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  1. The Use of Univariate and Multivariate Analyses in the Geochemical Exploration, Ravanj Lead Mine, Delijan, Iran

    Mostafa Nejadhadad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A geochemical exploration program was applied to recognize the anomalous geochemical haloes at the Ravanj lead mine, Delijan, Iran. Sampling of unweathered rocks were undertaken across rock exposures on a 10 × 10 meter grid (n = 302 as well as the accessible parts of underground mine A (n = 42. First, the threshold values of all elements were determined using the cut-off values used in the exploratory data analysis (EDA method. Then, for further studies, elements with lognormal distributions (Pb, Zn, Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Sb, S, Sr, Th, Ba, Bi, Fe, Ni and Mn were selected. Robustness against outliers is achieved by application of central log ratio transformation to address the closure problems with compositional data prior to principle components analysis (PCA. Results of these analyses show that, in the Ravanj deposit, Pb mineralization is characterized by a Pb-Ba-Ag-Sb ± Zn ± Cd association. The supra-mineralization haloes are characterized by barite and tetrahedrite in a Ba- Th- Ag- Cu- Sb- As- Sr association and sub-mineralization haloes are comprised of pyrite and tetrahedrite, probably reflecting a Fe-Cu-As-Bi-Ni-Co-Mo-Mn association. Using univariate and multivariate geostatistical analyses (e.g., EDA and robust PCA, four anomalies were detected and mapped in Block A of the Ravanj deposit. Anomalies 1 and 2 are around the ancient orebodies. Anomaly 3 is located in a thin bedded limestone-shale intercalation unit that does not show significant mineralization. Drilling of the fourth anomaly suggested a low grade, non-economic Pb mineralization.

  2. Modeling the potential risk factors of bovine viral diarrhea prevalence in Egypt using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses

    Abdelfattah M. Selim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV disease in cattle and buffaloes in Egypt, to model the potential risk factors associated with the disease using logistic regression (LR models, and to fit the best predictive model for the current data. Materials and Methods: A total of 740 blood samples were collected within November 2012-March 2013 from animals aged between 6 months and 3 years. The potential risk factors studied were species, age, sex, and herd location. All serum samples were examined with indirect ELIZA test for antibody detection. Data were analyzed with different statistical approaches such as Chi-square test, odds ratios (OR, univariable, and multivariable LR models. Results: Results revealed a non-significant association between being seropositive with BVDV and all risk factors, except for species of animal. Seroprevalence percentages were 40% and 23% for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. OR for all categories were close to one with the highest OR for cattle relative to buffaloes, which was 2.237. Likelihood ratio tests showed a significant drop of the -2LL from univariable LR to multivariable LR models. Conclusion: There was an evidence of high seroprevalence of BVDV among cattle as compared with buffaloes with the possibility of infection in different age groups of animals. In addition, multivariable LR model was proved to provide more information for association and prediction purposes relative to univariable LR models and Chi-square tests if we have more than one predictor.

  3. In situ calibration using univariate analyses based on the onboard ChemCam targets: first prediction of Martian rock and soil compositions

    Fabre, C.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R.C.; Ollila, A.; Gasnault, O.; Maurice, S.; Sautter, V.; Forni, O.; Lasue, J.; Tokar, R.; Vaniman, D.; Melikechi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Curiosity rover landed on August 6th, 2012 in Gale Crater, Mars and it possesses unique analytical capabilities to investigate the chemistry and mineralogy of the Martian soil. In particular, the LIBS technique is being used for the first time on another planet with the ChemCam instrument, and more than 75,000 spectra have been returned in the first year on Mars. Curiosity carries body-mounted calibration targets specially designed for the ChemCam instrument, some of which are homgeneous glasses and others that are fine-grained glass-ceramics. We present direct calibrations, using these onboard standards to infer elements and element ratios by ratioing relative peak areas. As the laser spot size is around 300 μm, the LIBS technique provides measurements of the silicate glass compositions representing homogeneous material and measurements of the ceramic targets that are comparable to fine-grained rock or soil. The laser energy and the auto-focus are controlled for all sequences used for calibration. The univariate calibration curves present relatively to very good correlation coefficients with low RSDs for major and ratio calibrations. Trace element calibration curves (Li, Sr, and Mn), down to several ppm, can be used as a rapid tool to draw attention to remarkable rocks and soils along the traverse. First comparisons to alpha-particle X-ray spectroscopy (APXS) data, on selected targets, show good agreement for most elements and for Mg# and Al/Si estimates. SiO 2 estimates using univariate cannot be yet used. Na 2 O and K 2 O estimates are relevant for high alkali contents, but probably under estimated due to the CCCT initial compositions. Very good results for CaO and Al 2 O 3 estimates and satisfactory results for FeO are obtained. - Highlights: • In situ LIBS univariate calibrations are done using the Curiosity onboard standards. • Major and minor element contents can be rapidly obtained. • Trace element contents can be used as a rapid tool along the

  4. In situ calibration using univariate analyses based on the onboard ChemCam targets: first prediction of Martian rock and soil compositions

    Fabre, C. [GeoRessources lab, Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Cousin, A.; Wiens, R.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ollila, A. [University of NM, Albuquerque (United States); Gasnault, O.; Maurice, S. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Sautter, V. [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (France); Forni, O.; Lasue, J. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Tokar, R.; Vaniman, D. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Melikechi, N. [Delaware State University (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Curiosity rover landed on August 6th, 2012 in Gale Crater, Mars and it possesses unique analytical capabilities to investigate the chemistry and mineralogy of the Martian soil. In particular, the LIBS technique is being used for the first time on another planet with the ChemCam instrument, and more than 75,000 spectra have been returned in the first year on Mars. Curiosity carries body-mounted calibration targets specially designed for the ChemCam instrument, some of which are homgeneous glasses and others that are fine-grained glass-ceramics. We present direct calibrations, using these onboard standards to infer elements and element ratios by ratioing relative peak areas. As the laser spot size is around 300 μm, the LIBS technique provides measurements of the silicate glass compositions representing homogeneous material and measurements of the ceramic targets that are comparable to fine-grained rock or soil. The laser energy and the auto-focus are controlled for all sequences used for calibration. The univariate calibration curves present relatively to very good correlation coefficients with low RSDs for major and ratio calibrations. Trace element calibration curves (Li, Sr, and Mn), down to several ppm, can be used as a rapid tool to draw attention to remarkable rocks and soils along the traverse. First comparisons to alpha-particle X-ray spectroscopy (APXS) data, on selected targets, show good agreement for most elements and for Mg# and Al/Si estimates. SiO{sub 2} estimates using univariate cannot be yet used. Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O estimates are relevant for high alkali contents, but probably under estimated due to the CCCT initial compositions. Very good results for CaO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} estimates and satisfactory results for FeO are obtained. - Highlights: • In situ LIBS univariate calibrations are done using the Curiosity onboard standards. • Major and minor element contents can be rapidly obtained. • Trace element contents can be used as a

  5. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses for 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 genes predisposing to chronic glomerular diseases and IgA nephropathy in Han Chinese.

    Wang, Hui; Sui, Weiguo; Xue, Wen; Wu, Junyong; Chen, Jiejing; Dai, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is a complex trait regulated by the interaction among multiple physiologic regulatory systems and probably involving numerous genes, which leads to inconsistent findings in genetic studies. One possibility of failure to replicate some single-locus results is that the underlying genetics of IgAN nephropathy is based on multiple genes with minor effects. To learn the association between 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 genes predisposing to chronic glomerular diseases and IgAN in Han males, the 23 SNPs genotypes of 21 Han males were detected and analyzed with a BaiO gene chip, and their associations were analyzed with univariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. Analysis showed that CTLA4 rs231726 and CR2 rs1048971 revealed a significant association with IgAN. These findings support the multi-gene nature of the etiology of IgAN and propose a potential gene-gene interactive model for future studies.

  6. Evaluation of the efficiency of continuous wavelet transform as processing and preprocessing algorithm for resolution of overlapped signals in univariate and multivariate regression analyses; an application to ternary and quaternary mixtures

    Hegazy, Maha A.; Lotfy, Hayam M.; Mowaka, Shereen; Mohamed, Ekram Hany

    2016-07-01

    Wavelets have been adapted for a vast number of signal-processing applications due to the amount of information that can be extracted from a signal. In this work, a comparative study on the efficiency of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) as a signal processing tool in univariate regression and a pre-processing tool in multivariate analysis using partial least square (CWT-PLS) was conducted. These were applied to complex spectral signals of ternary and quaternary mixtures. CWT-PLS method succeeded in the simultaneous determination of a quaternary mixture of drotaverine (DRO), caffeine (CAF), paracetamol (PAR) and p-aminophenol (PAP, the major impurity of paracetamol). While, the univariate CWT failed to simultaneously determine the quaternary mixture components and was able to determine only PAR and PAP, the ternary mixtures of DRO, CAF, and PAR and CAF, PAR, and PAP. During the calculations of CWT, different wavelet families were tested. The univariate CWT method was validated according to the ICH guidelines. While for the development of the CWT-PLS model a calibration set was prepared by means of an orthogonal experimental design and their absorption spectra were recorded and processed by CWT. The CWT-PLS model was constructed by regression between the wavelet coefficients and concentration matrices and validation was performed by both cross validation and external validation sets. Both methods were successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in pharmaceutical formulations.

  7. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; univariate study; normalization models; stainless steel; standard error of prediction. Abstract. Analytical performance of six different spectrum normalization techniques, namelyinternal normalization, normalization with total light, normalization with background along with their ...

  8. VC-dimension of univariate decision trees.

    Yildiz, Olcay Taner

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we give and prove the lower bounds of the Vapnik-Chervonenkis (VC)-dimension of the univariate decision tree hypothesis class. The VC-dimension of the univariate decision tree depends on the VC-dimension values of its subtrees and the number of inputs. Via a search algorithm that calculates the VC-dimension of univariate decision trees exhaustively, we show that our VC-dimension bounds are tight for simple trees. To verify that the VC-dimension bounds are useful, we also use them to get VC-generalization bounds for complexity control using structural risk minimization in decision trees, i.e., pruning. Our simulation results show that structural risk minimization pruning using the VC-dimension bounds finds trees that are more accurate as those pruned using cross validation.

  9. Can adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes be predicted when blood pressure becomes elevated? Secondary analyses from the CHIPS (Control of Hypertension In Pregnancy Study) randomized controlled trial.

    Magee, Laura A; von Dadelszen, Peter; Singer, Joel; Lee, Terry; Rey, Evelyne; Ross, Susan; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Murphy, Kellie E; Menzies, Jennifer; Sanchez, Johanna; Gafni, Amiram; Gruslin, Andrée; Helewa, Michael; Hutton, Eileen; Lee, Shoo K; Logan, Alexander G; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Welch, Ross; Thornton, Jim G; Moutquin, Jean Marie

    2016-07-01

    For women with chronic or gestational hypertension in CHIPS (Control of Hypertension In Pregnancy Study, NCT01192412), we aimed to examine whether clinical predictors collected at randomization could predict adverse outcomes. This was a planned, secondary analysis of data from the 987 women in the CHIPS Trial. Logistic regression was used to examine the impact of 19 candidate predictors on the probability of adverse perinatal (pregnancy loss or high level neonatal care for >48 h, or birthweight hypertension, preeclampsia, or delivery at blood pressure within 1 week before randomization. Continuous variables were represented continuously or dichotomized based on the smaller p-value in univariate analyses. An area-under-the-receiver-operating-curve (AUC ROC) of ≥0.70 was taken to reflect a potentially useful model. Point estimates for AUC ROC were hypertension (0.70, 95% CI 0.67-0.74) and delivery at hypertension develop an elevated blood pressure in pregnancy, or formerly normotensive women develop new gestational hypertension, maternal and current pregnancy clinical characteristics cannot predict adverse outcomes in the index pregnancy. © 2016 The Authors. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology (NFOG).

  10. INFLUENCE ANALYSES OF DESIGNED CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ELEVATOR TO THE PARAMETERS OF ITS DRIVE

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. A drive behaves to the basic elements of scoop band elevators. To determine the drive power calculations are carried out according to standard methods, which take plenty of time. It is necessary to conduct the analysis of influence of project characteristics on the parameters of high-speed drive in a scoop bent elevator and to build the improved algorithm of speed-up determination of its drive power on project descriptions, that will take into account the type of load, rise height, necessary productivity, standard parameters of scoops and tape. Methodology. Using parametric dependences of elevators drive power on its project characteristics, received by the author earlier, the improved algorithm of speed-up determination of elevators high-speed drive power with deep and shallow scoops at set type of load, productivity, rise height was offered. Findings. The algorithm of drive power speed-up determination of high-speed vertical elevators with deep and shallow scoops depending on project parameters was offered. The example of such algorithm application is considered for an elevator that is intended for transporting of cement. Analytical dependences of drive power of such elevator are determined on the productivity and rise height. Corresponding graphic dependences were built and character of drive power changes during the size changing of any project characteristics was determined. Originality. The improved algorithm of drive power elevator determination at the given project characteristics (type of load, rise height, productivity that takes into account standard sizes, parameters of scoops and ribbons, was built at first time. Practical value. The use of an offered algorithm of calculation gives the possibility of relatively fast determination of reference value of high-speed elevators drive power with deep and shallow scoops, to build graphic dependences of drive power on the values of the productivity and rise height at the certain

  11. Patterns of macromycete community assemblage along an elevation gradient: options for fungal gradient and metacommunity analyse

    Marko Gómez-Hernández; Guadalupe Williams-Linera; Roger Guevara; D. Jean Lodge

    2012-01-01

    Gradient analysis is rarely used in studies of fungal communities. Data on macromycetes from eight sites along an elevation gradient in central Veracruz, Mexico, were used to demonstrate methods for gradient analysis that can be applied to studies of communities of fungi. Selected sites from 100 to 3,500 m altitude represent tropical dry forest, tropical montane cloud...

  12. Robustness of xylem properties in conifers: analyses of tracheid and pit dimensions along elevational transects.

    Losso, Adriano; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Ganthaler, Andrea; Kofler, Werner; Markl, Yvonne; Nardini, Andrea; Oberhuber, Walter; Purin, Gerhard; Mayr, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    In alpine regions, tree hydraulics are limited by low temperatures that restrict xylem growth and induce winter frost drought and freezing stress. While several studies have dealt with functional limitations, data on elevational changes in functionally relevant xylem anatomical parameters are still scarce. In wood cores of Pinus cembra L. and Picea abies (L.) Karst. trunks, harvested along five elevational transects, xylem anatomical parameters (tracheid hydraulic diameter dh, wall reinforcement (t/b)2), pit dimensions (pit aperture Da, pit membrane Dm and torus Dt diameters) and respective functional indices (torus overlap O, margo flexibility) were measured. In both species, tracheid diameters decreased and (t/b)2 increased with increasing elevation, while pit dimensions and functional indices remained rather constant (P. cembra: Dt 10.3 ± 0.2 μm, O 0.477 ± 0.005; P. abies: Dt 9.30 ± 0.18 μm, O 0.492 ± 0.005). However, dh increased with tree height following a power trajectory with an exponent of 0.21, and also pit dimensions increased with tree height (exponents: Dm 0.18; Dt 0.14; Da 0.11). Observed elevational trends in xylem structures were predominantly determined by changes in tree size. Tree height-related changes in anatomical traits showed a remarkable robustness, regardless of the distributional ranges of study species. Despite increasing stress intensities towards the timberline, no adjustment in hydraulic safety at the pit level was observed. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Structure-from-Motion Using Historical Aerial Images to Analyse Changes in Glacier Surface Elevation

    Nico Mölg

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of structure-from-motion (SfM to generate digital terrain models (DTMs derived from different image sources has strongly increased, the major reason for this being that processing is substantially easier with SfM than with conventional photogrammetry. To test the functionality in a demanding environment, we applied SfM and conventional photogrammetry to archival aerial images from Zmuttgletscher, a mountain glacier in Switzerland, for nine dates between 1946 and 2005 using the most popular software packages, and compared the results regarding bundle adjustment and final DTM quality. The results suggest that by using SfM it is possible to produce DTMs of similar quality as with conventional photogrammetry. Higher point cloud density and less noise allow a higher ground resolution of the final DTM, and the time effort from the user is 3–6 times smaller, while the controls of the commercial software packages Agisoft PhotoScan (Version 1.2; Agisoft, St. Petersburg, Russia and Pix4Dmapper (Version 3.0; Pix4D, Lausanne, Switzerland are limited in comparison to ERDAS photogrammetry. SfM performs less reliably when few images with little overlap are processed. Even though SfM facilitates the largely automated production of high quality DTMs, the user is not exempt from a thorough quality check, at best with reference data where available. The resulting DTM time series revealed an average change in surface elevation at the glacier tongue of −67.0 ± 5.3 m. The spatial pattern of changes over time reflects the influence of flow dynamics and the melt of clean ice and that under debris cover. With continued technological advances, we expect to see an increasing use of SfM in glaciology for a variety of purposes, also in processing archival aerial imagery.

  14. The pathways for intelligible speech: multivariate and univariate perspectives.

    Evans, S; Kyong, J S; Rosen, S; Golestani, N; Warren, J E; McGettigan, C; Mourão-Miranda, J; Wise, R J S; Scott, S K

    2014-09-01

    An anterior pathway, concerned with extracting meaning from sound, has been identified in nonhuman primates. An analogous pathway has been suggested in humans, but controversy exists concerning the degree of lateralization and the precise location where responses to intelligible speech emerge. We have demonstrated that the left anterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responds preferentially to intelligible speech (Scott SK, Blank CC, Rosen S, Wise RJS. 2000. Identification of a pathway for intelligible speech in the left temporal lobe. Brain. 123:2400-2406.). A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in Cerebral Cortex used equivalent stimuli and univariate and multivariate analyses to argue for the greater importance of bilateral posterior when compared with the left anterior STS in responding to intelligible speech (Okada K, Rong F, Venezia J, Matchin W, Hsieh IH, Saberi K, Serences JT,Hickok G. 2010. Hierarchical organization of human auditory cortex: evidence from acoustic invariance in the response to intelligible speech. 20: 2486-2495.). Here, we also replicate our original study, demonstrating that the left anterior STS exhibits the strongest univariate response and, in decoding using the bilateral temporal cortex, contains the most informative voxels showing an increased response to intelligible speech. In contrast, in classifications using local "searchlights" and a whole brain analysis, we find greater classification accuracy in posterior rather than anterior temporal regions. Thus, we show that the precise nature of the multivariate analysis used will emphasize different response profiles associated with complex sound to speech processing. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Comparative proteomics analyses of Kobresia pygmaea adaptation to environment along an elevational gradient on the central Tibetan Plateau.

    Xiong Li

    Full Text Available Variations in elevation limit the growth and distribution of alpine plants because multiple environmental stresses impact plant growth, including sharp temperature shifts, strong ultraviolet radiation exposure, low oxygen content, etc. Alpine plants have developed special strategies to help survive the harsh environments of high mountains, but the internal mechanisms remain undefined. Kobresia pygmaea, the dominant species of alpine meadows, is widely distributed in the Southeastern Tibet Plateau, Tibet Autonomous Region, China. In this study, we mainly used comparative proteomics analyses to investigate the dynamic protein patterns for K. pygmaea located at four different elevations (4600, 4800, 4950 and 5100 m. A total of 58 differentially expressed proteins were successfully detected and functionally characterized. The proteins were divided into various functional categories, including material and energy metabolism, protein synthesis and degradation, redox process, defense response, photosynthesis, and protein kinase. Our study confirmed that increasing levels of antioxidant and heat shock proteins and the accumulation of primary metabolites, such as proline and abscisic acid, conferred K. pygmaea with tolerance to the alpine environment. In addition, the various methods K. pygmaea used to regulate material and energy metabolism played important roles in the development of tolerance to environmental stress. Our results also showed that the way in which K. pygmaea mediated stomatal characteristics and photosynthetic pigments constitutes an enhanced adaptation to alpine environmental stress. According to these findings, we concluded that K. pygmaea adapted to the high-elevation environment on the Tibetan Plateau by aggressively accumulating abiotic stress-related metabolites and proteins and by the various life events mediated by proteins. Based on the species'lexible physiological and biochemical processes, we surmised that environment change

  16. Comparative Proteomics Analyses of Kobresia pygmaea Adaptation to Environment along an Elevational Gradient on the Central Tibetan Plateau

    Li, Xiong; Yang, Yunqiang; Ma, Lan; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Shihai; Kong, Xiangxiang; Hu, Xiangyang; Yang, Yongping

    2014-01-01

    Variations in elevation limit the growth and distribution of alpine plants because multiple environmental stresses impact plant growth, including sharp temperature shifts, strong ultraviolet radiation exposure, low oxygen content, etc. Alpine plants have developed special strategies to help survive the harsh environments of high mountains, but the internal mechanisms remain undefined. Kobresia pygmaea, the dominant species of alpine meadows, is widely distributed in the Southeastern Tibet Plateau, Tibet Autonomous Region, China. In this study, we mainly used comparative proteomics analyses to investigate the dynamic protein patterns for K. pygmaea located at four different elevations (4600, 4800, 4950 and 5100 m). A total of 58 differentially expressed proteins were successfully detected and functionally characterized. The proteins were divided into various functional categories, including material and energy metabolism, protein synthesis and degradation, redox process, defense response, photosynthesis, and protein kinase. Our study confirmed that increasing levels of antioxidant and heat shock proteins and the accumulation of primary metabolites, such as proline and abscisic acid, conferred K. pygmaea with tolerance to the alpine environment. In addition, the various methods K. pygmaea used to regulate material and energy metabolism played important roles in the development of tolerance to environmental stress. Our results also showed that the way in which K. pygmaea mediated stomatal characteristics and photosynthetic pigments constitutes an enhanced adaptation to alpine environmental stress. According to these findings, we concluded that K. pygmaea adapted to the high-elevation environment on the Tibetan Plateau by aggressively accumulating abiotic stress-related metabolites and proteins and by the various life events mediated by proteins. Based on the species'lexible physiological and biochemical processes, we surmised that environment change has only a slight

  17. Simulation and analysis of the energy consumption of elevator systems; Simulation und Analyse des Energiebedarfs von Aufzugssystemen

    Pletschen, Ingo; Rohr, Stephan [ThyssenKrupp Aufzugswerke GmbH, Neuhausen a.d.F. (Germany); Kennel, Ralph [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Elevator systems would be in principal a good example for a perpetuum mobile. While lifting loads and persons electrical energy is converted into potential energy and reconverted later. In practice these conversions are however lossy. So the aim for high energy efficiency is to minimize these losses. However, as a travel of an elevator consists in main parts of acceleration and deceleration, the exclusive consideration of the efficiency during constant speed is not sufficient. Thus a simulation environment is introduced which reliably determines the elevators' energy consumption. The simulation is validated at an elevator afterwards the different influences on the energy consumption of elevators are analyzed. (orig.)

  18. Regression Is a Univariate General Linear Model Subsuming Other Parametric Methods as Special Cases.

    Vidal, Sherry

    Although the concept of the general linear model (GLM) has existed since the 1960s, other univariate analyses such as the t-test and the analysis of variance models have remained popular. The GLM produces an equation that minimizes the mean differences of independent variables as they are related to a dependent variable. From a computer printout…

  19. Decoding auditory spatial and emotional information encoding using multivariate versus univariate techniques.

    Kryklywy, James H; Macpherson, Ewan A; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2018-04-01

    Emotion can have diverse effects on behaviour and perception, modulating function in some circumstances, and sometimes having little effect. Recently, it was identified that part of the heterogeneity of emotional effects could be due to a dissociable representation of emotion in dual pathway models of sensory processing. Our previous fMRI experiment using traditional univariate analyses showed that emotion modulated processing in the auditory 'what' but not 'where' processing pathway. The current study aims to further investigate this dissociation using a more recently emerging multi-voxel pattern analysis searchlight approach. While undergoing fMRI, participants localized sounds of varying emotional content. A searchlight multi-voxel pattern analysis was conducted to identify activity patterns predictive of sound location and/or emotion. Relative to the prior univariate analysis, MVPA indicated larger overlapping spatial and emotional representations of sound within early secondary regions associated with auditory localization. However, consistent with the univariate analysis, these two dimensions were increasingly segregated in late secondary and tertiary regions of the auditory processing streams. These results, while complimentary to our original univariate analyses, highlight the utility of multiple analytic approaches for neuroimaging, particularly for neural processes with known representations dependent on population coding.

  20. Univariate characterization of the German business cycle 1955-1994

    Weihs, Claus; Garczarek, Ursula

    2002-01-01

    We present a descriptive analysis of stylized facts for the German business cycle. We demonstrate that simple ad-hoc instructions for identifying univariate rules characterizing the German business cycle 1955-1994 lead to an error rate comparable to standard multivariate methods.

  1. New Riemannian Priors on the Univariate Normal Model

    Salem Said

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current paper introduces new prior distributions on the univariate normal model, with the aim of applying them to the classification of univariate normal populations. These new prior distributions are entirely based on the Riemannian geometry of the univariate normal model, so that they can be thought of as “Riemannian priors”. Precisely, if {pθ ; θ ∈ Θ} is any parametrization of the univariate normal model, the paper considers prior distributions G( θ - , γ with hyperparameters θ - ∈ Θ and γ > 0, whose density with respect to Riemannian volume is proportional to exp(−d2(θ, θ - /2γ2, where d2(θ, θ - is the square of Rao’s Riemannian distance. The distributions G( θ - , γ are termed Gaussian distributions on the univariate normal model. The motivation for considering a distribution G( θ - , γ is that this distribution gives a geometric representation of a class or cluster of univariate normal populations. Indeed, G( θ - , γ has a unique mode θ - (precisely, θ - is the unique Riemannian center of mass of G( θ - , γ, as shown in the paper, and its dispersion away from θ - is given by γ.  Therefore, one thinks of members of the class represented by G( θ - , γ as being centered around θ - and  lying within a typical  distance determined by γ. The paper defines rigorously the Gaussian distributions G( θ - , γ and describes an algorithm for computing maximum likelihood estimates of their hyperparameters. Based on this algorithm and on the Laplace approximation, it describes how the distributions G( θ - , γ can be used as prior distributions for Bayesian classification of large univariate normal populations. In a concrete application to texture image classification, it is shown that  this  leads  to  an  improvement  in  performance  over  the  use  of  conjugate  priors.

  2. Univariate normalization of bispectrum using Hölder's inequality.

    Shahbazi, Forooz; Ewald, Arne; Nolte, Guido

    2014-08-15

    Considering that many biological systems including the brain are complex non-linear systems, suitable methods capable of detecting these non-linearities are required to study the dynamical properties of these systems. One of these tools is the third order cummulant or cross-bispectrum, which is a measure of interfrequency interactions between three signals. For convenient interpretation, interaction measures are most commonly normalized to be independent of constant scales of the signals such that its absolute values are bounded by one, with this limit reflecting perfect coupling. Although many different normalization factors for cross-bispectra were suggested in the literature these either do not lead to bounded measures or are themselves dependent on the coupling and not only on the scale of the signals. In this paper we suggest a normalization factor which is univariate, i.e., dependent only on the amplitude of each signal and not on the interactions between signals. Using a generalization of Hölder's inequality it is proven that the absolute value of this univariate bicoherence is bounded by zero and one. We compared three widely used normalizations to the univariate normalization concerning the significance of bicoherence values gained from resampling tests. Bicoherence values are calculated from real EEG data recorded in an eyes closed experiment from 10 subjects. The results show slightly more significant values for the univariate normalization but in general, the differences are very small or even vanishing in some subjects. Therefore, we conclude that the normalization factor does not play an important role in the bicoherence values with regard to statistical power, although a univariate normalization is the only normalization factor which fulfills all the required conditions of a proper normalization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Morphological Analyses and Simulated Flood Elevations in a Watershed with Dredged and Leveed Stream Channels, Wheeling Creek, Eastern Ohio

    Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The USGS, in cooperation with the Ohio Emergency Management Agency, conducted a study in the Wheeling Creek Basin to (1) evaluate and contrast land-cover characteristics from 2001 with characteristics from 1979 and 1992; (2) compare current streambed elevation, slope, and geometry with conditions present in the late 1980s; (3) look for evidence of channel filling and over widening in selected undredged reaches; (4) estimate flood elevations for existing conditions in both undredged and previously dredged reaches; (5) evaluate the height of the levees required to contain floods with selected recurrence intervals in previously dredged reaches; and (6) estimate flood elevations for several hypothetical dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios in undredged reaches. The amount of barren land in the Wheeling Creek watershed has decreased from 20 to 1 percent of the basin area based on land-cover characteristics from 1979 and 2001. Barren lands appear to have been converted primarily to pasture, presumably as a result of surface-mine reclamation. Croplands also decreased from 13 to 8 percent of the basin area. The combined decrease in barren lands and croplands is approximately offset by the increase in pasture. Stream-channel surveys conducted in 1987 and again in 2006 at 21 sites in four previously dredged reaches of Wheeling Creek indicate little change in the elevation, slope, and geometry of the channel at most sites. The mean change in width-averaged bed and thalweg elevations for the 21 cross sections was 0.1 feet. Bankfull widths, mean depths, and cross-sectional areas measured at 12 sites in undredged reaches were compared to estimates determined from regional equations. The mean percentage difference between measured and estimated bankfull widths was -0.2 percent, suggesting that bankfull widths in the Wheeling Creek Basin are generally about the same as regional averages for undisturbed basins of identical drainage area. For bankfull mean depth and cross

  4. Evaluation of droplet size distributions using univariate and multivariate approaches

    Gauno, M.H.; Larsen, C.C.; Vilhelmsen, T.

    2013-01-01

    of the distribution. The current study was aiming to compare univariate and multivariate approach in evaluating droplet size distributions. As a model system, the atomization of a coating solution from a two-fluid nozzle was investigated. The effect of three process parameters (concentration of ethyl cellulose...... in ethanol, atomizing air pressure, and flow rate of coating solution) on the droplet size and droplet size distribution using a full mixed factorial design was used. The droplet size produced by a two-fluid nozzle was measured by laser diffraction and reported as volume based size distribution....... Investigation of loading and score plots from principal component analysis (PCA) revealed additional information on the droplet size distributions and it was possible to identify univariate statistics (volume median droplet size), which were similar, however, originating from varying droplet size distributions...

  5. Which DTW Method Applied to Marine Univariate Time Series Imputation

    Phan , Thi-Thu-Hong; Caillault , Émilie; Lefebvre , Alain; Bigand , André

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Missing data are ubiquitous in any domains of applied sciences. Processing datasets containing missing values can lead to a loss of efficiency and unreliable results, especially for large missing sub-sequence(s). Therefore, the aim of this paper is to build a framework for filling missing values in univariate time series and to perform a comparison of different similarity metrics used for the imputation task. This allows to suggest the most suitable methods for the imp...

  6. Univariate decision tree induction using maximum margin classification

    Yıldız, Olcay Taner

    2012-01-01

    In many pattern recognition applications, first decision trees are used due to their simplicity and easily interpretable nature. In this paper, we propose a new decision tree learning algorithm called univariate margin tree where, for each continuous attribute, the best split is found using convex optimization. Our simulation results on 47 data sets show that the novel margin tree classifier performs at least as good as C4.5 and linear discriminant tree (LDT) with a similar time complexity. F...

  7. Acceleration techniques in the univariate Lipschitz global optimization

    Sergeyev, Yaroslav D.; Kvasov, Dmitri E.; Mukhametzhanov, Marat S.; De Franco, Angela

    2016-10-01

    Univariate box-constrained Lipschitz global optimization problems are considered in this contribution. Geometric and information statistical approaches are presented. The novel powerful local tuning and local improvement techniques are described in the contribution as well as the traditional ways to estimate the Lipschitz constant. The advantages of the presented local tuning and local improvement techniques are demonstrated using the operational characteristics approach for comparing deterministic global optimization algorithms on the class of 100 widely used test functions.

  8. Evaluation of droplet size distributions using univariate and multivariate approaches.

    Gaunø, Mette Høg; Larsen, Crilles Casper; Vilhelmsen, Thomas; Møller-Sonnergaard, Jørn; Wittendorff, Jørgen; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutically relevant material characteristics are often analyzed based on univariate descriptors instead of utilizing the whole information available in the full distribution. One example is droplet size distribution, which is often described by the median droplet size and the width of the distribution. The current study was aiming to compare univariate and multivariate approach in evaluating droplet size distributions. As a model system, the atomization of a coating solution from a two-fluid nozzle was investigated. The effect of three process parameters (concentration of ethyl cellulose in ethanol, atomizing air pressure, and flow rate of coating solution) on the droplet size and droplet size distribution using a full mixed factorial design was used. The droplet size produced by a two-fluid nozzle was measured by laser diffraction and reported as volume based size distribution. Investigation of loading and score plots from principal component analysis (PCA) revealed additional information on the droplet size distributions and it was possible to identify univariate statistics (volume median droplet size), which were similar, however, originating from varying droplet size distributions. The multivariate data analysis was proven to be an efficient tool for evaluating the full information contained in a distribution.

  9. Univaried models in the series of temperature of the air

    Leon Aristizabal Gloria esperanza

    2000-01-01

    The theoretical framework for the study of the air's temperature time series is the theory of stochastic processes, particularly those known as ARIMA, that make it possible to carry out a univaried analysis. ARIMA models are built in order to explain the structure of the monthly temperatures corresponding to the mean, the absolute maximum, absolute minimum, maximum mean and minimum mean temperatures, for four stations in Colombia. By means of those models, the possible evolution of the latter variables is estimated with predictive aims in mind. The application and utility of the models is discussed

  10. Effect Sizes for Research Univariate and Multivariate Applications

    Grissom, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Noted for its comprehensive coverage, this greatly expanded new edition now covers the use of univariate and multivariate effect sizes. Many measures and estimators are reviewed along with their application, interpretation, and limitations. Noted for its practical approach, the book features numerous examples using real data for a variety of variables and designs, to help readers apply the material to their own data. Tips on the use of SPSS, SAS, R, and S-Plus are provided. The book's broad disciplinary appeal results from its inclusion of a variety of examples from psychology, medicine, educa

  11. Handbook of univariate and multivariate data analysis with IBM SPSS

    Ho, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Using the same accessible, hands-on approach as its best-selling predecessor, the Handbook of Univariate and Multivariate Data Analysis with IBM SPSS, Second Edition explains how to apply statistical tests to experimental findings, identify the assumptions underlying the tests, and interpret the findings. This second edition now covers more topics and has been updated with the SPSS statistical package for Windows.New to the Second EditionThree new chapters on multiple discriminant analysis, logistic regression, and canonical correlationNew section on how to deal with missing dataCoverage of te

  12. Nitrogen-deprivation elevates lipid levels in Symbiodinium spp. by lipid droplet accumulation: morphological and compositional analyses.

    Pei-Luen Jiang

    Full Text Available Stable cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium endosymbioses depend on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. It has been previously shown that the host cytosol is a nitrogen-deficient environment for the intracellular Symbiodinium and may act to limit growth rates of symbionts during the symbiotic association. This study aimed to investigate the cell proliferation, as well as ultrastructural and lipid compositional changes, in free-living Symbiodinium spp. (clade B upon nitrogen (N-deprivation. The cell proliferation of the N-deprived cells decreased significantly. Furthermore, staining with a fluorescent probe, boron dipyrromethane 493/503 (BODIPY 493/503, indicated that lipid contents progressively accumulated in the N-deprived cells. Lipid analyses further showed that both triacylglycerol (TAG and cholesterol ester (CE were drastically enriched, with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; i.e., docosahexaenoic acid, heneicosapentaenoic acid, and oleic acid became more abundant. Ultrastructural examinations showed that the increase in concentration of these lipid species was due to the accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs, a cellular feature that have previously shown to be pivotal in the maintenance of intact endosymbioses. Integrity of these stable LDs was maintained via electronegative repulsion and steric hindrance possibly provided by their surface proteins. Proteomic analyses of these LDs identified proteins putatively involved in lipid metabolism, signaling, stress response and energy metabolism. These results suggest that LDs production may be an adaptive response that enables Symbiodinium to maintain sufficient cellular energy stores for survival under the N-deprived conditions in the host cytoplasm.

  13. Automatic Image Segmentation Using Active Contours with Univariate Marginal Distribution

    I. Cruz-Aceves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel automatic image segmentation method based on the theory of active contour models and estimation of distribution algorithms. The proposed method uses the univariate marginal distribution model to infer statistical dependencies between the control points on different active contours. These contours have been generated through an alignment process of reference shape priors, in order to increase the exploration and exploitation capabilities regarding different interactive segmentation techniques. This proposed method is applied in the segmentation of the hollow core in microscopic images of photonic crystal fibers and it is also used to segment the human heart and ventricular areas from datasets of computed tomography and magnetic resonance images, respectively. Moreover, to evaluate the performance of the medical image segmentations compared to regions outlined by experts, a set of similarity measures has been adopted. The experimental results suggest that the proposed image segmentation method outperforms the traditional active contour model and the interactive Tseng method in terms of segmentation accuracy and stability.

  14. A comparison of bivariate and univariate QTL mapping in livestock populations

    Sorensen Daniel

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study presents a multivariate, variance component-based QTL mapping model implemented via restricted maximum likelihood (REML. The method was applied to investigate bivariate and univariate QTL mapping analyses, using simulated data. Specifically, we report results on the statistical power to detect a QTL and on the precision of parameter estimates using univariate and bivariate approaches. The model and methodology were also applied to study the effectiveness of partitioning the overall genetic correlation between two traits into a component due to many genes of small effect, and one due to the QTL. It is shown that when the QTL has a pleiotropic effect on two traits, a bivariate analysis leads to a higher statistical power of detecting the QTL and to a more precise estimate of the QTL's map position, in particular in the case when the QTL has a small effect on the trait. The increase in power is most marked in cases where the contributions of the QTL and of the polygenic components to the genetic correlation have opposite signs. The bivariate REML analysis can successfully partition the two components contributing to the genetic correlation between traits.

  15. Lower bounds on the run time of the univariate marginal distribution algorithm on OneMax

    Krejca, Martin S.; Witt, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    The Univariate Marginal Distribution Algorithm (UMDA), a popular estimation of distribution algorithm, is studied from a run time perspective. On the classical OneMax benchmark function, a lower bound of Ω(μ√n + n log n), where μ is the population size, on its expected run time is proved...... values maintained by the algorithm, including carefully designed potential functions. These techniques may prove useful in advancing the field of run time analysis for estimation of distribution algorithms in general........ This is the first direct lower bound on the run time of the UMDA. It is stronger than the bounds that follow from general black-box complexity theory and is matched by the run time of many evolutionary algorithms. The results are obtained through advanced analyses of the stochastic change of the frequencies of bit...

  16. Elevating your elevator talk

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  17. Disentangling ecological, allometric and evolutionary determinants of the relationship between seed mass and elevation: insights from multiple analyses of 1355 angiosperm species on the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Qi, Wei; Guo, Shuqing; Chen, Xuelin; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Bu, Haiyan; Du, Guozhen; Cui, Xianliang; Li, Wenjin; Liu, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Variation in abiotic conditions along altitudinal gradients may sort plant species from regional species pools according to their seed mass. With increasing elevation, seed mass is expected to be either larger for its advantage during seedling establishment in stressful high-elevation environments

  18. Visual classification of very fine-grained sediments: Evaluation through univariate and multivariate statistics

    Hohn, M. Ed; Nuhfer, E.B.; Vinopal, R.J.; Klanderman, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    Classifying very fine-grained rocks through fabric elements provides information about depositional environments, but is subject to the biases of visual taxonomy. To evaluate the statistical significance of an empirical classification of very fine-grained rocks, samples from Devonian shales in four cored wells in West Virginia and Virginia were measured for 15 variables: quartz, illite, pyrite and expandable clays determined by X-ray diffraction; total sulfur, organic content, inorganic carbon, matrix density, bulk density, porosity, silt, as well as density, sonic travel time, resistivity, and ??-ray response measured from well logs. The four lithologic types comprised: (1) sharply banded shale, (2) thinly laminated shale, (3) lenticularly laminated shale, and (4) nonbanded shale. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance showed that the lithologic classification reflects significant differences for the variables measured, difference that can be detected independently of stratigraphic effects. Little-known statistical methods found useful in this work included: the multivariate analysis of variance with more than one effect, simultaneous plotting of samples and variables on canonical variates, and the use of parametric ANOVA and MANOVA on ranked data. ?? 1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  19. [A SAS marco program for batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis for great database].

    Yang, Rendong; Xiong, Jie; Peng, Yangqin; Peng, Xiaoning; Zeng, Xiaomin

    2015-02-01

    To realize batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis for great database by SAS marco program. We wrote a SAS macro program, which can filter, integrate, and export P values to Excel by SAS9.2. The program was used for screening survival correlated RNA molecules of ovarian cancer. A SAS marco program could finish the batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis, the selection and export of the results. The SAS macro program has potential applications in reducing the workload of statistical analysis and providing a basis for batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis.

  20. Real-time prediction of extreme ambient carbon monoxide concentrations due to vehicular exhaust emissions using univariate linear stochastic models

    Sharma, P.; Khare, M.

    2000-01-01

    Historical data of the time-series of carbon monoxide (CO) concentration was analysed using Box-Jenkins modelling approach. Univariate Linear Stochastic Models (ULSMs) were developed to examine the degree of prediction possible for situations where only a limited data set, restricted only to the past record of pollutant data are available. The developed models can be used to provide short-term, real-time forecast of extreme CO concentrations for an Air Quality Control Region (AQCR), comprising a major traffic intersection in a Central Business District of Delhi City, India. (author)

  1. Combinatorial bounds on the α-divergence of univariate mixture models

    Nielsen, Frank; Sun, Ke

    2017-01-01

    We derive lower- and upper-bounds of α-divergence between univariate mixture models with components in the exponential family. Three pairs of bounds are presented in order with increasing quality and increasing computational cost. They are verified

  2. Comparison of different Methods for Univariate Time Series Imputation in R

    Moritz, Steffen; Sardá, Alexis; Bartz-Beielstein, Thomas; Zaefferer, Martin; Stork, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Missing values in datasets are a well-known problem and there are quite a lot of R packages offering imputation functions. But while imputation in general is well covered within R, it is hard to find functions for imputation of univariate time series. The problem is, most standard imputation techniques can not be applied directly. Most algorithms rely on inter-attribute correlations, while univariate time series imputation needs to employ time dependencies. This paper provides an overview of ...

  3. Reciprocal Benefits of Mass-Univariate and Multivariate Modeling in Brain Mapping: Applications to Event-Related Functional MRI, H215O-, and FDG-PET

    James R. Moeller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In brain mapping studies of sensory, cognitive, and motor operations, specific waveforms of dynamic neural activity are predicted based on theoretical models of human information processing. For example in event-related functional MRI (fMRI, the general linear model (GLM is employed in mass-univariate analyses to identify the regions whose dynamic activity closely matches the expected waveforms. By comparison multivariate analyses based on PCA or ICA provide greater flexibility in detecting spatiotemporal properties of experimental data that may strongly support alternative neuroscientific explanations. We investigated conjoint multivariate and mass-univariate analyses that combine the capabilities to (1 verify activation of neural machinery we already understand and (2 discover reliable signatures of new neural machinery. We examined combinations of GLM and PCA that recover latent neural signals (waveforms and footprints with greater accuracy than either method alone. Comparative results are illustrated with analyses of real fMRI data, adding to Monte Carlo simulation support.

  4. Univariate and multivariate skewness and kurtosis for measuring nonnormality: Prevalence, influence and estimation.

    Cain, Meghan K; Zhang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2017-10-01

    Nonnormality of univariate data has been extensively examined previously (Blanca et al., Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 9(2), 78-84, 2013; Miceeri, Psychological Bulletin, 105(1), 156, 1989). However, less is known of the potential nonnormality of multivariate data although multivariate analysis is commonly used in psychological and educational research. Using univariate and multivariate skewness and kurtosis as measures of nonnormality, this study examined 1,567 univariate distriubtions and 254 multivariate distributions collected from authors of articles published in Psychological Science and the American Education Research Journal. We found that 74 % of univariate distributions and 68 % multivariate distributions deviated from normal distributions. In a simulation study using typical values of skewness and kurtosis that we collected, we found that the resulting type I error rates were 17 % in a t-test and 30 % in a factor analysis under some conditions. Hence, we argue that it is time to routinely report skewness and kurtosis along with other summary statistics such as means and variances. To facilitate future report of skewness and kurtosis, we provide a tutorial on how to compute univariate and multivariate skewness and kurtosis by SAS, SPSS, R and a newly developed Web application.

  5. Forecasting electricity spot-prices using linear univariate time-series models

    Cuaresma, Jesus Crespo; Hlouskova, Jaroslava; Kossmeier, Stephan; Obersteiner, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the forecasting abilities of a battery of univariate models on hourly electricity spot prices, using data from the Leipzig Power Exchange. The specifications studied include autoregressive models, autoregressive-moving average models and unobserved component models. The results show that specifications, where each hour of the day is modelled separately present uniformly better forecasting properties than specifications for the whole time-series, and that the inclusion of simple probabilistic processes for the arrival of extreme price events can lead to improvements in the forecasting abilities of univariate models for electricity spot prices. (Author)

  6. Comparison of multivariate and univariate statistical process control and monitoring methods

    Leger, R.P.; Garland, WM.J.; Macgregor, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Work in recent years has lead to the development of multivariate process monitoring schemes which use Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This research compares the performance of a univariate scheme and a multivariate PCA scheme used for monitoring a simple process with 11 measured variables. The multivariate PCA scheme was able to adequately represent the process using two principal components. This resulted in a PCA monitoring scheme which used two charts as opposed to 11 charts for the univariate scheme and therefore had distinct advantages in terms of both data representation, presentation, and fault diagnosis capabilities. (author)

  7. Cellulose I crystallinity determination using FT-Raman spectroscopy : univariate and multivariate methods

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Two new methods based on FT–Raman spectroscopy, one simple, based on band intensity ratio, and the other using a partial least squares (PLS) regression model, are proposed to determine cellulose I crystallinity. In the simple method, crystallinity in cellulose I samples was determined based on univariate regression that was first developed using the Raman band...

  8. Combinatorial bounds on the α-divergence of univariate mixture models

    Nielsen, Frank

    2017-06-20

    We derive lower- and upper-bounds of α-divergence between univariate mixture models with components in the exponential family. Three pairs of bounds are presented in order with increasing quality and increasing computational cost. They are verified empirically through simulated Gaussian mixture models. The presented methodology generalizes to other divergence families relying on Hellinger-type integrals.

  9. R package imputeTestbench to compare imputations methods for univariate time series

    Bokde, Neeraj; Kulat, Kishore; Beck, Marcus W; Asencio-Cortés, Gualberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the R package imputeTestbench that provides a testbench for comparing imputation methods for missing data in univariate time series. The imputeTestbench package can be used to simulate the amount and type of missing data in a complete dataset and compare filled data using different imputation methods. The user has the option to simulate missing data by removing observations completely at random or in blocks of different sizes. Several default imputation methods are includ...

  10. Univariate time series modeling and an application to future claims amount in SOCSO's invalidity pension scheme

    Chek, Mohd Zaki Awang; Ahmad, Abu Bakar; Ridzwan, Ahmad Nur Azam Ahmad; Jelas, Imran Md.; Jamal, Nur Faezah; Ismail, Isma Liana; Zulkifli, Faiz; Noor, Syamsul Ikram Mohd

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of this study is to forecast the future claims amount of Invalidity Pension Scheme (IPS). All data were derived from SOCSO annual reports from year 1972 - 2010. These claims consist of all claims amount from 7 benefits offered by SOCSO such as Invalidity Pension, Invalidity Grant, Survivors Pension, Constant Attendance Allowance, Rehabilitation, Funeral and Education. Prediction of future claims of Invalidity Pension Scheme will be made using Univariate Forecasting Models to predict the future claims among workforce in Malaysia.

  11. Validated univariate and multivariate spectrophotometric methods for the determination of pharmaceuticals mixture in complex wastewater

    Riad, Safaa M.; Salem, Hesham; Elbalkiny, Heba T.; Khattab, Fatma I.

    2015-04-01

    Five, accurate, precise, and sensitive univariate and multivariate spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of a ternary mixture containing Trimethoprim (TMP), Sulphamethoxazole (SMZ) and Oxytetracycline (OTC) in waste water samples collected from different cites either production wastewater or livestock wastewater after their solid phase extraction using OASIS HLB cartridges. In univariate methods OTC was determined at its λmax 355.7 nm (0D), while (TMP) and (SMZ) were determined by three different univariate methods. Method (A) is based on successive spectrophotometric resolution technique (SSRT). The technique starts with the ratio subtraction method followed by ratio difference method for determination of TMP and SMZ. Method (B) is successive derivative ratio technique (SDR). Method (C) is mean centering of the ratio spectra (MCR). The developed multivariate methods are principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS). The specificity of the developed methods is investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures containing different ratios of the three drugs. The obtained results are statistically compared with those obtained by the official methods, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision at p = 0.05.

  12. Individual vs. combinatorial effect of elevated CO2 conditions and salinity stress on Arabidopsis thaliana liquid cultures: Comparing the early molecular response using time-series transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses

    Dutta Bhaskar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study, we investigated the individual and combinatorial effect of elevated CO2 conditions and salinity stress on the dynamics of both the transcriptional and metabolic physiology of Arabidopsis thaliana liquid hydroponic cultures over the first 30 hours of continuous treatment. Both perturbations are of particular interest in plant and agro-biotechnological applications. Moreover, within the timeframe of this experiment, they are expected to affect plant growth to opposite directions. Thus, a major objective was to investigate whether this expected "divergence" was valid for the individual perturbations and to study how it is manifested under the combined stress at two molecular levels of cellular function, using high-throughput analyses. Results We observed that a high salinity has stronger effect than elevated CO2 at both the transcriptional and metabolic levels, b the transcriptional responses to the salinity and combined stresses exhibit strong similarity, implying a robust transcriptional machinery acting to the salinity stress independent of the co-occurrence of elevated CO2, c the combinatorial effect of the two perturbations on the metabolic physiology is milder than of the salinity stress alone. Metabolomic analysis suggested that the beneficial role of elevated CO2 on salt-stressed plants within the timeframe of this study should be attributed to the provided additional resources; these allow the plants to respond to high salinity without having to forfeit other major metabolic functions, and d 9 h-12 h and 24 h of treatment coincide with significant changes in the metabolic physiology under any of the investigated stresses. Significant differences between the acute and longer term responses were observed at both molecular levels. Conclusions This study contributes large-scale dynamic omic data from two levels of cellular function for a plant system under various stresses. It provides an additional example

  13. Nuisance forecasting. Univariate modelling and very-short-term forecasting of winter smog episodes; Immissionsprognose. Univariate Modellierung und Kuerzestfristvorhersage von Wintersmogsituationen

    Schlink, U.

    1996-12-31

    The work evaluates specifically the nuisance data provided by the measuring station in the centre of Leipig during the period from 1980 to 1993, with the aim to develop an algorithm for making very short-term forecasts of excessive nuisances. Forecasting was to be univariate, i.e., based exclusively on the half-hourly readings of SO{sub 2} concentrations taken in the past. As shown by Fourier analysis, there exist three main and mutually independent spectral regions: the high-frequency sector (period < 12 hours) of unstable irregularities, the seasonal sector with the periods of 24 and 12 hours, and the low-frequency sector (period > 24 hours). After breaking the measuring series up into components, the low-frequency sector is termed trend component, or trend for short. For obtaining the components, a Kalman filter is used. It was found that smog episodes are most adequately described by the trend component. This is therefore more closely investigated. The phase representation then shows characteristic trajectories of the trends. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] In der vorliegende Arbeit wurden speziell die Immissionsdaten der Messstation Leipzig-Mitte des Zeitraumes 1980-1993 mit dem Ziel der Erstellung eines Algorithmus fuer die Kuerzestfristprognose von Ueberschreitungssituationen untersucht. Die Prognosestellung sollte allein anhand der in der Vergangenheit registrierten Halbstundenwerte der SO{sub 2}-Konzentration, also univariat erfolgen. Wie die Fourieranalyse zeigt, gibt es drei wesentliche und voneinander unabhaengige Spektralbereiche: Den hochfrequenten Bereich (Periode <12 Stunden) der instabilen Irregularitaeten, den saisonalen Anteil mit den Perioden von 24 und 12 Stunden und den niedrigfrequenten Bereich (Periode >24 Stunden). Letzterer wird nach einer Zerlegung der Messreihe in Komponenten als Trendkomponente (oder kurz Trend) bezeichnet. Fuer die Komponentenzerlegung wird ein Kalman-Filter verwendet. Es stellt sich heraus, dass Smogepisoden am deutlichsten

  14. A Guideline to Univariate Statistical Analysis for LC/MS-Based Untargeted Metabolomics-Derived Data

    Maria Vinaixa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several metabolomic software programs provide methods for peak picking, retention time alignment and quantification of metabolite features in LC/MS-based metabolomics. Statistical analysis, however, is needed in order to discover those features significantly altered between samples. By comparing the retention time and MS/MS data of a model compound to that from the altered feature of interest in the research sample, metabolites can be then unequivocally identified. This paper reports on a comprehensive overview of a workflow for statistical analysis to rank relevant metabolite features that will be selected for further MS/MS experiments. We focus on univariate data analysis applied in parallel on all detected features. Characteristics and challenges of this analysis are discussed and illustrated using four different real LC/MS untargeted metabolomic datasets. We demonstrate the influence of considering or violating mathematical assumptions on which univariate statistical test rely, using high-dimensional LC/MS datasets. Issues in data analysis such as determination of sample size, analytical variation, assumption of normality and homocedasticity, or correction for multiple testing are discussed and illustrated in the context of our four untargeted LC/MS working examples.

  15. Univariate/multivariate genome-wide association scans using data from families and unrelated samples.

    Lei Zhang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As genome-wide association studies (GWAS are becoming more popular, two approaches, among others, could be considered in order to improve statistical power for identifying genes contributing subtle to moderate effects to human diseases. The first approach is to increase sample size, which could be achieved by combining both unrelated and familial subjects together. The second approach is to jointly analyze multiple correlated traits. In this study, by extending generalized estimating equations (GEEs, we propose a simple approach for performing univariate or multivariate association tests for the combined data of unrelated subjects and nuclear families. In particular, we correct for population stratification by integrating principal component analysis and transmission disequilibrium test strategies. The proposed method allows for multiple siblings as well as missing parental information. Simulation studies show that the proposed test has improved power compared to two popular methods, EIGENSTRAT and FBAT, by analyzing the combined data, while correcting for population stratification. In addition, joint analysis of bivariate traits has improved power over univariate analysis when pleiotropic effects are present. Application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 (GAW16 data sets attests to the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method.

  16. QRS complex detection based on continuous density hidden Markov models using univariate observations

    Sotelo, S.; Arenas, W.; Altuve, M.

    2018-04-01

    In the electrocardiogram (ECG), the detection of QRS complexes is a fundamental step in the ECG signal processing chain since it allows the determination of other characteristics waves of the ECG and provides information about heart rate variability. In this work, an automatic QRS complex detector based on continuous density hidden Markov models (HMM) is proposed. HMM were trained using univariate observation sequences taken either from QRS complexes or their derivatives. The detection approach is based on the log-likelihood comparison of the observation sequence with a fixed threshold. A sliding window was used to obtain the observation sequence to be evaluated by the model. The threshold was optimized by receiver operating characteristic curves. Sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Spc) and F1 score were used to evaluate the detection performance. The approach was validated using ECG recordings from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. A 6-fold cross-validation shows that the best detection performance was achieved with 2 states HMM trained with QRS complexes sequences (Sen = 0.668, Spc = 0.360 and F1 = 0.309). We concluded that these univariate sequences provide enough information to characterize the QRS complex dynamics from HMM. Future works are directed to the use of multivariate observations to increase the detection performance.

  17. Wind Speed Prediction Using a Univariate ARIMA Model and a Multivariate NARX Model

    Erasmo Cadenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two on step ahead wind speed forecasting models were compared. A univariate model was developed using a linear autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA. This method’s performance is well studied for a large number of prediction problems. The other is a multivariate model developed using a nonlinear autoregressive exogenous artificial neural network (NARX. This uses the variables: barometric pressure, air temperature, wind direction and solar radiation or relative humidity, as well as delayed wind speed. Both models were developed from two databases from two sites: an hourly average measurements database from La Mata, Oaxaca, Mexico, and a ten minute average measurements database from Metepec, Hidalgo, Mexico. The main objective was to compare the impact of the various meteorological variables on the performance of the multivariate model of wind speed prediction with respect to the high performance univariate linear model. The NARX model gave better results with improvements on the ARIMA model of between 5.5% and 10. 6% for the hourly database and of between 2.3% and 12.8% for the ten minute database for mean absolute error and mean squared error, respectively.

  18. Children with Elevated Psychosocial Risk Load Benefit Most from a Family-Based Preventive Intervention: Exploratory Differential Analyses from the German "Strengthening Families Program 10-14" Adaptation Trial.

    Bröning, Sonja; Baldus, Christiane; Thomsen, Monika; Sack, Peter-Michael; Arnaud, Nicolas; Thomasius, Rainer

    2017-11-01

    While the effectiveness of substance use prevention programs such as the Strengthening Families Program 10-14 (SFP) has been demonstrated in the USA, European SFP adaptations have not replicated these sizable effects. Following the rationale of the risk moderation hypothesis positing that elevated risk groups may benefit more from a preventive intervention than lower-risk groups, we reanalyzed evaluation data from a randomized controlled trial testing the adapted German version of SFP (SFP-D). We hypothesized a differential impact of risk status on intervention results. The study employed a minimal control condition. Of the N = 292 participating children, 73.5% qualified as at-risk because they lived in a deprived urban district, and 26.5% qualified as high risk because they additionally scored as "difficult" in the German Strengths and Difficulty Questionnaire (parents' reports using gender- and age-specific German norms). Outcomes were children's self-reports on substance use, mental health, family functioning, and quality of life. Data were analyzed with repeated measures linear mixed models and relative risk analyses. The high-risk group in the SFP-D condition achieved the best results compared with all other groups, especially in mental health and quality of life. Relative risk analyses on tobacco [alcohol] abstinence showed that an additional percentage of 29.8% [16.0%] of high-risk children in nonabstinent controls would have remained abstinent if they had participated in SFP-D. We conclude that risk load influences the impact of substance use prevention programs and discuss to what extent differential analyses can add value to prevention research.

  19. Data Elevator

    2017-04-29

    Data Elevator: Efficient Asynchronous Data Movement in Hierarchical Storage Systems Multi-layer storage subsystems, including SSD-based burst buffers and disk-based parallel file systems (PFS), are becoming part of HPC systems. However, software for this storage hierarchy is still in its infancy. Applications may have to explicitly move data among the storage layers. We propose Data Elevator for transparently and efficiently moving data between a burst buffer and a PFS. Users specify the final destination for their data, typically on PFS, Data Elevator intercepts the I/O calls, stages data on burst buffer, and then asynchronously transfers the data to their final destination in the background. This system allows extensive optimizations, such as overlapping read and write operations, choosing I/O modes, and aligning buffer boundaries. In tests with large-scale scientific applications, Data Elevator is as much as 4.2X faster than Cray DataWarp, the start-of-art software for burst buffer, and 4X faster than directly writing to PFS. The Data Elevator library uses HDF5's Virtual Object Layer (VOL) for intercepting parallel I/O calls that write data to PFS. The intercepted calls are redirected to the Data Elevator, which provides a handle to write the file in a faster and intermediate burst buffer system. Once the application finishes writing the data to the burst buffer, the Data Elevator job uses HDF5 to move the data to final destination in an asynchronous manner. Hence, using the Data Elevator library is currently useful for applications that call HDF5 for writing data files. Also, the Data Elevator depends on the HDF5 VOL functionality.

  20. Trend and forecasting rate of cancer deaths at a public university hospital using univariate modeling

    Ismail, A.; Hassan, Noor I.

    2013-09-01

    Cancer is one of the principal causes of death in Malaysia. This study was performed to determine the pattern of rate of cancer deaths at a public hospital in Malaysia over an 11 year period from year 2001 to 2011, to determine the best fitted model of forecasting the rate of cancer deaths using Univariate Modeling and to forecast the rates for the next two years (2012 to 2013). The medical records of the death of patients with cancer admitted at this Hospital over 11 year's period were reviewed, with a total of 663 cases. The cancers were classified according to 10th Revision International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Data collected include socio-demographic background of patients such as registration number, age, gender, ethnicity, ward and diagnosis. Data entry and analysis was accomplished using SPSS 19.0 and Minitab 16.0. The five Univariate Models used were Naïve with Trend Model, Average Percent Change Model (ACPM), Single Exponential Smoothing, Double Exponential Smoothing and Holt's Method. The overall 11 years rate of cancer deaths showed that at this hospital, Malay patients have the highest percentage (88.10%) compared to other ethnic groups with males (51.30%) higher than females. Lung and breast cancer have the most number of cancer deaths among gender. About 29.60% of the patients who died due to cancer were aged 61 years old and above. The best Univariate Model used for forecasting the rate of cancer deaths is Single Exponential Smoothing Technique with alpha of 0.10. The forecast for the rate of cancer deaths shows a horizontally or flat value. The forecasted mortality trend remains at 6.84% from January 2012 to December 2013. All the government and private sectors and non-governmental organizations need to highlight issues on cancer especially lung and breast cancers to the public through campaigns using mass media, media electronics, posters and pamphlets in the attempt to decrease the rate of cancer deaths in Malaysia.

  1. Characteristics of genomic signatures derived using univariate methods and mechanistically anchored functional descriptors for predicting drug- and xenobiotic-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Shi, Weiwei; Bugrim, Andrej; Nikolsky, Yuri; Nikolskya, Tatiana; Brennan, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ideal toxicity biomarker is composed of the properties of prediction (is detected prior to traditional pathological signs of injury), accuracy (high sensitivity and specificity), and mechanistic relationships to the endpoint measured (biological relevance). Gene expression-based toxicity biomarkers ("signatures") have shown good predictive power and accuracy, but are difficult to interpret biologically. We have compared different statistical methods of feature selection with knowledge-based approaches, using GeneGo's database of canonical pathway maps, to generate gene sets for the classification of renal tubule toxicity. The gene set selection algorithms include four univariate analyses: t-statistics, fold-change, B-statistics, and RankProd, and their combination and overlap for the identification of differentially expressed probes. Enrichment analysis following the results of the four univariate analyses, Hotelling T-square test, and, finally out-of-bag selection, a variant of cross-validation, were used to identify canonical pathway maps-sets of genes coordinately involved in key biological processes-with classification power. Differentially expressed genes identified by the different statistical univariate analyses all generated reasonably performing classifiers of tubule toxicity. Maps identified by enrichment analysis or Hotelling T-square had lower classification power, but highlighted perturbed lipid homeostasis as a common discriminator of nephrotoxic treatments. The out-of-bag method yielded the best functionally integrated classifier. The map "ephrins signaling" performed comparably to a classifier derived using sparse linear programming, a machine learning algorithm, and represents a signaling network specifically involved in renal tubule development and integrity. Such functional descriptors of toxicity promise to better integrate predictive toxicogenomics with mechanistic analysis, facilitating the interpretation and risk assessment of

  2. [Retrospective statistical analysis of clinical factors of recurrence in chronic subdural hematoma: correlation between univariate and multivariate analysis].

    Takayama, Motoharu; Terui, Keita; Oiwa, Yoshitsugu

    2012-10-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma is common in elderly individuals and surgical procedures are simple. The recurrence rate of chronic subdural hematoma, however, varies from 9.2 to 26.5% after surgery. The authors studied factors of the recurrence using univariate and multivariate analyses in patients with chronic subdural hematoma We retrospectively reviewed 239 consecutive cases of chronic subdural hematoma who received burr-hole surgery with irrigation and closed-system drainage. We analyzed the relationships between recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma and factors such as sex, age, laterality, bleeding tendency, other complicated diseases, density on CT, volume of the hematoma, residual air in the hematoma cavity, use of artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Twenty-one patients (8.8%) experienced a recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma. Multiple logistic regression found that the recurrence rate was higher in patients with a large volume of the residual air, and was lower in patients using artificial cerebrospinal fluid. No statistical differences were found in bleeding tendency. Techniques to reduce the air in the hematoma cavity are important for good outcome in surgery of chronic subdural hematoma. Also, the use of artificial cerebrospinal fluid reduces recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma. The surgical procedures can be the same for patients with bleeding tendencies.

  3. An elevator

    Loginovskiy, V.I.; Medinger, N.V.; Rasskazov, V.A.; Solonitsyn, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body, spring loaded cams and a shut-off ring. To increase the reliability of the elevator by eliminating the possibility of spontaneous shifting of the shut-off ring, the latter is equipped with handles hinged to it and is made with evolvent grooves. The cams are equipped with rollers installed in the evolvent grooves of the shut off ring, where the body is made with grooves for the handles.

  4. Forecasting electric vehicles sales with univariate and multivariate time series models: The case of China.

    Zhang, Yong; Zhong, Miner; Geng, Nana; Jiang, Yunjian

    2017-01-01

    The market demand for electric vehicles (EVs) has increased in recent years. Suitable models are necessary to understand and forecast EV sales. This study presents a singular spectrum analysis (SSA) as a univariate time-series model and vector autoregressive model (VAR) as a multivariate model. Empirical results suggest that SSA satisfactorily indicates the evolving trend and provides reasonable results. The VAR model, which comprised exogenous parameters related to the market on a monthly basis, can significantly improve the prediction accuracy. The EV sales in China, which are categorized into battery and plug-in EVs, are predicted in both short term (up to December 2017) and long term (up to 2020), as statistical proofs of the growth of the Chinese EV industry.

  5. Univariate and multivariate forecasting of hourly solar radiation with artificial intelligence techniques

    Sfetsos, A. [7 Pirsou Str., Athens (Greece); Coonick, A.H. [Imperial Coll. of Science Technology and Medicine, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for the forecasting of mean hourly global solar radiation received by a horizontal surface. In addition to the traditional linear methods, several artificial-intelligence-based techniques are studied. These include linear, feed-forward, recurrent Elman and Radial Basis neural networks alongside the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference scheme. The problem is examined initially for the univariate case, and is extended to include additional meteorological parameters in the process of estimating the optimum model. The results indicate that the developed artificial intelligence models predict the solar radiation time series more effectively compared to the conventional procedures based on the clearness index. The forecasting ability of some models can be further enhanced with the use of additional meteorological parameters. (Author)

  6. Effects of univariate and multivariate regression on the accuracy of hydrogen quantification with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Ytsma, Cai R.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen (H) is a critical element to measure on the surface of Mars because its presence in mineral structures is indicative of past hydrous conditions. The Curiosity rover uses the laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) on the ChemCam instrument to analyze rocks for their H emission signal at 656.6 nm, from which H can be quantified. Previous LIBS calibrations for H used small data sets measured on standards and/or manufactured mixtures of hydrous minerals and rocks and applied univariate regression to spectra normalized in a variety of ways. However, matrix effects common to LIBS make these calibrations of limited usefulness when applied to the broad range of compositions on the Martian surface. In this study, 198 naturally-occurring hydrous geological samples covering a broad range of bulk compositions with directly-measured H content are used to create more robust prediction models for measuring H in LIBS data acquired under Mars conditions. Both univariate and multivariate prediction models, including partial least square (PLS) and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso), are compared using several different methods for normalization of H peak intensities. Data from the ChemLIBS Mars-analog spectrometer at Mount Holyoke College are compared against spectra from the same samples acquired using a ChemCam-like instrument at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the ChemCam instrument on Mars. Results show that all current normalization and data preprocessing variations for quantifying H result in models with statistically indistinguishable prediction errors (accuracies) ca. ± 1.5 weight percent (wt%) H2O, limiting the applications of LIBS in these implementations for geological studies. This error is too large to allow distinctions among the most common hydrous phases (basalts, amphiboles, micas) to be made, though some clays (e.g., chlorites with ≈ 12 wt% H2O, smectites with 15-20 wt% H2O) and hydrated phases (e.g., gypsum with ≈ 20

  7. Detection of biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma using a hybrid univariate gene selection methods

    Abdel Samee Nagwan M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discovering new biomarkers has a great role in improving early diagnosis of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The experimental determination of biomarkers needs a lot of time and money. This motivates this work to use in-silico prediction of biomarkers to reduce the number of experiments required for detecting new ones. This is achieved by extracting the most representative genes in microarrays of HCC. Results In this work, we provide a method for extracting the differential expressed genes, up regulated ones, that can be considered candidate biomarkers in high throughput microarrays of HCC. We examine the power of several gene selection methods (such as Pearson’s correlation coefficient, Cosine coefficient, Euclidean distance, Mutual information and Entropy with different estimators in selecting informative genes. A biological interpretation of the highly ranked genes is done using KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, ENTREZ and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery databases. The top ten genes selected using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Cosine coefficient contained six genes that have been implicated in cancer (often multiple cancers genesis in previous studies. A fewer number of genes were obtained by the other methods (4 genes using Mutual information, 3genes using Euclidean distance and only one gene using Entropy. A better result was obtained by the utilization of a hybrid approach based on intersecting the highly ranked genes in the output of all investigated methods. This hybrid combination yielded seven genes (2 genes for HCC and 5 genes in different types of cancer in the top ten genes of the list of intersected genes. Conclusions To strengthen the effectiveness of the univariate selection methods, we propose a hybrid approach by intersecting several of these methods in a cascaded manner. This approach surpasses all of univariate selection methods when

  8. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...

  9. Achieving a neutral cervical spine position in suspected spinal cord injury in children: analysing the use of a thoracic elevation device for imaging the cervical spine in paediatric patients.

    Pandie, Zaahid; Shepherd, Mike; Lamont, Tony; Walsh, Mark; Phillips, Mark; Page, Colin

    2010-08-01

    Paediatric patients with suspected cervical spine injury (CSI) are routinely immobilised on a firm surface using a hard collar, which results in excessive flexion of the cervical spine due to the relatively large size of the occiput. The objective of this study was to determine whether the use of a thoracic elevation device (TED) results in a more neutral cervical spine position and reduces the occurrence of cervical spine hyperflexion. A prospective cohort study was conducted at two Emergency Departments (sites A and B) from January 2006 to May 2007. Children TED and those at site B did not. x-Rays from both sites were analysed for flexion, extension or neutrality of the cervical spine as defined by the Cobb angle. A total of 76 patients were identified at site A and site B. There were four exclusions at each site for poor quality images. 51 patients in the site A group were found to be in neutral position (71%), compared to 29 patients in the site B group (43%) (p=0.001). One patient (1%) who had a TED was found to be hyperflexed (>10 degrees), whereas 12 (18%) patients at site B were hyperflexed (p=0.001). The use of a TED appears to produce a greater proportion of neutral cervical spine films in children < or =10 years of age presenting for suspected CSI.

  10. Application of Raman Spectroscopy and Univariate Modelling As a Process Analytical Technology for Cell Therapy Bioprocessing

    Baradez, Marc-Olivier; Biziato, Daniela; Hassan, Enas; Marshall, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Cell therapies offer unquestionable promises for the treatment, and in some cases even the cure, of complex diseases. As we start to see more of these therapies gaining market authorization, attention is turning to the bioprocesses used for their manufacture, in particular the challenge of gaining higher levels of process control to help regulate cell behavior, manage process variability, and deliver product of a consistent quality. Many processes already incorporate the measurement of key markers such as nutrient consumption, metabolite production, and cell concentration, but these are often performed off-line and only at set time points in the process. Having the ability to monitor these markers in real-time using in-line sensors would offer significant advantages, allowing faster decision-making and a finer level of process control. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy as an in-line optical sensor for bioprocess monitoring of an autologous T-cell immunotherapy model produced in a stirred tank bioreactor system. Using reference datasets generated on a standard bioanalyzer, we develop chemometric models from the Raman spectra for glucose, glutamine, lactate, and ammonia. These chemometric models can accurately monitor donor-specific increases in nutrient consumption and metabolite production as the primary T-cell transition from a recovery phase and begin proliferating. Using a univariate modeling approach, we then show how changes in peak intensity within the Raman spectra can be correlated with cell concentration and viability. These models, which act as surrogate markers, can be used to monitor cell behavior including cell proliferation rates, proliferative capacity, and transition of the cells to a quiescent phenotype. Finally, using the univariate models, we also demonstrate how Raman spectroscopy can be applied for real-time monitoring. The ability to measure these key parameters using an in-line Raman optical sensor makes it possible to have immediate

  11. Application of Raman Spectroscopy and Univariate Modelling As a Process Analytical Technology for Cell Therapy Bioprocessing.

    Baradez, Marc-Olivier; Biziato, Daniela; Hassan, Enas; Marshall, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Cell therapies offer unquestionable promises for the treatment, and in some cases even the cure, of complex diseases. As we start to see more of these therapies gaining market authorization, attention is turning to the bioprocesses used for their manufacture, in particular the challenge of gaining higher levels of process control to help regulate cell behavior, manage process variability, and deliver product of a consistent quality. Many processes already incorporate the measurement of key markers such as nutrient consumption, metabolite production, and cell concentration, but these are often performed off-line and only at set time points in the process. Having the ability to monitor these markers in real-time using in-line sensors would offer significant advantages, allowing faster decision-making and a finer level of process control. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy as an in-line optical sensor for bioprocess monitoring of an autologous T-cell immunotherapy model produced in a stirred tank bioreactor system. Using reference datasets generated on a standard bioanalyzer, we develop chemometric models from the Raman spectra for glucose, glutamine, lactate, and ammonia. These chemometric models can accurately monitor donor-specific increases in nutrient consumption and metabolite production as the primary T-cell transition from a recovery phase and begin proliferating. Using a univariate modeling approach, we then show how changes in peak intensity within the Raman spectra can be correlated with cell concentration and viability. These models, which act as surrogate markers, can be used to monitor cell behavior including cell proliferation rates, proliferative capacity, and transition of the cells to a quiescent phenotype. Finally, using the univariate models, we also demonstrate how Raman spectroscopy can be applied for real-time monitoring. The ability to measure these key parameters using an in-line Raman optical sensor makes it possible to have immediate

  12. Application of Raman Spectroscopy and Univariate Modelling As a Process Analytical Technology for Cell Therapy Bioprocessing

    Marc-Olivier Baradez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapies offer unquestionable promises for the treatment, and in some cases even the cure, of complex diseases. As we start to see more of these therapies gaining market authorization, attention is turning to the bioprocesses used for their manufacture, in particular the challenge of gaining higher levels of process control to help regulate cell behavior, manage process variability, and deliver product of a consistent quality. Many processes already incorporate the measurement of key markers such as nutrient consumption, metabolite production, and cell concentration, but these are often performed off-line and only at set time points in the process. Having the ability to monitor these markers in real-time using in-line sensors would offer significant advantages, allowing faster decision-making and a finer level of process control. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy as an in-line optical sensor for bioprocess monitoring of an autologous T-cell immunotherapy model produced in a stirred tank bioreactor system. Using reference datasets generated on a standard bioanalyzer, we develop chemometric models from the Raman spectra for glucose, glutamine, lactate, and ammonia. These chemometric models can accurately monitor donor-specific increases in nutrient consumption and metabolite production as the primary T-cell transition from a recovery phase and begin proliferating. Using a univariate modeling approach, we then show how changes in peak intensity within the Raman spectra can be correlated with cell concentration and viability. These models, which act as surrogate markers, can be used to monitor cell behavior including cell proliferation rates, proliferative capacity, and transition of the cells to a quiescent phenotype. Finally, using the univariate models, we also demonstrate how Raman spectroscopy can be applied for real-time monitoring. The ability to measure these key parameters using an in-line Raman optical sensor makes it possible

  13. Stress assessment based on EEG univariate features and functional connectivity measures.

    Alonso, J F; Romero, S; Ballester, M R; Antonijoan, R M; Mañanas, M A

    2015-07-01

    The biological response to stress originates in the brain but involves different biochemical and physiological effects. Many common clinical methods to assess stress are based on the presence of specific hormones and on features extracted from different signals, including electrocardiogram, blood pressure, skin temperature, or galvanic skin response. The aim of this paper was to assess stress using EEG-based variables obtained from univariate analysis and functional connectivity evaluation. Two different stressors, the Stroop test and sleep deprivation, were applied to 30 volunteers to find common EEG patterns related to stress effects. Results showed a decrease of the high alpha power (11 to 12 Hz), an increase in the high beta band (23 to 36 Hz, considered a busy brain indicator), and a decrease in the approximate entropy. Moreover, connectivity showed that the high beta coherence and the interhemispheric nonlinear couplings, measured by the cross mutual information function, increased significantly for both stressors, suggesting that useful stress indexes may be obtained from EEG-based features.

  14. Improving the performance of univariate control charts for abnormal detection and classification

    Yiakopoulos, Christos; Koutsoudaki, Maria; Gryllias, Konstantinos; Antoniadis, Ioannis

    2017-03-01

    Bearing failures in rotating machinery can cause machine breakdown and economical loss, if no effective actions are taken on time. Therefore, it is of prime importance to detect accurately the presence of faults, especially at their early stage, to prevent sequent damage and reduce costly downtime. The machinery fault diagnosis follows a roadmap of data acquisition, feature extraction and diagnostic decision making, in which mechanical vibration fault feature extraction is the foundation and the key to obtain an accurate diagnostic result. A challenge in this area is the selection of the most sensitive features for various types of fault, especially when the characteristics of failures are difficult to be extracted. Thus, a plethora of complex data-driven fault diagnosis methods are fed by prominent features, which are extracted and reduced through traditional or modern algorithms. Since most of the available datasets are captured during normal operating conditions, the last decade a number of novelty detection methods, able to work when only normal data are available, have been developed. In this study, a hybrid method combining univariate control charts and a feature extraction scheme is introduced focusing towards an abnormal change detection and classification, under the assumption that measurements under normal operating conditions of the machinery are available. The feature extraction method integrates the morphological operators and the Morlet wavelets. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is validated on two different experimental cases with bearing faults, demonstrating that the proposed approach can improve the fault detection and classification performance of conventional control charts.

  15. Segmentation of Coronary Angiograms Using Gabor Filters and Boltzmann Univariate Marginal Distribution Algorithm

    Fernando Cervantes-Sanchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for improving the training step of the single-scale Gabor filters by using the Boltzmann univariate marginal distribution algorithm (BUMDA in X-ray angiograms. Since the single-scale Gabor filters (SSG are governed by three parameters, the optimal selection of the SSG parameters is highly desirable in order to maximize the detection performance of coronary arteries while reducing the computational time. To obtain the best set of parameters for the SSG, the area (Az under the receiver operating characteristic curve is used as fitness function. Moreover, to classify vessel and nonvessel pixels from the Gabor filter response, the interclass variance thresholding method has been adopted. The experimental results using the proposed method obtained the highest detection rate with Az=0.9502 over a training set of 40 images and Az=0.9583 with a test set of 40 images. In addition, the experimental results of vessel segmentation provided an accuracy of 0.944 with the test set of angiograms.

  16. Univariate and multivariate analysis on processing tomato quality under different mulches

    Carmen Moreno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of eco-friendly mulch materials as alternatives to the standard polyethylene (PE has become increasingly prevalent worldwide. Consequently, a comparison of mulch materials from different origins is necessary to evaluate their feasibility. Several researchers have compared the effects of mulch materials on each crop variable through univariate analysis (ANOVA. However, it is important to focus on the effect of these materials on fruit quality, because this factor decisively influences the acceptance of the final product by consumers and the industrial sector. This study aimed to analyze the information supplied by a randomized complete block experiment combined over two seasons, a principal component analysis (PCA and a cluster analysis (CA when studying the effects of mulch materials on the quality of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.. The study focused on the variability in the quality measurements and on the determination of mulch materials with a similar response to them. A comparison of the results from both types of analysis yielded complementary information. ANOVA showed the similarity of certain materials. However, considering the totality of the variables analyzed, the final interpretation was slightly complicated. PCA indicated that the juice color, the fruit firmness and the soluble solid content were the most influential factors in the total variability of a set of 12 juice and fruit variables, and CA allowed us to establish four categories of treatment: plastics (polyethylene - PE, oxo- and biodegradable materials, papers, manual weeding and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. straw. Oxobiodegradable and PE were most closely related based on CA.

  17. Elevator wheel

    Zhornik, V.I.; Cherkov, Ye.M.; Simonov, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    An elevator wheel is suggested for unloading a sunken product from a bath of a heavy-average separator including discs of a bucket with inner walls, and covering sheets hinged to the buckets. In order to improve the degree of dehydration of the removed product, the inner wall of each bucket is made of sheets installed in steps with gaps of one in relation to the other.

  18. An exercise in model validation: Comparing univariate statistics and Monte Carlo-based multivariate statistics

    Weathers, J.B.; Luck, R.; Weathers, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of mathematical models used by practicing engineers is increasing due to the growing availability of sophisticated mathematical modeling tools and ever-improving computational power. For this reason, the need to define a well-structured process for validating these models against experimental results has become a pressing issue in the engineering community. This validation process is partially characterized by the uncertainties associated with the modeling effort as well as the experimental results. The net impact of the uncertainties on the validation effort is assessed through the 'noise level of the validation procedure', which can be defined as an estimate of the 95% confidence uncertainty bounds for the comparison error between actual experimental results and model-based predictions of the same quantities of interest. Although general descriptions associated with the construction of the noise level using multivariate statistics exists in the literature, a detailed procedure outlining how to account for the systematic and random uncertainties is not available. In this paper, the methodology used to derive the covariance matrix associated with the multivariate normal pdf based on random and systematic uncertainties is examined, and a procedure used to estimate this covariance matrix using Monte Carlo analysis is presented. The covariance matrices are then used to construct approximate 95% confidence constant probability contours associated with comparison error results for a practical example. In addition, the example is used to show the drawbacks of using a first-order sensitivity analysis when nonlinear local sensitivity coefficients exist. Finally, the example is used to show the connection between the noise level of the validation exercise calculated using multivariate and univariate statistics.

  19. An exercise in model validation: Comparing univariate statistics and Monte Carlo-based multivariate statistics

    Weathers, J.B. [Shock, Noise, and Vibration Group, Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding, P.O. Box 149, Pascagoula, MS 39568 (United States)], E-mail: James.Weathers@ngc.com; Luck, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, 210 Carpenter Engineering Building, P.O. Box ME, Mississippi State, MS 39762-5925 (United States)], E-mail: Luck@me.msstate.edu; Weathers, J.W. [Structural Analysis Group, Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding, P.O. Box 149, Pascagoula, MS 39568 (United States)], E-mail: Jeffrey.Weathers@ngc.com

    2009-11-15

    The complexity of mathematical models used by practicing engineers is increasing due to the growing availability of sophisticated mathematical modeling tools and ever-improving computational power. For this reason, the need to define a well-structured process for validating these models against experimental results has become a pressing issue in the engineering community. This validation process is partially characterized by the uncertainties associated with the modeling effort as well as the experimental results. The net impact of the uncertainties on the validation effort is assessed through the 'noise level of the validation procedure', which can be defined as an estimate of the 95% confidence uncertainty bounds for the comparison error between actual experimental results and model-based predictions of the same quantities of interest. Although general descriptions associated with the construction of the noise level using multivariate statistics exists in the literature, a detailed procedure outlining how to account for the systematic and random uncertainties is not available. In this paper, the methodology used to derive the covariance matrix associated with the multivariate normal pdf based on random and systematic uncertainties is examined, and a procedure used to estimate this covariance matrix using Monte Carlo analysis is presented. The covariance matrices are then used to construct approximate 95% confidence constant probability contours associated with comparison error results for a practical example. In addition, the example is used to show the drawbacks of using a first-order sensitivity analysis when nonlinear local sensitivity coefficients exist. Finally, the example is used to show the connection between the noise level of the validation exercise calculated using multivariate and univariate statistics.

  20. An elevator

    Gusev, A.S.; Peshkov, L.P.; Rozin, M.M.; Shestov, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body, a flap, a lock with a catch and a spring-loaded shut-off clamp in the form of upper and lower horizontal levers which are connected by a handle and an axle and one end of which is made in the form of an eccentric cam. The size of the eccentricity of the cam of the levers is increased toward the handle of the clamp in order to increase the operational reliability and to extend the service life.

  1. An elevator

    Rastorguyev, M.A.; Maloyarovslavtesv, D.A.; Prokopov, O.I.; Tukayev, Sh.V.; Zanilov, I.F.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body with a turning collar locking device and a rod with longitudinal grooves, which are flexibly linked with jaws positioned in grooves in the body. To increase safety through ensuring automatic locking of the jaws in the closed position, the locking device is made in the form of head on wedges, spring loaded relative to the collar and made with cams and positioned with the capability of interacting with the grooves of the rod and through the cams with the collar.

  2. The use of principal components and univariate charts to control multivariate processes

    Marcela A. G. Machado

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we evaluate the performance of the T² chart based on the principal components (PC X chart and the simultaneous univariate control charts based on the original variables (SU charts or based on the principal components (SUPC charts. The main reason to consider the PC chart lies on the dimensionality reduction. However, depending on the disturbance and on the way the original variables are related, the chart is very slow in signaling, except when all variables are negatively correlated and the principal component is wisely selected. Comparing the SU , the SUPC and the T² charts we conclude that the SU X charts (SUPC charts have a better overall performance when the variables are positively (negatively correlated. We also develop the expression to obtain the power of two S² charts designed for monitoring the covariance matrix. These joint S² charts are, in the majority of the cases, more efficient than the generalized variance chart.Neste artigo, avaliamos o desempenho do gráfico de T² baseado em componentes principais (gráfico PC e dos gráficos de controle simultâneos univariados baseados nas variáveis originais (gráfico SU X ou baseados em componentes principais (gráfico SUPC. A principal razão para o uso do gráfico PC é a redução de dimensionalidade. Entretanto, dependendo da perturbação e da correlação entre as variáveis originais, o gráfico é lento em sinalizar, exceto quando todas as variáveis são negativamente correlacionadas e a componente principal é adequadamente escolhida. Comparando os gráficos SU X, SUPC e T² concluímos que o gráfico SU X (gráfico SUPC tem um melhor desempenho global quando as variáveis são positivamente (negativamente correlacionadas. Desenvolvemos também uma expressão para obter o poder de detecção de dois gráficos de S² projetados para controlar a matriz de covariâncias. Os gráficos conjuntos de S² são, na maioria dos casos, mais eficientes que o gr

  3. Bucket elevator

    Chromek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je návrh svislého korečkového elevátoru, který má sloužit k dopravě obilovin s dopravní výškou 19 m a dopravovaným množstvím 100 t/hod. Práce se skládá z popisu korečkového elevátoru a jeho hlavních částí, zmiňující se v úvodní rešerši. Tato práce je zaměřena na funkční a kapacitní výpočet, určení pohonu a napínacího zařízení. Další výpočet je kontrolní, skládající se z pevnostní kontroly hnacího hřídele, výpočtu pera, životnosti ložisek a výpočtu napínacího zaříze...

  4. A comparison between univariate probabilistic and multivariate (logistic regression) methods for landslide susceptibility analysis: the example of the Febbraro valley (Northern Alps, Italy)

    Rossi, M.; Apuani, T.; Felletti, F.

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare the results of two statistical methods for landslide susceptibility analysis: 1) univariate probabilistic method based on landslide susceptibility index, 2) multivariate method (logistic regression). The study area is the Febbraro valley, located in the central Italian Alps, where different types of metamorphic rocks croup out. On the eastern part of the studied basin a quaternary cover represented by colluvial and secondarily, by glacial deposits, is dominant. In this study 110 earth flows, mainly located toward NE portion of the catchment, were analyzed. They involve only the colluvial deposits and their extension mainly ranges from 36 to 3173 m2. Both statistical methods require to establish a spatial database, in which each landslide is described by several parameters that can be assigned using a main scarp central point of landslide. The spatial database is constructed using a Geographical Information System (GIS). Each landslide is described by several parameters corresponding to the value of main scarp central point of the landslide. Based on bibliographic review a total of 15 predisposing factors were utilized. The width of the intervals, in which the maps of the predisposing factors have to be reclassified, has been defined assuming constant intervals to: elevation (100 m), slope (5 °), solar radiation (0.1 MJ/cm2/year), profile curvature (1.2 1/m), tangential curvature (2.2 1/m), drainage density (0.5), lineament density (0.00126). For the other parameters have been used the results of the probability-probability plots analysis and the statistical indexes of landslides site. In particular slope length (0 ÷ 2, 2 ÷ 5, 5 ÷ 10, 10 ÷ 20, 20 ÷ 35, 35 ÷ 260), accumulation flow (0 ÷ 1, 1 ÷ 2, 2 ÷ 5, 5 ÷ 12, 12 ÷ 60, 60 ÷27265), Topographic Wetness Index 0 ÷ 0.74, 0.74 ÷ 1.94, 1.94 ÷ 2.62, 2.62 ÷ 3.48, 3.48 ÷ 6,00, 6.00 ÷ 9.44), Stream Power Index (0 ÷ 0.64, 0.64 ÷ 1.28, 1.28 ÷ 1.81, 1.81 ÷ 4.20, 4.20 ÷ 9

  5. Who uses nursing theory? A univariate descriptive analysis of five years' research articles.

    Bond, A Elaine; Eshah, Nidal Farid; Bani-Khaled, Mohammed; Hamad, Atef Omar; Habashneh, Samira; Kataua', Hussein; al-Jarrah, Imad; Abu Kamal, Andaleeb; Hamdan, Falastine Rafic; Maabreh, Roqia

    2011-06-01

    Since the early 1950s, nursing leaders have worked diligently to build the Scientific Discipline of Nursing, integrating Theory, Research and Practice. Recently, the role of theory has again come into question, with some scientists claiming nurses are not using theory to guide their research, with which to improve practice. The purposes of this descriptive study were to determine: (i) Were nursing scientists' research articles in leading nursing journals based on theory? (ii) If so, were the theories nursing theories or borrowed theories? (iii) Were the theories integrated into the studies, or were they used as organizing frameworks? Research articles from seven top ISI journals were analysed, excluding regularly featured columns, meta-analyses, secondary analysis, case studies and literature reviews. The authors used King's dynamic Interacting system and Goal Attainment Theory as an organizing framework. They developed consensus on how to identify the integration of theory, searching the Title, Abstract, Aims, Methods, Discussion and Conclusion sections of each research article, whether quantitative or qualitative. Of 2857 articles published in the seven journals from 2002 to, and including, 2006, 2184 (76%) were research articles. Of the 837 (38%) authors who used theories, 460 (55%) used nursing theories, 377 (45%) used other theories: 776 (93%) of those who used theory integrated it into their studies, including qualitative studies, while 51 (7%) reported they used theory as an organizing framework for their studies. Closer analysis revealed theory principles were implicitly implied, even in research reports that did not explicitly report theory usage. Increasing numbers of nursing research articles (though not percentagewise) continue to be guided by theory, and not always by nursing theory. Newer nursing research methods may not explicitly state the use of nursing theory, though it is implicitly implied. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring

  6. Vessels for elevated temperature service

    O'Donnell, W.J.; Porowski, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction (background; elevated temperature concerns; design tools); design of pressure vessels for elevated temperature per ASME code; basic elevated temperature failure modes; allowable stresses and strains per ASME code (basic allowable stress limits; ASME code limits for bending; time-fraction summations; strain limits; buckling and instability; negligible creep and stress-rupture effects); combined membrane and bending stresses in creep regime; thermal stress cycles; bounding methods based on elastic core concept (bounds on accumulated strains; more accurate bounds; strain ranges; maximum stresses; strains at discontinuities); elastic follow-up; creep strain concentrations; time-dependent fatigue (combined creep rupture and fatigue damage; limits for inelastic design analyses; limits for elastic design analyses); flaw evaluation techniques; type 316 stainless steel; type 304 stainless steel; steel 2 1/4Cr1Mo; Inconel 718; Incolloy 800; Hastelloy X; detailed inelastic design analyses. (U.K.)

  7. Elevated post-void residual volume in a geriatric post-hip fracture assessment in women-associated factors and risk of mortality.

    Nuotio, Maria S; Luukkaala, Tiina; Tammela, Teuvo

    2018-04-09

    Multiple factors contribute to elevated post-void residual urine volumes (PVR), but they may indicate detrusor underactivity (DU), especially in older women. The aim here was to examine factors associated with and prognostic significance of elevated PVR in a geriatric post-hip fracture assessment in a female population. Consecutive female hip fracture patients (n = 409) aged 65 years and older were included. PVR was measured by bladder scanner. PVR of 160 ml or more was deemed elevated. Age-adjusted univariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association of the domains of the comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) with elevated PVR. Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the age-adjusted association of an elevated PVR with 1-year mortality. Of the patients, 64 (15.6%) had elevated PVR. Having urinary or fecal incontinence, difficulties in physical activities of daily living, malnutrition, poor performance on Timed Up and Go and Elderly Mobility Scale were significantly associated with elevated PVR. Difficulties in instrumental activities of daily living, renal dysfunction, constipation, polypharmacy, nocturia, cognitive impairment and depressive mood were not associated with elevated PVR. Elevated PVR significantly increased the risk of mortality 1 year post hip fracture. Elevated PVR is relatively common in older female hip fracture patients and associated with physical functioning, malnutrition and risk of mortality. Even though a causal relationship cannot be confirmed, the findings may suggest a relationship between DU and physical frailty. PVR deserves to be included in the CGA of frail older patients including women.

  8. The issue of multiple univariate comparisons in the context of neuroelectric brain mapping: an application in a neuromarketing experiment.

    Vecchiato, G; De Vico Fallani, F; Astolfi, L; Toppi, J; Cincotti, F; Mattia, D; Salinari, S; Babiloni, F

    2010-08-30

    This paper presents some considerations about the use of adequate statistical techniques in the framework of the neuroelectromagnetic brain mapping. With the use of advanced EEG/MEG recording setup involving hundred of sensors, the issue of the protection against the type I errors that could occur during the execution of hundred of univariate statistical tests, has gained interest. In the present experiment, we investigated the EEG signals from a mannequin acting as an experimental subject. Data have been collected while performing a neuromarketing experiment and analyzed with state of the art computational tools adopted in specialized literature. Results showed that electric data from the mannequin's head presents statistical significant differences in power spectra during the visualization of a commercial advertising when compared to the power spectra gathered during a documentary, when no adjustments were made on the alpha level of the multiple univariate tests performed. The use of the Bonferroni or Bonferroni-Holm adjustments returned correctly no differences between the signals gathered from the mannequin in the two experimental conditions. An partial sample of recently published literature on different neuroscience journals suggested that at least the 30% of the papers do not use statistical protection for the type I errors. While the occurrence of type I errors could be easily managed with appropriate statistical techniques, the use of such techniques is still not so largely adopted in the literature. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A comparison of multivariate and univariate time series approaches to modelling and forecasting emergency department demand in Western Australia.

    Aboagye-Sarfo, Patrick; Mai, Qun; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Preen, David B; Stewart, Louise M; Fatovich, Daniel M

    2015-10-01

    To develop multivariate vector-ARMA (VARMA) forecast models for predicting emergency department (ED) demand in Western Australia (WA) and compare them to the benchmark univariate autoregressive moving average (ARMA) and Winters' models. Seven-year monthly WA state-wide public hospital ED presentation data from 2006/07 to 2012/13 were modelled. Graphical and VARMA modelling methods were used for descriptive analysis and model fitting. The VARMA models were compared to the benchmark univariate ARMA and Winters' models to determine their accuracy to predict ED demand. The best models were evaluated by using error correction methods for accuracy. Descriptive analysis of all the dependent variables showed an increasing pattern of ED use with seasonal trends over time. The VARMA models provided a more precise and accurate forecast with smaller confidence intervals and better measures of accuracy in predicting ED demand in WA than the ARMA and Winters' method. VARMA models are a reliable forecasting method to predict ED demand for strategic planning and resource allocation. While the ARMA models are a closely competing alternative, they under-estimated future ED demand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Univariate Lp and ɭ p Averaging, 0 < p < 1, in Polynomial Time by Utilization of Statistical Structure

    John E. Lavery

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence that one can calculate generically combinatorially expensive Lp and lp averages, 0 < p < 1, in polynomial time by restricting the data to come from a wide class of statistical distributions. Our approach differs from the approaches in the previous literature, which are based on a priori sparsity requirements or on accepting a local minimum as a replacement for a global minimum. The functionals by which Lp averages are calculated are not convex but are radially monotonic and the functionals by which lp averages are calculated are nearly so, which are the keys to solvability in polynomial time. Analytical results for symmetric, radially monotonic univariate distributions are presented. An algorithm for univariate lp averaging is presented. Computational results for a Gaussian distribution, a class of symmetric heavy-tailed distributions and a class of asymmetric heavy-tailed distributions are presented. Many phenomena in human-based areas are increasingly known to be represented by data that have large numbers of outliers and belong to very heavy-tailed distributions. When tails of distributions are so heavy that even medians (L1 and l1 averages do not exist, one needs to consider using lp minimization principles with 0 < p < 1.

  11. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    . Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1......BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with mortality in general populations. Smokers may be at particular risk. The association between resting heart rate (RHR), smoking status and cardiovascular and total mortality was investigated in a general population. METHODS: Prospective.......09-1.16) in moderate smokers, and 1.13 (1.10-1.16) in heavy smokers. There was no gender difference. The risk estimates for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were essentially similar. In univariate analyses, the difference in survival between a RHR in the highest (>80bpm) vs lowest quartile (...

  12. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in current and former smokers

    Jensen, Magnus T; Marott, Jacob L; Jensen, Gorm B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate is associated with mortality in general populations. Smokers may be at particular risk. The association between resting heart rate (RHR), smoking status and cardiovascular and total mortality was investigated in a general population. METHODS: Prospective....... Current and former smokers had, irrespective of tobacco consumption, greater relative risk of elevated RHR compared to never smokers. The relative risk of all-cause mortality per 10bpm increase in RHR was (95% CI): 1.06 (1.01-1.10) in never smokers, 1.11 (1.07-1.15) in former smokers, 1.13 (1.......09-1.16) in moderate smokers, and 1.13 (1.10-1.16) in heavy smokers. There was no gender difference. The risk estimates for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were essentially similar. In univariate analyses, the difference in survival between a RHR in the highest (>80bpm) vs lowest quartile (...

  13. National Elevation Dataset (NED)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a National Elevation Database (NED). The NED is a seamless mosaic of best-available elevation data. The 7.5-minute elevation...

  14. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  15. Evaluating statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in single-case experimental designs: an SPSS method to analyze univariate data.

    Maric, Marija; de Haan, Else; Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Wolters, Lidewij H; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2015-03-01

    Single-case experimental designs are useful methods in clinical research practice to investigate individual client progress. Their proliferation might have been hampered by methodological challenges such as the difficulty applying existing statistical procedures. In this article, we describe a data-analytic method to analyze univariate (i.e., one symptom) single-case data using the common package SPSS. This method can help the clinical researcher to investigate whether an intervention works as compared with a baseline period or another intervention type, and to determine whether symptom improvement is clinically significant. First, we describe the statistical method in a conceptual way and show how it can be implemented in SPSS. Simulation studies were performed to determine the number of observation points required per intervention phase. Second, to illustrate this method and its implications, we present a case study of an adolescent with anxiety disorders treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques in an outpatient psychotherapy clinic, whose symptoms were regularly assessed before each session. We provide a description of the data analyses and results of this case study. Finally, we discuss the advantages and shortcomings of the proposed method. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Will initiatives to promote hydroelectricity consumption be effective? Evidence from univariate and panel LM unit root tests with structural breaks

    Lean, Hooi Hooi; Smyth, Russell

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether initiatives to promote hydroelectricity consumption are likely to be effective by applying univariate and panel Lagrange Multiplier (LM) unit root tests to hydroelectricity consumption in 55 countries over the period 1965–2011. We find that for the panel, as well as about four-fifths of individual countries, that hydroelectricity consumption is stationary. This result implies that shocks to hydroelectricity consumption in most countries will only result in temporary deviations from the long-run growth path. An important consequence of this finding is that initiatives designed to have permanent positive effects on hydroelectricity consumption, such as large-scale dam construction, are unlikely to be effective in increasing the share of hydroelectricity, relative to consumption of fossil fuels. - Highlights: • Applies unit root tests to hydroelectricity consumption. • Hydroelectricity consumption is stationary. • Shocks to hydroelectricity consumption result in temporary deviations from the long-run growth path

  17. Guaranteed Bounds on Information-Theoretic Measures of Univariate Mixtures Using Piecewise Log-Sum-Exp Inequalities

    Nielsen, Frank

    2016-12-09

    Information-theoreticmeasures, such as the entropy, the cross-entropy and the Kullback-Leibler divergence between two mixture models, are core primitives in many signal processing tasks. Since the Kullback-Leibler divergence of mixtures provably does not admit a closed-form formula, it is in practice either estimated using costly Monte Carlo stochastic integration, approximated or bounded using various techniques. We present a fast and generic method that builds algorithmically closed-form lower and upper bounds on the entropy, the cross-entropy, the Kullback-Leibler and the α-divergences of mixtures. We illustrate the versatile method by reporting our experiments for approximating the Kullback-Leibler and the α-divergences between univariate exponential mixtures, Gaussian mixtures, Rayleigh mixtures and Gamma mixtures.

  18. Elevated levels of serum tumor markers CA 15-3 and CEA are prognostic factors for diagnosis of metastatic breast cancers.

    Lee, Jun Sang; Park, Seho; Park, Ji Min; Cho, Jung Hoon; Kim, Seung Il; Park, Byeong-Woo

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of tumor markers, cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels at diagnosis of systemic recurrence. After primary treatments of locoregional breast cancers, serum CA 15-3 and/or CEA concentrations were regularly measured, and systemic recurrences were identified in 351 patients between January 1999 and December 2009. The association between tumor marker levels at systemic recurrence and survival were investigated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Elevated CA 15-3 and CEA levels were identified in 194 of 349 (55.6 %) and 111 of 308 (36.0 %) patients, respectively, at diagnosis of systemic recurrence. Elevated levels of CA 15-3 and CEA were correlated with visceral or multiple recurrences and elevated preoperative levels. Elevation of CA 15-3 was more prominent in younger patients and in primary node-positive tumors, while CEA was elevated in older patients at diagnosis and in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors. Elevated tumor markers as well as ER negativity, short disease-free interval, and advanced stage at initial diagnosis showed independent prognostic significance on multivariate analysis. Among 306 patients for whom levels of both tumor markers at recurrence were available, 106 patients without elevation of either marker showed significantly better overall survival than those with elevated levels of either one or both markers, and the significance persisted in multivariate analysis. Elevated serum CA 15-3 and CEA levels at recurrence suggest increased tumor burden and may be prognostic for survival for metastatic breast cancer patients.

  19. Robust assignment of cancer subtypes from expression data using a uni-variate gene expression average as classifier

    Lauss, Martin; Frigyesi, Attila; Ryden, Tobias; Höglund, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    Genome wide gene expression data is a rich source for the identification of gene signatures suitable for clinical purposes and a number of statistical algorithms have been described for both identification and evaluation of such signatures. Some employed algorithms are fairly complex and hence sensitive to over-fitting whereas others are more simple and straight forward. Here we present a new type of simple algorithm based on ROC analysis and the use of metagenes that we believe will be a good complement to existing algorithms. The basis for the proposed approach is the use of metagenes, instead of collections of individual genes, and a feature selection using AUC values obtained by ROC analysis. Each gene in a data set is assigned an AUC value relative to the tumor class under investigation and the genes are ranked according to these values. Metagenes are then formed by calculating the mean expression level for an increasing number of ranked genes, and the metagene expression value that optimally discriminates tumor classes in the training set is used for classification of new samples. The performance of the metagene is then evaluated using LOOCV and balanced accuracies. We show that the simple uni-variate gene expression average algorithm performs as well as several alternative algorithms such as discriminant analysis and the more complex approaches such as SVM and neural networks. The R package rocc is freely available at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/rocc/index.html

  20. Influence of microclimatic ammonia levels on productive performance of different broilers' breeds estimated with univariate and multivariate approaches.

    Soliman, Essam S; Moawed, Sherif A; Hassan, Rania A

    2017-08-01

    Birds litter contains unutilized nitrogen in the form of uric acid that is converted into ammonia; a fact that does not only affect poultry performance but also has a negative effect on people's health around the farm and contributes in the environmental degradation. The influence of microclimatic ammonia emissions on Ross and Hubbard broilers reared in different housing systems at two consecutive seasons (fall and winter) was evaluated using a discriminant function analysis to differentiate between Ross and Hubbard breeds. A total number of 400 air samples were collected and analyzed for ammonia levels during the experimental period. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Ammonia levels were significantly higher (p0.05) were found between the two farms in body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and performance index (PI) of broilers. Body weight; weight gain and PI had increased values (pbroiler breed. Ammonia emissions were positively (although weekly) correlated with the ambient relative humidity (r=0.383; p0.05). Test of significance of discriminant function analysis did not show a classification based on the studied traits suggesting that they cannot been used as predictor variables. The percentage of correct classification was 52% and it was improved after deletion of highly correlated traits to 57%. The study revealed that broiler's growth was negatively affected by increased microclimatic ammonia concentrations and recommended the analysis of broilers' growth performance parameters data using multivariate discriminant function analysis.

  1. Iowa Bedrock Surface Elevation

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface elevation in Iowa was compiled using all available data, principally information from GEOSAM, supplemented...

  2. Elevated Serum IL-17 Expression at Cessation Associated with Graves’ Disease Relapse

    Jianhui Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Antithyroid drug (ATD treatment occupies the cornerstone therapeutic modality of Graves’ disease (GD with a high relapse rate after discontinuation. This study aimed to assess potential risk factors for GD relapse especially serum interleukin-17 (IL-17 expression. Methods. Consecutive newly diagnosed GD patients who were scheduled to undergo ATD therapy from May 2011 to May 2014 were prospectively enrolled. Risk factors for GD relapse were analyzed by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses. The association between serum IL-17 expression at cessation and GD relapse was analyzed with relapse-free survival (RFS by the Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and log-rank test. Results. Of the 117 patients, 72 (61.5% maintained a remission for 12 months after ATD withdrawal and 45 (38.5% demonstrated GD relapse. The final multivariate Cox analysis indicated elevated IL-17 expression at cessation to be an independent risk factor for GD relapse within 12 months after ATD withdrawal (HR: 3.04, 95% CI: 1.14–7.67, p=0.021. Patients with higher expressions of IL-17 (≥median value at cessation demonstrated a significantly higher RFS than those with lower levels by the Kaplan–Meier analysis and log-rank test (p=0.028. Conclusions. This present study indicated elevated serum IL-17 expression at cessation to be a predictor for GD relapse within 12 months.

  3. What do differences between multi-voxel and univariate analysis mean? How subject-, voxel-, and trial-level variance impact fMRI analysis.

    Davis, Tyler; LaRocque, Karen F; Mumford, Jeanette A; Norman, Kenneth A; Wagner, Anthony D; Poldrack, Russell A

    2014-08-15

    Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) has led to major changes in how fMRI data are analyzed and interpreted. Many studies now report both MVPA results and results from standard univariate voxel-wise analysis, often with the goal of drawing different conclusions from each. Because MVPA results can be sensitive to latent multidimensional representations and processes whereas univariate voxel-wise analysis cannot, one conclusion that is often drawn when MVPA and univariate results differ is that the activation patterns underlying MVPA results contain a multidimensional code. In the current study, we conducted simulations to formally test this assumption. Our findings reveal that MVPA tests are sensitive to the magnitude of voxel-level variability in the effect of a condition within subjects, even when the same linear relationship is coded in all voxels. We also find that MVPA is insensitive to subject-level variability in mean activation across an ROI, which is the primary variance component of interest in many standard univariate tests. Together, these results illustrate that differences between MVPA and univariate tests do not afford conclusions about the nature or dimensionality of the neural code. Instead, targeted tests of the informational content and/or dimensionality of activation patterns are critical for drawing strong conclusions about the representational codes that are indicated by significant MVPA results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Elevated admission microalbuminuria predicts poor myocardial blood flow and 6-month mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Chen, Jia Wei; Wang, Yong Liang; Li, Hong Wei

    2012-04-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is considered a major risk factor predisposing to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by MA have been well described. However, data regarding admission MA and coronary and myocardial flow are scant. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of admission MA on coronary blood flow and prognosis in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing primary PCI. Did elevated admission microalbuminuria predict poor myocardial blood flow and 6-month mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention? A total of 247 patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI within 12 hours after symptom onset were studied. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to admission urinary albumin extraction rate (UAER): (1) an MA group (UAER 20-200 µg/min), and (2) a normoalbuminuria (NA) group (UAER < 20 µg/min). Microalbuminuria was observed in 108 patients. Univariate analyses showed statistical differences between the NA and MA groups in serum creatine level, plasma glucose level, and peak creatine kinase level on presentation. Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grades (TFGs) 0-2 in the MA group were more frequent (9.4% vs 21.2%, P < 0.05) than in the NA group, and corrected TIMI frame count was higher (23.9 ± 18.5 vs 29.8 ± 23.5, P < 0.05). Admission MA was an independent predictor of poor myocardial perfusion (adjusted relative risk: 3.14, 95% confidence interval: 0.99-6.78) and a higher rate of 6-month mortality in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI (adjusted relative risk: 1.58, 95% confidence interval: 0.74-3.39). Admission MA levels are associated with impaired myocardial flow and poor prognosis in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Influence of microclimatic ammonia levels on productive performance of different broilers’ breeds estimated with univariate and multivariate approaches

    Soliman, Essam S.; Moawed, Sherif A.; Hassan, Rania A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim: Birds litter contains unutilized nitrogen in the form of uric acid that is converted into ammonia; a fact that does not only affect poultry performance but also has a negative effect on people’s health around the farm and contributes in the environmental degradation. The influence of microclimatic ammonia emissions on Ross and Hubbard broilers reared in different housing systems at two consecutive seasons (fall and winter) was evaluated using a discriminant function analysis to differentiate between Ross and Hubbard breeds. Materials and Methods: A total number of 400 air samples were collected and analyzed for ammonia levels during the experimental period. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Results: Ammonia levels were significantly higher (p0.05) were found between the two farms in body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and performance index (PI) of broilers. Body weight; weight gain and PI had increased values (pbroiler breed. Ammonia emissions were positively (although weekly) correlated with the ambient relative humidity (r=0.383; p0.05). Test of significance of discriminant function analysis did not show a classification based on the studied traits suggesting that they cannot been used as predictor variables. The percentage of correct classification was 52% and it was improved after deletion of highly correlated traits to 57%. Conclusion: The study revealed that broiler’s growth was negatively affected by increased microclimatic ammonia concentrations and recommended the analysis of broilers’ growth performance parameters data using multivariate discriminant function analysis. PMID:28919677

  6. Study of Ecotype and Sowing Date Interaction in Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. using Different Univariate Stability Parameters

    J Ghanbari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cumin is one of the most important medicinal plants in Iran and today, it is in the second level of popularity between spices in the world after black pepper. Cumin is an aromatic plant used as flavoring and seasoning agent in foods. Cumin seeds have been found to possess significant biological and have been used for treatment of toothache, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, epilepsy and jaundice. Knowledge of GEI is advantageous to have a cultivar that gives consistently high yield in a broad range of environments and to increase efficiency of breeding program and selection of best genotypes. A genotype that has stable trait expression across environments contributes little to GEI and its performance should be more predictable from the main several statistical methods have been proposed for stability analysis, with the aim of explaining the information contained in the GEI. Regression technique was proposed by Finlay and Wilkinson (1963 and was improved by Eberhart and Russell (1966. Generally, genotype stability was estimated by the slope of and deviation from the regression line for each of the genotypes. This is a popular method in stability analysis and has been applied in many crops. Non-parametric methods (rank mean (R, standard deviation rank (SDR and yield index ratio (YIR, environmental variance (S2i and genotypic variation coefficient (CVi Wricke's ecovalence and Shukla's stability variance (Shukla, 1972 have been used to determine genotype-by-environment interaction in many studies. This study was aimed to evaluate the ecotype × sowing date interaction in cumin and to evaluation of genotypic response of cumin to different sowing dates using univariate stability parameters. Materials and Methods In order to study of ecotype × sowing date interaction, different cumin ecotypes: Semnan, Fars, Yazd, Golestan, Khorasan-Razavi, Khorasan-Shomali, Khorasan-Jonoubi, Isfahan and Kerman in 5 different sowing dates (26th December, 10th January

  7. Free Triiodothyronine Concentrations are Inversely Associated with Elevated Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Population.

    Zhou, Yulin; Zhao, Liebin; Wang, Tiange; Hong, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Baihui; Huang, Xiaolin; Xu, Min; Bi, Yufang

    2016-01-01

    Increased carotid artery intima media thickness (C-IMT) is an early feature of atherosclerosis. It has been reported to be altered in patients with thyroid dysfunction, and the evidence is still controversial. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between C-IMT and possible variations in thyroid function in Chinese adults aged 40 years and above. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 2276 non-diabetic participants. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The prevalence of elevated C-IMT decreased according to FT3 quartiles (29.8%, 24.3%, 24.2%, and 22.2%, P for trend=0.005). In both univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, FT3 levels were inversely associated with C-IMT (both P values ≤ 0.002). Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that high FT3 levels were associated with low prevalent elevated C-IMT. The adjusted odds ratio for elevated C-IMT was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.99, P=0.04) when comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of FT3. Serum FT3 levels were inversely associated with elevated C-IMT in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults without diabetes, independent of traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis.

  8. De stille elever

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Det er blevet en afgørende samværskompetence i uddannelsessystemet at stå aktivt frem og deltage verbalt i skoleklassens liv både fagligt og socialt. Men ikke alle elever deltager lige villigt verbalt i plenum. Artiklen handler om de stille elever og konsekvenserne af stillehed i skolen. Det...... foreslås at skolesystemet sanktionerer ældre elever hårdere for stillehed end yngre elever og det forklares med at skolelivet også er en kultivering henimod elevhed som social identitet og denne er der forventning om at eleverne mestrer i udskolingen....

  9. Undervisning af tosprogede elever

    Horst, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen fremdrager hovedresultaterne fra Virginia P. Collier's og Wayne P. Thomas's længdeundersøgelser af tosprogede elever i USA, som formentlig er de mest omfattende undersøgelser af undervisningen af tosprogede elever overhovedet. Resultaterne diskuteres i relation til udviklingen af en...

  10. Effects of elevated CO

    Xue, Sha; Yang, Xiaomei; Liu, Guobin; Gai, Lingtong; Zhang, Changsheng; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Elevated CO2 and drought are key consequences of climate change and affect soil processes and plant growth. This study investigated the effects of elevated CO2 and drought on the microbial biomass and enzymatic activities in the rhizospheres of Bothriochloa ischaemum and

  11. Elevated neutrophil and monocyte counts in peripheral blood are associated with poor survival in patients with metastatic melanoma: a prognostic model

    Schmidt, H; Bastholt, L; Geertsen, P

    2005-01-01

    factors in univariate analyses. Subsequently, a multivariate Cox's regression analysis identified elevated LDH (Pperformance status of 2 (P=0.008, hazard ratio 1.6) as independent prognostic factors for poor survival...... of several phase II protocols and the majority received treatment with intermediate dose subcutaneous IL-2 and interferon-alpha. Neutrophil and monocyte counts, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), number of metastatic sites, location of metastases and performance status were all statistically significant prognostic...... survival of 12.6 months (95% confidence interval (CI), 11.4-13.8), 6.0 months (95% CI, 4.8-7.2) and 3.4 months (95% CI, 1.2-5.6), respectively. The low-risk group encompassed the majority of long-term survivors, whereas the patients in the high-risk group with a very poor prognosis should probably...

  12. Persistent elevation of postoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio: A better predictor of survival in gastric cancer than elevated preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio.

    Min, Kyueng-Whan; Kwon, Mi Jung; Kim, Dong-Hoon; Son, Byoung Kwan; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Oh, Young Ha; Wi, Young Chan

    2017-10-25

    Postoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio change (NLRc) reflects the dynamic change of balance between host inflammatory response and immune response after treatment. In gastric cancer, an elevated initial NLR (iNLR) is reported to be a prognostic predictor, but the clinical application of the NLRc remains unclear. The NLRc was assessed in 734 patients undergoing total/subtotal gastrectomy and endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric adenocarcinoma. The iNLR and NLRc were recorded within 10 days of the first diagnosis and 3-6 months after surgery, respectively. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, we investigated the relationship between NLRc or iNLR and patient survival. The analysis revealed a higher predictive power for correlating patient survival with the NLRc compared with iNLR. NLRc was defined as negative (lower than iNLR) and positive (higher than iNLR). A positive NLRc was frequently observed in patients with advanced AJCC stage, local recurrence, distant metastasis, perineural invasion, and adjuvant chemotherapy (all p < 0.05). Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed a significant relationship between patient survival and NLRc (all p < 0.05) but no association between survival and iNLR. The NLRc could be a better indicator than iNLR for predicting survival in patients with gastric cancer.

  13. Elevator and hydraulics; Elevator to yuatsu

    Nakamura, I. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-15

    A hydraulic type elevator is installed in relatively lower buildings as compared with a rope type elevator, but the ratio in the number of installation of the former elevator is increasing. This paper explains from its construction and features to especially various control systems for the riding comfort and safety. A direct push-up system with hydraulic jacks arranged beneath a car, and an indirect push-up system that has hydraulic jacks arranged on flank of a car and transmits the movement of a plunger via a rope are available. The latter system eliminates the need of large holes to embed hydraulic jacks. While the speed is controlled by controlling flow rates of high-pressure oil, the speed, position, acceleration and even time differential calculus of the acceleration must be controlled severely. The system uses two-step control for the through-speed and the landing speed. Different systems that have been realized may include compensation for temperatures in flow rate control valves, load pressures, and oil viscosity, from learning control to fuzzy control for psychological effects, or control of inverters in motors. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  14. [Risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid in preterm infants].

    Song, Yan-Ting; Wang, Yong-Qin; Zhao, Yue-Hua; Zhu, Hai-Ling; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Xiao; Gao, Yi-Wen; Zhang, Wei-Ye; Sang, Yu-Tong

    2018-03-01

    To study the risk factors for elevated serum total bile acid (TBA) in preterm infants. A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 216 preterm infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. According to the presence or absence of elevated TBA (TBA >24.8 μmol/L), the preterm infants were divided into elevated TBA group with 53 infants and non-elevated TBA group with 163 infants. A univariate analysis and an unconditional multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the risk factors for elevated TBA. The univariate analysis showed that there were significant differences between the elevated TBA group and the non-elevated TBA group in gestational age at birth, birth weight, proportion of small-for-gestational-age infants, proportion of infants undergoing ventilator-assisted ventilation, fasting time, parenteral nutrition time, and incidence of neonatal respiratory failure and sepsis (PTBA in preterm infants. Low birth weight and neonatal sepsis may lead to elevated TBA in preterm infants.

  15. Elevators or stairs?

    Shah, Sachin; O’Byrne, Michael; Wilson, Merne; Wilson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Staff in hospitals frequently travel between floors and choose between taking the stairs or elevator. We compared the time savings with these two options. Methods: Four people aged 26–67 years completed 14 trips ranging from one to six floors, both ascending and descending. We compared the amount of time per floor travelled by stairs and by two banks of elevators. Participants reported their fatigue levels using a modified Borg scale. We performed two-way analysis of variance to compare the log-transformed data, with participant and time of day as independent variables. Results: The mean time taken to travel between each floor was 13.1 (standard deviation [SD] 1.7) seconds by stairs and 37.5 (SD 19.0) and 35.6 (SD 23.1) seconds by the two elevators (F = 8.61, p elevator equaled about 15 minutes a day. Self-reported fatigue was less than 13 (out of 20) on the Borg scale for all participants, and they all stated that they were able to continue their duties without resting. The extra time associated with elevator use was because of waiting for its arrival. There was a difference in the amount of time taken to travel by elevator depending on the time of day and day of the week. Interpretation: Taking the stairs rather than the elevator saved about 15 minutes each workday. This 3% savings per workday could translate into improved productivity as well as increased fitness. PMID:22159365

  16. Elevated temperature fracture mechanics

    Tomkins, B.

    1979-01-01

    The application of fracture mechanics concepts to cracks at elevated temperatures is examined. Particular consideration is given to the characterisation of crack tip stress-strain fields and parameters controlling crack extension under static and cyclic loads. (author)

  17. Indsatser for tosprogede elever

    Andersen, Dines; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Fagligt set klarer tosprogede elever sig dårligere i skolen og det videre uddannelsessystem end ’danske’ elever. Kommuner og folkeskoler har derfor sat en række tiltag i værk, som sigter mod at forbedre de tosprogede elevers skole- og uddannelsessituation. Rapporten kortlægger og analyserer...... af klasseundervisningen. Analysen viser, at de elever, der bliver taget ud af klassen for at få ekstra undervisning i dansk som andetsprog, klarer sig dårligere end elever, der modtager ekstraundervisningen i klassen eller uden for skoletid. Undersøgelsen er baseret på spørgeskemaundersøgelser blandt...... kommunale forvaltningschefer, skoleledere, lærere og forældre til børn i 2. klasse samt lærere til og elever i 9. klasse, SFI’s forløbsundersøgelse af årgang 1995 og registerdata. Undersøgelsen er via Ministeriet for Børn og Undervisning betalt med midler fra satspuljeaftalen 2009 om integration....

  18. Science on a space elevator

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.); Jorgensen, A. M. (Anders M.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe in-situ science stations mounted on a science-dedicated space elevator tether. The concept presented here involves a carbon nanotube ribbon that is constructed by an existing space elevator and then science sensors are stationed along the ribbon at differing altitudes. The finished ribbon can be moved across the earth to the position at which its scientific measurements are to be taken. The ability to station scientific, in-situ instrumentation at different altitudes for round-the-clock observations is a unique capability of the SE. The environments that the science packages sense range from the troposphere out beyond the magnetopause of the magnetosphere on the solar side of the earth. Therefore, the very end of the SE can sense the solar wind. The measurements at various points along its length include temperature, pressure, density, sampling, chemical analyses, wind speed, turbulence, free oxygen, electromagnetic radiation, cosmic rays, energetic particles and plasmas in the earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind. There exist some altitudes that are difficult to access with aircraft or balloons or rockets and so remain relatively unexplored. The space elevator solves these problems and opens these regions up to in-situ measurements. Without the need for propulsion, the SE provides a more benign and pristine environment for atmospheric measurements than available with powered aircraft. Moreover, replacing and upgrading instrumentation is expected to be very cost effective with the SE. Moving and stationing the science SE affords the opportunity to sense multiple regions of the atmosphere. The SE's geosynchronous, orbital motion through the magnetosphere, albeit nominally with Earth's magnetic field, will trace a plane

  19. National Elevation Dataset

    ,

    2002-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey. NED is designed to provide National elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, perform edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data. NED has a resolution of one arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the island territories and a resolution of two arc-seconds for Alaska. NED data sources have a variety of elevation units, horizontal datums, and map projections. In the NED assembly process the elevation values are converted to decimal meters as a consistent unit of measure, NAD83 is consistently used as horizontal datum, and all the data are recast in a geographic projection. Older DEM's produced by methods that are now obsolete have been filtered during the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts that are commonly found in data produced by these methods. Artifact removal greatly improves the quality of the slope, shaded-relief, and synthetic drainage information that can be derived from the elevation data. Figure 2 illustrates the results of this artifact removal filtering. NED processing also includes steps to adjust values where adjacent DEM's do not match well, and to fill sliver areas of missing data between DEM's. These processing steps ensure that NED has no void areas and artificial discontinuities have been minimized. The artifact removal filtering process does not eliminate all of the artifacts. In areas where the only available DEM is produced by older methods, then "striping" may still occur.

  20. Morning pulse pressure is associated more strongly with elevated albuminuria than systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional multicenter study.

    Ushigome, Emi; Fukui, Michiaki; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Matsumoto, Shinobu; Mineoka, Yusuke; Nakanishi, Naoko; Senmaru, Takafumi; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto

    2013-09-01

    Recently, focus has been directed toward pulse pressure as a potentially independent risk factor for micro- and macrovascular disease. This study was designed to examine the relationship between pulse pressure taken at home and elevated albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study is a post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional multicenter study. Home blood pressure measurements were performed for 14 consecutive days in 858 patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the relationship between systolic blood pressure or pulse pressure in the morning or in the evening and urinary albumin excretion using univariate and multivariate analyses. Furthermore, we measured area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) to compare the ability to identify elevated albuminuria, defined as urinary albumin excretion equal to or more than 30 mg/g creatinine, of systolic blood pressure or pulse pressure. Morning systolic blood pressure (β=0.339, Ppressure (β=0.378, PAUC for elevated albuminuria in morning systolic blood pressure and morning pulse pressure were 0.668 (0.632-0.705; PAUC of morning pulse pressure was significantly greater than that of morning systolic blood pressure (P=0.040). Our findings implicate that morning pulse pressure is associated with elevated albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes, which suggests that lowering morning pulse pressure could prevent the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    Reusch, Charlotte F.; Otzen, Elsebeth

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  2. Udeskole og elevers handlekompetence

    Breiting, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Elever elsker at komme væk fra undervisningen i skolen. Er det positivt eller negativt? Og hvad har betydning for, at eleverne får mest muligt ud af oplevelserne uden for skolen? Forskellige former for udeskole giver nogle oplagte muligheder, så eleverne udvikler sig som engagerede borgere i et...

  3. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    Reusch, Charlotte; Otzen, Elsebeth

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  4. The efficacy of postprostatectomy radiotherapy in patients with an isolated elevation of serum prostate-specific antigen

    Wu, Justin J; King, Stephen C; Montana, Gustavo S; McKinstry, Craig A; Anscher, Mitchell S

    1995-05-15

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of radiotherapy (RT) in patients with an isolated elevation of prostate specific antigen (PSA) after radical prostatectomy (RP). Methods and Materials: Between November 1987 and May 1993, 53 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate were referred for pelvic RT for an elevated PSA after RP. No patient had clinically or radiographically apparent local or distant disease, nor had any undergone prior androgen ablation. Patients received a median dose of 61.2 Gy to the prostatic bed. An undetectable PSA was required to be considered disease free (NED). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify factors predictive of becoming disease free after RT. Results: The median follow-up was 15 months. Of the 53 patients, 16 (30%) became NED after RT and 15 (28%) had a declining (n = 11) or stable (n = 4) PSA at last evaluation. The median time after RT to achieve an undetectable PSA was 9.3 months. At 12 and 24 months, the actuarial disease-free survival was 30 and 23%, respectively; actuarial progression-free survival was 71 and 26%, respectively. By univariate analysis, the last PSA level before RT (i.e., the pre-RT PSA) and an undetectable PSA after RP were significant predictors of becoming NED (p = 0.00001 and 0.04, respectively). However, on multivariate analysis, only the pre-RT PSA remained significant (p = 0.01). The mean pre-RT PSA differed significantly between patients who became NED after RT and those who did not (1.5 {+-} 0.2 ng/ml vs. 7.6 {+-} 1.6 ng/ml, respectively; p = 0.018). Fourteen of 27 (52%) patients with pre-RT PSA levels {<=} 2.5 ng/ml became NED, vs. only 2 of 26 (8%) patients with higher levels. There were no severe acute or late sequelae of RT. Conclusion: Prostatic-bed RT for an elevated serum PSA after RP is most effective in patients with a pre-RT PSA {<=} 2.5 ng/ml. Patients with significantly higher PSA values are unlikely to benefit from RT, possibly due to the presence of occult distant

  5. Comparison of univariate and multivariate calibration for the determination of micronutrients in pellets of plant materials by laser induced breakdown spectrometry

    Batista Braga, Jez Willian; Trevizan, Lilian Cristina; Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Aparecida Rufini, Iolanda; Santos, Dario; Krug, Francisco Jose

    2010-01-01

    The application of laser induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) aiming the direct analysis of plant materials is a great challenge that still needs efforts for its development and validation. In this way, a series of experimental approaches has been carried out in order to show that LIBS can be used as an alternative method to wet acid digestions based methods for analysis of agricultural and environmental samples. The large amount of information provided by LIBS spectra for these complex samples increases the difficulties for selecting the most appropriated wavelengths for each analyte. Some applications have suggested that improvements in both accuracy and precision can be achieved by the application of multivariate calibration in LIBS data when compared to the univariate regression developed with line emission intensities. In the present work, the performance of univariate and multivariate calibration, based on partial least squares regression (PLSR), was compared for analysis of pellets of plant materials made from an appropriate mixture of cryogenically ground samples with cellulose as the binding agent. The development of a specific PLSR model for each analyte and the selection of spectral regions containing only lines of the analyte of interest were the best conditions for the analysis. In this particular application, these models showed a similar performance, but PLSR seemed to be more robust due to a lower occurrence of outliers in comparison to the univariate method. Data suggests that efforts dealing with sample presentation and fitness of standards for LIBS analysis must be done in order to fulfill the boundary conditions for matrix independent development and validation.

  6. Diffusion rates for elevated releases

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1983-11-01

    A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  7. Skuldertesten "Kombineret Elevation"

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Overkær, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Formål: At udarbejde en testprotokol for testen Kombineret Elevation (KE) og undersøge test-retest variationen ved test af elite svømmere, samt diskutere testens relevans og validitet. Materiale og Metode: 9 elite og 10 sub-elite svømmere, heraf var 11 mænd og 8 kvinder, gennemførte testen KE 2...

  8. Geared-elevator flutter study. [transonic flutter characteristics of empennage

    Ruhlin, C. L.; Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Gregory, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describes an experimental and analytical study of the transonic flutter characteristics of an empennage flutter model having an all-movable horizontal tail with a geared elevator. Two configurations were flutter tested: one with a geared elevator and one with a locked elevator with the model cantilever-mounted on a sting in the wind tunnel. The geared-elevator configuration fluttered experimentally at about 20% higher dynamic pressures than the locked-elevator configuration. The experimental flutter boundary was nearly flat at transonic speeds for both configurations. It was found that an analysis which treated the elevator as a discrete surface predicted flutter dynamic pressure levels better than analyses which treated the stabilizer and elevator as a warped surface. Warped-surface methods, however, predicted more closely the experimental flutter frequencies and Mach number trends.

  9. Comparison between the univariate and multivariate analysis on the partial characterization of the endoglucanase produced in the solid state fermentation by Aspergillus oryzae ATCC 10124.

    de Brito, Aila Riany; Santos Reis, Nadabe Dos; Silva, Tatielle Pereira; Ferreira Bonomo, Renata Cristina; Trovatti Uetanabaro, Ana Paula; de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; da Silva, Erik Galvão Paranhos; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Oliveira, Julieta Rangel; Franco, Marcelo

    2017-11-26

    Endoglucanase production by Aspergillus oryzae ATCC 10124 cultivated in rice husks or peanut shells was optimized by experimental design as a function of humidity, time, and temperature. The optimum temperature for the endoglucanase activity was estimated by a univariate analysis (one factor at the time) as 50°C (rice husks) and 60°C (peanut shells), however, by a multivariate analysis (synergism of factors), it was determined a different temperature (56°C) for endoglucanase from peanut shells. For the optimum pH, values determined by univariate and multivariate analysis were 5 and 5.2 (rice husk) and 5 and 7.6 (peanut shells). In addition, the best half-lives were observed at 50°C as 22.8 hr (rice husks) and 7.3 hr (peanut shells), also, 80% of residual activities was obtained between 30 and 50°C for both substrates, and the pH stability was improved at 5-7 (rice hulls) and 6-9 (peanut shells). Both endoglucanases obtained presented different characteristics as a result of the versatility of fungi in different substrates.

  10. A spider elevator

    Butylkin, A.V.; Butylkin, V.A.; Izosimov, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    A spider elevator is proposed which contains a body, a wedge clamp with wedges hinged to each other, a subassembly for holding the wedge clamp in the open and closed positions and a mechanism for changing the wedge clamp, which is made in the form of levers with ears for cleats and installed in the body with the capability of turning. To increase reliability in the operational mode through using the external force for clamping the pipe, the free ends of the levers are hinged with the body by a power cylinder.

  11. Elevator Control Strategies

    Ceder, Frederick; Nordin, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate if it is eective to switch strategies for elevators during one day in an oce building. This essay describes some of the strategies in use today, followed by a comparison and analysis of two of the strategies described. We have also implemented optimizations to one of these strategies. From our test results we can conclude that our optimized strategy worked and produced better results on average waiting time and total traveling time than the two stra...

  12. MULTIVARIANT AND UNIVARIANT INTERGROUP DIFFERENCES IN THE INVESTIGATED SPECIFIC MOTOR SPACE BETWEEN RESPONDENTS JUNIORS AND SENIORS MEMBERS OF THE MACEDONIAN NATIONAL KARATE TEAM

    Kеnan Аsani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to establish intergroup multivariant and univariant investigated differences in specific motor space between respondents juniors and seniors members of the Macedonian karate team. The sample of 30 male karate respondents covers juniors on 16,17 and seniors over 18 years.In the research were applied 20 specific motor tests. Based on Graph 1 where it is presented multivariant analysis of variance Manova and Anova can be noted that respondents juniors and seniors, although not belonging to the same population are not different in multivariant understudied area.W. lambda of .19, Rao-wool R - Approximation of 1.91 degrees of freedom df 1 = 20 and df 2 = 9 provides the level of significance of p =, 16. Based on univariant analysis for each variable separately can be seen that has been around intergroup statistically significant difference in seven SMAEGERI (kick in the sack with favoritism leg mae geri for 10 sec., SMAVASI (kick in the sack with favoritism foot mavashi geri by 10 sec., SUSIRO (kick in the sack with favoritism leg ushiro geri for 10 sec., SKIZAME (kick in the sack with favoritism hand kizame cuki for 10 sec., STAPNSR (taping with foot in sagital plane for 15 sec. SUDMNR (hitting a moving target with weaker hand and SUDMPN (hitting a moving target with favoritism foot of twenty applied manifest variables. There are no intergroup differences in multivariant investigated specific - motor space among the respondents juniors and seniors members of the Macedonian karate team. Based on univariant analysis for each variable separately can be seen that has been around intergroup statistically significant difference in seven SMAEGERI (kick in the sack with favoritism leg mae geri for 10 sec., SMAVASI (kick in the sack with favoritism foot mavashi geri by 10 sec., SUSIRO (kick in the sack with favoritism leg ushiro geri for 10 sec., SKIZAME (kick in the sack with favoritism hand kizame cuki for 10 sec., STAPNSR (taping with foot in

  13. Monitoring endemic livestock diseases using laboratory diagnostic data: A simulation study to evaluate the performance of univariate process monitoring control algorithms.

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Dórea, Fernanda; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2016-05-01

    Surveillance systems are critical for accurate, timely monitoring and effective disease control. In this study, we investigated the performance of univariate process monitoring control algorithms in detecting changes in seroprevalence for endemic diseases. We also assessed the effect of sample size (number of sentinel herds tested in the surveillance system) on the performance of the algorithms. Three univariate process monitoring control algorithms were compared: Shewart p Chart(1) (PSHEW), Cumulative Sum(2) (CUSUM) and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average(3) (EWMA). Increases in seroprevalence were simulated from 0.10 to 0.15 and 0.20 over 4, 8, 24, 52 and 104 weeks. Each epidemic scenario was run with 2000 iterations. The cumulative sensitivity(4) (CumSe) and timeliness were used to evaluate the algorithms' performance with a 1% false alarm rate. Using these performance evaluation criteria, it was possible to assess the accuracy and timeliness of the surveillance system working in real-time. The results showed that EWMA and PSHEW had higher CumSe (when compared with the CUSUM) from week 1 until the end of the period for all simulated scenarios. Changes in seroprevalence from 0.10 to 0.20 were more easily detected (higher CumSe) than changes from 0.10 to 0.15 for all three algorithms. Similar results were found with EWMA and PSHEW, based on the median time to detection. Changes in the seroprevalence were detected later with CUSUM, compared to EWMA and PSHEW for the different scenarios. Increasing the sample size 10 fold halved the time to detection (CumSe=1), whereas increasing the sample size 100 fold reduced the time to detection by a factor of 6. This study investigated the performance of three univariate process monitoring control algorithms in monitoring endemic diseases. It was shown that automated systems based on these detection methods identified changes in seroprevalence at different times. Increasing the number of tested herds would lead to faster

  14. Automatic pipe elevator

    Haney, K.M.; Willis, C.A.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes an elevator adapted for use with a power swivel for supporting a drilling or production tubular, the elevator comprising: at least two jaws, each jaw having a clamping surface; a connector member for supporting the jaws, the connector member comprising an upper end, a lower end, means for coupling the upper end to the power swivel, means for coupling the lower end to a tubular. The member also comprises means for defining a passageway extending from the upper end to the lower end through the connector member to allow drilling mud to be passed from the power swivel through the bore, into the tubular; and linkage means mounted between the connector member and the jaws for coupling the jaws to the connector member and for maintaining the clamping surfaces of the jaws in clamping engagement with the tubular when the connector member and the tubular are urged apart relative to one another. The linkage means is configured such that the force by which the clamping surfaces clamp the tubular increases as the force urging the connector member and the tubular apart increases.

  15. Elevation data for floodplain mapping

    Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Elevation Data for Floodplain Mapping shows that there is sufficient two-dimensional base map imagery to meet FEMA's flood map modernization goals, but that the three-dimensional base elevation data...

  16. Muscle Weakness Is Associated With an Increase of Left Ventricular Mass Through Excessive Blood Pressure Elevation During Exercise in Patients With Hypertension.

    Kamada, Yumi; Masuda, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Akiyama, Ayako; Nakamura, Takeshi; Hamazaki, Nobuaki; Okubo, Michihito; Kobayashi, Naoyuki; Ako, Junya

    2017-08-03

    Autonomic imbalance in hypertension induces excessive blood pressure (BP) elevation during exercise, thereby increasing left ventricular mass (LVM). Although muscle weakness enhances autonomic imbalance by stimulating muscle sympathetic activity during exercise, it is unclear whether muscle weakness is associated with an increase of LVM in patients with hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between muscle weakness, BP elevation during exercise, and LVM in these patients. Eighty-six hypertensive patients aged 69 ± 8 years with controlled resting BP (ie, exercise test performed at moderate intensity (ΔNORA and ΔPWV, respectively). A difference between baseline and peak systolic BP during the exercise test was defined as BP elevation during exercise (ΔSBP). Relationships between muscle strength, ΔNORA, ΔPWV, ΔSBP, BNP, and LVMI were analyzed, and significant factors increasing LVM were identified using univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Muscle strength was negatively correlated with ΔNORA (r = -0.202, P = 0.048), ΔPWV (r = -0.328, P = 0.002), ΔSBP (r = -0.230, P = 0.033), BNP (r = -0.265, P = 0.014), and LVMI (r = -0.233, P = 0.031). LVMI was positively correlated with ΔPWV (r = 0.246, P = 0.023) and ΔSBP (r = 0.307, P = 0.004). Muscle strength was a significant independent factor associated with LVMI (β = -0.331, P = 0.010). Our findings suggest that muscle weakness is associated with an increase of LVM through excessive BP elevation during exercise in patients with hypertension.

  17. Investigating univariate temporal patterns for intrinsic connectivity networks based on complexity and low-frequency oscillation: a test-retest reliability study.

    Wang, X; Jiao, Y; Tang, T; Wang, H; Lu, Z

    2013-12-19

    Intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are composed of spatial components and time courses. The spatial components of ICNs were discovered with moderate-to-high reliability. So far as we know, few studies focused on the reliability of the temporal patterns for ICNs based their individual time courses. The goals of this study were twofold: to investigate the test-retest reliability of temporal patterns for ICNs, and to analyze these informative univariate metrics. Additionally, a correlation analysis was performed to enhance interpretability. Our study included three datasets: (a) short- and long-term scans, (b) multi-band echo-planar imaging (mEPI), and (c) eyes open or closed. Using dual regression, we obtained the time courses of ICNs for each subject. To produce temporal patterns for ICNs, we applied two categories of univariate metrics: network-wise complexity and network-wise low-frequency oscillation. Furthermore, we validated the test-retest reliability for each metric. The network-wise temporal patterns for most ICNs (especially for default mode network, DMN) exhibited moderate-to-high reliability and reproducibility under different scan conditions. Network-wise complexity for DMN exhibited fair reliability (ICC<0.5) based on eyes-closed sessions. Specially, our results supported that mEPI could be a useful method with high reliability and reproducibility. In addition, these temporal patterns were with physiological meanings, and certain temporal patterns were correlated to the node strength of the corresponding ICN. Overall, network-wise temporal patterns of ICNs were reliable and informative and could be complementary to spatial patterns of ICNs for further study. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. An elevator wheel

    Zhornik, V.I.; Cherkov, Ye.M.; Simonov, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    This invention deals with mineral enrichment and is primarily for unloading submerged products of enrichment during separation in heavy mediums. An elevator wheel is proposed for unloading the submerged product from the bath of a heavy to medium separator which includes ladle disks with internal walls and overlapping sheets hinged to the ends. In order to increase the degree of dehydration of the unloaded product, the internal wall of each ladle is made of sheets installed in stages with clearances relative to each other. The advantages of the proposed device include an improvement in the degree of dehydration of the submerged product in the ladles and a reduction in the carry away of the heavy medium with the enrichment products.

  19. Patterns of care and persistence after incident elevated blood pressure.

    Daley, Matthew F; Sinaiko, Alan R; Reifler, Liza M; Tavel, Heather M; Glanz, Jason M; Margolis, Karen L; Parker, Emily; Trower, Nicole K; Chandra, Malini; Sherwood, Nancy E; Adams, Kenneth; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Greenspan, Louise C; Lo, Joan C; O'Connor, Patrick J; Magid, David J

    2013-08-01

    Screening for hypertension in children occurs during routine care. When blood pressure (BP) is elevated in the hypertensive range, a repeat measurement within 1 to 2 weeks is recommended. The objective was to assess patterns of care after an incident elevated BP, including timing of repeat BP measurement and likelihood of persistently elevated BP. This retrospective study was conducted in 3 health care organizations. All children aged 3 through 17 years with an incident elevated BP at an outpatient visit during 2007 through 2010 were identified. Within this group, we assessed the proportion who had a repeat BP measured within 1 month of their incident elevated BP and the proportion who subsequently met the definition of hypertension. Multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with follow-up BP within 1 month of initial elevated BP. Among 72,625 children and adolescents in the population, 6108 (8.4%) had an incident elevated BP during the study period. Among 6108 with an incident elevated BP, 20.9% had a repeat BP measured within 1 month. In multivariate analyses, having a follow-up BP within 1 month was not significantly more likely among individuals with obesity or stage 2 systolic elevation. Among 6108 individuals with an incident elevated BP, 84 (1.4%) had a second and third consecutive elevated BP within 12 months. Whereas >8% of children and adolescents had an incident elevated BP, the great majority of BPs were not repeated within 1 month. However, relatively few individuals subsequently met the definition of hypertension.

  20. Elevated tumor-to-liver uptake ratio (TLR) from 18F-FDG-PET/CT predicts poor prognosis in stage IIA colorectal cancer following curative resection

    Huang, Jun; Huang, Liang; Zhou, Jiaming; Huang, Pinzhu; Tan, Shuyun; Wang, Jianping; Huang, Meijin; Duan, Yinghua; Zhang, Zhanwen; Hu, Ping; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    The prognostic value of the tumor-to-liver uptake ratio (TLR) from 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG-PET/CT) in the early stage of colorectal cancer (CRC) is unclear. Notably, some stage IIA CRC patients experience early recurrence even after curative resection and might benefit from neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. This study aims to evaluate whether elevated TLR from 18 F-FDG-PET/CT can predict poor prognosis in stage IIA CRC patients undergoing curative resection. From April 2010 to December 2013, 504 consecutive CRC patients with different TNM stages (I-IV) underwent 18 F-FDG-PET/CT scans at the 6th Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University. Among the patients, 118 with stage IIA CRC who accepted preoperative 18 F-FDG-PET/CT scanning and were treated with curative surgery alone were reviewed retrospectively. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the primary tumor, TLR, and demographic, clinical, histopathological, and laboratory data were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors associated with patient disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). ROC curve analysis demonstrated that TLR was superior to primary tumor SUVmax in predicting the risk of recurrence in stage IIA CRC. The optimal TLR cutoff was 6.2. Univariate analysis indicated that elevated TLR, tumor size, and lymphovascular/neural invasion correlated with DFS (P = 0.001, P = 0.002, and P = 0.001, respectively) and OS (P = 0.001, P = 0.003, and P < 0.001, respectively). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS rates were 98.4%, 96.9%, and 96.9% for stage IIA CRC patients with lower TLR (≤6.2) versus 77.8%, 60.6%, and 60.6% for those with elevated TLR (>6.2), respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 100.0%, 100.0%, and 98.3% for the patients with lower TLR versus 98.1%, 83.3%, and 74.3% for those with elevated TLR. Cox

  1. Elevated tumor-to-liver uptake ratio (TLR) from {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT predicts poor prognosis in stage IIA colorectal cancer following curative resection

    Huang, Jun; Huang, Liang; Zhou, Jiaming; Huang, Pinzhu; Tan, Shuyun; Wang, Jianping; Huang, Meijin [6th Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Colorectal Surgery, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Duan, Yinghua [1st Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Zhanwen; Hu, Ping [6th Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Wang, Xiaoyan [1st Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Guangzhou (China)

    2017-11-15

    The prognostic value of the tumor-to-liver uptake ratio (TLR) from 18-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT) in the early stage of colorectal cancer (CRC) is unclear. Notably, some stage IIA CRC patients experience early recurrence even after curative resection and might benefit from neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy. This study aims to evaluate whether elevated TLR from {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT can predict poor prognosis in stage IIA CRC patients undergoing curative resection. From April 2010 to December 2013, 504 consecutive CRC patients with different TNM stages (I-IV) underwent {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT scans at the 6th Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University. Among the patients, 118 with stage IIA CRC who accepted preoperative {sup 18}F-FDG-PET/CT scanning and were treated with curative surgery alone were reviewed retrospectively. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the primary tumor, TLR, and demographic, clinical, histopathological, and laboratory data were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify prognostic factors associated with patient disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). ROC curve analysis demonstrated that TLR was superior to primary tumor SUVmax in predicting the risk of recurrence in stage IIA CRC. The optimal TLR cutoff was 6.2. Univariate analysis indicated that elevated TLR, tumor size, and lymphovascular/neural invasion correlated with DFS (P = 0.001, P = 0.002, and P = 0.001, respectively) and OS (P = 0.001, P = 0.003, and P < 0.001, respectively). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year DFS rates were 98.4%, 96.9%, and 96.9% for stage IIA CRC patients with lower TLR (≤6.2) versus 77.8%, 60.6%, and 60.6% for those with elevated TLR (>6.2), respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 100.0%, 100.0%, and 98.3% for the patients with lower TLR versus 98.1%, 83.3%, and 74.3% for those with

  2. Group control of elevators

    Umeda, Yasukazu; Hikita, Shiro; Tuji, Sintaro (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1988-09-05

    Items to be evaluated in the group control of elevators, and a typical control system are described. A new system in which the fuzzy rule base is employed is introduced together with the configuration. The items to be evaluated are waiting time, riding time, accuracy of forecasting, energy saving, and ease of usage. The everage waiting time of less than 20 seconds with less than 3% waiting rate of more than 60 seconds is accepted as a satisfactory service condition. There are many conflicting matters in group-controlling, and the study for the controlling must deal with the optimization of multi-purpose problems. The standards for group-control evaluation differ according to building structures and the tastes of users, and an important problem is where to give emphasis of the evaluation. The TRAFFIC PATTERN LEARNING METHOD has been applied in the system for careful control to accommodate the traffic. No specific function is provided for the evaluation, but the call allocation is made by fuzzy rule-base. The configuration of a new group-control system is introduced. 7 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  3. Comparative study of the efficiency of computed univariate and multivariate methods for the estimation of the binary mixture of clotrimazole and dexamethasone using two different spectral regions

    Fayez, Yasmin Mohammed; Tawakkol, Shereen Mostafa; Fahmy, Nesma Mahmoud; Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Shehata, Mostafa Abdel-Aty

    2018-04-01

    Three methods of analysis are conducted that need computational procedures by the Matlab® software. The first is the univariate mean centering method which eliminates the interfering signal of the one component at a selected wave length leaving the amplitude measured to represent the component of interest only. The other two multivariate methods named PLS and PCR depend on a large number of variables that lead to extraction of the maximum amount of information required to determine the component of interest in the presence of the other. Good accurate and precise results are obtained from the three methods for determining clotrimazole in the linearity range 1-12 μg/mL and 75-550 μg/mL with dexamethasone acetate 2-20 μg/mL in synthetic mixtures and pharmaceutical formulation using two different spectral regions 205-240 nm and 233-278 nm. The results obtained are compared statistically to each other and to the official methods.

  4. Lærer-elev-relationer

    Laursen, Per Fibæk; Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2015-01-01

    I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence.......I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence....

  5. Tanzania Elevation and Surface Characteristics

    US Agency for International Development — The dataset displays Elevation, Slope, Aspect, Topographic Position Index, Terrain Ruggedness, and Roughness based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) (3...

  6. Multivariate statistical analyses demonstrate unique host immune responses to single and dual lentiviral infection.

    Sunando Roy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are recently identified lentiviruses that cause progressive immune decline and ultimately death in infected cats and humans. It is of great interest to understand how to prevent immune system collapse caused by these lentiviruses. We recently described that disease caused by a virulent FIV strain in cats can be attenuated if animals are first infected with a feline immunodeficiency virus derived from a wild cougar. The detailed temporal tracking of cat immunological parameters in response to two viral infections resulted in high-dimensional datasets containing variables that exhibit strong co-variation. Initial analyses of these complex data using univariate statistical techniques did not account for interactions among immunological response variables and therefore potentially obscured significant effects between infection state and immunological parameters.Here, we apply a suite of multivariate statistical tools, including Principal Component Analysis, MANOVA and Linear Discriminant Analysis, to temporal immunological data resulting from FIV superinfection in domestic cats. We investigated the co-variation among immunological responses, the differences in immune parameters among four groups of five cats each (uninfected, single and dual infected animals, and the "immune profiles" that discriminate among them over the first four weeks following superinfection. Dual infected cats mount an immune response by 24 days post superinfection that is characterized by elevated levels of CD8 and CD25 cells and increased expression of IL4 and IFNgamma, and FAS. This profile discriminates dual infected cats from cats infected with FIV alone, which show high IL-10 and lower numbers of CD8 and CD25 cells.Multivariate statistical analyses demonstrate both the dynamic nature of the immune response to FIV single and dual infection and the development of a unique immunological profile in dual

  7. Risk Factors for Elevated Preoperative Alkaline Phosphatase in Patients with Refractory Secondary Hyperparathyroidism.

    Yang, Meng; Zhang, Ling; Huang, Linping; Sun, Xiaoliang; Ji, Haoyang; Lu, Yao

    2017-12-01

    Elevated preoperative levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in patients with refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism are correlated with postoperative hypocalcemia and mortality. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of preoperative ALP in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. From April 2012 to December 2015, 220 patients with refractory secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing total parathyroidectomy without autotransplantation were reviewed. A total of 164 patients presented with elevated preoperative ALP. Univariate analysis showed that patients with elevated ALP were significantly younger. The elevated ALP group had significantly higher levels of preoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH), lower preoperative serum calcium, higher preoperative phosphorus, lower postoperative hypocalcemia, and a longer hospital stay. Logistic regression analysis showed that elevated preoperative PTH was a significant independent risk factor for elevated preoperative ALP (P = 0.000), and its value of 1624 pg/mL was the optimal cutoff point. Factors predictive of elevated preoperative ALP in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism include preoperative PTH. Earlier surgery, aggressive calcium supplementation, and more careful or aggressive postoperative care for high-risk patients are needed.

  8. Elevation of the diaphragmatic cupola

    Semenov, V.M.; Talesnik, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Altogether 45 patients with elevation of the diaphragmatic cupola were examined. A high frequency of erroneous initial interpretation of examination results was noted in inflammatory and tumorous lesions and congenital conditions. Routine and contrast methods (pneumoperitoneum, bronchography, pleurography and fistulography) were used. Disease-related methods of X-ray investigation were proposed. A variety of causes of diaphragm elevation was indicated

  9. On a lunar space elevator

    Lemke, E. H.

    We consider a space elevator system for lunar surface access that consists of a space station in circumlunar orbit, a cable reaching down to some meters above the surface and a magnetically levitated vehicle driven by a linear motor. It accelerates the load to be lifted to the speed of the cable end. Loads to be delivered are either put on the vehicle and slowed down by it or they are slowed down by a sand braking technique in a mare terrain. It is technically possible to operate this transport system nearly without fuel supply from Earth. We calculate various steel cable dimensions for a static stress maximum of 1/5th of the tensile strength. The process of takeover is considered in detail. Five ways of eliminating the adverse large cable elongation due to the load are described. The touchdown process and behaviour of the cable after disconnection are analysed. The positive difference between the speed of the load at takeover and cable end can excite a large inplane swing motion. We propose to damp it by a dissipative pulley that hangs in a loop of wire leading to the ends of two beams mounted on the space station tangentially to the orbit, the pulley's core being connected with the load. Roll librations are damped by energy losses in the elastic beams; damping can be reinforced by viscous beam elements and/or controlled out-of-plane motions of the beams. We argue in favour of the possibility of fast deployment. The problems of vehicle vibrations and agglutination at sand braking blades are underlined and their combined experimental investigation is suggested.

  10. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  11. A Java-based fMRI processing pipeline evaluation system for assessment of univariate general linear model and multivariate canonical variate analysis-based pipelines.

    Zhang, Jing; Liang, Lichen; Anderson, Jon R; Gatewood, Lael; Rottenberg, David A; Strother, Stephen C

    2008-01-01

    As functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) becomes widely used, the demands for evaluation of fMRI processing pipelines and validation of fMRI analysis results is increasing rapidly. The current NPAIRS package, an IDL-based fMRI processing pipeline evaluation framework, lacks system interoperability and the ability to evaluate general linear model (GLM)-based pipelines using prediction metrics. Thus, it can not fully evaluate fMRI analytical software modules such as FSL.FEAT and NPAIRS.GLM. In order to overcome these limitations, a Java-based fMRI processing pipeline evaluation system was developed. It integrated YALE (a machine learning environment) into Fiswidgets (a fMRI software environment) to obtain system interoperability and applied an algorithm to measure GLM prediction accuracy. The results demonstrated that the system can evaluate fMRI processing pipelines with univariate GLM and multivariate canonical variates analysis (CVA)-based models on real fMRI data based on prediction accuracy (classification accuracy) and statistical parametric image (SPI) reproducibility. In addition, a preliminary study was performed where four fMRI processing pipelines with GLM and CVA modules such as FSL.FEAT and NPAIRS.CVA were evaluated with the system. The results indicated that (1) the system can compare different fMRI processing pipelines with heterogeneous models (NPAIRS.GLM, NPAIRS.CVA and FSL.FEAT) and rank their performance by automatic performance scoring, and (2) the rank of pipeline performance is highly dependent on the preprocessing operations. These results suggest that the system will be of value for the comparison, validation, standardization and optimization of functional neuroimaging software packages and fMRI processing pipelines.

  12. Context-Aware Elevator Scheduling

    Strang, Thomas; Bauer, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Research on context-aware systems is usually user-centric and thus focussed on the context of a specific user to serve his or her needs in an optimized way. In this paper, we want to apply core concepts developed in research on context-awareness in a system-centric way, namely to elevator systems. We show with three different examples that the performance of an elevator system can be significantly improved if the elevator control has access to contextual knowledge. The first example demons...

  13. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  14. Advanced energy saving hydraulic elevator

    Garrido, A.; Sevilleja, J.; Servia, A.

    1993-08-24

    An hydraulic elevator is described comprising: a counterweighted elevator comprising a car, a counterweight, and a rope connecting the car and the counterweight; a ram having a first reaction surface for driving one of the car or the counterweight upwardly and a second reaction surface for driving one of the car or the counterweight downwardly; multiplier means for moving the car a distance greater than a stroke of the ram, the multiplier means connecting the ram to the counterweighted elevator, the multiplier means comprising: a first pulley; a second pulley; means for rigidly connecting the first and second pulley, the means having a length corresponding to a rise of the hydraulic elevator, the means attaching to the ram; and a pulley rope which: has a first end attaching to a first fixed point, extends about the first pulley, extends about the second pulley, and has a second end attaching to a second fixed point.

  15. Space Elevators Preliminary Architectural View

    Pullum, L.; Swan, P. A.

    Space Systems Architecture has been expanded into a process by the US Department of Defense for their large scale systems of systems development programs. This paper uses the steps in the process to establishes a framework for Space Elevator systems to be developed and provides a methodology to manage complexity. This new approach to developing a family of systems is based upon three architectural views: Operational View OV), Systems View (SV), and Technical Standards View (TV). The top level view of the process establishes the stages for the development of the first Space Elevator and is called Architectural View - 1, Overview and Summary. This paper will show the guidelines and steps of the process while focusing upon components of the Space Elevator Preliminary Architecture View. This Preliminary Architecture View is presented as a draft starting point for the Space Elevator Project.

  16. Coastal Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital elevation models (DEMs) of U.S. and other coasts that typically integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography. The DEMs support NOAA's mission to understand...

  17. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally if...

  18. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  19. Energy efficient elevators and escalators

    Patrao, Carlos; Fong, Joao; Almeida, Anibal de (Dep. Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)); Rivet, Luc

    2009-07-01

    Elevators and escalators are the crucial element that makes it practical to live and work several floors above ground - more than 4,3 million units are installed in Europe. Due to ageing of the European population the installation of elevators in single family houses is experiencing a significant growth, as well as equipping existing buildings. Elevators use about 4% of the electricity in tertiary sector buildings. High untapped saving potentials exist with respect to energy-efficient technologies, investment decisions and behavioural approaches, in these sectors. This paper presents preliminary results from the IEE project E4, whose overall objective is the improvement of the energy performance of elevators and escalators, in tertiary sector buildings and in multi family residential buildings. The project is characterizing people conveyors electricity consumption in the tertiary sector and in residential buildings in the EU. The installed park is characterised by a survey among elevators national associations in each country. An assessment of the barriers has been made in the first phase of the project and will be presented. Monitoring campaigns in elevators and escalators are being conducted in each country according to a common developed methodology. More than fifty elevators and escalators will be audited. This will allow the collection of load curves (start up, travel up and down, travel full and empty), including the characterization of standby consumption. Standby consumption of an elevator can represent up to 80% of the total energy consumed per year, and can be drastically reduced. This paper presents the preliminary results of the first ten audits performed in Portugal by Isr-UC.

  20. A large cohort study reveals the association of elevated peripheral blood lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio with favorable prognosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    Jing Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is an endemic neoplasm in southern China. Although NPC sufferers are sensitive to radiotherapy, 20-30% of patients finally progress with recurrence and metastases. Elevated lymphocyte-to-monocyte ratio (LMR has been reported to be associated with favorable prognosis in some hematology malignancies, but has not been studied in NPC. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether LMR could predict the prognosis of NPC patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 1,547 non-metastatic NPC patients was recruited between January 2005 and June 2008. The counts for peripheral lymphocyte and monocyte were retrieved, and the LMR was calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, univariate and multivariate COX proportional hazards analyses were applied to evaluate the associations of LMR with overall survival (OS, disease-free survival (DFS, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS and loco-regional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS, respectively. RESULTS: Univariate analysis revealed that higher LMR level (≥ 5.220 was significantly associated with superior OS, DFS and DMFS (P values <0.001. The higher lymphocyte count (≥ 2.145 × 10(9/L was significantly associated with better OS (P = 0.002 and DMFS (P = 0.031, respectively, while the lower monocyte count (<0.475 × 10(9/L was associated with better OS (P = 0.012, DFS (P = 0.011 and DMFS (P = 0.003, respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that higher LMR level was a significantly independent predictor for superior OS (hazard ratio or HR = 0.558, 95% confidence interval or 95% CI = 0.417-0.748; P<0.001, DFS (HR = 0.669, 95% CI = 0.535-0.838; P<0.001 and DMFS (HR = 0.543, 95% CI = 0.403-0.732; P<0.001, respectively. The advanced T and N stages were also independent indicators for worse OS, DFS, and DMFS, except that T stage showed borderline statistical significance for DFS (P = 0.053 and DMFS (P = 0.080. CONCLUSIONS: The

  1. A Meta-Meta-Analysis: Empirical Review of Statistical Power, Type I Error Rates, Effect Sizes, and Model Selection of Meta-Analyses Published in Psychology

    Cafri, Guy; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Brannick, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses meta-analyses published in "Psychological Bulletin" from 1995 to 2005 to describe meta-analyses in psychology, including examination of statistical power, Type I errors resulting from multiple comparisons, and model choice. Retrospective power estimates indicated that univariate categorical and continuous moderators, individual…

  2. elevatr: Access Elevation Data from Various APIs | Science ...

    Several web services are available that provide access to elevation data. This package provides access to several of those services and returns elevation data either as a SpatialPointsDataFrame from point elevation services or as a raster object from raster elevation services. Currently, the package supports access to the Mapzen Elevation Service, Mapzen Terrain Service, and the USGS Elevation Point Query Service. The R language for statistical computing is increasingly used for spatial data analysis . This R package, elevatr, is in response to this and provides access to elevation data from various sources directly in R. The impact of `elevatr` is that it will 1) facilitate spatial analysis in R by providing access to foundational dataset for many types of analyses (e.g. hydrology, limnology) 2) open up a new set of users and uses for APIs widely used outside of R, and 3) provide an excellent example federal open source development as promoted by the Federal Source Code Policy (https://sourcecode.cio.gov/).

  3. Complex behavior of elevators in peak traffic

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2003-08-01

    We study the dynamical behavior of elevators in the morning peak traffic. We present a stochastic model of the elevators to take into account the interactions between elevators through passengers. The dynamics of the elevators is expressed in terms of a coupled nonlinear map with noises. The number of passengers carried by an elevator and the time-headway between elevators exhibit the complex behavior with varying elevator trips. It is found that the behavior of elevators exhibits a deterministic chaos even if there are no noises. The chaotic motion depends on the loading parameter, the maximum capacity of an elevator, and the number of elevators. When the loading parameter is superior to the threshold, each elevator carries a full load of passengers throughout its trip. The dependence of the threshold (transition point) on the elevator capacity is clarified.

  4. 16-channel analyser with high time-resolution for multiple coincidence experiments; Selecteur a 16 canaux a temps de resolution eleve pour experiences de coincidences multiples; Ispol'zovanie shestiadtsatikanal'nogo analizatora s bol'shoj razreshayushchej sposobnost'yu po vremeni dlya opytov s mnogokratnymi sovpadeniyami; Analizador de 16 canales de elevado poder temporal de resolucion para experimentos de coincidencias multiples

    Brandt, B; Cappeller, U [University of Marburg, Marburg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1962-04-15

    In usual slow-fast-coincidence experiments such events are counted which are selected in pulse-height by means of single-channel analysers. It is desirable to extend these techniques to a simultaneous energy-analysis of the pulses, selecting pulse-heights by means of multi-channel analysers. Multi-channel analysers used to perform such multiple coincidence experiments should give information about the amplitudes of arriving pulses at a well defined time-interval after the rising of the analysed pulse. A 16-channel pulse-height analyser is described which permits the generation of a pulse-height signal 2.5 x 10{sup -6} s after pulse-rising with an uncertainty of less than {+-} 2 x 10{sup -8} s. The resolving-time is less than 5 x 10{sup -6} s, controlled by an inspector-circuit to avoid distortions arising from the pile-up of pulses. The channel width is controlled by a window-amplifier, adjustable from 1 V to 7 V. The channel-height may be selected from 7 V to 103 V in steps of 0.5 V. (author) [French] En general, dans les experiences de coincidences lentes-rapides, on compte des evenements traduits sous forme d'impulsions dont l'amplitude est selectionnee a l'aide de selecteurs a un seul canal. Il est souhaitable d'etendre cette technique a l'analyse simultanee de l'energie des impulsions, en selectionnant les amplitudes au moyen de selecteurs a canaux multiples. Les selecteurs multi-canaux utilises pour ces experiences de coincidences multiples devraient fournir une indication sur les amplitudes des impulsions d'entree a un intervalle de temps bien defini, apres la montee de l'impulsion analysee. Les auteurs decrivent un selecteur d'amplitude a 16 canaux, qui delivre un signal 2,5 {center_dot} 10{sup -6} s apres l'etablissement de l'impulsion avec une erreur inferieure a {+-} 2 {center_dot} 10{sup -8} s. Le temps de resolution, inferieur a 5 {center_dot} 10{sup -6} s, est commande par un circuit special pour eviter les derangements qui resulteraient de l

  5. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  6. Historie i spillefilm - for elever

    Tønnesen, Lone Guldbrandt

    2016-01-01

    MOOC om historiebrug i spillefilm, hvor elever kan lære om, hvordan spillefilm bruger fortiden, og om hvordan vores opfattelse af historien både sætter sig spor i filmene og bliver påvirket af dem.......MOOC om historiebrug i spillefilm, hvor elever kan lære om, hvordan spillefilm bruger fortiden, og om hvordan vores opfattelse af historien både sætter sig spor i filmene og bliver påvirket af dem....

  7. Tether Elevator Crawler Systems (TECS)

    Swenson, Frank R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the needs of the experimenters on the space station is access to steady and controlled-variation microgravity environments. A method of providing these environments is to place the experiment on a tether attached to the space station. This provides a high degree of isolation from structural oscillations and vibrations. Crawlers can move these experiments along the tethers to preferred locations, much like an elevator. This report describes the motion control laws developed for these crawlers and the testing of laboratory models of these tether elevator crawlers.

  8. Dannelsen af den ansvarlige elev

    Larsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Denne artikel handler om den del af lærergerningen, der har at gøre med udarbejdelse af elevplaner. Der tages udgangspunkt i en foucaultsk forståelse, hvor beskrivelsen af den enkelte elev udtrykker et særligt normativt ideal om, hvilke former for elevhed der er de ønskværdige i den danske...

  9. Methylphenidatinduceret ST-elevations-myokardieinfarkt

    Ruwald, Martin Huth; Ruwald, Anne-Christine Huth; Tønder, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Adult attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) is increasingly diagnosed and treated with methylphenidate. We present the case of an 20 year-old man, who was diagnosed with ADHD and suffered a ST elevation acute myocardial infarction due to coronary vasospasm related to an overdose...

  10. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  11. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating......The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  12. Contesting Citizenship: Comparative Analyses

    Siim, Birte; Squires, Judith

    2007-01-01

    importance of particularized experiences and multiple ineequality agendas). These developments shape the way citizenship is both practiced and analysed. Mapping neat citizenship modles onto distinct nation-states and evaluating these in relation to formal equality is no longer an adequate approach....... Comparative citizenship analyses need to be considered in relation to multipleinequalities and their intersections and to multiple governance and trans-national organisinf. This, in turn, suggests that comparative citizenship analysis needs to consider new spaces in which struggles for equal citizenship occur...

  13. Risico-analyse brandstofpontons

    Uijt de Haag P; Post J; LSO

    2001-01-01

    Voor het bepalen van de risico's van brandstofpontons in een jachthaven is een generieke risico-analyse uitgevoerd. Er is een referentiesysteem gedefinieerd, bestaande uit een betonnen brandstofponton met een relatief grote inhoud en doorzet. Aangenomen is dat de ponton gelegen is in een

  14. Fast multichannel analyser

    Berry, A; Przybylski, M M; Sumner, I [Science Research Council, Daresbury (UK). Daresbury Lab.

    1982-10-01

    A fast multichannel analyser (MCA) capable of sampling at a rate of 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/ has been developed. The instrument is based on an 8 bit parallel encoding analogue to digital converter (ADC) reading into a fast histogramming random access memory (RAM) system, giving 256 channels of 64 k count capacity. The prototype unit is in CAMAC format.

  15. A fast multichannel analyser

    Berry, A.; Przybylski, M.M.; Sumner, I.

    1982-01-01

    A fast multichannel analyser (MCA) capable of sampling at a rate of 10 7 s -1 has been developed. The instrument is based on an 8 bit parallel encoding analogue to digital converter (ADC) reading into a fast histogramming random access memory (RAM) system, giving 256 channels of 64 k count capacity. The prototype unit is in CAMAC format. (orig.)

  16. Elevator deflections on the icing process

    Britton, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of elevator deflection of the horizontal stabilizer for certain icing parameters is investigated. Elevator deflection can severely change the lower and upper leading-edge impingement limits, and ice can accrete on the elevator itself. Also, elevator deflection had practically no effect on the maximum local collection efficiency. It is shown that for severe icing conditions (large water droplets), elevator deflections that increase the projected height of the airfoil can significantly increase the total collection efficiency of the airfoil.

  17. Når elever producerer

    Bremholm, Jesper; Hansen, Rune; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2017-01-01

    Dette kapitel præsenterer centrale resultater fra studiet Elevopgaver og elevproduktion i det 21. århundrede der blandt andet rummer den første større kvantitative undersøgelse af opgavedidaktik og elevers produktive arbejde i den danske grundskole. Studiet omfatter også en kvalitativ del, og i...... undersøgelsen præsenteres og diskuteres gennem en række konkrete eksempler fra de berørte fag. I forhold til elevers produktive arbejde peger undersøgelsens resultater både på potentialer og særlige barrierer i forbindelse med at udvikle en kompetenceorienteret undervisning. I kapitlet argumenteres desuden...

  18. Læring mellem elever

    Georgsen, Marianne; Davidsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    I denne rapport præsenteres resultater fra følgeforskningen til projektet Læring gennem Bevægelse, som er gennemført på Søndervangskolen i Hammel i perioden august 2009 - maj 2010. Projektet er gennemført i samspil mellem lærere, it-vejleder, elever og skolens ledelse. Projektets overordnede formål...

  19. Possible future HERA analyses

    Geiser, Achim

    2015-12-01

    A variety of possible future analyses of HERA data in the context of the HERA data preservation programme is collected, motivated, and commented. The focus is placed on possible future analyses of the existing ep collider data and their physics scope. Comparisons to the original scope of the HERA pro- gramme are made, and cross references to topics also covered by other participants of the workshop are given. This includes topics on QCD, proton structure, diffraction, jets, hadronic final states, heavy flavours, electroweak physics, and the application of related theory and phenomenology topics like NNLO QCD calculations, low-x related models, nonperturbative QCD aspects, and electroweak radiative corrections. Synergies with other collider programmes are also addressed. In summary, the range of physics topics which can still be uniquely covered using the existing data is very broad and of considerable physics interest, often matching the interest of results from colliders currently in operation. Due to well-established data and MC sets, calibrations, and analysis procedures the manpower and expertise needed for a particular analysis is often very much smaller than that needed for an ongoing experiment. Since centrally funded manpower to carry out such analyses is not available any longer, this contribution not only targets experienced self-funded experimentalists, but also theorists and master-level students who might wish to carry out such an analysis.

  20. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  1. Elevated postvoid residual urine volume predicting recurrence of urinary tract infections in toilet-trained children.

    Chang, Shang-Jen; Tsai, Li-Ping; Hsu, Chun-Kai; Yang, Stephen S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether toilet-trained children with a history of febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI) and elevated postvoid residual (PVR) urine volume according to a recently published PVR nomogram were at greater risk of UTI recurrence. One month after recovery from febrile UTI, constipation was diagnosed according to the Rome III criteria, and lower urinary tract (LUT) function was evaluated with two sets of uroflowmetry and PVR by ultrasonography. For children aged ≦ 6 and ≧ 7 years, elevated PVR is defined as >20 and >10 ml, respectively. Cox proportion hazards regression was used to evaluate the risk factors for recurrence of UTI. Between 2005 and 2011, 60 children aged 6.5 ± 2.5 years (boy:girl ratio 27:33) were enrolled for analysis. Univariate analysis showed that recurrent febrile UTI was more commonly observed in children with elevated PVR [repetitive elevated PVR: hazard ratio (HR) 5.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.41-23.4; one elevated PVR: HR 4.53, 95% CI 1.01-20.2] and high-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR; HR 4.53, 95% CI 1.46-14.07). Multivariate analysis showed that younger age (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.03-1.82, p UTI--but not gender, presence of high-grade VUR and constipation. Elevated PVR defined by the new PVR nomogram predicted recurrent UTI in children with history of febrile UTI. Care should be taken to manage children with elevated PVR.

  2. Elevated CXC chemokines in urine noninvasively discriminate OAB from UTI.

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Tyagi, Vikas; Qu, Xianggui; Chuang, Yao Chi; Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Chancellor, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Overlapping symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB) and urinary tract infection (UTI) often complicate the diagnosis and contribute to overprescription of antibiotics. Inflammatory response is a shared characteristic of both UTI and OAB and here we hypothesized that molecular differences in inflammatory response seen in urine can help discriminate OAB from UTI. Subjects in the age range of (20-88 yr) of either sex were recruited for this urine analysis study. Urine specimens were available from 62 UTI patients with positive dipstick test before antibiotic treatment. Six of these patients also provided urine after completion of antibiotic treatment. Subjects in cohorts of OAB (n = 59) and asymptomatic controls (n = 26) were negative for dipstick test. Urinary chemokines were measured by MILLIPLEX MAP Human Cytokine/Chemokine Immunoassay and their association with UTI and OAB was determined by univariate and multivariate statistics. Significant elevation of CXCL-1, CXCL-8 (IL-8), and CXCL-10 together with reduced levels for a receptor antagonist of IL-1A (sIL-1RA) were seen in UTI relative to OAB and asymptomatic controls. Elevated CXCL-1 urine levels predicted UTI with odds ratio of 1.018 and showed a specificity of 80.77% and sensitivity of 59.68%. Postantibiotic treatment, reduction was seen in all CXC chemokines with a significant reduction for CXCL-10. Strong association of CXCL-1 and CXCL-10 for UTI over OAB indicates mechanistic differences in signaling pathways driving inflammation secondary of infection in UTI compared with a lack of infection in OAB. Urinary chemokines highlight molecular differences in the paracrine signaling driving the overlapping symptoms of UTI and OAB. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Decoding the complex brain: multivariate and multimodal analyses of neuroimaging data

    Salami, Alireza

    2012-07-01

    Functional brain images are extraordinarily rich data sets that reveal distributed brain networks engaged in a wide variety of cognitive operations. It is a substantial challenge both to create models of cognition that mimic behavior and underlying cognitive processes and to choose a suitable analytic method to identify underlying brain networks. Most of the contemporary techniques used in analyses of functional neuroimaging data are based on univariate approaches in which single image elements (i.e. voxels) are considered to be computationally independent measures. Beyond univariate methods (e.g. statistical parametric mapping), multivariate approaches, which identify a network across all regions of the brain rather than a tessellation of regions, are potentially well suited for analyses of brain imaging data. A multivariate method (e.g. partial least squares) is a computational strategy that determines time-varying distributed patterns of the brain (as a function of a cognitive task). Compared to its univariate counterparts, a multivariate approach provides greater levels of sensitivity and reflects cooperative interactions among brain regions. Thus, by considering information across more than one measuring point, additional information on brain function can be revealed. Similarly, by considering information across more than one measuring technique, the nature of underlying cognitive processes become well-understood. Cognitive processes have been investigated in conjunction with multiple neuroimaging modalities (e.g. fMRI, sMRI, EEG, DTI), whereas the typical method has been to analyze each modality separately. Accordingly, little work has been carried out to examine the relation between different modalities. Indeed, due to the interconnected nature of brain processing, it is plausible that changes in one modality locally or distally modulate changes in another modality. This thesis focuses on multivariate and multimodal methods of image analysis applied to

  4. Decoding the complex brain: multivariate and multimodal analyses of neuroimaging data

    Salami, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Functional brain images are extraordinarily rich data sets that reveal distributed brain networks engaged in a wide variety of cognitive operations. It is a substantial challenge both to create models of cognition that mimic behavior and underlying cognitive processes and to choose a suitable analytic method to identify underlying brain networks. Most of the contemporary techniques used in analyses of functional neuroimaging data are based on univariate approaches in which single image elements (i.e. voxels) are considered to be computationally independent measures. Beyond univariate methods (e.g. statistical parametric mapping), multivariate approaches, which identify a network across all regions of the brain rather than a tessellation of regions, are potentially well suited for analyses of brain imaging data. A multivariate method (e.g. partial least squares) is a computational strategy that determines time-varying distributed patterns of the brain (as a function of a cognitive task). Compared to its univariate counterparts, a multivariate approach provides greater levels of sensitivity and reflects cooperative interactions among brain regions. Thus, by considering information across more than one measuring point, additional information on brain function can be revealed. Similarly, by considering information across more than one measuring technique, the nature of underlying cognitive processes become well-understood. Cognitive processes have been investigated in conjunction with multiple neuroimaging modalities (e.g. fMRI, sMRI, EEG, DTI), whereas the typical method has been to analyze each modality separately. Accordingly, little work has been carried out to examine the relation between different modalities. Indeed, due to the interconnected nature of brain processing, it is plausible that changes in one modality locally or distally modulate changes in another modality. This thesis focuses on multivariate and multimodal methods of image analysis applied to

  5. AMS analyses at ANSTO

    Lawson, E.M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Physics Division

    1998-03-01

    The major use of ANTARES is Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) with {sup 14}C being the most commonly analysed radioisotope - presently about 35 % of the available beam time on ANTARES is used for {sup 14}C measurements. The accelerator measurements are supported by, and dependent on, a strong sample preparation section. The ANTARES AMS facility supports a wide range of investigations into fields such as global climate change, ice cores, oceanography, dendrochronology, anthropology, and classical and Australian archaeology. Described here are some examples of the ways in which AMS has been applied to support research into the archaeology, prehistory and culture of this continent`s indigenous Aboriginal peoples. (author)

  6. AMS analyses at ANSTO

    Lawson, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    The major use of ANTARES is Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) with 14 C being the most commonly analysed radioisotope - presently about 35 % of the available beam time on ANTARES is used for 14 C measurements. The accelerator measurements are supported by, and dependent on, a strong sample preparation section. The ANTARES AMS facility supports a wide range of investigations into fields such as global climate change, ice cores, oceanography, dendrochronology, anthropology, and classical and Australian archaeology. Described here are some examples of the ways in which AMS has been applied to support research into the archaeology, prehistory and culture of this continent's indigenous Aboriginal peoples. (author)

  7. Analyses of MHD instabilities

    Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1985-01-01

    In this article analyses of the MHD stabilities which govern the global behavior of a fusion plasma are described from the viewpoint of the numerical computation. First, we describe the high accuracy calculation of the MHD equilibrium and then the analysis of the linear MHD instability. The former is the basis of the stability analysis and the latter is closely related to the limiting beta value which is a very important theoretical issue of the tokamak research. To attain a stable tokamak plasma with good confinement property it is necessary to control or suppress disruptive instabilities. We, next, describe the nonlinear MHD instabilities which relate with the disruption phenomena. Lastly, we describe vectorization of the MHD codes. The above MHD codes for fusion plasma analyses are relatively simple though very time-consuming and parts of the codes which need a lot of CPU time concentrate on a small portion of the codes, moreover, the codes are usually used by the developers of the codes themselves, which make it comparatively easy to attain a high performance ratio on the vector processor. (author)

  8. Uncertainty Analyses and Strategy

    Kevin Coppersmith

    2001-01-01

    The DOE identified a variety of uncertainties, arising from different sources, during its assessment of the performance of a potential geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site. In general, the number and detail of process models developed for the Yucca Mountain site, and the complex coupling among those models, make the direct incorporation of all uncertainties difficult. The DOE has addressed these issues in a number of ways using an approach to uncertainties that is focused on producing a defensible evaluation of the performance of a potential repository. The treatment of uncertainties oriented toward defensible assessments has led to analyses and models with so-called ''conservative'' assumptions and parameter bounds, where conservative implies lower performance than might be demonstrated with a more realistic representation. The varying maturity of the analyses and models, and uneven level of data availability, result in total system level analyses with a mix of realistic and conservative estimates (for both probabilistic representations and single values). That is, some inputs have realistically represented uncertainties, and others are conservatively estimated or bounded. However, this approach is consistent with the ''reasonable assurance'' approach to compliance demonstration, which was called for in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) proposed 10 CFR Part 63 regulation (64 FR 8640 [DIRS 101680]). A risk analysis that includes conservatism in the inputs will result in conservative risk estimates. Therefore, the approach taken for the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) provides a reasonable representation of processes and conservatism for purposes of site recommendation. However, mixing unknown degrees of conservatism in models and parameter representations reduces the transparency of the analysis and makes the development of coherent and consistent probability statements about projected repository

  9. Mechanism for elevated temperature leaching

    Kenna, B.T.; Murphy, K.D.

    1979-01-01

    Long-term, elevated temperature leaching and subsequent electron microprobe analysis of simulated waste glass and ceramic materials have been completed. A cyclic leaching pattern was found in all systems over a 20-month period. It appears that the leaching of mobile ions by simple diffusional processes is modified by more complex chemical interactions. The release of immobile ions is primarily a function of their chemical interactions in the matrix which suggests that these ions may be complex species when released into solution. A mechanism is proposed which incorporates these ideas and the cyclic phenomenon observed

  10. PLC VVVF Elevator Control System

    Tang, Yujian; Gui, Tianyu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to introduce the PLC VVVF elevator and its control system. The thesis can be divided into three parts. The first part is about the overview of the lift: the kinds of the lift and the structure of the lift, it shows the knowledge about the components and the operating systems of the lift. The second part is about the PLC control system, it’s about the operations of the lift from the introduction about the hardware and software of the PLC control system. And the thi...

  11. Amorphisation during elevated temperature implantation

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Elliman, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Transition state theory is employed to predict the rates of amorphous zone recrystallization by direct thermal and radiation mediated thermal annealing processes. These rates are functions of zone radius and are employed to describe the competition between amorphous zone generation and annealing during elevated temperature heavy ion implantation of, particularly, Si and the accumulation of amorphousness with increasing ion fluence. This analysis predicts a change from monotonic to sigmoidal to biexponential accumulation functions with increasing annealing rate or substrate temperature in agreement with experiments. A logarithmic dependence of ion flux density upon substrate temperature for the achievement of defined fractional amorphisation is predicted and is also in agreement with the experiment. (author)

  12. A simple beam analyser

    Lemarchand, G.

    1977-01-01

    (ee'p) experiments allow to measure the missing energy distribution as well as the momentum distribution of the extracted proton in the nucleus versus the missing energy. Such experiments are presently conducted on SACLAY's A.L.S. 300 Linac. Electrons and protons are respectively analysed by two spectrometers and detected in their focal planes. Counting rates are usually low and include time coincidences and accidentals. Signal-to-noise ratio is dependent on the physics of the experiment and the resolution of the coincidence, therefore it is mandatory to get a beam current distribution as flat as possible. Using new technologies has allowed to monitor in real time the behavior of the beam pulse and determine when the duty cycle can be considered as being good with respect to a numerical basis

  13. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-02-01

    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  14. Pathway-based analyses.

    Kent, Jack W

    2016-02-03

    New technologies for acquisition of genomic data, while offering unprecedented opportunities for genetic discovery, also impose severe burdens of interpretation and penalties for multiple testing. The Pathway-based Analyses Group of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 (GAW19) sought reduction of multiple-testing burden through various approaches to aggregation of highdimensional data in pathways informed by prior biological knowledge. Experimental methods testedincluded the use of "synthetic pathways" (random sets of genes) to estimate power and false-positive error rate of methods applied to simulated data; data reduction via independent components analysis, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-SNP interaction, and use of gene sets to estimate genetic similarity; and general assessment of the efficacy of prior biological knowledge to reduce the dimensionality of complex genomic data. The work of this group explored several promising approaches to managing high-dimensional data, with the caveat that these methods are necessarily constrained by the quality of external bioinformatic annotation.

  15. Analysing Access Control Specifications

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    When prosecuting crimes, the main question to answer is often who had a motive and the possibility to commit the crime. When investigating cyber crimes, the question of possibility is often hard to answer, as in a networked system almost any location can be accessed from almost anywhere. The most...... common tool to answer this question, analysis of log files, faces the problem that the amount of logged data may be overwhelming. This problems gets even worse in the case of insider attacks, where the attacker’s actions usually will be logged as permissible, standard actions—if they are logged at all....... Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set...

  16. Network class superposition analyses.

    Carl A B Pearson

    Full Text Available Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30 for the yeast cell cycle process, considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses.

  17. Operation experience with elevated ammonia

    Vankova, Katerina; Kysela, Jan; Malac, Miroslav; Petrecky, Igor; Svarc, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The 10 VVER units in the Czech and Slovak Republics are all in very good water chemistry and radiation condition, yet questions have arisen regarding the optimization of cycle chemistry and improved operation in these units. To address these issues, a comprehensive experimental program for different water chemistries of the primary circuit was carried out at the Rez Nuclear Research Institute, Czech Republic, with the goal of judging the influence of various water chemistries on radiation build-up. Four types of water chemistries were compared: standard VVER water chemistry (in common use), direct hydrogen dosing without ammonia, standard VVER water chemistry with elevated ammonia levels, and zinc dosing to standard VVER water chemistry. The test results showed that the types of water chemistry other than the common one have benefits for the operation of the nuclear power plant (NPP) primary circuit. Operation experience with elevated ammonia at NPP Dukovany Units 3 and 4 is presented which validates the experimental results, demonstrating improved corrosion product volume activity. (orig.)

  18. Digitial Elevation Model (DEM) 100K

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USG to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  19. Digtial Elevation Model (DEM) 250K

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  20. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) 24K

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  1. Bucket elevator type continuous unloader; Basket elevator gata renzokushiki anroda

    NONE

    2000-04-20

    This unloader was delivered to Wakayama branch of Sumikin Butsuryu in the site of Wakayama steel plant of Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd. for landing sub-materials for ironworks. Main specifications: (1) Capacity: 400t/h for limestone, 280t/h for gypsum, (2) Kinds of ships: 5,000DWT maximum, (3) Boom swing radius: 20m. Features: (1) Simple light-weight unloader for not large ships for main materials but small coastal service ships which works with not swing motion but only traveling and normal-directional motion of the under structure of a bucket elevator unit, (2) Various useful functions such as ground conveyance, truck loading, back yard stacking and back yard shipment for handling of various sub-materials. (translated by NEDO)

  2. History of Elevators and Related Research

    Abe, Shigeru; Watanabe, Eiki

    The history of traction drive elevators in Japan is described. The electrical technologies such as the microprocessor car control and the VVVF motor control made remarkable progress leading to higher reliability and energy savings. Then, the various machine-room-less elevators have been developed and the space saving technology, such as the shuttle and the double-deck elevators become important, too. The elevators used for evacuation in case of emergencies are also discussed.

  3. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... elevator. (a) Identification. A wheelchair elevator is a motorized lift device intended for medical...

  4. 46 CFR 183.540 - Elevators.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevators. 183.540 Section 183.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 183.540 Elevators. Each elevator on a vessel must meet the requirements of ANSI A 17.1 ...

  5. Global variation in elevational diversity patterns

    Qinfeng Guo; Douglas A. Kelt; Zhongyu Sun; Hongxiao Liu; Liangjun Hu; Hai Ren; Jun We

    2013-01-01

    While horizontal gradients of biodiversity have been examined extensively in the past, vertical diversity gradients (elevation, water depth) are attracting increasing attention. We compiled data from 443 elevational gradients involving diverse organisms worldwide to investigate how elevational diversity patterns may vary between the Northern and Southern hemispheres...

  6. Seismic fragility analyses

    Kostov, Marin

    2000-01-01

    In the last two decades there is increasing number of probabilistic seismic risk assessments performed. The basic ideas of the procedure for performing a Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of critical structures (NUREG/CR-2300, 1983) could be used also for normal industrial and residential buildings, dams or other structures. The general formulation of the risk assessment procedure applied in this investigation is presented in Franzini, et al., 1984. The probability of failure of a structure for an expected lifetime (for example 50 years) can be obtained from the annual frequency of failure, β E determined by the relation: β E ∫[d[β(x)]/dx]P(flx)dx. β(x) is the annual frequency of exceedance of load level x (for example, the variable x may be peak ground acceleration), P(fI x) is the conditional probability of structure failure at a given seismic load level x. The problem leads to the assessment of the seismic hazard β(x) and the fragility P(fl x). The seismic hazard curves are obtained by the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. The fragility curves are obtained after the response of the structure is defined as probabilistic and its capacity and the associated uncertainties are assessed. Finally the fragility curves are combined with the seismic loading to estimate the frequency of failure for each critical scenario. The frequency of failure due to seismic event is presented by the scenario with the highest frequency. The tools usually applied for probabilistic safety analyses of critical structures could relatively easily be adopted to ordinary structures. The key problems are the seismic hazard definitions and the fragility analyses. The fragility could be derived either based on scaling procedures or on the base of generation. Both approaches have been presented in the paper. After the seismic risk (in terms of failure probability) is assessed there are several approaches for risk reduction. Generally the methods could be classified in two groups. The

  7. Website-analyse

    Thorlacius, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    eller blindgyder, når han/hun besøger sitet. Studier i design og analyse af de visuelle og æstetiske aspekter i planlægning og brug af websites har imidlertid kun i et begrænset omfang været under reflektorisk behandling. Det er baggrunden for dette kapitel, som indleder med en gennemgang af æstetikkens......Websitet er i stigende grad det foretrukne medie inden for informationssøgning,virksomhedspræsentation, e-handel, underholdning, undervisning og social kontakt. I takt med denne voksende mangfoldighed af kommunikationsaktiviteter på nettet, er der kommet mere fokus på at optimere design og...... planlægning af de funktionelle og indholdsmæssige aspekter ved websites. Der findes en stor mængde teori- og metodebøger, som har specialiseret sig i de tekniske problemstillinger i forbindelse med interaktion og navigation, samt det sproglige indhold på websites. Den danske HCI (Human Computer Interaction...

  8. A channel profile analyser

    Gobbur, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    It is well understood that due to the wide band noise present in a nuclear analog-to-digital converter, events at the boundaries of adjacent channels are shared. It is a difficult and laborious process to exactly find out the shape of the channels at the boundaries. A simple scheme has been developed for the direct display of channel shape of any type of ADC on a cathode ray oscilliscope display. This has been accomplished by sequentially incrementing the reference voltage of a precision pulse generator by a fraction of a channel and storing ADC data in alternative memory locations of a multichannel pulse height analyser. Alternative channels are needed due to the sharing at the boundaries of channels. In the flat region of the profile alternate memory locations are channels with zero counts and channels with the full scale counts. At the boundaries all memory locations will have counts. The shape of this is a direct display of the channel boundaries. (orig.)

  9. Myocarditis with ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes misdiagnosed as an ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Sheldon, Seth H; Crandall, Mark A; Jaffe, Allan S

    2012-12-01

    Acute myocarditis can mimic ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Quickly determining the correct diagnosis is critical given the "time is muscle" implication with a STEMI and the potential adverse effects associated with use of fibrinolytic therapy. A 46-year-old man presented to a rural emergency department with chest pain, and an electrocardiogram (ECG) read as showing 0.1 mV of ST-segment elevation in leads III and aVF. His initial cardiac troponin T was 0.44 ng/mL. He received fibrinolytic therapy for presumed STEMI. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was later performed and showed epicardial delayed enhancement consistent with myocarditis. Upon further questioning, he acknowledged 3 days of stuttering chest discomfort and a recent upper respiratory infection, as well as similar chest pain in his wife. A systematic evaluation is essential for acute chest pain, including a focused history, identification of cardiac risk factors, and ECG interpretation. A history of recent viral illness, absence of cardiac risk factors, or ECG findings inconsistent with a single anatomic lesion would suggest a potential alternate diagnosis to STEMI. This case emphasizes the importance of a focused history in the initial evaluation of chest pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients

    Sundqvist, Maja K.; Sanders, Nate; Wardle, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients...... elevational gradients for understanding community and ecosystem responses to global climate change at much larger spatial and temporal scales than is possible through conventional ecological experiments. However, future studies that integrate elevational gradient approaches with experimental manipulations...... will provide powerful information that can improve predictions of climate change impacts within and across ecosystems....

  11. Elevational Distribution and Conservation Biogeography of Phanaeine Dung Beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae) in Bolivia

    Herzog, Sebastian K.; Hamel-Leigue, A. Caroli; Larsen, Trond H.; Mann, Darren J.; Soria-Auza, Rodrigo W.; Gill, Bruce D.; Edmonds, W. D.; Spector, Sacha

    2013-01-01

    Insect macroecology and conservation biogeography studies are disproportionately scarce, especially in the Neotropics. Dung beetles are an ideal focal taxon for biodiversity research and conservation. Using distribution and body size data on the ecologically important Phanaeini, the best-known Neotropical dung beetle tribe, we determined elevational patterns of species richness, endemism, body size, and elevational range in Bolivia, specifically testing Bergmann’s and Rapoport’s rule. Richness of all 39 species and of 15 ecoregional endemics showed a hump-shaped pattern peaking at 400 m, but overall declined strongly with elevation up to 4000 m. The relationship between endemic and total species richness appeared to be curvilinear, providing only partial support for the null hypothesis that species-rich areas are more likely to be centers of endemism by chance alone. An elevational increase in the proportion of ecoregional endemics suggests that deterministic factors also appear to influence endemism in the Andes. When controlling for the effect of area using different species-area relationships, the statistically significant richness peak became more pronounced and shifted upslope to 750 m. Larger species did not have higher elevational mid-points, and mean body size decreased significantly with elevation, contradicting Bergmann’s rule. Rapoport’s rule was supported: species with higher elevational mid-points had broader elevational ranges, and mean elevational range increased significantly with elevation. The elevational decrease of phanaeine richness is in accordance with studies that demonstrated the combined influence of temperature and water availability on species diversity, but also is consistent with niche conservatism. For invertebrates, confirmation of Rapoport’s and refutation of Bergmann’s rule appear to be scale-invariant general patterns. Analyses of biogeographic patterns across elevational gradients can provide important insights for

  12. NOAA's National Snow Analyses

    Carroll, T. R.; Cline, D. W.; Olheiser, C. M.; Rost, A. A.; Nilsson, A. O.; Fall, G. M.; Li, L.; Bovitz, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) routinely ingests all of the electronically available, real-time, ground-based, snow data; airborne snow water equivalent data; satellite areal extent of snow cover information; and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forcings for the coterminous U.S. The NWP model forcings are physically downscaled from their native 13 km2 spatial resolution to a 1 km2 resolution for the CONUS. The downscaled NWP forcings drive an energy-and-mass-balance snow accumulation and ablation model at a 1 km2 spatial resolution and at a 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The ground-based, airborne, and satellite snow observations are assimilated into the snow model's simulated state variables using a Newtonian nudging technique. The principle advantages of the assimilation technique are: (1) approximate balance is maintained in the snow model, (2) physical processes are easily accommodated in the model, and (3) asynoptic data are incorporated at the appropriate times. The snow model is reinitialized with the assimilated snow observations to generate a variety of snow products that combine to form NOAA's NOHRSC National Snow Analyses (NSA). The NOHRSC NSA incorporate all of the available information necessary and available to produce a "best estimate" of real-time snow cover conditions at 1 km2 spatial resolution and 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The NOHRSC NSA consist of a variety of daily, operational, products that characterize real-time snowpack conditions including: snow water equivalent, snow depth, surface and internal snowpack temperatures, surface and blowing snow sublimation, and snowmelt for the CONUS. The products are generated and distributed in a variety of formats including: interactive maps, time-series, alphanumeric products (e.g., mean areal snow water equivalent on a hydrologic basin-by-basin basis), text and map discussions, map animations, and quantitative gridded products

  13. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  14. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W. E-mail: wiktor.frid@ski.se; Hoejerup, F.; Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Nilsson, L.; Puska, E.K.; Sjoevall, H

    2001-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: (1) the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst; (2) the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst; and (3) containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality--both super-prompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation--for the range of parameters studied, i.e. with core uncovering and heat-up to maximum core temperatures of approximately 1800 K, and water flow rates of 45-2000 kg s{sup -1} injected into the downcomer. Since recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core, the power densities are high, which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal g{sup -1}, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding rate of 2000 kg s{sup -1}. In most cases, however, the predicted energy deposition was smaller, below the regulatory limits for fuel failure, but close to or above recently observed thresholds for fragmentation and dispersion of high burn-up fuel. The highest calculated

  15. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W.; Hoejerup, F.; Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Nilsson, L.; Puska, E.K.; Sjoevall, H.

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: (1) the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst; (2) the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst; and (3) containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality--both super-prompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation--for the range of parameters studied, i.e. with core uncovering and heat-up to maximum core temperatures of approximately 1800 K, and water flow rates of 45-2000 kg s -1 injected into the downcomer. Since recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core, the power densities are high, which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal g -1 , was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding rate of 2000 kg s -1 . In most cases, however, the predicted energy deposition was smaller, below the regulatory limits for fuel failure, but close to or above recently observed thresholds for fragmentation and dispersion of high burn-up fuel. The highest calculated quasi steady

  16. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W.; Hoejerup, F.; Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K.; Nilsson, Lars; Sjoevall, H.

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B 4 C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  17. Dynamic multibody modeling for tethered space elevators

    Williams, Paul

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a fundamental modeling strategy for dealing with powered and propelled bodies moving along space tethers. The tether is divided into a large number of discrete masses, which are connected by viscoelastic springs. The tether is subject to the full range of forces expected in Earth orbit in a relatively simple manner. Two different models of the elevator dynamics are presented. In order to capture the effect of the elevator moving along the tether, the elevator dynamics are included as a separate body in both models. One model treats the elevator's motion dynamically, where propulsive and friction forces are applied to the elevator body. The second model treats the elevator's motion kinematically, where the distance along the tether is determined by adjusting the lengths of tether on either side of the elevator. The tether model is used to determine optimal configurations for the space elevator. A modal analysis of two different configurations is presented which show that the fundamental mode of oscillation is a pendular one around the anchor point with a period on the order of 160 h for the in-plane motion, and 24 h for the out-of-plane motion. Numerical simulation results of the effects of the elevator moving along the cable are presented for different travel velocities and different elevator masses.

  18. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    2016-02-29

    Feb 29, 2016 ... 1Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. 2Department of ... their three-point smoothing methods were studied using LIBS for quantification of Cr, Mn and Ni ... nique for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the samples. .... SEP is a type of mean square error.

  19. Predictors of backrest elevation in critical care.

    Grap, Mary Jo; Munro, Cindy L; Bryant, Sandra; Ashtiani, Brooke

    2003-04-01

    Low backrest and supine positions are associated with increased mortality and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). Data are not available across ICU settings about the level of backrest position used and its relationship to enteral feeding and hemodynamic status. The purpose of this descriptive study was to document the level of backrest elevation and position and identify factors associated with and predict positioning in a medical, surgical and neuroscience intensive care unit. Data were collected randomly in each unit over a 6-week period, resulting in 506 observations for170 patients. Backrest elevation was determined by electronic bed read-out or bed frame elevation gauge. BP, HR and enteral feeding status were retrieved from the medical record. Results showed that mean backrest elevation was 19.2 degrees and 70% of subjects were supine. No difference in backrest elevation among units was found. Significant correlations between backrest elevation and systolic BP (r=0.15, P=0.006); and backrest and diastolic BP (r=0.13, P=0.02) were found. There was no difference in backrest elevation between patients being fed and not being fed. Differences in backrest elevation for intubated versus nonintubated patients approached significance (P=0.07) with intubated patients at lower backrest elevations. In summary, use of higher backrest elevations (>30 degrees ) is minimal, is not related to feeding and minimally related to hemodynamic status. Strategies to meet published recommendations for backrest elevation (30-45 degrees ) must include repeated feedback about nurse's use of backrest elevation and estimates of elevation.

  20. The space station tethered elevator system

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

  1. Space elevator systems level analysis

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  2. Phase-preserved optical elevator.

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

    2013-03-25

    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, 2010]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping.

  3. Defense of a space elevator

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low-cost access is to be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a defensive system of the SE. The primary scenario adopted for this analysis is the SE based on a floating platform in the ocean along the equator. A second possible scenario is the SE stationed on land (island or continent) on or near the equator. The SE will capture the imaginations of people around the world. It will become a symbol of power, capability, wealth and prestige for the country that builds it. As such, it will become a prime terrorist target. Moreover, the tremendous economic leverage afforded by the SE might motivate rogue nations to plot its destruction. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the requirements for defense of the SE. For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that the SE is to be deployed by the United States or one of its companies, and the resources of the US are available for its defense.

  4. Metabolic syndrome is directly associated with gamma glutamyl transpeptidase elevation in Japanese women

    Hiroshi Sakugawa; Fukunori Kin jo; Atsushi Saito; Tomofumi Nakayoshi; Kasen Kobashigawa; Hiroki Nakasone; Yuko Kawakami; Tsuyoshi Yamashiro; Tatsuji Maeshiro; Ko Tomimori; Satoru Miyagi

    2004-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to determine whether metabolic syndrome is directly or indirectly, through fatty liver, associated with elevated gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels in Japanese women.METHODS: From 4 366 women who received their annual health check-up, 4 211 women were selected for analysis.All 4 211 women were negative for both hepatitis B surface antigen and antibody to hepatitis C virus. Clinical and biochemical variables were examined by using univariate and multivariate analysis.RESULTS: A raised GGT level (>68 IU/L) was seen in 258 (6.1%) of the 4 211 women. In univariate analysis, all variables examined (age, body mass index, blood pressure,hemoglobin concentration, fasting blood glucose,glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, cholesterol, triglyceride, and uric acid) were associated with the elevated GGT level,whereas in multivariate analysis, four variables (age ≥ 50 yr,hemoglobin ≥14 g/dL, triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dL, and presence of diabetes) were significantly and independently associated with raised GGT level. Clinical variables predicting the presence of ultrasonographic evidence of fatty liver were also examined by multivariate analysis; four variables were associated with the presence of fatty liver: BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2,hemoglobin ≥ 14 g/dL, triglyceride≥150 mg/dL, and uric acid≥ 7 mg/dL. There was no significant association between the raised GGT level and the presence of fatty liver.Hypertriglyceridemia was significantly and independently associated with both the raised GGT level and the presence of fatty liver.CONCLUSION: Metabolic syndrome seemed to be directly,not indirectly through fatty liver, associated with the raised GGT level in Japanese women.

  5. Evaluating LMA and CLAMP: Using information criteria to choose a model for estimating elevation

    Miller, I.; Green, W.; Zaitchik, B.; Brandon, M.; Hickey, L.

    2005-12-01

    The morphology of leaves and composition of the flora respond strongly to the moisture and temperature of their environment. Elevation and latitude correlate, at first order, to these atmospheric parameters. An obvious modern example of this relationship between leaf morphology and environment is the tree line, where boreal forests give way to artic (high latitude) or alpine (high elevation) tundra. Several quantitative methods, all of which rely on uniformitarianism, have been developed to estimate paleoelevation using fossil leaf morphology. These include 1) the univariate leaf-margin analysis (LMA), which estimates mean annual temperature (MAT) by the positive linear correlation between MAT and P, the proportion of entire or smooth to non-entire or toothed margined woody dicot angiosperm leaves within a flora and 2) the Climate Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP) which uses Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) to estimate MAT, moist enthalpy, and other atmospheric parameters using 31 explanatory leaf characters from woody dicot angiosperms. Given a difference in leaf-estimated MAT or moist enthalpy between contemporaneous, synlatitudinal fossil floras-one at sea-level, the other at an unknown paleoelevation-paleoelevation may be estimated. These methods have been widely applied to orogenic settings and concentrate particularly in the Western US. We introduce the use of information criteria to compare different models for estimating elevation and show how the additional complexity of the CLAMP analytical methodology does not necessarily improve on the elevation estimates produced by simpler regression models. In addition, we discuss the signal-to-noise ratio in the data, give confidence intervals for detecting elevations, and address the problem of spatial autocorrelation and irregular sampling in the data.

  6. Broadband phase-preserved optical elevator

    Luo, Yuan; Han, Tiancheng; Zhang, Baile; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Barbastathis, George

    2011-01-01

    Phase-preserved optical elevator is an optical device to lift up an entire plane virtually without distortion in light path or phase. Using transformation optics, we have predicted and observed the realization of such a broadband phase-preserved optical elevator, made of a natural homogeneous birefringent crystal without resorting to absorptive and narrowband metamaterials involving time-consuming nano-fabrication. In our demonstration, the optical elevator is designed to lift a sheet upwards...

  7. Soil nematodes show a mid-elevation diversity maximum and elevational zonation on Mt. Norikura, Japan.

    Dong, Ke; Moroenyane, Itumeleng; Tripathi, Binu; Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Takahashi, Koichi; Yamamoto, Naomichi; An, Choa; Cho, Hyunjun; Adams, Jonathan

    2017-06-08

    Little is known about how nematode ecology differs across elevational gradients. We investigated the soil nematode community along a ~2,200 m elevational range on Mt. Norikura, Japan, by sequencing the 18S rRNA gene. As with many other groups of organisms, nematode diversity showed a high correlation with elevation, and a maximum in mid-elevations. While elevation itself, in the context of the mid domain effect, could predict the observed unimodal pattern of soil nematode communities along the elevational gradient, mean annual temperature and soil total nitrogen concentration were the best predictors of diversity. We also found nematode community composition showed strong elevational zonation, indicating that a high degree of ecological specialization that may exist in nematodes in relation to elevation-related environmental gradients and certain nematode OTUs had ranges extending across all elevations, and these generalized OTUs made up a greater proportion of the community at high elevations - such that high elevation nematode OTUs had broader elevational ranges on average, providing an example consistent to Rapoport's elevational hypothesis. This study reveals the potential for using sequencing methods to investigate elevational gradients of small soil organisms, providing a method for rapid investigation of patterns without specialized knowledge in taxonomic identification.

  8. An Automatic System for Elevator Monitoring

    Md. Haidar Sharif; Ibrahim Furkan Ince

    2015-01-01

    An elevator is a conveyor device or transport equipment that moves people or goods between floors or levels or decks of a building, vessel, or other structures. It has become a part and parcel of modern life in developed countries. The number of floors in high buildings, skyscrapers, and towers generate the usage of elevators. If it is simply assumed that each floor has at least two elevators in a thirty-floor building, people call the elevators in each floor even they are already occupied in...

  9. Spatial Analyses of Harappan Urban Settlements

    Hirofumi Teramura

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Harappan Civilization occupies a unique place among the early civilizations of the world with its well planned urban settlements, advanced handicraft and technology, religious and trade activities. Using a Geographical Information Systems (GIS, this study presents spatial analyses that locate urban settlements on a digital elevation model (DEM according to the three phases of early, mature and late. Understanding the relationship between the spatial distribution of Harappan sites and the change in some factors, such as topographic features, river passages or sea level changes, will lead to an understanding of the dynamism of this civilization. It will also afford a glimpse of the factors behind the formation, development, and decline of the Harappan Civilization.

  10. National requirements for improved elevation data

    Snyder, Gregory I.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Jason, Allyson L.; Maune, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of surveys, structured interviews, and workshops conducted to identify key national requirements for improved elevation data for the United States and its territories, including coastlines. Organizations also identified and reported the expected economic benefits that would be realized if their requirements for improved elevation were met (appendixes 1–3). This report describes the data collection methodology and summarizes the findings. Participating organizations included 34 Federal agencies, 50 States and two territories, and a sampling of local governments, tribes, and nongovernmental orgnizations. The nongovernmental organizations included The Nature Conservancy and a sampling of private sector businesses. These data were collected in 2010-2011 as part of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA), a study to identify program alternatives for better meeting the Nation’s elevation data needs. NEEA tasks included the collection of national elevation requirements; analysis of the benefits and costs of meeting these requirements; assessment of emerging elevation technologies, lifecycle data management needs, and costs for managing and distributing a national-scale dataset and derived products; and candidate national elevation program alternatives that balance costs and benefits in meeting the Nation’s elevation requirements. The NEEA was sponsored by the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), a government coordination body with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as managing partner that includes the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), among the more than a dozen agencies and organizations. The term enhanced elevation data as used in this report refers broadly to three-dimensional measurements of land or

  11. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Shao, Yingbo; Sun, Xianfu; He, Yaning; Liu, Chaojun; Liu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients. Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed. Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9%) and 60(13.9%) patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer. Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer.

  12. Elevated Levels of Serum Tumor Markers CEA and CA15-3 Are Prognostic Parameters for Different Molecular Subtypes of Breast Cancer.

    Yingbo Shao

    Full Text Available The utility of measuring carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3 levels in patients with breast cancer remains controversial. The present study aims to investigate the prognostic value of preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels in breast cancer patients.Serum preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 concentration levels were measured in a total of 432 breast cancer patients. The association of tumor markers levels with clinicopathological parameters and outcomes were analyzed.Elevated serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 were identified in 47 (10.9% and 60(13.9% patients, respectively. Larger tumor size, advanced axillary lymph nodal and TNM stage exhibited higher proportion of elevated CEA and CA15-3 levels. The elevation of CEA levels was significantly greater in patients with HER2 positive tumors, and the elevation of CA15-3 levels was significantly greater in ER negative breast patients. Univariate and multivariate Cox's regression analysis revealed that elevated preoperative CEA and CA 15-3 levels were independent prognostic factors for DFS and OS. When considering the combination of both markers levels, patients with both elevated markers presented the worst survival. Independent prognostic significance of elevated preoperative serum CEA and CA15-3 levels were reconfirmed in Luminal B breast cancer.Preoperative serum levels of CEA and CA15-3 are independent prognostic parameters for breast cancer.

  13. The elevation and its distribution in geomorphological regions of the European Russia

    Kharchenko, S. V.; Ermolaev, O. P.; Mukharamova, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    Spatial differences of elevation were analysed by side of view of geomorphological boundaries on the European Russia territory. Geomorphological pattern of the studied territory was taken from Geomorphological Map of the USSR at scale of 1: 2 500 000. There 2401 fragments for combinations of 58 types of structural landforms and 22 types of sculptural landforms were allocated. The elevation values computed by digital elevation model (cell size - 200 m, number of cells - 322M) based on SRTM (south of 60 nl.) and GDEM 2010 (north of 60 nl.) resampled data. It was founded that some types of structural (16 types) and sculptural (6 types) landforms located in the relatively thin intervals of elevation. Using of elevation above sea level is needed for effective automatic recognizing these landform regions.

  14. 78 FR 14697 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    2013-03-07

    ... Communities affected elevation above ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Cecil County, Maryland... 1 to Stone Run At the Stone Run +271 Town of Rising Sun, confluence. Unincorporated Areas of Cecil County. Approximately 460 feet +359 downstream of Pierce Road. Tributary 2 to Stone Run At the Stone Run...

  15. 75 FR 31361 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    2010-06-03

    ... source(s) elevation ground [caret] Elevation Communities affected in meters (MSL) Effective Modified... American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. [caret] Mean Sea Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1.... Stone County, Mississippi, and Incorporated Areas Church House Branch Approximately 0.5 mile None +211...

  16. High elevation white pines educational website

    Anna W. Schoettle; Michele Laskowski

    2011-01-01

    The high elevation five-needle white pines are facing numerous challenges ranging from climate change to invasion by a non-native pathogen to escalation of pest outbreaks. This website (http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/highelevationwhitepines/) serves as a primer for managers and the public on the high elevation North American five-needle pines. It presents information on each...

  17. 46 CFR 120.540 - Elevators.

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevators. 120.540 Section 120.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 120.540 Elevators....

  18. Insect Population Dynamics in Commercial Grain Elevators

    Data were collected in 1998-2002 from wheat stored in commercial grain elevators in south-central Kansas. Storage bins at these elevators had concrete walls and were typically 6-9 m in diameter and 30-35 m tall. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to collect ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 m of the...

  19. 75 FR 69892 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    2010-11-16

    ...: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth... county +899 City of Norwich, Town boundary. of Greene, Town of North Norwich, Town of Oxford, Town of...). Susquehanna River At the downstream county +965 Town of Afton, Town of boundary. Bainbridge, Village of Afton...

  20. 77 FR 6980 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    2012-02-10

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth in feet above ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Unincorporated Areas of Nowata County... Bayou An area bounded by the +100 Town of Mayersville, county boundary to the Unincorporated Areas of...

  1. 76 FR 1535 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    2011-01-11

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth in feet above ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Unincorporated Areas of Poinsett County... with the St. Francis River...... +212 Areas of Poinsett County. Approximately 0.45 mile downstream of...

  2. 75 FR 29253 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    2010-05-25

    ...: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet above State City/town/county Source of... +21 Town of Ebro, upstream of the Unincorporated Areas confluence with the of Washington County. East... County, Colorado, and Incorporated Areas Willow Creek At the confluence with None +8,154 Unincorporated...

  3. 75 FR 68710 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    2010-11-09

    ...: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth... County, California Docket Nos.: FEMA-B-7762, FEMA-B-7795, and FEMA-B-1053 California Unincorporated Oregon Slough..... City of Montague +2503 Areas of Siskiyou and County. Unincorporated Siskiyou County...

  4. 76 FR 50918 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    2011-08-17

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet State City/town/county Source of flooding... affected [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Jones County, Texas, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1122 Lake Fort Phantom Hill Just downstream of County +1642 City of Abilene, Highway 1082...

  5. 78 FR 10066 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    2013-02-13

    ... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet State City/town/county Source...). Scriba Creek Approximately 0.90 mile +546 Town of Amboy. upstream of County Route 23 (Potter Road.... Town of Palermo Maps are available for inspection at the Palermo Town Municipal Offices, 53 County...

  6. 77 FR 49379 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    2012-08-16

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth in feet above ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Unincorporated Areas of Washington County... of the +35 Areas of railroad. Washington County. Approximately 2.1 miles upstream of the railroad...

  7. 75 FR 43418 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    2010-07-26

    ... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding... +869 Town of Peoria, upstream of Main Street. Unincorporated Areas of Ottawa County. Approximately 1.... Town of Peoria Maps are available for inspection at the Ottawa County Courthouse, 102 East Central...

  8. 78 FR 21272 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    2013-04-10

    ... below for the modified BFEs for each community listed. These modified elevations have been published in... [Amended] 0 2. The tables published under the authority of Sec. 67.11 are amended as follows: * Elevation... Austin. upstream of 29th Avenue Southwest (County Highway 28). At the downstream side of +1205 I and M...

  9. Interpretation of elevated plasma visfatin concentrations in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Lu, Li-Fen; Wang, Chao-Ping; Yu, Teng-Hung; Hung, Wei-Chin; Chiu, Cheng-An; Chung, Fu-Mei; Tsai, I-Ting; Yang, Chih-Ying; Cheng, Ya-Ai; Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Yeh, Lee-Ren

    2012-01-01

    Visfatin is a cytokine that is expressed in many tissues, including the heart, and has been proposed to play a role in plaque destabilization leading to acute myocardial injury. The present study evaluates plasma levels of visfatin in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients and examines the temporal changes in visfatin levels from the acute period to the subacute period to determine a correlation with the degree of myocardial ischemia. We evaluated 54 patients with STEMI. Circulating levels of visfatin and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured by ELISA. In addition, local expression of visfatin and BNP were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of left ventricular myocytes in a mouse model of myocardial infarction (MI). Plasma levels of visfatin were significantly increased in patients with STEMI on admission, relative to controls (effort angina patients and individuals without coronary artery disease). The visfatin levels reached a peak 24h after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and then decreased toward the control range during the first week after PCI. The basal plasma visfatin levels were found to correlate with peak troponin-I, peak creatine kinase-MB, total white blood cell count, and BNP levels. Trend analyses confirmed that visfatin levels correlated with the number of diseased coronary arteries. Further, in MI mice, mRNA levels of visfatin and BNP were found to be higher than in sham-treated mice. IHC analysis showed that visfatin and BNP immunoreactivity was diffusely observable in left ventricular myocytes of the MI mice. This study indicates that plasma visfatin levels are significantly higher in STEMI patients and that these higher visfatin levels correlate with elevated levels of cardiac enzymes, suggesting that increased plasma visfatin may be closely related to the degree of myocardial damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The benefits of improved national elevation data

    Snyder, Gregory I.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) has identified substantial benefits that could come about if improved elevation data were publicly available for current and emerging applications and business uses such as renewable energy, precision agriculture, and intelligent vehicle navigation and safety. In order to support these diverse needs, new national elevation data with higher resolution and accuracy are needed. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative was developed to meet the majority of these needs and it is expected that 3DEP will result in new, unimagined information services that would result in job growth and the transformation of the geospatial community. Private-sector data collection companies are continuously evolving sensors and positioning technologies that are needed to collect improved elevation data. An initiative of this scope might also provide an opportunity for companies to improve their capabilities and produce even higher data quality and consistency at a pace that might not have otherwise occurred.

  11. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  12. ST Elevations and Elevated Cardiac Enzymes Not Always a STEMI: Two Case Reports.

    Fernández Fernández, Juan; Deliz-Guzmán, Claudia; Andino-Colón, César; Claudio-Hernández, Héctor; Lugo-Amador, Nannette

    2016-01-01

    Chest pain is a common complaint in the emergency department (ED). Besides a careful history and physical exam; electrocardiogram, laboratory tests and imaging studies are widely available diagnostic tests that are used for patient assessment. When ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes are present the most likely diagnosis are ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or myocarditis. In this case report we present two low risk patients for major adverse cardiac event with ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes and how a careful risk assessment and detailed electrocardiogram evaluation could help differentiating between these two diagnoses.

  13. Characterization of MIPAS elevation pointing

    M. Kiefer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient knowledge of the pointing is essential for analyses of limb emission measurements. The scientific retrieval processor for MIPAS on ENVISAT operated at IMK allows the retrieval of pointing information in terms of tangent altitudes along with temperature. The retrieved tangent altitudes are independent of systematic offsets in the engineering Line-Of-Sight (LOS information delivered with the ESA Level 1b product. The difference of pointing retrieved from the reprocessed high resolution MIPAS spectra and the engineering pointing information was examined with respect to spatial/temporal behaviour. Among others the following characteristics of MIPAS pointing could be identified: Generally the engineering tangent altitudes are too high by 0–1.8 km with conspicuous variations in this range over time. Prior to December of 2003 there was a drift of about 50–100 m/h, which was due to a slow change in the satellite attitude. A correction of this attitude is done twice a day, which leads to discontinuities in the order of 1–1.5 km in the tangent altitudes. Occasionally discontinuities up to 2.5 km are found, as already reported from MIPAS and SCIAMACHY observations. After an update of the orbit position software in December 2003 values of drift and jumps are much reduced. There is a systematic difference in the mispointing between the poles which amounts to 1.5–2 km, i.e. there is a conspicuous orbit-periodic feature. The analysis of the correlation between the instrument's viewing angle azimuth and differential mispointing supports the hypotheses that a major part of this latter phenomenon can be attributed to an error in the roll angle of the satellite/instrument system of approximately 42 mdeg. One conclusion is that ESA level 2 data should be compared to other data exclusively on tangent pressure levels. Complementary to IMK data, ESA operational LOS calibration results were used to characterize MIPAS pointing. For this purpose

  14. Elevated red cell distribution width contributes to a poor prognosis in patients with esophageal carcinoma.

    Wan, Guo-Xing; Chen, Ping; Cai, Xiao-Jun; Li, Lin-Jun; Yu, Xiong-Jie; Pan, Dong-Feng; Wang, Xian-He; Wang, Xuan-Bin; Cao, Feng-Jun

    2016-01-15

    The red cell distribution width (RDW) has also been reported to reliably reflect the inflammation and nutrition status and predict the prognosis across several types of cancer, however, the prognostic value of RDW in esophageal carcinoma has seldom been studied. A retrospective study was performed to assess the prognostic value of RDW in patients with esophageal carcinoma by the Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression proportional hazard model. All enrolled patients were divided into high RDW group (≧15%) and low RDW group (<15%) according to the detected RDW values. Clinical and laboratory data from a total of 179 patients with esophageal carcinoma were retrieved. With a median follow-up of 21months, the high RDW group exhibited a shorter disease-free survival (DFS) (p<0.001) and an unfavorable overall survival (OS) (p<0.001) in the univariate analysis. The multivariate analysis revealed that elevated RDW at diagnosis was an independent prognostic factor for shorter PFS (p=0.043, HR=1.907, 95% CI=1.020-3.565) and poor OS (p=0.042, HR=1.895, 95% CI=1.023-3.508) after adjustment with other cancer-related prognostic factors. The present study suggests that elevated preoperative RDW(≧15%) at the diagnosis may independently predict poorer disease-free and overall survival among patients with esophageal carcinoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Is elevated Red cell distribution width a prognostic predictor in adult patients with community acquired Pneumonia?

    2014-01-01

    Background Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. We recently demonstrated that among young patients (patient characteristic, 90-day mortality and complicated hospitalization. Results The cohort included 3815 patients. In univariate analysis, patients with co-morbid conditions tended to have a complicated course of CAP. In multivariate regression analysis, variables associated with an increased risk of 90-day mortality included age > 70 years, high Charlson comorbidity index (>2), Hb 30 mg/dl, systolic blood pressure 15%. Variables associated with complicated hospitalization included high Charlson comorbidity index, BUN > 30 mg/dl, hemoglobin 124 bpm, systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg and elevated RDW. Mortality rate and complicated hospitalization were significantly higher among patients with increased RDW regardless of the white blood cell count or hemoglobin levels. Conclusions Elevated RDW levels on admission are associated with significant higher rates of mortality and severe morbidity in adult patients with CAP. RDW as a prognostic marker was unrelated with hemoglobin levels, WBC count, age or Charlson score. PMID:24597687

  16. Keauhou, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Atka, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. King Cove, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Chenega, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  20. Juneau, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  1. Lahaina, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Kawaihae, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Color

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  4. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Black & White

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  5. Tatitlek, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  6. Hoonah, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  7. Whittier, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  8. Gustavus, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  9. Taholah, Washington Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Chignik, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  11. Panama City, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Mariana Trench Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) created a bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) for the Mariana Trench and adjacent seafloor in the Western...

  13. Nikolski, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Battling against Marginalisation: Towards the Elevation of ...

    This paper questions the rationale of having Zimbabwean local languages and in ... The study adopts a qualitative methodology and a case study design to ... and possibly future intervention strategies of elevating indigenous languages.

  15. HCF + LCF Interactions at Elevated Temperature

    Byrne, James; Hall, R. F; Ding, J

    2005-01-01

    ...) crack propagation in Ti- 6Al-4V will be studied under combined HCF/low cycle fatigue (LCF) loading conditions at elevated temperatures up to 350 deg C where creep stress ratcheting and environmental effects may arise...

  16. Elevator mechanism and method for scintillation detectors

    Frank, E.

    1975-01-01

    An elevator mechanism and method for raising and lowering radioactive samples through a shielded vertical counting chamber in a benchtop scintillation detector is described. The elevator mechanism adds little or nothing to the height of the detector by using an elongated flexible member such as a metal tape secured to the bottom of the elevator platform and extending downwardly through the counting chamber and its bottom shielding, where the tape is bent laterally for connection to a drive means. In the particular embodiment illustrated, the tape is bent laterally below the bottom shielding for the counting chamber, and then upwardly along or through one side of the shielding to a reel at the top of the shielding. The tape is wound onto the reel, and the reel is driven by a reversible motor which winds and unwinds the tape on the reel to raise and lower the elevator platform

  17. Elevated temperature erosive wear of metallic materials

    Roy, Manish

    2006-01-01

    Solid particle erosion of metals and alloys at elevated temperature is governed by the nature of the interaction between erosion and oxidation, which, in turn, is determined by the thickness, pliability, morphology, adhesion characteristics and toughness of the oxide scale. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the present state of understanding of the elevated temperature erosion behaviour of metals and alloys. First of all, the erosion testing at elevated temperature is reviewed. This is followed by discussion of the essential features of elevated temperature erosion with special emphasis on microscopic observation, giving details of the erosion-oxidation (E-O) interaction mechanisms. The E-O interaction has been elaborated in the subsequent section. The E-O interaction includes E-O maps, analysis of transition criteria from one erosion mechanism to another mechanism and quantification of enhanced oxidation kinetics during erosion. Finally, the relevant areas for future studies are indicated. (topical review)

  18. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  19. Monterey, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Garibaldi, Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. ASTER Digital Elevation Model V003

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER Digital Elevation Model (DEM) product is generated using bands 3N (nadir-viewing) and 3B (backward-viewing) of an ASTER Level-1A image acquired by the...

  2. Hanalei, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Ocean City, Maryland Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. Southeast Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  5. Kachemak Bay, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. New Orleans, Louisiana Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  7. Virginia Beach, Virginia Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Galveston, Texas Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Savannah, Georgia Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. Biloxi, Mississippi Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  11. Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. Santa Barbara, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Hilo, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Corpus Christi, Texas Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Port Alexander Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  16. Grain Elevators: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Grain Elevators aims to reduce particulate matter pollution. The new amendments seek to clarify definitions, and requirements, as well as propose new regulations on particulate matter emissions

  17. 77 FR 21471 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    2012-04-10

    ... elevations have been published in newspapers of local circulation and ninety (90) days have elapsed since... School Creek. Approximately 0.61 mile +605 upstream of the confluence with School Creek. Arkansas River...

  18. Arecibo, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Craig, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Midway Atoll Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Guayama, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Fajardo, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Montauk, New York Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. Sand Point, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Shemya, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. La Push, Washington Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Portland, Maine Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Arena Cove, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Port Orford, Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. An elevator for cobalt-60 source

    Tang Zaimin; Liang Donghu

    1990-07-01

    The elevator used for cobalt-60 source is a key device in the irradiation industry. It plays an important role in the safety and control of irradiation operation as well as the utilization rate of radiation source. From 1983 to 1986, Beijing Institute of Nuclear Engineering undertook designing of various size irradiation projects for different uses. Since then a kind of cobalt-60 source elevator suited for the irradiator of wet-source-storage has been chosen. It is reliable in the operation and complete in the function. An automatic control circuit brings the systems of cobalt-60 source elevator into an interlock system which ensures the irradiation operation safety. Besides introducing the structural features and performance of this elevator, the conditions of safety interlocking in raising or lowering the cobalt-60 source is also discussed. The discussion is from the safety viewpoint of operating an irradiator and irradiation technology

  11. 2 minute Southcentral Alaska Elevation Grid

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2-minute Southcentral Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 2-minute resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  12. Adak, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Dutch Harbor, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Unalaska, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  15. Ponce, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model V002

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) was developed jointly by the U.S. National...

  17. Moral elevation reduces prejudice against gay men.

    Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men.

  18. Cordova, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Nantucket, Massachusetts Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. Daytona Beach, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Oahu, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Central Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Evaluation of in-line Raman data for end-point determination of a coating process: Comparison of Science-Based Calibration, PLS-regression and univariate data analysis.

    Barimani, Shirin; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2017-10-01

    A multivariate analysis method, Science-Based Calibration (SBC), was used for the first time for endpoint determination of a tablet coating process using Raman data. Two types of tablet cores, placebo and caffeine cores, received a coating suspension comprising a polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft-copolymer and titanium dioxide to a maximum coating thickness of 80µm. Raman spectroscopy was used as in-line PAT tool. The spectra were acquired every minute and correlated to the amount of applied aqueous coating suspension. SBC was compared to another well-known multivariate analysis method, Partial Least Squares-regression (PLS) and a simpler approach, Univariate Data Analysis (UVDA). All developed calibration models had coefficient of determination values (R 2 ) higher than 0.99. The coating endpoints could be predicted with root mean square errors (RMSEP) less than 3.1% of the applied coating suspensions. Compared to PLS and UVDA, SBC proved to be an alternative multivariate calibration method with high predictive power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Relation between thoracic aortic inflammation and features of plaque vulnerability in the coronary tree in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. An FDG-positron emission tomography and optical coherence tomography study

    Taglieri, Nevio; Ghetti, Gabriele; Saia, Francesco; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Rapezzi, Claudio [Alma Mater Studiorum Universita di Bologna, Istituto di Cardiologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica, Diagnostica e Sperimentale, Bologna (Italy); Nanni, Cristina; Bonfiglioli, Rachele; Lima, Giacomo Maria; Fanti, Stefano [Alma Mater Studiorum Universita di Bologna, Istituto di Medicina Nucleare, Dipartimento di Medicina Specialistica, Diagnostica e Sperimentale, Bologna (Italy); Marco, Valeria [CLI Foundation, Rome (Italy); Prati, Francesco [CLI Foundation, Rome (Italy); Ettore Sansavini Health Science Foundation, GVM Care and Research, Cotignola (Italy)

    2017-10-15

    To evaluate the relationship between aortic inflammation as assessed by {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET) and features of plaque vulnerability as assessed by frequency domain-optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). We enrolled 30 consecutive non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. All patients underwent three-vessel OCT before intervention and {sup 18}F-FDG-PET before discharge. Univariable and C-reactive protein (CRP)-adjusted linear regression analyses were performed between features of vulnerability [namely:lipid-rich plaques with and without macrophages and thin cap fibroatheromas (TCFA)] and {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in both ascending (AA) and descending aorta (DA) [measured either as averaged mean and maximum target-to-blood ratio (TBR) or as active slices (TBR{sub max} ≥ 1.6)]. Mean age was 62 years, and 26 patients were male. On univariable linear regression analysis TBR{sub mean} and TBR{sub max} in DA was associated with the number of lipid-rich plaques (β = 4.22; 95%CI 0.05-8.39; p = 0.047 and β = 3.72; 95%CI 1.14-6.30; p = 0.006, respectively). TBR{sub max} in DA was also associated with the number of lipid-rich plaques containing macrophages (β = 2.40; 95%CI 0.07-4.72; p = 0.044). A significant CRP adjusted linear association between the TBR{sub max} in DA and the number of lipid-rich plaques was observed (CRP-adjusted β = 3.58; 95%CI -0.91-6.25; p = 0.01). TBR{sub max} in DA showed a trend towards significant CRP-adjusted association with number of lipid-rich plaques with macrophages (CRP-adjusted β = 2.30; 95%CI -0.11-4.71; p = 0.06). We also observed a CRP-adjusted (β = 2.34; 95%CI 0.22-4.47; p = 0.031) linear association between the number of active slices in DA and the number of lipid-rich plaques. No relation was found between FDG uptake in the aorta and the number of TCFAs. In patients with first NSTEACS{sup ,} {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in

  5. Estimating Elevation Angles From SAR Crosstalk

    Freeman, Anthony

    1994-01-01

    Scheme for processing polarimetric synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) image data yields estimates of elevation angles along radar beam to target resolution cells. By use of estimated elevation angles, measured distances along radar beam to targets (slant ranges), and measured altitude of aircraft carrying SAR equipment, one can estimate height of target terrain in each resolution cell. Monopulselike scheme yields low-resolution topographical data.

  6. Elevator Illusion and Gaze Direction in Hypergravity

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Hargens, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A luminous visual target in a dark hypergravity (Gz greater than 1) environment appears to be elevated above its true physical position. This "elevator illusion" has been attributed to changes in oculomotor control caused by increased stimulation of the otolith organs. Data relating the magnitude of the illusion to the magnitude of the changes in oculomotor control have been lacking. The present study provides such data.

  7. Electrostatic Climber for Space Elevator and Launcher

    Bolonkin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Author details research on the new, very prospective, electrostatic Space Elevator climber based on a new electrostatic linear engine previously offered at the 42nd Joint Propulsion Conference (AIAA-2006-5229) and published in AEAT, Vol.78, No.6, 2006, pp. 502-508. The electrostatic climber discussed can have any speed (and braking), the energy for climber movement is delivered by a lightweight high-voltage line into a Space Elevator-holding cable from Earth electric generator. This electric ...

  8. Energy considerations in the partial space elevator

    Woo, Pamela; Misra, Arun K.

    2014-06-01

    The space elevator has been proposed as an alternate method for space transportation. A partial elevator is composed of a tether of several hundreds of kilometres, held vertically in tension between two end masses, with its centre of orbit placed at the geosynchronous orbit. A spacecraft can dock at the lower end, and then use the climber on the elevator to ascend to higher altitudes. In this paper, energy calculations are performed, to determine whether a partial elevator can provide sufficient savings in operational costs, compared to the traditional rocket-powered launch. The energy required to launch a spacecraft from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to the geostationary orbit (GEO) is calculated for two trajectories. In the first trajectory, the spacecraft travels from LEO to GEO via a Hohmann transfer. In the second trajectory, the spacecraft travels from LEO to the lower end of the partial space elevator with a Hohmann transfer, and then uses the elevator to climb to GEO. The total energy required is compared between the two trajectories. The effects of tether length, spacecraft-to-climber mass ratio, altitude of LEO, and tether material are investigated.

  9. Michelson-Morley in Einstein's elevators

    Pierce, Fred; Pierce, Ayal

    2010-02-01

    Experiments are proposed in which a Michelson-Morley interferometer is placed in Einstein's thought experiments where elevators are subjected to varied accelerated fields. Unbeknownst to the observers inside the elevators, they are placed in different circumstances: on the surface of the Earth, in free fall, in space distant from any mass, and inside a rotating space station. By use of not one, but two objects, the observer will be challenged to determine the nature and shape of the accelerated field, if any, inside the elevator. It will be demonstrated that the nature of the accelerated field can be determined easily from inside the elevator by the motion of the two objects released by the observer. It will also be shown that, for the elevator on the space station which is generating an ``artificial gravity'' field by rotation, Michelson-Morley would have the same null result as on Earth. However, the Michelson-Morley experiment is adapted so that in addition to the two horizontal arms of the interferometer (parallel to the floor of the elevator) a vertical arm is added perpendicular to the floor facing towards the ceiling. Such a vertical arm added to the Michelson-Morley experiment adds a new dimension to examining each accelerated field, including gravity. )

  10. Global elevational diversity and diversification of birds.

    Quintero, Ignacio; Jetz, Walter

    2018-03-08

    Mountain ranges harbour exceptionally high biodiversity, which is now under threat from rapid environmental change. However, despite decades of effort, the limited availability of data and analytical tools has prevented a robust and truly global characterization of elevational biodiversity gradients and their evolutionary origins. This has hampered a general understanding of the processes involved in the assembly and maintenance of montane communities. Here we show that a worldwide mid-elevation peak in bird richness is driven by wide-ranging species and disappears when we use a subsampling procedure that ensures even species representation in space and facilitates evolutionary interpretation. Instead, richness corrected for range size declines linearly with increasing elevation. We find that the more depauperate assemblages at higher elevations are characterized by higher rates of diversification across all mountain regions, rejecting the idea that lower recent diversification rates are the general cause of less diverse biota. Across all elevations, assemblages on mountains with high rates of past temperature change exhibit more rapid diversification, highlighting the importance of climatic fluctuations in driving the evolutionary dynamics of mountain biodiversity. While different geomorphological and climatic attributes of mountain regions have been pivotal in determining the remarkable richness gradients observed today, our results underscore the role of ongoing and often very recent diversification processes in maintaining the unique and highly adapted biodiversity of higher elevations.

  11. P Elevator: An Innovatively Designed Elevator for Extraction of Third Molars.

    Singh, Pradeep; Xiao, Shui Sheng; Ajmera, Deepal Haresh

    2015-01-01

    To modify the conventional straight elevator with a unique and innovative design in respect to approach and accessibility during extraction for patients with abrasions around corners of the mouth and with thick buccal mucosa, without causing overstretching of angles of the mouth. The shank of the straight elevator in the shape of a 'U' was modified, giving it a shape similar to 'P' in the English alphabet hence it is named the P Elevator. The P elevator utilises a 'U' shaped bend in the shank of the conventional straight elevator making space for the buccal soft tissues and the angle of the mouth, to accommodate properly in the 'U' shank. The application of this elevator in the successful removal of third molars is described. Two hundred patients underwent extraction of third molars with the P elevator including 166 patients with disimpaction of all third molars, 23 patients with abrasion around the angle of the mouth, and 11 patients with thick buccal mucosa. Satisfactory results were obtained in all the cases with no postoperative complications. The P elevator permits prudent, meticulous, innovative and proficient extraction of third molars in patients with thick buccal mucosa and abrasions around the angle of the mouth, without overstretching the corners of the mouth. We introduce novel applications of the P elevator in third molar extraction that provide substantial advantages over a conventional straight elevator.

  12. Kidney transplantation from deceased donors with elevated serum creatinine.

    Gallinat, Anja; Leerhoff, Sabine; Paul, Andreas; Molmenti, Ernesto P; Schulze, Maren; Witzke, Oliver; Sotiropoulos, Georgios C

    2016-12-01

    Elevated donor serum creatinine has been associated with inferior graft survival in kidney transplantation (KT). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of elevated donor serum creatinine on short and long-term outcomes and to determine possible ways to optimize the use of these organs. All kidney transplants from 01-2000 to 12-2012 with donor creatinine ≥ 2 mg/dl were considered. Risk factors for delayed graft function (DGF) were explored with uni- and multivariate regression analyses. Donor and recipient data were analyzed with uni- and multivariate cox proportional hazard analyses. Graft and patient survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Seventy-eight patients were considered. Median recipient age and waiting time on dialysis were 53 years and 5.1 years, respectively. After a median follow-up of 6.2 years, 63 patients are alive. 1, 3, and 5-year graft and patient survival rates were 92, 89, and 89 % and 96, 93, and 89 %, respectively. Serum creatinine level at procurement and recipient's dialysis time prior to KT were predictors of DGF in multivariate analysis (p = 0.0164 and p = 0.0101, respectively). Charlson comorbidity score retained statistical significance by multivariate regression analysis for graft survival (p = 0.0321). Recipient age (p = 0.0035) was predictive of patient survival by multivariate analysis. Satisfactory long-term kidney transplant outcomes in the setting of elevated donor serum creatinine ≥2 mg/dl can be achieved when donor creatinine is <3.5 mg/dl, and the recipient has low comorbidities, is under 56 years of age, and remains in dialysis prior to KT for <6.8 years.

  13. Elevational Ranges of Montane Birds and Deforestation in the Western Andes of Colombia.

    Natalia Ocampo-Peñuela

    Full Text Available Deforestation causes habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, and can ultimately cause extinction of the remnant species. Tropical montane birds face these threats with the added natural vulnerability of narrower elevational ranges and higher specialization than lowland species. Recent studies assess the impact of present and future global climate change on species' ranges, but only a few of these evaluate the potentially confounding effect of lowland deforestation on species elevational distributions. In the Western Andes of Colombia, an important biodiversity hotspot, we evaluated the effects of deforestation on the elevational ranges of montane birds along altitudinal transects. Using point counts and mist-nets, we surveyed six altitudinal transects spanning 2200 to 2800 m. Three transects were forested from 2200 to 2800 m, and three were partially deforested with forest cover only above 2400 m. We compared abundance-weighted mean elevation, minimum elevation, and elevational range width. In addition to analysing the effect of deforestation on 134 species, we tested its impact within trophic guilds and habitat preference groups. Abundance-weighted mean and minimum elevations were not significantly different between forested and partially deforested transects. Range width was marginally different: as expected, ranges were larger in forested transects. Species in different trophic guilds and habitat preference categories showed different trends. These results suggest that deforestation may affect species' elevational ranges, even within the forest that remains. Climate change will likely exacerbate harmful impacts of deforestation on species' elevational distributions. Future conservation strategies need to account for this by protecting connected forest tracts across a wide range of elevations.

  14. Elevational Ranges of Montane Birds and Deforestation in the Western Andes of Colombia.

    Ocampo-Peñuela, Natalia; Pimm, Stuart L

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation causes habitat loss, fragmentation, degradation, and can ultimately cause extinction of the remnant species. Tropical montane birds face these threats with the added natural vulnerability of narrower elevational ranges and higher specialization than lowland species. Recent studies assess the impact of present and future global climate change on species' ranges, but only a few of these evaluate the potentially confounding effect of lowland deforestation on species elevational distributions. In the Western Andes of Colombia, an important biodiversity hotspot, we evaluated the effects of deforestation on the elevational ranges of montane birds along altitudinal transects. Using point counts and mist-nets, we surveyed six altitudinal transects spanning 2200 to 2800 m. Three transects were forested from 2200 to 2800 m, and three were partially deforested with forest cover only above 2400 m. We compared abundance-weighted mean elevation, minimum elevation, and elevational range width. In addition to analysing the effect of deforestation on 134 species, we tested its impact within trophic guilds and habitat preference groups. Abundance-weighted mean and minimum elevations were not significantly different between forested and partially deforested transects. Range width was marginally different: as expected, ranges were larger in forested transects. Species in different trophic guilds and habitat preference categories showed different trends. These results suggest that deforestation may affect species' elevational ranges, even within the forest that remains. Climate change will likely exacerbate harmful impacts of deforestation on species' elevational distributions. Future conservation strategies need to account for this by protecting connected forest tracts across a wide range of elevations.

  15. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo. c2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevational distribution and extinction risk in birds.

    Rachel L White

    Full Text Available Mountainous regions are hotspots of terrestrial biodiversity. Unlike islands, which have been the focus of extensive research on extinction dynamics, fewer studies have examined mountain ranges even though they face increasing threats from human pressures - notably habitat conversion and climate change. Limits to the taxonomic and geographical extent and resolution of previously available information have precluded an explicit assessment of the relative role of elevational distribution in determining extinction risk. We use a new global species-level avian database to quantify the influence of elevational distribution (range, maximum and midpoint on extinction risk in birds at the global scale. We also tested this relationship within biogeographic realms, higher taxonomic levels, and across phylogenetic contrasts. Potential confounding variables (i.e. phylogenetic, distributional, morphological, life history and niche breadth were also tested and controlled for. We show that the three measures of elevational distribution are strong negative predictors of avian extinction risk, with elevational range comparable and complementary to that of geographical range size. Extinction risk was also found to be positively associated with body weight, development and adult survival, but negatively associated with reproduction and niche breadth. The robust and consistent findings from this study demonstrate the importance of elevational distribution as a key driver of variation in extinction dynamics in birds. Our results also highlight elevational distribution as a missing criterion in current schemes for quantifying extinction risk and setting species conservation priorities in birds. Further research is recommended to test for generality across non-avian taxa, which will require an advance in our knowledge of species' current elevational ranges and increased efforts to digitise and centralise such data.

  17. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator

    Engel, Kilian A.

    2005-07-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator-launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required Δv, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo.

  18. Comparison of Imputation Methods for Handling Missing Categorical Data with Univariate Pattern|| Una comparación de métodos de imputación de variables categóricas con patrón univariado

    Torres Munguía, Juan Armando

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the sample proportions estimates in the presence of univariate missing categorical data. A database about smoking habits (2011 National Addiction Survey of Mexico was used to create simulated yet realistic datasets at rates 5% and 15% of missingness, each for MCAR, MAR and MNAR mechanisms. Then the performance of six methods for addressing missingness is evaluated: listwise, mode imputation, random imputation, hot-deck, imputation by polytomous regression and random forests. Results showed that the most effective methods for dealing with missing categorical data in most of the scenarios assessed in this paper were hot-deck and polytomous regression approaches. || El presente estudio examina la estimación de proporciones muestrales en la presencia de valores faltantes en una variable categórica. Se utiliza una encuesta de consumo de tabaco (Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones de México 2011 para crear bases de datos simuladas pero reales con 5% y 15% de valores perdidos para cada mecanismo de no respuesta MCAR, MAR y MNAR. Se evalúa el desempeño de seis métodos para tratar la falta de respuesta: listwise, imputación de moda, imputación aleatoria, hot-deck, imputación por regresión politómica y árboles de clasificación. Los resultados de las simulaciones indican que los métodos más efectivos para el tratamiento de la no respuesta en variables categóricas, bajo los escenarios simulados, son hot-deck y la regresión politómica.

  19. Space Elevator Concept Considered a Reality

    2000-01-01

    The `once upon a time' science fiction concept of a space elevator has been envisioned and studied as a real mass transportation system in the latter part of the 21st century. David Smitherman of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Projects Office has compiled plans for such an elevator. The space elevator concept is a structure extending from the surface of the Earth to geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) at 35,786 km in altitude. The tower would be approximately 50 km tall with a cable tethered to the top. Its center mass would be at GEO such that the entire structure orbits the Earth in sync with the Earth's rotation maintaining a stationary position over its base attachment at the equator. Electromagnetic vehicles traveling along the cable could serve as a mass transportation system for transporting people, payloads, and power between space and Earth. This illustration by artist Pat Rawling shows the concept of a space elevator as viewed from the geostationary transfer station looking down the length of the elevator towards the Earth.

  20. Operation of a hydraulic elevator system

    Lazarev, G.A.; Li, Yu.V.; Bezuglov, N.N.

    1983-03-01

    The paper describes the hydraulic elevator system in the im. 50-letiya Oktyabr'skoi Revolutsii mine in the Karaganda basin. The system removes water and coal from the sump of a skip mine shaft. Water influx rate per day to the sump does not exceed 120 m/sup 3/, weight of coal falling from the skip is about 5,000 kg per day. The sump, 85 m deep, is closed by a screen. The elevator system consists of two pumps (one is used as a reserve pump) with a capacity of 300 m/sup 3/h. When water level exceeds the maximum permissive limit the pump is activated by an automatic control system. The coal and water mixture pumped from the sump bottom is directed to a screen which separates coal from water. Coal is fed to a coal hopper and water is pumped to a water tank. The hydraulic elevator has a capacity of 80 m/sup 3/ of mixture per hour. The slurry is tranported by a pipe of 175 mm diameter. Specifications of the pumps and pipelines are given. A scheme of the hydraulic elevator system is also shown. Economic aspects of hydraulic elevator use for removal of water and coal from deep sumps of skip shafts in the Karaganda basin also are discussed.

  1. False elevation of carboxyhemoglobin: case report.

    Mehrotra, Shruti; Edmonds, Marcia; Lim, Rodrick K

    2011-02-01

    Carbon monoxide toxicity in infants and children, like adults, produce nonspecific symptoms with normal vital signs necessitating the serum measurement of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). In infants, the COHb may be falsely elevated. Our goal was to report a case of suspected carbon monoxide toxicity in an infant and the likely cause of the falsely elevated serum COHb. A previously healthy 3-month-old girl presented to the pediatric emergency department (ED) with smoke inhalation from a defective furnace. She was asymptomatic. On examination, she was alert, with Glasgow Coma Scale of 15 and normal vital signs. Cardiorespiratory and neurological examinations were completely normal. Because of concern regarding carbon monoxide poisoning, she was treated with normobaric oxygen therapy. Initial and subsequent serum COHb levels were persistently elevated, despite treatment and the infant appearing clinically well. As such, she had a prolonged stay in the ED. Further investigations found that fetal hemoglobin interferes with the spectrophotometric method used to analyze serum COHb levels. Carboxyhemoglobin serum level, in infants, may be falsely elevated due to the fetal hemoglobin interfering with standard methods of analysis. Knowledge of the false elevation using standard spectrophotometric methods of COHb in clinically well-appearing infants can decrease unnecessary oxygen therapy and monitoring time in the ED.

  2. Sample preparation in foodomic analyses.

    Martinović, Tamara; Šrajer Gajdošik, Martina; Josić, Djuro

    2018-04-16

    Representative sampling and adequate sample preparation are key factors for successful performance of further steps in foodomic analyses, as well as for correct data interpretation. Incorrect sampling and improper sample preparation can be sources of severe bias in foodomic analyses. It is well known that both wrong sampling and sample treatment cannot be corrected anymore. These, in the past frequently neglected facts, are now taken into consideration, and the progress in sampling and sample preparation in foodomics is reviewed here. We report the use of highly sophisticated instruments for both high-performance and high-throughput analyses, as well as miniaturization and the use of laboratory robotics in metabolomics, proteomics, peptidomics and genomics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Scientific return of a lunar elevator

    Eubanks, T. M.; Radley, C. F.

    2016-11-01

    The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing the capabilities of robotic and human explorers. These missions use planetary scale tethers, strings many thousands of kilometers long stabilized either by rotation or by gravitational gradients. These systems promise major reduction in transport costs versus chemical rockets, in a rapid timeframe, for a modest investment. Science will thus benefit as well as commercial activities.

  4. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft

    1979-01-01

    Detail design activities are reported for a program to develop an advanced composites elevator for the Boeing 727 commercial transport. Design activities include discussion of the full scale ground test and flight test activities, the ancillary test programs, sustaining efforts, weight status, and the production status. Prior to flight testing of the advanced composites elevator, ground, flight flutter, and stability and control test plans were reviewed and approved by the FAA. Both the ground test and the flight test were conducted according to the approved plan, and were witnessed by the FAA. Three and one half shipsets have now been fabricated without any significant difficulty being encountered. Two elevator system shipsets were weighed, and results validated the 26% predicted weight reduction. The program is on schedule.

  5. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Vermont

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Vermont, elevation data are critical for hazard mitigation, geologic resource assessment, natural resources conservation, agriculture and precision farming, flood risk management, infrastructure and construction management, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.

  6. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    Watanabe, Seiji; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki; Okawa, Takeya

    2013-01-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified

  7. 3D Elevation Program: summary for Nebraska

    Carswell, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Elevation data are essential to a broad range of applications, including forest resources management, wildlife and habitat management, national security, recreation, and many others. For the State of Nebraska, elevation data are critical for agriculture and precision farming, natural resources conservation, flood risk management, infrastructure and construction management, geologic resource assessment and hazard mitigation, and other business uses. Today, high-density light detection and ranging (lidar) data are the primary sources for deriving elevation models and other datasets. Federal, State, Tribal, and local agencies work in partnership to (1) replace data that are older and of lower quality and (2) provide coverage where publicly accessible data do not exist. A joint goal of State and Federal partners is to acquire consistent, statewide coverage to support existing and emerging applications enabled by lidar data.

  8. Vertical vibration analysis for elevator compensating sheave

    Watanabe, Seiji; Okawa, Takeya; Nakazawa, Daisuke; Fukui, Daiki

    2013-07-01

    Most elevators applied to tall buildings include compensating ropes to satisfy the balanced rope tension between the car and the counter weight. The compensating ropes receive tension by the compensating sheave, which is installed at the bottom space of the elevator shaft. The compensating sheave is only suspended by the compensating ropes, therefore, the sheave can move vertically while the car is traveling. This paper shows the elevator dynamic model to evaluate the vertical motion of the compensating sheave. Especially, behavior in emergency cases, such as brake activation and buffer strike, was investigated to evaluate the maximum upward motion of the sheave. The simulation results were validated by experiments and the most influenced factor for the sheave vertical motion was clarified.

  9. Taking mycocentrism seriously: mycorrhizal fungal and plant responses to elevated CO2

    Alberton, O.; Kuyper, T.W.; Gorissen, A.

    2005-01-01

    The aim here was to separately assess mycorrhizal fungal and plant responses under elevated atmospheric CO2, and to test a mycocentric model that assumes that increased carbon availability to the fungus will not automatically feed back to enhanced plant growth performance. Meta-analyses were applied

  10. A new bed elevation dataset for Greenland

    J. L. Bamber

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a new bed elevation dataset for Greenland derived from a combination of multiple airborne ice thickness surveys undertaken between the 1970s and 2012. Around 420 000 line kilometres of airborne data were used, with roughly 70% of this having been collected since the year 2000, when the last comprehensive compilation was undertaken. The airborne data were combined with satellite-derived elevations for non-glaciated terrain to produce a consistent bed digital elevation model (DEM over the entire island including across the glaciated–ice free boundary. The DEM was extended to the continental margin with the aid of bathymetric data, primarily from a compilation for the Arctic. Ice thickness was determined where an ice shelf exists from a combination of surface elevation and radar soundings. The across-track spacing between flight lines warranted interpolation at 1 km postings for significant sectors of the ice sheet. Grids of ice surface elevation, error estimates for the DEM, ice thickness and data sampling density were also produced alongside a mask of land/ocean/grounded ice/floating ice. Errors in bed elevation range from a minimum of ±10 m to about ±300 m, as a function of distance from an observation and local topographic variability. A comparison with the compilation published in 2001 highlights the improvement in resolution afforded by the new datasets, particularly along the ice sheet margin, where ice velocity is highest and changes in ice dynamics most marked. We estimate that the volume of ice included in our land-ice mask would raise mean sea level by 7.36 m, excluding any solid earth effects that would take place during ice sheet decay.

  11. Strength properties of concrete at elevated temperatures

    Freskakis, G.N.; Burrow, R.C.; Debbas, E.B.

    1979-01-01

    A study is presented concerning the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and stress-strain relationships of concrete at elevated temperatures. A review of published results provides information for the development of upper and lower bound relationships for compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity and establishes exposure conditions for a lower bound thermal response. The relationships developed from the literature review are confirmed by the results of a verification test program. The strength and elasticity relationships provide a basis for the development of design stress-strain curves for concrete exposed to elevated temperatures

  12. Forest succession at elevated CO2; TOPICAL

    Clark, James S.; Schlesinger, William H.

    2002-01-01

    We tested hypotheses concerning the response of forest succession to elevated CO2 in the FACTS-1 site at the Duke Forest. We quantified growth and survival of naturally recruited seedlings, tree saplings, vines, and shrubs under ambient and elevated CO2. We planted seeds and seedlings to augment sample sites. We augmented CO2 treatments with estimates of shade tolerance and nutrient limitation while controlling for soil and light effects to place CO2 treatments within the context of natural variability at the site. Results are now being analyzed and used to parameterize forest models of CO2 response

  13. Elevated progesterone during ovarian stimulation for IVF

    Al-Azemi, M; Kyrou, D; Kolibianakis, E M

    2012-01-01

    of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of the follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials should document the cause and origin...... phase in ovarian stimulation. The databases of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials...

  14. Haemodynamic patterns in ST-elevation myocardial infarction : incidence and correlates of elevated filling pressures

    Bergstra, A.; Svilaas, T.; van Veldhuisen, D. J.; van den Heuvel, A. F. M.; van der Horst, I. C. C.; Zijlstra, F.

    Objectives. We sought to study the incidence and clinical correlates of elevated filling pressures in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, without physical signs of heart failure and treated with primary coronary angioplasty. Background. Haemodynamic data, as measured with a

  15. Descriptive Analyses of Mechanical Systems

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2003-01-01

    Forord Produktanalyse og teknologianalyse kan gennmføres med et bredt socio-teknisk sigte med henblik på at forstå kulturelle, sociologiske, designmæssige, forretningsmæssige og mange andre forhold. Et delområde heri er systemisk analyse og beskrivelse af produkter og systemer. Nærværende kompend...

  16. Analysing and Comparing Encodability Criteria

    Kirstin Peters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Encodings or the proof of their absence are the main way to compare process calculi. To analyse the quality of encodings and to rule out trivial or meaningless encodings, they are augmented with quality criteria. There exists a bunch of different criteria and different variants of criteria in order to reason in different settings. This leads to incomparable results. Moreover it is not always clear whether the criteria used to obtain a result in a particular setting do indeed fit to this setting. We show how to formally reason about and compare encodability criteria by mapping them on requirements on a relation between source and target terms that is induced by the encoding function. In particular we analyse the common criteria full abstraction, operational correspondence, divergence reflection, success sensitiveness, and respect of barbs; e.g. we analyse the exact nature of the simulation relation (coupled simulation versus bisimulation that is induced by different variants of operational correspondence. This way we reduce the problem of analysing or comparing encodability criteria to the better understood problem of comparing relations on processes.

  17. Analysing Children's Drawings: Applied Imagination

    Bland, Derek

    2012-01-01

    This article centres on a research project in which freehand drawings provided a richly creative and colourful data source of children's imagined, ideal learning environments. Issues concerning the analysis of the visual data are discussed, in particular, how imaginative content was analysed and how the analytical process was dependent on an…

  18. Impact analyses after pipe rupture

    Chun, R.C.; Chuang, T.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Two of the French pipe whip experiments are reproduced with the computer code WIPS. The WIPS results are in good agreement with the experimental data and the French computer code TEDEL. This justifies the use of its pipe element in conjunction with its U-bar element in a simplified method of impact analyses

  19. Millifluidic droplet analyser for microbiology

    Baraban, L.; Bertholle, F.; Salverda, M.L.M.; Bremond, N.; Panizza, P.; Baudry, J.; Visser, de J.A.G.M.; Bibette, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel millifluidic droplet analyser (MDA) for precisely monitoring the dynamics of microbial populations over multiple generations in numerous (=103) aqueous emulsion droplets (100 nL). As a first application, we measure the growth rate of a bacterial strain and determine the minimal

  20. Analyser of sweeping electron beam

    Strasser, A.

    1993-01-01

    The electron beam analyser has an array of conductors that can be positioned in the field of the sweeping beam, an electronic signal treatment system for the analysis of the signals generated in the conductors by the incident electrons and a display for the different characteristics of the electron beam

  1. Temporal seizure focus and status epilepticus are associated with high-sensitive troponin I elevation after epileptic seizures.

    Chatzikonstantinou, Anastasios; Ebert, Anne D; Hennerici, Michael G

    2015-09-01

    Postictal elevation of high-sensitive troponin I (TNI), a highly specific biomarker for myocardial ischemia, has been reported. We aimed at evaluating its association of high-sensitive troponin I (TNI) with seizure type and focus, as well as vascular risk factors. TNI was measured in 247 patients admitted to our clinic via the emergency room with an acute epileptic seizure. TNI control measurements were performed in 61.5% of cases. All patients underwent electroencephalography and cerebral imaging. Seizure focus - when possible - was determined using results from these examinations as well as clinical data. Of 247 patients, 133 (53.8%) were men, the mean age was 59 ± 18 years. 70 (28.3%) patients had focal and 177 (71.7%) generalized seizures. Status epilepticus was present in 38 cases (15.4%). Mean TNI was 0.05 ± 0.17. TNI was elevated in 27 patients (10.9%). Higher age, status epilepticus and temporal seizure focus were significantly associated with TNI elevation in multivariate analysis. In 21 (13.8%) of the patients with TNI control measurement, TNI was continuously elevated. Higher age and temporal seizure focus were significantly associated with continuously high TNI. Coronary heart disease and vascular risk factors were significantly associated with high TNI only in univariate analysis. No patient had a symptomatic myocardial ischemia. Postictal TNI elevation is relatively common in older patients with status epilepticus or temporal seizure focus. These data support the concept of relevant and possibly dangerous ictal effects on cardiac function especially in temporal lobe seizures. Although the risk of manifest postictal myocardial infarction seems to be very low, selected patients could profit from closer monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The Coupling of Treeline Elevation and Temperature is Mediated by Non-Thermal Factors on the Tibetan Plateau

    Yafeng Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the relationships between treeline elevation and climate at regional and local scales. It is compelling to fill this research gap with data from the Tibetan Plateau where some of the highest alpine treelines in the world are found. This research question partially results from the lack of in situ temperature data at treeline sites. Herein, treeline variables (e.g., elevation, topography, tree species and temperature data were collected from published investigations performed during this decade on the Tibetan Plateau. Temperature conditions near treeline sites were estimated using global databases and these estimates were corrected by using in situ air temperature measurements. Correlation analyses and generalized linear models were used to evaluate the effects of different variables on treeline elevation including thermal (growing-season air temperatures and non-thermal (latitude, longitude, elevation, tree species, precipitation, radiation factors. The commonality analysis model was applied to explore how several variables (July mean temperature, elevation of mountain peak, latitude were related to treeline elevation. July mean temperature was the most significant predictor of treeline elevation, explaining 55% of the variance in treeline elevation across the Tibetan Plateau, whereas latitude, tree species, and mountain elevation (mass-elevation effect explained 30% of the variance in treeline elevation. After considering the multicollinearity among predictors, July mean temperature (largely due to the influence of minimum temperature still showed the strongest association with treeline elevation. We conclude that the coupling of treeline elevation and July temperature at a regional scale is modulated by non-thermal factors probably acting at local scales. Our results contribute towards explaining the decoupling between climate warming and treeline dynamics.

  3. Implementation of four layer automatic elevator controller

    Prasad, B. K. V.; Kumar, P. Satish; Charles, B. S.; Srilakshmi, G.

    2017-07-01

    In this modern era, elevators have become an integral part of any commercial or public complex. It facilitates the faster movement of people and luggage between floors. The lift control system is one among the keenest aspects in electronics controlling module that are used in auto motive filed. Usually elevators are designed for a specific building taking into account the main factors like the measure of the building, the count of persons travelling to each floor and the expected periods of large usage. The lift system was designed with different control strategies. This implementation is based on FPGA, which could be used for any building with any number of floors, with the necessary inputs and outputs. This controller can be implemented based on the required number of floors by merely changing a control variable from the HDL code. This approach is based on an algorithm which reduces the number of computation necessary, on concentrating only on the relevant principles that improves the score and ability of the club of elevator structure. The elevator controller is developed using Verilog HDL and is perfectly executed on a Xilinx ISE 12.4 and Spartan -3E FPGA.

  4. Elevated Bladder Cancer Risk in New England

    A new study has found that drinking water from private wells, particularly dug wells established during the first half of the 20th century, may have contributed to the elevated risk of bladder cancer that has been observed in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont for over 50 years.

  5. 77 FR 66785 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    2012-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency 44 CFR Part 67 [Docket ID FEMA... Elevation Determinations AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Proposed rule; correction... sources: Acadiana Coulee, Anselm Coulee, Bayou Carencro, Bayou Parc Perdue, Bayou Queue De Tortue, Beau...

  6. ELEVATED TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON THE ELECTRICAL ...

    The effects of elevated temperatures on the electrical properties of Bi metal probe to Si thin films had been investigated for electric field values 10-100V/m. Measurements of current (I) – voltage (V) characteristics were obtained at temperatures 300,320,340,360,380 and 400K respectively. The results indicated linear I–V ...

  7. Nurses' accuracy in estimating backrest elevation

    2007-02-08

    Feb 8, 2007 ... study, compared an intended backrest elevation of 45°. Department of ... the breakpoint of the bed frame using an angle finder. Backrest ... Inferential statistics in the form of correlational analysis was .... pilot study. Am J Crit ...

  8. Estimating Coastal Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Uncertainty

    Amante, C.; Mesick, S.

    2017-12-01

    Integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation models (DEMs) are representations of the Earth's solid surface and are fundamental to the modeling of coastal processes, including tsunami, storm surge, and sea-level rise inundation. Deviations in elevation values from the actual seabed or land surface constitute errors in DEMs, which originate from numerous sources, including: (i) the source elevation measurements (e.g., multibeam sonar, lidar), (ii) the interpolative gridding technique (e.g., spline, kriging) used to estimate elevations in areas unconstrained by source measurements, and (iii) the datum transformation used to convert bathymetric and topographic data to common vertical reference systems. The magnitude and spatial distribution of the errors from these sources are typically unknown, and the lack of knowledge regarding these errors represents the vertical uncertainty in the DEM. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) has developed DEMs for more than 200 coastal communities. This study presents a methodology developed at NOAA NCEI to derive accompanying uncertainty surfaces that estimate DEM errors at the individual cell-level. The development of high-resolution (1/9th arc-second), integrated bathymetric-topographic DEMs along the southwest coast of Florida serves as the case study for deriving uncertainty surfaces. The estimated uncertainty can then be propagated into the modeling of coastal processes that utilize DEMs. Incorporating the uncertainty produces more reliable modeling results, and in turn, better-informed coastal management decisions.

  9. Complement elevation in spinal cord injury.

    Rebhun, J; Botvin, J

    1980-05-01

    Laboratory studies revealed an elevated complement in 66% of patients with spinal cord injury. It is postulated that the activated complement may be a component of self-feeding immunological mechanism responsible for the failure of regeneration of a mature mammalian spinal cord. There was no evidence that such an injury had any effect on pre-existing atopy.

  10. 76 FR 40670 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    2011-07-11

    ...) Depth in feet above State City/town/county Source of flooding Location ** ground [caret] Elevation in... Contentnea Creek +76 +77 Town of Black Creek, confluence. Unincorporated Areas of Wilson County... +63 Town of Stantonsburg, confluence. Unincorporated Areas of Wilson County. Approximately 0.8 mile...

  11. 76 FR 66887 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    2011-10-28

    ...) Depth in feet above State City/town/county Source of flooding Location** ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Existing Modified Town of Richmond, Vermont Vermont Town of Richmond........ Winooski River... Incorporated Areas Little Thompson River At the downstream side None +4935 Town of Berthoud, of Weld County...

  12. 76 FR 8978 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    2011-02-16

    .../town/county Source of flooding Location ** ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Existing Modified Unincorporated Areas of Yolo County, California California Unincorporated Areas of Cache Creek Settling Basin At........ Entire None +901 Town of shoreline Wolcottvill e, Unincorpora ted Areas of LaGrange County. * National...

  13. 76 FR 36482 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    2011-06-22

    .../town/county Source of flooding Location ** ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Existing Modified City of Colonial Heights, Virginia Virginia City of Colonial Heights Old Town Creek Approximately 0.63... for inspection at 202 James Avenue, Colonial Heights, VA 23834. Unincorporated Areas of Halifax County...

  14. 76 FR 3524 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    2011-01-20

    ... effects from Kentucky River). the Kentucky River to Garrard County. approximately 932 feet upstream of Old..., City of The Colony, Town of Hebron, Unincorporated Areas of Denton County. Approximately 2,940 feet... Communities affected [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Ashley County, Arkansas, and Incorporated...

  15. 77 FR 66788 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    2012-11-07

    ... Town of Clarkstown. Old Mill Road. Approximately 600 feet +150 +151 downstream of Rockland Lake. Golf..., Orangetown/Town of Town of Orangetown. Clarkstown corporate limit. At the downstream side +67 +66 of Old Mill... and modified elevations, and communities affected for Rockland County, New York (All Jurisdictions...

  16. 75 FR 29268 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    2010-05-25

    ... impact assessment has not been prepared. Regulatory Flexibility Act. As flood elevation determinations.... Approximately 1.7 mile None +714 upstream of Due West Highway. Beaver Creek At the confluence with None +571... confluence with Beaver Creek Tributary 15. Beaver Creek Tributary 1 At the confluence with None +572...

  17. 76 FR 68107 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    2011-11-03

    ... environmental impact assessment has not been prepared. Regulatory Flexibility Act. As flood elevation..., Illinois, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1134 Beaver Creek Approximately 1.58 miles +366... of Main Street extended (River Mile 887). Unnamed Tributary to Beaver Creek Approximately 1,500 feet...

  18. Elevated extracellular potassium ion concentrations suppress ...

    To address this question, we examined how elevations of [K+]o affect hippocampal oscillations in Scn1a mutant mouse, a mouse model of Dravet syndrome, a devastating genetic-epilepsy associated with gliosis, a major cause of dysregulated K+ homeostasis in epileptic brain. Methods: To this end, performing local field ...

  19. Elevated temperature effects on concrete properties

    Grant, P.R.; Gruber, R.S.; Van Katwijk, C.

    1993-08-01

    The design of facilities to process or store radioactive wastes presents many challenging engineering problems. Such facilities must not only provide for safe storage of radioactive wastes but they must also be able to maintain confinement of these materials during and after natural phenomena events. Heat generated by the radioactive decay of the wastes will cause the temperature of the concrete containment structure to increase to a magnitude higher than that found in conventional structures. These elevated temperatures will cause strength-related concrete properties to degrade over time. For concrete temperatures less than 150 degree F, no reduction in strength is taken and the provisions of ACI 349, which states that higher temperatures are allowed if tests are provided to evaluate the reduction in concrete strength properties, apply. Methods proposed in a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) report, Modeling of Time-Variant Concrete Properties at Elevated Temperatures, can be used to evaluate the effects of elevated temperatures on concrete properties. Using these modified concrete properties the capacity of a concrete structure, subjected to elevated temperatures, to resist natural phenomena hazards can be determined

  20. Prognostic factors in children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia (excluding children with Down syndrome and acute promyelocytic leukemia): univariate and recursive partitioning analysis of patients treated on Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) Study 8821.

    Chang, M; Raimondi, S C; Ravindranath, Y; Carroll, A J; Camitta, B; Gresik, M V; Steuber, C P; Weinstein, H

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of the paper was to define clinical or biological features associated with the risk for treatment failure for children with acute myeloid leukemia. Data from 560 children and adolescents with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia who entered the Pediatric Oncology Group Study 8821 from June 1988 to March 1993 were analyzed by univariate and recursive partitioning methods. Children with Down syndrome or acute promyelocytic leukemia were excluded from the study. Factors examined included age, number of leukocytes, sex, FAB morphologic subtype, cytogenetic findings, and extramedullary disease at the time of diagnosis. The overall event-free survival (EFS) rate at 4 years was 32.7% (s.e. = 2.2%). Age > or =2 years, fewer than 50 x 10(9)/I leukocytes, and t(8;21) or inv(16), and normal chromosomes were associated with higher rates of EFS (P value = 0.003, 0.049, 0.0003, 0.031, respectively), whereas the M5 subtype of AML (P value = 0.0003) and chromosome abnormalities other than t(8;21) and inv(16) were associated with lower rates of EFS (P value = 0.0001). Recursive partitioning analysis defined three groups of patients with widely varied prognoses: female patients with t(8;21), inv(16), or a normal karyotype (n = 89) had the best prognosis (4-year EFS = 55.1%, s.e. = 5.7%); male patients with t(8;21), inv(16) or normal chromosomes (n = 106) had an intermediate prognosis (4-year EFS = 38.1%, s.e. = 5.3%); patients with chromosome abnormalities other than t(8;21) and inv(16) (n = 233) had the worst prognosis (4-year EFS = 27.0%, s.e. = 3.2%). One hundred and thirty-two patients (24%) could not be grouped because of missing cytogenetic data, mainly due to inadequate marrow samples. The results suggest that pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia can be categorized into three potential risk groups for prognosis and that differences in sex and chromosomal abnormalities are associated with differences in estimates of EFS. These results are tentative and

  1. Outcomes Following Traumatic Grain Elevator Injuries.

    Tolefree, Sydnei; Truong, Anthony; Ward, Jeanette; Dong, Fanglong; Ablah, Elizabeth; Haan, James

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a comprehensive database of grain elevator-associated injuries hinders accurate evaluation of injury prevalence and may lead to discordant information about injury frequencies. The main purpose of this study was to identify the most common mechanisms of injury related to grain elevator events. Comparisons of hospital outcomes between patients who sustained traumatic injuries associated with grain elevators at Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-regulated industrial sites versus those on OSHA-exempt farming operations were also made. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients' presenting with grain elevator-related injuries at a level-1 trauma center between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013. Data collected included demographics, mechanism of injury, injury severity, hospitalization details, and discharge disposition. Data were summarized, and comparisons were made between the groups. All patients (N = 18) in the study were male, with a mean age of 37 years. Falls and being caught in equipment each accounted for 27.8% of injuries. Among the 18 patients, there were a total of 37 injuries. The majority of injuries were either lower extremity (29.7%) or chest injuries (21.6%). The average hospital length of stay was 4 ± 4.5 days, and one patient required mechanical ventilation. There were no reported deaths. The literature reports entrapments as the leading cause of grain elevator-related injuries; however, this study found that falls and being caught in equipment were the most common mechanisms of injury. This suggests that a greater emphasis should be placed on fall prevention and equipment safety.

  2. Workload analyse of assembling process

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  3. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    Paijmans, Johanna L. A.; Gilbert, Tom; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of ancient DNA is playing an increasingly important role in conservation genetic, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, as it allows incorporating extinct species into DNA sequence trees and adds time depth to population genetics studies. For many years, these types of DNA...... analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...... yielded major progress with regard to both the phylogenetic positions of extinct species, as well as resolving population genetics questions in both extinct and extant species....

  4. Recriticality analyses for CAPRA cores

    Maschek, W.; Thiem, D.

    1995-01-01

    The first scoping calculation performed show that the energetics levels from recriticalities in CAPRA cores are in the same range as in conventional cores. However, considerable uncertainties exist and further analyses are necessary. Additional investigations are performed for the separation scenarios of fuel/steel/inert and matrix material as a large influence of these processes on possible ramp rates and kinetics parameters was detected in the calculations. (orig./HP)

  5. Recriticality analyses for CAPRA cores

    Maschek, W.; Thiem, D.

    1995-08-01

    The first scoping calculation performed show that the energetics levels from recriticalities in CAPRA cores are in the same range as in conventional cores. However, considerable uncertainties exist and further analyses are necessary. Additional investigations are performed for the separation scenarios of fuel/steel/inert and matrix material as a large influence of these processes on possible ramp rates and kinetics parameters was detected in the calculations. (orig./HP)

  6. Technical center for transportation analyses

    Foley, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of an information search/retrieval/research activity of Sandia Laboratories which provides technical environmental information which may be used in transportation risk analyses, environmental impact statements, development of design and test criteria for packaging of energy materials, and transportation mode research studies. General activities described are: (1) history of center development; (2) environmental information storage/retrieval system; (3) information searches; (4) data needs identification; and (5) field data acquisition system and applications

  7. Methodology of cost benefit analyses

    Patrik, M.; Babic, P.

    2000-10-01

    The report addresses financial aspects of proposed investments and other steps which are intended to contribute to nuclear safety. The aim is to provide introductory insight into the procedures and potential of cost-benefit analyses as a routine guide when making decisions on costly provisions as one of the tools to assess whether a particular provision is reasonable. The topic is applied to the nuclear power sector. (P.A.)

  8. Reducing elevator energy use: A comparison of posted feedback and reduced elevator convenience

    Houten, Ron Van; Nau, Paul A.; Merrigan, Michael

    1981-01-01

    The effects of two different procedures for reducing elevator energy use were assessed using a multiple-baseline design. In the first procedure, feedback about the amount of energy consumed by the elevators each week was posted on each elevator door. Later, signs advocating the use of stairs to save energy and improve health were posted next to the feedback signs. In the second procedure, the time required to travel between floors was increased by adding a delay to the elevator door closing mechanisms. Results indicated that neither feedback alone nor feedback plus educational signs reduced the amount of energy consumed by the elevators. However, use of the door delay reduced consumption by one-third in all elevators. A second experiment replicated the effect of the door delay on energy consumption and, in addition, demonstrated that the door delay also produced a reduction in the number of persons using the elevator. The second experiment also showed that, following an initial period during which a full delay was in effect, a gradual reduction of the delay interval resulted in continued energy conservation. Reduced convenience as a general strategy for energy conservation is discussed. PMID:16795648

  9. High speed elevator s rise high rise building; Chokoso biru wo kakenoboru elevator

    Tanabe, K. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-10-20

    The world`s fastest (750 m/min) elevators are operating in Yokohama Landmark Tower. This paper describes how engineers solved the technological problems to realize the high-speed elevator. Buildings in Japan have become higher and higher. At the present, this Tower is the highest in Japan (296 m, 70 stories). The Ministry of Construction is going to start a research team to study construction of buildings of the order of 1,000 m high. An important issue for a skyscraper is how to reduce the elevator space adapting to the increase of the number of inhabitants in the building. The basic solution is to increase the elevator speed and to plan the best elevator moving line. The 120 kW AC motor direct-driven winding machine that withstands the superhigh-speed suspending load was developed. Vibrations from the motor and the mechanical system are minimized and the touch-down tolerances for the elevator cage are controlled to {plus_minus}15 mm. The safety devices of the elevator include the emergency stopper of special ceramic material and the hydraulic shock absorber with the optimum reduction characteristic. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Cerebral Pulsatility Index Is Elevated in Patients with Elevated Right Atrial Pressure.

    Lahiri, Shouri; Schlick, Konrad H; Padrick, Matthew M; Rinsky, Brenda; Gonzalez, Nestor; Jones, Heather; Mayer, Stephan A; Lyden, Patrick D

    2018-01-01

    Extracerebral venous congestion can precipitate intracranial hypertension due to obstruction of cerebral blood outflow. Conditions that increase right atrial pressure, such as hypervolemia, are thought to increase resistance to jugular venous outflow and contribute to cerebro-venous congestion. Cerebral pulsatility index (CPI) is considered a surrogate marker of distal cerebrovascular resistance and is elevated with intracranial hypertension. Thus, we sought to test the hypothesis that elevated right atrial pressure is associated with increased CPI compared to normal right atrial pressure. We retrospectively reviewed 61 consecutive patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. We calculated CPI from transcranial Doppler studies and correlated these with echocardiographic measures of right atrial pressure. CPIs were compared from patients with elevated and normal right atrial pressure. There was a significant difference between CPI obtained from all patients with elevated right atrial pressure compared to those with normal right atrial pressure (P right and left hemispheric CPI from patients with both elevated and normal right atrial pressure. Patients with elevated right atrial pressure had significantly higher CPI compared to patients with normal right atrial pressure. These findings suggest that cerebro-venous congestion due to impaired jugular venous outflow may increase distal cerebrovascular resistance as measured by CPI. Since elevated CPI is associated with poor outcome in numerous neurological conditions, future studies are needed to elucidate the significance of these results in other populations. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  11. E4 - Energy efficient elevators and escalators. Elevators and escalators in Germany from an energy perspective

    Hirzel, Simon; Fleiter, Tobias; Rosende, Daniel

    2010-01-31

    This report aims to provide a brief introduction to the German elevator and escalator market, and gives an aggregated view of current and future developments focusing on energy consumption and energy-related emissions. This update report of January 2010 is an extended version of a report published in April 2009 before the final results from a monitoring campaign carried out within the project were available. During this campaign, 81 installations (74 elevators and 7 escalators) were monitored in terms of energy consumption. In the first section, the structure of the installed German elevator and escalator capacity is presented. The estimates1 were provided courtesy of the two main associations representing elevators and escalators in Germany: the VDMA (Verband Deutscher Maschinen- und Anlagenbau - German Engineering Federation) and the VFA-Interlift e.V. -Verband fuer Aufzugstechnik (Association for Lift Technology). This section is followed by a short description of the German construction sector and its implications for elevators and escalators. The third section describes German electricity production in terms of its environmental impact with the main focus on the carbon dioxide emissions of the national power plants. Then the energy consumption of elevators and escalators in Germany is analyzed, comparing the results to total energy production in Germany.2 The final section summarizes the different aspects and derives indications about the future development of the total energy consumption of elevators and escalators in Germany. (orig.)

  12. Investigating Elevated Concentrations of Hydrogen in the LAX region

    Rund, P.; Hughes, S.; Blake, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The growing interest in hydrogen (H2) fuel cell vehicles has created a need to study the atmospheric H2 budget. While there is resounding agreement that hydrogen would escape into the atmosphere due to fuel transport/storage processes, there is disagreement over the amount that would be leaked in a hydrogen fuel economy. Leakage rate estimates range from 2% to 10% for total hydrogen production and transport. A hydrogen based energy infrastructure seems a viable clean alternative to oil because, theoretically, the only waste products are H2O and heat. However, hydrogen leads to the formation of water vapor, polar stratospheric clouds, and a decrease in stratospheric temperatures, which contribute to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. Whole air samples (WAS) collected aboard the NASA Sherpa C-23 during the Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) showed elevated concentrations of hydrogen near LAX (950 ± 110 ppbv) compared to global average concentrations of 560 ± 20 ppbv. Trace gas analysis along with wind trajectories obtained with the NOAA HySPLIT models indicate that the source of elevated mixing ratios was leakage from H2 fuel stations in the surrounding areas. Correlation and ratio analyses eliminate the potential for common photochemical sources of H2 in the LAX area. This project could elucidate new and potential factors that contribute to the global atmospheric hydrogen budget.

  13. 49 CFR 213.59 - Elevation of curved track; runoff.

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevation of curved track; runoff. 213.59 Section... track; runoff. (a) If a curve is elevated, the full elevation shall be provided throughout the curve, unless physical conditions do not permit. If elevation runoff occurs in a curve, the actual minimum...

  14. Analysis and evaluation system for elevated temperature design of pressure vessels

    Hayakawa, Teiji; Sayawaki, Masaaki; Nishitani, Masahiro; Mii, Tatsuo; Murasawa, Kanji

    1977-01-01

    In pressure vessel technology, intensive efforts have recently been made to develop the elevated temperature design methods. Much of the impetus of these efforts has been provided mainly by the results of the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) and more recently, of the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) Programs. The pressure vessels and associated components in these new type nuclear power plants must operate for long periods at elevated temperature where creep effects are significant and then must be designed by rigorous analysis for high reliability and safety. To carry out such an elevated temperature designing, numbers of highly developed analysis and evaluation techniques, which are so complicated as to be impossible by manual work, are indispensable. Under these circumstances, the authors have made the following approaches in the study: (1) Study into basic concepts and the associated techniques in elevated temperature design. (2) Systematization (Analysis System) of the procedure for loads and stress analyses. (3) Development of post-processor, ''POST-1592'', for strength evaluation based on ASME Code Case 1592-7. By linking the POST-1592 together with the Analysis System, an analysis and evaluation system is developed for an elevated temperature design of pressure vessels. Consequently, designing of elevated temperature vessels by detailed analysis and evaluation has easily and effectively become feasible by applying this software system. (auth.)

  15. Earth elevation map production and high resolution sensing camera imaging analysis

    Yang, Xiubin; Jin, Guang; Jiang, Li; Dai, Lu; Xu, Kai

    2010-11-01

    The Earth's digital elevation which impacts space camera imaging has prepared and imaging has analysed. Based on matching error that TDI CCD integral series request of the speed of image motion, statistical experimental methods-Monte Carlo method is used to calculate the distribution histogram of Earth's elevation in image motion compensated model which includes satellite attitude changes, orbital angular rate changes, latitude, longitude and the orbital inclination changes. And then, elevation information of the earth's surface from SRTM is read. Earth elevation map which produced for aerospace electronic cameras is compressed and spliced. It can get elevation data from flash according to the shooting point of latitude and longitude. If elevation data between two data, the ways of searching data uses linear interpolation. Linear interpolation can better meet the rugged mountains and hills changing requests. At last, the deviant framework and camera controller are used to test the character of deviant angle errors, TDI CCD camera simulation system with the material point corresponding to imaging point model is used to analyze the imaging's MTF and mutual correlation similarity measure, simulation system use adding cumulation which TDI CCD imaging exceeded the corresponding pixel horizontal and vertical offset to simulate camera imaging when stability of satellite attitude changes. This process is practicality. It can effectively control the camera memory space, and meet a very good precision TDI CCD camera in the request matches the speed of image motion and imaging.

  16. Elevated serum CA 19-9 at screening tests: underlying conditions and role of abdominopelvic CT

    Kim, Ji Yang [University of Louisville, Department of Radiology and Molecular Imaging Research Center, Louisville, KY (United States); Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Soo Young [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bundang CHA Hospital, Department of Radiology, Bundang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To investigate underlying conditions of patients with elevated CA 19-9 at screening tests and to evaluate diagnostic performance of abdominopelvic CT. One hundred and thirteen patients with elevated CA 19-9 (>37 U/ml) who underwent abdominopelvic CT in a screening program were selected. Underlying conditions were determined by reviewing all available data and follow-up records. Patients were categorized into malignancy, benign, and normal/non-related disease groups. Their mean CA 19-9 and percent of patients with CA 19-9 ≥ 100 U/ml were compared. Diagnostic sensitivity of CT for detecting underlying conditions of elevated CA 19-9 was analysed. Seventeen patients (17/113, 15 %) had 17 elevated CA 19-9-related malignancies, and 55 patients (55/113, 48.7 %) had 70 benign diseases. Mean CA 19-9 and percent of patients with CA 19-9 ≥ 100 U/ml in the malignancy group were significantly higher than in the two other groups. CT detected all except one malignant lesion with a detection sensitivity of 94.1 % (16/17). Of 70 CA 19-9-related benign diseases, CT detected 34 benign diseases (48.6 %) providing an alternative diagnosis for elevated CA 19-9. Abdominopelvic CT is not only useful in detecting malignancies, but can also diagnose alternative benign causes of elevated CA 19-9 in asymptomatic screening tests. (orig.)

  17. Behavioral consequences of predator stress in the rat elevated T-maze.

    Bulos, Erika Mondin; Pobbe, Roger Luis Henschel; Zangrossi, Helio

    2015-07-01

    Analyses of the behavioral reactions of rodents to predators have greatly contributed to the understanding of defense-related human psychopathologies such as anxiety and panic.We here investigated the behavioral consequences of exposing male Wistar rats to a live cat using the elevated T-maze test of anxiety. This test allows the measurement of two defensive responses: inhibitory avoidance and escape, which in terms of pathology have been associated with generalized anxiety and panic disorders, respectively. For comparative reasons, the effects of exposure to the cat were also assessed in the elevated plus-maze. The results showed that a 5-min exposure to the cat selectively facilitated inhibitory avoidance acquisition, an anxiogenic effect, without affecting escape expression in the elevated T-maze. This was seen immediately but not 30 min after contact with the predator. This short-lived anxiogenic effect was also detected in the elevated plus-maze. Previous administration of the benzodiazepine anxiolytic diazepam (2 mg/kg) decreased the immediate avoidance response to the predator and the neophobic reaction to a dummy cat used as a control stimulus. The drug also impaired inhibitory avoidance acquisition in the elevated T-maze, indicating an anxiolytic effect, without affecting escape performance. The results indicate that the state of anxiety evoked during contact with the predator generalizes to both elevated plus- and T-mazes, impacting on defensive responses associated with generalized anxiety disorder.

  18. Study on the Performance of a Proposed Fire Safe Elevator System used for Evacuation in Supertall Buildings

    Cai Na

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Long evacuation time is a key fire safety concern when a supertall building is on fire. The elevator system can be an effective alternative. The performance of a design of fire safe elevator system combining the refuge place with fire safe elevator is studied. An example building based on this proposed design is considered. Smoke spread to the system is studied by the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD code Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS. Different arrangements of smoke extraction with pressurization systems are evaluated by analysing the smoke dispersion and pressure distributions in this fire safe elevator system. Numerical results were compared with that by theoretical equations. The results show that a smoke extraction system with a four-floor approach pressurization system can be an efficient method for smoke control in elevator system for supertall buildings.

  19. Regional elevator survey : grain transportation & industry trends for Great Plains elevators

    2001-08-01

    One potential means for gaining insight into the current state of the elevator industry, : and into expectations for future trends, is through a survey. The objective of this study is to profile the transportation and industry characteristics of the ...

  20. Effects of lixisenatide on elevated liver transaminases

    Gluud, Lise L; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina

    2014-01-01

    ) on lixisenatide versus placebo or active comparators for type 2 diabetes were included. PARTICIPANTS: Individual patient data were retrieved to calculate outcomes for patients with elevated liver blood tests. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Normalisation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist lixisenatide on elevated liver blood tests in patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Electronic and manual searches were combined. STUDY SELECTION: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs...... the proportion of obese or overweight patients with type 2 diabetes who achieve normalisation of ALT. Additional research is needed to determine if the findings translate to clinical outcome measures. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPERO; CRD42013005779....

  1. Development of inverter for elevator door control

    Kim, J.K.; Choi, U.D.; Jung, M.K.; Choi, S.K. [HHI R and D Center (Korea, Republic of); Yun, J.H.; Han, S.B. [HELCO R and D Center (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-07-01

    Most of the elevator door controllers have been controlled by DC Motors as an actuator. Recently, The control system using AC induction motor and general purpose inverter has been applied to control of elevator door. But there are some difficulties in making use of this system, such as adjustment of door speed pattern, door open-close time, and security of passenger safety. In order to solve these problems, a special inverter has been developed with an encoder feedback. From the result of field-test, we proved that a special inverter with encoder feedback device has come to considerable effect. Until now about 1,200 sets of these inverters are operated in Korea and about 100 sets are operated in South-east Asia. (author). 3 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. An elevator for locked drilling pipes

    Gurbanov, R.S.; Abbasov, E.M.; Ismailov, A.A.; Mamedov, Yu.S.; Safarov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed, which includes a body with a door. To reduce the probability of gas shows in a well with high speed lowering and lifting of the column of locked drilling pipes through providing the possibility of feeding a drilling mud in this case into the mine, the elevator is equipped with a pneumatic cylinder with a two way hollow rod, on one face of which a sealing element is mounted for sealing the drilling pipe and on the other, an adapter for feeding the drilling mud. The rod is linked with the sleeve of the pneumatic cylinder, which is rigidly linked with the body with the capability of axial movement without rotation.

  3. Frontal subregions mediating Elevator Counting task performance.

    MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha S; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Shallice, Tim

    2010-10-01

    Deficits in sustained attention may lead to action slips in everyday life as irrelevant action sequences are inappropriately triggered internally or by the environment. While deficits in sustained attention have been associated with damage to the frontal lobes of the brain, little is known about the role of the frontal lobes in the Elevator Counting subtest of the Test of Everyday Attention. In the current study, 55 frontal patients subdivided into medial, orbital and lateral subgroups, 18 patients with posterior lesions and 82 healthy controls performed the Elevator Counting task. The results revealed that patients with medial and left lateral prefrontal lesions were significantly impaired on the task compared to healthy controls. Research suggests that patients with medial lesions are susceptible to competition from task irrelevant schema; whereas the left lateral group in the current study may fail to keep track of the tones already presented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Chapter No.4. Safety analyses

    2002-01-01

    In 2001 the activity in the field of safety analyses was focused on verification of the safety analyses reports for NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce concerning the new profiled fuel and probabilistic safety assessment study for NPP Mochovce. The calculation safety analyses were performed and expert reviews for the internal UJD needs were elaborated. An important part of work was performed also in solving of scientific and technical tasks appointed within bilateral projects of co-operation between UJD and its international partnership organisations as well as within international projects ordered and financed by the European Commission. All these activities served as an independent support for UJD in its deterministic and probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear installations. A special attention was paid to a review of probabilistic safety assessment study of level 1 for NPP Mochovce. The probabilistic safety analysis of NPP related to the full power operation was elaborated in the study and a contribution of the technical and operational improvements to the risk decreasing was quantified. A core damage frequency of the reactor was calculated and the dominant initiating events and accident sequences with the major contribution to the risk were determined. The target of the review was to determine the acceptance of the sources of input information, assumptions, models, data, analyses and obtained results, so that the probabilistic model could give a real picture of the NPP. The review of the study was performed in co-operation of UJD with the IAEA (IPSART mission) as well as with other external organisations, which were not involved in the elaboration of the reviewed document and probabilistic model of NPP. The review was made in accordance with the IAEA guidelines and methodical documents of UJD and US NRC. In the field of calculation safety analyses the UJD activity was focused on the analysis of an operational event, analyses of the selected accident scenarios

  5. Analysing the Wrongness of Killing

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth analysis of the wrongness of killing by comparing different versions of three influential views: the traditional view that killing is always wrong; the liberal view that killing is wrong if and only if the victim does not want to be killed; and Don Marquis‟ future...... of value account of the wrongness of killing. In particular, I illustrate the advantages that a basic version of the liberal view and a basic version of the future of value account have over competing alternatives. Still, ultimately none of the views analysed here are satisfactory; but the different...

  6. Methodological challenges in carbohydrate analyses

    Mary Beth Hall

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates can provide up to 80% of the dry matter in animal diets, yet their specific evaluation for research and diet formulation is only now becoming a focus in the animal sciences. Partitioning of dietary carbohydrates for nutritional purposes should reflect differences in digestion and fermentation characteristics and effects on animal performance. Key challenges to designating nutritionally important carbohydrate fractions include classifying the carbohydrates in terms of nutritional characteristics, and selecting analytical methods that describe the desired fraction. The relative lack of information on digestion characteristics of various carbohydrates and their interactions with other fractions in diets means that fractions will not soon be perfectly established. Developing a system of carbohydrate analysis that could be used across animal species could enhance the utility of analyses and amount of data we can obtain on dietary effects of carbohydrates. Based on quantities present in diets and apparent effects on animal performance, some nutritionally important classes of carbohydrates that may be valuable to measure include sugars, starch, fructans, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber. Essential to selection of methods for these fractions is agreement on precisely what carbohydrates should be included in each. Each of these fractions has analyses that could potentially be used to measure them, but most of the available methods have weaknesses that must be evaluated to see if they are fatal and the assay is unusable, or if the assay still may be made workable. Factors we must consider as we seek to analyze carbohydrates to describe diets: Does the assay accurately measure the desired fraction? Is the assay for research, regulatory, or field use (affects considerations of acceptable costs and throughput? What are acceptable accuracy and variability of measures? Is the assay robust (enhances accuracy of values? For some carbohydrates, we

  7. Elevation in brain temperature during paradoxical sleep.

    Kawamura, H; Sawyer, C H

    1965-11-12

    During ordinary sleep, the temperature of the rabbit brain tended to drop, but during paradoxical sleep it rose sharply 0.1 degrees to 0.4 degrees C, a greater elevation than was observed during arousal. Changes in body temperature generally did not parallel the alterations in brain temperature. Shifts of direct-current potential in the brain are basically independent of the changes in brain temperature.

  8. Biomarkers Prognostic for Elevated Intracranial Pressure

    2016-03-01

    Orthopedic injury (n=20) iii) Exclusion of patients with polytrauma . It has been reported that serum ceruloplasmin (as well as copper) levels...inclusion of polytrauma patients in our results. We therefore identified the TBI patients with isolated head trauma, and compared the recorded...ceruloplasmin values between those with elevated ICP and those without. Figure 13 shows that when the patients with polytrauma were excluded from the

  9. Plants with elevated levels of glucan

    Pauly, Markus; Kraemer, Florian J.; Hake, Sarah

    2018-03-20

    The present disclosure relates to mutations in licheninase genes encoding polypeptides with decreased licheninase activity, which when expressed in plants results in elevated levels of glucan in the plants. In particular, the disclosure relates to licheninase nucleic acids and polypeptides related to glucan accumulation in plants, plants with reduced expression of a licheninase nucleic acid, and methods related to the generation of plants with increased glucan content in the cell walls of leaf tissue.

  10. Behavior of reinforced concrete at elevated temperatures

    Freskakis, G.N.

    1984-09-01

    A study is presented concerning the behavior of reinforced concrete sections at elevated temperatures. Material properties of concrete and reinforcing steel are discussed. Behavior studies are made by means of moment-curvature-axial force relationships. Particular attention is given to the load carrying capacity, thermal forces and moments, and deformation capacity. The effects on these properties of variations in the strength properties, the temperature level and distribution, the amount of reinforcing steel, and limiting values of strains are considered

  11. Plastic responses to elevated temperature in low and high elevation populations of three grassland species.

    Frei, Esther R; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Pluess, Andrea R

    2014-01-01

    Local persistence of plant species in the face of climate change is largely mediated by genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. In species with a wide altitudinal range, population responses to global warming are likely to differ at contrasting elevations. In controlled climate chambers, we investigated the responses of low and high elevation populations (1200 and 1800 m a.s.l.) of three nutrient-poor grassland species, Trifolium montanum, Ranunculus bulbosus, and Briza media, to ambient and elevated temperature. We measured growth-related, reproductive and phenological traits, evaluated differences in trait plasticity and examined whether trait values or plasticities were positively related to approximate fitness and thus under selection. Elevated temperature induced plastic responses in several growth-related traits of all three species. Although flowering phenology was advanced in T. montanum and R. bulbosus, number of flowers and reproductive allocation were not increased under elevated temperature. Plasticity differed between low and high elevation populations only in leaf traits of T. montanum and B. media. Some growth-related and phenological traits were under selection. Moreover, plasticities were not correlated with approximate fitness indicating selectively neutral plastic responses to elevated temperature. The observed plasticity in growth-related and phenological traits, albeit variable among species, suggests that plasticity is an important mechanism in mediating plant responses to elevated temperature. However, the capacity of species to respond to climate change through phenotypic plasticity is limited suggesting that the species additionally need evolutionary adaptation to adjust to climate change. The observed selection on several growth-related and phenological traits indicates that the study species have the potential for future evolution in the context of a warming climate.

  12. Red cell distribution width is associated with hemoglobin A1C elevation, but not glucose elevation.

    Bao, Xue; Wan, Min; Gu, Yeqing; Song, Yanqi; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Xia, Yang; Shi, HongBin; Su, Qian; Fang, Liyun; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Fei; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Song, Kun; Wang, Guolin; Yu, Ming; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between red cell distribution width (RDW) and elevation of glucose/glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). An analysis was conducted using data from a prospective cohort study of adults. People without prediabetes or diabetes (n=7,795) were followed for a mean of 2.90years (range: 1-7years, 95% confidence interval: 2.86-2.94years). Glucose elevation is defined as fasting glucose levels exceeding 5.6mmol/l, or 2-hour glucose values in the oral glucose tolerance test exceeding 7.8mmol/l. HbA1c elevation is defined as a HbA1c value exceeding a normal limit of 39mmol/mol (5.7%). Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association between RDW quartiles and elevation of HbA1c/glucose. The multiple-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of HbA1c elevation for increased quartiles of RDW were 1.00 (reference), 1.08 (0.89, 1.30), 1.28 (1.07, 1.54), and 1.54 (1.29, 1.85) (P for trend<0.0001). However, no significant association was observed between RDW and blood glucose (fasting and postprandial). Elevated RDW is independently related to future HbA1c elevation, but not to glucose elevation. This suggests that RDW may associate with HbA1c through a non-glycemic way, which should be taken into consideration when using HbA1c as a diagnostic criterion of prediabetes or diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Elevation on Volumetric Measurements of the Lower Extremity

    Cordial M. Gillette

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The empirical evidence for the use of RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation has been questioned regarding its   clinical effectiveness. The component of RICE that has the least literature regarding its effectiveness is elevation. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine if various positions of elevation result in volumetric changes of the lower extremity. Methodology: A randomized crossover design was used to determine the effects of the four following conditions on volumetric changes of the lower extremity: seated at the end of a table (seated, lying supine (flat, lying supine with the foot elevated 12 inches off the table (elevated, and lying prone with the knees bent to 90 degrees (prone. The conditions were randomized using a Latin Square. Each subject completed all conditions with at least 24 hours between each session. Pre and post volumetric measurements were taken using a volumetric tank. The subject was placed in one of the four described testing positions for 30 minutes. The change in weight of the displaced water was the main outcome measure. The data was analyzed using an ANOVA of the pre and post measurements with a Bonferroni post hoc analysis. The level of significance was set at P<.05 for all analyses. Results: The only statistically significant difference was between the gravity dependent position (seated and all other positions (p <.001. There was no significant difference between lying supine (flat, on a bolster (elevated, or prone with the knees flexed to 90 degrees (prone. Conclusions: From these results, the extent of elevation does not appear to have an effect on changes in low leg volume. Elevation above the heart did not significantly improve reduction in limb volume, but removing the limb from a gravity dependent position might be beneficial.

  14. The impact of lidar elevation uncertainty on mapping intertidal habitats on barrier islands

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Wang, Lei; Borchert, Sinéad M.; Day, Richard H.; Feher, Laura C.; Osland, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    While airborne lidar data have revolutionized the spatial resolution that elevations can be realized, data limitations are often magnified in coastal settings. Researchers have found that airborne lidar can have a vertical error as high as 60 cm in densely vegetated intertidal areas. The uncertainty of digital elevation models is often left unaddressed; however, in low-relief environments, such as barrier islands, centimeter differences in elevation can affect exposure to physically demanding abiotic conditions, which greatly influence ecosystem structure and function. In this study, we used airborne lidar elevation data, in situ elevation observations, lidar metadata, and tide gauge information to delineate low-lying lands and the intertidal wetlands on Dauphin Island, a barrier island along the coast of Alabama, USA. We compared three different elevation error treatments, which included leaving error untreated and treatments that used Monte Carlo simulations to incorporate elevation vertical uncertainty using general information from lidar metadata and site-specific Real-Time Kinematic Global Position System data, respectively. To aid researchers in instances where limited information is available for error propagation, we conducted a sensitivity test to assess the effect of minor changes to error and bias. Treatment of error with site-specific observations produced the fewest omission errors, although the treatment using the lidar metadata had the most well-balanced results. The percent coverage of intertidal wetlands was increased by up to 80% when treating the vertical error of the digital elevation models. Based on the results from the sensitivity analysis, it could be reasonable to use error and positive bias values from literature for similar environments, conditions, and lidar acquisition characteristics in the event that collection of site-specific data is not feasible and information in the lidar metadata is insufficient. The methodology presented in

  15. Rapid warming forces contrasting growth trends of subalpine fir ( Abies fabri ) at higher- and lower-elevations in the eastern Tibetan Plateau

    Wang, Wenzhi; Jia, Min; Wang, Genxu; Zhu, Wanze; McDowell, Nate G.

    2017-10-01

    Tree radial growth is expected to increase at higher elevations under climate warming, while lower elevation tree growth is expected to decline. However, numerous studies have found tree radial growth responds consistently to climate along elevational gradients. Here, we sampled five plots across the subalpine Abies fabri forest belt on Gongga Mountain in the eastern Tibetan Plateau to determine tree radial growth trends and responses to climate. Three commonly used detrending methods all consistently showed that tree radial growth at high elevation (> 3100 m) increased, while tree growth declined at the lower elevations (2700 m–2900 m) over the last three decades. Increasing late-growing season temperature positively (p < 0.05) correlated to tree radial growth at higher elevations, but the sign of this relationship reversed to become negative at lower elevations. Moving-window correlation analyses indicated the difference between high and low elevations response to temperature variation increased strongly with warming. Placing our result into the global context, 62% of 39 published studies found that trees along elevation gradients respond divergently to warming, and that these are located in warmer and wetter regions of the Earth. Notably, 28% of studies found non-significant responses to temperature at both high and low elevations. Our findings in the subalpine mountain forest in the eastern Tibetan Plateau were consistent with the majority of published datasets, and imply increasing temperature benefit for tree populations at higher elevation, while warming dampens growth at lower elevations.

  16. Experimental prototype of an electric elevator

    Gaiceanu, M.; Epure, S.; Ciuta, S.

    2016-08-01

    The main objective is to achieve an elevator prototype powered by a three-phase voltage system via a bidirectional static power converter ac-ac with regenerating capability. In order to diminish the power size of the electric motor up to 1/3 of rated power, the elevator contains two carriages of the same weight, one serving as the payload, and the other as counterweight. Before proper operation of the static power converter, the capacitor must be charged at rated voltage via a precharge circuit. At the moment of stabilizing the DC voltage at nominal value, the AC-AC power converter can operates in the proper limits. The functions of the control structure are: the load control task, speed and torque controls. System includes transducers for current measuring, voltage sensors and encoder. As reserve power sources the hybrid battery-photovoltaic panels are used. The control voltage is modulated by implementing four types of pulse width modulations: sinusoidal, with reduced commutation, third order harmonic insertion, and the space vector modulation. Therefore, the prototype could operates with an increased efficiency, in spite of the existing ones. The experimental results confirm the well design of the chosen solution. The control solution assures bidirectional power flow control, precharge control, and load control and it is implemented on a digital signal processor. The elevator capacity is between 300-450 kg, and it is driven by using a 1.5 kW three-phase asynchronous machine.

  17. Rangeland -- plant response to elevated CO2

    Owensby, C.E.; Coyne, P.I.; Ham, J.M.; Parton, W.; Rice, C.; Auen, L.M.; Adam, N.

    1993-01-01

    Plots of a tallgrass prairie ecosystem were exposed to ambient and twice-ambient CO 2 concentrations in open-top chambers and compared to unchambered ambient CO 2 plots during the entire growing season from 1989 through 1992. Relative root production among treatments was estimated using root ingrowth bags which remained in place throughout the growing season. Latent heat flux was simulated with and without water stress. Botanical composition was estimated annuallyin all treatments. Open-top chambers appeared to reduce latent heat flux and increase water use efficiency similar to elevated CO 2 when water stress was not severe, but under severe water stress, chamber effect on water use efficiency was limited. In natural ecosystems with periodic moisture stress, increased water use efficiency under elevated CO 2 apparently would have a greater impact on productivity than photosynthetic pathway. Root ingrowth biomass was greater in 1990 and 1991 on elevated CO 2 plots compared to ambient or chambered-ambient plots. In 1992, there was no difference in root ingrowth biomass among treatments

  18. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise.

    Langley, J Adam; McKee, Karen L; Cahoon, Donald R; Cherry, Julia A; Megonigal, J Patrick

    2009-04-14

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO(2) concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO(2)] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO(2) (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr(-1) in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO(2) effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO(2), may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas.

  19. Elevated CO2 stimulates marsh elevation gain, counterbalancing sea-level rise

    Langley, J. Adam; McKee, Karen L.; Cahoon, Donald R.; Cherry, Julia A.; Megonigal, J. Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experiencing increased rates of sea-level rise (SLR) must increase rates of soil elevation gain to avoid permanent conversion to open water. The maximal rate of SLR that these ecosystems can tolerate depends partly on mineral sediment deposition, but the accumulation of organic matter is equally important for many wetlands. Plant productivity drives organic matter dynamics and is sensitive to global change factors, such as rising atmospheric CO2 concentration. It remains unknown how global change will influence organic mechanisms that determine future tidal wetland viability. Here, we present experimental evidence that plant response to elevated atmospheric [CO2] stimulates biogenic mechanisms of elevation gain in a brackish marsh. Elevated CO2 (ambient + 340 ppm) accelerated soil elevation gain by 3.9 mm yr−1 in this 2-year field study, an effect mediated by stimulation of below-ground plant productivity. Further, a companion greenhouse experiment revealed that the CO2 effect was enhanced under salinity and flooding conditions likely to accompany future SLR. Our results indicate that by stimulating biogenic contributions to marsh elevation, increases in the greenhouse gas, CO2, may paradoxically aid some coastal wetlands in counterbalancing rising seas. PMID:19325121

  20. Theorising and Analysing Academic Labour

    Thomas Allmer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to contextualise universities historically within capitalism and to analyse academic labour and the deployment of digital media theoretically and critically. It argues that the post-war expansion of the university can be considered as medium and outcome of informational capitalism and as a dialectical development of social achievement and advanced commodification. The article strives to identify the class position of academic workers, introduces the distinction between academic work and labour, discusses the connection between academic, information and cultural work, and suggests a broad definition of university labour. It presents a theoretical model of working conditions that helps to systematically analyse the academic labour process and to provide an overview of working conditions at universities. The paper furthermore argues for the need to consider the development of education technologies as a dialectics of continuity and discontinuity, discusses the changing nature of the forces and relations of production, and the impact on the working conditions of academics in the digital university. Based on Erik Olin Wright’s inclusive approach of social transformation, the article concludes with the need to bring together anarchist, social democratic and revolutionary strategies for establishing a socialist university in a commons-based information society.

  1. CFD analyses in regulatory practice

    Bloemeling, F.; Pandazis, P.; Schaffrath, A.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical software is used in nuclear regulatory procedures for many problems in the fields of neutron physics, structural mechanics, thermal hydraulics etc. Among other things, the software is employed in dimensioning and designing systems and components and in simulating transients and accidents. In nuclear technology, analyses of this kind must meet strict requirements. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes were developed for computing multidimensional flow processes of the type occurring in reactor cooling systems or in containments. Extensive experience has been accumulated by now in selected single-phase flow phenomena. At the present time, there is a need for development and validation with respect to the simulation of multi-phase and multi-component flows. As insufficient input by the user can lead to faulty results, the validity of the results and an assessment of uncertainties are guaranteed only through consistent application of so-called Best Practice Guidelines. The authors present the possibilities now available to CFD analyses in nuclear regulatory practice. This includes a discussion of the fundamental requirements to be met by numerical software, especially the demands upon computational analysis made by nuclear rules and regulations. In conclusion, 2 examples are presented of applications of CFD analysis to nuclear problems: Determining deboration in the condenser reflux mode of operation, and protection of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) against brittle failure. (orig.)

  2. Elevational gradient in clutch size of Red-faced Warblers

    Dillon, Kristen G.; Conway, Courtney J.

    2015-01-01

    Our understanding of life history evolution has benefited from debates regarding the underlying causes, and geographic ubiquity, of spatial patterns in avian clutch sizes. Past studies have revealed that birds lay smaller clutch sizes at higher elevation. However, in most previous studies, investigators have failed to adequately control for elevational differences in breeding phenology. To better understand the elevational gradient in avian clutch size, we need to know how clutch size changes across the entire elevational breeding range of a species (i.e., the shape of the relationship between elevation and clutch size), and whether the elevational gradient in clutch size is merely an artifact of elevational gradients in breeding phenology or breeding season length. We examined the relationship between breeding elevation and clutch size of Red-faced Warblers (Cardellina rubrifrons) along a 1000-m elevational gradient in Arizona. Our objectives were to determine how clutch size changed with elevation, and if the relationship between clutch size and elevation merely reflected elevational changes in breeding season length or phenology. The proportion of 5-egg clutches decreased and the proportion of 3- and 4-egg clutches increased non-linearly with increasing elevation, even after controlling for the elevational gradient in nest initiation date. Thus, average clutch size declined across the elevational breeding range of Red-faced Warblers, but this decline was not due to elevational variation in breeding phenology. Timing of breeding changed, but the duration of the breeding season did not change appreciably across the elevational gradient. Hence, elevational differences in breeding season length or breeding phenology cannot explain why Red-faced Warblers (and perhaps other birds) breeding at higher elevations have smaller clutches.

  3. Troponin T elevation after permanent pacemaker implantation.

    Chen, Xueying; Yu, Ziqing; Bai, Jin; Hu, Shulan; Wang, Wei; Qin, Shengmei; Wang, Jingfeng; Sun, Zhe; Su, Yangang; Ge, Junbo

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the study is to study the incidence, significance, and factors associated with cardiac troponin T (CTNT) elevation after pacemaker implantation. Three hundred seventy-four patients (104 single-chamber pacemakers or ICD, 243 dual-chamber pacemakers, and 27 cardiac resynchronization therapy/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator) who had normal levels of CTNT at baseline and underwent implantation of a permanent pacemaker system were included in this study. Serum levels of CTNT were measured at baseline, 6 and 24 h after the implantation procedure. The median of CTNT levels increased from 0.012 ng/mL at baseline to 0.032 and 0.019 ng/mL at 6 and 24 h after the procedure, respectively (all p 0.09 ng/mL). After 1-year follow-up, the incidence of complications including dislodgement of the lead, pocket infection, pneumothorax, hemothorax, and vein thrombus and cardiac outcomes including hospitalization of heart failure, coronary artery disease, arrhythmia, and cardiovascular mortality was not significantly different between the normal and elevated CTNT groups at 6 h after the procedure. By logistic regression analysis, gender, N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) at baseline, left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and fluoroscopy time were independently associated with CTNT elevation after adjusted for age, pacemaker types, right ventricle lead location (RVA or RVOT), heart function, and left ventricular end systolic dimension. Pacemaker implantation was found to be accompanied with CTNT elevation in 55.6% of the patients at 6 h after the procedure, and its kinetics were fast, which might not be related to the complications and adverse cardiac outcomes within 1 year of follow-up. Moreover, gender, NT-pro-BNP at baseline, LVEF, eGFR, and fluoroscopy time were found to be independent predictors of CTNT elevation.

  4. Untangling interacting mechanisms of see variation with elevation: insights from the comparison of interspecific and intraspecific studies on eastern Tibetan angiosperm species

    Qi, Wei; Bu, Haiyan; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Zhang, Chunhui; Guo, Shuqing; Wang, Juhong; Zhou, Xianhui; Li, Wenjin; Du, Guozhen

    2015-01-01

    With increasing elevation, seed mass is expected to be either larger for its advantage during seedling establishment in stressful high-elevation environments (“stress-tolerance” mechanism) or smaller due to energy constraints. Based on the combination of inter- and intra-specific analyses on 4,023

  5. Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 is an independent predictor of coronary microvascular dysfunction in hypertension

    Naya, Masanao; Tsukamoto, Takahiro; Inubushi, Masayuki; Morita, Koichi; Katoh, Chietsugu; Furumoto, Tomoo; Fujii, Satoshi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Tamaki, Nagara

    2007-01-01

    Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is related to cardiovascular events, but its role in subclinical coronary microvascular dysfunction remains unknown. Thus, in the present study it was investigated whether elevated plasma PAI-1 activity is associated with coronary microvascular dysfunction in hypertensive patients. Thirty patients with untreated essential hypertension and 10 age-matched healthy controls were studied prospectively. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by using 15 O-water positron emission tomography. Clinical variables associated with atherosclerosis (low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), and PAI-1 activity) were assessed to determine their involvement in coronary microvascular dysfunction. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-induced hyperemic MBF and coronary flow reserve (CFR) were significantly lower in hypertensive patients than in healthy controls (ATP-induced MBF: 2.77±0.82 vs 3.49±0.71 ml·g -1 ·min -1 ; p<0.02 and CFR: 2.95±1.06 vs 4.25±0.69; p<0.001). By univariate analysis, CFR was positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r=0.46, p<0.02), and inversely with HOMA-IR (r=-0.39, p<0.05) and PAI-1 activity (r=-0.61, p<0.001). By multivariate analysis, elevated PAI-1 activity remained a significant independent determinant of diminished CFR. Elevated plasma PAI-1 activity was independently associated with coronary microvascular dysfunction, which suggests that plasma PAI-1 activity is an important clue linking hypofibrinolysis to the development of atherosclerosis. (author)

  6. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.

    2001-01-01

    with all three codes. The core initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality-both super-prompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power......Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies......, which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal g(-1), was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding rate of 2000 kg s(-1). In most cases, however, the predicted energy deposition was smaller, below...

  7. Hydrogen Analyses in the EPR

    Worapittayaporn, S.; Eyink, J.; Movahed, M.

    2008-01-01

    In severe accidents with core melting large amounts of hydrogen may be released into the containment. The EPR provides a combustible gas control system to prevent hydrogen combustion modes with the potential to challenge the containment integrity due to excessive pressure and temperature loads. This paper outlines the approach for the verification of the effectiveness and efficiency of this system. Specifically, the justification is a multi-step approach. It involves the deployment of integral codes, lumped parameter containment codes and CFD codes and the use of the sigma criterion, which provides the link to the broad experimental data base for flame acceleration (FA) and deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). The procedure is illustrated with an example. The performed analyses show that hydrogen combustion at any time does not lead to pressure or temperature loads that threaten the containment integrity of the EPR. (authors)

  8. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project

  9. The hemispherical deflector analyser revisited

    Benis, E.P. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)], E-mail: benis@iesl.forth.gr; Zouros, T.J.M. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2008-04-15

    Using the basic spectrometer trajectory equation for motion in an ideal 1/r potential derived in Eq. (101) of part I [T.J.M. Zouros, E.P. Benis, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 125 (2002) 221], the operational characteristics of a hemispherical deflector analyser (HDA) such as dispersion, energy resolution, energy calibration, input lens magnification and energy acceptance window are investigated from first principles. These characteristics are studied as a function of the entry point R{sub 0} and the nominal value of the potential V(R{sub 0}) at entry. Electron-optics simulations and actual laboratory measurements are compared to our theoretical results for an ideal biased paracentric HDA using a four-element zoom lens and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector (2D-PSD). These results should be of particular interest to users of modern HDAs utilizing a PSD.

  10. The hemispherical deflector analyser revisited

    Benis, E.P.; Zouros, T.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Using the basic spectrometer trajectory equation for motion in an ideal 1/r potential derived in Eq. (101) of part I [T.J.M. Zouros, E.P. Benis, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 125 (2002) 221], the operational characteristics of a hemispherical deflector analyser (HDA) such as dispersion, energy resolution, energy calibration, input lens magnification and energy acceptance window are investigated from first principles. These characteristics are studied as a function of the entry point R 0 and the nominal value of the potential V(R 0 ) at entry. Electron-optics simulations and actual laboratory measurements are compared to our theoretical results for an ideal biased paracentric HDA using a four-element zoom lens and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector (2D-PSD). These results should be of particular interest to users of modern HDAs utilizing a PSD

  11. Analysing Protocol Stacks for Services

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We show an approach, CaPiTo, to model service-oriented applications using process algebras such that, on the one hand, we can achieve a certain level of abstraction without being overwhelmed by the underlying implementation details and, on the other hand, we respect the concrete industrial...... standards used for implementing the service-oriented applications. By doing so, we will be able to not only reason about applications at different levels of abstractions, but also to build a bridge between the views of researchers on formal methods and developers in industry. We apply our approach...... to the financial case study taken from Chapter 0-3. Finally, we develop a static analysis to analyse the security properties as they emerge at the level of concrete industrial protocols....

  12. Analysing performance through value creation

    Adrian TRIFAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws a parallel between measuring financial performance in 2 variants: the first one using data offered by accounting, which lays emphasis on maximizing profit, and the second one which aims to create value. The traditional approach to performance is based on some indicators from accounting data: ROI, ROE, EPS. The traditional management, based on analysing the data from accounting, has shown its limits, and a new approach is needed, based on creating value. The evaluation of value based performance tries to avoid the errors due to accounting data, by using other specific indicators: EVA, MVA, TSR, CVA. The main objective is shifted from maximizing the income to maximizing the value created for shareholders. The theoretical part is accompanied by a practical analysis regarding the creation of value and an analysis of the main indicators which evaluate this concept.

  13. Cu cluster shell structure at elevated temperatures

    Christensen, Ole Bøssing; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1991-01-01

    Equilibrium structures of small (3–29)-atom Cu clusters are determined by simulated annealing, and finite-temperature ensembles are simulated by Monte Carlo techniques using the effective-medium theory for the energy calculation. Clusters with 8, 18, and 20 atoms are found to be particularly stable....... The equilibrium geometrical structures are determined and found to be determined by a Jahn-Teller distortion, which is found to affect the geometry also at high temperatures. The ‘‘magic’’ clusters retain their large stability even at elevated temperatures....

  14. An elevator for lifting and turning pipes

    Melnikov, S.P.; Borchenkov, G.I.; Komarov, V.N.; Lebedev, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed for lifting and turning pipes, which includes a body and a bushing hinged to it with projections and a shank with a threaded adapter and cams which interact with the projections of the bushing. In order to increase the operational safety of the device through ensuring the capability of eliminating drops in the torque from the shank to the body when raising and extracting drill pipes, the body is equipped with eccentric cams rigidly connected to it, while the shank is equipped with a ring movable connected with it. The eccentric cams are installed between the bushing and the body with the capability of interacting with the shank ring.

  15. The history of commonly used dental elevators.

    Bussell, M A; Graham, R M

    2008-11-08

    Despite the extensive and regular use of dental elevators on a daily basis in both general dental and specialist oral and maxillofacial surgical practice, little is known about the history and origins of such instruments and this remains an intriguing question. This question has been the basis for the following article, which gives a brief history of the instruments, discusses their eponymous origins and the history, life and works of the individuals they are named after. In-depth research has also raised other questions about such instruments that could be the focus for further study.

  16. Elevated transferrin saturation and risk of diabetes

    Ellervik, Christina; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik Ullits

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that elevated transferrin saturation is associated with an increased risk of any form of diabetes, as well as type 1 or type 2 diabetes separately. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used two general population studies, The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS, N = 9......,121) and The Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS, N = 24,195), as well as a 1:1 age- and sex-matched population-based case-control study with 6,129 patients with diabetes from the Steno Diabetes Centre and 6,129 control subjects, totaling 8,535 patients with diabetes and 37,039 control subjects. RESULTS...

  17. Elevated environmental temperature and methamphetamine neurotoxicity

    Miller, Diane B.; O'Callaghan, James P.

    2003-01-01

    Amphetamines have been of considerable research interest for the last several decades. More recent work has renewed interest in the role of ambient temperature in both the toxicity and neurotoxicity of these drugs. We have determined that the striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity observed in the mouse is linked in some fashion to both body and environmental temperature. Most studies of d-methamphetamine (d-METH) neurotoxicity are conducted at standard laboratory ambient temperatures (e.g., ∼21-22 deg. C) and utilizing a repeated dosage regimen (e.g., three to four injections spaced 2 h apart). A lowering of the ambient temperature provides neuro protection, while an elevation increases neurotoxicity. d-METH causes long-term depletions of triatal dopamine (DA) that are accompanied by other changes that are indicative of nerve terminal degeneration. These include argyrophilia, as detected by silver degeneration stains, and an elevation in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of reactive gliosis in response to injury, as well as a long-term decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels. here we show that increasing the ambient temperature during and for some time following dosing increases the neurotoxicity of d-METH. Mice (female 57BL6/J) given a single dosage of d-METH (20 mg/kg s.c.) and maintained at the usual laboratory ambient temperature show minimal striatal damage (an ∼15% depletion of DA and an ∼ 86% increase in GFAP). substantial striatal damage (e.g., an ∼70% depletion of DA and an ∼200% elevation in GFAP) was induced by this regimen if mice were maintained at 27 deg. C for 24 or 72 h following dosing. An increase in neurotoxicity was also apparent in mice kept at an elevated temperature for only 5 or 9 h, but keeping animals at 27 deg. C for 24 or 72 h was the most effective in increasing the neurotoxicity of d-METH. Our data show how a relatively minor change in ambient temperature can have a major impact on the degree of

  18. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    Groot, S. P. C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice. PMID:22967856

  19. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    Groot, S.P.C.; Surki, A.A.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under

  20. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions.

    Groot, S P C; Surki, A A; de Vos, R C H; Kodde, J

    2012-11-01

    Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. methods: Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice.

  1. Proteins analysed as virtual knots

    Alexander, Keith; Taylor, Alexander J.; Dennis, Mark R.

    2017-02-01

    Long, flexible physical filaments are naturally tangled and knotted, from macroscopic string down to long-chain molecules. The existence of knotting in a filament naturally affects its configuration and properties, and may be very stable or disappear rapidly under manipulation and interaction. Knotting has been previously identified in protein backbone chains, for which these mechanical constraints are of fundamental importance to their molecular functionality, despite their being open curves in which the knots are not mathematically well defined; knotting can only be identified by closing the termini of the chain somehow. We introduce a new method for resolving knotting in open curves using virtual knots, which are a wider class of topological objects that do not require a classical closure and so naturally capture the topological ambiguity inherent in open curves. We describe the results of analysing proteins in the Protein Data Bank by this new scheme, recovering and extending previous knotting results, and identifying topological interest in some new cases. The statistics of virtual knots in protein chains are compared with those of open random walks and Hamiltonian subchains on cubic lattices, identifying a regime of open curves in which the virtual knotting description is likely to be important.

  2. Digital image analyser for autoradiography

    Muth, R.A.; Plotnick, J.

    1985-01-01

    The most critical parameter in quantitative autoradiography for assay of tissue concentrations of tracers is the ability to obtain precise and accurate measurements of optical density of the images. Existing high precision systems for image analysis, rotating drum densitometers, are expensive, suffer from mechanical problems and are slow. More moderately priced and reliable video camera based systems are available, but their outputs generally do not have the uniformity and stability necessary for high resolution quantitative autoradiography. The authors have designed and constructed an image analyser optimized for quantitative single and multiple tracer autoradiography which the authors refer to as a memory-mapped charged-coupled device scanner (MM-CCD). The input is from a linear array of CCD's which is used to optically scan the autoradiograph. Images are digitized into 512 x 512 picture elements with 256 gray levels and the data is stored in buffer video memory in less than two seconds. Images can then be transferred to RAM memory by direct memory-mapping for further processing. Arterial blood curve data and optical density-calibrated standards data can be entered and the optical density images can be converted automatically to tracer concentration or functional images. In double tracer studies, images produced from both exposures can be stored and processed in RAM to yield ''pure'' individual tracer concentration or functional images. Any processed image can be transmitted back to the buffer memory to be viewed on a monitor and processed for region of interest analysis

  3. Influence of Antenna Characteristics on Elevation Dependence of Building Penetration Loss for High Elevation Links

    M. Kvicera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Building penetration loss models presented in our previous paper [1] were valid for various scenarios, propagation conditions, frequency bands and hemispherical receiving antenna pointing towards zenith. These models had a significantly rising trend of penetration loss with increasing elevation angle of the link in common. In this paper we show that when working with non-isotropic terminal antennas, this trend relates primarily to the elevation trend of the corresponding reference level dependent on the receiving antenna radiation pattern. This is demonstrated by the results of single-input multiple-output (SIMO measurement trials performed at L-band in an office building and a brick building in the city of Prague. Further, based on the detailed analysis, a method to modify the elevation trend of a particular penetration loss model for different receiving antenna radiation patterns is derived and experimentally validated.

  4. Geographic isolation and elevational gradients promote diversification in an endemic shrew on Sulawesi.

    Eldridge, Ryan A; Achmadi, Anang S; Giarla, Thomas C; Rowe, Kevin C; Esselstyn, Jacob A

    2018-01-01

    Phylogeographic research on endemic primates and amphibians inhabiting the Indonesian island of Sulawesi revealed the existence of seven areas of endemism (AoEs). Here, we use phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of one mitochondrial gene and 15 nuclear loci to assess geographic patterns of genetic partitioning in a shrew (Crocidura elongata) that is endemic to Sulawesi, but occurs across the island. We uncover substantial genetic diversity in this species both between and within AoEs, but we also identify close relationships between populations residing in different AoEs. One of the earliest divergences within C. elongata distinguishes a high-elevation clade from low-elevation clades. In addition, on one mountain, we observe three distinct genetic groups from low, middle, and high elevations, suggesting divergence along a single elevational gradient. In general, our results show that C. elongata, like several other Sulawesi endemic taxa, harbors extensive genetic diversity. This diversity is structured in part by known AoE boundaries, but also by elevational gradients and geographic isolation within AoEs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Traits and climate are associated with first flowering day in herbaceous species along elevational gradients.

    Bucher, Solveig Franziska; König, Patrizia; Menzel, Annette; Migliavacca, Mirco; Ewald, Jörg; Römermann, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Phenological responses to changing temperatures are known as "fingerprints of climate change," yet these reactions are highly species specific. To assess whether different plant characteristics are related to these species-specific responses in flowering phenology, we observed the first flowering day (FFD) of ten herbaceous species along two elevational gradients, representing temperature gradients. On the same populations, we measured traits being associated with (1) plant performance (specific leaf area), (2) leaf biochemistry (leaf C, N, P, K, and Mg content), and (3) water-use efficiency (stomatal pore area index and stable carbon isotopes concentration). We found that as elevation increased, FFD was delayed for all species with a highly species-specific rate. Populations at higher elevations needed less temperature accumulation to start flowering than populations of the same species at lower elevations. Surprisingly, traits explained a higher proportion of variance in the phenological data than elevation. Earlier flowering was associated with higher water-use efficiency, higher leaf C, and lower leaf P content. In addition to that, the intensity of shifts in FFD was related to leaf N and K. These results propose that traits have a high potential in explaining phenological variations, which even surpassed the effect of temperature changes in our study. Therefore, they have a high potential to be included in future analyses studying the effects of climate change and will help to improve predictions of vegetation changes.

  6. Distribution and elevated soil pools of mercury in an acidic subtropical forest of southwestern China

    Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhangwei; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Tieshanping catchment in southwest China was supposed to a large pool of atmospheric mercury. This work was aimed to examine THg (total mercury) concentrations, pools and influence factors in the acidic forest. THg concentrations were highly elevated in the study area, which was significantly depended on TOM (total organic matter) concentrations and altitudinal elevation, whereas negatively correlated with soil pH. The pools of mercury accumulated in soils were correlated strongly with the stocks of TOM and altitude, ranged from 5.9 to 32 mg m −2 and averaged 14.5 mg m −2 , indicating that the acidic forest was a great sink of atmospheric mercury in southwest China. THg concentrations in stream waters decreased with altitude increasing and regression analyses showed that soil/air exchange flux would be increased with the decrease of altitude. Present results suggest that elevation increasing decreases THg losses as low THg concentrations in runoffs and volatilization from soils. - Highlights: • Soil THg pools and influence factors were studied at an acidic catchment in southwestern China. • THg concentrations was increased significantly with TOM concentrations and altitude increasing, decreased with pH. • THg pools in soils were highly elevated and deepened on TOM pools and altitude. • Difference in THg output by volatilization and runoff was a major reason for THg distribution at different altitudes. - Mercury pools increased with altitude increasing as mercury lost more at low elevation area in acidic subtropical forest

  7. Elevational patterns of genetic variation in the cosmopolitan moss Bryum argenteum (Bryaceae).

    Pisa, Sergio; Werner, Olaf; Vanderpoorten, Alain; Magdy, Mahmoud; Ros, Rosa M

    2013-10-01

    The Baas Becking tenet posits that 'everything is everywhere, but the environment selects' to explain cosmopolitan distributions in highly vagile taxa. Bryophyte species show wider distributions than vascular plants and include examples of truly cosmopolitan ranges, which have been interpreted as a result of high dispersal capacities and ecological plasticity. In the current study, we documented patterns of genetic structure and diversity in the cosmopolitan moss Bryum argenteum along an elevational gradient to determine if genetic diversity and structure is homogenized by intense migrations in the lack of ecological differentiation. • 60 specimens were collected in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Spain) between 100 and 2870 m and sequenced for ITS and rps4. Comparative analyses, genetic diversity estimators, and Mantel's tests were employed to determine the relationship between genetic variation, elevation, and geographic distance and to look for signs of demographic shifts. • Genetic diversity peaked above 1900 m and no signs of demographic shifts were detected at any elevation. There was a strong phylogenetic component in elevational variation. Genetic variation was significantly correlated with elevation, but not with geographic distance. • The results point to the long-term persistence of Bryum argenteum in a range that was glaciated during the Late Pleistocene. Evidence for an environmentally driven pattern of genetic differentiation suggests adaptive divergence. This supports the Baas Becking tenet and indicates that ecological specialization might play a key role in explaining patterns of genetic structure in cosmopolitan mosses.

  8. A global digital elevation model - GTOP030

    1999-01-01

    GTOP030, the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) digital elevation model (DEM) of the Earth, provides the flrst global coverage of moderate resolution elevation data.  The original GTOP30 data set, which was developed over a 3-year period through a collaborative effort led by the USGS, was completed in 1996 at the USGS EROS Data Center in Sioux Falls, South Dakota.  The collaboration involved contributions of staffing, funding, or source data from cooperators including the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the United Nations Environment Programme Global Resource Information Database (UNEP/GRID), the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) of Mexico, the Geographical Survey Institute (GSI) of Japan, Manaaki Whenua Landcare Research of New Zealand, and the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR). In 1999, work was begun on an update to the GTOP030 data set. Additional data sources are being incorporated into GTOP030 with an enhanced and improved data set planned for release in 2000.

  9. Bucket elevator linkage for coarse coal washer

    Jackson, R.

    1985-09-03

    A continuous bucket elevator used in a method of separating coal according to its size and for cleaning refuse material from the coal in a Baum-type jigging apparatus wherein each bucket is connected to the adjacent bucket by a link received by a roll pin held by a bushing at each end in each bucket and the flange of a plate which is centrally welded to the bucket and has portions biased outwardly therefrom which merge into further portions having openings for receiving the roll pins, the diameter of the aligned openings in the further part, in the bushings, and in intervening link and the diameter of the roll pins being such so as to restrict wear due to the abrasive nature of the material being handled so that all components of the elevator wear out at about the same time and need not be replaced until after two or three cycles of use, each cycle being normally for seven and ten months.

  10. High-speed elevators controlled by inverters

    Sakai, Yoshio; Takahashi, Hideaki; Nakamura, Kiyoshi; Kinoshita, Hiroshi

    1988-10-25

    The super-high-speed elevator with superiority to 300m/min of speed, requires both the large capacity power and wide range speed controls. Therefore, in order to materialize the smooth and quiet operation characteristics, by applying the inverter control, the low torque ripple control in the low frequency range and high frequency large capacity inverting for lowering the motor in noise are necessary with their being assured of reliability. To satisfy the above necessary items, together with the development of a sine wave pulse width and frequency modulation (PWM/PFM) control system, to more precisely enable the sine wave electric current control, and 3kHz switching power converter, using a 800A power transistor module, a supervoltage control circuit under the extraordinary condition was designed. As a result of commercializing a 360m/min super-high speed inverter elevator, the power source unit, due to the effect of high power factor, could be reduced by 30% in capacity and also the higher harmonic wave including ratio could be considerably lowered to the inferiority to 5%. 2 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  11. Elevation uncertainty in coastal inundation hazard assessments

    Gesch, Dean B.; Cheval, Sorin

    2012-01-01

    Coastal inundation has been identified as an important natural hazard that affects densely populated and built-up areas (Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction, 2008). Inundation, or coastal flooding, can result from various physical processes, including storm surges, tsunamis, intense precipitation events, and extreme high tides. Such events cause quickly rising water levels. When rapidly rising water levels overwhelm flood defenses, especially in heavily populated areas, the potential of the hazard is realized and a natural disaster results. Two noteworthy recent examples of such natural disasters resulting from coastal inundation are the Hurricane Katrina storm surge in 2005 along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the United States, and the tsunami in northern Japan in 2011. Longer term, slowly varying processes such as land subsidence (Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies, 2007) and sea-level rise also can result in coastal inundation, although such conditions do not have the rapid water level rise associated with other flooding events. Geospatial data are a critical resource for conducting assessments of the potential impacts of coastal inundation, and geospatial representations of the topography in the form of elevation measurements are a primary source of information for identifying the natural and human components of the landscape that are at risk. Recently, the quantity and quality of elevation data available for the coastal zone have increased markedly, and this availability facilitates more detailed and comprehensive hazard impact assessments.

  12. Trace mineral interactions during elevated calcium consumption

    Smith, K.T.; Luhrsen, K.R.

    1986-01-01

    Elevated calcium consumption is reported to affect trace mineral bioavailability. The authors examined this phenomenon in both single dose radio-label test meals and an eight week feeding trial in rats. In the single dose studies, human milk, cows milk, and various calcium sources were examined in relation to radio-iron and radio-zinc retention. 59 Fe retention was greater from human milk than cows milk. However, when the calcium content of human milk was adjusted (with CaHPO 4 or CaCO 3 ) to equal the level in cows milk, iron retention was depressed. Similarly, when calcium sources (CaCO 3 , CaHPO 4 , hydroxy-apatite, bone meal) were examined at different calcium:metal molar ratios, the degree of inhibition on metal retention varied. In general, phosphate salts were more inhibiting than carbonates. In the feeding trial, calcium was fed in diets at normal (0.5%) or elevated (1.5%) levels. Serum, liver, kidney, and bone trace mineral profiles were obtained. In general, most trace elements showed decreased levels in the tissues. Zinc and iron were most striking, followed by magnesium with minor changes in copper. A high calcium:high mineral supplemented group was also fed. Mixed mineral supplementation prevented all calcium interactions. These data indicate the importance of calcium mineral interactions in bioavailability considerations in both milk sources and in mineral supplementation

  13. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin: sources of carbon monoxide exposure.

    Buchelli Ramirez, Herminia; Fernández Alvarez, Ramón; Rubinos Cuadrado, Gemma; Martinez Gonzalez, Cristina; Rodriguez Jerez, Francisco; Casan Clara, Pere

    2014-11-01

    Inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) can result in poisoning, with symptoms ranging from mild and nonspecific to severe, or even death. CO poisoning is often underdiagnosed because exposure to low concentrations goes unnoticed, and threshold values for normal carboxyhemoglobin vary according to different authors. The aim of our study was to analyze carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in an unselected population and detect sources of CO exposure In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we analyzed consecutive arterial blood gas levels processed in our laboratory. We selected those with COHb≥2.5% in nonsmokers and ≥5% in smokers. In these cases a structured telephone interview was conducted. Elevated levels of COHb were found in 64 (20%) of 306 initial determinations. Of these, data from 51 subjects aged 65±12 years, 31 (60%) of which were men, were obtained. Mean COHb was 4.0%. Forty patients (78%) were non-smokers with mean COHb of 3.2%, and 11 were smokers with COHb of 6.7%. In 45 patients (88.2%) we detected exposure to at least one source of ambient CO other than cigarette smoke. A significant proportion of individuals from an unselected sample had elevated levels of COHb. The main sources of CO exposure were probably the home, so this possibility should be explored. The population should be warned about the risks and encouraged to take preventive measures. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Topobathymetric elevation model development using a new methodology: Coastal National Elevation Database

    Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Poppenga, Sandra K.; Brock, John C.; Evans, Gayla A.; Tyler, Dean; Gesch, Dean B.; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Barras, John

    2016-01-01

    During the coming decades, coastlines will respond to widely predicted sea-level rise, storm surge, and coastalinundation flooding from disastrous events. Because physical processes in coastal environments are controlled by the geomorphology of over-the-land topography and underwater bathymetry, many applications of geospatial data in coastal environments require detailed knowledge of the near-shore topography and bathymetry. In this paper, an updated methodology used by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal National Elevation Database (CoNED) Applications Project is presented for developing coastal topobathymetric elevation models (TBDEMs) from multiple topographic data sources with adjacent intertidal topobathymetric and offshore bathymetric sources to generate seamlessly integrated TBDEMs. This repeatable, updatable, and logically consistent methodology assimilates topographic data (land elevation) and bathymetry (water depth) into a seamless coastal elevation model. Within the overarching framework, vertical datum transformations are standardized in a workflow that interweaves spatially consistent interpolation (gridding) techniques with a land/water boundary mask delineation approach. Output gridded raster TBDEMs are stacked into a file storage system of mosaic datasets within an Esri ArcGIS geodatabase for efficient updating while maintaining current and updated spatially referenced metadata. Topobathymetric data provide a required seamless elevation product for several science application studies, such as shoreline delineation, coastal inundation mapping, sediment-transport, sea-level rise, storm surge models, and tsunami impact assessment. These detailed coastal elevation data are critical to depict regions prone to climate change impacts and are essential to planners and managers responsible for mitigating the associated risks and costs to both human communities and ecosystems. The CoNED methodology approach has been used to construct integrated TBDEM models

  15. Elevated preoperative blood pressures in adult surgical patients are highly predictive of elevated home blood pressures.

    Schonberger, Robert B; Nwozuzu, Adambeke; Zafar, Jill; Chen, Eric; Kigwana, Simon; Monteiro, Miriam M; Charchaflieh, Jean; Sophanphattana, Sophisa; Dai, Feng; Burg, Matthew M

    2018-04-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement during the presurgical assessment has been suggested as a way to improve longitudinal detection and treatment of hypertension. The relationship between BP measured during this assessment and home blood pressure (HBP), a better indicator of hypertension, is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the positive predictive value of presurgical BP for predicting elevated HBP. We prospectively enrolled 200 patients at a presurgical evaluation clinic with clinic blood pressures (CBPs) ≥130/85 mm Hg, as measured using a previously validated automated upper-arm device (Welch Allyn Vital Sign Monitor 6000 Series), to undergo daily HBP monitoring (Omron Model BP742N) between the index clinic visit and their day of surgery. Elevated HBP was defined, per American Heart Association guidelines, as mean systolic HBP ≥135 mm Hg or mean diastolic HBP ≥85 mm Hg. Of the 200 participants, 188 (94%) returned their home blood pressure monitors with valid data. The median number of HBP recordings was 10 (interquartile range, 7-14). Presurgical CBP thresholds of 140/90, 150/95, and 160/100 mm Hg yielded positive predictive values (95% confidence interval) for elevated HBP of 84.1% (0.78-0.89), 87.5% (0.81-0.92), and 94.6% (0.87-0.99), respectively. In contrast, self-reported BP control, antihypertensive treatment, availability of primary care, and preoperative pain scores demonstrated poor agreement with elevated HBP. Elevated preoperative CBP is highly predictive of longitudinally elevated HBP. BP measurement during presurgical assessment may provide a way to improve longitudinal detection and treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2018 American Heart Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated Striatal Reactivity Across Monetary and Social Rewards in Bipolar I Disorder

    Dutra, Sunny J.; Cunningham, William A.; Kober, Hedy; Gruber, June

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with increased reactivity to rewards and heightened positive affectivity. It is less clear to what extent this heightened reward sensitivity is evident across contexts and what the associated neural mechanisms might be. The present investigation employed both a monetary and social incentive delay task among adults with remitted BD type I (N=24) and a healthy non-psychiatric control group (HC; N=25) using fMRI. Both whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses revealed elevated ventral and dorsal striatal reactivity across monetary and social reward receipt, but not anticipation, in the BD group. Post-hoc analyses further suggested that greater striatal reactivity to reward receipt across monetary and social reward tasks predicted decreased self-reported positive affect when anticipating subsequent rewards in the HC, but not BD, group. Results point toward elevated striatal reactivity to reward receipt as a potential neural mechanism of reward reactivity. PMID:26390194

  17. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital elevation model (DEM) data are arrays of regularly spaced elevation values referenced horizontally either to a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection...

  18. Dual swing-up elevator well drilling apparatus

    Ahmad, H.; Vorarittinapa, T.

    1984-09-18

    A well drilling apparatus includes a first swing-up elevator platform on which the mast structure is pivotally mounted. After the mast structure has been raised to its erect position, the first elevator platform is elevated to carry the mast structure to a high operational level. A second swing-up elevator platform is provided to carry the drawworks to the same high level at which the two elevator platforms are coupled together to form the working floor. All of the raising and elevating operations can be accomplished with power supplied by the drawworks. The elevator platforms may be lowered after the drilling operation has been accomplished without interfering with any control valve structures that have been placed on the wellhead while the structure was at its raised operational level; the swing-up elevator platforms swing down in opposite directions over any such valve structure.

  19. Elevated rheumatoid factor and long term risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Schnohr, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis.......To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis....

  20. Elevated carbon dioxide: impacts on soil and plant water relations

    Kirkham, M. B

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on this critical issue, Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations presents research conducted on field-grown sorghum, winter wheat, and rangeland plants under elevated CO2...

  1. Greenland 5 km DEM, Ice Thickness, and Bedrock Elevation Grids

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Digital Elevation Model (DEM), ice thickness grid, and bedrock elevation grid of Greenland acquired as part of the PARCA program are available in ASCII text format...

  2. The surface elevation table and marker horizon technique: A protocol for monitoring wetland elevation dynamics

    James C. Lynch,; Phillippe Hensel,; Cahoon, Donald R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Park Service, in response to the growing evidence and awareness of the effects of climate change on federal lands, determined that monitoring wetland elevation change is a top priority in North Atlantic Coastal parks (Stevens et al, 2010). As a result, the NPS Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network (NCBN) in collaboration with colleagues from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have developed a protocol for monitoring wetland elevation change and other processes important for determining the viability of wetland communities. Although focused on North Atlantic Coastal parks, this document is applicable to all coastal and inland wetland regions. Wetlands exist within a narrow range of elevation which is influenced by local hydrologic conditions. For coastal wetlands in particular, local hydrologic conditions may be changing as sea levels continue to rise. As sea level rises, coastal wetland systems may respond by building elevation to maintain favorable hydrologic conditions for their survival. This protocol provides the reader with instructions and guidelines on designing a monitoring plan or study to: A) Quantify elevation change in wetlands with the Surface Elevation Table (SET). B) Understand the processes that influence elevation change, including vertical accretion (SET and Marker Horizon methods). C) Survey the wetland surface and SET mark to a common reference datum to allow for comparing sample stations to each other and to local tidal datums. D) Survey the SET mark to monitor its relative stability. This document is divided into two parts; the main body that presents an overview of all aspects of monitoring wetland elevation dynamics, and a collection of Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) that describes in detail how to perform or execute each step of the methodology. Detailed instruction on the installation, data collection, data management and analysis are provided in this report

  3. Is moral elevation an approach-oriented emotion?

    Van de Vyver, Julie; Abrams, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two studies were designed to test whether moral elevation should be conceptualized as an approach-oriented emotion. The studies examined the relationship between moral elevation and the behavioral activation and inhibition systems. Study 1 (N?=?80) showed that individual differences in moral elevation were associated with individual differences in behavioral activation but not inhibition. Study 2 (N?=?78) showed that an elevation-inducing video promoted equally high levels of approac...

  4. Global patterns of protection of elevational gradients in mountain ranges.

    Elsen, Paul R; Monahan, William B; Merenlender, Adina M

    2018-05-21

    Protected areas (PAs) that span elevational gradients enhance protection for taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity and facilitate species range shifts under climate change. We quantified the global protection of elevational gradients by analyzing the elevational distributions of 44,155 PAs in 1,010 mountain ranges using the highest resolution digital elevation models available. We show that, on average, mountain ranges in Africa and Asia have the lowest elevational protection, ranges in Europe and South America have intermediate elevational protection, and ranges in North America and Oceania have the highest elevational protection. We use the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Target 11 to assess the proportion of elevational gradients meeting the 17% suggested minimum target and examine how different protection categories contribute to elevational protection. When considering only strict PAs [International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories I-IV, n = 24,706], nearly 40% of ranges do not contain any PAs, roughly half fail to meet the 17% target at any elevation, and ∼75% fail to meet the target throughout ≥50% of the elevational gradient. Observed elevational protection is well below optimal, and frequently below a null model of elevational protection. Including less stringent PAs (IUCN categories V-VI and nondesignated PAs, n = 19,449) significantly enhances elevational protection for most continents, but several highly biodiverse ranges require new or expanded PAs to increase elevational protection. Ensuring conservation outcomes for PAs with lower IUCN designations as well as strategically placing PAs to better represent and connect elevational gradients will enhance ecological representation and facilitate species range shifts under climate change. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  5. Simplified methods and application to preliminary design of piping for elevated temperature service

    Severud, L.K.

    1975-01-01

    A number of simplified stress analysis methods and procedures that have been used on the FFTF project for preliminary design of piping operating at elevated temperatures are described. The rationale and considerations involved in developing the procedures and preliminary design guidelines are given. Applications of the simplified methods to a few FFTF pipelines are described and the success of these guidelines are measured by means of comparisons to pipeline designs that have had detailed Code type stress analyses. (U.S.)

  6. 14 CFR 23.155 - Elevator control force in maneuvers.

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Elevator control force in maneuvers. 23.155 Section 23.155 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Controllability and Maneuverability § 23.155 Elevator control force in maneuvers. (a) The elevator control force...

  7. Thin type inverter for machine-room-less elevator; Machine roomless elevator yo usugata inverter

    NONE

    2000-01-10

    In the elevator industry, a machine-room-less elevator, which does not necessitate a machine room usually installed on the roof, has come into the spotlight in the domain of low and intermediate speed elevators. The lack of a machine room, however, will necessarily limit the space for the installation of the traction motor and control panel. Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., in order to properly cope with the situation, has developed in cooperation with Fujitec Co., Ltd., a very thin type inverter installable on an elevator hall floor. The inverter, based on Fuji Electric's high-performance vector control inverter FRENIC5000VG5, is as thin as 100mm, and is available in three series up to 11kW. For the embodiment of such a thin structure, a cooling structure of Fuji Electric's own is employed, and prudence is exercised as required at many locations so that maintainability will not be impaired throughout the very thin control panel design. (translated by NEDO)

  8. Ten-year weight gain is associated with elevated fasting insulin levels and precedes glucose elevation.

    Pennings, Nicholas; Jaber, Johnny; Ahiawodzi, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Numerous studies have examined the relationship between endogenous insulin and weight change with mixed results. This study examined the relationship between fasting insulin levels, insulin resistance (IR), and 10-year weight change by glycaemic stage. Using data from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011-2014, 3840 participants were divided into 6 groups based on fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels. Fasting insulin concentrations were dichotomized into <25th percentile (normal) and ≥25th percentile (elevated). Ten-year weight change associated with fasting insulin was assessed by glycaemic stage. Average weight change over a 10-year period was higher in individuals with elevated insulin levels compared to the first quartile (1.40 lbs. vs 11.12 lbs, P < .0001). Across all groups, a 1 μU increase in fasting insulin levels resulted in a 0.52-pound increase in weight (P < .0001). Similarly, an increase in HOMA-IR was associated with increase in weight (1.32 lbs per IR unit, P < .0001). Marginal increases in weight were most pronounced in the normal insulin groups compared to elevated insulin groups and diminished as glycaemic stage progressed. Elevated fasting insulin level was positively associated with weight gain. The impact of fasting insulin and IR on weight gain preceded hyperglycaemia and diminished as glycaemic stage progressed. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Differentiating ST elevation myocardial infarction and nonischemic causes of ST elevation by analyzing the presenting electrocardiogram

    Jayroe, Jason B; Spodick, David H; Nikus, Kjell

    2008-01-01

    Guidelines recommend that patients with suggestive symptoms of myocardial ischemia and ST-segment elevation (STE) in > or =2 adjacent electrocardiographic leads should receive immediate reperfusion therapy. Novel strategies aimed to reduce door-to-balloon time, such as prehospital wireless...

  10. Elevated arousal levels enhance contrast perception.

    Kim, Dongho; Lokey, Savannah; Ling, Sam

    2017-02-01

    Our state of arousal fluctuates from moment to moment-fluctuations that can have profound impacts on behavior. Arousal has been proposed to play a powerful, widespread role in the brain, influencing processes as far ranging as perception, memory, learning, and decision making. Although arousal clearly plays a critical role in modulating behavior, the mechanisms underlying this modulation remain poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we examined the modulatory role of arousal on one of the cornerstones of visual perception: contrast perception. Using a reward-driven paradigm to manipulate arousal state, we discovered that elevated arousal state substantially enhances visual sensitivity, incurring a multiplicative modulation of contrast response. Contrast defines vision, determining whether objects appear visible or invisible to us, and these results indicate that one of the consequences of decreased arousal state is an impaired ability to visually process our environment.

  11. Assessment of elevator rope using Hall Sensor

    Lee, Jong O; Yoon, Woon Ha; Son, Young Ho; Kim, Jung Woo [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Ku [Pukyung National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Defect detection of wire rope for an elevator was investigated through the measurement of magnetic flux leakage. The types of defect usually found in wire rope categorized such as inner and outer wire breakage and wear. The specimens that has artificial defects were magnetized via permanent magnet, and measurement of magnetic flux leakage on the defects was performed with Hall sensor. In wire broken model, a defect smaller than 0.4 mm and 1 mm in depth on outer and inner wire rope, respectively, could be detected well. In wear model, smaller defect could not be detected clearly, however, appearance of changing of total magnetic flux during magnetic pole of the sensor passing through a defect 0.2 mm in depth at 4 mm or above width could make possible to detect it. From the results, the measurement via Hall sensor might be useful tool for defect detection of wire rope.

  12. Thermodynamics of a stochastic twin elevator.

    Kumar, Niraj; Van den Broeck, Christian; Esposito, Massimiliano; Lindenberg, Katja

    2011-11-01

    We study the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a single particle with two available energy levels, in contact with a classical (Maxwell-Boltzmann) or quantum (Bose-Einstein) heat bath. The particle can undergo transitions between the levels via thermal activation or deactivation. The energy levels are alternately raised at a given rate regardless of occupation by the particle, maintaining a fixed energy gap equal to ε between them. We explicitly calculate the work, heat, and entropy production rates. The efficiency in both the classical and the quantum case goes to a limit between 100 and 50% that depends on the relative rates of particle transitions and level elevation. In the classical problem we explicitly find the large deviation functions for heat, work, and internal energy.

  13. Assesment of elevator rope using hall sensor

    Lee, Jong O; Yoon, Woon Ha; Son, Young Ho [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung Woo; Lee, Jong Ku [Pukyong National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-05-15

    Defect detection of wire rope for an elevator was investigated through the measurement of magnetic flux leakage. The types of defect usually found in wire rope categorized such as inner and outer wire breakage and wear. The specimens that has artificial defects were magnetized via permanent magnet, and measurement of magnetic flux leakage on the defects was performed with Hall sensor. In wire broken model, a defect smaller than 0.4mm and 1mm in depth on outer and inner wire rope, respectively, could be detected well. In wear model, smaller defect could not be detected clearly, however, appearance of changing of total magnetic flux during magnetic pole of the sensor passing through a defect 0.2mm in depth at 4mm or above width could make possible to detect it. From the results, the measurement via Hall sensor might be useful tool for defect detection of wire rope.

  14. Elevated temperature forming method and preheater apparatus

    Krajewski, Paul E; Hammar, Richard Harry; Singh, Jugraj; Cedar, Dennis; Friedman, Peter A; Luo, Yingbing

    2013-06-11

    An elevated temperature forming system in which a sheet metal workpiece is provided in a first stage position of a multi-stage pre-heater, is heated to a first stage temperature lower than a desired pre-heat temperature, is moved to a final stage position where it is heated to a desired final stage temperature, is transferred to a forming press, and is formed by the forming press. The preheater includes upper and lower platens that transfer heat into workpieces disposed between the platens. A shim spaces the upper platen from the lower platen by a distance greater than a thickness of the workpieces to be heated by the platens and less than a distance at which the upper platen would require an undesirably high input of energy to effectively heat the workpiece without being pressed into contact with the workpiece.

  15. Analusis techniques for elevated temperature applications

    Lewis, D.J.; Hellen, T.K.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the more generally used methods of analysis of stress and strain in structures at elevated temperatures, with particular emphasis on finite element methods. It is shown that where sufficiently large computers are available, and where cost is not a severe limitation, creep and plasticity behaviour can be computed for a wide range of components. Where these effects are encountered simultaneously, more knowledge of materials behaviour is required. Calculation of stress and strain is usually only a means to the designer's main aim, which is proving the life and integrity of his structure. The shortcomings of computational methods in this respect are discussed, and a brief review given of some of the 'short cut' methods of life assessment available to the designer. (author)

  16. Magnesium sacrificial anode behavior at elevated temperature

    Othman, Mohsen Othman

    2006-01-01

    Magnesium sacrificial anode coupled to mild steel was tasted in sodium chloride and tap water environments at elevated temperatures. The anode failed to protect the mild steel specimens in tap water environment at all temperatures specified. This was partly due to low conductivity of this medium. The temperature factor did not help to activate the anode in this medium. In sodium chloride environment the anode demonstrated good protection for steel cathodes. The weight loss was high for magnesium in sodium chloride environment particularly beyond 60 degree centigrade. In tap water environment the weight loss was negligible for the anode. It also suffered localized shallow pitting corrosion. Magnesium anode cannot be utilized where high temperature is involved particularly in high conductivity mediums. Protection of structures containing high resistivity waters is not feasible using sacrificial anode system. (author)

  17. PEM Water Electrolysis at Elevated Temperatures

    Hansen, Martin Kalmar

    . This is followed in chapter 4 by a description of the electrolysis setups and electrolysis cells used during the work. Two different setups were used, one operating at atmospheric pressure and another that could operate at elevated pressure so that liquid water electrolysis could be performed at temperature above...... such as porosity and resistance which were supported by images acquired using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In chapters 6 and 7 the results of the steam electrolysis and pressurised water electrolysis, respectively, are presented and discussed. The steam electrolysis was tested at 130 °C and atmospheric...... needed and hence it has become acute to be able to store the energy. Hydrogen has been identified as a suitable energy carrier and water electrolysis is one way to produce it in a sustainable and environmentally friendly way. In this thesis an introduction to the subject (chapter 1) is given followed...

  18. Assessment of elevator rope using Hall Sensor

    Lee, Jong O; Yoon, Woon Ha; Son, Young Ho; Kim, Jung Woo; Lee, Jong Ku

    2003-01-01

    Defect detection of wire rope for an elevator was investigated through the measurement of magnetic flux leakage. The types of defect usually found in wire rope categorized such as inner and outer wire breakage and wear. The specimens that has artificial defects were magnetized via permanent magnet, and measurement of magnetic flux leakage on the defects was performed with Hall sensor. In wire broken model, a defect smaller than 0.4 mm and 1 mm in depth on outer and inner wire rope, respectively, could be detected well. In wear model, smaller defect could not be detected clearly, however, appearance of changing of total magnetic flux during magnetic pole of the sensor passing through a defect 0.2 mm in depth at 4 mm or above width could make possible to detect it. From the results, the measurement via Hall sensor might be useful tool for defect detection of wire rope.

  19. Assesment of elevator rope using hall sensor

    Lee, Jong O; Yoon, Woon Ha; Son, Young Ho; Kim, Jung Woo; Lee, Jong Ku

    2003-01-01

    Defect detection of wire rope for an elevator was investigated through the measurement of magnetic flux leakage. The types of defect usually found in wire rope categorized such as inner and outer wire breakage and wear. The specimens that has artificial defects were magnetized via permanent magnet, and measurement of magnetic flux leakage on the defects was performed with Hall sensor. In wire broken model, a defect smaller than 0.4mm and 1mm in depth on outer and inner wire rope, respectively, could be detected well. In wear model, smaller defect could not be detected clearly, however, appearance of changing of total magnetic flux during magnetic pole of the sensor passing through a defect 0.2mm in depth at 4mm or above width could make possible to detect it. From the results, the measurement via Hall sensor might be useful tool for defect detection of wire rope.

  20. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  1. Physics of untied rotating space elevators

    Knudsen, Steven; Golubović, Leonardo

    2015-12-01

    We explore fundamental aspects of the physics of a novel class of dynamical systems, Rotating Space Elevators (RSE) (L. Golubović, S. Knudsen, Europhys. Lett. 86, 34001 (2009) and S. Knudsen, L. Golubović, Eur. Phys. J. Plus 129, 242 (2014)). An RSE is a loopy string reaching deep into outer space. The floppy RSE loop executes a double rotating motion due to which the objects sliding along the RSE string (climbers) can be transported far away from the Earth's surface without using internal engines or propulsion. By extensive numerical simulations and analytic calculations, this study addresses an interesting and provocative question at the very heart of the RSE physics: What will happen if one unties the rotating space elevator from the Earth? We find that the untied RSE exhibits rich nonlinear dynamics. In particular, strikingly, we find that the untied RSE may still behave as if it were tied to the planet. Such a quasi-tied yet untied RSE remains close to the Earth and exhibits persistent shape and enduring double rotating motion. Moreover, the climbers sliding along such a quasi-tied RSE move in much the same way as they do along a tied RSE. Under some conditions however we find that the untied RSE may undergo an instability leading it to a dynamical state in which the RSE hops well above the Earth surface. By changing the untied RSE parameters, the maximum height reached during hopping may be made to diverge. Such an untied RSE unbinds from the Earth to infinity, i.e., to interplanetary space.

  2. Elevated temperature drives kelp microbiome dysbiosis, while elevated carbon dioxide induces water microbiome disruption.

    Jeremiah J Minich

    Full Text Available Global climate change includes rising temperatures and increased pCO2 concentrations in the ocean, with potential deleterious impacts on marine organisms. In this case study we conducted a four-week climate change incubation experiment, and tested the independent and combined effects of increased temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2, on the microbiomes of a foundation species, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, and the surrounding water column. The water and kelp microbiome responded differently to each of the climate stressors. In the water microbiome, each condition caused an increase in a distinct microbial order, whereas the kelp microbiome exhibited a reduction in the dominant kelp-associated order, Alteromondales. The water column microbiomes were most disrupted by elevated pCO2, with a 7.3 fold increase in Rhizobiales. The kelp microbiome was most influenced by elevated temperature and elevated temperature in combination with elevated pCO2. Kelp growth was negatively associated with elevated temperature, and the kelp microbiome showed a 5.3 fold increase Flavobacteriales and a 2.2 fold increase alginate degrading enzymes and sulfated polysaccharides. In contrast, kelp growth was positively associated with the combination of high temperature and high pCO2 'future conditions', with a 12.5 fold increase in Planctomycetales and 4.8 fold increase in Rhodobacteriales. Therefore, the water and kelp microbiomes acted as distinct communities, where the kelp was stabilizing the microbiome under changing pCO2 conditions, but lost control at high temperature. Under future conditions, a new equilibrium between the kelp and the microbiome was potentially reached, where the kelp grew rapidly and the commensal microbes responded to an increase in mucus production.

  3. Unusual head and neck injury in elevator: autopsy study.

    Eren, B; Türkmen, N; Dokgöz, H

    2012-10-01

    Industrial injuries related to auto-load-carrying vehicles were not frequently reported in the literature. Presented case was, 31-year-old male furniture worker. Deceased was found in awkward position in furniture workshop. Victim was observed on his knees in front of the elevator, head and neck lodged within openings of the elevator, and head and neck structures compressed-guillotined by the lower platform of the elevator were detected. We presented rare case of head and neck compression by elevator. Key words: head - neck - accidents - elevator - autopsy.

  4. TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft and pit decontamination

    Bengel, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    Decontamination of the elevator pit and shaft in the auxiliary building at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) was performed to remove high radiation and contamination levels which prevented personnel from utilizing the elevator. The radiation and contamination levels in the TMI-2 auxiliary building elevator shaft have been reduced to the point where plant personnel are again permitted to ride in the elevator without a radiation work permit, with the exception of access to the 281-ft (basement) level. Based on the declassification and expanded use of the elevator, the task goal has been met. The tax expended 16.16 man-rem and 621 man-hours.

  5. The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.

    2013-01-01

    efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and contents of pigments and carbohydrates in leaves were analysed before and during the stress treatments as well as after one day of recovery. Heat stress reduced PN and Fv/Fm in both wheat cultivars, but plants grown in elevated CO2 maintained...... higher PN and Fv/Fm in comparison to plants grown in ambient CO2. Heat stress reduced leaf chlorophyll contents and increased leaf sucrose contents in both cultivars grown at ambient and elevated CO2. The content of hexoses in the leaves increased mainly in the tolerant cultivar in response...... to the combination of elevated CO2 and heat stress. The results show that heat stress tolerance in wheat is related to cultivar origin, the phenological stage of the plants and can be alleviated by elevated CO2. This confirms the complex interrelation between environmental factors and genotypic traits that influence...

  6. Traction sheave elevator, hoisting unit and machine space

    Hakala, Harri; Mustalahti, Jorma; Aulanko, Esko

    2000-01-01

    Traction sheave elevator consisting of an elevator car moving along elevator guide rails, a counterweight moving along counterweight guide rails, a set of hoisting ropes (3) on which the elevator car and counterweight are suspended, and a drive machine unit (6) driving a traction sheave (7) acting on the hoisting ropes (3) and placed in the elevator shaft. The drive machine unit (6) is of a flat construction. A wall of the elevator shaft is provided with a machine space with its open side facing towards the shaft, the essential parts of the drive machine unit (6) being placed in the space. The hoisting unit (9) of the traction sheave elevator consists of a substantially discoidal drive machine unit (6) and an instrument panel (8) mounted on the frame (20) of the hoisting unit.

  7. Cokriging model for estimation of water table elevation

    Hoeksema, R.J.; Clapp, R.B.; Thomas, A.L.; Hunley, A.E.; Farrow, N.D.; Dearstone, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    In geological settings where the water table is a subdued replica of the ground surface, cokriging can be used to estimate the water table elevation at unsampled locations on the basis of values of water table elevation and ground surface elevation measured at wells and at points along flowing streams. The ground surface elevation at the estimation point must also be determined. In the proposed method, separate models are generated for the spatial variability of the water table and ground surface elevation and for the dependence between these variables. After the models have been validated, cokriging or minimum variance unbiased estimation is used to obtain the estimated water table elevations and their estimation variances. For the Pits and Trenches area (formerly a liquid radioactive waste disposal facility) near Oak Ridge National Laboratory, water table estimation along a linear section, both with and without the inclusion of ground surface elevation as a statistical predictor, illustrate the advantages of the cokriging model

  8. Purwarupa Sistem Kontrol Elevator Berbasis Programable Logic Control

    Fathahillah Fathahillah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Various methods / types of controls developed in accordance with industry needs one of them in the field of building automation system. One of the controls in the field of building automation system is the elevator control system (elevator. Early elevator control systems that transport humans or goods as vertical transportation vehicles are still conventional using human power, then evolved using steam engines, until now the elevators use AC motors equipped with control systems. The purpose of this research is to design the prototype of elevator control system using programmable logic control (PLC. The type of PLC controller used in the study using Omron PLC. The results show the design of prototype of elevator control system using PLC successfully and can control eleveator in accordance with its function, besides its programming form can be more simple.

  9. Elevated C-reactive protein and late-onset bipolar disorder in 78 809 individuals from the general population

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne

    2016-01-01

    is causal. METHOD: We performed cross-sectional and prospective analyses with a median follow-up time of 5.9 years (interquartile range: 4.4-7.6) in 78 809 individuals from the general population, and used genetic variants influencing CRP levels to perform a Mendelian randomisation study. RESULTS: Elevated...

  10. Caribbean mangroves adjust to rising sea level through biotic controls on change in soil elevation

    McKee, K.L.; Cahoon, D.R.; Feller, Ilka C.

    2007-01-01

    Aim The long-term stability of coastal ecosystems such as mangroves and salt marshes depends upon the maintenance of soil elevations within the intertidal habitat as sea level changes. We examined the rates and processes of peat formation by mangroves of the Caribbean Region to better understand biological controls on habitat stability. Location Mangrove-dominated islands on the Caribbean coasts of Belize, Honduras and Panama were selected as study sites. Methods Biological processes controlling mangrove peat formation were manipulated (in Belize) by the addition of nutrients (nitrogen or phosphorus) to Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove), and the effects on the dynamics of soil elevation were determined over a 3-year period using rod surface elevation tables (RSET) and marker horizons. Peat composition and geological accretion rates were determined at all sites using radiocarbon-dated cores. Results The addition of nutrients to mangroves caused significant changes in rates of mangrove root accumulation, which influenced both the rate and direction of change in elevation. Areas with low root input lost elevation and those with high rates gained elevation. These findings were consistent with peat analyses at multiple Caribbean sites showing that deposits (up to 10 m in depth) were composed primarily of mangrove root matter. Comparison of radiocarbon-dated cores at the study sites with a sea-level curve for the western Atlantic indicated a tight coupling between peat building in Caribbean mangroves and sea-level rise over the Holocene. Main conclusions Mangroves common to the Caribbean region have adjusted to changing sea level mainly through subsurface accumulation of refractory mangrove roots. Without root and other organic inputs, submergence of these tidal forests is inevitable due to peat decomposition, physical compaction and eustatic sea-level rise. These findings have relevance for predicting the effects of sea-level rise and biophysical processes on tropical

  11. Antimalarials as a risk factor for elevated muscle enzymes in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Tselios, K; Gladman, D D; Su, Jiandong; Urowitz, M B

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between antimalarials (AM) and elevated muscle enzymes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). 325 lupus patients with abnormal creatine phosphokinase (CPK) for at least two consecutive clinic visits were enrolled; 54 patients on statins/fibrates (n = 43) and/or active myositis (n = 14) were excluded. The control group consisted of 1453 lupus patients with no CPK elevation during follow-up. Descriptive statistics and Cox regression analyses were performed, p < 0.05 was considered significant. Cases and controls did not differ regarding age at SLE diagnosis, gender ratio, or disease duration. AM use was more frequent in cases, which had more prolonged AM use. Total frequency of elevated CPK in AM users was 216/1322 (16.3%). Chloroquine was associated with a 3.3-fold, and hydroxychloroquine with a 3.1-fold, increased risk for CPK elevation. Black race was associated with higher CPK (HR = 2.941), whereas female gender was protective (HR = 0.697). 203 patients were followed for 7.3 ± 5.6 years; 49.8% had persistent and 14.8% intermittent CPK elevation, while in 35.4% CPK was normalized. Clinical proximal muscle weakness developed in 5/203 patients. Chronic AM use is a potential risk factor for muscle enzyme elevation in SLE patients. CPK abnormalities persist in almost two thirds of the patients, but this remains mainly a biochemical finding, evolving to clinical myopathy in about 2.5%. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Elevated systemic galectin-1 levels characterize HELLP syndrome.

    Schnabel, Annegret; Blois, Sandra M; Meint, Peter; Freitag, Nancy; Ernst, Wolfgang; Barrientos, Gabriela; Conrad, Melanie L; Rose, Matthias; Seelbach-Göbel, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    Galectin-1 (gal-1), a member of a family of conserved β-galactoside-binding proteins, has been shown to exert a key role during gestation. Though gal-1 is expressed at higher levels in the placenta from HELLP patients, it is still poorly understood whether systemic gal-1 levels also differ in HELLP patients. In the present study, we evaluated the systemic expression of gal-1, together with the angiogenic factors, placental growth factor (PlGF) and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) in conjunction with HELLP syndrome severity. Systemic levels of gal-1 and sFlt-1 were elevated in patients with both early- and late-onset HELLP syndrome as compared to healthy controls. In contrast, peripheral PlGF levels were decreased in early- and late-onset HELLP. A positive correlation between systemic gal-1 levels and sFlt-1/PlGF ratios was found in early onset HELLP patients. Our results show that HELLP syndrome is associated with increased circulating levels of gal-1; integrating systemic gal-1 measurements into the diagnostic analyses of pregnant women may provide more effective prediction of HELLP syndrome development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Design of a powered elevator control system. [powered elevator system for modified C-8A aircraft for STOL operation

    Glende, W. L. B.

    1974-01-01

    The design, fabrication and flight testing of a powered elevator system for the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft (AWJSRA or Mod C-8A) are discussed. The system replaces a manual spring tab elevator control system that was unsatisfactory in the STOL flight regime. Pitch control in the AWJSRA is by means of a single elevator control surface. The elevator is used for both maneuver and trim control as the stabilizer is fixed. A fully powered, irreversible flight control system powered by dual hydraulic sources was designed. The existing control columns and single mechanical cable system of the AWJSRA have been retained as has been the basic elevator surface, except that the elevator spring tab is modified into a geared balance tab. The control surface is directly actuated by a dual tandem moving body actuator. Control signals are transmitted from the elevator aft quadrant to the actuator by a linkage system that includes a limited authority series servo actuator.

  14. Improving word coverage using unsupervised morphological analyser

    To enable a computer to process information in human languages, ... vised morphological analyser (UMA) would learn how to analyse a language just by looking ... result for English, but they did remarkably worse for Finnish and Turkish.

  15. Techniques for Analysing Problems in Engineering Projects

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1998-01-01

    Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects.......Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects....

  16. High-speed elevator ELEXCIA{sub TM}; Kosoku elevator EXEXCIA{sub TM}

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    New series high-speed elevator ELEXCIA{sub TM} was put on sale in November 1999. In ELEXCIA{sub TM}, the car and door as well as the newly developed hoist and control device were improved in compactness, lightweight, silence, and riding quality. The major features of the high-speed elevator are as follows: (1) The use of an outer rotor-type permanent magnetic synchronous motor (PMSM) in a hoist reduced the mass of the hoist (by about 40% as compared with the conventional one). (2) The use of a double-structured car side plate and floor enabled a silent car. (3) Improved door performance. The introduction of a PMSM motor and latest inverter control processor door into a door gave smoother movement than the previous one. (4) Brightly easy-to-view and white LED-type operation buttons are used in the hoistway door and car. (translated by NEDO)

  17. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic prog...

  18. Estimating soot emissions from an elevated flare

    Almanza, Victor; Sosa, Gustavo

    2009-11-01

    Combustion aerosols are one of the major concerns in flaring operations, due to both health and environmental hazards. Preliminary results are presented for a 2D transient simulation of soot formation in a reacting jet with exit velocity of 130 m/s under a 5 m/s crossflow released from a 50 m high elevated flare and a 50 cm nozzle. Combustion dynamics was simulated with OpenFOAM. Gas-phase non-premixed combustion was modeled with the Chalmers PaSR approach and a κ-ɛ turbulence model. For soot formation, Moss model was used and the ISAT algorithm for solving the chemistry. Sulfur chemistry was considered to account for the sourness of the fuel. Gas composition is 10 % H2S and 90 % C2H4. A simplified Glassman reaction mechanism was used for this purpose. Results show that soot levels are sensitive to the sulfur present in the fuel, since it was observed a slight decrease in the soot volume fraction. NSC is the current oxidation model for soot formation. Predicted temperature is high (about 2390 K), perhaps due to soot-radiation interaction is not considered yet, but a radiation model implementation is on progress, as well as an oxidation mechanism that accounts for OH radical. Flame length is about 50 m.

  19. Optimization Of Nakazima Test At Elevated Temperatures

    Turetta, A.; Ghiotti, A.; Bruschi, S.

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays hot forming of High Strength Steel is gaining the strict requirements of automotive producer: in fact deformation performed simultaneously with quenching assures a fully martensitic microstructure at room temperature and thus high strength properties that allow the thickness reduction of the body-in-white components. Basic aspects of hot stamping are still under investigation and supplementary achievements are expected for a successful application of sheet metal forming technologies at elevated temperatures. Among data needed to settle a numerical model of the process, information about material formability may help in better designing and optimizing hot stamping operations. In the first part of the work, a new experimental apparatus based on Nakazima concept is presented; process parameters are optimized in order to accurately replicate the thermo-mechanical conditions typical of the industrial process, paying particular attention to the thermal and microstructural evolution. On the other hand, as commercial FE codes require the implementation of Forming Limit Diagrams at constant temperature, numerical investigations have been performed in order to determine the proper testing conditions to obtain FLD at nearly constant temperature

  20. Falsely elevated triiodothyronine values in radioimmunoassay

    Skovsted, L.; Moelholm Hansen, J.E.; Nygaard, B.

    1995-01-01

    Five patients with falsely elevated serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ) concentrations (>9 nmol/l) in a radioimmunoassay are reported. The high T 3 -values disagreed with the other thyroid variables investigated as well as with the clinical observations. In sera from all patients a normal non-specific binding of T 3 was found, thus excluding abnormal serum-protein-binding of the hormone. An ethanol extraction of T 3 from serum before RIA reduced the T 3 content in serum from all patients to normal levels (2.0-2.4 nmol/l). These findings indicate the presence in the sera of substances, probably of protein nature, that were interfering with the assay by binding the reagent-antibody and not the antigen. Addition of non-immune rabbit serum prevented this interference and normalized the T 3 -values (1.8-2.4 nmol/l). Thus the interfering substance in T 3 -RIA could be an anti-rabbit antibody, the interaction of which can be eliminated by a minor modification of the assay making it possible to differentiate true from false T 3 -values. (au) 16 refs