultural universals. Various authors have suggested that such universal structures do exist; that they condition human and societal behaviour and that it would in principle be possible to construct a theory of these structural universals or a "biogrammar" or "geography ” of the universal cultural acquisition device of humankind (cf. Harre,1976, 32; Johnson, 1987: xxxvii ; Tige r and Fox, 1974:17,30. Cross -cu ltural research in both psychology and anthropology has pointed to the existence of such traits, and in recent philosophical discussions Apel and others have pointed to the necessity of recognizing the existence of some sort of " transcendentalia" . These arguments emphasize elements that are common to diverse approaches to the problem of cultural universals. Christian scholars could accept most of these arguments as valid and yet argue in favour of a very specifically modified version of the notion of cultural universals. This essay attempts to develop such a position.

  1. Morality, ethics, and law: introductory concepts.

    Horner, Jennifer

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to differentiate morality, ethics, and law. Morality refers to a set of deeply held, widely shared, and relatively stable values within a community. Ethics as a philosophical enterprise involves the study of values, and the justification for right and good actions, as represented by the classic works of Aristotle (virtue ethics), Kant (duty-based ethics), and Bentham and Mill (utilitarian and consequentialist ethics). Applied ethics, in contrast, is the use of ethics principles (e.g., respect for autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence, justice) in actual situations, such as in professional and clinical life. Finally, law is comprised of concrete duties established by governments that are necessary for maintaining social order and resolving disputes, as well as for distributing social resources according to what people need or deserve.

  2. Untangling Partnership and Domination Morality

    David Loye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Riane Eisler’s (1987 cultural transformation theory is an effective framework for understanding many of the constructs that shape society. This article uses Eisler’s theory to explain the formation of morality and the construction of conscience. It contrasts partnership morality and domination morality, and describes the factors that shape our tendency to embrace one or the other. The article helps us understand that we have a choice, and invites us to choose partnership morality.

  3. Neural Correlates of Post-Conventional Moral Reasoning: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Prehn, Kristin; Korczykowski, Marc; Rao, Hengyi; Fang, Zhuo; Detre, John A.; Robertson, Diana C.

    2015-01-01

    Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema) or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema), whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master of Business Administration (MBA) students. Subjects completed the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2) which measures moral development in terms of cognitive schema preference. Results demonstrate that subjects at the post-conventional level of moral reasoning were characterized by increased gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, compared with subjects at a lower level of moral reasoning. Our findings support an important role for both cognitive and emotional processes in moral reasoning and provide first evidence for individual differences in brain structure according to the stages of moral reasoning first proposed by Kohlberg decades ago. PMID:26039547

  4. Neural correlates of post-conventional moral reasoning: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Kristin Prehn

    Full Text Available Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema, whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master of Business Administration (MBA students. Subjects completed the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2 which measures moral development in terms of cognitive schema preference. Results demonstrate that subjects at the post-conventional level of moral reasoning were characterized by increased gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, compared with subjects at a lower level of moral reasoning. Our findings support an important role for both cognitive and emotional processes in moral reasoning and provide first evidence for individual differences in brain structure according to the stages of moral reasoning first proposed by Kohlberg decades ago.

  5. Neural correlates of post-conventional moral reasoning: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Prehn, Kristin; Korczykowski, Marc; Rao, Hengyi; Fang, Zhuo; Detre, John A; Robertson, Diana C

    2015-01-01

    Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema) or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema), whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master of Business Administration (MBA) students. Subjects completed the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2) which measures moral development in terms of cognitive schema preference. Results demonstrate that subjects at the post-conventional level of moral reasoning were characterized by increased gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, compared with subjects at a lower level of moral reasoning. Our findings support an important role for both cognitive and emotional processes in moral reasoning and provide first evidence for individual differences in brain structure according to the stages of moral reasoning first proposed by Kohlberg decades ago.

  6. Identity as a Source of Moral Motivation

    Hardy, Sam A.; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Theory and research regarding moral motivation has focused for decades on the roles of moral reasoning and, to some extent, moral emotion. Recently, however, several models of morality have positioned identity as an additional important source of moral motivation. An individual has a moral identity to the extent that he or she has constructed his…

  7. Common principles and multiculturalism.

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea.

  8. Common Principles and Multiculturalism

    Zahedi, Farzaneh; Larijani, Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Judgment on rightness and wrongness of beliefs and behaviors is a main issue in bioethics. Over centuries, big philosophers and ethicists have been discussing the suitable tools to determine which act is morally sound and which one is not. Emerging the contemporary bioethics in the West has resulted in a misconception that absolute westernized principles would be appropriate tools for ethical decision making in different cultures. We will discuss this issue by introducing a clinical case. Considering various cultural beliefs around the world, though it is not logical to consider all of them ethically acceptable, we can gather on some general fundamental principles instead of going to the extremes of relativism and absolutism. Islamic teachings, according to the presented evidence in this paper, fall in with this idea. PMID:23908720

  9. Three Principles to REVISE People's Unethical Behavior.

    Ayal, Shahar; Gino, Francesca; Barkan, Rachel; Ariely, Dan

    2015-11-01

    Dishonesty and unethical behavior are widespread in the public and private sectors and cause immense annual losses. For instance, estimates of U.S. annual losses indicate $1 trillion paid in bribes, $270 billion lost due to unreported income, and $42 billion lost in retail due to shoplifting and employee theft. In this article, we draw on insights from the growing fields of moral psychology and behavioral ethics to present a three-principle framework we call REVISE. This framework classifies forces that affect dishonesty into three main categories and then redirects those forces to encourage moral behavior. The first principle, reminding, emphasizes the effectiveness of subtle cues that increase the salience of morality and decrease people's ability to justify dishonesty. The second principle, visibility, aims to restrict anonymity, prompt peer monitoring, and elicit responsible norms. The third principle, self-engagement, increases people's motivation to maintain a positive self-perception as a moral person and helps bridge the gap between moral values and actual behavior. The REVISE framework can guide the design of policy interventions to defeat dishonesty. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Bernoulli's Principle

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  11. Moral Cognitivism | Lillehammer | Philosophical Papers

    The paper explicates a set of criteria the joint satisfaction of which is taken to qualify moral judgements as cognitive. The paper examines evidence that some moral judgements meet these criteria, and relates the resulting conception of moral judgements to ongoing controversies about cognitivism in ethics. Philosophical ...

  12. Philosophy, Casuistry, and Moral Development

    Fullinwider, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    Moral educators have little to learn from the moral theories in which philosophers routinely trade. These theories--including those by Slote, Hume, and Kant--leave behind the concrete world in which the moral educator labors. As interesting as they may be, they merely devise alternative routes to the same destination--to the main general features…

  13. Theological ethics, moral philosophy, and public moral discourse.

    Jonsen, Albert R

    1994-03-01

    The advent and growth of bioethics in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s precipitated an era of public moral discourse, that is, the deliberate attempt to analyze and formulate moral argument for use in public policy. The language for rational discussion of moral matters evolved from the parent disciplines of moral philosophy and theological ethics, as well as from the idioms of a secular, pluralistic world that was searching for policy answers to difficult bioethical questions. This article explores the basis and content of the unique contributions of both theological and philosophical ethics to the development of public moral discourse.

  14. Valores morales, empatía e identificación con los personajes de ficción. El universo representativo de “Cuéntame cómo pasó” (TVE Moral Values, Empathy and Identification with Fictional Characters: The Representative Universe at “Cuéntame cómo pasó” (TVE

    Sebastián SÁNCHEZ CASTILLO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se muestran los resultados de un estudio de base experimental sobre el análisis de los valores morales presentes en la serie emitida por Televisión Española “Cuéntame cómo pasó”. La discusión se centra en los valores morales como el aspecto nuclear de este constructo audiovisual, en especial en su posible correlación con la identificación de los personajes y la empatía ficcional del formato. En el estudio participaron 47 estudiantes universitarios y 36 personas de más edad, quienes fueron sometidos a unos cuestionarios analíticos anteriores y posteriores al visionado de dos capítulos de la serie televisiva. Tras la aplicación pre-test y post-test de la Escala de Comportamientos Morales Controvertidos, y las escalas EDI (Identificación con los personajes de relatos audiovisuales de ficción e IRI (Interpersonal Reactivity Index, se revela que aunque el sexo y la edad no son factores explicativos, el visionado del capítulo de ficción es capaz de provocar un cambio en la escala moral en los sujetos.AbstractThe present paper contributes the results of an experimental base study on the analysis of the moral values present in “Cuéntame cómo pasó”, a TV series broadcast by public Spanish TV channel TVE-1. Discussion focuses on moral values as the core issue in this audiovisual construct, particularly as they are likely to be related to the format's characters and fictional empathy. 47 undergraduates and 36 older individuals took part in the study, thus being asked to fill in analytical questionnaires both before and after watching some chapters of this TV series. The application of the pre- and post-test in the Morally Debatable Behaviours Scale as well as the Scales of Identification and Empathy with Fictional Characters (EDI and Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI reveals that, although gender and age are not explanatory factors, chapter viewing can lead to substantial changes in the viewers

  15. Emotion and deliberative reasoning in moral judgment

    Denise Dellarosa Cummins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available According to an influential dual-process model, a moral judgment is the outcome of a rapid, affect-laden process and a slower, deliberative process. If these outputs conflict, decision time is increased in order to resolve the conflict. Violations of deontological principles proscribing the use of personal force to inflict intentional harm are presumed to elicit negative affect which biases judgments early in the decision-making process. This model was tested in three experiments. Moral dilemmas were classified using (a decision time and consensus as measures of system conflict and (b the aforementioned deontological criteria. In Experiment 1, decision time was either unlimited or reduced. The dilemmas asked whether it was appropriate to take a morally questionable action to produce a greater good outcome. Limiting decision time reduced the proportion of utilitarian (yes decisions, but contrary to the model’s predictions, (a vignettes that involved more deontological violations logged faster decision times, and (b violation of deontological principles was not predictive of decisional conflict profiles. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that time pressure simply makes people more like to say no. Participants made a first decision under time constraints and a second decision under no time constraints. One group was asked whether it was appropriate to take the morally questionable action while a second group was asked whether it was appropriate to refuse to take the action. The results replicated that of Experiment 1 regardless of whether yes or no constituted a utilitarian decision. In Experiment 3, participants rated the pleasantness of positive visual stimuli prior to making a decision. Contrary to the model’s predictions, the number of deontological decisions increased in the positive affect rating group compared to a group that engaged in a cognitive task or a control group that engaged in neither task. These results are consistent

  16. The effect of ethics training on students recognizing ethical violations and developing moral sensitivity.

    Baykara, Zehra Gocmen; Demir, Sevil Guler; Yaman, Sengul

    2015-09-01

    Moral sensitivity is a life-long cognitive ability. It is expected that nurses who work in a professional purpose at "curing human beings" should have a highly developed moral sensitivity. The general opinion is that ethics education plays a significant role in this sense to enhance the moral sensitivity in terms of nurses' professional behaviors and distinguish ethical violations. This study was conducted as intervention research for the purpose of determining the effect of the ethics training on fourth-year students of the nursing department recognizing ethical violations experienced in the hospital and developing ethical sensitivity. The study was conducted with 50 students, with 25 students each in the experiment and control groups. Students in the experiment group were provided ethics training and consultancy services. The data were collected through the data collection form, which consists of questions on the socio-demographic characteristics and ethical sensitivity of the students, Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire, and the observation form on ethical principle violations/protection in the clinic environment. The data were digitized on the computer with the SPSS for Windows 13.0 program. The data were evaluated utilizing number, percentile calculation, paired samples t-test, Wilcoxon test, and the McNemar test. The total Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire pre-test score averages of students in the experiment group were determined to be 93.88 ± 13.57, and their total post-test score averages were determined to be 89.24 ± 15.90. The total pre-test score averages of students in the control group were determined to be 91.48 ± 17.59, and their total post-test score averages were determined to be 97.72 ± 19.91. In the study, it was determined that the post-training ethical sensitivity of students in the experiment group increased; however, this was statistically not significant. Furthermore, it was determined that the number of ethical principle protection

  17. Philosophy and Morality.

    Ediger, Marlow

    Philosophical thinking which has stood the test of time is summarized in this document. The rationale is that all students benefit from studies of philosophical thinking emphasizing moral standards. Thinkers included are: Plato, Aristotle, Peter Abelard, Francis Bacon, Sir Thomas More, Thomas Campanella, Thomas Hobbes, Benedict Spinoza, John…

  18. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework in which principal and agent knowingly hold asymmetric beliefs regarding the probability of success of their enterprise. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium con...

  19. New wars, new morality?

    Akkerman, T.

    2009-01-01

    Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate

  20. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium contract. On the one hand, an optimistic or overconfident agent disproportionately values success-contingent payments...

  1. Discourse and tractable morality

    de Graaf, G.; Lütge, C.

    2013-01-01

    When managerial decisions are examined, somehow the business context must be included in the analysis. In this chapter, causalities that transcend individuals are promoted as unit of analysis in empirical moral research, namely, discourse. Studying managerial decisions in their discursive context is

  2. Moral Teaching in Geography.

    Smith, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that geography is in a unique position to highlight and emphasize moral issues that otherwise might be neglected. Contemporary issues that naturally intersect with geographic concepts include citizenship and immigration, and the allocation of resources. Recommends examining relative concepts of justice, equality, and community. (MJP)

  3. The New Moral Darwinism

    Rury, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews "Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950-1980" by Charles Murray. Murray believes federal social welfare programs sap the moral fiber of poor Americans by eliminating a negative incentive for them to work at low paying jobs. Criticizes Murray's position, citing the importance of positive as well as negative incentives for…

  4. Recycling as moral behaviour

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...

  5. Moral Hazard and Stability

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    2014-01-01

    not form. Formally, we study the team formation problem in which the agents’ efforts are not verifiable and the size of teams does not exceed quota r . We show that if the team members cannot make transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable...

  6. Rethinking Moral Responsibility

    Vedder, A.H.; Johnson, D.; Moor, J.; Tavani, H.

    2000-01-01

    Questions regarding the moral responsibility of Internet access and service providers relating to possible negative aspects of information on the Internet call for a reassessment of the ways in which we think about attributing blame, guilt, and duties of reparation and compensation. They invite us

  7. Medical error, malpractice and complications: a moral geography.

    Zientek, David M

    2010-06-01

    This essay reviews and defines avoidable medical error, malpractice and complication. The relevant ethical principles pertaining to unanticipated medical outcomes are identified. In light of these principles I critically review the moral culpability of the agents in each circumstance and the resulting obligations to patients, their families, and the health care system in general. While I touch on some legal implications, a full discussion of legal obligations and liability issues is beyond the scope of this paper.

  8. Navigating moral distress using the moral distress map.

    Dudzinski, Denise Marie

    2016-05-01

    The plethora of literature on moral distress has substantiated and refined the concept, provided data about clinicians' (especially nurses') experiences, and offered advice for coping. Fewer scholars have explored what makes moral distress moral If we acknowledge that patient care can be distressing in the best of ethical circumstances, then differentiating distress and moral distress may refine the array of actions that are likely to ameliorate it. This article builds upon scholarship exploring the normative and conceptual dimensions of moral distress and introduces a new tool to map moral distress from emotional source to corrective actions. The Moral Distress Map has proven useful in clinical teaching and ethics-related debriefings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Fostering Nurses' Moral Agency and Moral Identity: The Importance of Moral Community.

    Liaschenko, Joan; Peter, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    It may be the case that the most challenging moral problem of the twenty-first century will be the relationship between the individual moral agent and the practices and institutions in which the moral agent is embedded. In this paper, we continue the efforts that one of us, Joan Liaschenko, first called for in 1993, that of using feminist ethics as a lens for viewing the relationship between individual nurses as moral agents and the highly complex institutions in which they do the work of nursing. Feminist ethics, with its emphasis on the inextricable relationship between ethics and politics, provides a useful lens to understand the work of nurses in context. Using Margaret Urban Walker's and Hilde Lindemann's concepts of identity, relationships, values, and moral agency, we argue that health care institutions can be moral communities and profoundly affect the work and identity and, therefore, the moral agency of all who work within those structures, including nurses. Nurses are not only shaped by these organizations but also have the power to shape them. Because moral agency is intimately connected to one's identity, moral identity work is essential for nurses to exercise their moral agency and to foster moral community in health care organizations. We first provide a brief history of nursing's morally problematic relationship with institutions and examine the impact institutional master narratives and corporatism exert today on nurses' moral identities and agency. We close by emphasizing the significance of ongoing dialogue in creating and sustaining moral communities, repairing moral identities, and strengthening moral agency. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  10. THE NATURAL LAW THEORY OF MORALITY AND THE ...

    Ike Odimegwu

    Lanre-AbassBolatito: Natural Law Theory & the Homosexuality Debate. 184 ... principle of the moral law of nature is that good is to be done and evil is to be avoided, ... then actions are considered right relative to different standards. Similarly ...

  11. Impact of ethical climate on moral distress revisited: multidimensional view.

    Atabay, Gülem; Çangarli, Burcu Güneri; Penbek, Şebnem

    2015-02-01

    Moral distress is a major problem in nursing profession. Researchers identified that the stronger the ethical basis of the organization, the less moral distress is reported. However, different ethical climates may have different impacts on moral distress. Moreover, conceptualization of moral distress and ethical climate as well as their relationship may change according to the cultural context. The main aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between different types of ethical climate as described in Victor and Cullen's framework, and moral distress intensity among nurses in Turkish healthcare settings. An online survey was administrated to collect data. Questionnaires included moral distress and ethical climate scales in addition to demographic questions. Data were collected from registered nurses in Turkey. In all, 201 of 279 nurses completed questionnaires, resulting in a response rate of 72%. Ethical approval was obtained from the university to which the authors were affiliated, after a detailed investigation of the content and data collection method. Factor analyses showed that moral distress had three dimensions, namely, organizational constraints, misinformed and over-treated patients, and lack of time and resources, while ethical climate had four types, namely, rules, well-being of stakeholders, individualism, and organizational interests. Positive correlations were identified between certain types of ethical climate (rules, individualism, or organizational interests) and moral distress intensity. Factor distribution of the scales shows some commonalities with the findings of previous research. However, context-specific dimensions and types were also detected. No particular ethical climate type was found to have a negative correlation with moral distress. Recommendations were made for reducing the negative impact of ethical climate on moral distress. These include solving the nursing-shortage problem, increasing autonomy, and improving physical

  12. Otonomi Moral Keagamaan Mahasiswa

    Muhammad Idrus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Secara umum tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memahami dan menganalisis fenomena otonomi moral keagamaan mahasiswa Fakultas Tarbiyah, yang diharapkan dapat menjadi balikan bagi perumusan model ideal pendidikan moral yang sesuai dengan kaidah agama Islam. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan desain studi kasus terpancang {embedded case study, dengan mengambil latar Fakultas Tarbiyah UII. Model ini diharapkan dapat memberikan gambaran makna mendalam tentang perilaku keseharian mahasiswa-mahasiswi sesuai fokus penelitian yang diajukan. Pengamatan, wawancara, rekaman audio dan rekaman visual digunakan dalam proses pengumpulan data yang melibatkan mahasiswa dan dosen. Analisis domain, taksonomik, komponensial dan tema digunakan dalam mereduksi dan mengklasifikasi data yang diperoleh u ntuk mendeskripsikan kenyataan empiris. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perilaku kegamaan yang ditampilkan para informan cenderung tidak memiliki otonomi moral keagamaan yang baik, atau masih dalam tahapan heteronomi. Hal tersebut ditunjukkan adanya pelbagai harapan atas pelaksanaan perintah yang dilakukan, ataupun penghindaran larangan. Kedua, dalam memeluk agama tampaknya secara umum informan masih bersifat pewarisan dari para orang tuanya. Ketiga, dalam upayanya untuk membangkitkan otonomi moral keagamaan mahasiswa, dosen melakukan dengan cara himbauan, nasehat, ataupun bimbingan yang diberikan pada waktu-waktu tertentu dan tidak terjadual dalam kegiatan tatap muka di kelas. Berdasarkan pada hasil penelitian diajukan beberapa saran, yaitu: Pertama, adanya pengakuan informan bahwa agama yang dianutnya merupakan agama warisan orang tua mereka, dapat dijadikan sebagai fokus pada penelitian berikut. Kedua, dalam penelitian ini kajian otonomi moral keagamaan dilihat dari sudut pandang agama Islam. Tentunya melihat variasi agama yang ada di Indonesia, sudut pandang penelitian lanjutan dapat dilakukan melalui "kaca mata" agama-agama yang berbeda.

  13. Prácticas para el desarrollo moral en universitarios

    Carmen NUÉVALOS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo presenta una investigación que ha consistido en la elaboración y puesta en práctica de un programa de educación moral. La intervención se ha orientado al desarrollo del razonamiento moral en un grupo de jóvenes universitarios, y su diseño se inspira principalmente en la teoría de Kohlberg. Prestamos una especial atención a la práctica de la educación moral.Nuestros objetivos han sido, por un lado, entrenar a los alumnos en técnicas de desarrollo moral de cara al desempeño de su futura profesión docente. Por otro, incrementar su nivel personal de reflexión y desarrollo moral. Para la evaluación del programa hemos utilizado un método cuantitativo completado con información de tipo cualitativo.ABSTRACT: This report presents an investigation that elaborates and puts a moral education programme into practice. The intervention has been directed to develop the moral reasoning in a group of university students. Its design is founded principally in Kohlberg's theory.Our goals have been, on one hand, training the students in moral development techniques for their future teaching tasks. In the other, improving their personal reflection level and their moral development. The evaluation of the programme has been made using quantitative and qualitative methods.SOMMAIRE: Cet article présente une recherche qui a consisté en l'élaboration et la mise en pratique d'un programme d'éducation morale. Le travail est orienté vers le développement du raisonnement moral chez un groupe de jeunes universitaires en s'inspirant surtout de la théorie de Kohlberg. On vise surtout la pratique de l'éducation morale.Nos buts sont, d'un côté, l'entrainement des élèves aux techniques de développement moral en vue de leur prochain métier d'enseignants, de l'autre côté, il s'agit d'accroitre leur niveau de reflexion et de développement moral. Pour l'évaluation du programme nous avons utilisé une méthode quantitative compl

  14. Defining Features of Moral Sensitivity and Moral Motivation: Pathways to Moral Reasoning in Medical Students

    Morton, Kelly R.; Worthley, Joanna S.; Testerman, John K.; Mahoney, Marita L.

    2006-01-01

    Kohlberg's theory of moral development explores the roles of cognition and emotion but focuses primarily on cognition. Contemporary post-formal theories lead to the conclusion that skills resulting from cognitive-affective integration facilitate consistency between moral judgement and moral behaviour. Rest's four-component model of moral…

  15. Morals or markets? Regulating assisted reproductive technologies as morality or economic policies in the states.

    Heidt-Forsythe, Erin

    2017-01-01

    The availability of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in the medical marketplace complicates our understanding of reproductive public policy in the United States. Political debates over ARTs often are based on fundamental moral principles of life, reproduction, and kinship, similar to other reproductive policies in the United States. However, ARTs are an important moneymaking private enterprise for the U.S. biotechnology industry. This project investigates how the U.S. states regulate these unique and challenging technologies as either moral policies or economic policies. This study employs ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to estimate the significance of morality and economic policy variables on ART policies at the state level, noting associations between state-level political, economic, and gender variables on restrictive and permissive state-level ART policies. Economic variables (reflecting the biotechnology industry) and advocacy for access to ART on behalf of infertility patients increase the chances of states passing policies that enable consumer use of ARTs. Additionally, individual ART policies are distinct from one another in the ways that morality variables increase the chances of ART regulations. Surprisingly, the role of religious adherence among state residents varied in positive and negative relationships with individual policy passage. In general, these results support the hypothesis that ART laws are associated with economic as well as moral concerns of the states-ARTs lie at the intersection of issues of life and reproduction and of scientific innovation and health. What is most striking about these results is that they do not follow patterns seen in the legislation of abortion, contraception, and sexuality in general-those reproductive policies that are considered "morality policy." Similarly, economic variables are not consistently significant in the expected direction.

  16. KOMPETENSI MORAL DAN INTENSI WHISTLEBLOWING

    Harti Budi yanti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of age, gender and moral competence on whistleblowing intentions. Most of the respondents had a medium moral competence score. The older women group proved to be higher in moral competence scores than men of the same age. Age and gender do not affect whistle blowing intentions. However, moral competence strengthens the influence of age and gender on whistle blowing intentions. The results of this test provide support for human resource development practitioners to start paying attention to moral competence in addition to technical competence as the basis of consideration of recruitment, promotion and layoffs.

  17. Promoting Prosociality: Testing the Potential of Moral Elevation and Moral Outrage

    Van de Vyver, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the effects of two specific moral emotions - moral elevation (experienced when witnessing a moral virtue) and moral outrage (experienced when witnessing a moral transgression) - on prosociality. While ample research has examined emotions such as sympathy and guilt, much less is known about moral elevation and moral outrage. Yet, their separate strands of research suggest that both moral elevation and moral outrage are promising emotions for promoting prosocial responses. ...

  18. Between Moral Relativism and Moral Hypocrisy: Reframing the Debate on "FGM".

    Earp, Brian D

    2016-06-01

    The spectrum of practices termed "Female Genital Mutilation" (or FGM) by the World Health Organization is sometimes held up as a counterexample to moral relativism. Those who advance this line of thought suggest the practices are so harmful in terms of their physical and emotional consequences, as well as so problematic in terms of their sexist or oppressive implications, that they provide sufficient, rational grounds for the assertion of a universal moral claim--namely, that all forms of FGM are wrong, regardless of the cultural context. However, others point to cultural bias and moral double standards on the part of those who espouse this argument, and have begun to question the received interpretation of the relevant empirical data on FGM as well. In this article I assess the merits of these competing perspectives. I argue that each of them involves valid moral concerns that should be taken seriously in order to move the discussion forward. In doing so, I draw on the biomedical "enhancement" literature in order to develop a novel ethical framework for evaluating FGM (and related interventions--such as female genital "cosmetic" surgery and nontherapeutic male circumcision) that takes into account the genuine harms that are at stake in these procedures, but which does not suffer from being based on cultural or moral double standards.

  19. Union's inspiration: Universal health care and the essential partiality of solidarity.

    Derpmann, Simon

    2018-05-09

    Solidarity is commonly invoked in the justification of public health care. This is understandable, as calls for and appeals to solidarity are effective in the mobilization of unison action and the willingness to incur sacrifices for others. However, the reference to solidarity as a moral notion requires caution, as there is no agreement on the meaning of solidarity. The article argues that the reference to solidarity as a normative notion is relevant to health-related moral claims, but that it does not provide a convincing foundation of claims to universal health care. References to universal solidarity obliterate an important distinction between those moral demands that are founded on principles like justice, recognition, or humanity, and those demands that stem from partisan relations in communities. While there is no 'separate essence' of solidarity that could be referred to in order to argue for the conceptual necessity of solidarity's partiality, some features may reasonably be stipulated as being essential to solidarity with a view to its systematic function within moral philosophy. The normative and motivational force of the ties invoked by solidarity is particularly relevant when basic moral demands are not met, and societies are in need of significant forms of communal relatedness. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Moral distress in emergency nurses.

    Fernandez-Parsons, Robin; Rodriguez, Lori; Goyal, Deepika

    2013-11-01

    For nurses, moral distress leads to burnout, attrition, compassion fatigue, and patient avoidance. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional, and descriptive design, we assessed the frequency, intensity, and type of moral distress in 51 emergency nurses in 1 community hospital using a 21-item, self-report, Likert-type questionnaire. Results showed a total mean moral distress level of 3.18, indicative of overall low moral distress. Situations with the highest levels of moral distress were related to the competency of health care providers and following family wishes to continue life support, also known as futile care. Moral distress was the reason given by 6.6% of registered nurses for leaving a previous position, 20% said that they had considered leaving a position but did not, and 13.3% stated that they are currently considering leaving their position because of moral distress. Copyright © 2013 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Moral individualism and elective death.

    Prado, C G

    2013-01-01

    Moral individualism (Brooks, 2011; Smith, 2011) is a contemporary interpretation of morality as entirely a matter of personal choice. It is a popular rather than theory-based interpretation and has a number of social generative sources related to present-day preoccupation with individuality and personal distinctiveness. A key generative source is popularization of postmodernism, which prioritizes self-reinvention and provides moral individualism with the appearance of intellectual legitimacy. Moral individualism is a deeply flawed misconception of morality because it abolishes moral communality. My concern in this paper is that in doing so, it seriously jeopardizes productive discussion of the moral permissibility of elective death or choosing to die in despairingly and dire circumstances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustainable development and the nature of environmental legal principles

    J Verschuuren

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, “things” lawyers call “principles” of environmental law will be discussed from a theoretical perspective. Three fundamental questions are answered: 1. Where does the high moral value that is usually attributed principles come from? 2. What is the exact difference between a principle and a legal rule, and between a principle and a policy? 3. What is the relationship between a principle and more concrete legal rules and policies? It is argued that principles of environmental law receive their high moral value from the ideal of sustainable development. An ideal is a value that is explicit, implicit or latent in the law, or the public and moral culture of a society or group that usually cannot be fully realised, and that partly transcends contingent, historical formulations, and implementations in terms of rules and principles. Principles form a necessary link between directly applicable and enforceable environmental legal rules and the underlying ideal. They are a necessary medium for ideals to find their way into concrete rules and can be used to bridge the gap between the morality of duty and the morality of aspiration. Because of their basis in (written or unwritten law and their possible direct and intense influence on legal rules concerning activities that may harm the environment, they must be placed within the morality of duty: a bridgehead within the morality of duty reaching out for the morality of aspiration. From the general function of principles of forming a beachhead in the morality of duty, nine more concrete functions can be derived. These functions principles, both of a substantive and of a procedural nature, have, make it possible to distinguish them from legal rules. It must be acknowledged, however, that there is no very strict separation between principles on one side and rules on the other: environmental norms can be placed on a sliding scale with rules on one side and principles on the other side

  3. Principlism and its alleged competitors.

    Beauchamp, Tom L

    1995-09-01

    Principles that provide general normative frameworks in bioethics have been criticized since the late 1980s, when several different methods and types of moral philosophy began to be proposed as alternatives or substitutes. Several accounts have emerged in recent years, including: (1) Impartial Rule Theory (supported in this issue by K. Danner Clouser), (2) Casuistry (supported in this issue by Albert Jonsen), and (3) Virtue Ethics (supported in this issue by Edmund D. Pellegrino). Although often presented as rival methods or theories, these approaches are consistent with and should not be considered adversaries of a principle-based account.

  4. Disrupting the right prefrontal cortex alters moral judgement.

    Tassy, Sébastien; Oullier, Olivier; Duclos, Yann; Coulon, Olivier; Mancini, Julien; Deruelle, Christine; Attarian, Sharam; Felician, Olivier; Wicker, Bruno

    2012-03-01

    Humans daily face social situations involving conflicts between competing moral decision. Despite a substantial amount of studies published over the past 10 years, the respective role of emotions and reason, their possible interaction, and their behavioural expression during moral evaluation remains an unresolved issue. A dualistic approach to moral evaluation proposes that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (rDLPFc) controls emotional impulses. However, recent findings raise the possibility that the right DLPFc processes emotional information during moral decision making. We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to transiently disrupt rDLPFc activity before measuring decision making in the context of moral dilemmas. Results reveal an increase of the probability of utilitarian responses during objective evaluation of moral dilemmas in the rTMS group (compared to a SHAM one). This suggests that the right DLPFc function not only participates to a rational cognitive control process, but also integrates emotions generated by contextual information appraisal, which are decisive for response selection in moral judgements. © The Author (2011). Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Rationality, morality and Economic Coordination: The Contours of Interaction

    Sushentsova Maria, S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article represents an overview of general tendencies in interaction between the notions of rationality and morality, and their influence on the foundations of economic coordination. Firstly, two main directions of evolution of rationality model are considered: the theory of perspectives of D. Kahneman and A. Tverski (the empirical restriction and economic imperialism of G. Becker (the conceptual widening, the role of the modern institutionalism being emphasized. The theoretical evolution of economic rationality had mainly instrumental character and didn’t change its ethical core – the central idea of welfare in economic motivation. In this regard, the two main ways of integration of rationality and morality in modern discussion are considered: conceptions of “multiple preferences” (1 and “moral obligations” (2. The first conception assumes the existence of stable beliefs or “meta-preferences”, which range ordinal desires or preferences. According to the second approach, a distinction of a qualitative nature is drawn between rational behavior, motivated by personal benefit or “sympathy”, and exclusively moral behavior, underlain by “obligation”. An approach according to which a distinction between rational and moral arguments is drawn, directly determines the principles of economic coordination, including the foundations of social justice. Among the latter, there are two ethical grounds – mutual benefit, based on the “sympathy” principle, and impartiality, grounded on the “obligation of power”. These conceptions imply the corresponding types of economic coordination: market-evolutional (focused on effectiveness and constructivist (focused on redistribution.

  6. The Possibility of Moral Reasoning in Hare’s Prescriptivism

    m zamani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary approaches to moral philosophy have experienced diverging directions regarding the possibility and justification of reasoning. Hare claims that in spite of the fact that intuitivists like Moore, Ross, and Prichard block the use of reasoning by accepting the intuitiveness of knowledge of good and bad, emotivism takes the same rout by focusing on emotions and emphasizing the freedom of choice. While descriptivism and also naturalism accept the possibility of reasoning through admitting the indicative nature of ethical speech, they reject or limit the freedom of choice. He tries to justify both the freedom of choice and the possibility of rational reasoning in moral. In so doing, Hare takes refuge in the non-self-contradiction and compatibility principles to insist on the universalizability of rules of moral reasoning. To make judgments of relevance is the prerequisite in morals which subsequently encompasses universalizability and the possibility of reasoning. Using the linguistic analysis, Hare tries to show that as language in which predicate-logic governs statements, imperatives and moral sentences are governed by rational relationships and principles of compatibility. From this point of view, an individual’s judgments are justifiable, provided that it is not in contradiction with his previous judgments. The aim of this study is to state, analyze, and criticize Hare’s views regarding the provision of rational reasoning and its possibility in terms of the challenges he faces with regard to competing schools of thought.

  7. The role of moral utility in decision making: an interdisciplinary framework.

    Tobler, Philippe N; Kalis, Annemarie; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2008-12-01

    What decisions should we make? Moral values, rules, and virtues provide standards for morally acceptable decisions, without prescribing how we should reach them. However, moral theories do assume that we are, at least in principle, capable of making the right decisions. Consequently, an empirical investigation of the methods and resources we use for making moral decisions becomes relevant. We consider theoretical parallels of economic decision theory and moral utilitarianism and suggest that moral decision making may tap into mechanisms and processes that have originally evolved for nonmoral decision making. For example, the computation of reward value occurs through the combination of probability and magnitude; similar computation might also be used for determining utilitarian moral value. Both nonmoral and moral decisions may resort to intuitions and heuristics. Learning mechanisms implicated in the assignment of reward value to stimuli, actions, and outcomes may also enable us to determine moral value and assign it to stimuli, actions, and outcomes. In conclusion, we suggest that moral capabilities can employ and benefit from a variety of nonmoral decision-making and learning mechanisms.

  8. Modeling exogenous moral norms

    Ross A. Tippit

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the possibility of a robust and general formulation of a model of choice for the representation of a variety of moral norms. It starts by reviewing several recent models of deontological (or rule-based norms that retain the basic elements of the economic model of choice. It briefly examines the achievements and drawbacks of each model, and while no model is identified as the most accurate or robust, the most appealing aspects of each model contribute to the construction of a tout-ensemble utility function proposed in the final section. This representation of preferences aims to incorporate the most common qualities of both consequentialist and deontological moral norms in order to represent decision making under their influence.

  9. Common sense in moral philosophy of the age of Enlightenment

    E. V. Sokurenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Age of Enlightenment had a special meaning for the history of moral philosophy, because in this period the morality becomes a special subject of philosophic interest, philosophic concept of morality is formed. The problem of rational grounding of morality becomes a central one. The important role in this problem solving was the idea of common sense – one of the fundamental ideas of Scottish and French Enlightenment. In the Scottish philosophy concept of «common sense» was developed by representatives of ethical sentimentalism (A. Shaftesbury, F. Hutcheson and by the founder of the rationalist understanding of morality Th. Reid. In France, the idea of common sense was widely developed in the works of Enlightenment philosophers. Scottish enlighteners understood common sense as a kind of inherent, intuitive principle, put by God into human being. This paper analyzes the significance of the concept «common sense» and its features of interpretations by Scottish philosophers. The quintessence of philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment was practical philosophy of I. Kant, in formation of which the idea of common sense played the key role. German classic clearly defined field of application of common sense. He considered an appeal to common sense in matters of science and philosophy unacceptable, but claimed that it was common sense people must rely in everyday practice. Such an understanding of this idea has allowed Kant to justify main concept of his moral philosophy ­ concept of the autonomous subject.

  10. Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Evidence from an fMRI study.

    Wang, Tingting; Mo, Lei; Mo, Ce; Tan, Li Hai; Cant, Jonathan S; Zhong, Luojin; Cupchik, Gerald

    2015-06-01

    Is moral beauty different from facial beauty? Two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments were performed to answer this question. Experiment 1 investigated the network of moral aesthetic judgments and facial aesthetic judgments. Participants performed aesthetic judgments and gender judgments on both faces and scenes containing moral acts. The conjunction analysis of the contrasts 'facial aesthetic judgment > facial gender judgment' and 'scene moral aesthetic judgment > scene gender judgment' identified the common involvement of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), inferior temporal gyrus and medial superior frontal gyrus, suggesting that both types of aesthetic judgments are based on the orchestration of perceptual, emotional and cognitive components. Experiment 2 examined the network of facial beauty and moral beauty during implicit perception. Participants performed a non-aesthetic judgment task on both faces (beautiful vs common) and scenes (containing morally beautiful vs neutral information). We observed that facial beauty (beautiful faces > common faces) involved both the cortical reward region OFC and the subcortical reward region putamen, whereas moral beauty (moral beauty scenes > moral neutral scenes) only involved the OFC. Moreover, compared with facial beauty, moral beauty spanned a larger-scale cortical network, indicating more advanced and complex cerebral representations characterizing moral beauty. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Environmental Morale and Motivation

    Frey, Bruno S; Stutzer, Alois

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of environmental morale and environmental motivation in individual behavior from the point of view of economics and psychology. It deals with the fundamental public good problem, and presents empirical (laboratory and field) evidence on how the cooperation problem can be overcome. Four different theoretical approaches are distinguished according to how individuals� underlying environmental motivation is modeled. Specifically, we look at the interaction betwee...

  12. Promoting Health, Producing Moralisms?

    Brogaard Kristensen, Dorthe; Askegaard, Søren; Hauge Jeppesen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Based on an ethnographic study of 25 Danish consumers, the aim of this paper is threefold. Firstly, based on a critique of traditional approaches to consumer health campaigning, it argues for a more socially diversified approach for understanding consumer construction and pursuit of healthy...... behaviour. Secondly, it presents a typology of discourses that are employed by consumers in constructing their (health oriented) food consumption. Thirdly, it addresses certain social and moral dilemmas inherent in consumer health promotional campaigns....

  13. Moral intensity and climate-friendly food choices.

    Mäkiniemi, Jaana-Piia; Vainio, Annukka

    2013-07-01

    By changing individual food consumption patterns, it might be possible to reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with climate change. The aim of the current study was to examine how perceptions of the moral intensity of climate change are related to climate friendly-food choices. The participants were 350 Finnish university students in the social and behavioral sciences who completed a questionnaire during class. The results indicated that moral perceptions mainly affected the moral evaluation and intentions to make climate-friendly food choices. We suggest that the results can be used to promote climate-friendly food choices, for example, by increasing the recognition of climate change as a moral imperative and by combining environmental motives with other relevant food choice motives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Values and ethical principles for practicing as magistrate/ legal advisor out of the perspective of the codes and national and international statements of principles

    Marţian Iovan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The coordinating and regulating role of the moral values, of the Deontological Code in practicing the magistrate/ legal advisor position is analysed in this article, so that their decisions correspond the universal imperative of practical accomplishment of justice, implicitly to the audience’s expectations with regard to the efficiency and efficacy of the services delivered by the institutions in the judicial system. The subject is of obvious actuality, fact which results in the existence of a relevant number of cases of violation, deforming of the ethical principles, of the specific deontological norms for the legal advisors, especially for the magistrates, which occur in performing the act of justice. The author highlights through examples, the harmful effects of some magistrates’ side-slipping from the ethical principles (Independence, Impartiality, Integrity stipulated in the most important deontological codes, statements of principles or national and international conventions. The logical conclusion, resulting from the analyses, aims to perfection the judicial system, the moral part of the legal higher education, of the magistrates’ continuous training and assessment.

  15. Predictors of Moral Disengagement in Sport.

    Shields, David Light; Funk, Christopher D; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2015-12-01

    Researchers have made productive use of Bandura's (1991) construct of moral disengagement (MD) to help explain why sport participants deviate from ethical ideals. In this study of intercollegiate athletes from diverse sports (N = 713), we examined MD in relation to other character-related variables: empathy, moral identity, moral attentiveness, and contesting orientations. We also examined whether moral attentiveness conforms to the pattern of "bracketed morality" found in moral reasoning (Shields & Bredemeier, 1995) and moral behavior (Kavussanu, Boardley, Sagar, & Ring, 2013). Results indicated that MD correlated positively with perceptual moral attentiveness and war contesting orientation; MD correlated negatively with empathy, moral identity, reflective moral attentiveness, and partnership contesting orientation. Results of hierarchical regression demonstrated that gender, contesting orientations, moral identity, and one form of moral attentiveness were significant predictors of MD. Finally, sport participants were found to be less morally attentive in sport than in everyday life.

  16. Natural Selection and Morality

    Alejandro Rosas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo abordo los intentos, relativamente recientes, de dar una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación por selección natural. Mi exposición tiene una introducción y cuatro partes: en la primera explico en qué consiste la paradoja del altruismo biológico. En la segunda expongo la solución que apela a la selección de grupos, recientemente resurgida; la solución que presuntamente aplicó Charles Darwin cuando formuló sus reflexiones biológicas sobre la moralidad humana. En la tercera expongo la solución sociobiológica, que opta por negar que la selección natural pueda explicar directamente la moralidad humana. La moralidad se presenta más bien como opuesta a la naturaleza diseñada por selección natural. En la cuarta parte desarrollo brevemente una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación que beneficia a los individuos. No opone la moralidad a la naturaleza, ni apela a la selección de grupos. Se sirve de un mecanismo de selección que opera a través de preferencias en la interacción social.Abstract:In this essay, I address recent attempts to account for morality as an adaptation due to natural selection. After a brief introduction, my exposition has four sections. I first explain the paradox of biological altruism. Second, I explain the solution to the paradox in terms of group selection. This solution was presumably applied by Darwin himself as he discussed human morality, and it has experienced a recent revival, though it remains suspicious to most biologists. In the third section I offer a socio-biological solution that opts for denying that morality can be explained by any form of natural selection. Morality is opposed to human nature as designed by natural selection. In the fourth, I argue for an explanation in terms of individual selection. It does not oppose morality to nature, and does not need the workings of group selection; rather, it operates through the agents’ psychological preferences

  17. PEMIKIRAN PENDIDIKAN MORAL ALBERT BANDURA

    Qumruin Nurul Laila

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Albert Bandura dilahirkan pada tanggal 4 Desember 1925 di Mundare, sebuah kota kecil di barat daya Alberta, Kanada, sekitar 50 mil sebelah timur Edmonton. Berasal dari keluarga keturunan Eropa Timur. Ayahnya dari Krakow Polandia dan ibunya dari Ukraina. Pada tahun 1952 Albert Bandura menikah dengan Virginia Varns dan dikaruniai dua orang anak, Mary dan Carol. Bandura belajar bersama Robert Sears, salah satu perintis teori belajar sosial lainnya dan mengambil gelar diplomanya dari University of British Columbia dan gelar kesarjanaan psikologinya dari University of Iowa. Karena reputasinya, pada tahun 1974 dia dipercaya menjabat sebagai Presiden Asosiasi Psikologi Amerika (APA. Sebagai ahli dibidang psikologi, dia percaya bahwa proses transfer keilmuan atau pendidikan, tak lepas dari norma-norma moral yang berlaku di masyarakat hingga nilai-nilai dari norma tersebut diejawantahkan dalam prilaku siswa sehari-hari. Atas dasar asumsi tersebut, maka teori pembelajaran Albert Bandura disebut sosial kognitif karena proses kognitif dalam diri individu memegang peranan dalam pembelajaran, sedangkan pembelajaran terjadi karena adanya pengaruh lingkungan sosial. Proses tahapan-tahapan dalam pembelajaran social kognitif meliputi: Tahap perhatian (attentional phase, Tahap penyimpanan dalam ingatan (retention phase, Tahap reproduksi (reproduction phase dan tahap motivasi (motivation phase. Teori pembelajaran sosial ini menekankan kepada proses bagaimana anak-anak belajar norma-norma kemasyarakatan. Jika pesan yang disampaikan bersifat positif, anak-anak menerimanya dengan baik dan pengaruh lainnya adalah sama positifnya, maka anak itu akan cenderung untuk membesar dengan nilai-nilai yang baik. Begitu juga sebaliknya.

  18. Pendidikan Etika dan Perkembangan Moral Mahasiswa Akuntansi

    Nujmatul Laily

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to comprehend ethical education differences among level 1 (pre-conventional, level 2 (conventional, and level 3 (post-conventional toward moral development steps of accountancy students. This research is quantitative research using survey which is held in X University in Malang. The sampleof this research are 176 accountancy students. Sampling method used proportional random sampling technique in choosing the responden.The instrumentof this research is questionnaire related to ethical education or ethical courses and moral development questionnaireusing defining issues test. The results showed that ethical education differ among level 1 (pre-conventional, level 2 (conventional, and level 3 (post-conventional of accountancy students.

  19. DESEO, LENGUAJE, MORAL: PERSPECTIVA PSICOANALÍTICA

    Juan Guillermo Uribe Echeverry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of the research "On Excess and Its Regulation. Reflections from Psychoanalysis and Philosophy”, carried out by the Psicoanálisis, Sujeto y Sociedad [Psychoanalysis, Subject and Society] research group, University of Antioquia, Colombia. Kant's theory of desire –named by him as "faculty of desire"– and Sigmund Freud's "experience of satisfaction" are here compared. These are two approaches to desire, the former coming from Philosophy, the latter from clinic. In relation to language, Jacques Lacan's logic of signifier is here presented together with the consequence of the emergence of an unconscious subject –subject considered by Lacan as a response of the Real. In relation to morals, the theory of superego and guilt is presented as a genesis of the Freudian morals.

  20. Moral judgment in episodic amnesia.

    Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Wording effects in moral judgments

    Ross E. O'Hara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the study of moral judgments grows, it becomes imperative to compare results across studies in order to create unified theories within the field. These efforts are potentially undermined, however, by variations in wording used by different researchers. The current study sought to determine whether, when, and how variations in wording influence moral judgments. Online participants responded to 15 different moral vignettes (e.g., the trolley problem using 1 of 4 adjectives: ``wrong'', ``inappropriate'', ``forbidden'', or ``blameworthy''. For half of the sample, these adjectives were preceded by the adverb ``morally''. Results indicated that people were more apt to judge an act as wrong or inappropriate than forbidden or blameworthy, and that disgusting acts were rated as more acceptable when ``morally'' was included. Although some wording differences emerged, effects sizes were small and suggest that studies of moral judgment with different wordings can legitimately be compared.

  2. Human rights, global trade and moral values

    Rahim Dehgan Simkani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, immoralities and prevalence of injustice and corruption on the one hand, and dissatisfaction of the world people due to not considering their natural rights on the other hand, show that there are certain problems in the foundations of human rights and declining of moral values. This article tries to show a weakening trend for moral values and human rights in practice, in the process of globalization and especially global trade, which today has a major impact on cultures. For this purpose, in the first part, in addition to studying the concept of human rights, the status of moral values in the intellectual foundations of the Declaration of Human Rights would investigated. In the second part, in addition to explaining the global trade, it shows that there is a decline trend in the moral values in the capitalist economy; and finally, in the third part, in addition to explaining the principles of human rights, the reasons for the weakening of moral values and not regarding human rights in practical consideration, recognized as having problems in the theoretical principles of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, including relying on secularist worldview and humanist ideas. امروزه بی‌اخلاقی‌ها و رواج ظلم و فساد از یک طرف و نارضایتی مردمان جهان مبنی بر عدم دستیابی به حقوق طبیعیشان از طرف دیگر، نشانگر وجود مشکلات خاصی در مبانی حقوق بشر و رو به ضعف رفتنِ ارزش‌های اخلاقی است. این مقاله در پی آن است تا روند رو به ضعف ارزش‌های اخلاقی و حقوق‌بشر در مقام عمل را در فرآیند جهانی شدن و خصوصاً تجارت جهانی که امروزه بر تمام فرهنگ‌ها تأثیرات خاص خود را گذاشته است، نشان دهد. بدین منظور در بخش اوّل ضمن بررسی مفهوم

  3. Pemetaan Perkembangan Moral Mahasiswa Binus ditinjau dari Perspektif Kohlberg (Studi Kasus Terhadap 10 Mahasiswa di Kelas 04 Paf

    Esther Christiana

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Learning means changing. Conditions of learning rely on a person's organizational thought against the learning process. One’s organizational thought is categorized into three major categories, each of which is divided into two phases: pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. The teaching world, not least Bina Nusantara university, should play a role in developing the organizational thought /moral development of every person whom becomes the believer. This moral mapping may be information underlying the learning model. This mapping is generated through qualitative research of 10 Bina Nusantara university students, grade 04, PAF. Data collection technique used observational-partisipative method with the instrument of three moral dilemmas and Kohlberg’s moral stage development indicators. The results in the form of mapping of moral development is reported in the form of pie charts moral The study also resulted in the proposal of moral learning model that can be tested in subsequent research. 

  4. The moral appropriateness of shame

    M. Ally

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I explore the much neglected moral emotion of shame and consider the senses in which it may be regarded as morally appropriate. I argue that there is a connection between coming to terms with shame for those who feel ashamed, and judgments concerning its moral appropriateness. The elucidation of normative connections between shame, self-respect and autonomy implies the need to accept certain aspects of shame as regrettable yet, sometimes, as valuable.

  5. The argument from moral psychology

    Milevski, Voin

    2015-01-01

    The argument from moral psychology is one of the strongest arguments that non-cognitivists use against cognitivism-the metaethical position according to which our moral judgements express beliefs. According to this argument, once we put together the Humean theory of motivation and motivational internalism, we yield the conclusion that cognitivism cannot represent the correct view about the semantic function of moral discourse. I will first attempt to show that a neurological syndrome, called ...

  6. Moral distress in nursing personnel

    Barlem,Edison Luiz Devos; Lunardi,Valéria Lerch; Lunardi,Guilherme Lerch; Tomaschewski-Barlem,Jamila Geri; Silveira,Rosemary Silva da; Dalmolin,Graziele de Lima

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the frequency and intensity of moral distress experienced by nursing personnel in southern Brazil, covering elements of their professional practice. METHOD: a survey was undertaken in two hospitals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with 247 nurses. Data was collected by means of the adapted Moral Distress Scale. RESULTS: the perception of situations that lead to moral distress is enhanced in nurses and in nursing staff working in institutions with greater openness to dialogu...

  7. Bioethics of life programs: taking seriously moral pluralism in clinical settings.

    Niebroj, Leslaw

    2010-11-04

    In the more and more globalized world, the experience of moral pluralism (often related to, or based upon, religious pluralism) has become a common issue which ethical importance is undeniable. Potential conflicts between patients' and therapeutic teams' moral views and between moral beliefs of the particular member of this team are being resolved in the light of bioethical theories, among which principlism remains the mainstream approach to biomedical ethics. The question arises, however, whether this approach, in itself, as being strictly bound to the specific and distinct American philosophical tradition, is to be considered the tool for so called ?moral imperialism'. Also architectures of principlism, in particular by elaborating the concept of common morality, defend the applicability of their theory to the pluralistic settings, it should be emphasized that the idea that some norms and standards of moral character are shared by all morally serious people in every culture has attracted criticism both from empirical as well as theoretical backgrounds. This paper aims at reconsidering principlism so that it would be more suitable for resolving moral dilemma in ethically pluralistic clinical settings. Lakatos' sophisticated methodological falsification is used into two different ways: (1) to construct a concept of 'life programs' and (2) to confront a newly elaborated ethical theory with principlism. The reflection is limited to the norms related to the key issue in clinical ethics, i.e., respecting the patient's autonomy. The concepts of common morality and particular moralities are interpreted (in the light of Lakatos' philosophy of sciences) as "hard core" and "protective belt" of life programs, respectively. Accepting diversity of research programs, Lakatos maintains the idea of the objectivity of truth. Analogously, the plurality of life programs does not put into question the objectivity of moral values. The plurality of moral norms not only respects the

  8. Progressive Taxation and Tax Morale

    Philipp Doerrenberg; Andreas Peichl

    2010-01-01

    As the link between tax compliance and tax morale is found to be robust, finding the determinants of tax morale can help to understand and fight tax evasion. In this paper we analyze the effect of progressive taxation on tax morale in a cross-country approach - which has not been investigated before. Our theoretical analysis leads to two testable predictions. First, an individual's tax morale is higher, the more progressive the tax schedule is. Second, the impact of tax progressivity on tax m...

  9. Interprofessionals' definitions of moral resilience.

    Holtz, Heidi; Heinze, Katherine; Rushton, Cynda

    2018-02-01

    To describe common characteristics and themes of the concept of moral resilience as reported by interprofessional clinicians in health care. Research has provided an abundance of data on moral distress with limited research to resolve and help negate the detrimental effects of moral distress. This reveals a critical need for research on how to mitigate the negative consequences of moral distress that plague nurses and other healthcare providers. One promising direction is to build resilience as an individual strategy concurrently with interventions to build a culture of ethical practice. Qualitative descriptive methods were used to analyse descriptive definitions provided by 184 interprofessional clinicians in health care attending educational programmes in various locations as well as a small group of 23 professionals with backgrounds such as chaplaincy and nonhealthcare providers. Three primary themes and three subthemes emerged from the data. The primary themes are integrity-personal and relational, and buoyancy. The subthemes are self-regulation, self-stewardship and moral efficacy. Individual healthcare providers and healthcare systems can use this research to help negate the detrimental effects of moral distress by finding ways to develop interventions to cultivate moral resilience. Moral resilience involves not only building and fostering the individual's capacity to navigate moral adversity but also developing systems that support a culture of ethical practice for healthcare providers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Human Trafficking and National Morality

    William R. DI PIETRO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes that national morality is an important variable for explaining national anti-trafficking policy. It uses cross country regression analysis to see whether or not empirically national morality is a determinant of anti-trafficking policy. The findings of the paper are consistent with the notion that improved levels of national morality lead to better national anti-trafficking policy. National morality is found to be statistically relevant for national anti-trafficking policy when controlling for the extent of democracy, the share of the private sector in the economy, and the degree of globalization.

  11. Situational variation in moral judgment: In a stage or on a stage?

    Carpendale, J I; Krebs, D L

    1992-04-01

    Two issues were examined in this study-the consistency of moral judgment across different types of dilemma and different social contexts, and the relationship between the structure (stage) of moral judgment and the content of moral decisions. Forty subjects were given two hypothetical dilemmas about business decisions and two standard Kohlberg dilemmas. Half the subjects directed their responses to a business audience, half to a philosophical audience. Responses to the moral dilemmas were scored in accordance with the Colby and Kohlberg (1987) scoring manual. Stage of moral reasoning was found to be significantly higher on the Kohlberg dilemmas than on the business dilemmas. A significant interaction between type of dilemma and audience was attributed to the tendency of subjects directing their responses to a business audience to interpret one of the business dilemmas in terms of the moral order of business, but for subjects directing their responses to a philosophy audience to treat it as a philosophical dilemma. The other business dilemma evoked uniformly low-level moral judgments. The amount of selfishness intrinsic in subjects' moral choices on the business dilemmas was significantly negatively correlated with moral maturity on the business dilemmas, but not with their moral maturity on Kohlberg's test. These results are interpreted as more consistent with models of moral development such as those advanced by C. G. Levine ([1979] "Stage Acquisition and Stage Use: An Appraisal of Stage Displacement Explanations of Variation in Moral Reasoning, " Human Development, Vol. 22, pp. 145-164), J. Rest ([1983] "Morality," in: P. H. Mussen [ed.], J. H. Flavell and E. Markman [Vol. eds.], Handbook of Child Psychology [Vol. 3, 4th ed.], John Wiley & Sons, New York), and R. Harré ([1984]) Personal Being: A Theory for Individual Psychology, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts), which posit a relatively wide range of within-person stage use and emphasize the

  12. The moral obligation to be vaccinated: utilitarianism, contractualism, and collective easy rescue.

    Giubilini, Alberto; Douglas, Thomas; Savulescu, Julian

    2018-02-10

    We argue that individuals who have access to vaccines and for whom vaccination is not medically contraindicated have a moral obligation to contribute to the realisation of herd immunity by being vaccinated. Contrary to what some have claimed, we argue that this individual moral obligation exists in spite of the fact that each individual vaccination does not significantly affect vaccination coverage rates and therefore does not significantly contribute to herd immunity. Establishing the existence of a moral obligation to be vaccinated (both for adults and for children) despite the negligible contribution each vaccination can make to the realisation of herd immunity is important because such moral obligation would strengthen the justification for coercive vaccination policies. We show that two types of arguments-namely a utilitarian argument based on Parfit's Principle of Group Beneficence and a contractualist argument-can ground an individual moral obligation to be vaccinated, in spite of the imperceptible contribution that any single vaccination makes to vaccine coverage rates. We add a further argument for a moral obligation to be vaccinated that does not require embracing problematic comprehensive moral theories such as utilitarianism or contractualism. The argument is based on a "duty of easy rescue" applied to collectives, which grounds a collective moral obligation to realise herd immunity, and on a principle of fairness in the distribution of the burdens that must be borne to realise herd immunity.

  13. CHARACTER BUILDING DALAM KONSEP PENDIDIKAN IMAM ZARKASYI DITINJAU DARI FILSAFAT MORAL IBNU MISKAWAIH

    Najwa Mu'minah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of moral consciousness, especially in the politic and Indonesian government bureaucracy, in recent times that was pictured by various anomalies and immorality, such as a corruption, has become a negative “cultural norm”, which seem very difficult to be controlled. The condition of national spirit and morality suggested the need of redevelopment of model of character education (character building as a national healing. Imam Zarkasyi implemented several principles of character building in the Pesantren of Darussalam Gontor. He taught his pupils on the basis of the virtues of the excellences with refer to the Panca Jiwa and the Four Mottos of Modernity of the Pesantren as their living values. His reformative efforts in the context of contemporary Islamic education are actually intended to the development of character, in other words, “character building”, by implementing the principle of the Golden Mean of Ibn Miskawaih. Some aspects of Zarkasyi's principles of education that might be supportive for developing the national character education program, and still relevant for today are: firstly, moral education should have the leadership insights; secondly, moral education should have the objective moral values as the teleological purposes; thirdly, moral education should be built through the best environment, in order to be optimized and efficient; and fourthly, moral education curriculum should be integrated and comprehensive. So, the Zarkasyi's concept of character building, and the education movement became the concept of character education that quite mature and should be extracted by our nation.

  14. Advertisement without Ethical Principles?

    Wojciech Słomski

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipients consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It is not that the moral evil immanently underlines the advertisement, but it concerns the mechanisms which cause that the advertisement turns out to be effective. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and flaws of the concrete advertised product. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and defects of the concrete advertised product. The most serious difficulty connected with the ethical opinion of the advertisement is the fact that the advertisement is the indispensable link of the present economy, and everyone who accepts the free market and perceives the positives of the economic growth, should also accept the advertisement. The advertisement constitutes the element of the economic activity, so in consequence the responsibility first of all lies with enterprises for its far-reaching results.

  15. The Effect of Moral Intensity on Ethical Decision Making in Accounting

    Yang, Hui-Ling; Wu, Wei-Pang

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dimensionality of a moral intensity construct in four ethical accounting scenarios and how the dimensions directly affect the specific processes of moral decision making of accounting students. A survey was conducted with 233 accounting students enrolled in the school of accounting in a university of…

  16. Empathy, Perspective Taking and Personal Values as Predictors of Moral Schemas

    Myyrya, Liisa; Juujarvi, Soile; Pesso, Kaija

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between empathy variables, personal values and moral reasoning. The impact of empathic concern, perspective taking and personal values measured by the Portrait Value Questionnaire on moral schemas measured by the Defining Issues Test was investigated among 599 students from a university of…

  17. Spiritual and Moral Friendships: How Campuses Can Encourage a Search for Meaning and Purpose

    Shushok, Frank, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Helping students understand and cultivate moral and spiritual friends is perhaps one of the most important gifts a college or university can give a student. Having meaningful relationships contributes significant energy to students' inner lives--their values, moral commitments, and self-understandings. The topic of friendship, and all that it…

  18. The Application of Kohlberg's Moral Development Model to College Students' Technology Ethics Decisions

    Kiser, Angelina I. T.; Morrison, Eileen E.; Craven, Annette

    2009-01-01

    This study examined undergraduate university students' (n=121) responses to six ethical dilemmas within the realm of information technology (IT). Using a framework based on Kohlberg's stages of moral development, the study evaluated the level of moral development as demonstrated in these responses. An apriori coding system was used to analyze the…

  19. The Everyday Moral Judge - Autobiographical Recollections of Moral Emotions.

    Körner, André; Tscharaktschiew, Nadine; Schindler, Rose; Schulz, Katrin; Rudolph, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal), goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained) and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure) as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants' descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy). Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived.

  20. The Everyday Moral Judge – Autobiographical Recollections of Moral Emotions

    Tscharaktschiew, Nadine; Schindler, Rose; Schulz, Katrin; Rudolph, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal), goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained) and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure) as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants’ descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy). Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived. PMID:27977699

  1. The Everyday Moral Judge - Autobiographical Recollections of Moral Emotions.

    André Körner

    Full Text Available Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal, goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants' descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy. Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived.

  2. Executive Summary: Transforming Moral Distress into Moral Resilience in Nursing.

    Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Schoonover-Shoffner, Kathy; Kennedy, Maureen Shawn

    To examine practices for addressing moral distress, a collaborative project was developed by the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, the American Journal of Nursing, and the Journal of Christian Nursing, along with the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses and the American Nurses Association. Its purpose was to identify strategies that individuals and systems can use to mitigate the detrimental effects of moral distress and foster moral resilience. On August 11 and 12, 2016, an invitational symposium, State of the Science: Transforming Moral Distress into Moral Resilience in Nursing, was held at the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing in Baltimore, Maryland. Forty-five nurse clinicians, researchers, ethicists, organization representatives, and other stakeholders took part. The result of the symposium was group consensus on recommendations for addressing moral distress and building moral resilience in four areas: practice, education, research, and policy. Participants and the organizations represented were energized and committed to moving this agenda forward. The full report is available online at http://journals.lww.com/ajnonline/Pages/Moral-Distress-Supplement.aspx.

  3. Moral Relativism: A Philosopher's Antidote for Teachers

    Jack, Henry

    1977-01-01

    The author identifies four main sources of moral relativism; defines cultural and ethical relativism, and social and personal moral relativism; and presents three arguments to refute moral relativism. (AV)

  4. Robots and Moral Agency

    Johansson, Linda

    2011-01-01

      Machine ethics is a field of applied ethics that has grown rapidly in the last decade. Increasingly advanced autonomous robots have expanded the focus of machine ethics from issues regarding the ethical development and use of technology by humans to a focus on ethical dimensions of the machines themselves. This thesis contains two essays, both about robots in some sense, representing these different perspectives of machine ethics. The first essay, “Is it Morally Right to use UAVs in War?” c...

  5. Feeling cooperation, being moral

    Francisco Díaz, Andrés de

    2014-01-01

    Is morality a pure rational abstraction or is it rooted in human nature? In this paper I argue for the second option, and I do so in several steps. I first vindicate the cognitive role of emotions. For this, I rely on two contemporary theories of emotions, Martha Nussbaum’s and Antonio Damasio’s, without forgetting the evolutionary approach to emotions. Then I defend a complex model of human behaviour that goes beyond rational choice models and includes, following Gintis, other-regarding orie...

  6. Moral character in the workplace.

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment.

  7. Moral foundations, worldviews, moral absolutism and belief in conspiracy theories.

    Leone, Luigi; Giacomantonio, Mauro; Lauriola, Marco

    2017-09-05

    In the present research, we examined whether individual differences in basic moral concerns might be related to a greater endorsement of conspiracy theories. Building on the notion that conspiracy theories often deal with super-individual relevant events in which a group perspective is central, we proposed that individual differences in moral concerns pertaining to group- and community-concerns (i.e., binding moral foundations) rather than to individual well-being (i.e., individualising moral foundations) would be positively associated with conspiracy beliefs. We further hypothesised that such relations would be totally mediated by beliefs in a dangerous world and by embracing moral absolutism. We found support for these predictions in two community samples (Ns: 319; 514). Theoretical implications were discussed. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Moral intuition, good deaths and ordinary medical practitioners.

    Parker, M

    1990-01-01

    Debate continues over the acts/omissions doctrine, and over the concepts of duty and charity. Such issues inform the debate over the moral permissibility of euthanasia. Recent papers have emphasised moral sensitivity, medical intuitions, and sub-standard palliative care as some of the factors which should persuade us to regard euthanasia as morally unacceptable. I argue that these lines of argument are conceptually misdirected and have no bearing on the bare permissibility of voluntary euthanasia. Further, some of the familiar slippery slope arguments against voluntary euthanasia compromise the principle of autonomy to which both supporters and opponents of euthanasia adhere. I discuss a model for doctor/patient relationships which can be applied to cases which would be seen by all disputants as strong prima facie cases for euthanasia. I argue that in certain cases it will be ordinary medical practitioners who are duty-bound to assist death. PMID:2319570

  9. Moral intuition, good deaths and ordinary medical practitioners.

    Parker, M

    1990-03-01

    Debate continues over the acts/omissions doctrine, and over the concepts of duty and charity. Such issues inform the debate over the moral permissibility of euthanasia. Recent papers have emphasised moral sensitivity, medical intuitions, and sub-standard palliative care as some of the factors which should persuade us to regard euthanasia as morally unacceptable. I argue that these lines of argument are conceptually misdirected and have no bearing on the bare permissibility of voluntary euthanasia. Further, some of the familiar slippery slope arguments against voluntary euthanasia compromise the principle of autonomy to which both supporters and opponents of euthanasia adhere. I discuss a model for doctor/patient relationships which can be applied to cases which would be seen by all disputants as strong prima facie cases for euthanasia. I argue that in certain cases it will be ordinary medical practitioners who are duty-bound to assist death.

  10. A PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON MORAL PHILOSOPHY

    CIPRIAN IULIAN ŞOPTICĂ

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this article concerns the what, the how and the whyof moral phenomenology. The first question we take into consideration is „What is moral phenomenology”? The second question which arises is „How to pursue moral phenomenology”? The third question is „Why pursue moral phenomenology”? We will analyze the study Moral phenomenology:foundation issues1, by which the American phenomenologist Uriah Kriegel aims three lines of research: the definition of moral phenomenology and the desc...

  11. Morality in the Brazilian Constitution and Its Effects on Finance Administration

    Demetrius Nichele Macei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the meaning and scope of Public Morality Principle. Using the deductive method of presentation of the study, it starts by drawing a picture on the theoretical framework of positivism, through post-positivism and ending in me- thodic-axiological positivism by Heleno Torres. Deals with the influence of private law in public law. Addresses the need for control of judicial decisions and the principle of Legal Security. Following analyzes the principle of morality relating it on justice, equality and legality. Then addresses the principle of legitimate trust and finally, comes the good faith of the public administration, again related to private law, and concludes with aspects of tax law interpretation, the moral of the tax authorities and the taxpayer.

  12. Effect of Psilocybin on Empathy and Moral Decision-Making.

    Pokorny, Thomas; Preller, Katrin H; Kometer, Michael; Dziobek, Isabel; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2017-09-01

    Impaired empathic abilities lead to severe negative social consequences and influence the development and treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Furthermore, empathy has been shown to play a crucial role in moral and prosocial behavior. Although the serotonin system has been implicated in modulating empathy and moral behavior, the relative contribution of the various serotonin receptor subtypes is still unknown. We investigated the acute effect of psilocybin (0.215 mg/kg p.o.) in healthy human subjects on different facets of empathy and hypothetical moral decision-making using the multifaceted empathy test (n=32) and the moral dilemma task (n=24). Psilocybin significantly increased emotional, but not cognitive empathy compared with placebo, and the increase in implicit emotional empathy was significantly associated with psilocybin-induced changed meaning of percepts. In contrast, moral decision-making remained unaffected by psilocybin. These findings provide first evidence that psilocybin has distinct effects on social cognition by enhancing emotional empathy but not moral behavior. Furthermore, together with previous findings, psilocybin appears to promote emotional empathy presumably via activation of serotonin 2A/1A receptors, suggesting that targeting serotonin 2A/1A receptors has implications for potential treatment of dysfunctional social cognition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  13. Effects of ethics education on moral sensitivity of nursing students.

    Yeom, Hye-A; Ahn, Sung-Hee; Kim, Su-Jeong

    2017-09-01

    While nursing ethics education is commonly provided for undergraduate nursing students in most nursing colleges, consensus on the content and teaching modules for these ethics courses have still not been established. This study aimed to examine the effects of nursing ethics education on the moral sensitivity and critical thinking disposition of nursing students in Korea. A one-group pre- and post-test design was used. Moral sensitivity was measured using the Korean version of the Moral Sensitivity Questionnaire. Critical thinking disposition was measured using the Critical Thinking Disposition Questionnaire. Participants and research context: Participants were 70 undergraduate nursing students who were attending a university located in Seoul, Korea. The nursing ethics education was provided 7 times, from September to December 2010, and comprised 90-min sessions each week. Ethical considerations: This study was conducted in accordance with the Human Subject Research Ethics Committee guidelines. After the education, the levels for the patient-oriented care, a sub-domain of moral sensitivity, and inquisitiveness, a sub-domain of critical thinking disposition, significantly improved. There were no changes in overall scores for moral sensitivity and critical thinking disposition. There were significant positive correlations between moral sensitivity and critical thinking disposition both pre- and post-intervention. These results reflect the need for ongoing efforts to develop innovative content, structure, and instructional methods for undergraduate nursing ethics education programs.

  14. Examining the Moral Development of Emerging Adult Student-Athletes: The Connection to Engaged Leadership Practices

    Bowers, Kristie M.

    2017-01-01

    With university mission statements focused on preparing emerging adult students for globally inclusive professional careers, moral and leadership development has become a central focus of many colleges and universities (Bass, 1991; Binghamton University, 2016; Zimmerman-Oster & Burkhardt, 1999). Colleges and universities utilize interactions…

  15. Moral issues in mentoring sessions

    Hunink, G.; Leeuwen, van R.; Jansen, M.; Jochemsen, H.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the results of research that investigated whether student nurses identified the moral aspects of everyday nursing care situations and, if so, how they dealt with them. We intended to elucidate the role of mentoring situations in moral development. Student written documents

  16. Moral Reasoning in Genetics Education

    van der Zande, Paul; Brekelmans, Mieke; Vermunt, Jan D.; Waarlo, Arend Jan

    2009-01-01

    Recent neuropsychological research suggests that intuition and emotion play a role in our reasoning when we are confronted with moral dilemmas. Incorporating intuition and emotion into moral reflection is a rather new idea in the educational world, where rational reasoning is preferred. To develop a teaching and learning strategy to address this…

  17. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  18. Moral Orientation, Gender, and Salary.

    Manning, Roger W.

    A study examined the relationship among gender, moral orientation, and pay. Although the participants were about equal in terms of gender, 48 males and 53 females, males tended to hold higher degrees. The researcher hypothesized that salaries would be differentiated based on gender and moral orientation. Assumptions were that care-oriented males…

  19. Moral Stress in Teaching Practice

    Colnerud, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study whether moral stress is a phenomenon relevant to teaching practice and which may make a significant contribution to understanding why teachers repeatedly reported feeling burdened by work. Moral stress can be caused by acting in conflict with one's own conscience, e.g. when one knows the right thing to…

  20. When sanctions convey moral norms

    Mulder, Laetitia B.

    2018-01-01

    Sanctions not only have the instrumental function of deterring people from undesired behavior but they also have the ability to convey moral norms. As such, they may create a moral motivation not to engage in the sanctioned behavior. This is desirable as this makes the success of a sanctioning