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Sample records for universal jdbc driver

  1. JDBC Pocket Reference

    Bales, Donald

    2003-01-01

    JDBC--the Java Database Connectivity specification--is a complex set of application programming interfaces (APIs) that developers need to understand if they want their Java applications to work with databases. JDBC is so complex that even the most experienced developers need to refresh their memories from time to time on specific methods and details. But, practically speaking, who wants to stop and thumb through a weighty tutorial volume each time a question arises? The answer is the JDBC Pocket Reference, a data-packed quick reference that is both a time-saver and a lifesaver. The JDBC P

  2. Advanced system of planning and organization of classes at the university

    Guadamillas Herranz, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    This document is the result of a process of web development to create a tool that will allow to Cracow University of Technology consult, create and manage timetables. The technologies chosen for this purpose are Apache Tomcat Server, My SQL Community Server, JDBC driver, Java Servlets and JSPs for the server side. The client part counts on Javascript, jQuery, AJAX and CSS technologies to perform the dynamism. The document will justify the choice of these technologies and will explain so...

  3. Optimizing the Universal Robots ROS driver

    Andersen, Thomas Timm

    improvement both in terms of faster reaction as well as making it possible to control the robot using either ros_control or ordinary joint speed commands, which is required for many types of sensory based control like visual servoing. The developed driver is compared to the drivers already existing in the ROS...

  4. University - industry collaborations: models, drivers and cultures.

    Ehrismann, Dominic; Patel, Dhavalkumar

    2015-01-01

    The way academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies have been approaching collaborations has changed significantly in recent years. A multitude of interaction models were tested and critical factors that drive successful collaborations have been proposed. Based on this experience the current consensus in the pharmaceutical industry is to pursue one of two strategies: an open innovation approach to source discoveries wherever they occur, or investing selectively into scientific partnerships that churn out inventions that can be translated from bench to bedside internally. While these strategies may be intuitive, to form and build sustainable relationships between academia and large multinational healthcare enterprises is proving challenging. In this article we explore some of the more testing aspects of these collaborations, approaches that various industrial players have taken and provide our own views on the matter. We found that understanding and respecting each other's organisational culture and combining the intellectual and technological assets to answer big scientific questions accelerates and improves the quality of every collaboration. Upon discussing the prevailing cooperation models in the university - industry domain, we assert that science-driven collaborations where risks and rewards are shared equally without a commercial agenda in mind are the most impactful.

  5. Module for the organization of a branch of the universal branch driver in the CAMAC standard

    Nguen Fuk; Smirnov, V.A.; Khmelevski, E.

    1976-01-01

    A module is elaborated for the organization of a branch of the universal branch driver in the CAMAC standard for the conjugation of a control crate trunk with a branch trunk. A block diagram of the module is described; its principal specifications are given. The universal branch driver system may accomodate up to 10 branch organization modules with one control source module

  6. Secrets of the Academy: The Drivers of University Endowment Success

    Josh Lerner; Antoinette Schoar; Jialan Wang

    2008-01-01

    University endowments have received much attention recently for their superior investment returns compared with other institutional investors. This study documents trends in college and university endowment returns and investments in the United States between 1992 and 2005 using data on over a thousand schools. Such endowments have generally performed well over this time period, with a median growth rate of 7.4 percent per year and median return of 6.9 percent. This sector has been dominated ...

  7. Users in the Driver's Seat: A New Approach to Classifying Teaching Methods in a University Repository

    Neumann, Susanne; Oberhuemer, Petra; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Neumann, S., Oberhuemer, P., & Koper, R. (2009). Users in the Driver's Seat: A New Approach to Classifying Teaching Methods in a University Repository. In U. Cress, V. Dimitrova & M. Specht (Eds.), Learning in the Synergy of Multiple Disciplines. Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on

  8. Control module and module for priority set-up for the CAMAC universal branch driver

    Nguen Fuk; Smirnov, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    Control module of BKD-871 universal branch driver operates as a controller in the control crate. This module performs synchronous data transmission to (from) the computer and shapes time signals for A-type controllers. The following regimes of data block transmission may be organized with the help of the control module: address scanning regime; repeated reference regime; stop regime. A priority driving module is required for organization of simultaneous operation from several control sources

  9. Nine drivers of knowledge transfer between universities and industry R&D partners in South Africa

    A. van Zyl

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents part of the findings of the Research Marketing and Technology Commercialization Survey conducted in South Africa during 2005 and 2006. Part IV (Q4 of this survey was designed to examine nine drivers of knowledge transfer between South African universities in their research and development (R&D collaborations with industry firms. Respondents from a judgemental sample ranked the knowledge transfer for R&D collaboration between university departments and industry as: (a the need to extract appropriate knowledge at the right time to make critical decisions; (b the perception that knowledge is a valuable resource; (c the emphasis on getting a return on investment in research; (d the need to protect knowledge for competitive advantage; (e the need to close the knowledge gap; (f international trade; (g the need to protect intellectual property such as patents and trademarks; (h geographic proximity between the knowledge source and recipient; and (i war, terrorism and natural disasters.

  10. EFFECT OF A ROAD SAFETY EDUCATION INTERVENTION ON ROAD SAFETY KNOWLEDGE OF UNIVERSITY DRIVERS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA.

    Olumide, A O; Owoaje, E T

    2016-06-01

    It is essential for drivers employed in the formal sector to have good knowledge of road safety in order to safeguard their lives and those of the staff they are employed to drive. The study was conducted to determine the effect of a road safety education intervention on road safety knowledge of drivers employed in the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. A quasi-experimental study of 98 intervention and 78 control drivers selected using a cluster sampling technique was conducted. The intervention comprised a two-day training on road safety and first aid. The drivers' knowledge of road safety was measured at baseline, immediately and 4-months post-intervention. Aggregate scores of road safety knowledge were computed giving minimum and maximum obtainable scores of 0 and 16 respectively. Change in mean scores over the three measurement periods was assessed using Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Independent t-test was used to compare the scores between intervention and control drivers at each of the assessment periods. Twenty-nine drivers did not complete the study (attrition rate = 16.5%). At baseline, mean road safety knowledge scores for the intervention and control drivers were 12.7±2.2 and 12.9± 2.3 (p = 0.510) respectively. Immediately and four months post intervention, the scores of the intervention drivers were 13.8±1.9 and 12.8±1.6; while scores for the controls were 13.3±2.0 and 13.2±1.8. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the increase in knowledge over the three assessment periods was not statistically significant. The intervention resulted in an initial increase in road safety knowledge of the intervention drivers. However, this was not sustained to the forth month post-intervention. This finding suggests periodic refresher trainings to sustain the knowledge acquired.

  11. Study of the Effect of Brand Equity Drivers on University Brand Resonance (Case Study:Amir Kabir university, Sharif university, Tarbiat Modares university, Tehran university)

    mojtaba karimian; Hamid khodadad hosseini; Asqar moshabaki

    2015-01-01

    Branding in business of institutions of higher education is one of the issues that recently have been attracted by many researchers and therefore administrators must conduct in depth studies and take effective steps in order to devise a brand strategy so that they can make a strong brand for universities. Thus, this article investigated the quality of branding and presented suggestions to improve the brand resonance of university. The main objective of the study is to show that how brand reso...

  12. Personality of young drivers in Oman: Relationship to risky driving behaviors and crash involvement among Sultan Qaboos University students.

    Al Azri, Mohammed; Al Reesi, Hamed; Al-Adawi, Samir; Al Maniri, Abdullah; Freeman, James

    2017-02-17

    Drivers' behaviors such as violations and errors have been demonstrated to predict crash involvement among young Omani drivers. However, there is a dearth of studies linking risky driving behaviors to the personality of young drivers. The aim of the present study was to assess such traits within a sample of young Omani drivers (as measured through the behavioral inhibition system [BIS] and the behavioral activation system [BAS]) and determine links with aberrant driving behaviors and self-reported crash involvement. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Sultan Qaboos University that targeted all licensed Omani's undergraduate students. A total of 529 randomly selected students completed the self-reported questionnaire that included an assessment of driving behaviors (e.g., Driver Behaviour Questionnaire, DBQ) as well as the BIS/BAS measures. A total of 237 participants (44.8%) reported involvement in at least one crash since being licensed. Young drivers with lower BIS-Anxiety scores and higher BAS-Fun Seeking tendencies as well as male drivers were more likely to report driving violations. Statistically significant gender differences were observed on all BIS and BAS subscales (except for BAS-Fun) and the DBQ subscales, because males reported higher trait scores. Though personality traits were related to aberrant driving behaviors at the bivariate level, the constructs were not predictive of engaging in violations or errors. Furthermore, consistent with previous research, a supplementary multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only driving experience was predictive of crash involvement. The findings highlight that though personality traits influence self-reported driving styles (and differ between the genders), the relationship with crash involvement is not as clear. This article further outlines the key findings of the study in regards to understanding core psychological constructs that increase crash risk.

  13. The Intention in Speeding Behavior between Low and High Intended Young Driver in Urban University

    Mohamad Ghazali Masuri,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of road traffic accidents among young adult aged under 25 years old is an alarming issue in Malaysia. A five pages self-reported questionnaire was distributed to 384 young drivers' to investigate their intention in speeding while driving. Results have shown, the intention to speed among low and high intended based line group revealed a significant difference when it was compared with four types of scenario. Correct stimulation while driving could help drivers to change their intention to speed. This stimulation may be able to reduce the drivers' potential to involve with an accident and will save peoples' life.

  14. The influence of anger, impulsivity, sensation seeking and driver attitudes on risky driving behaviour among post-graduate university students in Durban, South Africa.

    Bachoo, Shaneel; Bhagwanjee, Anil; Govender, Kaymarlin

    2013-06-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) constitute a serious global health risk, and evidence suggests that young drivers are significantly overrepresented among those injured or killed in RTAs. This study explores the role of anger, impulsivity, sensation seeking and driver attitudes as correlates for risky driving practices among drivers, drawing comparisons between age and gender. The study used a cross-sectional survey design, with a sample of 306 post-graduate university students from two universities in Durban, South Africa, who completed the self-administered questionnaire. The results indicate that drivers with higher driver anger, sensation seeking, urgency, and with a lack of premeditation and perseverance in daily activities were statistically more likely to report riskier driving acts. Males reported significantly more acts of risky driving behaviour (RDB) than females. Driver attitudes significantly predicted self-reported acts of RDB on most indicators. Older drivers (25 years and older) had safer driver attitudes and a lower sense of sensation seeking and urgency in life. Interventions targeting young drivers, which focus on impeding the manifestation of anger, impulsivity and sensation seeking are recommended. Also, the empirical support for the attitude-behaviour hypothesis evidenced in this study vindicates the development or continuation of interventions that focus on this dynamic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Dynamic Capabilities View of Employability: Exploring the Drivers of Competitive Advantage for University Graduates

    Finch, David J.; Peacock, Melanie; Levallet, Nadege; Foster, William

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The increasing demand for post-secondary education, and the ongoing difficulty students' face in securing appropriate work upon program completion, highlight the importance of an enhanced understanding of employability resources for university graduates. Just as organizations achieve a strategic advantage from resources and dynamic…

  16. DRIVER INATTENTION

    Richard TAY

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Driver inattention, especially driver distraction, is an extremely influential but generally neglected contributing factor of road crashes. This paper explores some of the common behaviours associated with several common forms of driver inattention, with respect to their perceived crash risks, rates of self-reported behaviours and whether drivers regulate such behaviours depending on the road and traffic environment, and provides some policy recommendations to address issues raised.

  17. Achieving 10,000 steps: a comparison of public transport users and drivers in a university setting.

    Villanueva, Karen; Giles-Corti, Billie; McCormack, Gavin

    2008-09-01

    To compare pedometer steps of university students who used public transport and private motor vehicles to travel to and or from The University of Western Australia (UWA). 103 undergraduate students in 2006 recruited by e-mail and snowballing wore a pedometer for five consecutive university days, and completed a travel and physical activity diary. Compared with private motor vehicle users, public transport users performed more daily steps (11443 vs. 10242 steps/day, p=0.04) After adjusting for gender, age group and average daily minutes of self-reported leisure-time physical activity, the odds of achieving 10,000 steps/day was higher in public transport users compared with private motor vehicle users (OR 3.55; 95% CI 1.34-9.38, p=0.01). Walking associated with public transport use appeared to contribute to university students achieving higher levels of daily steps. Encouraging public transport use could help increase and maintain community physical activity levels.

  18. The strategic role of partnerships between universities and private corporations as a driver for increasing workforce competitiveness in a global economy

    Damoc Adrian-Ioan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A global economic context means increased competition as corporations face contenders from other countries, and there is a wider range of choices on the market available to consumers. This global competition drives economic actors to seek competitive edges to increase the efficiency of their operations; within this global economy, corporations seek these advantages, outsourcing their activities in order to make use of the opportunities of globalisation. The same situation can be encountered on the labour market. While the expansion of economic activities globally often means increased employment opportunities, it also means that job seekers from around the world need to become more competitive on the job market to attract better employment opportunities. Workforce competitiveness is determined by various factors, like availability and ease of access (i.e. job market legislation, level and quality of education, and cost. The level and quality of education are of particular concern, as it gauges the potential of the workforce, and is the cornerstone of the controversial “skills gap”, based on a common complaint of corporations regarding a shortage of skilled employees. Acknowledging the importance of this factor, numerous companies have concluded partnerships with local universities, leading to intimate connections between the business environment and education. Thus, in the same manner that supply and demand shape the markets for typical goods and determine the success of a market, these partnerships between universities and corporations influence the labour market, bringing together demand (i.e. the corporations seeking skilled employees and supply (universities and education centres training the future workforce. There are numerous long-term benefits that such partnerships can bring to a country’s education sector. As such, the present paper seeks to examine the strategic importance of partnerships between academia and industry as a key

  19. Experimental testing of designated driver cues

    2000-07-27

    In theory, the designated-driver concept holds great promise for reducing the incidences of drunk driving. It is simple, inexpensive, almost universally recognized, and generally positively regarded by the U.S. population as a means for avoiding drun...

  20. Assisting Driver Sovereignty : A Fail-Safe Design Approach to Driver Distraction

    Van Gijssel, A.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis investigates the potential of a fail-safe approach to driver distraction through novel interface concepts for integrated Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Traffic accidents are a negative side effect of the universal and economical desire for mobility. The year 2009 saw the

  1. Universe

    2009-01-01

    The Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  2. Examination of Supplemental Driver Training and Online Basic Driver Education

    2012-06-01

    This report describes supplemental driver training programs and online basic driver education. It coves supplemental driver training that : focused on knowledge and skills beyond those normally found in traditional driver education delivered in the U...

  3. Evaluating Older Drivers' Skills

    2013-05-01

    Research has demonstrated that older drivers pose a higher risk of involvement in fatal crashes at intersections than : younger drivers. Age-triggered restrictions are problematic as research shows that the majority of older people : have unimpaired ...

  4. Online driver's license renewal.

    2015-09-01

    The Kentucky Department of Vehicle Regulation is exploring the possibility of developing and implementing online : drivers license renewal. The objective of this project was to: 1) evaluate online drivers license and REAL ID renewal : programs ...

  5. Older drivers : a review.

    Hakamies-Blomqvist, L. Sirén, A. & Davidse, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    The proportion of senior citizens (aged 65+) will grow from about 15 per cent in the year 2000 to about 30 per cent in the year 2050. The share of older drivers in the driver population will grow even faster because of increasing licensing rates among the ageing population. Older drivers do not have

  6. National Driver Register (NDR) -

    Department of Transportation — Information regarding individuals who have had their driver licenses revoked, suspended or otherwise denied for cause, or who have been convicted of certain traffic...

  7. Young novice drivers.

    2013-01-01

    In The Netherlands, young novice drivers (18-24 years of age) show a crash rate that is five times higher than that of experienced drivers (30-59 years of age). The rate of young males is even seven times as high. The main reasons are lack of driving experience and hazardous behaviour typical of

  8. Criteria for driver impairment

    Brookhuis, K.A.; De Waard, D.; Fairclough, S.H

    2003-01-01

    Most traffic accidents can be attributed to driver impairment, e.g. inattention, fatigue, intoxication, etc. It is now technically feasible to monitor and diagnose driver behaviour with respect to impairment with the aid of a limited number of in-vehicle sensors. However, a valid framework for the

  9. A Simple Wave Driver

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  10. Dominant drivers of business students

    Radu Cătălina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Taibi Kahler wrote in 1974 a theory about five main drivers that could explain people’s motivation and a series of positive and negative behavior patterns: Be Strong, Be Perfect, Hurry Up, Try Hard and Please People. Of course, we consider there is no absolute positive or negative behavior, since (1 everything needs to be analyzed by taking into account the context and (2 any behavior pattern can mean a series of advantages as long as people understand their own values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors. It would be interesting to link Kahler’s drivers to the educational process, in order to be able to adapt our courses and our teaching styles to students’ requirements and also to the requirements in the labor market. Our paper is built on literature review and a questionnaire applied to a sample of 607 students in Bucharest University of Economic Studies, Romania. Information was processed with Microsoft Excel 2013, in order to look at the main working styles our students have, at the main explanations for the differences between them and in order to test a series of hypotheses. We were interested to look at the main traits of the current generation of students in our university: dominant drivers, roles of managers and specialists, the attractiveness of the entrepreneurial career path, etc. and at a series of patterns (i.e. gender-related differences. We consider results of this study are useful both for teaching and research purposes. In terms of teaching, we plan to adapt our educational methods in order to improve the educational process.

  11. Kin-Driver: a database of driver mutations in protein kinases.

    Simonetti, Franco L; Tornador, Cristian; Nabau-Moretó, Nuria; Molina-Vila, Miguel A; Marino-Buslje, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Somatic mutations in protein kinases (PKs) are frequent driver events in many human tumors, while germ-line mutations are associated with hereditary diseases. Here we present Kin-driver, the first database that compiles driver mutations in PKs with experimental evidence demonstrating their functional role. Kin-driver is a manual expert-curated database that pays special attention to activating mutations (AMs) and can serve as a validation set to develop new generation tools focused on the prediction of gain-of-function driver mutations. It also offers an easy and intuitive environment to facilitate the visualization and analysis of mutations in PKs. Because all mutations are mapped onto a multiple sequence alignment, analogue positions between kinases can be identified and tentative new mutations can be proposed for studying by transferring annotation. Finally, our database can also be of use to clinical and translational laboratories, helping them to identify uncommon AMs that can correlate with response to new antitumor drugs. The website was developed using PHP and JavaScript, which are supported by all major browsers; the database was built using MySQL server. Kin-driver is available at: http://kin-driver.leloir.org.ar/ © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Driver behavior in traffic.

    2012-02-01

    Existing traffic analysis and management tools do not model the ability of drivers to recognize their environment and respond to it with behaviors that vary according to the encountered driving situation. The small body of literature on characterizin...

  13. General oilfield driver improvement

    Johnson, G.

    1997-01-01

    The general oilfield driver improvement (GODI) course was discussed. The course is offered to truckers in the oil and gas industry to help reduce accidents and injuries. Oilfield trucking is one of the most accident and injury prone sectors in the Alberta economy. This paper presented Heck's Trucking company's experience in sending its employees on the course. Drivers were taught (1) the National safety code requirements, (2) Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance requirements, (3) occupational health and safety concerns, (4) vehicle dimension and GVW restrictions, (5) hours of service regulations, (6) log book and pre-trip inspection requirements, (7) workplace hazardous material information, and (8) transportation of dangerous goods. Overall, the course was judged to provide excellent training before sending drivers into the field. The employee, the customer, and the company, all stand to benefit from having rigorous and uniform standards for all drivers in the oil and gas industry

  14. Internet driver education study.

    2010-05-01

    Incorporating technology through online courses, including drivers education (DE), is the wave of the future for : learning. While many states allow online DE as an accepted method of learning, Wisconsin currently only allows it on a : limited bas...

  15. VD-411 branch driver

    Gorbunov, N.V.; Karev, A.G.; Mal'tsev, Eh.I.; Morozov, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The VD-411 branch driver for CAMAC moduli control by the SM-4 computer is described. The driver realizes data exchange with moduli disposed in 28 crates grouped in 4 branches. Data exchange can be carried out either in the program regime or in the regime of direct access to the memory. Fulfilment of 11 block regimes and one program regime is provided for. A possibility of individual programming of exchange methods in block regimes is left for users for organisation of quicker and most flexible data removal from the CAMAC moduli. In the regime of direct access the driver provides data transmission at the size up to 64 Kwords placing it in the computer memory of 2 M byte. High rate of data transmission and the developed system of interruptions ensure efficient utilization of the VD-411 branch driver at data removal from facilities in high energy physics experiments

  16. OLDER DRIVERS AND ADAS

    Ragnhild J. DAVIDSE

    2006-01-01

    Next, based on the available literature, relevant ADAS are discussed in terms of their availability, their effects on safety and the willingness of older drivers to use and buy them. One of the conclusions is that only very few of the types of support that are thought to be most beneficial to the safety of older drivers are provided by the ADAS that are currently available.

  17. Acoustic Levitation With One Driver

    Wang, T. G.; Rudnick, I.; Elleman, D. D.; Stoneburner, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    Report discusses acoustic levitation in rectangular chamber using one driver mounted at corner. Placement of driver at corner enables it to couple effectively to acoustic modes along all three axes. Use of single driver reduces cost, complexity and weight of levitation system below those of three driver system.

  18. Characteristics of Chinese Driver Behavior

    Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    The high growth rate of vehicle ownership and many novel drivers in China determine the special features of Chinese driver behavior. This thesis introduces a comparative study on driver behavior by the analysis of saturation flow at urban intersections, Driver Behavior Questionnaire surveys, focus

  19. X3 expansion tube driver gas spectroscopy and temperature measurements

    Parekh, V.; Gildfind, D.; Lewis, S.; James, C.

    2017-11-01

    The University of Queensland's X3 facility is a large, free-piston driven expansion tube used for super-orbital and high Mach number scramjet aerothermodynamic studies. During recent development of new scramjet test flow conditions, experimentally measured shock speeds were found to be significantly lower than that predicted by initial driver performance calculations. These calculations were based on ideal, isentropic compression of the driver gas and indicated that loss mechanisms, not accounted for in the preliminary analysis, were significant. The critical determinant of shock speed is peak driver gas sound speed, which for a given gas composition depends on the peak driver gas temperature. This temperature may be inaccurately estimated if an incorrect fill temperature is assumed, or if heat losses during driver gas compression are significant but not accounted for. For this study, the ideal predicted peak temperature was 3750 K, without accounting for losses. However, a much lower driver temperature of 2400 K is suggested based on measured experimental shock speeds. This study aimed to measure initial and peak driver gas temperatures for a representative X3 operating condition. Examination of the transient temperatures of the driver gas and compression tube steel wall during the initial fill process showed that once the filling process was complete, the steady-state driver gas temperature closely matched the tube wall temperature. Therefore, while assuming the gas is initially at the ambient laboratory temperature is not a significant source of error, it can be entirely mitigated by simply monitoring tube wall temperature. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to determine the driver gas spectra after diaphragm rupture; the driver gas emission spectrum exhibited a significant continuum radiation component, with prominent spectral lines attributed to contamination of the gas. A graybody approximation of the continuum suggested a peak driver gas temperature of

  20. X3 expansion tube driver gas spectroscopy and temperature measurements

    Parekh, V.; Gildfind, D.; Lewis, S.; James, C.

    2018-07-01

    The University of Queensland's X3 facility is a large, free-piston driven expansion tube used for super-orbital and high Mach number scramjet aerothermodynamic studies. During recent development of new scramjet test flow conditions, experimentally measured shock speeds were found to be significantly lower than that predicted by initial driver performance calculations. These calculations were based on ideal, isentropic compression of the driver gas and indicated that loss mechanisms, not accounted for in the preliminary analysis, were significant. The critical determinant of shock speed is peak driver gas sound speed, which for a given gas composition depends on the peak driver gas temperature. This temperature may be inaccurately estimated if an incorrect fill temperature is assumed, or if heat losses during driver gas compression are significant but not accounted for. For this study, the ideal predicted peak temperature was 3750 K, without accounting for losses. However, a much lower driver temperature of 2400 K is suggested based on measured experimental shock speeds. This study aimed to measure initial and peak driver gas temperatures for a representative X3 operating condition. Examination of the transient temperatures of the driver gas and compression tube steel wall during the initial fill process showed that once the filling process was complete, the steady-state driver gas temperature closely matched the tube wall temperature. Therefore, while assuming the gas is initially at the ambient laboratory temperature is not a significant source of error, it can be entirely mitigated by simply monitoring tube wall temperature. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to determine the driver gas spectra after diaphragm rupture; the driver gas emission spectrum exhibited a significant continuum radiation component, with prominent spectral lines attributed to contamination of the gas. A graybody approximation of the continuum suggested a peak driver gas temperature of

  1. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training ...

    and compares the school transport driver performance with that of general motorists. Despite concerns that ... To compare Safe Travel to School Programme driver safety perfor- .... The SA government has recognised the challenges faced with.

  2. SCALE system driver

    Petrie, L.M.

    1984-01-01

    The SCALE driver was designed to allow implementation of a modular code system consisting of control modules, which determine the calculation path, and functional modules, which perform the basic calculations. The user can either select a control module and have that module determine the execution path, or the user can select functional modules directly by input

  3. Simulators in driver training.

    2009-01-01

    In 2010, about 150 driving simulators were being used for the basic driver training in the Netherlands. According to theories about how people learn, simulator training has both advantages and disadvantages. In order to be able to learn something from a simulator, its technical quality must be

  4. Space Age Driver Education

    Gray, Walter W.

    1970-01-01

    Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…

  5. Beginning teenage drivers

    2010-01-01

    Teen drivers have the highest crash risk of any age group. Per mile traveled, they have the highest involvement rates in all types of crashes, from those involving only property damage to those that are fatal. The problem is worst among 16 year-olds,...

  6. Negativity Bias in Dangerous Drivers.

    Jing Chai

    Full Text Available The behavioral and cognitive characteristics of dangerous drivers differ significantly from those of safe drivers. However, differences in emotional information processing have seldom been investigated. Previous studies have revealed that drivers with higher anger/anxiety trait scores are more likely to be involved in crashes and that individuals with higher anger traits exhibit stronger negativity biases when processing emotions compared with control groups. However, researchers have not explored the relationship between emotional information processing and driving behavior. In this study, we examined the emotional information processing differences between dangerous drivers and safe drivers. Thirty-eight non-professional drivers were divided into two groups according to the penalty points that they had accrued for traffic violations: 15 drivers with 6 or more points were included in the dangerous driver group, and 23 drivers with 3 or fewer points were included in the safe driver group. The emotional Stroop task was used to measure negativity biases, and both behavioral and electroencephalograph data were recorded. The behavioral results revealed stronger negativity biases in the dangerous drivers than in the safe drivers. The bias score was correlated with self-reported dangerous driving behavior. Drivers with strong negativity biases reported having been involved in mores crashes compared with the less-biased drivers. The event-related potentials (ERPs revealed that the dangerous drivers exhibited reduced P3 components when responding to negative stimuli, suggesting decreased inhibitory control of information that is task-irrelevant but emotionally salient. The influence of negativity bias provides one possible explanation of the effects of individual differences on dangerous driving behavior and traffic crashes.

  7. What the drivers do and do not tell you: using verbal protocol analysis to investigate driver behaviour in emergency situations.

    Banks, Victoria A; Stanton, Neville A; Harvey, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Although task analysis of pedestrian detection can provide us with useful insights into how a driver may behave in emergency situations, the cognitive elements of driver decision-making are less well understood. To assist in the design of future Advanced Driver Assistance Systems, such as Autonomous Emergency Brake systems, it is essential that the cognitive elements of the driving task are better understood. This paper uses verbal protocol analysis in an exploratory fashion to uncover the thought processes underlying behavioural outcomes represented by hard data collected using the Southampton University Driving Simulator.

  8. Automobile Driver Fingerprinting

    Enev Miro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s automobiles leverage powerful sensors and embedded computers to optimize efficiency, safety, and driver engagement. However the complexity of possible inferences using in-car sensor data is not well understood. While we do not know of attempts by automotive manufacturers or makers of after-market components (like insurance dongles to violate privacy, a key question we ask is: could they (or their collection and later accidental leaks of data violate a driver’s privacy? In the present study, we experimentally investigate the potential to identify individuals using sensor data snippets of their natural driving behavior. More specifically we record the in-vehicle sensor data on the controllerarea- network (CAN of a typical modern vehicle (popular 2009 sedan as each of 15 participants (a performed a series of maneuvers in an isolated parking lot, and (b drove the vehicle in traffic along a defined ~ 50 mile loop through the Seattle metropolitan area. We then split the data into training and testing sets, train an ensemble of classifiers, and evaluate identification accuracy of test data queries by looking at the highest voted candidate when considering all possible one-vs-one comparisons. Our results indicate that, at least among small sets, drivers are indeed distinguishable using only incar sensors. In particular, we find that it is possible to differentiate our 15 drivers with 100% accuracy when training with all of the available sensors using 90% of driving data from each person. Furthermore, it is possible to reach high identification rates using less than 8 minutes of training data. When more training data is available it is possible to reach very high identification using only a single sensor (e.g., the brake pedal. As an extension, we also demonstrate the feasibility of performing driver identification across multiple days of data collection

  9. Driver feedback mobile APP

    Soriguera Marti, F.; Miralles Miquel, E.

    2016-07-01

    This paper faces the human factor in driving and its consequences for road safety. It presents the concepts behind the development of a smartphone app capable of evaluating drivers’ performance. The app provides feedback to the driver in terms of a grade (between 0 and 10) depending on the aggressiveness and risks taken while driving. These are computed from the cumulative probability distribution function of the jerks (i.e. the time derivative of acceleration), which are measured using the smartphones’ accelerometer. Different driving contexts (e.g. urban, freeway, congestion, etc.) are identified applying cluster analysis to the measurements, and treated independently. Using regression analysis, the aggressiveness indicator is related to the drivers' safety records and to the probability of having an accident, through the standard DBQ - Driving Behavior Questionnaire. Results from a very limited pilot test show a strong correlation between the 99th percentile of the jerk measurements and the DBQ results. A linear model is fitted. This allows quantifying the safe driving behavior only from smartphone measurements. Finally, this indicator is translated into a normalized grade and feedback to the driver. This feedback will challenge the driver to train and to improve his performance. The phone will be blocked while driving and will incorporate mechanisms to prevent bad practices, like competition in aggressive driving. The app is intended to contribute to the improvement of road safety, one of the major public health problems, by tackling the human factor which is the trigger of the vast majority of traffic accidents. Making explicit and quantifying risky behaviors is the first step towards a safer driving. (Author)

  10. Education and driver-training

    Andrej Justinek

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the driver are manifested in his/her behaviour. For safe driving one must have a driver's knowledge. The contents of educational material are determined by law, and are both theoretical and practical, yet frequently they do not suffice to meet the requirements of safe driving. In this paper, the author suggests that, in the training of drivers, more educational elements should be included, such a would have  an effective influence on the driver's moti ves and attitudes. The driver's motives - which may result in incorrect driving­ are diverse: most often, the default is overspeeding, even though the drivers always over-estimate the potential time gain. In fact, over-fast driving is a way of satisfying other, different needs; and, above all, it is a form of compensation for unsettled life problems, and at the same time an indication of the driver's personal inability to cope with stress.

  11. Are professional drivers less sleepy than non-professional drivers?

    Anund, Anna; Ahlström, Christer; Fors, Carina; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn

    2018-01-01

    Objective It is generally believed that professional drivers can manage quite severe fatigue before routine driving performance is affected. In addition, there are results indicating that professional drivers can adapt to prolonged night shifts and may be able to learn to drive without decreased performance under high levels of sleepiness. However, very little research has been conducted to compare professionals and non-professionals when controlling for time driven and time of day. Method The aim of this study was to use a driving simulator to investigate whether professional drivers are more resistant to sleep deprivation than non-professional drivers. Differences in the development of sleepiness (self-reported, physiological and behavioral) during driving was investigated in 11 young professional and 15 non-professional drivers. Results Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. In contradiction, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness. They also drove faster. The reason for the discrepancy in the relation between the different sleepiness indicators for the two groups could be due to more experience to sleepiness among the professional drivers or possibly to the faster speed, which might unconsciously have been used by the professionals to try to counteract sleepiness. Conclusion Professional drivers self-reported significantly lower sleepiness while driving a simulator than non-professional drivers. However, they showed longer blink durations and more line crossings, both of which are indicators of sleepiness, and they drove faster.

  12. Rotavirus vaccination in Europe: drivers and barriers.

    Parez, N; Giaquinto, C; Du Roure, C; Martinon-Torres, F; Spoulou, V; Van Damme, P; Vesikari, T

    2014-05-01

    Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a vaccine-preventable disease that confers a high medical and economic burden in more developed countries and can be fatal in less developed countries. Two vaccines with high efficacy and good safety profiles were approved and made available in Europe in 2006. We present an overview of the status of rotavirus vaccination in Europe. We discuss the drivers (including high effectiveness and effect of universal rotavirus vaccination) and barriers (including low awareness of disease burden, perception of unfavourable cost-effectiveness, and potential safety concerns) to the implementation of universal rotavirus vaccination in Europe. By February, 2014, national universal rotavirus vaccination had been implemented in Belgium, Luxembourg, Austria, Finland, Greece, Luxembourg, Norway, and the UK. Four other German states have issued recommendations and reimbursement is provided by sickness funds. Other countries were at various stages of recommending or implementing universal rotavirus vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design and Implementation of Online Booking System of University Sports Venues

    Li Can

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the imbalanced use of university sports venues, the online booking system of university sports venues based on the table tennis hall of Zhengzhou University is designed, combining the experience of the existing online booking systems, the main methods and the major ideal of building these systems both at home and aboard. The basic functions of the system are designed according to the general requirement analysis, including user’s registration and login, online venue booking, online payment, personal center, message board and database construction. The development of the system used Java programming language, JSP (a Web platform development technology, MySQL database processing technology, JDBC data access model, MyEclipse development platform and Tomcat server. The system has accomplished such functions as online booking, online payment and online message. The tests of the system are run in good conditions. The use of the system has made up for the current luck of sports venues management, solved the problems of the online booking function of university sports venues, improved the efficiency of the venues and meet the needs of efficient use of the venues. The system can be an experience of the management of the other college sports venues.

  14. Heavy ion driver technology

    Keefe, D.

    1988-09-01

    Major differences between fusion drivers and traditional accelerators include the following. The final beam current needed (/approximately/20 kA in a short pulse) is very much larger for a driver; such beams are dominated by repulsive space-charge effects since, even at 10 GeV, the ions are non-relativistic (v/c = 0.3). Also, the optical quality of the beams (called emittance by accelerator people) must be extremely good to ensure a suitably small focal spot at the pellet. Two schemes, one with a rf linac and storage rings, the other with a single-pass current-amplifying induction linac, are under study, the latter exclusively in the US. The induction linac approach lends itself to an examination in a sequence of scaled-down laboratory experiments since the most difficulties are expected to occur at the low energy end. Experiments and simulation have centered on a study of the transverse and longitudinal control of space-charge-dominated beams which are best described in terms of a non-neutral plasma rather than the traditional single-particle dynamics picture. An understanding of the high-current instability limits is required for arriving at a safe driver design. The final on-target beam current is so high that it must be carried in 16 separate focusing channels leading into the combustion chamber. While the energy deposition of the ions is expected to be entirely classical, there is a wealth of plasma physics phenomena to be explored (by theory and simulation) in the final propagation of these beams through the low-density gas in the chamber and in the environment of the hot target; it is important that none of these could result in a significant portion of the beam missing the focal spot. 13 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  15. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...... on the empirical material, the paper proposes a ‘driver’ model for context sensitive research of innovation in welfare workplaces. The model involves three elements which can be regarded as drivers for innovation: i) craft (i.e. professional skills and knowledge), ii) levers (i.e. experiments and adjustment...

  16. Driver Distraction in Public Transport

    YOUNG, K; SALMON, P; REGAN MICHAEL, M

    2007-01-01

    There is converging evidence that driver distraction is a contributing factor in car crashes, in Australia and overseas. Surprisingly, no known previous research has attempted to identify and assess the potentially distracting activities undertaken by the drivers of public passenger vehicles. This paper describes research undertaken on this issue. The research was partitioned into three phases: an analysis of the functions and tasks currently undertaken by public passenger vehicle drivers; th...

  17. DRIVER: Building a Sustainable Infrastructure of European Scientific Repositories

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    The acronym DRIVER stands for “Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research”. Ten partners from eight countries have entered into an international partnership, to connect and network as a first step more than 50 physically distributed institutional repositories to one, large-scale, virtual Knowledge Base of European research. Universities and research organisations around the world currently build repositories, whose overall number is estimated to exceed 600 by far. As the academic information landscape is already highly fragmented, DRIVER is the trans-national catalyst to overcome local, isolated efforts and to stop fragmentation by offering one harmonised, virtual knowledge resource. DRIVER currently builds a production quality test-bed to assist the development of a knowledge infrastructure across Europe. DRIVER as a project, funded by the “Research Infrastructure” unit of the European Commission, is also preparing for the future expansion and upgrade of the Digital Repository in...

  18. DRIVER Building a Sustainable Infrastructure of European Scientific Repositories

    CERN. Geneva; Hagemann, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    The acronym DRIVER stands for “Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research”. Ten partners from eight countries have entered into an international partnership, to connect and network as a first step more than 50 physically distributed institutional repositories to one, large-scale, virtual Knowledge Base of European research. Universities and research organisations around the world currently build repositories, whose overall number is estimated to exceed 600 by far. As the academic information landscape is already highly fragmented, DRIVER is the trans-national catalyst to overcome local, isolated efforts and to stop fragmentation by offering one harmonised, virtual knowledge resource. DRIVER currently builds a production quality test-bed to assist the development of a knowledge infrastructure across Europe. DRIVER as a project, funded by the “Research Infrastructure” unit of the European Commission, is also preparing for the future expansion and upgrade of the Digital Repository inf...

  19. Driver training in steps (DTS).

    2010-01-01

    For some years now, it has been possible in the Netherlands to follow a Driver Training in Steps (DTS) as well as the regular driver training. The DTS is a structured training method with clear training objectives which are categorized in four modules. Although the DTS is considerably better than

  20. Petrochemical industry drivers

    Sedriks, W.

    1995-01-01

    Extensive analyses of profit-ability and pricing over the years have shown that the trends seen in the petrochemical industry have two dominant drivers, namely, industry experience curves (reflecting continuous process improvement and cost savings) and profitability cycles. Any outlook for the future must examine both of these facets. The author's algorithm for price projections has two primary terms: a cost-related one and a supply/demand-related one. Both are strong functions of experience curves; the latter is also a prime function of cyclicality. At SRI International. To arrive at medium-term quantitative projections, SRI typically creates a consistent base-case scenario that more or less mirrors the past but also incorporates observed directional changes. In this article the author examines in detail how these scenarios are used for projection. He describes experience curves, ethylene/gross domestic product (GDP) penetration levels, industry structure, and cyclicality as they apply to ethylene prices

  1. Drivers of Collaborative Advantage

    Weihe, Gudrid

    processes and behavioural dimensions is practically non-existent. This article tries to remedy the current gap in the literature by reviewing research findings on interfirm collaboration (alliances). On that basis a conceptual framework for analyzing partnership processes is developed. Finally......, the antecedents of collaborative advantage are theoretically examined, and the organizational competences contributing to collaborative success are identified. The conclusion is that operational processes and social dynamics are vital drivers of collaborative advantage. Another significant conclusion...... is that public management research can benefit from drawing upon existing alliance research. Alliance scholars have during the past couple of decades accumulated an impressive amount of knowledge on different aspects of inter-firm cooperation, and therefore the learning potential for public management scholars...

  2. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    One objective of research on inertial confinement fusion is the development of a power generating system based on this concept. Realization of this goal will depend on the availability of a suitable laser or other system to drive the power plant. The primary laser systems used for laser fusion research, Nd 3+ : Glass and CO 2 , have characteristics which may preclude their use for this application. Glass lasers are presently perceived to be incapable of sufficiently high average power operation and the CO 2 laser may be limited by and issues associated with target coupling. These general perceptions have encouraged a search for alternatives to the present systems. The search for new lasers has been directed generally towards shorter wavelengths; most of the new lasers discovered in the past few years have been in the visible and ultraviolet region of the spectrum. Virtually all of them have been advocated as the most promising candidate for a fusion driver at one time or another

  3. Advances of energy drivers at Osaka

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Nakai, Sadao; Yamanaka, Chiyoe.

    1979-01-01

    The energy driver development at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, comprises three fields; glass, laser, carbon dioxide laser, and relativistic electron beam. The development of reliable glass lasers has been the main program at ILE. The GEKKO 12 module program was carried out in the fiscal years from 1977 to 1979 in order to develop various laser components and subsystems which are necessary to construct a 20 kJ GEKKO 12 glass laser. The measured gain coefficient of the 200 mm disk amplifier was 0.10/cm corresponding to the αD product of 4.0. The expected peak output power of the system was 2 TW at 0.1 ns and 0.9 kJ at 1 ns. The recent advances in coating techniques will enable to operate this system over 1.3 kJ per beam at 3 ns. Carbon dioxide lasers have been developed as efficient high energy lasers to study the wave length scaling of implosion process. The design and construction of the 10 kJ LEKKO 8 laser system are in progress. Relativistic electron beam machines, being the most cost-effective driver, have been studied to control pulsed power and to investigate electron beam plasma interaction. As the future plans of ILE, the construction of a 100 kJ energy driver from 1958 to 1987 for scientific break-even experiments is considered. (Kato, T.)

  4. Underlying substance abuse problems in drunk drivers.

    Snenghi, Rossella; Forza, Giovanni; Favretto, Donata; Sartore, Daniela; Rodinis, Silvia; Terranova, Claudio; Nalesso, Alessandro; Montisci, Massimo; Ferrara, Santo Davide

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate polydrug use in drunk drivers. The experimental study was conducted on 2,072 drunk drivers undergoing a driving license reissue protocol at the Department of Legal Medicine of Padova University Hospital in the period between January 2011 and December 2012. The study protocol involved anamnesis, clinical examination, toxicological history, and toxicological analyses on multiple biological samples. One thousand eight hundred seventy-seven subjects (90.6%) were assessed as fit to drive, and 195 (9.5%) were declared unfit. Among those unfit, 32 subjects (1.6%) were declared unfit due to recent use of an illicit drug (time span drive after completeness of the protocol was established in 1.2% of cases for alcohol disorders and in 5.7% of cases for illicit drug abuse; only one subject was included in both subgroups. Cocaine was the most widely used substance, followed by cannabis, opiates, and psychotropic pharmaceutical drugs. The application of the protocol presented in this study allowed the identification of underlying polydrug use in drunk drivers. The study led to the identification of 6.8% unfit subjects on the basis of alcohol disorders and/or drug abuse, compared to 1.2% of identifiable unfitness if the protocol were limited to the mere assessment of alcohol consumption. The frequent association of alcohol and cocaine is different from other patterns of use in North Europe countries.

  5. The Use of Accidents and Traffic Offences as Criteria for Evaluating Courses in Driver Education.

    Shaoul, Jean

    A road safety study was conducted by the University of Salford, Great Britain, in order to evaluate the effects of secondary level driver education in reducing the occurrence of accidents. It examines the feasibility of using accidents and traffic offenses as criteria for evaluating courses in driver education. To achieve this objective, 1,800…

  6. Distractions N' Driving: video game simulation educates young drivers on the dangers of texting while driving.

    Saqer, Haneen; de Visser, Ewart; Strohl, Jonathan; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of portable communication and entertainment devices has introduced new dangers to the driving environment, particularly for young and inexperienced drivers. Graduate students from George Mason University illustrate a powerful, practical, and cost-effective program that has been successful in educating these drivers on the dangers of texting while driving, which can easily be adapted and implemented in other communities.

  7. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    Lozano, R.

    2013-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  8. A holistic perspective on corporate sustainability drivers

    Lozano, Rodrigo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/36412380X

    2015-01-01

    Since company boards are increasingly discussing 'sustainability', it becomes necessary to examine the nature of sustainability drivers. Most approaches to corporate sustainability drivers have focused either on internal or external drivers. This paper is aimed at providing a more holistic

  9. Geometrical Design Errors in Duhok Intersections by Driver Behavior

    Dilshad Ali Mohammed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In many situations, drivers if certain of the absence traffic monitoring system tend to shorten their driving paths and travel time across intersections. This behavior will be encouraged if the geometrical design suffers from mistakes, or the geometrical design and road conditions make it harder for drivers to follow the correct routes. Sometimes the intersection arrangement is confusing for the driver to distinguish the right from the wrong track. In this study, two sites with large number of driving mistakes were noticed. One site is a roundabout within the university of Duhok campus. The other is the intersection just outside the University of Duhok eastern main gate. At both sites, the geometry is very confusing and encourage driving mistakes. The university roundabout which was the first site investigated, was not properly designed encouraging wrong side driving. Many traffic accidents took place at this roundabout.  Wrong side driving reaches 32 % at peak hour in one approach.  This was reduced to 6% when temporary divisional island was installed. The other approach has a 15% wrong side driving and no remedy could be done to it. At the intersection near the university gate, wrong side driving reaches 56% of the traffic emerging from the main gate at peak hour. This was reduced to 14% when drivers are guided through direction sign. This percentage was reduced further to 9% with standing policeman.

  10. Epidemiology of road traffic crashes among long distance drivers in ...

    Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, Faculty of Public Health, University of Ibadan, Ibadan. 2. Anaesthetist, Emergency ... long-distance drivers studied. Reconstruction of bad roads and implementation of road safety education ... transport and occur on a traffic way or while the vehi- cle is still in motion after ...

  11. Heavy-ion driver design and scaling

    Bieri, R.; Monsler, M.; Meier, W.; Stewart, L.

    1992-01-01

    Parametric models for scaling heavy-ion driver designs are described. Scaling of target performance and driver cost is done for driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, linear quadrupole array packing fraction mass, and ion charge state. The cumulative accelerator voltage and beam currents are determined from the Maschke limits on beam current for each choice of driver energy and post-acceleration pulse duration. The heavy-ion driver is optimized over the large available driver parameter space. Parametric studies and the choice of a base driver model are described in a companion paper

  12. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training ...

    The Safe Travel to School Programme was recently implemented by a national child safety agency, with a focus on driver road safety awareness, defensive ... of a vehicle telematics tracking system with regular, individual driving behaviour ...

  13. Building Repository Networks with DRIVER: Joint Explorations with the IR Grid in China

    Horstmann, Wolfram; Rosemann, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Scenarios of collaboration for supporting Open Access to research results through institutional repository networks have been explored between the IR Grid of the National Science Library of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the European DRIVER-Initiative through its German partners Bielefeld University Library as well as the State and University Library Göttingen. The activities included a joint analysis of the DRIVER infrastructure software D-NET and also resulted in the registration of ch...

  14. Alcohol and older drivers' crashes.

    2014-09-01

    Researchers have examined the effects of alcohol consumption : on older adults functioning, and some have : addressed alcohols effects on older drivers crash risk. : Generally, the findings have shown that alcohol is less : likely to be a fa...

  15. Research on driver fatigue detection

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Zhong; Ouyang, Chao

    2018-03-01

    Driver fatigue is one of the main causes of frequent traffic accidents. In this case, driver fatigue detection system has very important significance in avoiding traffic accidents. This paper presents a real-time method based on fusion of multiple facial features, including eye closure, yawn and head movement. The eye state is classified as being open or closed by a linear SVM classifier trained using HOG features of the detected eye. The mouth state is determined according to the width-height ratio of the mouth. The head movement is detected by head pitch angle calculated by facial landmark. The driver's fatigue state can be reasoned by the model trained by above features. According to experimental results, drive fatigue detection obtains an excellent performance. It indicates that the developed method is valuable for the application of avoiding traffic accidents caused by driver's fatigue.

  16. Teen driver cell phone blocker.

    2012-02-01

    This study was a randomized control intervention to measure the effectiveness of a cellular phone control device : that communicates with the vehicles of teen drivers to deny them access to their phone while driving for the : purpose of reducing dist...

  17. Driver style and driver skills – clustering drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ insight into their own driving ability based on a combined use of the DBQ......, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers have good insight into their own driving ability, as the driving skill level mirrored the frequency of aberrant driving behaviors. K-means cluster analysis revealed four...... distinct clusters that differed in the frequency of aberrant driving behavior and driving skills, as well as individual characteristics and driving related factors such as annual mileage, accident frequency and number of tickets and fines. Thus, two sub-groups were identified as more unsafe than the two...

  18. Locomotor diseases among male long-haul truck drivers and other professional drivers

    Jensen, Anker; Kaerlev, Linda; Tüchsen, Finn

    2007-01-01

    -249) and for other truck drivers (SHR: 130, 95% CI: 108-156) compared to bus drivers (SHR: 110, 95% CI: 79-149). All drivers had high SHR for lesions of the ulnar nerve (SHR: 159, 95% CI: 119-207), especially bus drivers (SHR: 197, 95% CI: 116-311). Long-haul truck drivers had high SHRs for synovitis and bursitis...

  19. Do the designated drivers of college students stay sober?

    Timmerman, Mary Ann; Geller, E Scott; Glindemann, Kent E; Fournier, Angela K

    2003-01-01

    By numerous accounts, alcohol abuse is considered the number one drug problem facing young people today. Alcohol consumption and its negative consequences, especially those due to drinking and driving, continue to have devastating effects on the college student population. This field study examined the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) levels of male and female designated drivers (DD), non-DD, and their respective passengers as they were leaving drinking establishments in a university town. Also investigated were the effects of group size and gender on DD use. A 2 Gender x 2 Driver type (DD vs. non-DD) analysis of variance (ANOVA) for BAC indicated significant main effects for Gender and Driver type, with higher BAC for men and non-DD (p'shome with a male DD may still be at risk for the negative consequences of drunk driving.

  20. IFE Power Plant design principles. Drivers. Solid state laser drivers

    Nakai, S.; Andre, M.; Krupke, W.F.; Mak, A.A.; Soures, J.M.; Yamanaka, M.

    1995-01-01

    The present status of solid state laser drivers for an inertial confinement thermonuclear fusion power plant is discussed. In particular, the feasibility of laser diode pumped solid state laser drivers from both the technical and economic points of view is briefly reviewed. Conceptual design studies showed that they can, in principle, satisfy the design requirements. However, development of new solid state materials with long fluorescence lifetimes and good thermal characteristics is a key issue for laser diode pumped solid state lasers. With the advent of laser diode pumping many materials which were abandoned in the past can presently be reconsidered as viable candidates. It is also concluded that it is important to examine the technical requirements for solid state lasers in relation to target performance criteria. The progress of laser diode pumped lasers in industrial applications should also be closely watched to provide additional information on the economic feasibility of this type of driver. 15 refs, 9 figs, 2 tabs

  1. Sexual behavior among truck drivers.

    Singh, Rajiv Kumar; Joshi, Hari Shankar

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted on Lucknow highway in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh to study the knowledge of truck drivers about HIV transmission and prevention and to study the sexual behaviour of these drivers with reference to HIV/AIDS. Age, marital status, education, income, drinking alcohol, length of stay away from home, knowledge about transmission and prevention of HIV, and HIV-prone behavior of truck drivers were studied. Chi-square, mean, and SD were calculated. In all, 289 (97.6%) drivers had heard about HIV/AIDS. Only 242 (81.8%) were aware of HIV transmission by heterosexual route. Misconceptions such as HIV transmission by mosquito bites, living in same room, shaking hands, and sharing food were found. Out of 174 (58.8%) who visited Commercial Sex Workers (CSW), 146 (83.9%) used a condom. 38 (12.8%) visited more than 5 CSW in the last 3 months. Time away from home on the road, marital status, alcohol use, and income class were associated with visiting CSW. High-risk behavior was established in the study population. Safe sex and use of condoms need to be promoted among the truck drivers and better condom availability needs to be assured on highways.

  2. The sex disparity in risky driving: A survey of Colombian young drivers.

    Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Scott-Parker, Bridie

    2018-01-02

    The overrepresentation of young drivers in poor road safety outcomes has long been recognized as a global road safety issue. In addition, the overrepresentation of males in crash statistics has been recognized as a pervasive young driver problem. Though progress in road safety evidenced as a stabilization and/or reduction in poor road safety outcomes has been made in developed nations, less-developed nations contribute the greatest road safety trauma, and developing nations such as Colombia continue to experience increasing trends in fatality rates. The aim of the research was to explore sex differences in self-reported risky driving behaviors of young drivers, including the associations with crash involvement, in a sample of young drivers attending university in Colombia. The Spanish version of the Behaviour of Young Novice Drivers Scale (BYNDS-Sp) was applied in an online survey to a sample of 392 students (225 males) aged 16-24 years attending a major university. Appropriate comparative statistics and logistic regression modeling were used when analyzing the data. Males reported consistently more risky driving behaviors, with approximately one quarter of all participants reporting risky driving exposure. Males reported greater crash involvement, with violations such as speeding associated with crash involvement for both males and females. Young drivers in Colombia appear to engage in the same risky driving behaviors as young drivers in developed nations. In addition, young male drivers in Colombia reported greater engagement in risky driving behaviors than young female drivers, a finding consistent with the behaviors of young male drivers in developed nations. As such, the research findings suggest that general interventions such as education, engineering, and enforcement should target transient rule violations such as speeding and using a handheld mobile phone while driving for young drivers in Colombia. Future research should investigate how these

  3. Examination of supplemental driver training and online basic driver education courses : traffic tech.

    2012-08-01

    The first six months of unsupervised driving are the most : hazardous in a novice drivers driving experience. Most : States adopted graduated driver licensing (GDL) systems : to give novice drivers experience in a protective environment, : gradual...

  4. The Transformation of Traditional Universities into Entrepreneurial Universities to Ensure Sustainable Higher Education

    Bikse, Veronika; Lusena-Ezera, Inese; Rivza, Baiba; Volkova, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the experience and to identify the drivers of transforming traditional universities into Entrepreneurial Universities for ensuring sustainable higher education in Latvia. Due to the wide scope, Entrepreneurial University characteristics, the present research study is limited and focuses on the university providing…

  5. The driver, the road, the rules … and the rest? A systems-based approach to young driver road safety.

    Scott-Parker, B; Goode, N; Salmon, P

    2015-01-01

    The persistent overrepresentation of young drivers in road crashes is universally recognised. A multitude of factors influencing their behaviour and safety have been identified through methods including crash analyses, simulated and naturalistic driving studies, and self-report measures. Across the globe numerous, diverse, countermeasures have been implemented; the design of the vast majority of these has been informed by a driver-centric approach. An alternative approach gaining popularity in transport safety is the systems approach which considers not only the characteristics of the individual, but also the decisions and actions of other actors within the road transport system, along with the interactions amongst them. This paper argues that for substantial improvements to be made in young driver road safety, what has been learnt from driver-centric research needs to be integrated into a systems approach, thus providing a holistic appraisal of the young driver road safety problem. Only then will more effective opportunities and avenues for intervention be realised. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Key drivers of airline loyalty.

    Dolnicar, Sara; Grabler, Klaus; Grün, Bettina; Kulnig, Anna

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates drivers of airline loyalty. It contributes to the body of knowledge in the area by investigating loyalty for a number of a priori market segments identified by airline management and by using a method which accounts for the multi-step nature of the airline choice process. The study is based on responses from 687 passengers. Results indicate that, at aggregate level, frequent flyer membership, price, the status of being a national carrier and the reputation of the airline as perceived by friends are the variables which best discriminate between travellers loyal to the airline and those who are not. Differences in drivers of airline loyalty for a number of segments were identified. For example, loyalty programs play a key role for business travellers whereas airline loyalty of leisure travellers is difficult to trace back to single factors. For none of the calculated models satisfaction emerged as a key driver of airline loyalty.

  7. UWB dual burst transmit driver

    Dallum, Gregory E [Livermore, CA; Pratt, Garth C [Discovery Bay, CA; Haugen, Peter C [Livermore, CA; Zumstein, James M [Livermore, CA; Vigars, Mark L [Livermore, CA; Romero, Carlos E [Livermore, CA

    2012-04-17

    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  8. Drivers of Tuberculosis Transmission.

    Mathema, Barun; Andrews, Jason R; Cohen, Ted; Borgdorff, Martien W; Behr, Marcel; Glynn, Judith R; Rustomjee, Roxana; Silk, Benjamin J; Wood, Robin

    2017-11-03

    Measuring tuberculosis transmission is exceedingly difficult, given the remarkable variability in the timing of clinical disease after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection; incident disease can result from either a recent (ie, weeks to months) or a remote (ie, several years to decades) infection event. Although we cannot identify with certainty the timing and location of tuberculosis transmission for individuals, approaches for estimating the individual probability of recent transmission and for estimating the fraction of tuberculosis cases due to recent transmission in populations have been developed. Data used to estimate the probable burden of recent transmission include tuberculosis case notifications in young children and trends in tuberculin skin test and interferon γ-release assays. More recently, M. tuberculosis whole-genome sequencing has been used to estimate population levels of recent transmission, identify the distribution of specific strains within communities, and decipher chains of transmission among culture-positive tuberculosis cases. The factors that drive the transmission of tuberculosis in communities depend on the burden of prevalent tuberculosis; the ways in which individuals live, work, and interact (eg, congregate settings); and the capacity of healthcare and public health systems to identify and effectively treat individuals with infectious forms of tuberculosis. Here we provide an overview of these factors, describe tools for measurement of ongoing transmission, and highlight knowledge gaps that must be addressed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. Drivers and Limits for Transport

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Nielsen, Thomas A. Sick; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    This report summarizes key outcomes of the study ’Drivers and Limits’ that was supported for the period 2009-2013 by a research grant from the Danish Strategic Research Council. The project investigated - for the empirical context of Denmark - key driving forces behind transport growth, as well...

  10. Modeling taxi driver anticipatory behavior

    Zheng, Zhong; Rasouli, S.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2018-01-01

    As part of a wider behavioral agent-based model that simulates taxi drivers’ dynamic passenger-finding behavior under uncertainty, we present a model of strategic behavior of taxi drivers in anticipation of substantial time varying demand at locations such as airports and major train stations. The

  11. Driver Psychology during Automated Platooning

    Heikoop, D.D.

    2017-01-01

    With the rapid increase in vehicle automation technology, the call for understanding how humans behave while driving in an automated vehicle becomes more urgent. Vehicles that have automated systems such as Lane Keeping Assist (LKA) or Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) not only support drivers in their

  12. Nonmagnetic driver for piezoelectric actuators

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    actuator drive is the only form-fit continuous drive solution currently available for the development of high performance nonmagnetic motors. In this research focus will be on the non magnetic compact high efficiency driver for the piezo actuators and on employing energy recovery from the capacitive...

  13. Free electron laser as a fusion driver

    Prosnitz, D.; Schlitt, L.

    1981-01-01

    The Free Electron Laser (FEL) is shown to be a potentially attractive solution to the problem of finding a suitable short wavelength fusion driver. The design of a 3 MJ, 250 nm FEL fusion driver is discussed

  14. Anthropogenic Drivers of Ecosystem Change: an Overview

    Gerald C. Nelson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of what the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA calls "indirect and direct drivers" of change in ecosystem services at a global level. The MA definition of a driver is any natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem. A direct driver unequivocally influences ecosystem processes. An indirect driver operates more diffusely by altering one or more direct drivers. Global driving forces are categorized as demographic, economic, sociopolitical, cultural and religious, scientific and technological, and physical and biological. Drivers in all categories other than physical and biological are considered indirect. Important direct drivers include changes in climate, plant nutrient use, land conversion, and diseases and invasive species. This paper does not discuss natural drivers such as climate variability, extreme weather events, or volcanic eruptions.

  15. 49 CFR 396.13 - Driver inspection.

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS INSPECTION, REPAIR, AND MAINTENANCE § 396.13 Driver inspection. Before driving a motor vehicle, the driver shall: (a) Be satisfied that the motor vehicle is in safe operating condition; (b) Review the last driver vehicle inspection...

  16. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.

    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  17. among Taxi Drivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    user

    Long years of driving [AOR =4.6 (95%CI, 1.6-12.9)], involvement in a similar activity prior to becoming taxi driver .... full time taxi driver; produce a valid driving license; .... Self-employee .... professional car drivers in Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

  18. Factors Contributing to Crashes among Young Drivers

    Lyndel J. Bates

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are the group of drivers most likely to crash. There are a number of factors that contribute to the high crash risk experienced by these drivers. While some of these factors are intrinsic to the young driver, such as their age, gender or driving skill, others relate to social factors and when and how often they drive. This article reviews the factors that affect the risk of young drivers crashing to enable a fuller understanding of why this risk is so high in order to assist in developing effective countermeasures.

  19. Visualization drivers for Geant4

    Beretvas, Andy

    2005-01-01

    This document is on Geant 4 visualization tools (drivers), evaluating pros and cons of each option, including recommendations on which tools to support at Fermilab for different applications. Four visualization drivers are evaluated. They re OpenGL, HepRep, DAWN and VRML. They all have good features, OpenGL provides graphic output with out an intermediate file. HepRep provides menus to assist the user. DAWN provides high quality plots and even for large files produces output quickly. VRML uses the smallest disk space for intermediate files. Large experiments at Fermilab will want to write their own display. They should proceed to make this display graphics independent. Medium experiment will probably want to use HepRep because of it's menu support. Smaller scale experiments will want to use OpenGL in the spirit of having immediate response, good quality output and keeping things simple

  20. Global desertification: Drivers and feedbacks

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Bhattachan, Abinash; Davis, Kyle F.; Ravi, Sujith; Runyan, Christiane W.

    2013-01-01

    Desertification is a change in soil properties, vegetation or climate, which results in a persistent loss of ecosystem services that are fundamental to sustaining life. Desertification affects large dryland areas around the world and is a major cause of stress in human societies. Here we review recent research on the drivers, feedbacks, and impacts of desertification. A multidisciplinary approach to understanding the drivers and feedbacks of global desertification is motivated by our increasing need to improve global food production and to sustainably manage ecosystems in the context of climate change. Classic desertification theories look at this process as a transition between stable states in bistable ecosystem dynamics. Climate change (i.e., aridification) and land use dynamics are the major drivers of an ecosystem shift to a “desertified” (or “degraded”) state. This shift is typically sustained by positive feedbacks, which stabilize the system in the new state. Desertification feedbacks may involve land degradation processes (e.g., nutrient loss or salinization), changes in rainfall regime resulting from land-atmosphere interactions (e.g., precipitation recycling, dust emissions), or changes in plant community composition (e.g., shrub encroachment, decrease in vegetation cover). We analyze each of these feedback mechanisms and discuss their possible enhancement by interactions with socio-economic drivers. Large scale effects of desertification include the emigration of “environmental refugees” displaced from degraded areas, climatic changes, and the alteration of global biogeochemical cycles resulting from the emission and long-range transport of fine mineral dust. Recent research has identified some possible early warning signs of desertification, which can be used as indicators of resilience loss and imminent shift to desert-like conditions. We conclude with a brief discussion on some desertification control strategies implemented in different

  1. Driver competence performance indicators using OTMR

    Hassan EL Rashidy, R.A.

    2016-07-01

    The current practice for assessing driver competence performance is in-cab riding by driver managers. However, this paper investigates whether real-world driving data extracted from on-train monitoring recorders data (OTMR) can be used to assess the driver performance. A number of indicators were used to evaluate the drivers’ performance. These include: their use of the emergency bypass switch, the driver's reminder appliance as well as the driver’s reaction time. A study case illustrated the applicability of OTMR data to estimate the proposed indicators, which suggests that the indicators can be useful in the driver management system in addition to the current indicators. Furthermore, the proposed indicators could be used to tailor the driver training schemes up to their individual needs and evaluate their effectiveness. They could even be used for improving driver competence performance and reducing crash involvement by revealing potentially detrimental driving performance. (Author)

  2. Universities--Drivers for Regional Innovation Culture and Competitiveness

    Muresan, Mihaela; Gogu, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    The actual infrastructure of the information society sustains the globalization trend and increases the importance of the information and knowledge. The development of the knowledge society is the direct consequence of the mix of economic, social and cultural processes, which involve the knowledge creation and its equitable distribution, access…

  3. Driving fatigue in professional drivers: a survey of truck and taxi drivers.

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Li, Musen; Peng, Qijia; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Fatigue among truck drivers has been studied extensively; however, less is known regarding the fatigue experience of taxi drivers in heavily populated metropolitan areas. This study aimed to compare the differences and similarities between truck and taxi driver fatigue to provide implications for the fatigue management and education of professional drivers. A sample of 274 truck drivers and 286 taxi drivers in Beijing was surveyed via a questionnaire, which included items regarding work characteristics, fatigue experience, accident information, attitude toward fatigue, and methods of counteracting fatigue. Driver fatigue was prevalent among professional drivers, and it was even more serious for taxi drivers. Taxi drivers reported more frequent fatigue experiences and were involved in more accidents. Among the contributing factors to fatigue, prolonged driving time was the most important factor identified by both driver groups. Importantly, the reason for the engagement in prolonged driving was neither due to the lack of awareness concerning the serious outcome of fatigue driving nor because of their poor detection of fatigue. The most probable reason was the optimism bias, as a result of which these professional drivers thought that fatigue was more serious for other drivers than for themselves, and they thought that they were effective in counteracting the effect of fatigue on their driving performance. Moreover, truck drivers tended to employ methods that require stopping to counteract fatigue, whereas taxi drivers preferred methods that were simultaneous with driving. Although both driver groups considered taking a nap as one of the most effective means to address fatigue, this method was not commonly used. Interestingly, these drivers were aware that the methods they frequently used were not the most effective means to counteract fatigue. This study provides knowledge on truck and taxi drivers' characteristics in fatigue experience, fatigue attitude, and

  4. Experimental Research in Boost Driver with EDLCs

    Matsumoto, Hirokazu

    The supply used in servo systems tends to have a high voltage in order to reduce loss and improve the response of motor drives. We propose a new boost motor driver that comprises EDLCs. The proposed driver has a simple structure, wherein the EDLCs are connected in series to the supply, and comprises a charge circuit to charge the EDLCs. The proposed driver has three advantages over conventional boost drivers. The first advantage is that the driver can easily attain the stable boost voltage. The second advantage is that the driver can reduce input power peaks. In a servo system, the input power peaks become greater than the rated power in order to accelerate the motor rapidly. This implies that the equipments that supply power to servo systems must have sufficient power capacity to satisfy the power peaks. The proposed driver can suppress the increase of the power capacity of supply facilities. The third advantage is that the driver can store almost all of the regenerative energy. Conventional drivers have a braking resistor to suppress the increase in the DC link voltage. This causes a considerable reduction in the efficiency. The proposed driver is more efficient than conventional drivers. In this study, the experimental results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed driver and showed that the drive performance of the proposed driver is the same as that of a conventional driver. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the results of the simulation of a model of the EDLC module, whose capacitance is dependent on the frequency, correspond well with the experimental results.

  5. Substance use and social, health and safety-related factors among fatally injured drivers.

    Karjalainen, Karoliina; Blencowe, Tom; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine different socio-demographic, health and safety-related factors, and psychoactive substance use among fatally injured drivers in road traffic accidents in Finland during 2006-2008. An accident information register maintained by the Traffic Safety Committee of Insurance Companies (VALT) of the Finnish Motor Insurers' Centre was used as basic data, and the basic data were complemented with further toxicological analytical information retrieved from autopsy reports from the Department of Forensic Medicine, Helsinki University. The data included all the drivers (n=556) who were driving a motor vehicle and who died in a road traffic accident in Finland during 2006-2008. Of all the 556 fatally injured drivers 43% (n=238) had psychoactive substance findings. 51% (n=121) of substance positive drivers had a finding for alcohol only, the rest had a finding for one or more illicit/medicinal drugs impairing driving ability, and possibly also alcohol. Fatally injured drivers with alcohol findings were significantly younger (mean age 34 years) than sober drivers (mean age 44 years) or drivers with findings for drugs (mean age 45 years). Socio-demographic background did not differ substantially among drunken/drugged and sober drivers, although drivers with alcohol findings had a slightly lower education and socioeconomic position. Previous substance abuse problems were highly prevalent among drivers with substance findings and mental or both mental and physical health problems were more common among drivers with drug findings. The non-use of safety equipment and driving at a high speed were more common among fatally injured drivers with substance findings. Substance abuse and mental health problems, as well as reckless driving behavior were more pronounced among fatally injured drivers with substance findings when compared to sober drivers. Thus, prevention and early intervention concerning substance abuse, mental health problems and DUI are

  6. Driver style and driver skill – Clustering sub-groups of drivers differing in their potential danger in traffic

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) and the Driver Skill Inventory (DSI) are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to test drivers’ consistency or judgment of their own self-reported driving ability...... based on a combined use of the DBQ and the DSI. Moreover, the joint use of the two instruments was applied to identify sub-groups of drivers that differ in their potential danger in traffic (as measured by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether...... the sub-groups of drivers differed in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. The results suggested that the drivers are consistent in their reporting of driving ability, as the self-reported driving skill level...

  7. Cognitive characteristics of older Japanese drivers.

    Susilowati, Indri H; Yasukouchi, Akira

    2012-02-29

    Some causes of accidents among older drivers are: not paying attention to traffic signals; missing stop lines; and having to deal with and misjudging emergency situations. These causes of accidents reveal problems with attention and cognition. Such incidents are also related to driver perception and stress-coping mechanisms. It is important to examine the relation of stress reactions to attention and cognition as a factor influencing the causes of accidents commonly involving older drivers. Subjects were 10 young drivers (23.3 ± 3.33 years) and 25 older drivers divided into two groups (older1 [60 to 65 years] and older2 [> 65 years]). This study revealed the correlation within driver stress inventory and driver coping questionnaires parameters was observed only in older drivers. They also needed a longer response time for Trail Making Test A and B. The factors affected the attention and cognition of older drivers by age but not driving experience itself, and coping parameters such as emotion focus, reappraisal, and avoidance were not included as stress inventory parameters. Being prone to fatigue was less for younger drivers than older drivers. Because they have shorter distances, shorter drive times, and no need for expressways, older drivers also had a significantly lower risk of thrill-seeking behaviour and more patience. The intervention addressing their attention skills, aggressive feelings, and emotion focus should be considered. The technological improvements in cars will make older drivers feel safer and make driving easier which might lower the attention paid to the road, and regular driving training might be needed to assess and enhance their safety.

  8. Cognitive characteristics of older Japanese drivers

    Susilowati Indri H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some causes of accidents among older drivers are: not paying attention to traffic signals; missing stop lines; and having to deal with and misjudging emergency situations. These causes of accidents reveal problems with attention and cognition. Such incidents are also related to driver perception and stress-coping mechanisms. It is important to examine the relation of stress reactions to attention and cognition as a factor influencing the causes of accidents commonly involving older drivers. Finding Subjects were 10 young drivers (23.3 ± 3.33 years and 25 older drivers divided into two groups (older1 [60 to 65 years] and older2 [> 65 years]. This study revealed the correlation within driver stress inventory and driver coping questionnaires parameters was observed only in older drivers. They also needed a longer response time for Trail Making Test A and B. The factors affected the attention and cognition of older drivers by age but not driving experience itself, and coping parameters such as emotion focus, reappraisal, and avoidance were not included as stress inventory parameters. Being prone to fatigue was less for younger drivers than older drivers. Because they have shorter distances, shorter drive times, and no need for expressways, older drivers also had a significantly lower risk of thrill-seeking behaviour and more patience. Conclusion The intervention addressing their attention skills, aggressive feelings, and emotion focus should be considered. The technological improvements in cars will make older drivers feel safer and make driving easier which might lower the attention paid to the road, and regular driving training might be needed to assess and enhance their safety.

  9. Microprocessor-based stepping motor driver

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1979-09-01

    The Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory requires a versatile stepping motor driver to do beam diagnostic measurements. A driver controlled by a microprocessor that can move eight stepping motors simultaneously was designed. The driver can monitor and respond to clockwise- and counterclockwise-limit switches, and it can monitor a 0- to 10-V dc position signal. The software controls start and stop ramping and maximum stepping rates. 2 figures, 1 table

  10. Economic drivers of mineral supply

    Wagner, Lorie A.; Sullivan, Daniel E.; Sznopek, John L.

    2003-01-01

    The debate over the adequacy of future supplies of mineral resources continues in light of the growing use of mineral-based materials in the United States. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, the quantity of new materials utilized each year has dramatically increased from 161 million tons2 in 1900 to 3.2 billion tons in 2000. Of all the materials used during the 20th century in the United States, more than half were used in the last 25 years. With the Earth?s endowment of natural resources remaining constant, and increased demand for resources, economic theory states that as depletion approaches, prices rise. This study shows that many economic drivers (conditions that create an economic incentive for producers to act in a particular way) such as the impact of globalization, technological improvements, productivity increases, and efficient materials usage are at work simultaneously to impact minerals markets and supply. As a result of these economic drivers, the historical price trend of mineral prices3 in constant dollars has declined as demand has risen. When price is measured by the cost in human effort, the price trend also has been almost steadily downward. Although the United States economy continues its increasing mineral consumption trend, the supply of minerals has been able to keep pace. This study shows that in general supply has grown faster than demand, causing a declining trend in mineral prices.

  11. Drivers' reactions to sudden lead car braking under varying workload conditions; towards a driver support system.

    Schaap, Nina; van der Horst, A.R.A.; van Arem, Bart; Brookhuis, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    At urban intersections drivers handle multiple tasks simultaneously, making urban driving a complex task. An advanced driver assistance system may support drivers in this specific driving task, but the design details of such a system need to be determined before they can be fully deployed. A driving

  12. The Worldhood university

    Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Nørgård, Rikke Toft

    Universities and higher education today are sites for entanglement of multiple forms of agency and lifeworlds. Enhanced focus is given to higher education strategies and frameworks that integrate more traditional forms of higher education curriculum with moral and political awareness, social agency...... the mode 2 university, where the university is ‘for sale’ (Shumar, 1997) and where higher education curricula are being defined and shaped by the needs and current drivers of the job market and the shifting neoliberalist company strategies. As Ronald Barnett underlines “the contemporary vocabulary...... politically, socially, ethically, and philosophically. It requires, among other things, new conceptions of academic citizenship, belonging in higher education, and what we have called ‘placeful universities’ where “academic citizenship emerges through dialogical integration and ‘Mitsein’ in the critically...

  13. Physics at an upgraded Fermilab proton driver

    Geer, S.; /Fermilab

    2005-07-01

    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. Over the last few months a physics study has developed the physics case for the Fermilab Proton Driver. The potential physics opportunities are discussed.

  14. Functional Bus Driver-Pupil Passenger Relationships.

    Farmer, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Successful school bus drivers bring much more than mechanical know-how to the job. They develop good rapport with students while acting to bring undesirable student behavior under control. Drivers must also show an interest in students' welfare and have a good sense of humor. (MLH)

  15. Cedar Avenue driver assist system evaluation report.

    2011-12-01

    This paper summarizes an evaluation of the Driver Assist System (DAS) used by the Minnesota Valley Transit Authority (MTVA) for bus shoulder operations. The DAS is a GPS-based technology suite that provides lane-position feedback to the driver via a ...

  16. Driver electronic device use in 2013.

    2015-04-01

    The percentage of drivers text-messaging or visibly manipulating : hand-held devices increased from 1.5 percent in : 2012 to 1.7 percent in 2013; however, this was not a statistically : significant increase. Driver hand-held cell phone : use decrease...

  17. Vehicle and driver scheduling for public transit.

    2009-08-01

    The problem of driver scheduling involves the construction of a legal set of shifts, including allowance : of overtime, which cover the blocks in a particular vehicle schedule. A shift is the work scheduled to be performed by : a driver in one day, w...

  18. Traffic Safety through Driver Assistance and Intelligence

    Heiner Bubb

    2011-05-01

    BMW, Daimler, Audi, Citroen, Lexus, VW, Opel, Peugeot, Renault, Chevrolet, Saab and Bosch. Both the contributions of research work concerning driving behavior analysis and driver assistance systems have to be aligned with a permanently updated interaction within the system of driver, vehicle and road traffic environment.

  19. Impact Driver With Integral Sliding Hammer

    Wallace, Bilby J.

    1987-01-01

    Tool combines impact driver with sliding dead-blow hammer. Used for any purpose for which ordinary impact driver used; tightening fasteners or driving starter holes for drill. Tool protects user from accidental injury and surrounding equipment from damage that might occur from ordinary arm-wielded hammer. Especially useful in underwater work.

  20. Driver citation/carrier data relationship project

    1996-09-01

    The Driver/Carrier Relationship Project was commissioned to address three issues. The first was to determine if drivers of commercial motor vehicles get tickets at a different rate, depending on the carrier that they are working for. The second issue...

  1. About Assessment Criteria of Driver's Accidental Abilities

    Lobanova, Yuliya I.; Glushko, Kirill V.

    2016-01-01

    The article points at the importance of studying the human factor as a cause of accidents of drivers, especially in loosely structured traffic situations. The description of the experiment on the measurement of driver's accidental abilities is given. Under accidental ability is meant the capability to ensure the security of driving as a behavior…

  2. High speed CAMAC differential branch highway driver

    McMillan, D.E.; Nelson, R.O.; Poore, R.V.; Sunier, J.W.; Ross, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    A new CAMAC branch driver is described that incorporates several unusual features which combine to give reliable, high-speed performance. These include balanced line driver/receivers, stored CAMAC command lists, 8 DMA channels, pseudo LAMS, hardware priority encoding of LAMS, and hardware-implemented Q-controlled block transfers. 3 figures

  3. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    Dijksman, A

    1981-01-01

    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  4. Visual behaviour analysis and driver cognitive model

    Baujon, J.; Basset, M.; Gissinger, G.L. [Mulhouse Univ., (France). MIPS/MIAM Lab.

    2001-07-01

    Recent studies on driver behaviour have shown that perception - mainly visual but also proprioceptive perception - plays a key role in the ''driver-vehicle-road'' system and so considerably affects the driver's decision making. Within the framework of the behaviour analysis and studies low-cost system (BASIL), this paper presents a correlative, qualitative and quantitative study, comparing the information given by visual perception and by the trajectory followed. This information will help to obtain a cognitive model of the Rasmussen type according to different driver classes. Many experiments in real driving situations have been carried out for different driver classes and for a given trajectory profile, using a test vehicle and innovative, specially designed, real-time tools, such as the vision system or the positioning module. (orig.)

  5. SPIDER: A Framework for Understanding Driver Distraction.

    Strayer, David L; Fisher, Donald L

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to identify key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. Driver distraction is increasingly recognized as a significant source of injuries and fatalities on the roadway. A "SPIDER" model is developed that identifies key cognitive processes that are impaired when drivers divert attention from driving. SPIDER is an acronym standing for scanning, predicting, identifying, decision making, and executing a response. When drivers engage in secondary activities unrelated to the task of driving, SPIDER-related processes are impaired, situation awareness is degraded, and the ability to safely operate a motor vehicle may be compromised. The pattern of interference helps to illuminate the sources of driver distraction and may help guide the integration of new technology into the automobile. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  6. Modeling of Driver Steering Operations in Lateral Wind Disturbances toward Driver Assistance System

    Kurata, Yoshinori; Wada, Takahiro; Kamiji, Norimasa; Doi, Shun'ichi

    Disturbances decrease vehicle stability and increase driver's mental and physical workload. Especially unexpected disturbances such as lateral winds have severe effect on vehicle stability and driver's workload. This study aims at building a driver model of steering operations in lateral wind toward developing effective driver assistance system. First, the relationship between the driver's lateral motion and its reactive quick steering behavior is investigated using driving simulator with lateral 1dof motion. In the experiments, four different wind patterns are displayed by the simulator. As the results, strong correlation was found between the driver's head lateral jerk by the lateral disturbance and the angular acceleration of the steering wheel. Then, we build a mathematical model of driver's steering model from lateral disturbance input to steering torque of the reactive quick feed-forward steering based on the experimental results. Finally, validity of the proposed model is shown by comparing the steering torque of experimental results and that of simulation results.

  7. Reducing risky driver behaviour through the implementation of a driver risk management system

    Rose Luke

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has one of the highest incidences of road accidents in the world. Most accidents are avoidable and are caused by driver behaviour and errors. The purpose of this article was to identify the riskiest driver behaviours in commercial fleets in South Africa, to determine the business impact of such behaviour, to establish a framework for the management of risky driver behaviour and to test the framework by applying a leading commercial driver behaviour management system as a case study. The case study comprised three South African commercial fleets. Using data from these fleets, critical incident triangles were used to determine the ratio data of risky driver behaviour to near-collisions and collisions. Based on managing the riskiest driver behaviours as causes of more serious incidents and accidents, the results indicated that through the implementation of an effective driver risk management system, risky incidents were significantly reduced.

  8. How driving duration influences drivers' visual behaviors and fatigue ...

    unhcc

    Eye fixations express the focus of driver's visual attention on driving, ... driver's attention is attracted by fatigue. The second ... was divided into seven refined categories (see Table 1), ...... driver fatigue in terms of line crossing: a pilot study.

  9. Are Students Aware of the Speed Limits on a University Campus?

    Brooks, Johnell; Raines, Stephanie; Klein, Nathan; Crisler, Matt; Wills, Rebekkah; Mossey, Mary; Koon, Beatrice; McKibben, Eric; Ogle, Jennifer; Robinson, Geary

    2010-01-01

    Driving speed is an important traffic safety issue. The lack of adherence to posted speed limits is a safety concern, especially on university campuses where the populations of drivers are at increased risk for crashes involving speeding due to their young age. Thus, driver speed and knowledge of speed limits on university campuses is an important…

  10. Research data management and libraries: relationships, activities, drivers and influences.

    Stephen Pinfield

    Full Text Available The management of research data is now a major challenge for research organisations. Vast quantities of born-digital data are being produced in a wide variety of forms at a rapid rate in universities. This paper analyses the contribution of academic libraries to research data management (RDM in the wider institutional context. In particular it: examines the roles and relationships involved in RDM, identifies the main components of an RDM programme, evaluates the major drivers for RDM activities, and analyses the key factors influencing the shape of RDM developments. The study is written from the perspective of library professionals, analysing data from 26 semi-structured interviews of library staff from different UK institutions. This is an early qualitative contribution to the topic complementing existing quantitative and case study approaches. Results show that although libraries are playing a significant role in RDM, there is uncertainty and variation in the relationship with other stakeholders such as IT services and research support offices. Current emphases in RDM programmes are on developments of policies and guidelines, with some early work on technology infrastructures and support services. Drivers for developments include storage, security, quality, compliance, preservation, and sharing with libraries associated most closely with the last three. The paper also highlights a 'jurisdictional' driver in which libraries are claiming a role in this space. A wide range of factors, including governance, resourcing and skills, are identified as influencing ongoing developments. From the analysis, a model is constructed designed to capture the main aspects of an institutional RDM programme. This model helps to clarify the different issues involved in RDM, identifying layers of activity, multiple stakeholders and drivers, and a large number of factors influencing the implementation of any initiative. Institutions may usefully benchmark their

  11. Research data management and libraries: relationships, activities, drivers and influences.

    Pinfield, Stephen; Cox, Andrew M; Smith, Jen

    2014-01-01

    The management of research data is now a major challenge for research organisations. Vast quantities of born-digital data are being produced in a wide variety of forms at a rapid rate in universities. This paper analyses the contribution of academic libraries to research data management (RDM) in the wider institutional context. In particular it: examines the roles and relationships involved in RDM, identifies the main components of an RDM programme, evaluates the major drivers for RDM activities, and analyses the key factors influencing the shape of RDM developments. The study is written from the perspective of library professionals, analysing data from 26 semi-structured interviews of library staff from different UK institutions. This is an early qualitative contribution to the topic complementing existing quantitative and case study approaches. Results show that although libraries are playing a significant role in RDM, there is uncertainty and variation in the relationship with other stakeholders such as IT services and research support offices. Current emphases in RDM programmes are on developments of policies and guidelines, with some early work on technology infrastructures and support services. Drivers for developments include storage, security, quality, compliance, preservation, and sharing with libraries associated most closely with the last three. The paper also highlights a 'jurisdictional' driver in which libraries are claiming a role in this space. A wide range of factors, including governance, resourcing and skills, are identified as influencing ongoing developments. From the analysis, a model is constructed designed to capture the main aspects of an institutional RDM programme. This model helps to clarify the different issues involved in RDM, identifying layers of activity, multiple stakeholders and drivers, and a large number of factors influencing the implementation of any initiative. Institutions may usefully benchmark their activities against the

  12. 6 CFR 37.17 - Requirements for the surface of the driver's license or identification card.

    2010-01-01

    ... Driver's license or identification card number. This cannot be the individual's SSN, and must be unique... University Street, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3C 5H7, e-mail: [email protected] You may inspect a copy of the...

  13. Impact of Automation on Drivers' Performance in Agricultural Semi-Autonomous Vehicles.

    Bashiri, B; Mann, D D

    2015-04-01

    Drivers' inadequate mental workload has been reported as one of the negative effects of driving assistant systems and in-vehicle automation. The increasing trend of automation in agricultural vehicles raises some concerns about drivers' mental workload in such vehicles. Thus, a human factors perspective is needed to identify the consequences of such automated systems. In this simulator study, the effects of vehicle steering task automation (VSTA) and implement control and monitoring task automation (ICMTA) were investigated using a tractor-air seeder system as a case study. Two performance parameters (reaction time and accuracy of actions) were measured to assess drivers' perceived mental workload. Experiments were conducted using the tractor driving simulator (TDS) located in the Agricultural Ergonomics Laboratory at the University of Manitoba. Study participants were university students with tractor driving experience. According to the results, reaction time and number of errors made by drivers both decreased as the automation level increased. Correlations were found among performance parameters and subjective mental workload reported by the drivers.

  14. Square pulse linear transformer driver

    A. A. Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The linear transformer driver (LTD technological approach can result in relatively compact devices that can deliver fast, high current, and high-voltage pulses straight out of the LTD cavity without any complicated pulse forming and pulse compression network. Through multistage inductively insulated voltage adders, the output pulse, increased in voltage amplitude, can be applied directly to the load. The usual LTD architecture [A. A. Kim, M. G. Mazarakis, V. A. Sinebryukhov, B. M. Kovalchuk, V. A. Vizir, S. N Volkov, F. Bayol, A. N. Bastrikov, V. G. Durakov, S. V. Frolov, V. M. Alexeenko, D. H. McDaniel, W. E. Fowler, K. LeCheen, C. Olson, W. A. Stygar, K. W. Struve, J. Porter, and R. M. Gilgenbach, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050402 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050402; M. G. Mazarakis, W. E. Fowler, A. A. Kim, V. A. Sinebryukhov, S. T. Rogowski, R. A. Sharpe, D. H. McDaniel, C. L. Olson, J. L. Porter, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, and J. R. Woodworth, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050401 (2009PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050401] provides sine shaped output pulses that may not be well suited for some applications like z-pinch drivers, flash radiography, high power microwaves, etc. A more suitable power pulse would have a flat or trapezoidal (rising or falling top. In this paper, we present the design and first test results of an LTD cavity that generates such a type of output pulse by including within its circular array a number of third harmonic bricks in addition to the main bricks. A voltage adder made out of a square pulse cavity linear array will produce the same shape output pulses provided that the timing of each cavity is synchronized with the propagation of the electromagnetic pulse.

  15. Education for older drivers in the future

    Esko Keskinen

    2014-07-01

    Five presumptions have to be considered when addressing future education for older drivers: 1. Driving a car will continue to be one element of mobility in the future; 2. Older people want to be able to keep driving; 3. Safety will be an even more important factor in mobility in the future; 4. Ecological values will be more important in the future; and 5. Innovative technological applications will be more important in the future. Hierarchical models of driving are suitable in increasing understanding of older drivers' needs and abilities. The highest levels of the driving hierarchy in the Goals for Driver Education (GDE model are especially important for the safety of both young and elderly drivers. In these highest levels goals for life, skills for living, and social environment affect everyday decision making in general but also driving, which has an impact on driver safety. Giving up driving is very much a social decision and should be taken as such. However, the highest levels of the driving hierarchy are by nature inaccessible to teacher-centered instruction These levels require more coaching-like education methods where the learner takes the central role and the teacher helps the drivers understand their own abilities and limitations in traffic. Testing and selecting older drivers to enhance safety is not, according to research findings, working in a proper way. Older drivers do not so much need more information concerning traffic rules, etc., but rather better understanding of themselves, their health restrictions, their skills, and their abilities to ensure daily mobility. Their closest companions also need tools to help them in discussions of traffic safety issues affecting older drivers.

  16. SUBJECTIVE METHODS FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRIVER DROWSINESS

    Alina Mashko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of fatigue and sleepiness behind the wheel, which for a long time has been of vital importance for the research in the area of driver-car interaction safety. Numerous experiments on car simulators with diverse measurements to observe human behavior have been performed at the laboratories of the faculty of the authors. The paper provides analysis and an overview and assessment of the subjective (self-rating and observer rating methods for observation of driver behavior and the detection of critical behavior in sleep deprived drivers using the developed subjective rating scales.

  17. Will the Driver Seat Ever Be Empty?

    Fraichard , Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Self-driving technologies have matured and improved to the point that, in the past few years, self-driving cars have been able to safely drive an impressive number of kilometers. It should be noted though that, in all cases, the driver seat was never empty: a human driver was behind the wheel, ready to take over whenever the situation dictated it. This is an interesting paradox since the point of a self-driving car is to remove the most unreliable part of the car, namely the human driver. So,...

  18. Tarantula: Killing driver bugs before they hatch

    Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles; Urunuela, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The Linux operating system is undergoing continual evolution. Evolution in the kernel and generic driver modules often triggers the need for corresponding evolutions in specific device drivers. Such collateral evolutions are tedious, because of the large number of device drivers, and error......-prone, because of the complexity of the code modifications involved. We propose an automatic tool, Tarantula, to aid in this process. In this paper, we examine some recent evolutions in Linux and the collateral evolutions they trigger, and assess the corresponding requirements on Tarantula....

  19. Assessing the relationship between the Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory: Revealing sub-groups of drivers

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to identify sub-groups of drivers that potentially act dangerously in traffic (as measured...... self-reported driving skills and whether the reported skill level was reflected in the reported aberrant driving behaviors. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. K-means cluster analysis revealed four distinct sub-groups that differed in driving skills and frequency of aberrant driving...... by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether the sub-groups differ in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. Furthermore, the joint analysis of the two instruments was used to test drivers’ assessment of their own...

  20. Online University-Industry Collaboration

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Bergenholtz, Carsten; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    Extant studies have shown how online communities can promote collaborative and innovative activities in general. Studies on university-industry collaborations have so far focused less on online activities. We therefore set out to examine the individual and organizational drivers and barriers...... for academics and industrial professionals to contribute to online community-based platforms. We use a mixed method approach using both survey data and in-depth interviews with respondents from the Danish food sector. Findings show that in line with known studies on online innovation communities in general......, the main drivers for engagement are organizational and individual learning, and establishing connections, rather than monetary incentives. In contrast to offline studies on university-industry interactions, well-connected academics are less interested in online communities of academics and industry...

  1. 2010 driver attitudes and awareness survey.

    2010-08-01

    A basic of questions were developed that could be used in periodic surveys that track drivers attitudes and awareness concerning impaired driving, seat belt use, and speeding issues. The objective of the survey was to learn the knowledge, views, and ...

  2. Understanding & modeling bus transit driver availability.

    2014-07-01

    Bus transit agencies are required to hire extraboard (i.e. back-up) operators to account for unexpected absences. Incorrect sizing of extra driver workforce is problematic for a number of reasons. Overestimating the appropriate number of extraboard o...

  3. Chinese Road Safety and Driver Behavior Research

    Wang, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    The seminar will begin with a brief overview of the Chinese road safety situation, including current safety problems, and then move on to discuss safety research including driver behavior, freeway operational safety, and infrastructure development.

  4. Drug involvement of fatally injured drivers

    2010-11-01

    While data focusing on the danger of driving under the influence : of alcohol is readily available and often cited, less is : known or discussed about drivers under the influence of : other drugs. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), : a ce...

  5. Driver Education for New Multimodal Facilities

    2016-05-24

    Local and state transportation agencies are redesigning roads to accommodate multimodal travel, including the addition of new configurations, infrastructures, and rules that may be unfamiliar to current drivers and other road users. Education and out...

  6. Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct ...

    Deregulation and Macroeconomic Drivers Of Foreign Direct Investment In Nigerian Agriculture (1970 -2009): An Econometric Analysis. ... The study showed that foreign exchange and the economic deregulation policy of Nigerian government ...

  7. Symbol signing design for older drivers

    1997-07-01

    This project evaluated the effectiveness of symbol traffic signs for young, middle-aged and elderly drivers. Daytime legibility distance and comprehension of 85 symbols in the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) were measured. Legibilit...

  8. Teen driver crashes : a report to Congress

    2008-07-01

    This report summarizes what is known about the teen driver crash problem and reviews the research on the major contributing factors to the high teen crash rate. Dispositional factors, such as immaturity, inexperience, faulty judgment, and a higher pr...

  9. The importance of sight for drivers

    Alicja Pas-Wyroślak

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sight is the basic sense for drivers. Condition of the eye determines correct, comfortable and safe performance of the work as drivers. This article presents various factors influencing the sight condition. There are two groups of factors, external (environment, the kind and time of work, stress caused by work and internal (systemic and local disorders. All these factors can reduce significantly visual functions, such as visual acuity, field of vision, color vision, strereoscopic vision, twilight vision and glare sensitivity. There are also presented actual requirements for drivers and causes of the car accidents in various age groups. Impairments in vision functions can be dangerous for both the driver and other road users. Med Pr 2013;64(3:419–425

  10. Heavy-ion driver parametric studies and choice of a base 5 mega-joule driver design

    Bieri, R.; Meier, W.

    1992-01-01

    Parametric studies to optimize heavy-ion driver designs are described and an optimized 5 MJ driver design is described. Parametric studies are done on driver parameters including driver energy, number of beams, type of superconductor used in focusing magnets, maximum magnetic field allowed at the superconducting windings, axial quadrupole field packing fraction, ion mass, and ion charge state. All modeled drivers use the maximum beam currents allowed by the Maschke limits; driver scaling is described in a companion paper. The optimized driver described is conservative and cost effective. The base driver direct costs are only $120/Joule, and the base driver uses no recirculation, beam combination, or beam separation. The low driver cost achieved is due, in part, to the use of compact Nb 3 Sn quadrupole arrays, but results primarily from optimization over the large, multi-dimensional, parameter space available for heavy-ion drivers

  11. Identification of drivers for modular production

    Brunoe, Thomas Ditlev; Bossen, Jacob; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Todays competitive environment in industry creates a need for companies to enhance their ability to introduce new products faster. To increase rampup speed reconfigurable manufacturing systems is a promising concept, however to implement this production platforms and modular manufacturing...... is required. This paper presents an analysis whether and which module drivers from general product development can be applied to the development process of a modular manufacturing system. The result is a compiled list of modular drivers for manufacturing and examples of their use....

  12. Important information for drivers in France

    2012-01-01

    From 1 July 2012, any driver of a motorised road vehicle, excluding two- or three-wheeled vehicles whose engine capacity does not exceed 50cm3, must be in possession of a breathalyser in full working order. With effect from 1 November 2012*, drivers failing to produce a breathalyser run the risk of being served with an 11 euro fine. A breathalyser is used to measure the alcohol content in the motorist's breath. The permissible level of alcohol for drivers is less than 0.5 g of alcohol per litre of blood, or 0.25 mg of alcohol per litre of air exhaled. The obligation to have a breathalyser on board the vehicle also applies to all drivers on the French part of the CERN site. All vehicles belonging to or leased by the Organization must also carry a breathalyser together with all the requisite documentation (cf. Operational Circular No. 4). Drivers of privately owned vehicles can obtain breathalysers from car accessory dealers, service stations or pharmacies, etc. Drivers of vehicles belonging to or l...

  13. Myocardial infarction in Swedish subway drivers.

    Bigert, Carolina; Klerdal, Kristina; Hammar, Niklas; Gustavsson, Per

    2007-08-01

    Particulate matter in urban air is associated with the risk of myocardial infarction in the general population. Very high levels of airborne particles have been detected in the subway system of Stockholm, as well as in several other large cities. This situation has caused concern for negative health effects among subway staff. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an increased incidence of myocardial infarction among subway drivers. Data from a population-based case-control study of men aged 40-69 in Stockholm County in 1976-1996 were used. The study included all first events of myocardial infarction in registers of hospital discharges and deaths. The controls were selected randomly from the general population. National censuses were used for information on occupation. Altogether, 22 311 cases and 131 496 controls were included. Among these, 54 cases and 250 controls had worked as subway drivers. The relative risk of myocardial infarction among subway drivers was not increased. It was 0.92 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.68-1.25] when the subway drivers were compared with other manual workers and 1.06 (95% CI 0.78-1.43) when the subway drivers were compared with all other gainfully employed men. Subgroup analyses indicated no influence on the risk of myocardial infarction from the duration of employment, latency time, or time since employment stopped. Subway drivers in Stockholm do not have a higher incidence of myocardial infarction than other employed persons.

  14. Effects of Defensive Vehicle Handling on Novice Driver Safety : Phase 3. Data Analysis and Results

    2010-09-01

    This project evaluates the effectiveness of a multistage driver education program for Montanas young : drivers. A total of 347 teenaged drivers who had completed high school driver education agreed to participate. : These drivers were randomly spl...

  15. Workshop on transport for a common ion driver

    Olson, C.C.; Lee, E.; Langdon, B.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains research in the following areas related to beam transport for a common ion driver: multi-gap acceleration; neutralization with electrons; gas neutralization; self-pinched transport; HIF and LIF transport, and relevance to common ion driver; LIF and HIF reactor concepts and relevance to common ion driver; atomic physics for common ion driver; code capabilities and needed improvement

  16. Misinterpretation of the strategic significance of cost driver analysis: evidence from management accounting theory and practice

    Henry T Palowski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces the development of cost driver theory in the Strategy literature and reflects on misinterpretations of the strategic significance of the theory in related academic disciplines, notably Management Accounting. Management Accounting has largely been responsible for informing costing practice in a wide range of organizational settings. The paper considers one such application- i.e. the case of the Higher Education Funding Council’s (HEFC costing and pricing initiative for UK universities. The project was completed just under five years ago, although details of implementation are still ongoing, to a degree. The systems in place incorporate most of the theoretical flaws outlined in this paper. Rather than providing cost driver analysis to aid the strategic management process in universities, the system appears to represent little more than a compliance and reporting framework between university central administrations and the funding provider, HEFC.

  17. Reliability of drivers in urban intersections.

    Gstalter, Herbert; Fastenmeier, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    The concept of human reliability has been widely used in industrial settings by human factors experts to optimise the person-task fit. Reliability is estimated by the probability that a task will successfully be completed by personnel in a given stage of system operation. Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is a technique used to calculate human error probabilities as the ratio of errors committed to the number of opportunities for that error. To transfer this notion to the measurement of car driver reliability the following components are necessary: a taxonomy of driving tasks, a definition of correct behaviour in each of these tasks, a list of errors as deviations from the correct actions and an adequate observation method to register errors and opportunities for these errors. Use of the SAFE-task analysis procedure recently made it possible to derive driver errors directly from the normative analysis of behavioural requirements. Driver reliability estimates could be used to compare groups of tasks (e.g. different types of intersections with their respective regulations) as well as groups of drivers' or individual drivers' aptitudes. This approach was tested in a field study with 62 drivers of different age groups. The subjects drove an instrumented car and had to complete an urban test route, the main features of which were 18 intersections representing six different driving tasks. The subjects were accompanied by two trained observers who recorded driver errors using standardized observation sheets. Results indicate that error indices often vary between both the age group of drivers and the type of driving task. The highest error indices occurred in the non-signalised intersection tasks and the roundabout, which exactly equals the corresponding ratings of task complexity from the SAFE analysis. A comparison of age groups clearly shows the disadvantage of older drivers, whose error indices in nearly all tasks are significantly higher than those of the other groups

  18. Assessing drivers' response during automated driver support system failures with non-driving tasks.

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2017-06-01

    With the increase in automated driver support systems, drivers are shifting from operating their vehicles to supervising their automation. As a result, it is important to understand how drivers interact with these automated systems and evaluate their effect on driver responses to safety critical events. This study aimed to identify how drivers responded when experiencing a safety critical event in automated vehicles while also engaged in non-driving tasks. In total 48 participants were included in this driving simulator study with two levels of automated driving: (a) driving with no automation and (b) driving with adaptive cruise control (ACC) and lane keeping (LK) systems engaged; and also two levels of a non-driving task (a) watching a movie or (b) no non-driving task. In addition to driving performance measures, non-driving task performance and the mean glance duration for the non-driving task were compared between the two levels of automated driving. Drivers using the automated systems responded worse than those manually driving in terms of reaction time, lane departure duration, and maximum steering wheel angle to an induced lane departure event. These results also found that non-driving tasks further impaired driver responses to a safety critical event in the automated system condition. In the automated driving condition, driver responses to the safety critical events were slower, especially when engaged in a non-driving task. Traditional driver performance variables may not necessarily effectively and accurately evaluate driver responses to events when supervising autonomous vehicle systems. Thus, it is important to develop and use appropriate variables to quantify drivers' performance under these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  19. Novice drivers' individual trajectories of driver behavior over the first three years of driving.

    Roman, Gabriela D; Poulter, Damian; Barker, Edward; McKenna, Frank P; Rowe, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Identifying the changes in driving behavior that underlie the decrease in crash risk over the first few months of driving is key to efforts to reduce injury and fatality risk in novice drivers. This study represented a secondary data analysis of 1148 drivers who participated in the UK Cohort II study. The Driver Behavior Questionnaire was completed at 6 months and 1, 2 and 3 years after licensure. Linear latent growth models indicated significant increases across development in all four dimensions of aberrant driving behavior under scrutiny: aggressive violations, ordinary violations, errors and slips. Unconditional and conditional latent growth class analyses showed that the observed heterogeneity in individual trajectories was explained by the presence of multiple homogeneous groups of drivers, each exhibiting specific trajectories of aberrant driver behavior. Initial levels of aberrant driver behavior were important in identifying sub-groups of drivers. All classes showed positive slopes; there was no evidence of a group of drivers whose aberrant behavior decreased over time that might explain the decrease in crash involvement observed over this period. Male gender and younger age predicted membership of trajectories with higher levels of aberrant behavior. These findings highlight the importance of early intervention for improving road safety. We discuss the implications of our findings for understanding the behavioral underpinnings of the decrease in crash involvement observed in the early months of driving. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Understanding road safety in Kenya: views of matatu drivers.

    Raynor, Nicolas J; Mirzoev, Tolib

    2014-09-01

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are estimated to cause 1.3 million deaths and 20-50 million injuries worldwide. Road safety is a challenge in Kenya with causes being multi-factorial. Matatus (minibuses) are involved in a large proportion of accidents. A literature review was completed to identify key issues and refine the scope of the study. The fieldwork included 20 semi-structured interviews with matatu drivers. All participants were male, with driving experience of 1-20 years. Thematic framework was used for analysis. Some unstructured observations on different road users and their behaviours were also recorded. Literature showed that the causes of RTAs in Kenya are multi-factorial, but that human factors play a large part. There is also an evidence gap concerning matatu drivers, who are key stakeholders in road safety. Fieldwork showed that the matatu industry creates financial pressures on drivers and an excessive level of competition, leading to dangerous driving. Corruption of traffic police appears to be a major barrier to improving road safety, as road safety legislation is not enforced, and bribery has become the cultural norm. The general public, including passengers and private vehicles owners, also cause problems by failing to understand their role in road safety and placing the blame on others. The key policy implication for improving road safety in Kenya is seeking measures to ensure responsibility by all road users through awareness raising in the short-term and reforming the matatu industry and addressing the root causes of corruption in the longer term. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Redesign of Transjakarta Bus Driver's Cabin

    Mardi Safitri, Dian; Azmi, Nora; Singh, Gurbinder; Astuti, Pudji

    2016-02-01

    Ergonomic risk at work stations with type Seated Work Control was one of the problems faced by Transjakarta bus driver. Currently “Trisakti” type bus, one type of bus that is used by Transjakarta in corridor 9, serving route Pinang Ranti - Pluit, gained many complaints from drivers. From the results of Nordic Body Map questionnaires given to 30 drivers, it was known that drivers feel pain in the neck, arms, hips, and buttocks. Allegedly this was due to the seat position and the button/panel bus has a considerable distance range (1 meter) to be achieved by drivers. In addition, preliminary results of the questionnaire using Workstation Checklist identified their complaints about uncomfortable cushion, driver's seat backrest, and the exact position of the AC is above the driver head. To reduce the risk level of ergonomics, then did research to design the cabin by using a generic approach to designing products. The risk analysis driver posture before the design was done by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA), and Quick Exposure Checklist (QEC), while the calculation of the moment the body is done by using software Mannequin Pro V10.2. Furthermore, the design of generic products was done through the stages: need metric-matrix, house of quality, anthropometric data collection, classification tree concept, concept screening, scoring concept, design and manufacture of products in the form of two-dimensional. While the design after design risk analysis driver posture was done by using RULA, REBA, and calculation of moments body as well as the design visualized using software 3DMax. From the results of analysis before the draft design improvements cabin RULA obtained scores of 6, REBA 9, and the result amounted to 57.38% QEC and moment forces on the back is 247.3 LbF.inch and on the right hip is 72.9 LbF.in. While the results of the proposed improvements cabin design RULA obtained scores of 3, REBA 4, and the moment of force on

  2. Driver's Behavior Modeling Using Fuzzy Logic

    Sehraneh Ghaemi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a hierarchical fuzzy system for human in a driver-vehicle-environment system to model takeover by different drivers. The driver's behavior is affected by the environment. The climate, road and car conditions are included in fuzzy modeling. For obtaining fuzzy rules, experts' opinions are benefited by means of questionnaires on effects of parameters such as climate, road and car conditions on driving capabilities. Also the precision, age and driving individuality are used to model the driver's behavior. Three different positions are considered for driving and decision making. A fuzzy model called Model I is presented for modeling the change of steering angle and speed control by considering time distances with existing cars in these three positions, the information about the speed and direction of car, and the steering angle of car. Also we obtained two other models based on fuzzy rules called Model II and Model III by using Sugeno fuzzy inference. Model II and Model III have less linguistic terms than Model I for the steering angle and direction of car. The results of three models are compared for a driver who drives based on driving laws.

  3. Views of US drivers about driving safety.

    Williams, Allan F

    2003-01-01

    To assess how drivers view dangers on the highway, what motivates them to drive safely, how they say they reduce their crash and injury risk, and how they rate their own driving skills. Most drivers rated their skills as better than average. The biggest motivating factor for safe driving was concern for safety of others in their vehicle, followed by negative outcomes such as being in a crash, increased insurance costs, and fines. The greatest threats to their safety were thought to be other drivers' actions that increase crash risk such as alcohol impairment or running red lights. In terms of reducing crashes and injuries, drivers tended to focus on actions they could take such as driving defensively or using seat belts. There was less recognition of the role of vehicles and vehicle features in crash or injury prevention. Knowing how drivers view themselves and others, their concerns, and their motivations and techniques for staying out of trouble on the roads provides insight into the difficulty of changing driving practices.

  4. Railway suicide: the psychological effects on drivers.

    Farmer, R; Tranah, T; O'Donnell, I; Catalan, J

    1992-05-01

    People have jumped (or fallen) in front of trains on the London Underground system in increasing numbers throughout the twentieth century. During the past decade there have been about 100 such incidents each year, of which around 90 would involve the train driver witnessing his train strike the person on the track. Most are suicides or attempts at suicide. They represent major unexpected and violent events in the lives of the train drivers and it might be expected that some of them would respond by developing a post-traumatic stress reaction of the type identified by Horowitz (1976) or other adverse psychological reactions or both. The research reported in this paper was designed to characterize the range of responses of drivers to the experiences of killing or injuring members of the public during the course of their daily work. It was found that 16.3% of the drivers involved in incidents did develop post-traumatic stress disorder and that other diagnoses, e.g. depression and phobic states, were present in 39.5% of drivers when interviewed one month after the incident.

  5. Determinants and Drivers of Infectious Disease Threat Events in Europe.

    Semenza, Jan C; Lindgren, Elisabet; Balkanyi, Laszlo; Espinosa, Laura; Almqvist, My S; Penttinen, Pasi; Rocklöv, Joacim

    2016-04-01

    Infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) are increasing in frequency worldwide. We analyzed underlying drivers of 116 IDTEs detected in Europe during 2008-2013 by epidemic intelligence at the European Centre of Disease Prevention and Control. Seventeen drivers were identified and categorized into 3 groups: globalization and environment, sociodemographic, and public health systems. A combination of >2 drivers was responsible for most IDTEs. The driver category globalization and environment contributed to 61% of individual IDTEs, and the top 5 individual drivers of all IDTEs were travel and tourism, food and water quality, natural environment, global trade, and climate. Hierarchical cluster analysis of all drivers identified travel and tourism as a distinctly separate driver. Monitoring and modeling such disease drivers can help anticipate future IDTEs and strengthen control measures. More important, intervening directly on these underlying drivers can diminish the likelihood of the occurrence of an IDTE and reduce the associated human and economic costs.

  6. Classifying Drivers' Cognitive Load Using EEG Signals.

    Barua, Shaibal; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin; Begum, Shahina

    2017-01-01

    A growing traffic safety issue is the effect of cognitive loading activities on traffic safety and driving performance. To monitor drivers' mental state, understanding cognitive load is important since while driving, performing cognitively loading secondary tasks, for example talking on the phone, can affect the performance in the primary task, i.e. driving. Electroencephalography (EEG) is one of the reliable measures of cognitive load that can detect the changes in instantaneous load and effect of cognitively loading secondary task. In this driving simulator study, 1-back task is carried out while the driver performs three different simulated driving scenarios. This paper presents an EEG based approach to classify a drivers' level of cognitive load using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). The results show that for each individual scenario as well as using data combined from the different scenarios, CBR based system achieved approximately over 70% of classification accuracy.

  7. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A

    2015-04-07

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  8. Assessment of exposure to whole body vibration in Yazd city taxi drivers

    F Samoori sakhvidi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of exposure to whole body vibration in Yazd city taxi drivers Samoori-Sakhvidi F (MSc* Barkhordari A (PhD** Dehghani A (PhD*** Tavakoli-Manesh S (MSc**** *Corresponding Author: MSc Student in Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran ** Professor, Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran *** Professor, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran **** MSc Student in Department of Occupational Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran Abstract Introduction: One of the most common sources of whole body vibration are vehicles in which the driver is exposed to vibration caused by the vehicle and the road. Including the people who continuously exposure to whole-body vibration can be noted to taxi drivers. Taxi drivers during their work shift Encountered with numerous deleterious effects such as noise, vibration, air pollution, and psychological stress and long work shifts. Long-term exposure to whole body vibration in the taxi drivers can communicate with adverse effects such as reduce perception, annoyance, disturbance of vision and fine motor tasks, spinal cord injury, damage to the digestive and reproductive systems. The purpose of this study was cross - sectional study of whole body vibration exposure in Yazd city taxi drivers. Methods: This study was designed to evaluate exposure to whole body vibration in taxi drivers, vibration measurement Was carried out in 80 taxi from 3 vehicle (Samand-Peugeot 405 and Pridein 3 mileage groups, with 63 male drivers and 17 female drivers. parameters Including the vibration Weighing the acceleration frequency (rms, Equivalent acceleration (Aeq and vibration doseVDV in 3-axis was recorded. The results obtained were compared with the values recommended by the standard (ISO 2631-1. Results: The mean (rms acceleration

  9. Drivers and moderators of business decline

    Marius Pretorius

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Reports of business failure elicit various reactions, while research in this domain often appears to be limited by a lack of access to information about failure and by the negativity that surrounds it. Those who have experienced failure do not readily talk about it, or they disappear from the radar screen of researchers. Yet failure is preceded by decline which, when focused on strategically, can reduce eventual failures if early action is taken. The main purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework or typology of the drivers and moderators of business decline. Design/methodology/approach: After applying the "grounded theory" approach to the academic literature on decline and failure, a conceptual framework for the variables that drive and moderate business decline is proposed. Findings: The study proposes that decline has three core drivers, three peripheral drivers and four moderators. The core drivers identified are: resource munificence; leadership as origin; and causality (strategic versus operational origin of decline. The three peripheral drivers are: unique preconditions; continuous decisions impact; and extremes dichotomy. The study describes four moderators of the drivers: life cycle stage; stakeholder perspective; quantitative versus qualitative nature of signs and causes; and finally the age and size effects. Research limitations/implications: The proposed conceptual framework is based on literature only, although it has found support during discussions with practitioners. It is proposed to readers of this journal for scrutiny and validation. Practical implications: Strategists need to understand what drives decline in order to act timeously; practitioners who have an insight into the moderators with their impacts could make better decisions in response to decline in organisations and possibly avoid business failure. Originality/Value: Understanding business decline is still a huge theoretical challenge, which

  10. [Occupational stress situation analysis of different types of train drivers].

    Zhou, Wenhui; Gu, Guizhen; Wu, Hui; Yu, Shanfa

    2014-11-01

    To analyze the status of occupational stress in different types of train drivers. By using cluster sampling method, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1 339 train drivers (including 289 passenger train drivers, 637 freight trains drivers, 339 passenger shunting train drivers, and 74 high speed rail drivers) from a Railway Bureau depot. The survey included individual factors, occupational stress factors, stress response factors and stress mitigating factors. The occupational stress factors, stress response factors and mitigating factors were measured by the revised effort-reward imbalance (ERI) model questionnaires and occupational stress measurement scale. By using the method of covariance analysized the difference of occupational stress factors of all types train drivers, the method of Stepwise regression was used to analyze the effection (R(2)) of occupational stress factors and stress mitigating factors on stress response factors. Covariance analysis as covariates in age, education level, length of service and marital status showed that the scores of ERI (1.58 ± 0.05), extrinsic effort (19.88 ± 0.44), rewards (23.43 ± 0.43), intrinsic effort (17.86 ± 0.36), physical environment (5.70 ± 0.22), social support (30.51 ± 0.88) and daily tension (10.27 ± 0.38 ) of high speed rail drivers were higher than other drivers (F values were 6.06, 11.32, 7.05, 13.25, 5.20, 9.48 and 6.14 respectively, P occupational stress factors and mitigating factors to depressive symptoms of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.64), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.44), passenger shunting train drivers (R(2) = 0.39), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0.38); job satisfaction of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.68), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0.62), freight trains drivers (R(2) = 0.43), passenger shunting train drivers(R(2) = 0.38); to daily tension of train drivers was high speed rail drivers (R(2) = 0.54), passenger train drivers (R(2) = 0

  11. Physics at a New Fermilab Proton Driver

    Geer, Steve

    2005-01-01

    In 2004 the Fermilab Long Range Planning Committee identified a new high intensity Proton Driver as an attractive option for the future, primarily motivated by the recent exciting developments in neutrino physics. The Fermilab Director has requested further development of the physics case for a new Fermilab Proton Driver, exploring both its ability to support a World class neutrino program, and the other physics opportunities it would provide. A physics study has been ongoing for the last 6 months. The emerging physics case will be presented.

  12. Understanding Collateral Evolution in Linux Device Drivers

    Padioleau, Yoann; Lawall, Julia Laetitia; Muller, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    no tools to help in this process, collateral evolution is thus time consuming and error prone.In this paper, we present a qualitative and quantitative assessment of collateral evolution in Linux device driver code. We provide a taxonomy of evolutions and collateral evolutions, and use an automated patch......-analysis tool that we have developed to measure the number of evolutions and collateral evolutions that affect device drivers between Linux versions 2.2 and 2.6. In particular, we find that from one version of Linux to the next, collateral evolutions can account for up to 35% of the lines modified in such code....

  13. An application of the driver behavior questionnaire to Chinese carless young drivers.

    Zhang, Qian; Jiang, Zuhua; Zheng, Dongpeng; Wang, Yifan; Man, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Carless young drivers refers to those drivers aged between 18 and 25 years who have a driver's license but seldom have opportunities to practice their driving skills because they do not have their own cars. Due to China's lower private car ownership, many young drivers turn into carless young drivers after licensure, and the safety issue associated with them has become a matter of great concern in China. Because few studies have examined the driving behaviors of these drivers, this study aims to utilize the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ) to investigate the self-reported driving behaviors of Chinese carless young drivers. A total of 523 Chinese carless young drivers (214 females, 309 males) with an average age of 21.91 years completed a questionnaire including the 27-item DBQ and demographics. The data were first randomized into 2 subsamples for factor analysis and then combined together for the following analyses. Both an exploratory factor analysis (EFA, n = 174) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA, n = 349) were performed to investigate the factor structure of the DBQ. Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between the demographics and the DBQ scales' variables. Multivariate linear regression and logistic regression were performed to investigate the prediction of the DBQ scales and crash involvement in the previous year. The EFA produced a 4-factor structure identified as errors, violations, attention lapses, and memory lapses, and the CFA revealed a good model fit after the removal of one item with a low factor loading and the permission of the error covariance between some items. The Chinese carless young drivers reported a comparatively low level of aberrant driving behaviors. The 3 most frequently reported behaviors were all lapses and the 3 least were all violations. Gender was the only significant predictor of the 2 lapses scales and lifetime mileage was the only significant predictor of the violations scale. Only the

  14. University Internationalization and University Autonomy

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gulieva, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability are d......, dissimilar, and sometimes conflicting dimensions of the financial, legal, organisational, staffing, and academic autonomy of the host country, are compromising key aspects of their own autonomy and core mission?......Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability...... are determined by the structure and exercise of university autonomy settings at home and in the host countries, and that the process itself cannot be successfully achieved and maintained without changes in the autonomy settings. The key question the authors ask is to what degree universities, in embracing new...

  15. Levitation With a Single Acoustic Driver

    Barmatz, M. B.; Gaspar, M. S.; Allen, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Pair of reports describes acoustic-levitation systems in which only one acoustic resonance mode excited, and only one driver needed. Systems employ levitation chambers of rectangular and cylindrical geometries. Reports first describe single mode concept and indicate which modes used to levitate sample without rotation. Reports then describe systems in which controlled rotation of sample introduced.

  16. Advanced Competencies for School Bus Drivers.

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    Four units are provided for formal classroom instruction in advanced competencies for school bus drivers in Illinois. Units cover passenger control, accidents and emergencies, detecting hazards, and first aid. Each unit contains some or all of the following components: table of contents; a list of objectives; informative material, including an…

  17. Driver electronic device use in 2008

    2009-09-01

    The 2008 hand-held cell phone use rate translates into 812,000 vehicles being driven by someone using a hand-held cell phone at any given daylight moment.1 It also translates into an estimated 11 percent of the vehicles whose drivers were using some ...

  18. Driver Education for Motorcycle Operation. Final Report.

    Council, Forrest M.; And Others

    A three-year pilot project was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of implementing a statewide off-road motorcycle training program for beginning drivers in North Carolina. The first year of the program involved approximately 422 students from five locations, the second year involved seven sites across the State. The three basic criteria for the…

  19. Compulsory treatment of 50 alcoholic drunken drivers

    1983-02-12

    Feb 12, 1983 ... Fifty alcoholic drunken drivers receivi~g treatment as part of a suspended ... rehabilitation centres (1 patient died too early to allow for adequate .... Prison sentences were imposed on 10 (of whom 1 subsequently re-attended ...

  20. TMACS Test Procedure TP009: Acromag Driver

    Washburn, S.J.

    1994-01-01

    The TMACS Software Project Test Procedures translate the project's acceptance criteria into test steps. Software releases are certified when the affected Test Procedures are successfully performed and the customers authorize installation of these changes. This Test Procedure tests the TMACS Acromag Software Driver (Bridge Code)

  1. Evaluation of Beginner Driver Education in Oregon

    Dan Mayhew

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although driver education (DE is widely accepted as an effective teen driver safety measure and widely available in the United States, Canada and elsewhere, evaluations have generally failed to show that such formal programs actually produce safer drivers. To address the issue of safety effects as part of a larger investigation, two studies were conducted to examine whether the Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT-approved DE program was associated with reductions in collisions and convictions. In the first study, DE status among a relatively small sample of teens who completed an online survey was not found to have a significant effect on collisions and convictions. In the second study, of a much larger population of teen drivers, DE status was associated with a lower incidence of collisions and convictions. On balance, this suggests that the safety effects of DE are either neutral, based on the results of the first Oregon study, or cautiously optimistic based on the results of the second study. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of making improvements in DE that are evidence-based, and the need for further evaluation to establish that improved and new programs meet their safety objectives.

  2. Driver Performance Model: 1. Conceptual Framework

    Heimerl, Joseph

    2001-01-01

    ...'. At the present time, no such comprehensive model exists. This report discusses a conceptual framework designed to encompass the relationships, conditions, and constraints related to direct, indirect, and remote modes of driving and thus provides a guide or 'road map' for the construction and creation of a comprehensive driver performance model.

  3. 29 CFR 782.4 - Drivers' helpers.

    2010-07-01

    ... interstate or foreign commerce, because, in the case of an accident or other emergency and in other respects... accidents occur, they help the driver in obtaining aid and protect the vehicle from oncoming traffic. (c) In... commerce within the meaning of the Motor Carrier Act. (Ispass v. Pyramid Motor Freight Corp., 152 F. (2d...

  4. A review of lateral driver support systems

    Tideman, Martijn; van der Voort, Mascha C.; van Arem, Bart; Tillema, Frans; Dailey, D.

    2007-01-01

    Lateral driver support systems have the potential to reduce the number of accidents associated with -both intentional and unintentional -lane departures. Additionally, such systems may increase driving comfort and stimulate a more efficient traffic flow, thereby reducing traffic emissions and the

  5. Drivers and barriers for bioenergy trade

    Junginger, Martin; Schouwenberg, Peter Paul; Nikolaisen, Lars; Andrade, Onofre

    2014-01-01

    There are several drivers responsible for the strong increase in biomass trade over the past decade: concerns regarding the effects of climate change remain unchanged, and policy targets for renewable energy for 2020 have so far remained (largely) intact despite the economic crisis. At the same

  6. Line driver with adaptive output impedance

    Nauta, Bram

    2006-01-01

    Abstract not available for DE69834793D Abstract of corresponding document: US5973490 A line driver comprising a first transistor (M1), a first amplifier (A1) and a reference resistor (10) for converting an input voltage (Vin) to a first current (i1) through the first transistor (M1). A second

  7. Line driver with adaptive output impedance

    Nauta, Bram

    1998-01-01

    Abstract not available for DE69834793D Abstract of corresponding document: US5973490 A line driver comprising a first transistor (M1), a first amplifier (A1) and a reference resistor (10) for converting an input voltage (Vin) to a first current (i1) through the first transistor (M1). A second

  8. Drivers of Diversification in Individual Life Courses

    Hernandez-Pacheco, Raisa; Steiner, Ulrich K

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneity in life courses among individuals of a population influences the speed of adaptive evolutionary processes, but it is less clear how biotic and abiotic environmental fluctuations influence such heterogeneity. We investigate principal drivers of variability in sequence of stages durin...

  9. Truck drivers as stakeholders in cooperative driving

    de Bruijn, F.; Terken, J.M.B.; Aarts, E.; de Ruyter, B.; Markopoulos, P.; van Loenen, E.; Wichert, R.; Schouten, B.; Terken, J.M.B.; van Kranenburg, R.; Den Ouden, E.; O'Hare, G.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative driving for trucks has been claimed to bring substantial benefits for society and fleet owners because of better throughput and reduced fuel consumption, but benefits for truck drivers are questionable. While most work on cooperative driving focuses on the technology, the current paper

  10. ITER driver blanket, European Community design

    Simbolotti, G.; Zampaglione, V.; Ferrari, M.; Gallina, M.; Mazzone, G.; Nardi, C.; Petrizzi, L.; Rado, V.; Violante, V.; Daenner, W.; Lorenzetto, P.; Gierszewski, P.; Grattarola, M.; Rosatelli, F.; Secolo, F.; Zacchia, F.; Caira, M.; Sorabella, L.

    1993-01-01

    Depending on the final decision on the operation time of ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), the Driver Blanket might become a basic component of the machine with the main function of producing a significant fraction (close to 0.8) of the tritium required for the ITER operation, the remaining fraction being available from external supplies. The Driver Blanket is not required to provide reactor relevant performance in terms of tritium self-sufficiency. However, reactor relevant reliability and safety are mandatory requirements for this component in order not to significantly afftect the overall plant availability and to allow the ITER experimental program to be safely and successfully carried out. With the framework of the ITER Conceptual Design Activities (CDA, 1988-1990), a conceptual design of the ITER Driver Blanket has been carried out by ENEA Fusion Dept., in collaboration with ANSALDO S.p.A. and SRS S.r.l., and in close consultation with the NET Team and CFFTP (Canadian Fusion Fuels Technology Project). Such a design has been selected as EC (European Community) reference design for the ITER Driver Blanket. The status of the design at the end of CDA is reported in the present paper. (orig.)

  11. Driver Circuit For High-Power MOSFET's

    Letzer, Kevin A.

    1991-01-01

    Driver circuit generates rapid-voltage-transition pulses needed to switch high-power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) modules rapidly between full "on" and full "off". Rapid switching reduces time of overlap between appreciable current through and appreciable voltage across such modules, thereby increasing power efficiency.

  12. Innovation drivers and barriers in food processing

    Fortuin, F.T.J.M.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The food processing industry, confronted with increased global competition and more stringent customer demands, is pressurized to improve the pace and quality of its innovation processes. This paper aims to find out what factors constitute the main drivers and barriers to innovation and to

  13. Kernel Korner : The Linux keyboard driver

    Brouwer, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    Our Kernel Korner series continues with an article describing the Linux keyboard driver. This article is not for "Kernel Hackers" only--in fact, it will be most useful to those who wish to use their own keyboard to its fullest potential, and those who want to write programs to take advantage of the

  14. Secondary Behavior of Drivers on Cell Phones.

    Farmer, Charles M; Klauer, Sheila G; McClafferty, Julie A; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether cell phone use by drivers leads to changes in the frequency of other types of potentially distracting behavior. There were 2 main questions of interest: (1) As each driver changes cell phone use, does he or she change the amount of driving time spent on other distracting behavior? (2) As each driver changes cell phone use, does he or she change the amount of driving time spent looking away from the driving task? Day-to-day driving behavior of 105 volunteer subjects was monitored over a period of 1 year. The amount of driving time during each trip spent on tasks secondary to driving (or looking away from the driving task) was correlated to the amount of time on a cell phone, taking into account the relationships among trips taken by the same driver. Drivers spent 42% of the time engaging in at least one secondary activity. Drivers were talking on a cell phone 7% of the time, interacting in some other way with a cell phone 5% of the time, and engaging in some other secondary activity (sometimes in conjunction with cell phone use) 33% of the time. Other than cell phone use, the most common secondary activities were interacting with a passenger (12% of driving time), holding but not otherwise interacting with an object (6%), and talking/singing/dancing to oneself (5%). Drivers were looking straight forward 81% of the time, forward left or right 5% of time, in a mirror 4% of the time, and elsewhere (eyes off driving task) 10% of time. On average, for each 1 percentage point increase in cell phone talking, the other secondary behavior rate decreased by 0.28 percentage points (P cell phone interaction per trip, the other secondary behavior rate decreased by 0.08 percentage points (P =.0558), but the rate of eyes off driving task increased by 0.06 percentage points (P cell phone can be distracting from the driving task, other secondary activities can be equally or more distracting, at least as measured by eye glances

  15. Driver ASICs for Advanced Deformable Mirrors, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of the SBIR program is to develop a new Application Specified Integrated Circuit (ASIC) driver to be used in driver electronics of a deformable...

  16. The Effect of Passengers on Teen Driver Behavior

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. This increased risk may result from distractions that young passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence of passengers ...

  17. The effect of passengers on teen driver behavior : traffic tech.

    2012-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that passengers substantially : increase the risk of crashes for young, novice drivers. : This increased risk may result from distractions that young : passengers create for drivers. Alternatively, the presence : of pas...

  18. Driver education practices in selected states : traffic tech.

    2011-07-01

    Teen drivers have the highest crash rate per mile driven of any : age group (Williams, Ferguson, & Wells, 2005). Immaturity and : inexperience are two explanations for why novice teen drivers : have such a high crash risk (Arnett, 1992; Mayhew, Simps...

  19. 78 FR 26417 - Qualification of Drivers; Application for Exemptions; Hearing

    2013-05-06

    ... Cook Mr. Cook holds a driver's license from Virginia. He would like to drive a CMV in interstate.... Thomas Prickett Mr. Prickett holds a driver's license from Minnesota. He would like to drive a CMV in...

  20. 77 FR 70530 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2012-11-26

    ...-0348] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  1. Development of a statistical method for predicting human driver decisions.

    2015-09-01

    As autonomous vehicles enter the fleet, there will be a long period when these vehicles will have to interact with : human drivers. One of the challenges for autonomous vehicles is that human drivers do not communicate their : decisions well. However...

  2. A UNIX device driver for a Translink II Transputer board

    Wiley, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    A UNIX device driver for a TransLink II Transputer board is described. A complete listing of the code is presented. The device driver allows a transputer array to be used with the A/UX operating system

  3. Improving safety of teenage and young adult drivers in Kansas.

    2013-12-01

    Statistics show that young drivers have higher motor vehicle crash rates compared to other age groups. This study investigated : characteristics, contributory causes, and factors which increase injury severity of young driver crashes in Kansas by com...

  4. Methodology to evaluate teen driver training programs : [brief].

    2014-03-01

    In the United States, teenage drivers are more at risk of being involved in crashes than : any other age group. Statistics reveal a clear need for improving teenagers driving : skills, judgment and behavior. Driver education programs are a crucial...

  5. Attitudes of truck drivers and carriers on the use of electronic logging devices and driver harassment.

    2014-11-01

    The research contained herein is an examination of managerial harassment experienced by drivers, and whether harassment is associated with the method used to log hours of service (HOS). Similar information was gathered from a sample of carriers. : Tr...

  6. An evidence-based review: distracted driver.

    Llerena, Luis E; Aronow, Kathy V; Macleod, Jana; Bard, Michael; Salzman, Steven; Greene, Wendy; Haider, Adil; Schupper, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Cell phone use and texting are prevalent within society and have thus pervaded the driving population. This technology is a growing concern within the confines of distracted driving, as all diversions from attention to the road have been shown to increase the risk of crashes. Adolescent, inexperienced drivers, who have the greatest prevalence of texting while driving, are at a particularly higher risk of crashes because of distraction. Members of the Injury Control Violence Prevention Committee of the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma performed a PubMed search of articles related to distracted driving and cell phone use as a distractor of driving between 2000 and 2013. A total of 19 articles were found to merit inclusion as evidence in the evidence-based review. These articles provided evidence regarding the relationship between distracted driving and crashes, cell phone use contributing to automobile accidents, and/or the relationship between driver experience and automobile accidents. (Adjust methods/results sections to the number of articles that correctly corresponds to the number of references, as well as the methodology for reference inclusion.) Based on the evidence reviewed, we can recommend the following. All drivers should minimize all in-vehicle distractions while on the road. All drivers should not text or use any touch messaging system (including the use of social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter) while driving. Younger, inexperienced drivers should especially not use cell phones, texting, or any touch messaging system while driving because they pose an increased risk for death and injury caused by distractions while driving.

  7. Sexual practices, myths and misconceptions among long distance truck drivers in North India.

    Sawal, N; Hans, G D R; Verma, G

    2016-07-01

    Long distance truck drivers and helpers constitute a high risk group for human immunodeficiency virus /acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Despite increasing awareness of HIV/AIDS and safe sex practices, they still have a high incidence of new cases of HIV. This study carried out at an ART (anti-retroviral treatment) centre in North India aimed to evaluate the sexual myths and misconceptions prevalent among long distance drivers and helpers. This was a retrospective study carried out at apex ART centre. Data were collected retrospectively from ART records of 129 long distance Truck drivers and 68 helpers. Details of socio-demographic characteristics, contact with commercial sex workers (CSW'S), pattern of condom usage with CSW'S and factors influencing it were studied. We found that a significant number of drivers and helpers had sexual contact with CSW's and out of these, 30% of drivers and 50% of helpers reported not using condoms and instead resorting to methods like washing genitalia after sex with battery water/urine to avoid getting HIV. There was no significant relationship between pattern of condom usage and educational status, marital status and age. We also found that certain myths like sex with young CSW's was less likely to cause sexually transmitted diseases (STD's) and HIV were also widespread. Owing to continuing prevalence of such sexual myths, long distance truck drivers and helpers do not use condoms while having sex with CSW's as they feel that they can enjoy sex with CSW's and still stay protected against STD's/HIV. It is imperative that this battery water/urine antiseptic myth be specifically targeted for better HIV control in this high risk group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Advanced driver assistance systems for teen drivers: Teen and parent impressions, perceived need, and intervention preferences.

    Weiss, Eve; Fisher Thiel, Megan; Sultana, Nahida; Hannan, Chloe; Seacrist, Thomas

    2018-02-28

    From the advent of airbags to electronic stability control, technological advances introduced into automobile design have significantly reduced injury and death from motor vehicle crashes. These advances are especially pertinent among teen drivers, a population whose leading cause of death is motor vehicle crashes. Recently developed advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have the potential to compensate for skill deficits and reduce overall crash risk. Yet, ADAS is only effective if drivers are willing to use it. Limited research has been conducted on the suitability of ADAS for teen drivers. The goal of this study is to identify teen drivers' perceived need for ADAS, receptiveness to in-vehicle technology, and intervention preferences. The long-term goal is to understand public perceptions and barriers to ADAS use and to help determine how these systems must evolve to meet the needs of the riskiest driving populations. Three focus groups (N = 24) were conducted with licensed teen drivers aged 16-19 years and 2 focus groups with parents of teen drivers (N = 12). Discussion topics included views on how ADAS might influence driving skills and behaviors; trust in technology; and data privacy. Discussions were transcribed; the team used conventional content analysis and open coding methods to identify 12 coding domains and code transcripts with NVivo 10. Interrater reliability testing showed moderate to high kappa scores. Overall, participants recognized potential benefits of ADAS, including improved safety and crash reduction. Teens suggested that ADAS is still developing and therefore has potential to malfunction. Many teens reported a greater trust in their own driving ability over vehicle technology. They expressed that novice drivers should learn to drive on non-ADAS-equipped cars and that ADAS should be considered a supplemental aid. Many teens felt that overreliance on ADAS may increase distracted driving or risky behaviors among teens. Parents also

  9. Inertial confinement fusion driver enhancements: Final focusing systems and compact heavy-ion driver designs

    Bieri, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Required elements of an inertial confinement fusion power plant are modeled and discussed. A detailed analysis of two critical elements of candidate drivers is done, and new component designs are proposed to increase the credibility and feasibility of each driver system. An analysis of neutron damage to the final elements of a laser focusing system is presented, and multilayer -- dielectric mirrors are shown to have damage lifetimes which axe too short to be useful in a commercial power plant. A new final-focusing system using grazing incidence metal mirrors to protect sensitive laser optics is designed and shown to be effective in extending the lifetime of the final focusing system. The reflectivities and damage limits of grazing incidence metal mirrors are examined in detail, and the required mirror sizes are shown to be compatible with the beam sizes and illumination geometries currently envisioned for laser drivers. A detailed design and analysis is also done for compact arrays of superconducting magnetic quadrupoles, which are needed in a multi-beam heavy-ion driver. The new array model is developed in more detail than some previous conceptual designs and models arrays which are more compact than arrays scaled from existing single -- quadrupole designs. The improved integrated model for compact arrays is used to compare the effects of various quadrupole array design choices on the size and cost of a heavy-ion driver. Array design choices which significantly affect the cost of a heavy-ion driver include the choice of superconducting material and the thickness of the collar used to support the winding stresses. The effect of these array design choices on driver size and cost is examined and the array model is used to estimate driver cost savings and performance improvements attainable with aggressive quadrupole array designs with high-performance superconductors

  10. Schoolbus driver performance can be improved with driver training, safety incentivisation, and vehicle roadworthy modifications

    A van Niekerk

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa (SA, the school transport industry provides millions of children with a means of travelling to and from school. The industry has, however, been reported to be plagued by widespread safety concerns. The consequent road traffic incidents have often been attributed to driver factors, including driving in excess of legal speeds or at inappropriate speeds; driving while under the influence of alcohol, while sleepy or fatigued; or driving without using protective equipment for vehicle occupants. There are currently very few SA interventions that specifically target this important industry role-player. The Safe Travel to School Programme was recently implemented by a national child safety agency, with a focus on driver road safety awareness, defensive driver training, eye- testing, vehicle roadworthy inspections with selected upgrades, incentives for safe performance, and implementation of a vehicle telematics tracking system with regular, individual driving behaviour information updates. This quasi-experimental study offers an evaluation of the initial impact on safety performance of this telematics-based driver and vehicle safety intervention in terms of speeding, acceleration, braking, cornering, and time-of-day driving, and compares the school transport driver performance with that of general motorists. Despite concerns that some school transport vehicles are used for multiple purposes outside of school transport duties, at night, and for longer distances, overall these vehicles recorded lower percentages of speeding, lower harsh braking, and lower average harsh cornering and acceleration than general drivers.

  11. Induction linac drivers for commercial heavy-ion beam fusion

    Keefe, D.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses induction linac drivers necessary to accelerate heavy ions at inertial fusion targets. Topics discussed are: driver configurations, the current-amplifying induction linac, high current beam behavior and emittance growth, new considerations for driver design, the heavy ion fusion systems study, and future studies. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. Prevalence of Psychoactive Drug Use by Taxi Drivers in Nigeria ...

    Aim: To ascertain the prevalence and nature of psychoactive drug use amongst taxi drivers in Nigeria. Materials and Method: A total of 192 taxi drivers in Enugu, South East Nigeria was studied using a questionnaire. Information obtained from the questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics of the drivers, ...

  13. Pattern of Eye Diseases among Commercial Intercity Vehicle Drivers ...

    Objective: To determine the pattern of eye diseases among commercial intercity vehicle drivers (CIVDs) in Ilorin, Nigeria. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Methodology: Out of the estimated 450 drivers operating in the five major motor parks for CIVDs in Ilorin, 399 consecutive drivers participated in the study.

  14. 18- to 24-year-olds : young drivers.

    2016-01-01

    The fatality rate (fatalities per distance travelled) of young drivers (18- to 24-year-olds) is more than five times higher than that of drivers between the ages of 30 and 59 years. The fatality rate of young males is even as much as ten times higher. The high risk of young drivers is due to both

  15. Driver's anger state identification by using facial expression in ...

    Preventive safety system of vehicle is highlighted to reduce the number of traffic accidents. Driver's state adaptive driving safety system may be one of candidates of the safety system. Identifying driver's psychosomatic states is indispensable to establish those safety systems. Anger of driver state is often seen in traffic ...

  16. High frequency MOSFET gate drivers technologies and applications

    Zhang, Zhiliang

    2017-01-01

    This book describes high frequency power MOSFET gate driver technologies, including gate drivers for GaN HEMTs, which have great potential in the next generation of switching power converters. Gate drivers serve as a critical role between control and power devices.

  17. 75 FR 32983 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption

    2010-06-10

    ...-28480] Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... commercial driver's license (CDL) as required by current regulations. FMCSA reviewed NAAA's application for... demonstrate alternatives its members would employ to ensure that their commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers...

  18. Mandatory Driver Training and Road Safety: The Quebec Experience.

    Potvin, Louise; And Others

    1988-01-01

    1983 legislation making driver training courses mandatory for any person in Quebec seeking a first driver's license had no effect on the risk of accident or the mortality/morbidity rate for newly licensed drivers over 18. However, since 1983 more women under 18 are becoming licensed, and their risks may be increased. (Author/BJV)

  19. Do young novice drivers overestimate their driving skills?

    Craen, S. de Twisk, D.A.M. Hagenzieker, M.P. Elffers, H. & Brookhuis, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this study the authors argue that, in order to sufficiently adapt to task demands in traffic, drivers have to make an assessment of their own driving skills. There are indications that drivers in general, and novice drivers in particular, overestimate their driving skills. The objective of this

  20. Licensing and Other Controls of the Drinking Driver.

    Waller, Patricia F.

    Driver licensing, the only state program with the opportunity for routine personal contact with every driver, has unmatched potential for both general and specific countermeasures to the problem of drunk driving. General countermeasures apply to large groups of drivers prior to the occurrence of any infraction. They may be considered basically…

  1. Traffic safety issues in North Dakota : phase II : driver knowledge, attitude, behavior and beliefs : focus group : young male drivers

    2008-10-01

    Traffic safety is a widespread social concern. Tackling the problem requires understanding the people : who are driving. This includes information about driver behavior, but also about perceptions these drivers : hold regarding their driving. North D...

  2. Resource utilization and outcomes of intoxicated drivers.

    Cherry, Robert A; Nichols, Pamela A; Snavely, Theresa M; Camera, Lindsay J; Mauger, David T

    2010-08-05

    The high risk behavior of intoxicated drivers, impaired reaction time, lack of seat belt use, and increased incidence of head injury raises questions of whether pre-hospital use of alcohol leads to a higher injury severity score and worse clinical outcomes. We therefore compared intoxicated and non-intoxicated drivers of motor vehicle crashes with respect to outcome measurements and also describe the resources utilized to achieve those outcomes at our Level 1 trauma center. Retrospective descriptive study (Jan 2002-June 2007) of our trauma registry and financial database comparing intoxicated drivers with blood alcohol levels (BAC) > 80 mg/dl (ETOH > 80) with drivers who had a BAC of 0 mg/dl (ETOH = 0). Drivers without a BAC drawn or who had levels ranging from 1 mg/dL to 80 mg/dL were excluded. Data was collected on demographic information (age, gender, injury severity score or ISS), outcome variables (mortality, complications, ICU and hospital LOS, ventilator days) and resource utilization (ED LOS, insurance, charges, costs, payments). p 80; stratified chi square. Out of 1732 drivers, the combined study group (n = 987) of 623 ETOH = 0 and 364 ETOH > 80 had a mean age of 38.8 +/- 17.9, ISS of 18.0 +/- 12.1, and 69.8%% male. There was no difference in ISS (p = 0.67) or complications (p = 0.38). There was a trend towards decreased mortality (p = 0.06). The ETOH = 0 group had more patients with a prolonged ICU LOS (>/= 5 days), ventilator days (>/= 8 days), and hospital LOS (> 14 days) when compared to the ETOH > 80 group (p 80 group tended to be self pay (4.9% vs. 0.7%, p pay, less likely to have charges > $50K, and less likely to pay >/= 90% of the charges. Further research using multivariable analysis is needed to determine if these apparent outcomes differences are driven by acute intoxication, and the tendency for endotracheal intubation and ICU admission, rather than injury severity.

  3. Drivers' reactions to sudden braking by lead car under varying workload conditions; towards a driver support system

    Schaap, T. W.; van der Horst, A. R. A.; van Arem, B.; Brookhuis, K. A.

    2008-01-01

    At urban intersections drivers handle multiple tasks simultaneously, making urban driving a complex task. An advanced driver assistance system may support drivers in this specific driving task, but the design details of such a system need to be determined before they can be fully deployed. A driving

  4. 78 FR 76757 - Regulatory Guidance on Hours of Service of Drivers Rest Break Requirement; Drivers Who Become...

    2013-12-19

    ... limitations for unforeseen reasons, is the driver in violation of the Sec. 395.3 rest break provision if more... unforeseen reasons, is not in violation of the Sec. 395.3 rest-break requirements if 8 or more hours have... Regulatory Guidance on Hours of Service of Drivers Rest Break Requirement; Drivers Who Become Ineligible for...

  5. Do young novice drivers overestimate their driving skills more than experienced drivers? : different methods lead to different conclusions.

    Craen, S. de Twisk, D.A.M. Hagenzieker, M.P. Elffers, H. & Brookhuis, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study the authors argue that drivers have to make an assessment of their own driving skills, in order to sufficiently adapt to their task demands in traffic. There are indications that drivers in general, but novice drivers in particular, overestimate their driving skills. However, study

  6. Influence of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon storage

    Yue, Kai; Fornara, Dario A; Yang, Wanqin

    2017-01-01

    The interactive effects of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon (C) storage remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesise data from 633 published studies to show how the interactive effects of multiple drivers are generally additive (i.e. not differing from the sum of their indivi......The interactive effects of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon (C) storage remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesise data from 633 published studies to show how the interactive effects of multiple drivers are generally additive (i.e. not differing from the sum...... additive effects of multiple global change drivers into future assessments of the C storage ability of terrestrial ecosystems....

  7. A COOPERATIVE ASSISTANCE SYSTEM BETWEEN VEHICLES FOR ELDERLY DRIVERS

    Naohisa HASHIMOTO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new concept of elderly driver assistance systems, which performs the assistance by cooperative driving between two vehicles, and describes some experiments with elderly drivers. The assistance consists of one vehicle driven by an elderly driver called a guest vehicle and the other driven by a assisting driver called a host vehicle, and the host vehicle assists or escorts the guest vehicle through the inter-vehicle communications. The functions of the systems installed on a single-seat electric vehicle are highly evaluated by subjects of elderly drivers in virtual streets on a test track.

  8. The electromagnetic rocket gun impact fusion driver

    Winterberg, F.

    1984-01-01

    A macroparticle accelerator to be used as an impact fusion driver is discussed and which can accelerate a small projectile to --200 km/sec over a distance of a few 100 meters. The driver which we have named electromagnetic rocket gun, accelerates a small rocket-like projectile by a travelling magnetic wave. The rocket propellant not only serves as a sink to absorb the heat produced in the projectile by resistive energy losses, but at the same time is also the source of additional thrust through the heating of the propellant to high temperatures by the travelling magnetic wave. The total thrust on the projectile is the sum of the magnetic and recoil forces. In comparison to a rocket, the efficiency is here much larger, with the momentum transferred to the gun barrel of the gun rather than to a tenuous jet. (author)

  9. Flow processes in electric discharge drivers

    Baganoff, D.

    1975-01-01

    The performance of an electric discharge shock tube is discussed from the point of view that the conditions at the sonic station are the primary controlling variables (likewise in comparing designs), and that the analysis of the flow on either side of the sonic station should be done separately. The importance of considering mass-flow rate in matching a given driver design to the downstream flow required for a particular shock-wave speed is stressed. It is shown that a driver based on the principle of liquid injection (of H2) is superior to one based on the Ludwieg tube, because of the greater mass-flow rate and the absence of a massive diaphragm.

  10. Drivers of Changes in Product Development Rules

    Christiansen, John K.; Varnes, Claus J.

    2015-01-01

    regimes. However, the analysis here indicates that there are different drivers, both internal and external, that cause companies to adopt new rules or modify their existing ones, such as changes in organizational structures, organizational conflicts, and changes in ownership or strategy. In addition......Purpose: - The purpose of this research is to investigate the drivers that induce companies to change their rules for managing product development. Most companies use a form of rule-based management approach, but surprisingly little is known about what makes companies change these rules...... 10 years based on three rounds of interviews with 40 managers. Findings: - Previous research has assumed that the dynamics of product development rules are based on internal learning processes, and that increasingly competent management will stimulate the implementation of newer and more complex rule...

  11. Geopolitical drivers of future tourist flows

    Craig Webster

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the major political and economic changes in the world and the likely impact that these changes will bring to tourism and hospitality industries. Design/methodology/approach – The paper adopts a geopolitical perspective on the dynamics of tourist flows, stipulating that geopolitics has a major impact on the size, structure, and direction of these flows. Findings – The paper identifies six geopolitical drivers of tourist flows in the future, namely: the fall of the American Empire, the rise of the BRIC and the PINE countries, increased global political instability, increased importance of regional supranational organisations, greater control of the individuals on a global scale, and the greater importance and power of corporations than national governments. Originality/value – The paper critically evaluates the geopolitical drivers of tourist flows, their likely future development and the impact they have on tourism.

  12. Drivers for Malaysian SMEs to Go Green

    M. Krishna Moorthy; Peter a/l Yacob; Mahendra Kumar a/l Chelliah; Lawrence Arokiasamy

    2012-01-01

    Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) around the world have little knowledge about environmental management and do not understand the concept of environmental management. The concept of green is still very new to Malaysian SME owners/managers, although many green conferences, seminars and campaigns have been carried out for quite some time. The concept for green process and products in Malaysia is at the infancy stage. The drivers of environmental behavior in SMEs are relatively under-researche...

  13. Review of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS)

    Ziebinski, Adam; Cupek, Rafal; Grzechca, Damian; Chruszczyk, Lukas

    2017-11-01

    New cars can be equipped with many advanced safety solutions. Airbags, seatbelts and all of the essential passive safety parts are standard equipment. Now cars are often equipped with new advanced active safety systems that can prevent accidents. The functions of the Advanced Driver Assistance Systems are still growing. A review of the most popular available technologies used in ADAS and descriptions of their application areas are discussed in this paper.

  14. Multiprogrammation fast branch driver for microcomputer MICRAL

    Kaiser, Josef; Lacroix, Jean.

    1975-01-01

    This branch driver allows in association with the FIFO memories of the microcomputer Micral, very fast exchanges with the 7 crates of a CAMAC branch. A CAMAC programm (command, test, read, write) is loaded in the 1K FIFO buffer of the Micral before execution time and executed in sequence at a rate of 1,5μs per CAMAC command. After programm execution, data may be transferred directly on a magnetic tape [fr

  15. Naturalistic distraction and driving safety in older drivers.

    Aksan, Nazan; Dawson, Jeffrey D; Emerson, Jamie L; Yu, Lixi; Uc, Ergun Y; Anderson, Steven W; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-08-01

    In this study, we aimed to quantify and compare performance of middle-aged and older drivers during a naturalistic distraction paradigm (visual search for roadside targets) and to predict older drivers performance given functioning in visual, motor, and cognitive domains. Distracted driving can imperil healthy adults and may disproportionally affect the safety of older drivers with visual, motor, and cognitive decline. A total of 203 drivers, 120 healthy older (61 men and 59 women, ages 65 years and older) and 83 middle-aged drivers (38 men and 45 women, ages 40 to 64 years), participated in an on-road test in an instrumented vehicle. Outcome measures included performance in roadside target identification (traffic signs and restaurants) and concurrent driver safety. Differences in visual, motor, and cognitive functioning served as predictors. Older drivers identified fewer landmarks and drove slower but committed more safety errors than did middle-aged drivers. Greater familiarity with local roads benefited performance of middle-aged but not older drivers.Visual cognition predicted both traffic sign identification and safety errors, and executive function predicted traffic sign identification over and above vision. Older adults are susceptible to driving safety errors while distracted by common secondary visual search tasks that are inherent to driving. The findings underscore that age-related cognitive decline affects older drivers' management of driving tasks at multiple levels and can help inform the design of on-road tests and interventions for older drivers.

  16. Driver steering model for closed-loop steering function analysis

    Bolia, Pratiksh; Weiskircher, Thomas; Müller, Steffen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a two level preview driver steering control model for the use in numerical vehicle dynamics simulation is introduced. The proposed model is composed of cascaded control loops: The outer loop is the path following layer based on potential field framework. The inner loop tries to capture the driver's physical behaviour. The proposed driver model allows easy implementation of different driving situations to simulate a wide range of different driver types, moods and vehicle types. The expediency of the proposed driver model is shown with the help of developed driver steering assist (DSA) function integrated with a conventional series production (Electric Power steering System with rack assist servo unit) system. With the help of the DSA assist function, the driver is prevented from over saturating the front tyre forces and loss of stability and controllability during cornering. The simulation results show different driver reactions caused by the change in the parameters or properties of the proposed driver model if the DSA assist function is activated. Thus, the proposed driver model is useful for the advanced driver steering and vehicle stability assist function evaluation in the early stage of vehicle dynamics handling and stability evaluation.

  17. Older drivers' risks of at-fault motor vehicle collisions.

    Ichikawa, Masao; Nakahara, Shinji; Taniguchi, Ayako

    2015-08-01

    In aging societies, increasing numbers of older drivers are involved in motor vehicle collisions (MVCs), and preserving their safety is a growing concern. In this study, we focused on whether older drivers were more likely to cause MVCs and injuries than drivers in other age groups. To do so we compared at-fault MVC incidence and resulting injury risks by drivers' ages, using data from Japan, a country with a rapidly aging population. The at-fault MVC incidence was calculated based on distance traveled made for non-commercial purposes, and the injury risks posed to at-fault drivers and other road users per at-fault MVCs. We used MVC data for 2010 from the National Police Agency of Japan and driving exposure data from the Nationwide Person Trip Survey conducted by a Japanese governmental ministry in 2010. The at-fault MVC incidence showed a U-shaped curve across the drivers' ages, where teenage and the oldest drivers appeared to be the highest risk groups in terms of causing MVCs, and the incidence was higher for female drivers after age 25. The injury risk older drivers posed to other vehicle occupants because of their at-fault MVCs was lower than for drivers in other age groups, while their own injury risk appeared much higher. As the number of older drivers is increasing, efforts to reduce their at-fault MVCs appear justified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Driver behavior following an automatic steering intervention.

    Fricke, Nicola; Griesche, Stefan; Schieben, Anna; Hesse, Tobias; Baumann, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The study investigated driver behavior toward an automatic steering intervention of a collision mitigation system. Forty participants were tested in a driving simulator and confronted with an inevitable collision. They performed a naïve drive and afterwards a repeated exposure in which they were told to hold the steering wheel loosely. In a third drive they experienced a false alarm situation. Data on driving behavior, i.e. steering and braking behavior as well as subjective data was assessed in the scenarios. Results showed that most participants held on to the steering wheel strongly or counter-steered during the system intervention during the first encounter. Moreover, subjective data collected after the first drive showed that the majority of drivers was not aware of the system intervention. Data from the repeated drive in which participants were instructed to hold the steering wheel loosely, led to significantly more participants holding the steering wheel loosely and thus complying with the instruction. This study seems to imply that without knowledge and information of the system about an upcoming intervention, the most prevalent driving behavior is a strong reaction with the steering wheel similar to an automatic steering reflex which decreases the system's effectiveness. Results of the second drive show some potential for countermeasures, such as informing drivers shortly before a system intervention in order to prevent inhibiting reactions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Universe symmetries

    Souriau, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The sky uniformity can be noticed in studying the repartition of objects far enough. The sky isotropy description uses space rotations. The group theory elements will allow to give a meaning at the same time precise and general to the word a ''symmetry''. Universe models are reviewed, which must have both of the following qualities: - conformity with the physic known laws; - rigorous symmetry following one of the permitted groups. Each of the models foresees that universe evolution obeys an evolution equation. Expansion and big-bang theory are recalled. Is universe an open or closed space. Universe is also electrically neutral. That leads to a work hypothesis: the existing matter is not given data of universe but it appeared by evolution from nothing. Problem of matter and antimatter is then raised up together with its place in universe [fr

  20. Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas.

    Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F

    2014-04-01

    Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities.

  1. Challenges for Older Drivers in Urban, Suburban, and Rural Settings

    Rashmi P. Payyanadan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Along with age-related factors, geographical settings—urban, suburban, and rural areas—also contribute to the differences in fatal crashes among older drivers. These differences in crash outcomes might be attributed to the various driving challenges faced by older drivers residing in different locations. To understand these challenges from the perspective of the older driver, a focus group study was conducted with drivers 65 and older from urban, suburban, and rural settings. Guided-group interviews were used to assess driving challenges, mobility options, opportunities for driver support systems (DSS, and alternate transportation needs. Content analysis of the interview responses resulted in four categories representing common challenges faced by older drivers across the settings: behavior of other drivers on the road, placement of road signs, reduced visibility of road signs due to age-related decline, and difficulties using in-vehicle technologies. Six categories involved location-specific challenges such as heavy traffic situations for urban and suburban drivers, and multi-destination trips for rural drivers. Countermeasures implemented by older drivers to address these challenges primarily involved route selection and avoidance. Technological advances of DSS systems provide a unique opportunity to support the information needs for route selection and avoidance preferences of drivers. Using the content analysis results, a framework was built to determine additional and modified DSS features to meet the specific challenges of older drivers in urban, suburban, and rural settings. These findings suggest that there is heterogeneity in the driving challenges and preferences of older drivers based on their location. Consequently, DSS technologies and vehicle automation need to be tailored to not only meet the driving safety and mobility needs of older drivers as a population, but also to their driving environment.

  2. Fusion of optimized indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for driver drowsiness detection.

    Daza, Iván García; Bergasa, Luis Miguel; Bronte, Sebastián; Yebes, Jose Javier; Almazán, Javier; Arroyo, Roberto

    2014-01-09

    This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems) in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS). An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study.

  3. Fusion of Optimized Indicators from Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS for Driver Drowsiness Detection

    Iván G. Daza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a non-intrusive approach for monitoring driver drowsiness using the fusion of several optimized indicators based on driver physical and driving performance measures, obtained from ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistant Systems in simulated conditions. The paper is focused on real-time drowsiness detection technology rather than on long-term sleep/awake regulation prediction technology. We have developed our own vision system in order to obtain robust and optimized driver indicators able to be used in simulators and future real environments. These indicators are principally based on driver physical and driving performance skills. The fusion of several indicators, proposed in the literature, is evaluated using a neural network and a stochastic optimization method to obtain the best combination. We propose a new method for ground-truth generation based on a supervised Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS. An extensive evaluation of indicators, derived from trials over a third generation simulator with several test subjects during different driving sessions, was performed. The main conclusions about the performance of single indicators and the best combinations of them are included, as well as the future works derived from this study.

  4. Work fatigue in urban bus drivers

    Teresa Makowiec-Dąbrowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bus drivers are a special group of professional drivers who are at a very high risk of fatigue. The aim of the study was to examine whether the driver’s subjective assessment of fatigue allows for the determination of its level and identification of its causes. Material and Methods: The study group comprised 45 randomly selected bus drivers (mean age – 43.7±7.9 years, period of employment as drivers – 14.7±8.6 years. Examinations were performed in all subjects four times – before and after work on the “easy” route (outside the city center, small traffic intensity and before and after work on the “difficult” route (city center, heavy traffic. The fatigue test questionnaire, based on the list of symptoms of fatigue prepared by the Japan Research Committee of Fatigue, was used in the study. Results: The rating of fatigue after the work was significantly higher than that before the work. The profile of fatigue after work was not influenced by the type of route, but the assessment of most symptoms of fatigue reached a higher level after the “difficult” routes and the differences were statistically significant for 7 symptoms. Only the ratings of leg fatigue, feeling of heaviness, and the necessity to squint eyes and gaze with effort reached the higher levels after driving the “easy” routes. It has been found that the level of fatigue was significantly correlated with the job characteristics (driving time, the length of the route, number of stops, etc. and with the abundance of food ingested and type of beverage (coffee vs. others drunk prior to driving. Conclusions: The questionnaire used in our study to assess the subjective feeling of fatigue has proved to be a sensitive and useful tool for indicating the level and causes of fatigue. The relationship between the symptoms of fatigue and the characteristics of job and lifestyle shows that actions must be taken by both the employers and employees to prevent fatigue

  5. World University Ranking Systems: An Alternative Approach Using Partial Least Squares Path Modelling

    Jajo, Nethal K.; Harrison, Jen

    2014-01-01

    University rankings are key drivers in national and institutional strategic planning. The increase in the number of university ranking systems and the diversity of methods and indicators used by these systems necessitate the development of an index that can measure a university's performance in all these systems at once. This article presents…

  6. Driver behavior analysis for right-turn drivers at signalized intersections using SHRP 2 naturalistic driving study data.

    Wu, Jianqing; Xu, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Understanding driver behavior is important for traffic safety and operation, especially at intersections where different traffic movements conflict. While most driver-behavior studies are based on simulation, this paper documents the analysis of driver-behavior at signalized intersections with the SHRP 2 Naturalistic Driving Study (NDS) data. This study analyzes the different influencing factors on the operation (speed control) and observation of right-turn drivers. A total of 300 NDS trips at six signalized intersections were used, including the NDS time-series sensor data, the forward videos and driver face videos. Different factors of drivers, vehicles, roads and environments were studied for their influence on driver behavior. An influencing index function was developed and the index was calculated for each influencing factor to quantitatively describe its influencing level. The influencing index was applied to prioritize the factors, which facilitates development and selection of safety countermeasures to improve intersection safety. Drivers' speed control was analyzed under different conditions with consideration of the prioritized influencing factors. Vehicle type, traffic signal status, conflicting traffic, conflicting pedestrian and driver age group were identified as the five major influencing factors on driver observation. This research revealed that drivers have high acceleration and low observation frequency under Right-Turn-On-Red (RTOR), which constituted potential danger for other roadway users, especially for pedestrians. As speed has a direct influence on crash rates and severities, the revealed speed patterns of the different situations also benefit selection of safety countermeasures at signalized intersections. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Exploratory multinomial logit model-based driver injury severity analyses for teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes.

    Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Guohui; Ci, Yusheng; Wu, Lina; Tarefder, Rafiqul A; Alcántara, Adélamar Dely

    2016-05-18

    Teenage drivers are more likely to be involved in severely incapacitating and fatal crashes compared to adult drivers. Moreover, because two thirds of urban vehicle miles traveled are on signal-controlled roadways, significant research efforts are needed to investigate intersection-related teenage driver injury severities and their contributing factors in terms of driver behavior, vehicle-infrastructure interactions, environmental characteristics, roadway geometric features, and traffic compositions. Therefore, this study aims to explore the characteristic differences between teenage and adult drivers in intersection-related crashes, identify the significant contributing attributes, and analyze their impacts on driver injury severities. Using crash data collected in New Mexico from 2010 to 2011, 2 multinomial logit regression models were developed to analyze injury severities for teenage and adult drivers, respectively. Elasticity analyses and transferability tests were conducted to better understand the quantitative impacts of these factors and the teenage driver injury severity model's generality. The results showed that although many of the same contributing factors were found to be significant in the both teenage and adult driver models, certain different attributes must be distinguished to specifically develop effective safety solutions for the 2 driver groups. The research findings are helpful to better understand teenage crash uniqueness and develop cost-effective solutions to reduce intersection-related teenage injury severities and facilitate driver injury mitigation research.

  8. A learning-based autonomous driver: emulate human driver's intelligence in low-speed car following

    Wei, Junqing; Dolan, John M.; Litkouhi, Bakhtiar

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, an offline learning mechanism based on the genetic algorithm is proposed for autonomous vehicles to emulate human driver behaviors. The autonomous driving ability is implemented based on a Prediction- and Cost function-Based algorithm (PCB). PCB is designed to emulate a human driver's decision process, which is modeled as traffic scenario prediction and evaluation. This paper focuses on using a learning algorithm to optimize PCB with very limited training data, so that PCB can have the ability to predict and evaluate traffic scenarios similarly to human drivers. 80 seconds of human driving data was collected in low-speed (car-following scenarios. In the low-speed car-following tests, PCB was able to perform more human-like carfollowing after learning. A more general 120 kilometer-long simulation showed that PCB performs robustly even in scenarios that are not part of the training set.

  9. Using shadow page cache to improve isolated drivers performance.

    Zheng, Hao; Dong, Xiaoshe; Wang, Endong; Chen, Baoke; Zhu, Zhengdong; Liu, Chengzhe

    2015-01-01

    With the advantage of the reusability property of the virtualization technology, users can reuse various types and versions of existing operating systems and drivers in a virtual machine, so as to customize their application environment. In order to prevent users' virtualization environments being impacted by driver faults in virtual machine, Chariot examines the correctness of driver's write operations by the method of combining a driver's write operation capture and a driver's private access control table. However, this method needs to keep the write permission of shadow page table as read-only, so as to capture isolated driver's write operations through page faults, which adversely affect the performance of the driver. Based on delaying setting frequently used shadow pages' write permissions to read-only, this paper proposes an algorithm using shadow page cache to improve the performance of isolated drivers and carefully study the relationship between the performance of drivers and the size of shadow page cache. Experimental results show that, through the shadow page cache, the performance of isolated drivers can be greatly improved without impacting Chariot's reliability too much.

  10. Truck Drivers And Risk Of STDs Including HIV

    Bansal R.K

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: Whether long distance truck drivers are at a higher risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV? Objectives: i To study the degree of knowledge of HIV and AIDS among long- distance truck drivers. ii Assess their sexual behaviour including condom use. iii Explore their prevailing social influences and substance abuse patterns. iv Explore their treatment seeking bahaviour as regards STDs. v Deduce their risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV. Study Design: Cross- sectional interview. Setting: Transport Nagar, Indore (M.P Participants: 210 senior drivers (First drivers and 210 junior drivers (Second drivers. Study Variables: Extra-Marital sexual intercourse, condom usage, past and present history of STDs, treatment and counseling, substance abuse, social â€" cultural milieu. Outcome Variables: Risk of contraction of STDs. Statistical Analysis: Univariate analysis. Results: 94% of the drivers were totally ignorant about AIDS. 82.9% and 43.8 % of the senior and junior drivers had a history of extra- marital sex and of these only 2 regularly used condoms. 13.8% and 3.3 % of the senior and junior drivers had a past or present history suggestive of STD infection. Alcohol and Opium were regularly used by them. Conclusion: The studied drivers are at a high risk of contracting and transmitting STDs including HIV.

  11. Our Universe

    Stern, Alan

    2001-03-01

    The Universe in which we live is unimaginably vast and ancient, with countless star systems, galaxies, and extraordinary phenomena such as black holes, dark matter, and gamma ray bursts. What phenomena remain mysteries, even to seasoned scientists? Our Universe is a fascinating collection of essays by some of the world's foremost astrophysicists. Some are theorists, some computational modelers, some observers, but all offer their insights into the most cutting-edge, difficult, and curious aspects of astrophysics. Compiled, the essays describe more than the latest techniques and findings. Each of the ten contributors offers a more personal perspective on their work, revealing what motivates them and how their careers and lives have been shaped by their desire to understand our universe. S. Alan Stern is Director of the Department of Space Studies at Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado. He is a planetary scientist and astrophysicist with both observational and theoretical interests. Stern is an avid pilot and a principal investigator in NASA's planetary research program, and he was selected to be a NASA space shuttle mission specialist finalist. He is the author of more than 100 papers and popular articles. His most recent book is Pluto & Charon (Wiley, 1997). Contributors: Dr. John Huchra, Harvard University Dr. Esther Hu, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Dr. John Mather, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Dr. Nick Gnedin, University of Colorado, Boulder Dr. Doug Richstone, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Dr. Bohdan Paczynski, Princeton University, NJ Dr. Megan Donahue, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Dr. Jerry Ostriker, Princeton University, New Jersey G. Bothun, University of Oregon, Eugene

  12. Do older drivers with bilateral cataract self-regulate their driving while waiting for first eye cataract surgery?

    Agramunt S

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Seraina Agramunt,1 Lynn B Meuleners,1 Michelle L Fraser,1 Kyle C Chow,1 Jonathon Q Ng,2,3 Vignesh Raja,4 Nigel Morlet2,3 1Curtin-Monash Accident Research Centre (C-MARC, Curtin University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Perth, Australia; 2Eye & Vision Epidemiology Research (EVER Group, Perth, Australia; 3School of Population and Global Health, The University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia; 4Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, Australia Objectives: To analyze the association between visual impairment and driver self-regulation among a cohort of older drivers waiting for first eye cataract surgery.Methods: Ninety-six drivers with bilateral cataract aged 55+ years were assessed before first eye cataract surgery. Data collection consisted of a researcher-administered questionnaire, objective visual measures (visual acuity, contrast sensitivity and stereopsis, a visual attention test (the useful field of view test and a cognitive test (the Mini-Mental State Examination. Driver self-regulation practices were collected using the Driving Habits Questionnaire and were also measured with an in-vehicle monitoring device. Characteristics of self-regulators and non-self-regulators were compared and a logistic regression model was used to examine the association between 3 objective visual measures and driver self-regulation status.Results: After controlling for potential confounding factors, only binocular contrast sensitivity (p=0.01, age (p=0.03 and gender (p=0.03 were significantly associated with driver self-regulation status. The odds of participants with better contrast sensitivity scores (better vision self-regulating their driving in at least 1 driving situation decreased (odds ratio [OR]: 0.01, 95% CI: 0.00–0.28 while those of increasing age reported an increased odds of self-regulating their driving (OR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01–1.15. The odds of males self-regulating their driving was decreased compared with females (OR: 0.28, 95% CI: 0.09

  13. Contributors to young drivers' driving styles - A comparison between Israel and Queensland.

    Skvirsky, Vera; Ben-Ari, Orit Taubman; Greenbury, Timothy J; Prato, Carlo G

    2017-12-01

    variables on multi-levels when referring to young drivers' driving styles, is confirmed. The findings attest to the universal utility of the MDSI, together with the understanding that only a wider examination of personal and environmental contributors enables true insights into the complex behavior of driving among young drivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Europe.

    Dalla Villa, P; Matthews, L R; Alessandrini, B; Messori, S; Migliorati, G

    2014-04-01

    The European region has been, and remains, a global leader in the development of animal welfare policies. The region has a great diversity of cultures and religions, different levels of socio-economic development, and varied legislation, policies and practices. Nevertheless, there are common drivers for animal welfare policy based on a history of animal welfare ethics and obligations to animal users and society in general. A unifying goal of countries in the region is to achieve sustainable compliance with the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards on animal health and welfare. Ethics isthe overarching driver, supported by the actions of governmental, inter-governmental and non-governmental activities, markets and trade, science and knowledge. Historically, organisations involved in promoting animal welfare have tended to act in isolation. For example, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have run campaigns to influence retailers and the welfare policies of their farmer suppliers. Increasingly, different organisations with common or complementary goals are working together. For example, competent authorities, inter-governmental bodies and NGOs have combined their efforts to address dog population control across several countries in the region. Also, animal welfare is becoming integrated into the corporate social responsibility targets of private companies. Science and knowledge, as drivers and tools, are assisting with the harmonisation of welfare standards, e.g. by providing a common basis for measuring welfare impacts through animal-based measures and widespread sharing of this information. Current trends suggest that there will be greater collaboration among the organisations driving change, and increasing convergence of animal welfare strategies and welfare assessment tools. The result will be increased harmonisation of animal welfare standards throughout the region.

  15. Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics.

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the 'Global Drivers' (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US 'Advanced Manufacturing National Program' (AMNP)', the German 'Industrie 4.0' plan, the French plan 'la nouvelle France industrielle' and the UK Foresight publications on the 'Future of Manufacturing'. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully

  16. Rectangular waveform linear transformer driver module design

    Zhao Yue; Xie Weiping; Zhou Liangji; Chen Lin

    2014-01-01

    Linear Transformer Driver is a novel pulsed power technology, its main merits include a parallel LC discharge array and Inductive Voltage Adder. The parallel LC discharge array lowers the whole circuit equivalent inductance and the Inductive Voltage Adder unites the modules in series in order to create a high electric field grads, meanwhile, restricts the high voltage in a small space. The lower inductance in favor of LTD output a fast waveform and IVA confine high voltage in secondary cavity. In recently, some LTD-based pulsed power system has been development yet. The usual LTD architecture provides damped sine shaped output pulses that may not be suitable in flash radiography, high power microwave production, z-pinch drivers, and certain other applications. A more suitable driver output pulse would have a flat or inclined top (slightly rising or falling). In this paper, we present the design of an LTD cavity that generates this type of the output pulse by including within its circular array some number of the harmonic bricks in addition to the standard bricks according to Fourier progression theory. The parallel LC discharge array circuit formula is introduced by Kirchhoff Law, and the sum of harmonic is proofed as an analytic result, meanwhile, rationality of design is proved by simulation. Varying gas spark discharge dynamic resistance with harmonic order and switches jitter are analyzed. The results are as following: The more harmonic order is an approach to the ideal rectangular waveform, but lead to more system complexity. The capacity decreases as harmonic order increase, and gas spark discharge dynamic resistance rises with the capacity. The rising time protracts and flat is decay or even vanishes and the shot to shot reproducibility is degenerate as the switches jitter is high. (authors)

  17. Conscientious personality and young drivers' crash risk.

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Li, Kaigang; Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Fox Tree-McGrath, Cheyenne; Perlus, Jessamyn G; O'Brien, Fearghal; Klauer, Sheila G

    2015-09-01

    Personality characteristics are associated with many risk behaviors. However, the relationship between personality traits, risky driving behavior, and crash risk is poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between personality, risky driving behavior, and crashes and near-crashes, using naturalistic driving research methods. Participants' driving exposure, kinematic risky driving (KRD), high-risk secondary task engagement, and the frequency of crashes and near-crashes (CNC) were assessed over the first 18months of licensure using naturalistic driving methods. A personality survey (NEO-Five Factor Inventory) was administered at baseline. The association between personality characteristics, KRD rate, secondary task engagement rate, and CNC rate was estimated using a linear regression model. Mediation analysis was conducted to examine if participants' KRD rate or secondary task engagement rate mediated the relationship between personality and CNC. Data were collected as part of the Naturalistic Teen Driving Study. Conscientiousness was marginally negatively associated with CNC (path c=-0.034, p=.09) and both potential mediators KRD (path a=-0.040, p=.09) and secondary task engagement while driving (path a=-0.053, p=.03). KRD, but not secondary task engagement, was found to mediate (path b=0.376, p=.02) the relationship between conscientiousness and CNC (path c'=-0.025, p=.20). Using objective measures of driving behavior and a widely used personality construct, these findings present a causal pathway through which personality and risky driving are associated with CNC. Specifically, more conscientious teenage drivers engaged in fewer risky driving maneuvers, and suffered fewer CNC. Part of the variability in crash risk observed among newly licensed teenage drivers can be explained by personality. Parents and driving instructors may take teenage drivers' personality into account when providing guidance, and establishing norms and

  18. Intelligent Universe

    Hoyle, F

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: chance and the universe (synthesis of proteins; the primordial soup); the gospel according to Darwin (discussion of Darwin theory of evolution); life did not originate on earth (fossils from space; life in space); the interstellar connection (living dust between the stars; bacteria in space falling to the earth; interplanetary dust); evolution by cosmic control (microorganisms; genetics); why aren't the others here (a cosmic origin of life); after the big bang (big bang and steady state); the information rich universe; what is intelligence up to; the intelligent universe.

  19. Drivers of productivity in Vietnamese SMEs

    Calza, Elisa; Goedhuys, Micheline; Trifkovic, Neda

    2017-01-01

    Using a rich panel dataset of SMEs active in the manufacturing sector in Viet Nam, this paper investigates the drivers of firm productivity, focusing on the role played by international management standards certification. We develop and test the hypothesis that, controlling for technological...... international standards, the main findings show that the possession of an internationally recognized standard certificate leads to significant productivity premium. We further investigate the relationship between technological innovation and standard adoption. We find that the likelihood of certificate adoption...... is higher when firms implement technological innovations and that the effect of certification on productivity is particularly strong for firms with technological innovation....

  20. Drowsy Driver Detection via Steering Wheel

    Herlina ABDUL RAHIM

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this project is to produce a safety system especially for fatigue car driver so as to prevent from accidents. The statistic on road fatality shows that human error constitute of 64.84 % road accidents fatality and 17.4 % due to technical factors. These systems encompassed the approach of hand pressure applied on the steering wheel. The steering will be installed with pressure sensors. At the same time these sensors can be used to measure gripping force while driving.

  1. Ludic interfaces. Driver and product of gamification

    Mathias Fuchs

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent success of non-standard and playful interface devices like Wii Remote, Move, and Kinect is an indicator of a process that demonstrates that ludic interfaces might be the core driver for a transformation in the sector of video games cultures and beyond. Yet, ludic interfaces are drivers—as well as driven by social developments known as the ludification (Raessens, 2006; Fuchs & Strouhal, 2008, or the gamification of society (Schell, 2010; Bogost, 2010; Ionifides, 2011; Deterding, Khaled, Nacke, & Dixon, 2011.

  2. High current, high bandwidth laser diode current driver

    Copeland, David J.; Zimmerman, Robert K., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A laser diode current driver has been developed for free space laser communications. The driver provides 300 mA peak modulation current and exhibits an optical risetime of less than 400 ps. The current and optical pulses are well behaved and show minimal ringing. The driver is well suited for QPPM modulation at data rates up to 440 Mbit/s. Much previous work has championed current steering circuits; in contrast, the present driver is a single-ended on/off switch. This results in twice the power efficiency as a current steering driver. The driver electrical efficiency for QPPM data is 34 percent. The high speed switch is realized with a Ku-band GaAsFET transistor, with a suitable pre-drive circuit, on a hybrid microcircuit adjacent to the laser diode.

  3. Driver's mental workload prediction model based on physiological indices.

    Yan, Shengyuan; Tran, Cong Chi; Wei, Yingying; Habiyaremye, Jean Luc

    2017-09-15

    Developing an early warning model to predict the driver's mental workload (MWL) is critical and helpful, especially for new or less experienced drivers. The present study aims to investigate the correlation between new drivers' MWL and their work performance, regarding the number of errors. Additionally, the group method of data handling is used to establish the driver's MWL predictive model based on subjective rating (NASA task load index [NASA-TLX]) and six physiological indices. The results indicate that the NASA-TLX and the number of errors are positively correlated, and the predictive model shows the validity of the proposed model with an R 2 value of 0.745. The proposed model is expected to provide a reference value for the new drivers of their MWL by providing the physiological indices, and the driving lesson plans can be proposed to sustain an appropriate MWL as well as improve the driver's work performance.

  4. Young Drivers Perceptual Learning Styles Preferences and Traffic Accidents

    Svetlana Čičević

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Young drivers are over-represented in crash and fatality statistics. One way of dealing with this problem is to achieve primary prevention through driver education and training. Factors of traffic accidents related to gender, age, driving experience, and self-assessments of safety and their relationship to perceptual learning styles (LS preferences have been analyzed in this study. The results show that auditory is the most prominent LS. Drivers in general, as well as drivers without traffic accidents favour visual and tactile LS. Both inexperienced and highly experienced drivers show relatively high preference of kinaesthetic style. Yet, taking into account driving experience we could see that the role of kinaesthetic LS is reduced, since individual LS has become more important. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that a multivariate and multistage approach to driver education, taking into account differences in LS preferences, would be highly beneficial for traffic safety.

  5. Real-time driver fatigue detection based on face alignment

    Tao, Huanhuan; Zhang, Guiying; Zhao, Yong; Zhou, Yi

    2017-07-01

    The performance and robustness of fatigue detection largely decrease if the driver with glasses. To address this issue, this paper proposes a practical driver fatigue detection method based on face alignment at 3000 FPS algorithm. Firstly, the eye regions of the driver are localized by exploiting 6 landmarks surrounding each eye. Secondly, the HOG features of the extracted eye regions are calculated and put into SVM classifier to recognize the eye state. Finally, the value of PERCLOS is calculated to determine whether the driver is drowsy or not. An alarm will be generated if the eye is closed for a specified period of time. The accuracy and real-time on testing videos with different drivers demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is robust and obtain better accuracy for driver fatigue detection compared with some previous method.

  6. Peptic ulcer among urban bus drivers in Denmark

    Netterstrøm, Bo; Juel, K

    1990-01-01

    As part of a survey on the work environment of bus drivers, 2045 (83%) of 2465 male bus drivers in the three major cities in Denmark in 1978 answered a postal questionnaire on health and working conditions. In order to evaluate the relative occurrence of peptic ulcer among the bus drivers, a follow......-up study was also conducted. All hospital discharges with a peptic ulcer diagnosis among the bus drivers were registered from the Danish National Patient Register. All Danish men were used as reference group. On the basis of the 1978-questionnaire association between occupational and psychosocial factors...... and subsequent hospital discharge with a peptic ulcer diagnosis was studied. The prevalence of abdominal pain alleviated by food intake was 12% among bus drivers and 6% in the reference group. The incidence of hospital discharge with duodenal ulcer among younger bus drivers was twice the incidence among Danish...

  7. Solid state light source driver establishing buck or boost operation

    Palmer, Fred

    2017-08-29

    A solid state light source driver circuit that operates in either a buck convertor or a boost convertor configuration is provided. The driver circuit includes a controller, a boost switch circuit and a buck switch circuit, each coupled to the controller, and a feedback circuit, coupled to the light source. The feedback circuit provides feedback to the controller, representing a DC output of the driver circuit. The controller controls the boost switch circuit and the buck switch circuit in response to the feedback signal, to regulate current to the light source. The controller places the driver circuit in its boost converter configuration when the DC output is less than a rectified AC voltage coupled to the driver circuit at an input node. The controller places the driver circuit in its buck converter configuration when the DC output is greater than the rectified AC voltage at the input node.

  8. Microcontroller based driver alertness detection systems to detect drowsiness

    Adenin, Hasibah; Zahari, Rahimi; Lim, Tiong Hoo

    2018-04-01

    The advancement of embedded system for detecting and preventing drowsiness in a vehicle is a major challenge for road traffic accident systems. To prevent drowsiness while driving, it is necessary to have an alert system that can detect a decline in driver concentration and send a signal to the driver. Studies have shown that traffc accidents usually occur when the driver is distracted while driving. In this paper, we have reviewed a number of detection systems to monitor the concentration of a car driver and propose a portable Driver Alertness Detection System (DADS) to determine the level of concentration of the driver based on pixelated coloration detection technique using facial recognition. A portable camera will be placed at the front visor to capture facial expression and the eye activities. We evaluate DADS using 26 participants and have achieved 100% detection rate with good lighting condition and a low detection rate at night.

  9. The Candidate Cancer Gene Database: a database of cancer driver genes from forward genetic screens in mice.

    Abbott, Kenneth L; Nyre, Erik T; Abrahante, Juan; Ho, Yen-Yi; Isaksson Vogel, Rachel; Starr, Timothy K

    2015-01-01

    Identification of cancer driver gene mutations is crucial for advancing cancer therapeutics. Due to the overwhelming number of passenger mutations in the human tumor genome, it is difficult to pinpoint causative driver genes. Using transposon mutagenesis in mice many laboratories have conducted forward genetic screens and identified thousands of candidate driver genes that are highly relevant to human cancer. Unfortunately, this information is difficult to access and utilize because it is scattered across multiple publications using different mouse genome builds and strength metrics. To improve access to these findings and facilitate meta-analyses, we developed the Candidate Cancer Gene Database (CCGD, http://ccgd-starrlab.oit.umn.edu/). The CCGD is a manually curated database containing a unified description of all identified candidate driver genes and the genomic location of transposon common insertion sites (CISs) from all currently published transposon-based screens. To demonstrate relevance to human cancer, we performed a modified gene set enrichment analysis using KEGG pathways and show that human cancer pathways are highly enriched in the database. We also used hierarchical clustering to identify pathways enriched in blood cancers compared to solid cancers. The CCGD is a novel resource available to scientists interested in the identification of genetic drivers of cancer. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  10. Driver behaviour in motorway car-following transitions and driver support systems

    Feenstra, P.; Horst, A.R.A. van der

    2006-01-01

    Co-operative driving with speed adaptation functionality has great potential to improve traffic-throughput, traffic-safety, and environmental-impact on heavily used traffic-infrastructures. A driving-simulator study was performed to investigate the driver behaviour with respect to such

  11. Smart driver monitoring : when signal processing meets human factors : in the driver's seat

    Aghaei, A.S.; Donmez, B.; Liu, C.C.; He, D.; Liu, G.; Plataniotis, K.N.; Chen, H.Y.W.; Sojoudi, Z.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an interdisciplinary perspective on driver monitoring systems by discussing state-of-the-art signal processing solutions in the context of road safety issues identified in human factors research. Recently, the human factors community has made significant progress in

  12. Driver support in congestion. An assessment of user needs and impacts on driver and traffic flow

    van Driel, Cornelie

    2007-01-01

    Mobility is a key factor for modern societies. However, it also brings about problems, such as congestion, accidents and pollution. High expectations rest on in-vehicle systems to contribute to solving these problems. These so-called driver support systems use advanced information and communication

  13. USAID University

    US Agency for International Development — USAID University is USAID's learning management system. Features include 1) Access online courses 2) Register for instructor-led courses 3)Access your student...

  14. Runaway universe

    Davies, P

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: the emerging universe (general introduction, history of astronomical and cosmological research, origins, the expanding universe, stars, galaxies, electromagnetic radiation); primeval fire (the big bang model, origin of the elements, properties of the elements and of sub-atomic particles); order out of chaos (galactic evolution, star formation, nuclear fusion, the solar system, origin of life on Earth); a star called Sol (properties of the sun and of other stars); life in the universe; the catastrophe principle (the rise and fall of cosmic order); stardoom (star evolution, neutron stars); black holes and superholes (gravitational collapse); technology and survival; the dying universe (second law of thermodynamics); worlds without end (cosmological models).

  15. Rhodes University

    Samridhi Sharma

    2013-10-29

    Oct 29, 2013 ... been taken may improve the reception, by the target audience, of the intended communication. This may ... alcohol marketing. Similarly .... of the intended users (Rhodes University support staff ..... Digital Human Modeling and.

  16. Hearing status among Norwegian train drivers and train conductors

    Lie, A.; Skogstad, M.; Johnsen, T. S.; Engdahl, B.; Tambs, K.

    2013-01-01

    Background There is a general perception that train drivers and conductors may be at increased risk of developing noise-induced hearing loss. Aims To study job-related hearing loss among train drivers and train conductors. Methods Audiograms from train drivers and train conductors were obtained from the medical records of the occupational health service of the major Norwegian railway company. The results were compared with audiograms from an internal control group of railway workers and an ex...

  17. Processes, Performance Drivers and ICT Tools in Human Resources Management

    Oškrdal Václav; Pavlíček Antonín; Jelínková Petra

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an insight to processes, performance drivers and ICT tools in human resources (HR) management area. On the basis of a modern approach to HR management, a set of business processes that are handled by today’s HR managers is defined. Consequently, the concept of ICT-supported performance drivers and their relevance in the area of HR management as well as the relationship between HR business processes, performance drivers and ICT tools are defined. The theoretical outcomes ...

  18. SSCL DD2 driver port and project update

    Mestad, S.L.

    1993-04-01

    A paper previously published in the 1992 ICHEP proceedings outlined the SSC's need for a high speed, high capacity tape drive to store detector data. Also described were stages and lessons learned while developing a custom device driver for the Ampex DD2 tape drive on a Silicon Graphics 4D/310. This paper updates the work on the SGI driver and describes the efforts in porting the driver to a Sun Microsystems 670 server

  19. SSCL DD2 driver port and project update

    Mestad, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    A paper previously published in the 1992 ICHEP proceedings outlined the SSC's need for a high speed, high capacity tape drive to store detector data. Also described were stages and lessons learned while developing a custom device driver for the Ampex DD2 tape drive on a Silicon Graphics 4D/310. This paper updates the work on the SGI driver and describes the efforts in porting the driver to a Sun Microsystems 670 server

  20. Undulant Universe

    Barenboim, Gabriela; /Valencia U.; Mena, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    If the equation of state for ''dark energy'' varies periodically, the expansion of the Universe may have undergone alternating eras of acceleration and deceleration. We examine a specific form that survives existing observational tests, does not single out the present state of the Universe as exceptional, and suggests a future much like the matter-dominated past: a smooth expansion without a final inflationary epoch.

  1. Improving drivers' knowledge of road rules using digital games.

    Li, Qing; Tay, Richard

    2014-04-01

    Although a proficient knowledge of the road rules is important to safe driving, many drivers do not retain the knowledge acquired after they have obtained their licenses. Hence, more innovative and appealing methods are needed to improve drivers' knowledge of the road rules. This study examines the effect of game based learning on drivers' knowledge acquisition and retention. We find that playing an entertaining game that is designed to impart knowledge of the road rules not only improves players' knowledge but also helps them retain such knowledge. Hence, learning by gaming appears to be a promising learning approach for driver education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Car drivers' perceptions of electronic stability control (ESC) systems.

    Vadeby, Anna; Wiklund, Mats; Forward, Sonja

    2011-05-01

    As a way to reduce the number of car crashes different in-car safety devices are being introduced. In this paper one such application is being investigated, namely the electronic stability control system (ESC). The study used a survey method, including 2000 private car drivers (1000 driving a car with ESC and 1000 driving a car without ESC). The main objective was to investigate the effect of ESC on driver behaviour. Results show that drivers report that they drive even more carelessly when they believe that they have ESC, than when they do not. Men are more risk prone than women and young drivers more than older drivers. Using the theory of planned behaviour the results show that attitude, subjective norm and perceived control explain between 62% and 67% of driver's variation of intentions to take risks. When descriptive norm was added to the model a small but statistically significant increase was found. The study also shows that more than 35% erroneously believe that their car is equipped with an ESC system. These findings may suggest that driver behaviour could reduce the positive effect ESC has on accidents. It also shows that drivers who purchase a new car are not well informed about what kind of safety devices the car is equipped with. These findings highlight the need for more targeted information to drivers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers

    Subasish Das; Xiaoduan Sun; Fan Wang; Charles Leboeuf

    2015-01-01

    At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the a...

  4. Systems analysis for modular versus multi-beam HIF drivers

    Meier, W.R.; Logan, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    Previous modeling for HIF drivers concentrated on designs in which 100 or more beams are grouped in an array and accelerated through a common set of induction cores. The total beam energy required by the target is achieved by the combination of final ion energy, current per beam and number of beams. Economic scaling favors a large number of small (∼1 cm dia.) beams. An alternative architecture has now been investigated, which we refer to as a modular driver. In this case, the driver is subdivided into many (>10) independent accelerators with one or many beams each. A key objective of the modular driver approach is to be able to demonstrate all aspects of the driver (source-to-target) by building a single, lower cost module compared to a full-scale, multi-beam driver. We consider and compare several design options for the modular driver including single-beam designs with solenoid instead of quadrupole magnets in order to transport the required current per module in a single beam, solenoid/quad combinations, and multi-beam, all-quad designs. The drivers are designed to meet the requirements of the hybrid target, which can accommodate a larger spot size than the distributed radiator target that was used for the Robust Point Design. We compare the multi-beam and modular driver configuration for a variety and assumptions and identify key technology advances needed for the modular design

  5. Theoretical models of drivers behavior on the road

    Marcin Piotr Biernacki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of mechanisms and factors responsible for the driver behavior on the road is the subject of ongoing interest to transportation psychologists, occupational doctors and engineers. Models of driver behavior are a key point for the understanding the mechanisms and factors which may cause limitations to the optimal functioning on the road. They also systematize knowledge about the factors responsible for the behavior of the driver and thus constitute a starting point for formulating empirical or diagnostic hypotheses. The aim of this study is to present models of driver behavior from the descriptive and functional perspectives. Med Pr 2017;68(3:401–411

  6. 77 FR 10607 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2012-02-22

    ...-2011-0367] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The...). [[Page 10608

  7. Testing a structural model of young driver willingness to uptake Smartphone Driver Support Systems.

    Kervick, Aoife A; Hogan, Michael J; O'Hora, Denis; Sarma, Kiran M

    2015-10-01

    There is growing interest in the potential value of using phone applications that can monitor driver behaviour (Smartphone Driver Support Systems, 'SDSSs') in mitigating risky driving by young people. However, their value in this regard will only be realised if young people are willing to use this technology. This paper reports the findings of a study in which a novel structural model of willingness to use SDSSs was tested. Grounded in the driver monitoring and Technology Acceptance (TA) research literature, the model incorporates the perceived risks and gains associated with potential SDSS usage and additional social cognitive factors, including perceived usability and social influences. A total of 333 smartphone users, aged 18-24, with full Irish driving licenses completed an online questionnaire examining willingness or Behavioural Intention (BI) to uptake a SDSS. Following exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation modelling indicated that perceived gains and social influence factors had significant direct effects on BI. Perceived risks and social influence also had significant indirect effects on BI, as mediated by perceived gains. Overall, this model accounted for 72.5% of the variance in willingness to uptake SDSSs. Multi-group structural models highlighted invariance of effects across gender, high and low risk drivers, and those likely or unlikely to adopt novel phone app technologies. These findings have implications for our understanding of the willingness of young drivers to adopt and use SDSSs, and highlight potential factors that could be targeted in behavioural change interventions seeking to improve usage rates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bock, R.; Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts

  9. Convenience food products. Drivers for consumption.

    Brunner, Thomas A; van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Convenience is one of the big trends in the food business. The demand for convenience food products is steadily increasing; therefore, understanding convenience food consumption is an important issue. Despite being vital properties of convenience food, saving time and effort have not been very successful constructs for predicting convenience food consumption. To examine a wide range of possible drivers for convenience food consumption, the present study uses a convenience food frequency questionnaire that asks about consumption behavior. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was sent out to a representative sample of people in German-speaking Switzerland and yielded N = 918 complete datasets from persons mainly responsible for buying and preparing food in the household. The various convenience food products could be categorized into four groups, which we labeled as highly processed food items, moderately processed food items, single components, and salads. Fifteen drivers were found to have a significant impact either on total convenience consumption or on one of the identified categories. Strong predictors were age, concern about naturalness, nutrition knowledge, and cooking skills. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Induction linac drivers: Prospects for the future

    Keefe, D.

    1989-01-01

    This review is intended to place in perspective our current view of the parameter ranges for induction linac drivers that lead to attractive scenarios for civilian electrical power plants; there is a surprising degree of choice (a factor of 2 or so in most parameters) before any significant impact on the cost of energy results. The progress and goals of the US heavy-ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) program are reviewed. The step between the realization of the HIFAR goals and a full-scale driver is seen to be very large indeed and will require one or more significant intermediate steps which can be justified only by a commitment to advance the HIF method towards a true fusion goal. Historial anomalies in the way that fusion programs for both military and civilian applications are administered will need to be resolved; the absence of any presently perceived energy crisis results in little current sense of urgency to develop vigorous long-term energy solutions. (orig.)

  11. Experiments and prospects for induction linac drivers

    Keefe, D.

    1986-05-01

    In the last three years, the US program in Heavy Ion Fusion has concentrated on understanding the induction linac approach to a power-plant driver. In this method it is important that the beam current be maximized throughout the accelerator. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the space-charge limit in the AG transport system in the linac and, also, to achieve current amplification during acceleration to keep pace with the kinematical increase of this limit with energy. Experimental results on both these matters and also on the use of multiple beams (inside the same accelerating structure) will be described. A new examination of the most attractive properties of the induction linac for a fusion driver has clearly pointed to the advantage of using heavy ions with a charge-state greater than unity - perhaps q = 3 may be an optimum. This development places even greater importance on understanding space-charge limits and mechanisms for emittance growth; also, it will require a new emphasis on the development of a suitable ion source

  12. Drivers of Pontocaspian Biodiversity Rise and Demise

    Wesselingh, Frank; Flecker, Rachel; Wilke, Thomas; Leroy, Suzanne; Krijgsman, Wout; Stoica, Marius

    2015-04-01

    In the past two million years, the region of the Black Sea Basin, Caspian Basin and adjacent Anatolia and the Balkans were the stage of the evolution of a unique brackish water fauna, the so-called Pontocaspian fauna. The fauna is the result of assembly of genera with a Paratethyan origin and Anatolian origins during the Early Pleistocene. The rapid diversification of the Pontocaspian fauna is the result of the very dynamic nature of the lakes (the Caspian Sea is technically a lake) and seas in the region in the past two million years. In most times the various lake basins were isolated (like today), but in other episodes connections existed. Regional and global climate as well as the regional tectonic regimes were main drivers of lake basin evolution. Over the past 80 years a major biodiversity crisis is hitting the Pontocaspian faunas due to environmental degradation, pollution and invasive species. In the new EU-ETN PRIDE (Drivers of Pontocaspian Biodiversity Rise and Demise)we will be documenting the geological context of past diversifications and turnover events. We present examples of rapid turnover (biodiversity crises) in the Quaternary, assess driving forces and draw implications for the nature of the current human-mediated biodiversity crisis in the region.

  13. Induction linac drivers: Prospects for the future

    Keefe, D.

    1988-06-01

    This review is intended to place in perspective our current view of the parameter ranges for induction linac drivers that lead to attractive scenarios for civilian electrical power plants; there is a surprising degree of choice (a factor of two or so in most parameters) before any significant impact on the cost of energy results. The progress and goals of the US Heavy Ion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program are reviewed. The step between the realization of the HIFAR goals and a full-scale driver is seen to be very large indeed and will require one or more significant intermediate steps which can be justified only by a commitment to advance the HIF method towards a true fusion goal. Historical anomalies in the way that fusion programs for both military and civilian applications are administered will need to be resolved; the absence of any presently perceived energy crisis results in little current sense of urgency to develop vigorous long-term energy solutions. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Experiments and prospects for induction linac drivers

    Keefe, D.

    1986-12-01

    In the last three years, the US program in Heavy Ion Fusion has concentrated on understanding the induction linac approach to a power-plant driver. In this method it is important that the beam current be maximized throughout the accelerator. Consequently, it is crucial to understand the space-charge limit in the AG transport system in the linac and, also, to achieve current amplification during acceleration to keep pace with the kinematical increase of this limit with energy. Experimental results on both these matters and also on the use of multiple beams (inside the same accelerating structure) will be described. A new examination of the most attractive properties of the induction linac for a fusion driver has clearly pointed to the advantage of using heavy ions with a charge-state greater than unity - perhaps q = 3 may be an optimum. This development places even greater importance on understanding space-charge limits and mechanisms for emittance growth; also, it will require a new emphasis on the development of a suitable ion source

  15. Cognitive compatibility of motorcyclists and car drivers.

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M

    2011-05-01

    Incompatibility between different types of road user is a problem that previous research has shown to be resistant to a range of interventions. Cars and motorcycles are particularly prone to this. Insight is provided in this paper by a naturalistic method using concurrent verbal protocols and an automatic, highly reliable semantic network creation tool. The method shows how the same road situation is interpreted differently by car drivers and motorcyclists in ways congruent with wider accident rates. Analysis of the structure and content of the semantic networks reveals a greater degree of cognitive compatibility on faster roads such as motorways, but evidence of more critical incompatibilities on country roads and junctions. Both of these road types are implicated in helping to activate cognitive schema which in turn generate stereotypical behaviors unfavourable to the anticipation of motorcyclists by car drivers. The results are discussed in terms of practical measures such as road signs which warn of events behind as well as in front, cross-mode training and the concept of route driveability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Lifestyle and accidents among young drivers.

    Gregersen, N P; Berg, H Y

    1994-06-01

    This study covers the lifestyle component of the problems related to young drivers' accident risk. The purpose of the study is to measure the relationship between lifestyle and accident risk, and to identify specific high-risk and low-risk groups. Lifestyle is measured through a questionnaire, where 20-year-olds describe themselves and how often they deal with a large number of different activities, like sports, music, movies, reading, cars and driving, political engagement, etc. They also report their involvement in traffic accidents. With a principal component analysis followed by a cluster analysis, lifestyle profiles are defined. These profiles are finally correlated to accidents, which makes it possible to define high-risk and low-risk groups. The cluster analysis defined 15 clusters including four high-risk groups with an average overrisk of 150% and two low-risk groups with an average underrisk of 75%. The results are discussed from two perspectives. The first is the importance of theoretical understanding of the contribution of lifestyle factors to young drivers' high accident risk. The second is how the findings could be used in practical road safety measures, like education, campaigns, etc.

  17. Data and methods for studying commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue, highway safety and long-term driver health.

    Stern, Hal S; Blower, Daniel; Cohen, Michael L; Czeisler, Charles A; Dinges, David F; Greenhouse, Joel B; Guo, Feng; Hanowski, Richard J; Hartenbaum, Natalie P; Krueger, Gerald P; Mallis, Melissa M; Pain, Richard F; Rizzo, Matthew; Sinha, Esha; Small, Dylan S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Wegman, David H

    2018-03-09

    This article summarizes the recommendations on data and methodology issues for studying commercial motor vehicle driver fatigue of a National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine study. A framework is provided that identifies the various factors affecting driver fatigue and relating driver fatigue to crash risk and long-term driver health. The relevant factors include characteristics of the driver, vehicle, carrier and environment. Limitations of existing data are considered and potential sources of additional data described. Statistical methods that can be used to improve understanding of the relevant relationships from observational data are also described. The recommendations for enhanced data collection and the use of modern statistical methods for causal inference have the potential to enhance our understanding of the relationship of fatigue to highway safety and to long-term driver health. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Dynamic Characteristics of DC Servo Motor Driven by Conventional Servo Driver: Estimation of Circuit Constants in Conventional Servo Driver

    酒井, 史敏; 神谷, 好承; 関, 啓明; 疋津, 正利

    2000-01-01

    DC servo motors that are made as manufactured goods in the factory are widely used as actuators for driving many automatic machines. Then the manufactured driver (amplifier) that is matched to its servo motor is coveniently chosen to drive when aiming at high performance of the motion control. Motion of motor that is driven by the manufactured servo driver has very complicated dynamic characteristics. In this study, it is tried to make clear about inner composition of the servo driver through...

  19. Bridgeless SEPIC PFC Converter for Multistring LED Driver

    Jha, Aman; Singh, Bhim

    2018-05-01

    This paper deals with Power Factor Correction (PFC) in Low Voltage High Current (LVHC) multi-string light emitting diode (LED) using a bridgeless (BL) single ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC). This application is designed for large area LED lighting with illumination control. A multi-mode LED dimming technique is used for the lighting control. The BL-SEPIC PFC converter is used as a load emulator for high power factor. The regulated low voltage from flyback converter is a source power to the synchronous buck converters for multi-string LED driver and forced cooling system for LED junction. The BL-SEPIC PFC converter inductor design is based on Discontinuous Inductor Current Modes (DICM) which provides good PFC at low cost. Test results are found quite satisfactory for universal input AC (90-265 V). There is significant improvement in the power factor and input current Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) with good margin of harmonic limits for lighting IEC 61000-3-2 Class C.

  20. Plasma universe

    Alfven, H.

    1986-04-01

    Traditionally the views in our cosmic environment have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasma. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If we try to base a model of the universe on the plasma phenomena mentioned we find that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasma. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasma are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model we apply it to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4-5 bilions years ago with an accuracy of better than 1 percent

  1. University's Multi-Scale Initiatives for Redefining City Development

    Ratajczyk, Natalia; Wagner, Iwona; Wolanska-Kaminska, Agnieszka; Jurczak, Tomasz; Zalewski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the varied roles played by the University of Lódz (UL) in maintaining and restoring the natural capital of a city as a driver for sustainable city development. The higher education institution can be perceived as visionary, originator and executor of natural capital projects.…

  2. Geographic Mobility and Social Inequality among Peruvian University Students

    Wells, Ryan; Cuenca, Ricardo; Blanco Ramirez, Gerardo; Aragón, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore geographic mobility among university students in Peru and to understand how mobility patterns differ by region and by demographic indicators of inequality. The ways that students may be able to move geographically in order to access quality higher education within the educational system can be a driver of…

  3. A Political Economy of University Funding: The English Case

    Saunders, Murray

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the coalition United Kingdom government policy on university funding in England as a political economy. It depicts higher education as a public and private good in the context of international trends in "cost sharing" and it addresses the centrality of economic drivers for the profile and orientation of higher…

  4. Baby universes

    Strominger, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses how the subject of baby universes and their effects on spacetime coupling constants is in its infancy and rapidly developing. The subject is based on the non-existent (even by physicists' standards) Euclidean formulation of quantum gravity, and it is therefore necessary to make a number of assumptions in order to proceed. Nevertheless, the picture which has emerged is quite appealing: all spacetime coupling constants become dynamical variables when the effects of baby universes are taken into account. This fact might even solve the puzzle of the cosmological constant. The subject therefore seems worth further investigation

  5. Illinois School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Trainee Guide. Revised.

    Illinois State Board of Education, Springfield.

    This trainee guide contains six units of materials for use by those studying to become school bus drivers in the State of Illinois. Covered in the units are the following topics: school bus driver role and responsibility, passenger control, first aid, driving fundamentals, accidents and emergencies, and detecting hazards. Each unit contains a…

  6. 49 CFR 383.51 - Disqualification of drivers.

    2010-10-01

    ... parking violation) arising in connection with a fatal accident 60 days 60 days 120 days 120 days. (6... less than 120 days No less than 1 year. (4) The driver fails to have sufficient space to drive... driver fails to negotiate a crossing because of insufficient undercarriage clearance * * * No less than...

  7. The role of simulation in the assessment of older drivers.

    Sommer, Sascha; Rothermel, Stefan; Henriksson, Per; de Waard, Dick; Brookhuis, Karel; Sommer, Sascha; Verwey, Willem B.

    2003-01-01

    Within the project AGILE an assessment system for ageing drivers is developed. A multi-tier procedure including simulator-based diagnostic tests is will be created. Objective driver performance measurement, design of risky scenarios to test performance limits and high face validity are benefits of

  8. Analyzing the drivers of green manufacturing with fuzzy approach

    Govindan, Kannan; Diabat, Ali; Madan Shankar, K.

    2015-01-01

    India, and aided by their replies; a pair-wise comparison was made among the drivers. The pair-wise comparison is used as an input data and the drivers were analyzed on its basis. The analysis resorted to the use of a fuzzy Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) approach. The obtained results...

  9. Matching Countermeasures to Driver Types and Speeding Behavior : Traffic Tech

    2017-06-01

    Speeding is a common behavior; most drivers exceed the speed limit some of the time. It is also a complicated behavior that varies by driver and situation. Speeding-related crashes take a large annual toll in injuries, lost lives, and high economic c...

  10. 49 CFR 391.11 - General qualifications of drivers.

    2010-10-01

    ... understand highway traffic signs and signals in the English language, to respond to official inquiries, and... QUALIFICATIONS OF DRIVERS AND LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) DRIVER INSTRUCTORS Qualification and... motor vehicle unless he/she is qualified to drive a commercial motor vehicle. Except as provided in...

  11. 75 FR 47886 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    2010-08-09

    ... greater level of safety is likely to be achieved by permitting each of these drivers to drive in... performance is especially important in evaluating future safety, according to several research studies... the drivers was involved in a crash. All the applicants achieved a record of safety while driving with...

  12. 76 FR 5324 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    2011-01-31

    ... and how frequently the 11th hour is used. It seeks data on how much of the 11th hour is used when a... soliciting information on patterns of work for night drivers: 2a. For drivers who always drive at night, what... Act restrictions which prohibit Agency officials from engaging in policy discussions about open...

  13. Comprehensive Characterization of Cancer Driver Genes and Mutations

    Bailey, Matthew H.; Tokheim, Collin; Porta-Pardo, Eduard; Sengupta, Sohini; Bertrand, Denis; Weerasinghe, Amila; Colaprico, Antonio; Wendl, Michael C.; Kim, Jaegil; Reardon, Brendan; Ng, Patrick Kwok Shing; Jeong, Kang Jin; Cao, Song; Wang, Zixing; Gao, Jianjiong; Gao, Qingsong; Wang, Fang; Liu, Eric Minwei; Mularoni, Loris; Rubio-Perez, Carlota; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Cortés-Ciriano, Isidro; Zhou, Daniel Cui; Liang, Wen Wei; Hess, Julian M.; Yellapantula, Venkata D.; Tamborero, David; Gonzalez-Perez, Abel; Suphavilai, Chayaporn; Ko, Jia Yu; Khurana, Ekta; Park, Peter J.; Van Allen, Eliezer M.; Liang, Han; Caesar-Johnson, Samantha J.; Demchok, John A.; Felau, Ina; Kasapi, Melpomeni; Ferguson, Martin L.; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Cho, Juok; DeFreitas, Timothy; Frazer, Scott; Gehlenborg, Nils; Getz, Gad; Heiman, David I.; Kim, Jaegil; Lawrence, Michael S.; Lin, Pei; Meier, Sam; Noble, Michael S.; Saksena, Gordon; Voet, Doug; Zhang, Hailei; Bernard, Brady; Chambwe, Nyasha; Dhankani, Varsha; Knijnenburg, Theo; Kramer, Roger; Leinonen, Kalle; Liu, Yuexin; Miller, Michael; Reynolds, Sheila; Shmulevich, Ilya; Thorsson, Vesteinn; Zhang, Wei; Akbani, Rehan; Broom, Bradley M.; Hegde, Apurva M.; Ju, Zhenlin; Kanchi, Rupa S.; Korkut, Anil; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Ling, Shiyun; Liu, Wenbin; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Ng, Kwok Shing; Rao, Arvind; Ryan, Michael; Wang, Jing; Weinstein, John N.; Zhang, Jiexin; Abeshouse, Adam; Armenia, Joshua; Chakravarty, Debyani; Chatila, Walid K.; de Bruijn, Ino; Gao, Jianjiong; Gross, Benjamin E.; Heins, Zachary J.; Kundra, Ritika; La, Konnor; Ladanyi, Marc; Luna, Augustin; Nissan, Moriah G.; Ochoa, Angelica; Phillips, Sarah M.; Reznik, Ed; Sanchez-Vega, Francisco; Sander, Chris; Schultz, Nikolaus; Sheridan, Robert; Sumer, S. Onur; Sun, Yichao; Taylor, Barry S.; Wang, Jioajiao; Zhang, Hongxin; Anur, Pavana; Peto, Myron; Spellman, Paul; Benz, Christopher; Stuart, Joshua M.; Wong, Christopher K.; Yau, Christina; Hayes, D. Neil; Parker, Joel S.; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Bowlby, Reanne; Brooks, Denise; Carlsen, Rebecca; Chuah, Eric; Dhalla, Noreen; Holt, Robert; Jones, Steven J.M.; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lee, Darlene; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Moore, Richard A.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Mungall, Karen; Robertson, A. Gordon; Sadeghi, Sara; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Tam, Angela; Thiessen, Nina; Tse, Kane; Wong, Tina; Berger, Ashton C.; Beroukhim, Rameen; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Cibulskis, Carrie; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gao, Galen F.; Ha, Gavin; Meyerson, Matthew; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shih, Juliann; Kucherlapati, Melanie H.; Kucherlapati, Raju S.; Baylin, Stephen; Cope, Leslie; Danilova, Ludmila; Bootwalla, Moiz S.; Lai, Phillip H.; Maglinte, Dennis T.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Auman, J. Todd; Balu, Saianand; Bodenheimer, Tom; Fan, Cheng; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Corbin D.; Meng, Shaowu; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Mose, Lisle E.; Perou, Amy H.; Perou, Charles M.; Roach, Jeffrey; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G.; Tan, Donghui; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Fan, Huihui; Hinoue, Toshinori; Laird, Peter W.; Shen, Hui; Zhou, Wanding; Bellair, Michelle; Chang, Kyle; Covington, Kyle; Creighton, Chad J.; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, Harsha Vardhan; Donehower, Lawrence A.; Drummond, Jennifer; Gibbs, Richard A.; Glenn, Robert; Hale, Walker; Han, Yi; Hu, Jianhong; Korchina, Viktoriya; Lee, Sandra; Lewis, Lora; Li, Wei; Liu, Xiuping; Morgan, Margaret; Morton, Donna; Muzny, Donna; Santibanez, Jireh; Sheth, Margi; Shinbrot, Eve; Wang, Linghua; Wang, Min; Wheeler, David; Xi, Liu; Zhao, Fengmei; Hess, Julian; Appelbaum, Elizabeth L.; Bailey, Matthew; Cordes, Matthew G.; Ding, Li; Fronick, Catrina C.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Fulton, Robert S.; Kandoth, Cyriac; Mardis, Elaine R.; McLellan, Michael D.; Miller, Christopher A.; Schmidt, Heather K.; Wilson, Richard K.; Crain, Daniel; Curley, Erin; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph; Penny, Robert; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Corcoran, Niall; Costello, Tony; Hovens, Christopher; Carvalho, Andre L.; de Carvalho, Ana C.; Fregnani, José H.; Longatto-Filho, Adhemar; Reis, Rui M.; Scapulatempo-Neto, Cristovam; Silveira, Henrique C.S.; Vidal, Daniel O.; Burnette, Andrew; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Hermes, Beth; Noss, Ardene; Singh, Rosy; Anderson, Matthew L.; Castro, Patricia D.; Ittmann, Michael; Huntsman, David; Kohl, Bernard; Le, Xuan; Thorp, Richard; Andry, Chris; Duffy, Elizabeth R.; Lyadov, Vladimir; Paklina, Oxana; Setdikova, Galiya; Shabunin, Alexey; Tavobilov, Mikhail; McPherson, Christopher; Warnick, Ronald; Berkowitz, Ross; Cramer, Daniel; Feltmate, Colleen; Horowitz, Neil; Kibel, Adam; Muto, Michael; Raut, Chandrajit P.; Malykh, Andrei; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Barrett, Wendi; Devine, Karen; Fulop, Jordonna; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Shimmel, Kristen; Wolinsky, Yingli; Sloan, Andrew E.; De Rose, Agostino; Giuliante, Felice; Goodman, Marc; Karlan, Beth Y.; Hagedorn, Curt H.; Eckman, John; Harr, Jodi; Myers, Jerome; Tucker, Kelinda; Zach, Leigh Anne; Deyarmin, Brenda; Hu, Hai; Kvecher, Leonid; Larson, Caroline; Mural, Richard J.; Somiari, Stella; Vicha, Ales; Zelinka, Tomas; Bennett, Joseph; Iacocca, Mary; Rabeno, Brenda; Swanson, Patricia; Latour, Mathieu; Lacombe, Louis; Têtu, Bernard; Bergeron, Alain; McGraw, Mary; Staugaitis, Susan M.; Chabot, John; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Sepulveda, Antonia; Su, Tao; Wang, Timothy; Potapova, Olga; Voronina, Olga; Desjardins, Laurence; Mariani, Odette; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Sastre, Xavier; Stern, Marc Henri; Cheng, Feixiong; Signoretti, Sabina; Berchuck, Andrew; Bigner, Darell; Lipp, Eric; Marks, Jeffrey; McCall, Shannon; McLendon, Roger; Secord, Angeles; Sharp, Alexis; Behera, Madhusmita; Brat, Daniel J.; Chen, Amy; Delman, Keith; Force, Seth; Khuri, Fadlo; Magliocca, Kelly; Maithel, Shishir; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Owonikoko, Taofeek; Pickens, Alan; Ramalingam, Suresh; Shin, Dong M.; Sica, Gabriel; Van Meir, Erwin G.; Zhang, Hongzheng; Eijckenboom, Wil; Gillis, Ad; Korpershoek, Esther; Looijenga, Leendert; Oosterhuis, Wolter; Stoop, Hans; van Kessel, Kim E.; Zwarthoff, Ellen C.; Calatozzolo, Chiara; Cuppini, Lucia; Cuzzubbo, Stefania; DiMeco, Francesco; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Mattei, Luca; Perin, Alessandro; Pollo, Bianca; Chen, Chu; Houck, John; Lohavanichbutr, Pawadee; Hartmann, Arndt; Stoehr, Christine; Stoehr, Robert; Taubert, Helge; Wach, Sven; Wullich, Bernd; Kycler, Witold; Murawa, Dawid; Wiznerowicz, Maciej; Chung, Ki; Edenfield, W. Jeffrey; Martin, Julie; Baudin, Eric; Bubley, Glenn; Bueno, Raphael; De Rienzo, Assunta; Richards, William G.; Kalkanis, Steven; Mikkelsen, Tom; Noushmehr, Houtan; Scarpace, Lisa; Girard, Nicolas; Aymerich, Marta; Campo, Elias; Giné, Eva; Guillermo, Armando López; Van Bang, Nguyen; Hanh, Phan Thi; Phu, Bui Duc; Tang, Yufang; Colman, Howard; Evason, Kimberley; Dottino, Peter R.; Martignetti, John A.; Gabra, Hani; Juhl, Hartmut; Akeredolu, Teniola; Stepa, Serghei; Hoon, Dave; Ahn, Keunsoo; Kang, Koo Jeong; Beuschlein, Felix; Breggia, Anne; Birrer, Michael; Bell, Debra; Borad, Mitesh; Bryce, Alan H.; Castle, Erik; Chandan, Vishal; Cheville, John; Copland, John A.; Farnell, Michael; Flotte, Thomas; Giama, Nasra; Ho, Thai; Kendrick, Michael; Kocher, Jean Pierre; Kopp, Karla; Moser, Catherine; Nagorney, David; O'Brien, Daniel; O'Neill, Brian Patrick; Patel, Tushar; Petersen, Gloria; Que, Florencia; Rivera, Michael; Roberts, Lewis; Smallridge, Robert; Smyrk, Thomas; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R. Houston; Torbenson, Michael; Yang, Ju Dong; Zhang, Lizhi; Brimo, Fadi; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Gonzalez, Ana Maria Angulo; Behrens, Carmen; Bondaruk, Jolanta; Broaddus, Russell; Czerniak, Bogdan; Esmaeli, Bita; Fujimoto, Junya; Gershenwald, Jeffrey; Guo, Charles; Lazar, Alexander J.; Logothetis, Christopher; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Moran, Cesar; Ramondetta, Lois; Rice, David; Sood, Anil; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thompson, Timothy; Troncoso, Patricia; Tsao, Anne; Wistuba, Ignacio; Carter, Candace; Haydu, Lauren; Hersey, Peter; Jakrot, Valerie; Kakavand, Hojabr; Kefford, Richard; Lee, Kenneth; Long, Georgina; Mann, Graham; Quinn, Michael; Saw, Robyn; Scolyer, Richard; Shannon, Kerwin; Spillane, Andrew; Stretch, Jonathan; Synott, Maria; Thompson, John; Wilmott, James; Al-Ahmadie, Hikmat; Chan, Timothy A.; Ghossein, Ronald; Gopalan, Anuradha; Levine, Douglas A.; Reuter, Victor; Singer, Samuel; Singh, Bhuvanesh; Tien, Nguyen Viet; Broudy, Thomas; Mirsaidi, Cyrus; Nair, Praveen; Drwiega, Paul; Miller, Judy; Smith, Jennifer; Zaren, Howard; Park, Joong Won; Hung, Nguyen Phi; Kebebew, Electron; Linehan, W. Marston; Metwalli, Adam R.; Pacak, Karel; Pinto, Peter A.; Schiffman, Mark; Schmidt, Laura S.; Vocke, Cathy D.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Worrell, Robert; Yang, Hannah; Moncrieff, Marc; Goparaju, Chandra; Melamed, Jonathan; Pass, Harvey; Botnariuc, Natalia; Caraman, Irina; Cernat, Mircea; Chemencedji, Inga; Clipca, Adrian; Doruc, Serghei; Gorincioi, Ghenadie; Mura, Sergiu; Pirtac, Maria; Stancul, Irina; Tcaciuc, Diana; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Arnaout, Angel; Bartlett, John; Engel, Jay; Gilbert, Sebastien; Parfitt, Jeremy; Sekhon, Harman; Thomas, George; Rassl, Doris M.; Rintoul, Robert C.; Bifulco, Carlo; Tamakawa, Raina; Urba, Walter; Hayward, Nicholas; Timmers, Henri; Antenucci, Anna; Facciolo, Francesco; Grazi, Gianluca; Marino, Mirella; Merola, Roberta; de Krijger, Ronald; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne Paule; Piché, Alain; Chevalier, Simone; McKercher, Ginette; Birsoy, Kivanc; Barnett, Gene; Brewer, Cathy; Farver, Carol; Naska, Theresa; Pennell, Nathan A.; Raymond, Daniel; Schilero, Cathy; Smolenski, Kathy; Williams, Felicia; Morrison, Carl; Borgia, Jeffrey A.; Liptay, Michael J.; Pool, Mark; Seder, Christopher W.; Junker, Kerstin; Omberg, Larsson; Dinkin, Mikhail; Manikhas, George; Alvaro, Domenico; Bragazzi, Maria Consiglia; Cardinale, Vincenzo; Carpino, Guido; Gaudio, Eugenio; Chesla, David; Cottingham, Sandra; Dubina, Michael; Moiseenko, Fedor; Dhanasekaran, Renumathy; Becker, Karl Friedrich; Janssen, Klaus Peter; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Abdel-Rahman, Mohamed H.; Aziz, Dina; Bell, Sue; Cebulla, Colleen M.; Davis, Amy; Duell, Rebecca; Elder, J. Bradley; Hilty, Joe; Kumar, Bahavna; Lang, James; Lehman, Norman L.; Mandt, Randy; Nguyen, Phuong; Pilarski, Robert; Rai, Karan; Schoenfield, Lynn; Senecal, Kelly; Wakely, Paul; Hansen, Paul; Lechan, Ronald; Powers, James; Tischler, Arthur; Grizzle, William E.; Sexton, Katherine C.; Kastl, Alison; Henderson, Joel; Porten, Sima; Waldmann, Jens; Fassnacht, Martin; Asa, Sylvia L.; Schadendorf, Dirk; Couce, Marta; Graefen, Markus; Huland, Hartwig; Sauter, Guido; Schlomm, Thorsten; Simon, Ronald; Tennstedt, Pierre; Olabode, Oluwole; Nelson, Mark; Bathe, Oliver; Carroll, Peter R.; Chan, June M.; Disaia, Philip; Glenn, Pat; Kelley, Robin K.; Landen, Charles N.; Phillips, Joanna; Prados, Michael; Simko, Jeffry; Smith-McCune, Karen; VandenBerg, Scott; Roggin, Kevin; Fehrenbach, Ashley; Kendler, Ady; Sifri, Suzanne; Steele, Ruth; Jimeno, Antonio; Carey, Francis; Forgie, Ian; Mannelli, Massimo; Carney, Michael; Hernandez, Brenda; Campos, Benito; Herold-Mende, Christel; Jungk, Christin; Unterberg, Andreas; von Deimling, Andreas; Bossler, Aaron; Galbraith, Joseph; Jacobus, Laura; Knudson, Michael; Knutson, Tina; Ma, Deqin; Milhem, Mohammed; Sigmund, Rita; Godwin, Andrew K.; Madan, Rashna; Rosenthal, Howard G.; Adebamowo, Clement; Adebamowo, Sally N.; Boussioutas, Alex; Beer, David; Giordano, Thomas; Mes-Masson, Anne Marie; Saad, Fred; Bocklage, Therese; Landrum, Lisa; Mannel, Robert; Moore, Kathleen; Moxley, Katherine; Postier, Russel; Walker, Joan; Zuna, Rosemary; Feldman, Michael; Valdivieso, Federico; Dhir, Rajiv; Luketich, James; Pinero, Edna M.Mora; Quintero-Aguilo, Mario; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Dos Santos, Jose Sebastião; Kemp, Rafael; Sankarankuty, Ajith; Tirapelli, Daniela; Catto, James; Agnew, Kathy; Swisher, Elizabeth; Creaney, Jenette; Robinson, Bruce; Shelley, Carl Simon; Godwin, Eryn M.; Kendall, Sara; Shipman, Cassaundra; Bradford, Carol; Carey, Thomas; Haddad, Andrea; Moyer, Jeffey; Peterson, Lisa; Prince, Mark; Rozek, Laura; Wolf, Gregory; Bowman, Rayleen; Fong, Kwun M.; Yang, Ian; Korst, Robert; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Fantacone-Campbell, J. Leigh; Hooke, Jeffrey A.; Kovatich, Albert J.; Shriver, Craig D.; DiPersio, John; Drake, Bettina; Govindan, Ramaswamy; Heath, Sharon; Ley, Timothy; Van Tine, Brian; Westervelt, Peter; Rubin, Mark A.; Lee, Jung Il; Aredes, Natália D.; Mariamidze, Armaz; Lawrence, Michael S.; Godzik, Adam; Lopez-Bigas, Nuria; Stuart, Josh; Wheeler, David; Getz, Gad; Chen, Ken; Lazar, Alexander J.; Mills, Gordon B.; Karchin, Rachel; Ding, Li

    2018-01-01

    Identifying molecular cancer drivers is critical for precision oncology. Multiple advanced algorithms to identify drivers now exist, but systematic attempts to combine and optimize them on large datasets are few. We report a PanCancer and PanSoftware analysis spanning 9,423 tumor exomes (comprising

  14. 29 CFR 541.504 - Drivers who sell.

    2010-07-01

    ... DELIMITING THE EXEMPTIONS FOR EXECUTIVE, ADMINISTRATIVE, PROFESSIONAL, COMPUTER AND OUTSIDE SALES EMPLOYEES Outside Sales Employees § 541.504 Drivers who sell. (a) Drivers who deliver products and also sell such products may qualify as exempt outside sales employees only if the employee has a primary duty of making...

  15. Functionally Assessing Candidate Drivers Advances Precision Cancer Medicine.

    Scott, Kenneth L; Powers, Scott

    2016-08-08

    The complexity of genomic alterations in cancer has made it difficult to identify oncogenic drivers for the development of targeted therapies. The study by Berger et al. in this issue of Cancer Cell demonstrates that high-throughput functional profiling can uncover impactful mutations and oncogenic driver alleles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems

    Gietelink, O.J.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents new tools and methods for the design and validation of advanced driver assistance systems (ADASs). ADASs aim to improve driving comfort and traffic safety by assisting the driver in recognizing and reacting to potentially dangerous traffic situations. A major challenge in

  17. Discovery of cancer common and specific driver gene sets

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is known as a disease mainly caused by gene alterations. Discovery of mutated driver pathways or gene sets is becoming an important step to understand molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis. However, systematically investigating commonalities and specificities of driver gene sets among multiple cancer types is still a great challenge, but this investigation will undoubtedly benefit deciphering cancers and will be helpful for personalized therapy and precision medicine in cancer treatment. In this study, we propose two optimization models to de novo discover common driver gene sets among multiple cancer types (ComMDP) and specific driver gene sets of one certain or multiple cancer types to other cancers (SpeMDP), respectively. We first apply ComMDP and SpeMDP to simulated data to validate their efficiency. Then, we further apply these methods to 12 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and obtain several biologically meaningful driver pathways. As examples, we construct a common cancer pathway model for BRCA and OV, infer a complex driver pathway model for BRCA carcinogenesis based on common driver gene sets of BRCA with eight cancer types, and investigate specific driver pathways of the liquid cancer lymphoblastic acute myeloid leukemia (LAML) versus other solid cancer types. In these processes more candidate cancer genes are also found. PMID:28168295

  18. Improvements in Symbol Sign Design To Aid Older Drivers

    1995-08-01

    Studies have shown that older drivers have higher rates of accidents, injuries, and fatalities on a per-mile-driven basis. A major cause of roadway accidents for older drivers is failure to heed traffic signs. Previous research found that older drive...

  19. 78 FR 64267 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2013-10-28

    ...-0184] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs... such an exemption from the diabetes prohibition in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3), which applies to drivers of...

  20. 78 FR 78479 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2013-12-26

    ...-0192] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate... diabetes prohibition in 49 CFR 391.41(b)(3), which applies to drivers of CMVs in interstate commerce...

  1. Guiding Teen Drivers (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    Motor-vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among teens. Parents have a big influence on young drivers and can help them reduce their risk for being involved in a crash. In this podcast, Amy Jewett discusses what parents can do to help keep young drivers safer on the road.

  2. Priming Drivers before Handover in Semi-Autonomous Cars

    van der Heiden, R.M.A.; Iqbal, Shamsi T.; Janssen, C.P.

    2017-01-01

    Semi-autonomous vehicles occasionally require control to be handed over to the driver in situations where the vehicle is unable to operate safely. Currently, such handover requests require the driver to take control almost instantaneously. We investigate how auditory pre-alerts that occur well

  3. Improved power quality based high brightness LED lamp driver

    user

    consists of a PFC Cuk DC-DC converter which operates in continuous conduction mode (CCM) to improve the ... In proposed LED driver as shown in Figure 1, a Cuk buck boost AC-DC converter ... Design and Analysis of Proposed LED Driver.

  4. Observed and projected drivers of emerging infectious diseases in Europe.

    Semenza, Jan C; Rocklöv, Joacim; Penttinen, Pasi; Lindgren, Elisabet

    2016-10-01

    Emerging infectious diseases are of international concern because of the potential for, and impact of, pandemics; however, they are difficult to predict. To identify the drivers of disease emergence, we analyzed infectious disease threat events (IDTEs) detected through epidemic intelligence collected at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) between 2008 and 2013, and compared the observed results with a 2008 ECDC foresight study of projected drivers of future IDTEs in Europe. Among 10 categories of IDTEs, foodborne and waterborne IDTEs were the most common, vaccine-preventable IDTEs caused the highest number of cases, and airborne IDTEs caused the most deaths. Observed drivers for each IDTE were sorted into three main groups: globalization and environmental drivers contributed to 61% of all IDTEs, public health system drivers contributed to 21%, and social and demographic drivers to 18%. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that four of the top five drivers for observed IDTEs were in the globalization and environment group. In the observational study, the globalization and environment group was related to all IDTE categories, but only to five of eight categories in the foresight study. Directly targeting these drivers with public health interventions may diminish the chances of IDTE occurrence from the outset. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. The definition of and drivers of new product performance

    Jespersen, Kristina Risom; Juhl, Hans Jørn

    In the last three decades academic research on new product development has tried to identify the drivers of new product development performance. This body of research is characterised by a vast amount of different definitions of both the drivers of new product performance and the performance...

  6. Lane-changing model with dynamic consideration of driver's propensity

    Wang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Jianqiang; Zhang, Jinglei; Ban, Xuegang Jeff

    2015-07-01

    Lane-changing is the driver's selection result of the satisfaction degree in different lane driving conditions. There are many different factors influencing lane-changing behavior, such as diversity, randomicity and difficulty of measurement. So it is hard to accurately reflect the uncertainty of drivers' lane-changing behavior. As a result, the research of lane-changing models is behind that of car-following models. Driver's propensity is her/his emotion state or the corresponding preference of a decision or action toward the real objective traffic situations under the influence of various dynamic factors. It represents the psychological characteristics of the driver in the process of vehicle operation and movement. It is an important factor to influence lane-changing. In this paper, dynamic recognition of driver's propensity is considered during simulation based on its time-varying discipline and the analysis of the driver's psycho-physic characteristics. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is used to quantify the hierarchy of driver's dynamic lane-changing decision-making process, especially the influence of the propensity. The model is validated using real data. Test results show that the developed lane-changing model with the dynamic consideration of a driver's time-varying propensity and the AHP method are feasible and with improved accuracy.

  7. Truck Drivers' Use of the Internet: A Mobile Health Lifeline.

    Heaton, Karen; Combs, Bryan; Griffin, Russell

    2017-06-01

    Because of their social isolation, irregular and unpredictable schedules, limited access to health care, and long periods of travel, long-haul truckers may benefit from the use of mobile health applications on Internet-capable devices. The purpose of this study was to determine Internet access and usage among a sample of long-haul truck drivers. In this cross-sectional study, truck drivers completed a pencil and paper survey with questions on demographics, work and health histories, and Internet access and usage for both personal and job reasons. A total of 106 truck drivers were recruited from trucking industry trade shows, by word of mouth, and directly from trucking companies. Overall, the truck drivers' use of the Internet was limited. Their usage for personal and job-related reasons differed. Social connectivity and access to health and wellness information were important during personal usage time. Job-related Internet use was highly practical, and applied to seeking information for directions and maps, fuel stops and pricing, and communicating with employers or transmitting documents. Age and experience were associated with Internet use. Younger, less-experienced drivers used the Internet more than older, experienced drivers. Targeted mobile health messaging may be a useful tool to inform truck drivers of health conditions and plans, and may provide links to primary care providers needing to monitor or notify drivers of diagnostic results or treatment plans.

  8. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Commercial Drivers in Dar es ...

    Purpose: The objective of this study was, first, to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of commercial drivers in Dar es Salaam with regard to medicines that impair driving, and second, to evaluate the adequacy of antihistamine label information. Methods: Drivers were interviewed using a questionnaire after obtaining ...

  9. Alpena Community College Commercial Driver's License Program. Evaluation Summary.

    Alpena Community Coll., MI.

    The Alpena Community College (ACC) Drivers Education Program was developed to deliver a basic skills program providing specific job-related basic skills instruction to approximately 300 workers throughout Michigan who desired to pass the Commercial Drivers License (CDL) examination. Other program goals were to establish greater partnerships…

  10. Intersection assistance : A safe solution for older drivers?

    Dotzauer, Mandy; Caljouw, Simone R.; de Waard, Dick; Brouwer, Wiebo H.

    2013-01-01

    Within the next few decades, the number of older drivers operating a vehicle will increase rapidly (Eurostat, 2011). As age increases so does physical vulnerability, age-related impairments, and the risk of being involved in a fatal crashes. Older drivers experience problems in driving situations

  11. 32 CFR 634.10 - Remedial driver training programs.

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Remedial driver training programs. 634.10 Section 634.10 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.10 Remedial driver training programs. (a) Navy...

  12. Factors associated with suicide ideation among subway drivers in Korea.

    Byun, Junsu; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Lee, Hye-Eun; Kim, Se-Eun; Lee, Jongin

    2016-01-01

    There were several suicide events of subway drivers in Korea. The aim of this study is to explore work-related factors associated with suicide ideation among subway drivers. We analyzed data from 980 male subway drivers. A section of the Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (K-CIDI 2.1) was administered by trained interviewers to judge whether a driver has suicide ideation and to diagnose psychiatric disorders. A questionnaire was also administered to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, work environments, occupational stress, person under train (PUT) experience, and work-related problems. Occupational stress was examined by using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS). Logistic regression was applied to evaluate the association between work-related factors and suicide ideation among subway drivers. Regarding work-related problems, conflict with passengers and sudden stops due to the emergency bell were significantly associated with suicide ideation. MDD, PTSD, and panic disorder were strongly associated with suicide ideation. In the analysis of occupational stress, insufficient job control (OR 2.34) and lack of reward (OR 2.52) were associated with suicide ideation even after being adjusted for psychiatric disorders and other work-related factors. Insufficient job control and lack of reward were associated with suicide ideation among subway drivers. Strategies for drivers to have autonomy while working and to achieve effort-reward balance should be implemented. Furthermore, drivers who have experienced negative work-related problems should be managed appropriately.

  13. Older drivers and ADAS : which systems improve road safety?

    Davidse, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the coming decades, the number of older drivers that experiences difficulties in traffic as a result of functional limitations will strongly increase. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) could resolve some of these difficulties, by providing personal assistance in a road environment that

  14. Highly automated driving, secondary task performance, and driver state.

    Merat, Natasha; Jamson, A Hamish; Lai, Frank C H; Carsten, Oliver

    2012-10-01

    A driving simulator study compared the effect of changes in workload on performance in manual and highly automated driving. Changes in driver state were also observed by examining variations in blink patterns. With the addition of a greater number of advanced driver assistance systems in vehicles, the driver's role is likely to alter in the future from an operator in manual driving to a supervisor of highly automated cars. Understanding the implications of such advancements on drivers and road safety is important. A total of 50 participants were recruited for this study and drove the simulator in both manual and highly automated mode. As well as comparing the effect of adjustments in driving-related workload on performance, the effect of a secondary Twenty Questions Task was also investigated. In the absence of the secondary task, drivers' response to critical incidents was similar in manual and highly automated driving conditions. The worst performance was observed when drivers were required to regain control of driving in the automated mode while distracted by the secondary task. Blink frequency patterns were more consistent for manual than automated driving but were generally suppressed during conditions of high workload. Highly automated driving did not have a deleterious effect on driver performance, when attention was not diverted to the distracting secondary task. As the number of systems implemented in cars increases, an understanding of the implications of such automation on drivers' situation awareness, workload, and ability to remain engaged with the driving task is important.

  15. 78 FR 50486 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2013-08-19

    ...-0182] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  16. 76 FR 79756 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2011-12-22

    ...-0326] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...).\\1\\ The revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be...

  17. 77 FR 48587 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2012-08-14

    ...-0217] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the...

  18. 77 FR 59447 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2012-09-27

    ...-0281] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria described in section 4018 of the...

  19. 78 FR 50482 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2013-08-19

    ...-0183] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  20. 77 FR 18302 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2012-03-27

    ...-0043] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with the criteria...

  1. 77 FR 17111 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2012-03-23

    ...-0042] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM... revision must provide for individual assessment of drivers with diabetes mellitus, and be consistent with...

  2. China-US-Japan workshop on laser plasma and drivers

    1994-01-01

    Organized by China Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics (IMPCM) and other 5 organizations, China-US-Japan Workshop on Laser Plasma and Drivers, LPD'94, was held on October 17-21, 1994 at Fragrant Hill Hotel, Beijing, China. Main topics includes: target and plasma physics, ICF Experiments, ICF drivers, etc.. More than 50 pieces of papers are included in the proceedings

  3. 78 FR 29431 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    2013-05-20

    ..., driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than exists... qualification file if he/she is self-employed. The driver must have a copy of the certification when driving... your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or print the...

  4. 78 FR 37274 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    2013-06-20

    ..., driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than exists... qualification file if he/she is self-employed. The driver must have a copy of the certification when driving... that we received your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or print...

  5. 78 FR 34141 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    2013-06-06

    .... Moreover, driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than... qualification file if he/she is self-employed. The driver must have a copy of the certification when driving... your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or print the...

  6. 77 FR 31427 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    2012-05-25

    .... Moreover, driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than... qualification file if he/she is self-employed. The driver must have a copy of the certification when driving... that we received your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or print...

  7. 78 FR 41188 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    2013-07-09

    ..., driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than exists... qualification file if he/she is self-employed. The driver must have a copy of the certification when driving... your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or print the...

  8. 77 FR 71669 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    2012-12-03

    .... Moreover, driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than... qualification file if he/she is self-employed. The driver must have a copy of the certification when driving... that we received your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or print...

  9. 77 FR 44708 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    2012-07-30

    .... Moreover, driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than... qualification file if he/she is self-employed. The driver must have a copy of the certification when driving... that we received your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or print...

  10. 78 FR 56986 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    2013-09-16

    .... Moreover, driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than... qualification file if he/she is self-employed. The driver must have a copy of the certification when driving... that we received your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or print...

  11. 77 FR 10608 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    2012-02-22

    .... Moreover, driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than... qualification file if he/she is self-employed. The driver must have a copy of the certification when driving... you want acknowledgement that we received your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped...

  12. 77 FR 33558 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Vision

    2012-06-06

    ..., driving in congested urban areas exposes the driver to more pedestrian and vehicular traffic than exists... qualification file if he/she is self-employed. The driver must have a copy of the certification when driving... that we received your comments, please include a self-addressed, stamped envelope or postcard or print...

  13. TRENDS AND ISSUES IN SAFE DRIVER ASSISTANCE SYSTEMS

    Sadayuki TSUGAWA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, ITS projects in Japan, Europe and the US have been characterized by a strong emphasis on safe driver assistance systems designed to prevent traffic accidents. As it has become clear that eradicating accidents will be impossible by means of vehicle passive safety and single-vehicle active safety efforts alone, research and development of systems for preventing accidents through road-vehicle cooperation and vehicle-vehicle cooperation have been promoted in Japan (ASV, AHS, Europe (PReVENT, SAFESPOT and the US (VII. The key to such technology is road-to-vehicle communications and inter-vehicle communications. On the other hand, a number of driver assistance systems have been brought to market, including lidar-based forward collision warnings, ACC, lane keeping support and drowsiness warnings, but their penetration rates in Japan are extremely low. Furthermore, one major challenge is that safe driver assistance systems based on road-vehicle and vehicle-vehicle cooperation are premised upon a high penetration rate. Finally, we introduce a system for improving driver acceptance of safe driver assistance systems based on driver monitoring and forward monitoring as well as cooperative driver assistance systems for elderly drivers, an issue now receiving attention in Japan.

  14. Drinking driver and traffic safety project. Volume 1

    1972-05-01

    This is the final report of a four-year study of drinking drivers. On the basis of analyses of over 4,000 cases (approximately 1400 of whom were driver's license applicants who had no convictions for drunk-driving, and the remainder had been convicte...

  15. Defensive Tips in the War against Drunk Drivers.

    Penkivich, Robert R.

    The purpose of this book, written by a retired law enforcement officer, is to educate the public about drunk drivers, drinking drivers, and high-speed driving, in an effort to prevent injury, death, and suffering. It is intended to be an instructional manual and a practical, common-sense survival guide for the average individual. National…

  16. Teen driver support system (TDSS) field operational test : final report.

    2015-11-01

    Although teen drivers make up a small percentage of the U.S. driving population, they are at an especially high risk : of being involved in a crash. Factors that contribute to teen drivers risk include their lack of experience and their : tendency...

  17. An examination of the environmental, driver and vehicle factors associated with the serious and fatal crashes of older rural drivers.

    Thompson, J P; Baldock, M R J; Mathias, J L; Wundersitz, L N

    2013-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes involving rural drivers aged 75 years and over are more than twice as likely to result in a serious or fatal injury as those involving their urban counterparts. The current study examined some of the reasons for this using a database of police-reported crashes (2004-2008) to identify the environmental (lighting, road and weather conditions, road layout, road surface, speed limit), driver (driver error, crash type), and vehicle (vehicle age) factors that are associated with the crashes of older rural drivers. It also determined whether these same factors are associated with an increased likelihood of serious or fatal injury in younger drivers for whom frailty does not contribute to the resulting injury severity. A number of environmental (i.e., undivided, unsealed, curved and inclined roads, and areas with a speed limit of 100km/h or greater) and driver (i.e., collision with a fixed object and rolling over) factors were more frequent in the crashes of older rural drivers and additionally associated with increased injury severity in younger drivers. Moreover, when these environmental factors were entered into a logistic regression model to predict whether older drivers who were involved in crashes did or did not sustain a serious or fatal injury, it was found that each factor independently increased the likelihood of a serious or fatal injury. Changes, such as the provision of divided and sealed roads, greater protection from fixed roadside objects, and reduced speed limits, appear to be indicated in order to improve the safety of the rural driving environment for drivers of all ages. Additionally, older rural drivers should be encouraged to reduce their exposure to these risky circumstances. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The drivers of the nuclear renaissance

    Dias, Marcio Soares; Mattos, Joao Roberto Loureiro de

    2008-01-01

    The renaissance of the nuclear option for generating electric energy is stimulated by its economic competitiveness and its social and environmental benefits. Presently, nuclear energy is a key component to the rapid expansion of world electricity consumption. Drivers of the nuclear renaissance are: the growth of public acceptance as result of the historic demonstration of safety; the economic competitiveness in the costs of generation; the incorporation of innovations and technological advances with impacts on main barriers like the reducing of the capital investments and technological solutions for destination of the radioactive wastes. The nuclear retaken already affects the international Uranium market with records of negotiated volumes and a rise of prices. Brazil as detainer of some of the biggest reserves of Uranium in the world has much to profit with this retaken. (author)

  19. Conceptualizing distal drivers in land use competition

    Niewhöner, Jörg; Nielsen, Jonas Ø; Gasparri, Gasparri

    2016-01-01

    This introductory chapter explores the notion of ‘distal drivers’ in land use competition. Research has moved beyond proximate causes of land cover and land use change to focus on the underlying drivers of these dynamics. We discuss the framework of telecoupling within human–environment systems...... as a first step to come to terms with the increasingly distal nature of driving forces behind land use practices. We then expand the notion of distal as mainly a measure of Euclidian space to include temporal, social, and institutional dimensions. This understanding of distal widens our analytical scope...... for the analysis of land use competition as a distributed process to consider the role of knowledge and power, technology, and different temporalities within a relational or systemic analysis of practices of land use competition. We conclude by pointing toward the historical and social contingency of land use...

  20. Laser drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    Holzrichter, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is the technology that we are developing to access the vast stored energy potential of deuterium fuel located in the world's water supply. This form of fusion is accomplished by compressing and heating small volumes of D-T fuel to very high temperatures (greater than 100M 0 C) and to very high densities (greater than 1000 times the normal liquid density). Under these fuel conditions, a thermonuclear reaction can occur, leading to a net energy release compared to the energy used to heat the fuel initially. To accomplish the condition where fusion reactions begin, effective drivers are required. These are lasers or particle beam accelerators which can provide greater than 10 14 W/cm 2 over millimeter scale targets with an appropriately programmed intensity vs time. At present, we are using research lasers to obtain an understanding of the physics and engineering of fuel compression

  1. Tunable driver for the LLNL FEL experiment

    Guss, W.C.; Basten, M.A.; Kreischer, K.E.; Temkin, R.J.

    1991-07-01

    This report describes main activities undertaken during the period 1 June 1990 to 1 June 1991 by MIT to support the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory tunable FEL driver project. The goal of this research was to further characterize a tunable microwave source (already identified as a BWO-gyrotron) of moderate output power (10--20 kW). In the 1989 fiscal year, the source was assembled at MIT and initial tests were conducted. Proposed for the fiscal year 1990 were analysis of the previous experimental results, and the performance of new experiments designed to increase the voltage tuning range, the output efficiency, and magnetic field tuning. During the report period the previous experimental results were analyzed and compared to computational results and new components were designed, to make the BWO ready for further experiments. In addition, the BWO-gyrotron was mounted in a new superconducting magnet and initial magnetic field profile measurements were made

  2. Drivers for An International Biofuels Market

    Slingerland, S.; Van Geuns, L.

    2005-12-01

    This paper explores geopolitical and economic drivers for an international biofuels market. It is concluded that the biofuels market so far is primarily regionally oriented and policy driven. However, as demand is expected to increase in the years to come and demand and production do not coincide geographically, an international market is soon expected to arise. How quickly this market will develop is determined by several geopolitical and economic factors. Important geopolitical factors are in particular security of supply and risk abatement considerations, the contents of future emission reduction agreements, and the interaction with in new parties and policies such as those in the agricultural sector. Key economic factors are the prices of primary biomass and petroleum, as well as technological development influencing the price of conversion of biomass to end-use applications. International certification is likely to play a key role in determining whether or not this market will develop in an ecologically sound way.

  3. The CMS Tracker Readout Front End Driver

    Foudas, C.; Ballard, D.; Church, I.; Corrin, E.; Coughlan, J.A.; Day, C.P.; Freeman, E.J.; Fulcher, J.; Gannon, W.J.F.; Hall, G.; Halsall, R.N.J.; Iles, G.; Jones, J.; Leaver, J.; Noy, M.; Pearson, M.; Raymond, M.; Reid, I.; Rogers, G.; Salisbury, J.; Taghavi, S.; Tomalin, I.R.; Zorba, O.

    2004-01-01

    The Front End Driver, FED, is a 9U 400mm VME64x card designed for reading out the Compact Muon Solenoid, CMS, silicon tracker signals transmitted by the APV25 analogue pipeline Application Specific Integrated Circuits. The FED receives the signals via 96 optical fibers at a total input rate of 3.4 GB/sec. The signals are digitized and processed by applying algorithms for pedestal and common mode noise subtraction. Algorithms that search for clusters of hits are used to further reduce the input rate. Only the cluster data along with trigger information of the event are transmitted to the CMS data acquisition system using the S-LINK64 protocol at a maximum rate of 400 MB/sec. All data processing algorithms on the FED are executed in large on-board Field Programmable Gate Arrays. Results on the design, performance, testing and quality control of the FED are presented and discussed.

  4. Active gated imaging in driver assistance system

    Grauer, Yoav

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we shall present the active gated imaging system (AGIS) in relation to the automotive field. AGIS is based on a fast-gated camera and pulsed illuminator, synchronized in the time domain to record images of a certain range of interest. A dedicated gated CMOS imager sensor and near infra-red (NIR) pulsed laser illuminator, is presented in this paper to provide active gated technology. In recent years, we have developed these key components and learned the system parameters, which are most beneficial to nighttime (in all weather conditions) driving in terms of field of view, illumination profile, resolution, and processing power. We shall present our approach of a camera-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) named BrightEye™, which makes use of the AGIS technology in the automotive field.

  5. FRIB driver linac vacuum model and benchmarks

    Durickovic, Bojan; Kersevan, Roberto; Machicoane, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a superconducting heavy-ion linear accelerator that is to produce rare isotopes far from stability for low energy nuclear science. In order to achieve this, its driver linac needs to achieve a very high beam current (up to 400 kW beam power), and this requirement makes vacuum levels of critical importance. Vacuum calculations have been carried out to verify that the vacuum system design meets the requirements. The modeling procedure was benchmarked by comparing models of an existing facility against measurements. In this paper, we present an overview of the methods used for FRIB vacuum calculations and simulation results for some interesting sections of the accelerator. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cyclotrons as Drivers for Precision Neutrino Measurements

    Alonso, J.; Barletta, W. A.; Winslow, L. A.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spitz, J.; Conrad, J. M.; Toups, M.; Adelmann, A.

    2014-01-01

    As we enter the age of precision measurement in neutrino physics, improved flux sources are required. These must have a well defined flavor content with energies in ranges where backgrounds are low and cross-section knowledge is high. Very few sources of neutrinos can meet these requirements. However, pion/muon and isotope decay-at-rest sources qualify. The ideal drivers for decay-at-rest sources are cyclotron accelerators, which are compact and relatively inexpensive. This paper describes a scheme to produce decay-at-rest sources driven by such cyclotrons, developed within the DAEδALUS program. Examples of the value of the high precision beams for pursuing Beyond Standard Model interactions are reviewed. New results on a combined DAEδALUS—Hyper-K search for CP violation that achieve errors on the mixing matrix parameter of 4° to 12° are presented

  7. Driver assistance systems - road to success for platooning; Fahrerassistenzsysteme - Wegbereiter fuer Lkw-Konvois

    Happe, J.; Preuschoff, E. [Zentrum fuer Lern- und Wissensmanagement und Lehrstuhl Informatik im Maschinenbau der RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Resulting from the continuous increase of freight transport and the limitation of the capacity for road-transport, there is a need of optimising road traffic flow and of improving the utilisation of the given infrastructure. The objective is making the whole traffic system safer, more efficient and environmentally friendly. A potential concept is the realisation of truck platoons on highways by using advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS). The electronic coupling of the trucks in short distance minimises the work-load of the truck drivers and results in a safety benefit. Furthermore the short distances lead to a positive effect on road capacity and a reduction of the fuel consumption of the following vehicles because of lee-driving. Within a project ''Preparing action for the realisation of advanced driver assistant system in freight transport'' a group of scientists of the Aachen University worked on requirements for the medium-term realisation of automatic truck platoons on highways. (orig.)

  8. International trends in alcohol and drug use among vehicle drivers.

    Christophersen, A S; Mørland, J; Stewart, K; Gjerde, H

    2016-01-01

    Trends in the use of alcohol and drugs among motor vehicle drivers in Australia, Brazil, Norway, Spain, and the United States have been reviewed. Laws, regulations, enforcement, and studies on alcohol and drugs in biological samples from motor vehicle drivers in general road traffic and fatal road traffic crashes (RTCs) are discussed. Roadside surveys showed a reduction of drunk driving over time in the studied countries; however, the pattern varied within and between different countries. The reduction of alcohol use may be related to changes in road traffic laws, public information campaigns, and enforcement, including implementation of random breath testing or sobriety checkpoints. For non-alcohol drugs, the trend in general road traffic is an increase in use. However, drugs were not included in older studies; it is therefore impossible to assess the trends over longer time periods. Data from the studied countries, except Brazil, have shown a significant decrease in fatal RTCs per 100,000 inhabitants over the last decades; from 18.6 to 4.9 in Australia, 14.5 to 2.9 in Norway, 11.1 to 3.6 in Spain, and 19.3 to 10.3 in the United States. The number of alcohol-related fatal RTCs also decreased during the same time period. The proportion of fatal RTCs related to non-alcohol drugs increased, particularly for cannabis and stimulants. A general challenge when comparing alcohol and drug findings in biological samples from several countries is connected to differences in study design, particularly the time period for performing roadside surveys, biological matrix types, drugs included in the analytical program, and the cutoff limits used for evaluation of results. For RTC fatalities, the cases included are based on the police requests for legal autopsy or drug testing, which may introduce a significant selection bias. General comparisons between high-income countries and low- and middle-income countries as well as a discussion of possible future trends are included

  9. Power Plant Retirements: Trends and Possible Drivers

    Mills, Andrew D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-29

    This paper synthesizes available data on historical and planned power plant retirements. Specifically, we present data on historical generation capacity additions and retirements over time, and the types of plants recently retired and planned for retirement. We then present data on the age of plants that have recently retired or that have plans to retire. We also review the characteristics of plants that recently retired or plan to retire vs. those that continue to operate, focusing on plant size, age, heat rate, and SO2 emissions. Finally, we show the level of recent thermal plant retirements on a regional basis and correlate those data with a subset of possible factors that may be contributing to retirement decisions. This basic data synthesis cannot be used to precisely estimate the relative magnitude of retirement drivers. Nor do we explore every possible driver for retirement decisions. Moreover, future retirement decisions may be influenced by different factors than those that have affected past decisions. Nonetheless, it is clear that recently retired plants are relatively old, and that plants with stated planned retirement dates are—on average—no younger. We observe that retired plants are smaller, older, less efficient, and more polluting than operating plants. Based on simple correlation graphics, the strongest predictors of regional retirement differences appear to include SO2 emissions rates (for coal), planning reserve margins (for all thermal units), variations in load growth or contraction (for all thermal units), and the age of older thermal plans (for all thermal units). Additional apparent predictors of regional retirements include the ratio of coal to gas prices and delivered natural gas prices. Other factors appear to have played lesser roles, including the penetration variable renewable energy (VRE), recent non-VRE capacity additions, and whether the region hosts an ISO/RTO.

  10. Study of human interface for narrow road drive assist system considered characteristic of driver; Driver no tokusei wo koryoshita kyoro soko shien system no human interface no kenkyu

    Ikeda, A [Subaru Research Center Co., Tokyo (Japan); Amada, N; Kawashima, H [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The measurement of driver`s watching point, driving time on narrow road and the evaluation of stress etc. were conducted in order to construct the narrow road drive assist system using the stereo image recognition system. Consequently, the driver`s thinking process, stress factor and the indispensable information for this system were clarified. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Knowledge Management in Nigerian Universities: A Conceptual Model

    Adebowale I Ojo

    2016-01-01

    Universities have traditionally been leaders in the field of knowledge production, research, and societal development. They are expected to be drivers of innovation, thereby contributing to the development of a learning society. The array of challenges facing universities in Nigeria and other developing countries forces one to question their levels of innovation. While knowledge management has been identified as a strategy for driving innovative processes in business organizations, there is a...

  12. Stiegler's University

    Featherstone, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Mark Featherstone proposes to explore Bernard Stiegler's work through the lens of the politics of education and in particular the idea of the university, which becomes a pharmacological space of, on the one hand, utopian possibility, and, on the other hand, dystopian limitation, destruction, and death in his recent "States of…

  13. Research on Taxi Driver Strategy Game Evolution with Carpooling Detour

    Wei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the problem of taxi carpooling detour, this paper studies driver strategy choice with carpooling detour. The model of taxi driver strategy evolution with carpooling detour is built based on prospect theory and evolution game theory. Driver stable strategies are analyzed under the conditions of complaint mechanism and absence of mechanism, respectively. The results show that passenger’s complaint mechanism can effectively decrease the phenomenon of driver refusing passengers with carpooling detour. When probability of passenger complaint reaches a certain level, the stable strategy of driver is to take carpooling detour passengers. Meanwhile, limiting detour distance and easing traffic congestion can decrease the possibility of refusing passengers. These conclusions have a certain guiding significance to formulating taxi policy.

  14. A programmable CCD driver circuit for multiphase CCD operation

    Ewin, A.J.; Reed, K.V.

    1989-01-01

    A programmable CCD driver circuit was designed to drive CCD's in multiphased modes. The purpose of the drive electronics was to operate developmental CCD imaging arrays for NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer - Tiltable (MODIS-T). Five prototype arrays were designed. Valid's Graphics Editor (GED) was used to design the driver. With this driver design, any of the five arrays can be readout. Designing the driver with GED allowed functional simulation, timing verification, and certain packaging analyses to be done on the design before fabrication. The driver verified its function with the master clock running up to 10 MHz. This suggests a maximum rate of 400 Kpixels/sec. Timing and packaging parameters were verified. the design uses 54 TTL component chips

  15. Understanding Factors of Distraction among Intrastate Bus Driver

    Yunos Muhammad Nur Annuar Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in number of the world population have affected the demand for public transport especially in larger cities. Intrastate buses are chosen as the main public transport by many people due to its affordable fares. Therefore, a better performance of the intrastate bus drivers would be significant to cater the high demand. Nevertheless, distraction among the intrastate bus drivers have been found as one of the major factors that could affect the performance of the drivers. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide a better understanding on the factors of distraction among intrastate bus drivers. This paper refers to findings from previous researches which are related to this field of study. In conclusion, this paper will provide a list of factors of distraction among the intrastate bus drivers which may degrade their performance.

  16. Free Electron Laser as Energy Driver for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Saldin, E.L.; Shnejdmiller, E.A.; Ul'yanov, Yu.N.; Sarantsev, V.P.; Yurkov, M.V.

    1994-01-01

    A FEL based energy driver for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is proposed. The key element of the scheme is free electron laser system. Novel technical solutions reveal a possibility to construct the FEL system operating at radiation wavelength λ = 0.5 μm and providing flash energy E = 1 MJ and brightness 4 x 10 22 W cm -2 sr -1 within steering pulse duration 0.1-2 ns. Total energy efficiency of the proposed ICF energy driver is about of 11% and repetition rate is 40 Hz. Dimensions of such an ICF driver are comparable with those of heavy-ion ICF driver, while the problem of technical realization seems to be more realistic. It is shown that the FEL based ICF energy driver may be constructed at the present level of accelerator technique R and D. 27 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Obstacles to engaging in young driver licensing: Perspectives of parents.

    Naz, Sehana; Scott-Parker, Bridie

    2017-02-01

    Young novice drivers remain at greater risk of injury and death despite a wealth of interventions including graduated driver licensing (GDL) programs. The key to implementing safer practices inherent in GDL appears to lie with optimising the role of parents. This qualitative research explored the parent's perspectives of obstacles to engaging in the driver licensing process within a GDL program. Parents also shared advice on what they found helpful, and where relevant, recommended changes in the process to enable safer practices for young drivers. Twenty-three parents (aged 35-60 years, M=49.52, SD=8.01, 11 males) participated in semi-structured interviews regarding licensing experiences with their young driver children. The young drivers included learner (n=11), provisional (restricted/intermediate) (n=9) and open (unrestricted/full) licence drivers (n=3), ranging from 16 to 24 years (M=18.04, SD=2.21, 13 males). Content analysis revealed that most obstacles were encountered at the learner licensing phase, with the parent-reported difficult temperament of the learner driver the most prominent. Unsurprisingly, advice to other parents to be patient and remain calm featured heavily during the same phase. Anxiety from not having control of the vehicle was another obstacle at the learner phase, translating to anxieties for child safety in the early stages of provisional driving. Recommendations for the current GDL included more rigorous road rule testing, with general support for the program, professional driver training at learner and provisional stages facilitated parental engagement through the licensing phases. The findings overwhelmingly suggest a need for parents to be educated regarding their importance in, and of, the driver licensing process, and the efficacy of their instruction, content and practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Observational Study of Cell Phone and Texting Use Among California Drivers 2012 and Comparison to 2011 Data

    Cooper, Jill F; Ragland, David R; Ewald, Katrin; Wasserman, Lisa; Murphy, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    This methodological report describes survey research and data collection methods employed for the second Observational Survey of Cell Phone and Texting Use among California Drivers study conducted in 2012. This study was conducted by Ewald & Wasserman Research Consultants (E&W) on behalf of the California Office of Traffic Safety and the Safe Transportation Research and Education Center at University of California at Berkeley. The survey’s goal was to obtain a statewide statistically repres...

  19. Opportunities for career advancement found to be very important to truckload drivers

    1993-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine what contributes and detracts from job satisfaction for drivers as a means of addressing the driver turnover/retention issue. One factor is that drivers' perception : of the opportunities for advancement within t...

  20. Continuous traffic flow modeling of driver support systems in multiclass traffic with intervehicle communication and drivers in the loop

    Tampere, C.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.; van Arem, Bart

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a continuous traffic-flow model for the explorative analysis of advanced driver-assistance systems (ADASs). Such systems use technology (sensors and intervehicle communication) to support the task of the driver, who retains full control over the vehicle. Based on a review of

  1. Inferring Passenger Denial Behavior of Taxi Drivers from Large-Scale Taxi Traces.

    Sihai Zhang

    Full Text Available How to understand individual human actions is a fundamental question to modern science, which drives and incurs many social, technological, racial, religious and economic phenomena. Human dynamics tries to reveal the temporal pattern and internal mechanism of human actions in letter or electronic communications, from the perspective of continuous interactions among friends or acquaintances. For interactions between stranger to stranger, taxi industry provide fruitful phenomina and evidence to investigate the action decisions. In fact, one striking disturbing events commonly reported in taxi industry is passenger refusing or denial, whose reasons vary, including skin color, blind passenger, being a foreigner or too close destination, religion reasons and anti specific nationality, so that complaints about taxi passenger refusing have to be concerned and processed carefully by local governments. But more universal factors for this phenomena are of great significance, which might be fulfilled by big data research to obtain novel insights in this question. In this paper, we demonstrate the big data analytics application in revealing novel insights from massive taxi trace data, which, for the first time, validates the passengers denial in taxi industry and estimates the denial ratio in Beijing city. We first quantify the income differentiation facts among taxi drivers. Then we find out that choosing the drop-off places also contributes to the high income for taxi drivers, compared to the previous explanation of mobility intelligence. Moreover, we propose the pick-up, drop-off and grid diversity concepts and related diversity analysis suggest that, high income taxi drivers will deny passengers in some situations, so as to choose the passengers' destination they prefer. Finally we design an estimation method for denial ratio and infer that high income taxi drivers will deny passengers with 8.52% likelihood in Beijing. Our work exhibits the power of big

  2. Understanding international postgraduate studies. Drivers from the supply and the demand side.

    Delgado-Serrano, M M; Gomez-Bruque, J L; Ambrosio-Albala, M J; Llamas-Moreno, B

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the global political and socioeconomic scenario are fostering the internationalization of master and doctoral programme as one of the current priorities for Universities. Changes in European higher education such as those stimulated by the Bologna process and the introduction of double, multiple or joint Master degree programmes together with the Erasmus Mundus programme are enhancing the competition of European universities in the global education market place. Universities compete to attract the best students, both national and international, to their postgraduate programmes. However, the design and launch of international masters or doctorates imply working with a different logic to the one used in national programmes. Complexity, diversity and differentiation are drivers of international education and as happens in complex systems the properties and features of the final products are different from the existing in the individual components. The aim of this paper is to understand international studies as complex systems and to analyze and identify factors affecting to the different components involved in the implementation of these programmes. The new approaches and the interrelations in aspects such as academic, administrative or economic management, quality assurance and marketing issues are examined and drivers, challenges and good practices where possible are identified. The analysis has been carried out considering the point of view of both Universities (supply-led approach) and students and employers (demand-led approach). From the analysis have emerged important questions that show the interrelation pattern and that can be useful when designing and implementing international postgraduate studies. Universities and students tend to agree about many issues however, some divergences have also been identified which make the results of the research more valuable.

  3. [Health reasons for work disability among municipal transport drivers].

    Szubert, Zuzanna; Sobala, Wojciech

    2005-01-01

    The health condition of public transport drivers is one of the factors playing a role in assuring safety of passengers taking use of this kind of transportation means. Therefore, the assessment of pathologies occurring in this occupational group is essential from the prevention point of view. Drivers employed in the municipal transport system are at particular risk. The aim of the study was to define health reasons of work disability among bus and tram drivers in general and to indicate pathologies responsible for disabilities in particular. The study covered 940 drivers (including 788 men and 152 women) employed in a municipal transportation enterprise during the years 1996-2000. Bus (30%) and tram (22%) drivers as well as transport service workers (48%), aged over 45 years, but under the retirement age, were eligible for the study. The analysis of temporary work disability during a five-year period was based on sickness absence, sickness absence rate and the average duration of sickness absence. The analysis revealed that diseases of the circulatory system form the major group of pathologies responsible for total sickness absence among bus drivers (43%), tram drivers (27%) and transport service workers (27%). These disease are also a leading cause of earlier retirement. They mostly include ischemic heart disease in bus drivers and hypertension in tram drivers. Cancers (pleura, kidney and eye) were responsible for 9% of sickness absence in the group of male tram drivers, whereas endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases and immunity disorders (diabetes, disorders of thyroid gland) in 16% of female tram drivers. Diseases of the musculoskeletal system were major causes of sickness absence among female tram drivers (24%), whereas malignant and benign neoplasms of breast and uterine myoma in 24% of female transport service workers. The results of the analysis are in agreement with the literature findings and provide explicit evidence that employment in the

  4. University writing

    Miguel Zabalza Beraza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done. The article also discusses the contributions of writing for both students and teachers together: writing to investigate. Finally, going beyond what writing is as academic tool, we conclude with a more playful and creative position: writing for pleasure and enjoyment.

  5. Universe unfolding

    King, I.R.

    1976-01-01

    Topics covered the setting; looking at the stars; the earth; time, place and the sky; our satellite, the moon; orbits and motion; the motions of the planets; the Copernican revolution; the planets; the other bodies of the solar system; ages, origins, and life; introducing the stars; sorting out the stars; binary stars--two are better than one; variable stars--inconstancy as a virtue; the secrets of starlight--unraveling the spectrum; the sun--our own star; the structure of a star; interstellar material; the Milky Way, our home galaxy; galaxies--the stellar continents; cosmic violence--from radio galaxies to quasars; the universe; and epilogue. The primary emphasis is on how we have come to know what we know about the universe. Star maps are included

  6. University physics

    Arfken, George

    1984-01-01

    University Physics provides an authoritative treatment of physics. This book discusses the linear motion with constant acceleration; addition and subtraction of vectors; uniform circular motion and simple harmonic motion; and electrostatic energy of a charged capacitor. The behavior of materials in a non-uniform magnetic field; application of Kirchhoff's junction rule; Lorentz transformations; and Bernoulli's equation are also deliberated. This text likewise covers the speed of electromagnetic waves; origins of quantum physics; neutron activation analysis; and interference of light. This publi

  7. Human universe

    Cox, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  8. Hand-held cell phone use while driving legislation and observed driver behavior among population sub-groups in the United States

    Toni M. Rudisill

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell phone use behaviors are known to vary across demographic sub-groups and geographic locations. This study examined whether universal hand-held calling while driving bans were associated with lower road-side observed hand-held cell phone conversations across drivers of different ages (16–24, 25–59, ≥60 years, sexes, races (White, African American, or other, ruralities (suburban, rural, or urban, and regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. Methods Data from the 2008–2013 National Occupant Protection Use Survey were merged with states’ cell phone use while driving legislation. The exposure was presence of a universal hand-held cell phone ban at time of observation. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds of drivers having a hand-held cell phone conversation. Sub-groups differences were assessed using models with interaction terms. Results When universal hand-held cell phone bans were effective, hand-held cell phone conversations were lower across all driver demographic sub-groups and regions. Sub-group differences existed among the sexes (p-value, <0.0001 and regions (p-value, 0.0003. Compared to states without universal hand-held cell phone bans, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR of a driver hand-held phone conversation was 0.34 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.28, 0.41] for females versus 0.47 (CI 0.40, 0.55 for males and 0.31 (CI 0.25, 0.38 for drivers in Western states compared to 0.47 (CI 0.30, 0.72 in the Northeast and 0.50 (CI 0.38, 0.66 in the South. Conclusions The presence of universal hand-held cell phone bans were associated lower hand-held cell phone conversations across all driver sub-groups and regions. Hand-held phone conversations were particularly lower among female drivers and those from Western states when these bans were in effect. Public health interventions concerning hand-held cell phone use while driving could reasonably target all drivers.

  9. Discriminating Drivers through Human Factor and Behavioral Difference

    Ju Seok Oh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Since Greenwood and Woods' (1919 study in tendency of accident, many researchers have insisted that various human factors (sensation seeking, anger, anxiety are highly correlated with reckless driving and traffic accidents. Oh and Lee (2011 designed the Driving Behavior Determinants Questionnaire, a psychological tool to predict danger level of drivers and discriminate them into three groups (normal, unintentionally reckless, and intentionally reckless by their characteristics, attitude, and expected reckless behavior level. This tool's overall accuracy of discrimination was 70%. This study aimed to prove that the discrimination reflects the behavioral difference of drivers. Twenty-four young drivers were requested to react to the visual stimuli (tests for subjective speed sense, simple visual reaction time, and left turning at own risk. The results showed no differences in subjective speed sense among the driver groups, which means drivers' excessive speeding behaviors occur due to intention based on personality and attitude, not because of sensory disorders. In addition, there were no differences in simple reaction time among driver groups. However, the results of the ‘Left turning at drivers’ own risk task” revealed significant group differences. All reckless drivers showed a greater degree of dangerous left turning behaviors than the normal group did.

  10. Cyclist-related content in novice driver education and training.

    Bonham, Jennifer; Johnson, Marilyn

    2018-02-01

    In Australia, the increasing public profile and policy interest in cycling contrasts with variable cycling participation rates across jurisdictions (Australian Bicycle Council, 2017) and lack of cyclist-specific infrastructure. Cyclists and drivers often share road space, usually without indication from the built environment about how to maximise each other's safety and utility. Yet despite this regular interaction, cyclists are largely absent from the driver licensing process in Australia. That is, novice drivers are not taught how to share the road with cyclists. This case study used a mixed methods approach to examine the cyclist-related content in the Graduated Driver Licensing System (GDLS) in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). The case study was conducted in four stages: 1) content analysis of all documents used through the GDLS; 2) observations of the Road Ready course and learner driver lessons; 3) online survey; and, 4) semi-structured interviews. Cyclists are rarely mentioned in the GDLS in the ACT and references often constructed cyclists as problematic or were based in instructors' personal opinion (rather than scripted responses). Outcomes from this study have directly informed a new vulnerable road user driver licence competency in the ACT and findings include recommendations for greater inclusion of cyclists in the driver licensing system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Teen Drivers' Perceptions of Their Peer Passengers: Qualitative Study.

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Haynie, Denise L; Luthers, Christina; Perlus, Jessamyn; Gerber, Eli; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Klauer, Sheila G; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    The presence of peer passengers increases teenage drivers' fatal crash risk. Distraction and social influence are the two main factors that have been associated with increased risk. Teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on these factors could inform our understanding of the conditions under which peer passengers increase crash risk or promote safer driving. The purpose of this study was to examine teen drivers' perceptions of their peer passengers on distraction and social influence. A convenience sample of male and female drivers participated in a semi-structured interview that included questions on their perceptions of the effects of peer passengers on driving on distraction and social influence. The analysis of the interviews was guided by a grounded theory approach. Teenage drivers were aware of the risk that peer passengers posed. Some described having passengers in the vehicle as distracting, and recognized that the level of distraction increased with the number of passengers in the vehicle. Drivers that felt responsible for the safety of their peer passengers described strategies they used to control the in-vehicle environment. Drivers described driving with passengers as a performance, and articulated direct and indirect sources of pressure, gender norms, and unspoken expectations of their passengers as influencing their driving behavior. The influence of passengers is situation specific and dependent on whom the passenger(s) may be. Passenger influence may be either protective or harmful, depending on the circumstances. Some passengers exert direct influence, but often their influence appears more indirect and subtle.

  12. Does automatic transmission improve driving behavior in older drivers?

    Selander, Helena; Bolin, Ingrid; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2012-01-01

    Most older drivers continue to drive as they age. To maintain safe and independent transport, mobility is important for all individuals, but especially for older drivers. The objective of this study was to investigate whether automatic transmission, compared with manual transmission, may improve the driving behavior of older drivers. In total, 31 older drivers (mean age 75.2 years) and 32 younger drivers - used as a control group (mean age 39.2 years) - were assessed twice on the same fixed route; once in a car with manual transmission and once in a car with automatic transmission. The cars were otherwise identical. The driving behavior was assessed with the Ryd On-Road Assessment driving protocol. Time to completion of left turns (right-hand side driving) and the impact of a distraction task were measured. The older group had more driving errors than the younger group, in both the manual and the automatic transmission car. However, and contrary to the younger drivers, automatic transmission improved the older participants' driving behavior as demonstrated by safer speed adjustment in urban areas, greater maneuvering skills, safer lane position and driving in accordance with the speed regulations. Switching to automatic transmission may be recommended for older drivers as a means to maintain safe driving and thereby the quality of their transport mobility. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Lower back pain and absenteeism among professional public transport drivers.

    Kresal, Friderika; Roblek, Vasja; Jerman, Andrej; Meško, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Drivers in public transport are subjected to lower back pain. The reason for the pain is associated with the characteristics of the physical position imposed on the worker while performing the job. Lower back pain is the main cause of absenteeism among drivers. The present study includes 145 public transport drivers employed as professional drivers for an average of 14.14 years. Analysis of the data obtained in the study includes the basic descriptive statistics, χ(2) test and multiple regression analysis. Analysis of the incidence of lower back pain showed that the majority of our sample population suffered from pain in the lower back. We found that there are no statistically significant differences between the groups formed by the length of service as a professional driver and incidence of lower back pain; we were also interested in whether or not the risk factors of lower back pain affects the absenteeism of city bus drivers. Analysis of the data has shown that the risk factors of pain in the lower part of the spine do affect the absenteeism of city bus drivers.

  14. A novel active heads-up display for driver assistance.

    Doshi, Anup; Cheng, Shinko Yuanhsien; Trivedi, Mohan Manubhai

    2009-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce a novel laser-based wide-area heads-up windshield display which is capable of actively interfacing with a human as part of a driver assistance system. The dynamic active display (DAD) is a unique prototype interface that presents safety-critical visual icons to the driver in a manner that minimizes the deviation of his or her gaze direction without adding to unnecessary visual clutter. As part of an automotive safety system, the DAD presents alerts in the field of view of the driver only if necessary, which is based upon the state and pose of the driver, vehicle, and environment. This paper examines the effectiveness of DAD through a comprehensive comparative experimental evaluation of a speed compliance driver assistance system, which is implemented on a vehicular test bed. Three different types of display protocols for assisting a driver to comply with speed limits are tested on actual roadways, and these are compared with a conventional dashboard display. Given the inclination, drivers who are given an overspeed warning alert reduced the time required to slow down to the speed limit by 38% (p system.

  15. The class project of cyber-driver

    P. S. Sorokoumov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a class project of cyber-driver, i.e. an android robot controlling a mobile platform. This project can be used both to teach high-school students in programming, hardware design and foundations of robotic science by solving some important and scientifically interesting tasks. Despite the great number of modern android robotics systems, their software controlling systems often have serious issues. Such actions as rough terrain movement or stairs climbing can be performed simply and accurately by both humans and animals but not by biosimilar robots. The traditional systems in these cases demand many complex and precise settings to perform such movements and nevertheless they remain very vulnerable to random factors. In robotic perception models the situation is similar: casual human tasks as image recognition or scene analysis need complex algorithms and huge computer resources if performed by robots. Biologically-inspired models can improve matters in robotic science. Human movement copying is often used for solving this problem in practice but it does not allow copying considerable aspects of movement controlling in nervous system. Both controlling quality and testing quality for the aforementioned tasks can be essentially improved if the robot uses techniques similar to central motor programs of human. This project helps students to study this important domain. Besides, robotic perception can imitate biological systems more closely. Such biologically-inspired perception models give structure to computer vision systems and allow developing these systems quicker. The cyber-driver project is an example of biologically-inspired educational system. The system proposed consists of android robot that can manipulate levers, wheels and buttons, and mobile robotic platform. Educational robotic platform YARP-3 allows easy modification of constructing arms and grippers encouraging students’ creativity. The software of the robot can

  16. Estimating likelihood of future crashes for crash-prone drivers

    Subasish Das

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available At-fault crash-prone drivers are usually considered as the high risk group for possible future incidents or crashes. In Louisiana, 34% of crashes are repeatedly committed by the at-fault crash-prone drivers who represent only 5% of the total licensed drivers in the state. This research has conducted an exploratory data analysis based on the driver faultiness and proneness. The objective of this study is to develop a crash prediction model to estimate the likelihood of future crashes for the at-fault drivers. The logistic regression method is used by employing eight years' traffic crash data (2004–2011 in Louisiana. Crash predictors such as the driver's crash involvement, crash and road characteristics, human factors, collision type, and environmental factors are considered in the model. The at-fault and not-at-fault status of the crashes are used as the response variable. The developed model has identified a few important variables, and is used to correctly classify at-fault crashes up to 62.40% with a specificity of 77.25%. This model can identify as many as 62.40% of the crash incidence of at-fault drivers in the upcoming year. Traffic agencies can use the model for monitoring the performance of an at-fault crash-prone drivers and making roadway improvements meant to reduce crash proneness. From the findings, it is recommended that crash-prone drivers should be targeted for special safety programs regularly through education and regulations.

  17. Are cellular phone blocking applications effective for novice teen drivers?

    Creaser, Janet I; Edwards, Christopher J; Morris, Nichole L; Donath, Max

    2015-09-01

    Distracted driving is a significant concern for novice teen drivers. Although cellular phone bans are applied in many jurisdictions to restrict cellular phone use, teen drivers often report making calls and texts while driving. The Minnesota Teen Driver Study incorporated cellular phone blocking functions via a software application for 182 novice teen drivers in two treatment conditions. The first condition included 92 teens who ran a driver support application on a smartphone that also blocked phone usage. The second condition included 90 teens who ran the same application with phone blocking but which also reported back to parents about monitored risky behaviors (e.g., speeding). A third control group consisting of 92 novice teen drivers had the application and phone-based software installed on the phones to record cellular phone (but not block it) use while driving. The two treatment groups made significantly fewer calls and texts per mile driven compared to the control group. The control group data also demonstrated a higher propensity to text while driving rather than making calls. Software that blocks cellular phone use (except 911) while driving can be effective at mitigating calling and texting for novice teen drivers. However, subjective data indicates that some teens were motivated to find ways around the software, as well as to use another teen's phone while driving when they were unable to use theirs. Cellular phone bans for calling and texting are the first step to changing behaviors associated with texting and driving, particularly among novice teen drivers. Blocking software has the additional potential to reduce impulsive calling and texting while driving among novice teen drivers who might logically know the risks, but for whom it is difficult to ignore calling or texting while driving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  18. Effectiveness of Taxicab Security Equipment in Reducing Driver Homicide Rates

    Menéndez, Cammie K.C.; Amandus, Harlan E.; Damadi, Parisa; Wu, Nan; Konda, Srinivas; Hendricks, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Taxicab drivers historically have had one of the highest work-related homicide rates of any occupation. In 2010 the taxicab driver homicide rate was 7.4 per 100,000 drivers, compared to the overall rate of 0.37 per 100,000 workers. Purpose Evaluate the effectiveness of taxicab security cameras and partitions on citywide taxicab driver homicide rates. Methods Taxicab driver homicide rates were compared in 26 major cities in the U.S. licensing taxicabs with security cameras (n=8); bullet-resistant partitions (n=7); and cities where taxicabs were not equipped with either security cameras or partitions (n=11). News clippings of taxicab driver homicides and the number of licensed taxicabs by city were used to construct taxicab driver homicide rates spanning 15 years (1996–2010). Generalized estimating equations were constructed to model the Poisson-distributed homicide rates on city-specific safety equipment installation status, controlling for city homicide rate and the concurrent decline of homicide rates over time. Data were analyzed in 2012. Results Cities with cameras experienced a threefold reduction in taxicab driver homicides compared with control cities (RR=0.27; 95% CI=0.12, 0.61; p=0.002). There was no difference in homicide rates for cities with partitions compared with control cities (RR=1.15; 95% CI=0.80, 1.64; p=0.575). Conclusions Municipal ordinances and company policies mandating security cameras appear to be highly effective in reducing taxicab driver deaths due to workplace violence. PMID:23790983

  19. U.S. DOE driver development for ICF

    Sluyter, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) supported Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) Program is to produce pure fusion ignition with fusion yields of 200 to 1000 millions of joules, which could find several applications in the defence and in the electric power generation. The National Ignition Facility will operate in both direct and indirect driver modes, with a glass laser driver. However two other options have been developed to increase the energy efficiency: the Light Ion Pulsed Power program and the NIKE KrF laser. Heavy ion drivers are also investigated -Abstract only-. (TEC)

  20. Method and system for communicating with a laser power driver

    Telford, Steven

    2017-07-18

    A system for controlling a plurality of laser diodes includes an optical transmitter coupled to the laser diode driver for each laser diode. An optical signal including bi-phase encoded data is provided to each laser diode driver. The optical signal includes current level and pulse duration information at which each of the diodes is to be driven. Upon receiving a trigger signal, the laser diode drivers operate the laser diodes using the current level and pulse duration information to output a laser beam.

  1. The relationship between security of supply and its drivers

    2007-10-01

    The relationship between security of supply of natural gas in the UK and three possible drivers were considered. The drivers discussed are (1) supply margin, (2) reliability of supply and (3) diversity of supply. The department for Business Enterprise and Regulatory Reform's gas security of supply model may be applied to estimate 'expected energy unserved (EEU)' according to a range of conditions of supply and demand. Supply margin and mix can be varied in the model, as can the reliability of supply sources. The paper describes work exploring the impact on the EEU of changes in these three drivers

  2. Drivers of Sales Innovation in Business-To-Business Firms

    Ritter, Thomas; Geersbro, Jens

    2014-01-01

    This paper defines the term sales innovation, offers an operationalization of the concept, and discusses antecedents of sales innovation in terms of important internal and external drivers. An empirical analysis of 409 B2B firms identifies the internal drivers of sales innovation as increased top...... management focus and increased resource allocation as well as increasing customer and competitor dynamics as external drivers. Despite the suggested positive impact of the degree of competitive pressure on sales innovation, the empirical results suggest a significant negative impact, i.e. competitive...... pressure leads to less innovation in sales. Finally the paper suggests managerial implications as well as avenues of further research in this area....

  3. Divided attention in young drivers under the influence of alcohol

    FREYDIER, Chloé; BERTHELON, Catherine; BASTIEN-TONIAZZO, Mireille; GINEYT, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present research evaluates driving impairment linked to two crashes factors, divided attention task and alcohol, and determines whether it is higher for novice drivers than for experienced drivers. Method: Novice and experienced drivers participated in three experimental sessions in which blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were 0.0 g/L, 0.2 g/L and 0.5 g/L. They performed a divided attention task with a main task of car-following task and an additional task of number parity identif...

  4. Capacitor blocks for linear transformer driver stages.

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Kumpyak, E V; Smorudov, G V; Zherlitsyn, A A

    2014-01-01

    In the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology, the low inductance energy storage components and switches are directly incorporated into the individual cavities (named stages) to generate a fast output voltage pulse, which is added along a vacuum coaxial line like in an inductive voltage adder. LTD stages with air insulation were recently developed, where air is used both as insulation in a primary side of the stages and as working gas in the LTD spark gap switches. A custom designed unit, referred to as a capacitor block, was developed for use as a main structural element of the transformer stages. The capacitor block incorporates two capacitors GA 35426 (40 nF, 100 kV) and multichannel multigap gas switch. Several modifications of the capacitor blocks were developed and tested on the life time and self breakdown probability. Blocks were tested both as separate units and in an assembly of capacitive module, consisting of five capacitor blocks. This paper presents detailed design of capacitor blocks, description of operation regimes, numerical simulation of electric field in the switches, and test results.

  5. Global drivers of future river flood risk

    Winsemius, Hessel C.; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; van Beek, Ludovicus P. H.; Bierkens, Marc F. P.; Bouwman, Arno; Jongman, Brenden; Kwadijk, Jaap C. J.; Ligtvoet, Willem; Lucas, Paul L.; van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Ward, Philip J.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding global future river flood risk is a prerequisite for the quantification of climate change impacts and planning effective adaptation strategies. Existing global flood risk projections fail to integrate the combined dynamics of expected socio-economic development and climate change. We present the first global future river flood risk projections that separate the impacts of climate change and socio-economic development. The projections are based on an ensemble of climate model outputs, socio-economic scenarios, and a state-of-the-art hydrologic river flood model combined with socio-economic impact models. Globally, absolute damage may increase by up to a factor of 20 by the end of the century without action. Countries in Southeast Asia face a severe increase in flood risk. Although climate change contributes significantly to the increase in risk in Southeast Asia, we show that it is dwarfed by the effect of socio-economic growth, even after normalization for gross domestic product (GDP) growth. African countries face a strong increase in risk mainly due to socio-economic change. However, when normalized to GDP, climate change becomes by far the strongest driver. Both high- and low-income countries may benefit greatly from investing in adaptation measures, for which our analysis provides a basis.

  6. Drivers and barriers to heat stress resilience.

    Hatvani-Kovacs, Gertrud; Belusko, Martin; Skinner, Natalie; Pockett, John; Boland, John

    2016-11-15

    Heatwaves are the most dangerous natural hazard to health in Australia. The frequency and intensity of heatwaves will increase due to climate change and urban heat island effects in cities, aggravating the negative impacts of heatwaves. Two approaches exist to develop population heat stress resilience. Firstly, the most vulnerable social groups can be identified and public health services can prepare for the increased morbidity. Secondly, the population level of adaptation and the heat stress resistance of the built environment can be increased. The evaluation of these measures and their efficiencies has been fragmented across research disciplines. This study explored the relationships between the elements of heat stress resilience and their potential demographic and housing drivers and barriers. The responses of a representative online survey (N=393) about heat stress resilience at home and work from Adelaide, South Australia were analysed. The empirical findings demonstrate that heat stress resistant buildings increased adaptation capacity and decreased the number of health problems. Air-conditioning increased dependence upon it, limited passive adaptation and only people living in homes with whole-house air-conditioning had less health problems during heatwaves. Tenants and respondents with pre-existing health conditions were the most vulnerable, particularly as those with health conditions were not aware of their vulnerability. The introduction of an Energy Performance Certificate is proposed and discussed as an effective incentive to increase the heat stress resistance of and the general knowledge about the built environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. IMPLEMENTATION DRIVERS FOR BPR AT SIEMENS TELECOMMUNICATIONS

    C.C. Koorts

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: With the embracing of neV'( management philosophies or redesigned processes, it is becoming a popular opinion that often the practical problem lies with the implementation of the new concept, rather than with the concept itself. By focussing on certain generic critical actions, chances of successful implementation increases for any new philosophy or re-engineered process. This article discusses such critical success actions, or implementation drivers as experience in a BPR project at Siemens Telecommunications.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: 'n Gewilde siening ten opsigte van die bekendstelling van nuwe bestuursfilosofiee, of implementering van herontwerpde prosesse, is dat die probleem gewoonlik Ie by die implementering daarvan, eerder as by die beginsels van die bestuursfilosofie wat geimplementeer word . Deur op generies kritieke faktore te konsentreer, kan die kanse op suksesvolle implementering van bykans enige bestuursfilosofie of herontwerpde proses verbeter word. Hierdie artikel bespreek sulke kritieke sukses aksies, of implementeringsdrywers, aan die hand van 'n gevallestudie soos ervaar in 'n BPR projek by Siemens Telecommunications.

  8. Driver head pose tracking with thermal camera

    Bole, S.; Fournier, C.; Lavergne, C.; Druart, G.; Lépine, T.

    2016-09-01

    Head pose can be seen as a coarse estimation of gaze direction. In automotive industry, knowledge about gaze direction could optimize Human-Machine Interface (HMI) and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Pose estimation systems are often based on camera when applications have to be contactless. In this paper, we explore uncooled thermal imagery (8-14μm) for its intrinsic night vision capabilities and for its invariance versus lighting variations. Two methods are implemented and compared, both are aided by a 3D model of the head. The 3D model, mapped with thermal texture, allows to synthesize a base of 2D projected models, differently oriented and labeled in yaw and pitch. The first method is based on keypoints. Keypoints of models are matched with those of the query image. These sets of matchings, aided with the 3D shape of the model, allow to estimate 3D pose. The second method is a global appearance approach. Among all 2D models of the base, algorithm searches the one which is the closest to the query image thanks to a weighted least squares difference.

  9. Sustainable Universities

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...

  10. Open University

    Pentz,M

    1975-01-01

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  11. Driver trust in five driver assistance technologies following real-world use in four production vehicles.

    Kidd, David G; Cicchino, Jessica B; Reagan, Ian J; Kerfoot, Laura B

    2017-05-29

    Information about drivers' experiences with driver assistance technologies in real driving conditions is sparse. This study characterized driver interactions with forward collision warning, adaptive cruise control, active lane keeping, side-view assist, and lane departure warning systems following real-world use. Fifty-four Insurance Institute for Highway Safety employees participated and drove a 2016 Toyota Prius, 2016 Honda Civic, 2017 Audi Q7, or 2016 Infiniti QX60 for up to several weeks. Participants reported mileage and warnings from the technologies in an online daily-use survey. Participants reported their level of agreement with five statements regarding trust in an online post-use survey. Responses were averaged to create a composite measure of trust ranging from -2 (strongly disagree) to +2 (strongly agree) for each technology. Mixed-effect regression models were constructed to compare trust among technologies and separately among the study vehicles. Participants' free-response answers about what they liked least about each system were coded and examined. Participants reported driving 33,584 miles during 4 months of data collection. At least one forward collision warning was reported in 26% of the 354 daily reports. The proportion of daily reports indicating a forward collision warning was much larger for the Honda (70%) than for the Audi (18%), Infiniti (15%), and Toyota (10%). Trust was highest for side-view assist (0.98) and lowest for active lane keeping (0.20). Trust in side-view assist was significantly higher than trust in active lane keeping and lane departure warning (0.53). Trust in active lane keeping was significantly lower than trust in adaptive cruise control (0.67) and forward collision warning (0.71). Trust in adaptive cruise control was higher for the Audi (0.72) and Toyota (0.75) compared with the Honda (0.30), and significantly higher for the Infiniti (0.93). Trust in Infiniti's side-view assist (0.58) was significantly lower than

  12. Environmental drivers of cambial phenology in Great Basin bristlecone pine.

    Ziaco, Emanuele; Biondi, Franco; Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie

    2016-07-01

    The timing of wood formation is crucial to determine how environmental factors affect tree growth. The long-lived bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva D. K. Bailey) is a foundation treeline species in the Great Basin of North America reaching stem ages of about 5000 years. We investigated stem cambial phenology and radial size variability to quantify the relative influence of environmental variables on bristlecone pine growth. Repeated cellular measurements and half-hourly dendrometer records were obtained during 2013 and 2014 for two high-elevation stands included in the Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network. Daily time series of stem radial variations showed rehydration and expansion starting in late April-early May, prior to the onset of wood formation at breast height. Formation of new xylem started in June and lasted until mid-September. There were no differences in phenological timing between the two stands, or in the air and soil temperature thresholds for the onset of xylogenesis. A multiple logistic regression model highlighted a separate effect of air and soil temperature on xylogenesis, the relevance of which was modulated by the interaction with vapor pressure and soil water content. While air temperature plays a key role in cambial resumption after winter dormancy, soil thermal conditions coupled with snowpack dynamics also influence the onset of wood formation by regulating plant-soil water exchanges. Our results help build a physiological understanding of climate-growth relationships in P. longaeva, the importance of which for dendroclimatic reconstructions can hardly be overstated. In addition, environmental drivers of xylogenesis at the treeline ecotone, by controlling the growth of dominant species, ultimately determine ecosystem responses to climatic change. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Good Old Gamers, Good Drivers: Results from a correlational experiment among older drivers

    Suchada Vichitvanichphong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In many situations, driving is essential for senior citizens to maintain their independent lifestyle. A systematic literature review was conducted that summarized the age-related physical, visual and cognitive functional declines and their associated risk to driving. Based on these findings, we explored whether the skills required in playing Xbox Kinect video games were correlated with measures of driving performance among older drivers. Fifty-two participants, 65 years of age or older (Mean = 72; SD = 3.84; range 65 – 85 years; 29 males who have access to a car and drive frequently were invited to play Just dance, Table Tennis (ping pong, Bowling, and Dr Kawashima’s Brain Training Exercises on an Xbox Kinect 360. Participants also completed a 25-minute on-road driving task along a predetermined route to assess and identify critical driving errors using a similar instrument as that used by a driving license tester. Bivariate correlation examined the relationship between game scores and these objective driving skills. There was a significant correlation between the Xbox Kinect video games and on-road driving scores (r = 0.861, p <0.001, indicating that ‘good gamers are good drivers’. This was correlation was significant for the males (r = 0.864, p <0.001 as well as for the females (r = 0.878, p <0.001. We suggest that performance on Xbox games may be a suitable, cost-effective and less-risky indicator of on-road driving skills for older drivers, particularly in jurisdictions in which mandatory testing of older citizens has been introduced or is being considered as a requirement in the driver licensing process.

  14. Geneva University

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 9 March 2009 COLLOQUIUM at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Are We Descended From Heavy Neutrinos? Prof. Boris Kayser / Fermilab (Fermi National Accelerator Center, Geneva, Illinois, USA) Neutrinos are among the most abundant particles in the universe. The discovery that they have nonzero masses has raised a number of very interesting questions about them, and about their connections to other areas of physics and to cosmology. After briefly reviewing what has been learned about the neutrinos so far, we will identify the major open questions, explain why they are interesting, and discuss ideas and plans for answering them through future experiments. We will highlight a particularly intriguing question: Are neutrinos the key to understanding why the universe contains matter but almost no antimatter, making it s...

  15. Geneva University

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 13 May 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Observing the extreme universe with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Prof. Olaf Reimer / Stanford University The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST, formerly GLAST) is an international observatory-type satellite mission with a physics program spanning from gamma-ray astronomy to particle astrophysics and cosmology. FGST was launched on June 11, 2008 and is successfully conducting science observations of the high-energy gamma-ray sky since August 2008. A varienty of discoveries has been made already, including monitoring rapid blazar variability, the existence of GeV gamma-ray bursts, and numerous new gamma-ray sources of different types, including those belonging to previously unknown gamma-ray source classes like msPSRs, globula...

  16. Universal Pin Electronics.

    1982-11-03

    define the maximum count for the pattern defined by the first 3 bits. Since there are 11 bits involved it is possible to define patterns up to 2048 ...applied to the UUT directly through the driver for any count up to 2048 . Any one of the 7 clocks may be selected under program control and applied to any...one ievel for the driver ( VDI ), the logic zero level for the driver (VDO), the logic one level for the receiver (VRl), and the logic zero level for the

  17. Tracking progress in teenage driver crash risk in the United States since the advent of graduated driver licensing programs.

    McCartt, Anne T; Teoh, Eric R

    2015-06-01

    This study examined U.S. teenagers' crash rates since 1996, when the first graduated driver licensing (GDL) program in the United State was implemented. Passenger vehicle driver crash involvement rates for 16-19 and 30-59 (middle-aged) year-olds were examined, using data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, National Automotive Sampling System General Estimates System, Census Bureau, and National Household Travel Surveys. Per capita fatal and police-reported crash rates in 2012 were lower for 16year-olds than for middle-aged drivers but older teenagers' rates were higher. Mileage-based fatal and police-reported crash rates in 2008 were higher for teenagers than for middle-aged drivers and higher for 16-17year-olds than for older teenagers. In 1996-2012, teenagers' per capita fatal and police-reported crash rates declined sharply, especially for 16-17year-olds, and more so than for middle-aged drivers. Substantial declines also occurred in teenagers' mileage-based fatal and police-reported crash rates from 1995-96 to 2008, generally more so than for middle-aged drivers. Regarding factors in fatal crashes in 1996 and 2012, proportions of young teenagers' crashes occurring at night and with multiple teenage passengers declined, more so than among older teenagers and middle-aged drivers. The proportion of fatally injured drivers who had been drinking declined for teenagers but changed little for middle-aged drivers. Improvements were not apparent in rates of driver errors or speeding among teenage drivers in fatal crashes. Teenage drivers' crash risk dropped during the period of implementation of GDL laws, especially fatal crash types targeted by GDL. However, teenagers' crash risk remains high, and important crash factors remain unaddressed by GDL. Although this study was not designed to examine the role of GDL, the results are consistent with the increased presence of such laws. More gains are achievable if states strengthen their laws. Copyright © 2015

  18. 49 CFR 391.41 - Physical qualifications for drivers.

    2010-10-01

    ... impairment of: (i) A hand or finger which interferes with prehension or power grasping; or (ii) An arm, foot... amphetamine, a narcotic, or any other habit-forming drug. (ii) Exception. A driver may use such a substance or...

  19. The Drivers of Success in Business Model Transformation

    Nenad Savič

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing empirical literature on business models is still inconclusive about the key drivers of successful business model transformation. The paper explores this issue by using a single longitudinal case study design in combination with grounded theory approach on a medium-sized, high-tech and globally oriented company. Based on on-site visits, interviews and secondary documentation data analysis, the study identifies six generic drivers of successful business model transformation: transformational leadership, discovery driven decision-making, industry improvement – customer specific orientation, content-oriented communication, self-initiative collaborators, and phased separation strategy. The new drivers supplement our existing knowledge on how successful transformation takes place and add to existing drivers, while extensive discussion of their implications may help the managers to execute business transformations more effectively.

  20. Anticipating the Environmental Impacts and Behavioral Drivers of Deep Decarbonization

    EPA is seeking regular and early career applications proposing research that will contribute to an improved ability to understand and anticipate the public health and environmental impacts and behavioral drivers of significant changes in energy consumption

  1. Executive report : toll roads, toll rates, and driver behavior.

    2012-12-01

    State and federal research has examined toll roads and attempted to identify methods to make toll roads a more attractive option for drivers. Researchers examined various views of toll road transactions and concluded: : Truckers and trucking comp...

  2. Video and non-video feedback interventions for teen drivers.

    2016-07-01

    In-vehicle feedback technologies, including some that use video, help parents monitor and mentor their young drivers. While different feedback technologies have been shown to reduce some risky driving behaviors, teens and parents cite privacy concern...

  3. Visual Scanning Training For Older Drivers: A Literature Review

    2018-04-01

    This literature review focuses on older drivers' visual scanning ability and on evaluations of training in visual scanning skills for older adults, updating a previous review of studies published from 1997 to 2008 describing age-related functional ch...

  4. Study on Driver Visual Physiological Characteristics in Urban Traffic

    Fengyuan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the integrated traffic environment, human factor is always a main factor of the three elementary factors, besides the vehicle and road factor. The driver physiological and psychological characteristics have an important impact especially on traffic safety in urban road traffic conditions. Some typical traffic scenes in condition of urban road, such as light signal control at intersection, overtaking, and passing, are selected for condition analysis. An eye movement apparatus was used to obtain driver eye closure, blink frequency, and other visual physiological indicators in the traffic conditions of urban road. The regular patterns of driver visual characteristics in the corresponding scenes were analyzed in detail to provide data and theoretical support for the further research on traffic safety of urban environment from the viewpoint of driver psychology and behavior.

  5. Aggressive behaviour of drivers in Slovakia affecting road safety

    Zuzana KRCHOVÁ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Driving a car does not mean only controlling it and bringing it to the destination but it is also a social interaction of drivers towards each other, where emotions play an important role. Destructive emotions e.g. anger worsen the ability of making a decision. And it also holds for the people behind the steering wheel.Abroad, the questionnaires used for the detection of potential aggressive drivers, or diagnostics of drivers who already have a driving license, have a form of survey. In year 2010 was realized a questionnaire about aggressive behavior of drivers in Slovak republic from which came out very interesting information. Some information is mentioned in this paper.

  6. Modeling drivers' passing duration and distance in a virtual environment

    Haneen Farah

    2013-07-01

    The main contribution of this paper is in the empirical models developed for passing duration and distance which highlights the factors that affect drivers' passing behavior and can be used to enhance the passing models in simulation programs.

  7. School start times and teenage driver motor vehicle crashes.

    2015-12-01

    There is substantial evidence that lack of sleep is a significant factor in motor vehicle crashes experienced by teenage drivers. This report examines the hypothesis that a later high school start time may reduce crash rates by reducing the interfere...

  8. Review on identification study of driver behavior intention and characteristics

    Gang LI

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to better improve vehicle active safety and realize personalized driving, aiming at the problem of the identification of driver behavior intention and characteristics, the electronic control systems' important role in the automobile and the importance of the driver behavior intention and characteristic identification are discussed. The relative domestic and foreign research is summarized, and the prospect is put forward. In order to improve the performance of automobile electronic control system and realize the intelligent control for the cars, the identification of driver behavior intention and characteristics needs to be studied. How to rationally classify and on-line identify drivers' characteristics correctly for the steering, braking and acceleration characteristics is a long term research topic.

  9. Economic and Cultural Drivers of Immigrant Support Worldwide

    Valentino, Nicholas A.; Soroka, Stuart N.; Iyengar, Shanto

    2017-01-01

    Employing a comparative experimental design drawing on over 18,000 interviews across eleven countries on four continents, this article revisits the discussion about the economic and cultural drivers of attitudes towards immigrants in advanced democracies. Experiments manipulate the occupational...

  10. Human-mediated drivers of change — impacts on coastal ...

    Human-mediated drivers of change — impacts on coastal ecosystems and marine ... of global change because they are located at the land–ocean interface and ... upwelling regimes are all being affected by human-mediated climate change.

  11. Driver and dispatcher perceptions of AATA's Advanced Operating System

    1999-01-01

    This report details results of focus groups and written surveys conducted with AATA motor coach operators. The drivers' early verdict on AOS is favorable overall; limitations in : communication are generally unwelcome, but other services such as auto...

  12. 78 FR 76399 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2013-12-17

    ...-2013-0185] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... its decision to exempt 37 individuals from its rule prohibiting persons with insulin-treated diabetes... receipt of Federal diabetes exemption applications from [[Page 76400

  13. 76 FR 9854 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2011-02-22

    ...-0011] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  14. 78 FR 1923 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2013-01-09

    ...-0350] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  15. 77 FR 3549 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2012-01-24

    ...-0368] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  16. 77 FR 5873 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2012-02-06

    ...-2011-0326] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) from operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. The... diabetes exemption applications from fifteen individuals and requested comments from the public (76 FR...

  17. 76 FR 9862 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2011-02-22

    ...-0025] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  18. 78 FR 1927 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2013-01-09

    ...-0351] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  19. Intersection negotiation problems of older drivers. Volume 1

    1998-09-01

    This project included a background literature synthesis and observational field study. The research goals were to document driving problems and errors at intersections, for older drivers using their own cars to travel familiar and unfamiliar routes, ...

  20. The micro-step motor controller protocol and driver

    Hong, Kwang Pyo; Lee, Chang Hee; Moon, Myung Kook; Choi, Bung Hun; Choi, Young Hyun; Cheon, Jong Gu

    2004-11-01

    We developed the communication protocol which is a main kernel of motor control firmware program that is used at HANARO neutron spectrometer now. This protocol driver divide into as a 4 group(Serial protocol, DLL, Active-X, Labview driver), so end-user can control the motor control as easily by PC RS232/422 port and have a merits as follows: Support a Low Level/High level driver, Support a Network Connectivity function by using High level Driver, One Server can services many client request. By using this protocol, The End-user can be easily makes a application motor control program and developed another application system program by using several kinds of programming tools under Widows and Linux based operation systems

  1. Examining environmental drivers of spatial variability in aflatoxin ...

    Examining environmental drivers of spatial variability in aflatoxin accumulation in Kenyan maize: potential utility in risk prediction models. ... however, because of high sampling cost and lack of affordable and accurate analytical methods.

  2. 78 FR 63285 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2013-10-23

    ... Mr. Van Gog understands diabetes management and monitoring, has stable control of his diabetes using...-0185] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... against persons with insulin- treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs...

  3. European advanced driver training programs: Reasons for optimism

    Simon Washington

    2011-03-01

    This paper reviews the predominant features and empirical evidence surrounding post licensing advanced driver training programs focused on novice drivers. A clear articulation of differences between the renewed and current US advanced driver training programs is provided. While the individual quantitative evaluations range from marginally to significantly effective in reducing novice driver crash risk, they have been criticized for evaluation deficiencies ranging from small sample sizes to confounding variables to lack of exposure metrics. Collectively, however, the programs sited in the paper suggest at least a marginally positive effect that needs to be validated with further studies. If additional well controlled studies can validate these programs, a pilot program in the US should be considered.

  4. Local habitat drivers of macrobenthos in the northern, central and ...

    Local habitat drivers of macrobenthos in the northern, central and southern KwaZulu-Natal Bight, South Africa. ... African Journal of Marine Science ... and bottom water physico-chemistry were determined at a significantly larger spatial scale.

  5. Mobile phone use by drivers : 2009 - survey results for England

    2009-01-01

    Premise/hypothesis : The Department for Transport has commissioned surveys to monitor the levels of mobile phone use by drivers across England since 2002. Methods : Two or three-person teams conducted observational surveys of mobile phone use on repr...

  6. Commercial driver's license (CDL) workflow study : final report.

    2016-03-01

    Kentucky uses federally funded, time-limited (FFTL) employees to handle some of the administrative work necessary to : meet federal compliance standards for commercial drivers licenses (CDLs). The Federal Motor Carrier Safety : Administration (FMC...

  7. Regulating Hazardous-materials Transportation with Behavioral Modeling of Drivers

    2018-01-29

    Changhyun Kwon (ORCID ID 0000-0001-8455-6396) This project considers network regulation problems to minimize the risk of hazmat accidents and potential damages to the environment, while considering bounded rationality of drivers. We consider governme...

  8. Alternative Fuel Vehicles: What Do the Drivers Say?

    survey of AFV fleet managers. Both the driver and the fleet manager reports are available in .pdf format through DOE's Alternative Fuels Data Center home page on the World Wide Web . For a hard copy, call the

  9. Strategic Ambitions as drivers of improvement at DaimlerChrysler

    Bossink, B.A.G.

    2002-01-01

    Strategic ambitions can function as drivers of improvement in organizations. Continuous improvement is driven by strategic ambitions to: design quality into the structure of the organization; plan and control improvements; assure improvements; set and realize improvement goals; position the

  10. 45 CFR 1310.17 - Driver and bus monitor training.

    2010-10-01

    ... required under paragraph (d) of this section. (b) Drivers must receive a combination of classroom... restraints; (6) conduct routine maintenance and safety checks of the vehicle; and (7) maintain accurate...

  11. 76 FR 64165 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2011-10-17

    ...-0277] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  12. 77 FR 533 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2012-01-05

    ...-0367] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  13. 78 FR 38439 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2013-06-26

    ...-0020] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  14. 78 FR 14406 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2013-03-05

    ...-0013] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  15. 76 FR 61140 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2011-10-03

    ...-0194] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes... individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM...

  16. 77 FR 40941 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2012-07-11

    ...-0163] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  17. 77 FR 46149 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2012-08-02

    ...-0164] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  18. 77 FR 64181 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2012-10-18

    ...-0283] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  19. 78 FR 26419 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2013-05-06

    ...-0018] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  20. 77 FR 52384 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2012-08-29

    ...-0218] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... from the diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of... diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating commercial motor vehicles (CMVs) in interstate commerce. If granted, the...

  1. 77 FR 56258 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2012-09-12

    ...-0219] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  2. 78 FR 38435 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2013-06-26

    ...-0181] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  3. 76 FR 66120 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2011-10-25

    ...-0278] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  4. 78 FR 20381 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2013-04-04

    ...-0015] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  5. 77 FR 65931 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2012-10-31

    ...-0347] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier... diabetes mellitus requirement; request for comments. SUMMARY: FMCSA announces receipt of applications from 12 individuals for exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes...

  6. 77 FR 10612 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2012-02-22

    ...-0382] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  7. 78 FR 79062 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus

    2013-12-27

    ...-0193] Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Diabetes Mellitus AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA). ACTION: Notice of applications for exemption from the diabetes mellitus... exemption from the prohibition against persons with insulin-treated diabetes mellitus (ITDM) operating...

  8. Training of Drivers in the Function of Road Traffic Safety

    Sinan Alispahić

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the participation of young drivers in trafficaccidents is constantly present and represents a significant socialproblem. In complex and dynamic conditions of moderntraffic flows, the young drivers are exposed to various and unforeseenhazard situations and events which they had not experiencedduring the basic training. Therefore, they should be providedwith the possibility of acquiring additional experiences insolving typical hazard situations in traffic. This is possible bythe system of advanced training which places the course participantin the situation of facing possible hazards, with the aim ofincreasing the awareness of risk in driving and behaviour at thesteering wheel. Advanced driver training is based on the specificprogram and training the drivers to acquire additional experiencesin solving dangerous traffic situations.

  9. Stimulus driver for epilepsy seizure suppression with adaptive loading impedance

    Ker, Ming-Dou; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chen, Wei-Ling

    2011-10-01

    A stimulus driver circuit for a micro-stimulator used in an implantable device is presented in this paper. For epileptic seizure control, the target of the driver was to output 30 µA stimulus currents when the electrode impedance varied between 20 and 200 kΩ. The driver, which consisted of the output stage, control block and adaptor, was integrated in a single chip. The averaged power consumption of the stimulus driver was 0.24-0.56 mW at 800 Hz stimulation rate. Fabricated in a 0.35 µm 3.3 V/24 V CMOS process and applied to a closed-loop epileptic seizure monitoring and controlling system, the proposed design has been successfully verified in the experimental results of Long-Evans rats with epileptic seizures.

  10. Comparing internal and external drivers in the southern Benguela ...

    Comparing internal and external drivers in the southern Benguela and the southern and ... during the model fitting: internal forcing by means of the trophic flow controls ... and two kinds of external forcing, namely fishing and the environment.

  11. Taxonomy of Older Driver Behaviors and Crash Risk : Appendix C

    2012-02-01

    This projects objectives were to identify risky behaviors, driving habits, and exposure patterns that have been shown to increase the likelihood of crash involvement among older drivers; and to classify these crash-contributing factors according t...

  12. Empirical assessment of loyalty drivers using consumers’ retail format choice

    Gindi, A.A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Using Stimulus–Organism–Response (S-O-R framework, this study examines Stimulus– Response relationships of fresh vegetable consumers’ behavior in Klang Valley, Malaysia. In particular, the study focused on how loyalty drivers affect retail formats choice by the fresh vegetable (FV consumers. The Stimuli that pertain to loyalty drivers include promotional activities, perceived price and social interaction and the Response is the retail format choice. Three hypotheses were developed and tested with the data collected from a survey using simple random sampling technique. Structural Equation Model (SEM was used in analyzing the data. Results of the study revealed that Stimuli (loyalty drivers influence Response (retail format choice for the different FV markets in Malaysia. Based on the finding of the research, Malaysian retailers have different marketing strategies to be considered with regards to loyalty drivers.

  13. Hand-held cell phone use while driving legislation and observed driver behavior among population sub-groups in the United States.

    Rudisill, Toni M; Zhu, Motao

    2017-05-12

    Cell phone use behaviors are known to vary across demographic sub-groups and geographic locations. This study examined whether universal hand-held calling while driving bans were associated with lower road-side observed hand-held cell phone conversations across drivers of different ages (16-24, 25-59, ≥60 years), sexes, races (White, African American, or other), ruralities (suburban, rural, or urban), and regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). Data from the 2008-2013 National Occupant Protection Use Survey were merged with states' cell phone use while driving legislation. The exposure was presence of a universal hand-held cell phone ban at time of observation. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds of drivers having a hand-held cell phone conversation. Sub-groups differences were assessed using models with interaction terms. When universal hand-held cell phone bans were effective, hand-held cell phone conversations were lower across all driver demographic sub-groups and regions. Sub-group differences existed among the sexes (p-value, phone bans, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of a driver hand-held phone conversation was 0.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28, 0.41] for females versus 0.47 (CI 0.40, 0.55) for males and 0.31 (CI 0.25, 0.38) for drivers in Western states compared to 0.47 (CI 0.30, 0.72) in the Northeast and 0.50 (CI 0.38, 0.66) in the South. The presence of universal hand-held cell phone bans were associated lower hand-held cell phone conversations across all driver sub-groups and regions. Hand-held phone conversations were particularly lower among female drivers and those from Western states when these bans were in effect. Public health interventions concerning hand-held cell phone use while driving could reasonably target all drivers.

  14. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From Science Drivers to Reference Design

    Ivezic, Z.; Axelrod, T.; Brandt, W.N.; Burke, D.L.; Claver, C.F.; Connolly, A.; Cook, K.H.; Gee, P.; Gilmore, D.K.; Jacoby, S.H.; Jones, R.L.; Kahn, S.M.; Kantor, J.P.; Krabbendam, V.; Lupton, R.H.; Monet, D.G.; Pinto, P.A.; Saha, A.; Schalk, T.L.; Schneider, D.P.; Strauss, Michael A.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /LSST Corp. /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NOAO, Tucson /LLNL, Livermore /UC, Davis /Princeton U., Astrophys. Sci. Dept. /Naval Observ., Flagstaff /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /UC, Santa Cruz /Harvard U. /Johns Hopkins U. /Illinois U., Urbana

    2011-10-14

    In the history of astronomy, major advances in our understanding of the Universe have come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. Aided by rapid progress in information technology, current sky surveys are changing the way we view and study the Universe. Next-generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. We focus here on the most ambitious survey currently planned in the visible band, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). LSST will have unique survey capability in the faint time domain. The LSST design is driven by four main science themes: constraining dark energy and dark matter, taking an inventory of the Solar System, exploring the transient optical sky, and mapping the Milky Way. It will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain multiple images covering the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. The current baseline design, with an 8.4 m (6.5 m effective) primary mirror, a 9.6 deg{sup 2} field of view, and a 3,200 Megapixel camera, will allow about 10,000 square degrees of sky to be covered using pairs of 15-second exposures in two photometric bands every three nights on average. The system is designed to yield high image quality, as well as superb astrometric and photometric accuracy. The survey area will include 30,000 deg{sup 2} with {delta} < +34.5{sup o}, and will be imaged multiple times in six bands, ugrizy, covering the wavelength range 320-1050 nm. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region about 1000 times in the six bands during the anticipated 10 years of operation. These data will result in databases including 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars, and will serve the majority of science programs. The remaining 10% of the observing time will be allocated to special programs such as Very Deep and Very Fast time domain surveys. We describe how the

  15. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From science drivers to reference design

    Ivezić Ž.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the history of astronomy, major advances in our understanding of the Universe have come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. Aided by rapid progress in information technology, current sky surveys are changing the way we view and study the Universe. Next- generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. We focus here on the most ambitious survey currently planned in the visible band, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST. LSST will have unique survey capability in the faint time domain. The LSST design is driven by four main science themes: constraining dark energy and dark matter, taking an inventory of the Solar System, exploring the transient optical sky, and mapping the Milky Way. It will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain multiple images covering the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. The current baseline design, with an 8.4 m (6.5 m effective primary mirror, a 9.6 deg2 field of view, and a 3,200 Megapixel camera, will allow about 10,000 square degrees of sky to be covered using pairs of 15-second exposures in two photometric bands every three nights on average. The system is designed to yield high image quality, as well as superb astrometric and photometric accuracy. The survey area will include 30,000 deg2 with δ < +34.5◦ , and will be imaged multiple times in six bands, ugrizy, covering the wavelength range 320-1050 nm. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep- wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg2 region about 1000 times in the six bands during the anticipated 10 years of operation. These data will result in databases including 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars, and will serve the majority of science programs. The remaining 10% of the observing time will be allocated to special programs such as Very Deep and Very Fast time domain surveys. We describe how the LSST

  16. Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: From Science Drivers To Reference Design

    Ivezić, Ž.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the history of astronomy, major advances in our understanding of the Universe have come from dramatic improvements in our ability to accurately measure astronomical quantities. Aided by rapid progress in information technology, current sky surveys are changing the way we view and study the Universe. Next-generation surveys will maintain this revolutionary progress. We focus here on the most ambitious survey currently planned in the visible band, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST. LSST will have unique survey capability in the faint time domain. The LSST design is driven by four main science themes: constraining dark energy and dark matter, taking an inventory of the Solar System, exploring the transient optical sky, and mapping the Milky Way. It will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain multiple images covering the sky that is visible from Cerro Pach'{o}n in Northern Chile. The current baseline design, with an 8.4, m (6.5, m effective primary mirror, a 9.6 deg$^2$ field of view, and a 3,200 Megapixel camera, will allow about 10,000 square degrees of sky to be covered using pairs of 15-second exposures in two photometric bands every three nights on average. The system is designed to yield high image quality, as well as superb astrometric and photometric accuracy. The survey area will include 30,000 deg$^2$ with $delta<+34.5^circ$, and will be imaged multiple times in six bands, $ugrizy$, covering the wavelength range 320--1050 nm. About 90\\% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg$^2$ region about 1000 times in the six bands during the anticipated 10 years of operation. These data will result in databases including 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars, and will serve the majority of science programs. The remaining 10\\% of the observing time will be allocated to special programs such as Very Deep and Very Fast time domain surveys. We

  17. Psychological influences for the driver by the changes of running circumstance; Jidosha no soko kankyo henka no driver eno shinriteki eikyo

    Okura, S; Yokomori, M; Yamaguchi, S [Meijo University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A driver is influenced psychologically by the cars proceeding on the street and the cars parked on the shoulder which come into the front view. The traffic accidents are caused when these influences put a lot of stress on a driver. In this report, we study the relations between the road traffic condition on the streets and the highway and the driver`s psychological and psysiological responses by using the driver`s front view, sweating and pulse rate. 6 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Definition of simulated driving tests for the evaluation of drivers' reactions and responses.

    Bartolozzi, Riccardo; Frendo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This article aims at identifying the most significant measures in 2 perception-response (PR) tests performed at a driving simulator: a braking test and a lateral skid test, which were developed in this work. Forty-eight subjects (26 females and 22 males) with a mean age of 24.9 ± 3.0 years were enrolled for this study. They were asked to perform a drive on the driving simulator at the University of Pisa (Italy) following a specific test protocol, including 8-10 braking tests and 8-10 lateral skid tests. Driver input signals and vehicle model signals were recorded during the drives and analyzed to extract measures such as the reaction time, first response time, etc. Following a statistical procedure (based on analysis of variance [ANOVA] and post hoc tests), all test measures (3 for the braking test and 8 for the lateral skid test) were analyzed in terms of statistically significant differences among different drivers. The presented procedure allows evaluation of the capability of a given test to distinguish among different drivers. In the braking test, the reaction time showed a high dispersion among single drivers, leading to just 4.8 percent of statistically significant driver pairs (using the Games-Howell post hoc test), whereas the pedal transition time scored 31.9 percent. In the lateral skid test, 28.5 percent of the 2 × 2 comparisons showed significantly different reaction times, 19.5 percent had different response times, 35.2 percent had a different second peak of the steering wheel signal, and 33 percent showed different values of the integral of the steering wheel signal. For the braking test, which has been widely employed in similar forms in the literature, it was shown how the reaction time, with respect to the pedal transition time, can have a higher dispersion due to the influence of external factors. For the lateral skid test, the following measures were identified as the most significant for application studies: the reaction time for the reaction

  19. A Concept for Continuous Monitoring that Reduces Redundancy in Information Assurance Processes

    2011-09-01

    System.out.println(“Driver loaded”); String url=“jdbc:postgresql://localhost/IAcontrols”; String user = “ postgres ”; String pwd... postgres ”; Connection DB_mobile_conn = DriverManager.getConnection(url,user,pwd); System.out.println(“Database Connect ok...user = “ postgres ”; String pwd = “ postgres ”; Connection DB_mobile_conn = DriverManager.getConnection(url,user,pwd); System.out.println

  20. Drivers of the international expansion of emerging-market multinationals

    D. Boșcor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to analyze the drivers of the international expansion of emerging market multinationals and the strategies applied by these companies in other emerging and developed markets. The paper applies a conceptual approach combined with analyses of statistics and secondary material and presents the company and the country specific advantages. The proposals for the Romanian companies and institutions are based on the comparison between the drivers of expansion in the BRIC countries.

  1. THE RELATION BETWEEN DRIVER BEHAVIOR AND INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEM

    Alica Kalašová

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of Slovakia’s transport policy is to reduce the number of traffic accidents and increase safety on our roads. Implementation of intelligent transport systems presents one of the possibilities how to meet this goal. Acceptance of these systems by motor vehicle drivers and other road traffic participants is necessary in order for them to fulfill their purpose. Only if the drivers will accept intelligent transport systems, it is possible to flexibly and effectively manage road traffic flexibly and effectively. From the perspective of a driver it concerns, in particular, the possibility of using alternative routes when traffic accidents or other obstacles occurs on the route that would significantly affect the continuity and safety of road traffic. Thanks to these technologies, it is possible to choose the appropriate route while driving, of course based on the criterion, which the driver considers the most important during the transport from origin to destination (driving time, distance from origin to destination, fuel consumption, quality of infrastructure. Information isare provided to the driver through variable message signs or directly in the vehicle (RDS-TMC. Another advantage of intelligent transport systems is a positive impact on psychological well-being of the driver while driving. Additional information about the possible obstacles, weather conditions and dangerous situations that occur on the roads as well as alternative routes are provided to the driver well in advance. This paper is mainly focused on how the drivers perceive the influence of intelligent transport systems in Žilina region.

  2. The Impact of Driver Cell Phone Use on Accidents

    James E. Prieger; Robert W. Hahn

    2005-01-01

    Cell phone use is increasing worldwide, leading to a concern that cell phone use while driving increases accidents. We develop a new approach for estimating the relationship between cell phone use while driving and accidents, based on new survey data. We test for selection effects, such as whether drivers who use cell phones are inherently less safe drivers, even when not on the phone. The paper has two key findings. First, the impact of cell phone use on accidents varies across the populatio...

  3. The valuation of nursing begins with identifying value drivers.

    Rutherford, Marcella M

    2010-03-01

    Adequate investment in a profession links to its ability to define and document its value. This requires identifying those elements or value drivers that demonstrate its worth. To completely identify nursing's value drivers requires meshing the economic, technical, and caring aspects of its profession. Nursing's valuation includes assessing nursing's tangible and intangible assets and documenting these assets. This information communicates nursing's worth and ensures adequate economic investment in its services.

  4. [Risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers].

    Cui, M J; Chen, Y; Li, Y; Hu, J; Zhang, X J

    2017-08-20

    Objective: To examine the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers. Methods: A total of 103 drivers (who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year based on the road traffic injury registrar from the Traffic Management Bureau) who were involved in the annual agricultural vehicle inspection from December 2014 to January 2015 were randomly sampled from the Yixing Agricultural Vehicle Station as the case group for this study. Based on a 1∶2 assignment ratio and matched for sex, age, and education, a total of 206 drivers who had not suffered any agricultural vehicle road traffic injury within the past year were selected as the control group. The general information, vehicle information, driving information, driving behavior, and accident details of the agricultural vehicle drivers were analyzed. Results: The incidence rate of road traffic injury was 7.24% given the 103 agricultural vehicle drivers who had suffered agricultural vehicle road traffic injury in the past year. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that drinking, debt, pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, smoking and phone use during driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =2.332, 2.429, 19.778, 5.589, 8.517, 2.125, 3.203, 10.249 and 5.639, respectively) . Multivariate logistic regression analysis also demonstrated that pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness were the risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers ( OR =12.139, 11.184, 6.729, 5.939, and 6.544, respectively) . Conclusion: Pressure, history of car accident, history of drunk driving, fatigue driving, and driving with illness are the major risk factors for road traffic injury in agricultural vehicle drivers.

  5. Combining coordination of motion actuators with driver steering interaction.

    Tagesson, Kristoffer; Laine, Leo; Jacobson, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    A new method is suggested for coordination of vehicle motion actuators; where driver feedback and capabilities become natural elements in the prioritization. The method is using a weighted least squares control allocation formulation, where driver characteristics can be added as virtual force constraints. The approach is in particular suitable for heavy commercial vehicles that in general are over actuated. The method is applied, in a specific use case, by running a simulation of a truck applying automatic braking on a split friction surface. Here the required driver steering angle, to maintain the intended direction, is limited by a constant threshold. This constant is automatically accounted for when balancing actuator usage in the method. Simulation results show that the actual required driver steering angle can be expected to match the set constant well. Furthermore, the stopping distance is very much affected by this set capability of the driver to handle the lateral disturbance, as expected. In general the capability of the driver to handle disturbances should be estimated in real-time, considering driver mental state. By using the method it will then be possible to estimate e.g. stopping distance implied from this. The setup has the potential of even shortening the stopping distance, when the driver is estimated as active, this compared to currently available systems. The approach is feasible for real-time applications and requires only measurable vehicle quantities for parameterization. Examples of other suitable applications in scope of the method would be electronic stability control, lateral stability control at launch and optimal cornering arbitration.

  6. Guiding Teen Drivers (A Cup of Health with CDC)

    2016-10-20

    Motor-vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death among teens. Parents have a big influence on young drivers and can help them reduce their risk for being involved in a crash. In this podcast, Amy Jewett discusses what parents can do to help keep young drivers safer on the road.  Created: 10/20/2016 by MMWR.   Date Released: 10/20/2016.

  7. Risk Management Analysis on the Car Drivers in Indonesia

    Kuntohadi, Hendro; Pahala, Yosi; Sitanggang, Rohana

    2015-01-01

    Car drivers in Indonesia will always face many kinds of risks. This research contains the context determination of this research, identifies all the significant risks, measures the frequency and impact of all the risks, draws all the identified risks in the chart, and describes how to manage or mitigate the risks. The dangerous risks which have high frequency and high impact are: 1) Many car drivers get the driving license without taking a driving course and without learning carefully the the...

  8. Key drivers of biomedical innovation in cancer drug discovery

    Huber, Margit A; Kraut, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Discovery and translational research has led to the identification of a series of ?cancer drivers??genes that, when mutated or otherwise misregulated, can drive malignancy. An increasing number of drugs that directly target such drivers have demonstrated activity in clinical trials and are shaping a new landscape for molecularly targeted cancer therapies. Such therapies rely on molecular and genetic diagnostic tests to detect the presence of a biomarker that predicts response. Here, we highli...

  9. Work-related driver safety: A multi-level investigation

    AMANDA ROSE WARMERDAM

    2017-01-01

    This program of research explored the organisational determinants of work-related road traffic injury in light vehicle fleets. The landscape of risk management in workplace road safety in Australia and organisational practices that influence safe driver behaviour were investigated. Key findings included that safe driving is influenced by factors at multiple levels, including senior managers, supervisors and individual fleet drivers and workplace road safety is not well integrated within curre...

  10. Identification of Constrained Cancer Driver Genes Based on Mutation Timing

    Sakoparnig, Thomas; Fried, Patrick; Beerenwinkel, Niko

    2015-01-01

    Cancer drivers are genomic alterations that provide cells containing them with a selective advantage over their local competitors, whereas neutral passengers do not change the somatic fitness of cells. Cancer-driving mutations are usually discriminated from passenger mutations by their higher degree of recurrence in tumor samples. However, there is increasing evidence that many additional driver mutations may exist that occur at very low frequencies among tumors. This observation has prompted alternative methods for driver detection, including finding groups of mutually exclusive mutations and incorporating prior biological knowledge about gene function or network structure. Dependencies among drivers due to epistatic interactions can also result in low mutation frequencies, but this effect has been ignored in driver detection so far. Here, we present a new computational approach for identifying genomic alterations that occur at low frequencies because they depend on other events. Unlike passengers, these constrained mutations display punctuated patterns of occurrence in time. We test this driver–passenger discrimination approach based on mutation timing in extensive simulation studies, and we apply it to cross-sectional copy number alteration (CNA) data from ovarian cancer, CNA and single-nucleotide variant (SNV) data from breast tumors and SNV data from colorectal cancer. Among the top ranked predicted drivers, we find low-frequency genes that have already been shown to be involved in carcinogenesis, as well as many new candidate drivers. The mutation timing approach is orthogonal and complementary to existing driver prediction methods. It will help identifying from cancer genome data the alterations that drive tumor progression. PMID:25569148

  11. Design and simulation of advanced charge recovery piezoactuator drivers

    Biancuzzi, G; Lemke, T; Woias, P; Goldschmidtboeing, F; Ruthmann, O; Schrag, H J; Vodermayer, B; Schmid, T

    2010-01-01

    The German Artificial Sphincter System project aims at the development of an implantable sphincter prosthesis driven by a piezoelectrically actuated micropump. The system has been designed to be fully implantable, i.e. the power supply is provided by a rechargeable lithium polymer battery. In order to provide sufficient battery duration and to limit battery dimensions, special effort has to be made to minimize power consumption of the whole system and, in particular, of the piezoactuator driver circuitry. Inductive charge recovery can be used to recover part of the charge stored within the actuator. We are going to present a simplified inductor-based circuit capable of voltage inversion across the actuator without the need of an additional negative voltage source. The dimension of the inductors required for such a concept is nevertheless significant. We therefore present a novel alternative concept, called direct switching, where the equivalent capacitance of the actuator is charged directly by a step-up converter and discharged by a step-down converter. We achieved superior performance compared to a simple inductor-based driver with the advantage of using small-size chip inductors. As a term of comparison, the performance of the aforementioned drivers is compared to a conventional driver that does not implement any charge recovery technique. With our design we have been able to achieve more than 50% reduction in power consumption compared to the simplest conventional driver. The new direct switching driver performs 15% better than an inductor-based driver. A novel, whole-system SPICE simulation is presented, where both the driving circuit and the piezoactuator are modeled making use of advanced nonlinear models. Such a simulation is a precious tool to design and optimize piezoactuator drivers

  12. Look-ahead driver feedback and powertrain management

    Verma, Rajeev [Eaton Corporation, Menomonee Falls, WI (United States)

    2014-12-31

    Commercial medium and heavy vehicles, though only a small portion of total vehicle population, play a significant role in energy consumption. In 2012, these vehicles accounted for about 5775.5 trillion btu of energy consumption and 408.8 million tons of CO2 emissions annually, which is a quarter of the total energy burden of highway transportation in the United States [1]. This number is expected to surpass passenger car fuel use within the next few decades. In the meantime, most commercial vehicle fleets are running at a very low profit margin. It is a well known fact that fuel economy can vary significantly between drivers, even when they operate the same vehicle on the same route. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resource Canada (NRCan), there is up to 35% fuel economy difference between drivers within the same commercial fleet [2] [3], [4]. Similar results were obtained from a Field Operation Test conducted by Eaton Corporation [5]. During this test as much as 30% fuel economy difference was observed among pick-up-and-delivery drivers and 11% difference was observed among line-haul drivers. The driver variability can be attributed to the fact that different drivers react differently to driving conditions such as road grade, traffic, speed limits, etc. For instance, analysis of over 600k miles of naturalistic heavy duty truck driving data [5] indicates that an experienced driver anticipates a downhill and eases up on the throttle to save fuel while an inexperienced driver lacks this judgment.

  13. Enhancing the Driver Awareness of Pedestrian using Augmented Reality Cues

    Phan , Minh Tien; Thouvenin , Indira; Frémont , Vincent

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Pedestrian accident is a serious problem for the society. Pedestrian Collision Warning Systems (PCWS) are proposed to detect the presence of pedestrians and to warn the driver about the potential dangers. However, their interfaces associated with ambiguous alerts can distract drivers and create more dangers. On the other hand, Augmented Reality (AR) with Head-Up Display (HUD) interfaces have recently attracted the attention in the field of automotive research as they c...

  14. Drivers of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Family Businesses

    Mengel, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyzed the Drivers and Implementation Approaches of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Family Businesses. Qualitative Analysis based on Semi-Structured Interviews was conducted in the region of Southern Lower Saxony and later on quantified through category-based Content Analysis. The results suggest that Drivers of CSR can be divided into value-based and strategic, and Implementation Approaches into informal and formal. Family Businesses are more likely to be driven by val...

  15. Arbitrary waveform generator to improve laser diode driver performance

    Fulkerson, Jr, Edward Steven

    2015-11-03

    An arbitrary waveform generator modifies the input signal to a laser diode driver circuit in order to reduce the overshoot/undershoot and provide a "flat-top" signal to the laser diode driver circuit. The input signal is modified based on the original received signal and the feedback from the laser diode by measuring the actual current flowing in the laser diode after the original signal is applied to the laser diode.

  16. Geneva University

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 7 December 2009 PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Topological insulators and topological superconductors Professor Shoucheng Zhang Department of Physics, Stanford University, CA   Recently, a new class of topological states has been theoretically predicted and experimentally realized. The topological insulators have an insulating gap in the bulk, but have topologically protected edge or surface states due to the time reversal symmetry. In two dimensions the edge states give rise to the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, in the absence of any external magnetic field. I shall review the theoretical prediction of the QSH state in HgTe/CdTe semiconductor quantum wells, and its recent experimental observation. The edge states of the QSH state supports fr...

  17. Geneva University

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 18 November  2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Highlights of the European Strategy Workshop for Future Neutrino Physics Dr Ilias Efthymiopoulos, CERN   Seminar cancelled! Information Organizer : J.-S. Graulich Monday 7 December 2009 PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Topological insulators and topological superconductors Professor Shoucheng Zhang Department of Physics, Stanford University, CA   Recently, a new class of topological states has been theoretically predicted and experimentally realized. The topological insulators have an insulating gap in the bulk, but have topologically protected edge or surface states due to the time reversal symmetry. In two dimensions the edge s...

  18. Geneva University

    2008-01-01

    Ecole de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 28 April 2008 PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM at 17.00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Gravity : an Emergent Perspective by Prof. Thanu Padmanabhan, Pune University Dean, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India I will motivate and describe a novel perspective in which gravity arises as an emergent phenomenon, somewhat like elasticity. This perspective throws light on several issues which are somewhat of a mystery in the conventional approach. Moreover it provides new insights on the dark energy problem. In fact, I will show that it is necessary to have such an alternative perspective in order to solve the cosmological constant problem.Information: http://theory.physics.unige.ch/~fiteo/seminars/COL/collist.html

  19. Designing Fatigue Warning Systems: The perspective of professional drivers.

    Meng, Fanxing; Li, Shuling; Cao, Lingzhi; Peng, Qijia; Li, Musen; Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Professional drivers have been characterized as experiencing heavy fatigue resulting from long driving time in their daily work. This study aimed to explore the potential demand of Fatigue Warning Systems (FWSs) among professional drivers as a means of reducing the danger of fatigue driving and to examine their opinions regarding the design of FWSs. Six focus groups with 35 participants and a questionnaire survey with 600 respondents were conducted among Chinese truck and taxi drivers to collect qualitative and quantitative data concerning the current situation of fatigue driving and opinions regarding the design of FWSs. The results revealed that both truck and taxi drivers had a positive attitude toward FWSs, and they hoped this system could not only monitor and warn them regarding their fatigue but also somewhat relieve their fatigue before they could stop and rest. As for warning signals, participants preferred auditory warnings, as opposed to visual, vibrotactile or electric stimuli. Interestingly, it was proposed that verbal warnings involving the information regarding consequences of fatigue driving or the wishes of drivers' family members would be more effective. Additionally, different warning patterns, including graded, single and continuous warnings, were discussed in the focus group. Finally, the participants proposed many other suggestions, as well as their concerns regarding FWSs, which will provide valuable information for companies who wish to develop FWSs for professional drivers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Crash probability estimation via quantifying driver hazard perception.

    Li, Yang; Zheng, Yang; Wang, Jianqiang; Kodaka, Kenji; Li, Keqiang

    2018-07-01

    Crash probability estimation is an important method to predict the potential reduction of crash probability contributed by forward collision avoidance technologies (FCATs). In this study, we propose a practical approach to estimate crash probability, which combines a field operational test and numerical simulations of a typical rear-end crash model. To consider driver hazard perception characteristics, we define a novel hazard perception measure, called as driver risk response time, by considering both time-to-collision (TTC) and driver braking response to impending collision risk in a near-crash scenario. Also, we establish a driving database under mixed Chinese traffic conditions based on a CMBS (Collision Mitigation Braking Systems)-equipped vehicle. Applying the crash probability estimation in this database, we estimate the potential decrease in crash probability owing to use of CMBS. A comparison of the results with CMBS on and off shows a 13.7% reduction of crash probability in a typical rear-end near-crash scenario with a one-second delay of driver's braking response. These results indicate that CMBS is positive in collision prevention, especially in the case of inattentive drivers or ole drivers. The proposed crash probability estimation offers a practical way for evaluating the safety benefits in the design and testing of FCATs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.