WorldWideScience

Sample records for units utilize quantized

  1. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS-only) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (AIRS Only). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  2. Aqua AIRS Level 3 Quantization in Physical Units (AIRS+AMSU) V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 monthly quantization product in physical units (Without HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  3. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS+AMSU+HSB) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (With HSB). The quantization products (QP) are distributional summaries derived from the Level-2...

  4. AIRS/Aqua Level 3 Pentad quantization in physical units (AIRS+AMSU) V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AIRS/Aqua Level 3 pentad quantization product in physical units (Without HSB). The geophysical parameters have been averaged and binned into 1 x 1 deg grid cells,...

  5. 2D-Zernike Polynomials and Coherent State Quantization of the Unit Disc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirulogasanthar, K., E-mail: santhar@gmail.com [Concordia University, Department of Comuter Science and Software Engineering (Canada); Saad, Nasser, E-mail: nsaad@upei.ca [University of Prince Edward Island, Department of mathematics and Statistics (Canada); Honnouvo, G., E-mail: g-honnouvo@yahoo.fr [McGill University, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    Using the orthonormality of the 2D-Zernike polynomials, reproducing kernels, reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces, and ensuring coherent states attained. With the aid of the so-obtained coherent states, the complex unit disc is quantized. Associated upper symbols, lower symbols and related generalized Berezin transforms also obtained. A number of necessary summation formulas for the 2D-Zernike polynomials proved.

  6. Quantization Procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera, J. A.; Martin, R.

    1976-01-01

    We present in this work a review of the conventional quantization procedure, the proposed by I.E. Segal and a new quantization procedure similar to this one for use in non linear problems. We apply this quantization procedures to different potentials and we obtain the appropriate equations of motion. It is shown that for the linear case the three procedures exposed are equivalent but for the non linear cases we obtain different equations of motion and different energy spectra. (Author) 16 refs

  7. System Identification with Quantized Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Le Yi; Zhang, Jifeng; Zhao, Yanlong

    2010-01-01

    This book presents recently developed methodologies that utilize quantized information in system identification and explores their potential in extending control capabilities for systems with limited sensor information or networked systems. The results of these methodologies can be applied to signal processing and control design of communication and computer networks, sensor networks, mobile agents, coordinated data fusion, remote sensing, telemedicine, and other fields in which noise-corrupted quantized data need to be processed. Providing a comprehensive coverage of quantized identification,

  8. Fourth quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faizal, Mir

    2013-12-18

    In this Letter we will analyze the creation of the multiverse. We will first calculate the wave function for the multiverse using third quantization. Then we will fourth-quantize this theory. We will show that there is no single vacuum state for this theory. Thus, we can end up with a multiverse, even after starting from a vacuum state. This will be used as a possible explanation for the creation of the multiverse. We also analyze the effect of interactions in this fourth-quantized theory.

  9. Stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauder, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The author provides an introductory survey to stochastic quantization in which he outlines this new approach for scalar fields, gauge fields, fermion fields, and condensed matter problems such as electrons in solids and the statistical mechanics of quantum spins. (Auth.)

  10. Mathematical quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Weaver, Nik

    2001-01-01

    With a unique approach and presenting an array of new and intriguing topics, Mathematical Quantization offers a survey of operator algebras and related structures from the point of view that these objects are quantizations of classical mathematical structures. This approach makes possible, with minimal mathematical detail, a unified treatment of a variety of topics.Detailed here for the first time, the fundamental idea of mathematical quantization is that sets are replaced by Hilbert spaces. Building on this idea, and most importantly on the fact that scalar-valued functions on a set correspond to operators on a Hilbert space, one can determine quantum analogs of a variety of classical structures. In particular, because topologies and measure classes on a set can be treated in terms of scalar-valued functions, we can transfer these constructions to the quantum realm, giving rise to C*- and von Neumann algebras.In the first half of the book, the author quickly builds the operator algebra setting. He uses this ...

  11. Mathematical obstructions to quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernoff, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    Quantization is commonly viewed as a mapping of functions on classical phase space to operators on Hilbert space, preserving the Lie algebra structure and satisfying some additional physically motivated requirements. The present paper surveys the main results, old and new, concerning the existence of quantization process. Although it is possible to preserve the Lie structure, it is shown that any one of a number of reasonable additional requirements on the quantization process leads to a contradiction

  12. Quantized gauge field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arodz, H.

    1987-01-01

    The two formulations of quantum theory of the free electromagnetic field are presented. In the Coulomb gauge approach the independent dynamical variables have been identified and then, in order to quantize the theory, it has been sufficient to apply the straightforward canonical quantization. In the Gupta-Bleuler approach the auxilliary theory is first considered. The straightforward canonical quantization of it leads to the quantum theory defined in the space G with indefinite norm. 15 refs. (author)

  13. Asymptotic and geometrical quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasev, M.V.; Maslov, V.P.

    1984-01-01

    The main ideas of geometric-, deformation- and asymptotic quantizations are compared. It is shown that, on the one hand, the asymptotic approach is a direct generalization of exact geometric quantization, on the other hand, it generates deformation in multiplication of symbols and Poisson brackets. Besides investigating the general quantization diagram, its applications to the calculation of asymptotics of a series of eigenvalues of operators possessing symmetry groups are considered

  14. BRST stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.

    1990-01-01

    After a brief review of the BRST formalism and of the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization method we introduce the BRST stochastic quantization scheme. It allows the second quantization of constrained Hamiltonian systems in a manifestly gauge symmetry preserving way. The examples of the relativistic particle, the spinning particle and the bosonic string are worked out in detail. The paper is closed by a discussion on the interacting field theory associated to the relativistic point particle system. 58 refs. (Author)

  15. Deep Learning Policy Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wolfshaar, Jos; Wiering, Marco; Schomaker, Lambertus

    2018-01-01

    We introduce a novel type of actor-critic approach for deep reinforcement learning which is based on learning vector quantization. We replace the softmax operator of the policy with a more general and more flexible operator that is similar to the robust soft learning vector quantization algorithm.

  16. Patterns of research utilization on patient care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lander Janice

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational context plays a central role in shaping the use of research by healthcare professionals. The largest group of professionals employed in healthcare organizations is nurses, putting them in a position to influence patient and system outcomes significantly. However, investigators have often limited their study on the determinants of research use to individual factors over organizational or contextual factors. Methods The purpose of this study was to examine the determinants of research use among nurses working in acute care hospitals, with an emphasis on identifying contextual determinants of research use. A comparative ethnographic case study design was used to examine seven patient care units (two adult and five pediatric units in four hospitals in two Canadian provinces (Ontario and Alberta. Data were collected over a six-month period by means of quantitative and qualitative approaches using an array of instruments and extensive fieldwork. The patient care unit was the unit of analysis. Drawing on the quantitative data and using correspondence analysis, relationships between various factors were mapped using the coefficient of variation. Results Units with the highest mean research utilization scores clustered together on factors such as nurse critical thinking dispositions, unit culture (as measured by work creativity, work efficiency, questioning behavior, co-worker support, and the importance nurses place on access to continuing education, environmental complexity (as measured by changing patient acuity and re-sequencing of work, and nurses' attitudes towards research. Units with moderate research utilization clustered on organizational support, belief suspension, and intent to use research. Higher nursing workloads and lack of people support clustered more closely to units with the lowest research utilization scores. Conclusion Modifiable characteristics of organizational context at the patient care unit

  17. Comparative analysis of large biomass & coal co-utilization units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liszka, M.; Nowak, G.; Ptasinski, K.J.; Favrat, D.; Marechal, F.

    2010-01-01

    The co-utilization of coal and biomass in large power units is considered in many countries (e.g. Poland) as fast and effective way of increasing renewable energy share in the fuel mix. Such a method of biomass use is especially suitable for power systems where solid fuels (hard coal, lignite) are

  18. The quantization of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gerhardt, Claus

    2018-01-01

    A unified quantum theory incorporating the four fundamental forces of nature is one of the major open problems in physics. The Standard Model combines electro-magnetism, the strong force and the weak force, but ignores gravity. The quantization of gravity is therefore a necessary first step to achieve a unified quantum theory. In this monograph a canonical quantization of gravity has been achieved by quantizing a geometric evolution equation resulting in a gravitational wave equation in a globally hyperbolic spacetime. Applying the technique of separation of variables we obtain eigenvalue problems for temporal and spatial self-adjoint operators where the temporal operator has a pure point spectrum with eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$ and related eigenfunctions, while, for the spatial operator, it is possible to find corresponding eigendistributions for each of the eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$, if the Cauchy hypersurface is asymptotically Euclidean or if the quantized spacetime is a black hole with a negative cosmological ...

  19. Studies in geometric quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuynman, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis contains five chapters, of which the first, entitled 'What is prequantization, and what is geometric quantization?', is meant as an introduction to geometric quantization for the non-specialist. The second chapter, entitled 'Central extensions and physics' deals with the notion of central extensions of manifolds and elaborates and proves the statements made in the first chapter. Central extensions of manifolds occur in physics as the freedom of a phase factor in the quantum mechanical state vector, as the phase factor in the prequantization process of classical mechanics and it appears in mathematics when studying central extension of Lie groups. In this chapter the connection between these central extensions is investigated and a remarkable similarity between classical and quantum mechanics is shown. In chapter three a classical model is given for the hydrogen atom including spin-orbit and spin-spin interaction. The method of geometric quantization is applied to this model and the results are discussed. In the final chapters (4 and 5) an explicit method to calculate the operators corresponding to classical observables is given when the phase space is a Kaehler manifold. The obtained formula are then used to quantise symplectic manifolds which are irreducible hermitian symmetric spaces and the results are compared with other quantization procedures applied to these manifolds (in particular to Berezin's quantization). 91 refs.; 3 tabs

  20. Quantized Majorana conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Chun-Xiao; Gazibegovic, Sasa; Xu, Di; Logan, John A.; Wang, Guanzhong; van Loo, Nick; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Car, Diana; Op Het Veld, Roy L. M.; van Veldhoven, Petrus J.; Koelling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Pendharkar, Mihir; Pennachio, Daniel J.; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Lee, Joon Sue; Palmstrøm, Chris J.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Sarma, S. Das; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2018-04-01

    Majorana zero-modes—a type of localized quasiparticle—hold great promise for topological quantum computing. Tunnelling spectroscopy in electrical transport is the primary tool for identifying the presence of Majorana zero-modes, for instance as a zero-bias peak in differential conductance. The height of the Majorana zero-bias peak is predicted to be quantized at the universal conductance value of 2e2/h at zero temperature (where e is the charge of an electron and h is the Planck constant), as a direct consequence of the famous Majorana symmetry in which a particle is its own antiparticle. The Majorana symmetry protects the quantization against disorder, interactions and variations in the tunnel coupling. Previous experiments, however, have mostly shown zero-bias peaks much smaller than 2e2/h, with a recent observation of a peak height close to 2e2/h. Here we report a quantized conductance plateau at 2e2/h in the zero-bias conductance measured in indium antimonide semiconductor nanowires covered with an aluminium superconducting shell. The height of our zero-bias peak remains constant despite changing parameters such as the magnetic field and tunnel coupling, indicating that it is a quantized conductance plateau. We distinguish this quantized Majorana peak from possible non-Majorana origins by investigating its robustness to electric and magnetic fields as well as its temperature dependence. The observation of a quantized conductance plateau strongly supports the existence of Majorana zero-modes in the system, consequently paving the way for future braiding experiments that could lead to topological quantum computing.

  1. Path integration quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt-Morette, C.

    1983-01-01

    Much is expected of path integration as a quantization procedure. Much more is possible if one recognizes that path integration is at the crossroad of stochastic and differential calculus and uses the full power of both stochastic and differential calculus in setting up and computing path integrals. In contrast to differential calculus, stochastic calculus has only comparatively recently become an instrument of thought. It has nevertheless already been used in a variety of challenging problems, for instance in the quantization problem. The author presents some applications of the stochastic scheme. (Auth.)

  2. Minimal quantization and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, N.P.; Kalinowskij, Yu.L.; Nguyen Suan Han; Pervushin, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    A ''minimal'' version of the Hamiltonian quantization based on the explicit solution of the Gauss equation and on the gauge-invariance principle is considered. By the example of the one-particle Green function we show that the requirement for gauge invariance leads to relativistic covariance of the theory and to more proper definition of the Faddeev - Popov integral that does not depend on the gauge choice. The ''minimal'' quantization is applied to consider the gauge-ambiguity problem and a new topological mechanism of confinement

  3. The quantized Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klitzing von, K.

    1989-01-01

    The quantized Hall effect is theoretically explained in detail as are its basic properties. The explanation is completed with the pertinent mathematical relations and illustrative figures. Experimental data are critically assessed obtained by quantum transport measurement in a magnetic field on two-dimensional systems. The results are reported for a MOSFET silicon transistor and for GaAs-Al x Ga 1-x As heterostructures. The application is discussed of the quantized Hall effect in determining the fine structure constant or in implementing the resistance standard. (M.D.). 27 figs., 57 refs

  4. Adapting United States training practices to European utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    The factors which must be considered in the process of adapting United States nuclear utility training programs to the needs of a European utility are discussed. Following a review of the present situation and drawing up of a new training program, the management commitments in terms of personnel and finance must be considered. Short term, medium and long term programs are outlined. The long term objectives should include the establishment of a total training centre. This facility should be capable of providing all the training necessary to operate a power plant safely. This would include specific simulator training, classroom training for operators, technician training, staff training, management training etc. In addition to a simulator, it should include an emergency response facility to train personnel. (U.K.)

  5. Quantization of physical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackiw, R.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1984-01-01

    Dynamical models are described with parameters (mass, coupling strengths) which must be quantized for quantum mechanical consistency. These and related topological ideas have physical application to phenomenological descriptions of high temperature and low energy quantum chromodynamics, to the nonrelativistic dynamics of magnetic monopoles, and to the quantum Hall effect. (author)

  6. Enhanced quantization: a primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauder, John R

    2012-01-01

    Although classical mechanics and quantum mechanics are separate disciplines, we live in a world where Planck’s constant ℏ > 0, meaning that the classical and quantum world views must actually coexist. Traditionally, canonical quantization procedures postulate a direct linking of various c-number and q-number quantities that lie in disjoint realms, along with the quite distinct interpretations given to each realm. In this paper we propose a different association of classical and quantum quantities that renders classical theory a natural subset of quantum theory letting them coexist as required. This proposal also shines light on alternative linking assignments of classical and quantum quantities that offer different perspectives on the very meaning of quantization. In this paper we focus on elaborating the general principles, while elsewhere we have published several examples of what this alternative viewpoint can achieve; these examples include removal of singularities in classical solutions to certain models, and an alternative quantization of several field theory models that are trivial when quantized by traditional methods but become well defined and nontrivial when viewed from the new viewpoint. (paper)

  7. Quantized, piecewise linear filter network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    1993-01-01

    A quantization based piecewise linear filter network is defined. A method for the training of this network based on local approximation in the input space is devised. The training is carried out by repeatedly alternating between vector quantization of the training set into quantization classes...... and equalization of the quantization classes linear filter mean square training errors. The equalization of the mean square training errors is carried out by adapting the boundaries between neighbor quantization classes such that the differences in mean square training errors are reduced...

  8. Geothermal Energy Utilization in the United States - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Boyd, Tonya L (Geo-Heat Center, Oregon Institute of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR); Sifford, Alex (Sifford Energy Services, Neskowin, OR); Bloomquist, R. Gordon (Washington State University Energy Program, Olympia, WA)

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity for electric power generation is 3,064 MWe with only 2,212 MWe in operation due to reduction at The Geysers geothermal field in California; producing approximately16,000 GWh per year. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and ground-source heat pumps. The installed capacity is 4,000 MWt and the annual energy use is 20,600 billion Btu (21,700 TJ - 6040 GWh). The largest applications is groundsource (geothermal) heat pumps (59% of the energy use), and the largest direct-use is in aquaculture. Direct utilization is increasing at about six percent per year; whereas, electric power plant development is almost static. Geothermal energy is a relatively benign energy source, displaying fossil fuels and thus, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A recent initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy, “Geo-Powering the West,” should stimulate future geothermal development. The proposal is especially oriented to small-scale power plants with cascaded uses of the geothermal fluid for direct applications.

  9. Geothermal energy utilization in the United States - 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.; Boyd, Tonya L.; Sifford, Alex; Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal energy is used for electric power generation and direct utilization in the United States. The present installed capacity for electric power generation is 3,064 MWe with only 2,212 MWe in operation due to reduction at The Geysers geothermal field in California; producing approximately16,000 GWh per year. Geothermal electric power plants are located in California, Nevada, Utah and Hawaii. The two largest concentrations of plants are at The Geysers in northern California and the Imperial Valley in southern California. The direct utilization of geothermal energy includes the heating of pools and spas, greenhouses and aquaculture facilities, space heating and district heating, snow melting, agricultural drying, industrial applications and ground-source heat pumps. The installed capacity is 4,000 MWt and the annual energy use is 20,600 billion Btu (21,700 TJ - 6040 GWh). The largest applications is groundsource (geothermal) heat pumps (59% of the energy use), and the largest direct-use is in aquaculture. Direct utilization is increasing at about six percent per year; whereas, electric power plant development is almost static. Geothermal energy is a relatively benign energy source, displaying fossil fuels and thus, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A recent initiative by the U.S. Department of Energy, “Geo-Powering the West,” should stimulate future geothermal development. The proposal is especially oriented to small-scale power plants with cascaded uses of the geothermal fluid for direct applications.

  10. Stochastic quantization and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpf, H.

    1984-01-01

    We give a preliminary account of the application of stochastic quantization to the gravitational field. We start in Section I from Nelson's formulation of quantum mechanics as Newtonian stochastic mechanics and only then introduce the Parisi-Wu stochastic quantization scheme on which all the later discussion will be based. In Section II we present a generalization of the scheme that is applicable to fields in physical (i.e. Lorentzian) space-time and treat the free linearized gravitational field in this manner. The most remarkable result of this is the noncausal propagation of conformal gravitons. Moreover the concept of stochastic gauge-fixing is introduced and a complete discussion of all the covariant gauges is given. A special symmetry relating two classes of covariant gauges is exhibited. Finally Section III contains some preliminary remarks on full nonlinear gravity. In particular we argue that in contrast to gauge fields the stochastic gravitational field cannot be transformed to a Gaussian process. (Author)

  11. Quantized Bogoliubov transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, H.B.

    1984-01-01

    The boson mapping of single fermion operators in a situation dominated by the pairing force gives rise to a transformation that can be considered a quantized version of the Bogoliubov transformation. This transformation can also be obtained as an exact special case of operators constructed from an approximate treatment of particle number projection, suggesting a method of obtaining the boson mapping in cases more complicated than that of pairing force domination

  12. Flux quantization in 'autistic' magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa de Beauregard, O.; Vigoureux, J.M.

    1974-03-15

    The Dirac electron theory for the evanescent wave surrounding an infinitely long cylindrical magnet with zero surface polarization and the requirement of the single valuedness of this wave are used to show that the magnetic flux is quantized in units h/2e emu. The same quantization is shown for a general ''autistic'' magnet (i.e. magnet completely trapping its flux), thus establishing complete external equivalence of the ''autistic'' magnet with the ''perfect solenoid''. An experimental test of the predicted quantization is suggested.

  13. Quantum Computing and Second Quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makaruk, Hanna Ewa

    2017-01-01

    Quantum computers are by their nature many particle quantum systems. Both the many-particle arrangement and being quantum are necessary for the existence of the entangled states, which are responsible for the parallelism of the quantum computers. Second quantization is a very important approximate method of describing such systems. This lecture will present the general idea of the second quantization, and discuss shortly some of the most important formulations of second quantization.

  14. Quantization Procedures; Sistemas de cuantificacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, J. A.; Martin, R.

    1976-07-01

    We present in this work a review of the conventional quantization procedure, the proposed by I.E. Segal and a new quantization procedure similar to this one for use in non linear problems. We apply this quantization procedures to different potentials and we obtain the appropriate equations of motion. It is shown that for the linear case the three procedures exposed are equivalent but for the non linear cases we obtain different equations of motion and different energy spectra. (Author) 16 refs.

  15. Formal connections in deformation quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masulli, Paolo

    The field of this thesis is deformation quantization, and we consider mainly symplectic manifolds equipped with a star product. After reviewing basics in complex geometry, we introduce quantization, focusing on geometric quantization and deformation quantization. The latter is defined as a star...... characteristic class, and that formal connections form an affine space over the derivations of the star products. Moreover, if the parameter space for the family of star products is contractible, we obtain that any two flat formal connections are gauge equivalent via a self-equivalence of the family of star...

  16. Predictors of Donor Heart Utilization for Transplantation in United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Jaimin R; Cheng, Allen; Gallo, Michele; Schumer, Erin M; Massey, H Todd; Slaughter, Mark S

    2017-06-01

    Optimum use of donor organs can increase the reach of the transplantation therapy to more patients on waiting list. The heart transplantation (HTx) has remained stagnant in United States over the past decade at approximately 2,500 HTx annually. With the use of the United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor database (DCD) we aimed to evaluate donor factors predicting donor heart utilization. UNOS DCD was queried from 2005 to 2014 to identify total number of donors who had at least one of their organs donated. We then generated a multivariate logistic regression model using various demographic and clinical donor factors to predict donor heart use for HTx. Donor hearts not recovered due to consent or family issues or recovered for nontransplantation reasons were excluded from the analysis. During the study period there were 80,782 donors of which 23,606 (29%) were used for HTx, and 38,877 transplants (48%) were not used after obtaining consent because of poor organ function (37%), donor medical history (13%), and organ refused by all programs (5%). Of all, 22,791 donors with complete data were used for logistic regression (13,389 HTx, 9,402 no-HTx) which showed significant predictors of donor heart use for HTx. From this model we assigned probability of donor heart use and identified 3,070 donors with HTx-eligible unused hearts for reasons of poor organ function (28%), organ refused by all programs (15%), and recipient not located (9%). An objective system based on donor factors can predict donor heart use for HTx and may help increase availability of hearts for transplantation from existing donor pool. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimal Residential Load Scheduling Under Utility and Rooftop Photovoltaic Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Hafeez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advancement in technology, electrical energy consumption is increasing rapidly. Especially, in the residential sector, more than 80% of electrical energy is being consumed because of consumer negligence. This brings the challenging task of maintaining the balance between the demand and supply of electric power. In this paper, we focus on the problem of load balancing via load scheduling under utility and rooftop photovoltaic (PV units to reduce electricity cost and peak to average ratio (PAR in demand-side management. For this purpose, we adopted genetic algorithm (GA, binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO, wind-driven optimization (WDO, and our proposed genetic WDO (GWDO algorithm, which is a hybrid of GA and WDO, to schedule the household load. For energy cost estimation, combined real-time pricing (RTP and inclined block rate (IBR were used. The proposed algorithm shifts load from peak consumption hours to off-peak hours based on combined pricing scheme and generation from rooftop PV units. Simulation results validate our proposed GWDO algorithm in terms of electricity cost and PAR reduction while considering all three scenarios which we have considered in this work: (1 load scheduling without renewable energy sources (RESs and energy storage system (ESS, (2 load scheduling with RESs, and (3 load scheduling with RESs and ESS. Furthermore, our proposed scheme reduced electricity cost and PAR by 22.5% and 29.1% in scenario 1, 47.7% and 30% in scenario 2, and 49.2% and 35.4% in scenario 3, respectively, as compared to unscheduled electricity consumption.

  18. Covariant Quantization with Extended BRST Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Geyer, B.; Gitman, D. M.; Lavrov, P. M.

    1999-01-01

    A short rewiev of covariant quantization methods based on BRST-antiBRST symmetry is given. In particular problems of correct definition of Sp(2) symmetric quantization scheme known as triplectic quantization are considered.

  19. On quantization of relativistic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    Quantization of the relativistic string theory based on methods of the constrained Hamiltonian systems quantization is considered. Connections of this approach and Polyakov's quantization are looked. New representation of a loop heat kernel is obtained

  20. Equivalence of Dirac quantization and Schwinger's action principle quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Scherer, W.

    1987-01-01

    We show that the method of Dirac quantization is equivalent to Schwinger's action principle quantization. The relation between the Lagrange undetermined multipliers in Schwinger's method and Dirac's constraint bracket matrix is established and it is explicitly shown that the two methods yield identical (anti)commutators. This is demonstrated in the non-trivial example of supersymmetric quantum mechanics in superspace. (orig.)

  1. Quantization of interface currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, Motoko [AIMR, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Schulz-Baldes, Hermann [Department Mathematik, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen (Germany); Villegas-Blas, Carlos [Instituto de Matematicas, Cuernavaca, UNAM, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    2014-12-15

    At the interface of two two-dimensional quantum systems, there may exist interface currents similar to edge currents in quantum Hall systems. It is proved that these interface currents are macroscopically quantized by an integer that is given by the difference of the Chern numbers of the two systems. It is also argued that at the interface between two time-reversal invariant systems with half-integer spin, one of which is trivial and the other non-trivial, there are dissipationless spin-polarized interface currents.

  2. Quantization of fields with constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M.; Tyutin, I.V.

    1990-01-01

    The quantization of singular field theories, in particular, gauge theories, is one of the key problems in quantum field theory. This book - which addresses the reader acquainted with the foundations of quantum field theory - provides a comprehensive analysis of this problem and techniques for its solution. The main topics are canonical and Lagrangian quantization and the path integral method. (orig.).

  3. Clinical utility of dabigatran in United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehab, Abdulla; Elnour, Asim A.; Sadik, Adel; Mandil, Mahmoud Abu; AlShamsi, Ali; Suwaidi, Aesha Al; Bhagavathula, AkshayaSrikanth; Erkekoglu, Pinar; Hamad, Farah; Nuaimi, Saif K. Al

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To provide early data regarding clinical utility of dabigatran in Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: This was an ethics approved retrospective cross sectional study. We retrieved a total of 76 patients who were using dabigatran from September to December 2014 in the Cardiology Clinic at Al-Ain Hospital, Al-Ain, UAE. The primary analysis was designed to test the frequency of bleeding events (rate) with dabigatran 75, 110, and 150 mg. Results: The mean age ± standard deviation of cohort was 67.9 ± 1.5 years (range; 29-98 years), composed of males (52.6%) with mean age of 66.3 ± 1.7 years, and females (47.4%) with mean age of 69.6 ± 1.1 years. The highest age group was those between 61-80 years (60.5%). Most comprised the age strata of ≤75 years (73.7%). The main indication for dabigatran use was atrial fibrillation. The rate of bleeding with dabigatran was 18/76 (23.7%), and melena was the leading cause of bleeding 8/76 (10.7%). The hospitalization rate was 67.1%, dabigatran withdrawal rate was 0.01%, and mortality rate was 6.5%. The cohort had exhibited incidences of minor bleeding with one fatal major bleeding, high co-morbidities, admission, and readmission, which was not directly linked to dabigatran. We did not identify any relation of death due to dabigatran. Conclusion: Dabigatran is a suitable alternative to warfarin obviating the need for repetitive international normalized ratio monitoring, however, it may need plasma drug monitoring. PMID:26593161

  4. Gauge invariance and fractional quantized Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, R.; Wu, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that gauge invariance arguments imply the possibility of fractional quantized Hall effect; the Hall conductance is accurately quantized to a rational value. The ground state of a system showing the fractional quantized Hall effect must be degenerate; the non-degenerate ground state can only produce the integral quantized Hall effect. 12 references

  5. Quantization ambiguity, ergodicity and semiclassics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, Lev

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that almost all eigenstates of a classically ergodic system are individually ergodic on coarse-grained scales. This has important implications for the quantization ambiguity in ergodic systems: the difference between alternative quantizations is suppressed compared with the O( h-bar 2 ) ambiguity in the integrable or regular case. For two-dimensional ergodic systems in the high-energy regime, individual eigenstates are independent of the choice of quantization procedure, in contrast with the regular case, where even the ordering of eigenlevels is ambiguous. Surprisingly, semiclassical methods are shown to be much more precise in any dimension for chaotic than for integrable systems

  6. Quantized beam shifts in graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Melo Kort-Kamp, Wilton Junior [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dalvit, Diego Alejandro Roberto [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-08

    We predict the existence of quantized Imbert-Fedorov, Goos-Hanchen, and photonic spin Hall shifts for light beams impinging on a graphene-on-substrate system in an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime the Imbert-Fedorov and photonic spin Hall shifts are quantized in integer multiples of the fine structure constant α, while the Goos-Hanchen ones in multiples of α2. We investigate the influence on these shifts of magnetic field, temperature, and material dispersion and dissipation. An experimental demonstration of quantized beam shifts could be achieved at terahertz frequencies for moderate values of the magnetic field.

  7. The quantization of Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocek, M.; Williams, R.M.; Cambridge Univ.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss the quantization of Regge's discrete description of Einstein's theory of gravitation. We show how the continuum theory emerges in the weak field long wavelength limit. We also discuss reparametrizations and conformal transformations. (orig.)

  8. AP600 level of automation: United States utility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekkerman, A.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Design of the AP600 advanced nuclear plant man-machine interface system (M-MIS) is guided by the applicable requirements from the Utility Requirements Document (URD). However, the URD has left certain aspects of the M-MIS to be determined by the designer working together with utilities sponsoring the work. This is particularly true in the case of the level of automation to be designed into the M-MIS. Based on experience from currently operating plants, utilities have specified the identity and roles of personnel in the control room, which has led to establishing a number of level of automation issues for the AP600. The key role of automated computerized procedures in the AP600 automation has been determined and resolved. 5 refs

  9. Visibility of wavelet quantization noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A. B.; Yang, G. Y.; Solomon, J. A.; Villasenor, J.

    1997-01-01

    The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) decomposes an image into bands that vary in spatial frequency and orientation. It is widely used for image compression. Measures of the visibility of DWT quantization errors are required to achieve optimal compression. Uniform quantization of a single band of coefficients results in an artifact that we call DWT uniform quantization noise; it is the sum of a lattice of random amplitude basis functions of the corresponding DWT synthesis filter. We measured visual detection thresholds for samples of DWT uniform quantization noise in Y, Cb, and Cr color channels. The spatial frequency of a wavelet is r 2-lambda, where r is display visual resolution in pixels/degree, and lambda is the wavelet level. Thresholds increase rapidly with wavelet spatial frequency. Thresholds also increase from Y to Cr to Cb, and with orientation from lowpass to horizontal/vertical to diagonal. We construct a mathematical model for DWT noise detection thresholds that is a function of level, orientation, and display visual resolution. This allows calculation of a "perceptually lossless" quantization matrix for which all errors are in theory below the visual threshold. The model may also be used as the basis for adaptive quantization schemes.

  10. Geometric quantization of vector bundles and the correspondence with deformation quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, E.

    2000-01-01

    I repeat my definition for quantization of a vector bundle. For the cases of the Toeplitz and geometric quantizations of a compact Kaehler manifold, I give a construction for quantizing any smooth vector bundle, which depends functorially on a choice of connection on the bundle. Using this, the classification of formal deformation quantizations, and the formal, algebraic index theorem, I give a simple proof as to which formal deformation quantization (modulo isomorphism) is derived from a given geometric quantization. (orig.)

  11. Quantized Visual Awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Alexander Escobar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The proposed model holds that, at its most fundamental level, visual awareness is quantized. That is to say that visual awareness arises as individual bits of awareness through the action of neural circuits with hundreds to thousands of neurons in at least the human striate cortex. Circuits with specific topologies will reproducibly result in visual awareness that correspond to basic aspects of vision like color, motion and depth. These quanta of awareness (qualia are produced by the feedforward sweep that occurs through the geniculocortical pathway but are not integrated into a conscious experience until recurrent processing from centers like V4 or V5 select the appropriate qualia being produced in V1 to create a percept. The model proposed here has the potential to shift the focus of the search for visual awareness to the level of microcircuits and these likely exist across the kingdom Animalia. Thus establishing qualia as the fundamental nature of visual awareness will not only provide a deeper understanding of awareness, but also allow for a more quantitative understanding of the evolution of visual awareness throughout the animal kingdom.

  12. Stochastic quantization of instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandati, Y.; Berard, A.; Grange, P.

    1996-01-01

    The method of Parisi and Wu to quantize classical fields is applied to instanton solutions var-phi I of euclidian non-linear theory in one dimension. The solution var-phi var-epsilon of the corresponding Langevin equation is built through a singular perturbative expansion in var-epsilon=h 1/2 in the frame of the center of the mass of the instanton, where the difference var-phi var-epsilon -var-phi I carries only fluctuations of the instanton form. The relevance of the method is shown for the stochastic K dV equation with uniform noise in space: the exact solution usually obtained by the inverse scattering method is retrieved easily by the singular expansion. A general diagrammatic representation of the solution is then established which makes a thorough use of regrouping properties of stochastic diagrams derived in scalar field theory. Averaging over the noise and in the limit of infinite stochastic time, the authors obtain explicit expressions for the first two orders in var-epsilon of the pertrubed instanton of its Green function. Specializing to the Sine-Gordon and var-phi 4 models, the first anaharmonic correction is obtained analytically. The calculation is carried to second order for the var-phi 4 model, showing good convergence. 21 refs., 5 fig

  13. Electric utility fuel choice behavior in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joskow, P.L.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1977-10-01

    Electric utility fuel choice behavior is analyzed by a conditional logit model to determine the effects of changing oil prices of five plants. Three of the plants faced favorable expected coal prices and, like many areas of the country, were insensitive to changing oil prices. This was not the case at the New England plant, however, where relatively small price increases would decrease the likelihood of choosing oil as an alternative fuel for new plants. The modeling of utility behavior in fuel decisions is felt to be applicable to other industries where a continuum of decision possibilities does not reasonably characterize choice alternatives. New behavior models are urged in order to obtain better predictions of the effects of a changing economic environment. 10 references.

  14. A large economic liquid metal reactor for United States utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodwell, E.

    1985-01-01

    The United States has demonstrated its ability to build and operate small and medium sized liquid metal reactors and continues to operate the Experimental Breeder Reactor II and the Fast Flux Test Facility to demonstrate long life fuel designs. Similar-sized liquid metal reactors in Europe have been followed by a step-up to the 1200 MWe capacity of the Superphenix plant. To permit the United States to make a similar step-up in capacity, a 1320 MWe liquid metal reactor plant has been designed with the main emphasis on minimizing the specific capital cost in order to be competitive with light water reactor plant and fossil plant alternatives. The design is based on a four parallel heat transport loops arrangement and complies with current regulatory requirements. The primary heat transport loops are now being integrated into the reactor vessel to achieve further reduction in the capital cost

  15. United States extension of indemnification to utilities and contractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, G.

    1988-01-01

    This chapter discusses the status of the Price-Anderson Act which provides a means of compensation for members of the public who may be injured as a result of a nuclear incident at a licensed commercial power plant or a facility of the United States Government operated by a contractor. It describes the course of bills to extend the Act in 1987 and analyses some of the major issues of the debate (NEA) [fr

  16. United States extension of indemnification to utilities and contractors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, G.H.

    1988-01-01

    The status of legislation in the United States, usually known as the Price-Anderson Act, provides an assured source and means of compensation for members of the public who may be injured as a result of a nuclear accident at a licensed commercial nuclear power plant or at a facility of the United States Government operated by a contractor. First a brief overview of the Act and its history is given, then the course of legislation to extend the Price-Anderson Act through the United States Congress is charted with comments made on the major issues of the debate. The Act requires that a least $560 million in insurance and/or Government indemnity is available to cover public liability claims arising out of an accident at a nuclear power plant. The Act also limits the total liability of all persons for any nuclear incident to a predetermined amount and this is one issue discussed. Final action on the legal situation should be taken in 1988. (U.K.)

  17. Trends in radioisotope development and utilization in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, W E [Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, D.C. (USA)

    1976-06-01

    The current trends in radioisotope and radiation technology in the United States are overviewed with emphasis on the developments since the 1973 Conference. The comments focus primarily on the research and development activities receiving the most attention today from the various agencies of the Government. Among the many available radionuclides, technetium-99m has played the single most important role for making possible the developments in the field of nuclear medicine. Many other short lived medium-lived nuclides are applied in the fields of nuclear medicine, cardiac pacemaker, artificial heart, and blood irradiator. Radiation processing is now firmly established in the United States. The trends in sewage treatment, polymer-impregnated materials, bioengineering, and food irradiation are reviewed. The programs for californium-252, strontium-90, cesium-137, plutonium-238, and krypton-85 are also reviewed. The author concludes this paper with the acknowledgement that Japanese researchers have contributed to and have been closely involved in many of the programs discussed. Of particular note is the participation in the clinical phase of the californium-252 radiotherapy program. Several Japanese hospitals have been cooperating with the United States since the very beginning of the californium-252 program in determining the value of the californium-252 neutron therapy. The research being performed is unique, and will contribute greatly to the decisions on the ultimate future of californium-252 for therapeutic purposes.

  18. Quantization analysis of speckle intensity measurements for phase retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maallo, Anne Margarette S.; Almoro, Percival F.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2010-01-01

    Speckle intensity measurements utilized for phase retrieval (PR) are sequentially taken with a digital camera, which introduces quantization error that diminishes the signal quality. Influences of quantization on the speckle intensity distribution and PR are investigated numerically...... and experimentally in the static wavefront sensing setup. Resultsshowthat 3 to 4 bits are adequate to represent the speckle intensities and yield acceptable reconstructions at relatively fast convergence rates. Computer memory requirements may be eased down by 2.4 times if a 4 bit instead of an 8 bit camera is used...

  19. Geometric quantization and general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.-M.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of geometric quantization is to give a rigorous mathematical content to the 'correspondence principle' between classical and quantum mechanics. The main tools are borrowed on one hand from differential geometry and topology (differential manifolds, differential forms, fiber bundles, homology and cohomology, homotopy), on the other hand from analysis (functions of positive type, infinite dimensional group representations, pseudo-differential operators). Some satisfactory results have been obtained in the study of dynamical systems, but some fundamental questions are still waiting for an answer. The 'geometric quantization of fields', where some further well known difficulties arise, is still in a preliminary stage. In particular, the geometric quantization on the gravitational field is still a mere project. The situation is even more uncertain due to the fact that there is no experimental evidence of any quantum gravitational effect which could give us a hint towards what we are supposed to look for. The first level of both Quantum Theory, and General Relativity describes passive matter: influence by the field without being a source of it (first quantization and equivalence principle respectively). In both cases this is only an approximation (matter is always a source). But this approximation turns out to be the least uncertain part of the description, because on one hand the first quantization avoids the problems of renormalization and on the other hand the equivalence principle does not imply any choice of field equations (it is known that one can modify Einstein equations at short distances without changing their geometrical properties). (Auth.)

  20. Geriatric drug therapy and healthcare utilization in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennerfalk, Anita; Ruigómez, Ana; Wallander, Mari-Ann; Wilhelmsen, Lars; Johansson, Saga

    2002-05-01

    To describe the use of prescription drug therapy, especially polypharmacy, in an elderly general population; to relate that use to age, gender, and different types of healthcare utilization; and to investigate the influence of selection of different time windows on the result of the quantity as well as the categories of drugs used. Data on a sample of 5000 patients aged 65-90 years in 1996 were derived from the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). The population covered by GPRD is broadly representative of the UK population treated in general practice. Drug use was assessed using 2 time windows - current use of individual drugs on a random day (index date) and 1 month following the index date. Healthcare utilization was analyzed by use of information on visits to general practitioners (GPs), hospitalizations, and referrals to specialists. Women used more drugs than men; however, the prevalence of polypharmacy, defined as concomitant use of > or =5 drugs, was similar in both genders. The most frequently used therapeutic groups were cardiovascular, central nervous, and gastrointestinal system drugs. Almost 80% of both women and men visited a GP at least once a year. Overall, women used more ambulatory care services and men were hospitalized more often. Use of random date compared with 1-month period resulted in a significant underestimation of the amount of drugs used for acute conditions and, consequently, the risk of polypharmacy. The overall results confirm the findings in earlier studies suggesting that the GPRD might be a useful tool in further studies on prescription drug use among elderly persons. More information on the appropriateness of drug use is needed to prevent overuse as well as underuse of medications among the elderly.

  1. Complex and real Hermite polynomials and related quantizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotfas, Nicolae; Gazeau, Jean Pierre; Gorska, Katarzyna

    2010-01-01

    It is known that the anti-Wick (or standard coherent state) quantization of the complex plane produces both canonical commutation rule and quantum spectrum of the harmonic oscillator (up to the addition of a constant). In this work, we show that these two issues are not necessarily coupled: there exists a family of separable Hilbert spaces, including the usual Fock-Bargmann space, and in each element in this family there exists an overcomplete set of unit-norm states resolving the unity. With the exception of the Fock-Bargmann case, they all produce non-canonical commutation relation whereas the quantum spectrum of the harmonic oscillator remains the same up to the addition of a constant. The statistical aspects of these non-equivalent coherent state quantizations are investigated. We also explore the localization aspects in the real line yielded by similar quantizations based on real Hermite polynomials.

  2. Kähler Quantization and Hitchin Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth Gammelgaard, Niels

    In this thesis, we study geometric quantization as well as deformation quantization of symplectic manifolds endowed with a compatible complex structure. Using Karabegov's classification of star products with separation of variables, we give an explicit, local, combinatorial formula for any...

  3. Pseudo-Kaehler quantization on flag manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabegov, A.V.

    1997-07-01

    A unified approach to geometric, symbol and deformation quantizations on a generalized flag manifold endowed with an invariant pseudo-Kaehler structure is proposed. In particular cases we arrive at Berezin's quantization via covariant and contravariant symbols. (author). 16 refs

  4. Trends in blood utilization in United States cardiac surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robich, Michael P; Koch, Colleen G; Johnston, Douglas R; Schiltz, Nicholas; Chandran Pillai, Aiswarya; Hussain, Syed T; Soltesz, Edward G

    2015-04-01

    We sought to determine whether publication of blood conservation guidelines by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons in 2007 influenced transfusion rates and to understand how patient- and hospital-level factors influenced blood product usage. We identified 4,465,016 patients in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database who underwent cardiac operations between 1999 and 2010 (3,202,404 before the guidelines and 1,262,612 after). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to account for hospital- and patient-level clustering. Transfusion rates of blood products increased from 13% in 1999 to a peak of 34% in 2010. Use of all blood components increased over the study period. Aortic aneurysm repair had the highest transfusion rate with 54% of patients receiving products in 2010. In coronary artery bypass grafting, the number of patients receiving blood products increased from 12% in 1999 to 32% in 2010. Patients undergoing valvular operations had a transfusion rate of 15% in 1999, increasing to 36% in 2010. Patients undergoing combined operations had an increase from 13% to 40% over 11 years. Risk factors for transfusion were anemia (odds ratio [OR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.01-2.09), coagulopathy (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.51-1.57), diabetes (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.28-1.36), renal failure (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.26-1.32), and liver disease (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.16-1.31). Compared to the Northeast, the risk for transfusion was significantly lower in the Midwest; higher-volume hospitals used fewer blood products than lower-volume centers. Cell salvage usage remained below 5% across all years. Independent of patient- and hospital-level factors, blood product utilization continues to increase for all cardiac operations despite publication of blood conservation guidelines in 2007. © 2014 AABB.

  5. Loop quantization as a continuum limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, Elisa; Oeckl, Robert; Weber, Axel; Zapata, Jose A

    2006-01-01

    We present an implementation of Wilson's renormalization group and a continuum limit tailored for loop quantization. The dynamics of loop-quantized theories is constructed as a continuum limit of the dynamics of effective theories. After presenting the general formalism we show as a first explicit example the 2D Ising field theory, an interacting relativistic quantum field theory with local degrees of freedom quantized by loop quantization techniques

  6. Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols....

  7. Quantization and hall effect: necessities and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed Bouketir; Hishamuddin Zainuddin

    1999-01-01

    The quantization procedure is a necessary tool for a proper understanding of many interesting quantum phenomena in modern physics. In this note, we focus on geometrical framework for such procedures, particularly the group-theoretic approach and their difficulties. Finally we look through the example of Hall effect as a quantized macroscopic phenomenon with group-theoretic quantization approach. (author)

  8. Perturbation theory from stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.

    1984-01-01

    By using a diagrammatical method it is shown that in scalar theories the stochastic quantization method of Parisi and Wu gives the usual perturbation series in Feynman diagrams. It is further explained how to apply the diagrammatical method to gauge theories, discussing the origin of ghost effects. (Author)

  9. Ordering in the skyrmions quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananias Neto, Jorge

    1994-01-01

    Using collective coordinates for quantization, we show that exits a ordering problem in the definition of momentum operator. We suggest that a new definition for this operator can solve the infrared problem which rises when an attempt to minimize all the quantum Hamiltonian is made

  10. Quantization of the Radiation Field

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    field,quantization,Lamb shift. Avinash Khare ... actions as well as for theories beyond like grand unified theories. Further, the same ... cules as well as condensed matter physics, not to men- tion their ... of an electromagnetic field by a moving electron, and of the reaction of this field on the electron have not yet been touched.".

  11. Stochastic quantization of Proca field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, S.C.

    1981-03-01

    We discuss the complications that arise in the application of Nelson's stochastic quantization scheme to classical Proca field. One consistent way to obtain spin-one massive stochastic field is given. It is found that the result of Guerra et al on the connection between ground state stochastic field and the corresponding Euclidean-Markov field extends to the spin-one case. (author)

  12. On the quantization of spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banai, M.

    1981-01-01

    A program of quantization of relativistic local field theories in terms of Hilbert modules over non-commutative Csup*-algebras is outlined. The spacetime of the considered systems should become a ''quantum'' represented by a Hilbert space. Two suggestions are given for the possible determination this quantum spacetime. (author)

  13. Deformation of second and third quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we will deform the second and third quantized theories by deforming the canonical commutation relations in such a way that they become consistent with the generalized uncertainty principle. Thus, we will first deform the second quantized commutator and obtain a deformed version of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Then we will further deform the third quantized theory by deforming the third quantized canonical commutation relation. This way we will obtain a deformed version of the third quantized theory for the multiverse.

  14. The Effect of Geographic Units of Analysis on Measuring Geographic Variation in Medical Services Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnus M. Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of geographic units of analysis on measuring geographic variation in medical services utilization. For this purpose, we compared geographic variations in the rates of eight major procedures in administrative units (districts and new areal units organized based on the actual health care use of the population in Korea. Methods: To compare geographic variation in geographic units of analysis, we calculated the age–sex standardized rates of eight major procedures (coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, surgery after hip fracture, knee-replacement surgery, caesarean section, hysterectomy, computed tomography scan, and magnetic resonance imaging scan from the National Health Insurance database in Korea for the 2013 period. Using the coefficient of variation, the extremal quotient, and the systematic component of variation, we measured geographic variation for these eight procedures in districts and new areal units. Results: Compared with districts, new areal units showed a reduction in geographic variation. Extremal quotients and inter-decile ratios for the eight procedures were lower in new areal units. While the coefficient of variation was lower for most procedures in new areal units, the pattern of change of the systematic component of variation between districts and new areal units differed among procedures. Conclusions: Geographic variation in medical service utilization could vary according to the geographic unit of analysis. To determine how geographic characteristics such as population size and number of geographic units affect geographic variation, further studies are needed.

  15. Covariant quantizations in plane and curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assirati, J.L.M.; Gitman, D.M.

    2017-01-01

    We present covariant quantization rules for nonsingular finite-dimensional classical theories with flat and curved configuration spaces. In the beginning, we construct a family of covariant quantizations in flat spaces and Cartesian coordinates. This family is parametrized by a function ω(θ), θ element of (1,0), which describes an ambiguity of the quantization. We generalize this construction presenting covariant quantizations of theories with flat configuration spaces but already with arbitrary curvilinear coordinates. Then we construct a so-called minimal family of covariant quantizations for theories with curved configuration spaces. This family of quantizations is parametrized by the same function ω(θ). Finally, we describe a more wide family of covariant quantizations in curved spaces. This family is already parametrized by two functions, the previous one ω(θ) and by an additional function Θ(x,ξ). The above mentioned minimal family is a part at Θ = 1 of the wide family of quantizations. We study constructed quantizations in detail, proving their consistency and covariance. As a physical application, we consider a quantization of a non-relativistic particle moving in a curved space, discussing the problem of a quantum potential. Applying the covariant quantizations in flat spaces to an old problem of constructing quantum Hamiltonian in polar coordinates, we directly obtain a correct result. (orig.)

  16. Covariant quantizations in plane and curved spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assirati, J.L.M. [University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Gitman, D.M. [Tomsk State University, Department of Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); University of Sao Paulo, Institute of Physics, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    We present covariant quantization rules for nonsingular finite-dimensional classical theories with flat and curved configuration spaces. In the beginning, we construct a family of covariant quantizations in flat spaces and Cartesian coordinates. This family is parametrized by a function ω(θ), θ element of (1,0), which describes an ambiguity of the quantization. We generalize this construction presenting covariant quantizations of theories with flat configuration spaces but already with arbitrary curvilinear coordinates. Then we construct a so-called minimal family of covariant quantizations for theories with curved configuration spaces. This family of quantizations is parametrized by the same function ω(θ). Finally, we describe a more wide family of covariant quantizations in curved spaces. This family is already parametrized by two functions, the previous one ω(θ) and by an additional function Θ(x,ξ). The above mentioned minimal family is a part at Θ = 1 of the wide family of quantizations. We study constructed quantizations in detail, proving their consistency and covariance. As a physical application, we consider a quantization of a non-relativistic particle moving in a curved space, discussing the problem of a quantum potential. Applying the covariant quantizations in flat spaces to an old problem of constructing quantum Hamiltonian in polar coordinates, we directly obtain a correct result. (orig.)

  17. Enhanced quantization particles, fields and gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Klauder, John R

    2015-01-01

    This pioneering book addresses the question: Are the standard procedures of canonical quantization fully satisfactory, or is there more to learn about assigning a proper quantum system to a given classical system? As shown in this book, the answer to this question is: The standard procedures of canonical quantization are not the whole story! This book offers alternative quantization procedures that complete the story of quantization. The initial chapters are designed to present the new procedures in a clear and simple manner for general readers. As is necessary, systems that exhibit acceptable results with conventional quantization lead to the same results when the new procedures are used for them. However, later chapters examine selected models that lead to unacceptable results when quantized conventionally. Fortunately, these same models lead to acceptable results when the new quantization procedures are used.

  18. Experimental investigations on cylindrical latent heat storage units with sodium acetate trihydrate composites utilizing supercooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Kong, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Latent heat storage units utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) composites were tested in a laboratory. The stainless steel units were 1.5 m high cylinders with internal heat exchangers of tubes with fins. One unit was tested with 116 kg SAT with 6% extra water. Another...... in the thickened phase change material after melting. The heat content in the fully charged state and the heat released after solidification of the supercooled SAT mixtures at ambient temperature was higher for the unit with the thickened SAT mixture. The heat discharged after solidification of the supercooled SAT...

  19. Topological quantization of ensemble averages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prodan, Emil

    2009-01-01

    We define the current of a quantum observable and, under well-defined conditions, we connect its ensemble average to the index of a Fredholm operator. The present work builds on a formalism developed by Kellendonk and Schulz-Baldes (2004 J. Funct. Anal. 209 388) to study the quantization of edge currents for continuous magnetic Schroedinger operators. The generalization given here may be a useful tool to scientists looking for novel manifestations of the topological quantization. As a new application, we show that the differential conductance of atomic wires is given by the index of a certain operator. We also comment on how the formalism can be used to probe the existence of edge states

  20. Modular invariance and stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C.R.; Rubin, M.A.; Zwanziger, D.

    1989-01-01

    In Polyakov path integrals and covariant closed-string field theory, integration over Teichmueller parameters must be restricted by hand to a single modular region. This problem has an analog in Yang-Mills gauge theory---namely, the Gribov problem, which can be resolved by the method of stochastic gauge fixing. This method is here employed to quantize a simple modular-invariant system: the Polyakov point particle. In the limit of a large gauge-fixing force, it is shown that suitable choices for the functional form of the gauge-fixing force can lead to a restriction of Teichmueller integration to a single modular region. Modifications which arise when applying stochastic quantization to a system in which the volume of the orbits of the gauge group depends on a dynamical variable, such as a Teichmueller parameter, are pointed out, and the extension to Polyakov strings and covariant closed-string field theory is discussed

  1. Topological quantization of gravitational fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino, Leonardo; Quevedo, Hernando

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the method of topological quantization for gravitational fields in a systematic manner. First we show that any vacuum solution of Einstein's equations can be represented in a principal fiber bundle with a connection that takes values in the Lie algebra of the Lorentz group. This result is generalized to include the case of gauge matter fields in multiple principal fiber bundles. We present several examples of gravitational configurations that include a gravitomagnetic monopole in linearized gravity, the C-energy of cylindrically symmetric fields, the Reissner-Nordstroem and the Kerr-Newman black holes. As a result of the application of the topological quantization procedure, in all the analyzed examples we obtain conditions implying that the parameters entering the metric in each case satisfy certain discretization relationships

  2. Stochastic quantization of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpf, H.

    1986-01-01

    Following an elementary exposition of the basic mathematical concepts used in the theory of stochastic relaxation processes the stochastic quantization method of Parisi and Wu is briefly reviewed. The method is applied to Einstein's theory of gravitation using a formalism that is manifestly covariant with respect to field redefinitions. This requires the adoption of Ito's calculus and the introduction of a metric in field configuration space, for which there is a unique candidate. Due to the indefiniteness of the Euclidean Einstein-Hilbert action stochastic quantization is generalized to the pseudo-Riemannian case. It is formally shown to imply the DeWitt path integral measure. Finally a new type of perturbation theory is developed. (Author)

  3. Advance reactor and fuel-cycle systems--potentials and limitations for United States utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zebroski, E.L.; Williams, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential benefits and limitations of advance reactor and fuel-cycle systems for United States utilities. The results of the review of advanced technologies show that for the near and midterm, the only advance reactor and fuel-cycle system with significant potential for United States utilities is the current LWR, and evolutionary, not revolutionary, enhancements. For the long term, the liquid-metal breeder reactor continues to be the most promising advance nuclear option. The major factors leading to this conclusion are summarized

  4. Stochastic quantization and gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolck, U. van.

    1987-01-01

    Stochastic quantization is presented taking the Flutuation-Dissipation Theorem as a guide. It is shown that the original approach of Parisi and Wu to gauge theories fails to give the right results to gauge invariant quantities when dimensional regularization is used. Although there is a simple solution in an abelian theory, in the non-abelian case it is probably necessary to start from a BRST invariant action instead of a gauge invariant one. Stochastic regularizations are also discussed. (author) [pt

  5. Stochastic quantization and gauge invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas about Parisi-Wu's Stochastic Quantization Method, with applications to Scalar, Gauge and Fermionic theories, is done. In particular, the Analytic Stochastic Regularization Scheme is used to calculate the polarization tensor for Quantum Electrodynamics with Dirac bosons or Fermions. The regularization influence is studied for both theories and an extension of this method for some supersymmetrical models is suggested. (author)

  6. Quantization of Equations of Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kochan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Classical Newton-Lagrange equations of motion represent the fundamental physical law of mechanics. Their traditional Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian precursors when available are essential in the context of quantization. However, there are situations that lack Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian settings. This paper discusses a description of classical dynamics and presents some irresponsible speculations about its quantization by introducing a certain canonical two-form ?. By its construction ? embodies kinetic energy and forces acting within the system (not their potential. A new type of variational principle employing differential two-form ? is introduced. Variation is performed over “umbilical surfaces“ instead of system histories. It provides correct Newton-Lagrange equations of motion. The quantization is inspired by the Feynman path integral approach. The quintessence is to rearrange it into an “umbilical world-sheet“ functional integral in accordance with the proposed variational principle. In the case of potential-generated forces, the new approach reduces to the standard quantum mechanics. As an example, Quantum Mechanics with friction is analyzed in detail. 

  7. An operating nuclear utility's experience with the ALARA design of a new nuclear unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    This talk presents a review of how operating experience at Northeast Utilities has been factored into the design of a new nuclear unit and the development and management of the radiation protection program. Their operational experience has indicated that there are two facets to keeping radiation exposures ALARA. The first is the proper ALARA design of the unit. The other facet is the design of a comprehensive radiation protection program. The author discusses these facets in some detail

  8. Summary of the fourth conference on United States utility experience in reactor noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, D.N.

    1987-01-01

    The fourth informal conference on United States utility experience in reactor noise analysis and loose-part monitoring was held at the Northeast Utilities Service Company offices in Hartford, Connecticut, May 12-14, 1987. Host and general chairman for the meeting was J.V. Persio of Northeast Utilities. This conference provided a forum where utilities could share information on reactor noise analysis on an informal basis. There were about 60 attendees at the meeting representing 10 utilities, 3 reactor vendors, 8 consulting organizations, and 4 universities and research laboratories. Twenty-three papers were presented at the conference, dealing with various aspects of loose-part monitoring, neutron noise analysis, and standards activities

  9. Quantization rules for strongly chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurich, R.; Bolte, J.

    1992-09-01

    We discuss the quantization of strongly chaotic systems and apply several quantization rules to a model system given by the unconstrained motion of a particle on a compact surface of constant negative Gaussian curvature. We study the periodic-orbit theory for distinct symmetry classes corresponding to a parity operation which is always present when such a surface has genus two. Recently, several quantization rules based on periodic orbit theory have been introduced. We compare quantizations using the dynamical zeta function Z(s) with the quantization condition cos(π N(E)) = 0, where a periodix-orbit expression for the spectral staircase N(E) is used. A general discussion of the efficiency of periodic-orbit quantization then allows us to compare the different methods. The system dependence of the efficiency, which is determined by the topological entropy τ and the mean level density anti d(E), is emphasized. (orig.)

  10. On the Dequantization of Fedosov's Deformation Quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabegov, Alexander V.

    2003-08-01

    To each natural deformation quantization on a Poisson manifold M we associate a Poisson morphism from the formal neighborhood of the zero section of the cotangent bundle to M to the formal neighborhood of the diagonal of the product M x M~, where M~ is a copy of M with the opposite Poisson structure. We call it dequantization of the natural deformation quantization. Then we "dequantize" Fedosov's quantization.

  11. Quantization of scalar-spinor instanton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, H.

    1977-04-01

    A systematic quantization to the scalar-spinor instanton is given in a canonical formalism of Euclidean space. A basic idea is in the repair of the symmetries of the 0(5) covariant system in the presence of the instanton. The quantization of the fermion is carried through in such a way that the fermion number should be conserved. Our quantization enables us to get well-defined propagators for both the scalar and the fermion, which are free from unphysical poles

  12. 75 FR 60093 - Record of Decision for the United States Marine Corps Basewide Utilities Infrastructure Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... Basewide Utilities Infrastructure Project at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, CA AGENCY: Department of the... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 United States Code (U.S.C.) Section 4332(2)(c), the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40 Code...

  13. Health Utilization and Cost Impact of Childhood Constipation in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liem, Olivia; Harman, Jeffrey; Benninga, Marc; Kelleher, Kelly; Mousa, Hayat; Di Lorenzo, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Objective To estimate the total health care utilization and costs for children with constipation in the United States. Study design We analyzed data from 2 consecutive years (2003 and 2004) of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS), a nationally representative household survey. We identified

  14. Restricted Albumin Utilization Is Safe and Cost Effective in a Cardiac Surgery Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Joseph; Meyenburg, Timothy; Lowery, Ashleigh V; Rouse, Michael; Gammie, James S; Herr, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Volume expansion is often necessary after cardiac surgery, and albumin is often administered. Albumin's high cost motivated an attempt to reduce its utilization. This study analyzes the impact limiting albumin infusion in a cardiac surgery intensive care unit. This retrospective study analyzed albumin use between April 2014 and April 2015 in patients admitted to a cardiac surgery intensive care unit. During the first 9 months, there were no restrictions. In January 2015, institutional guidelines limited albumin use to patients requiring more than 3 L crystalloid in the early postoperative period, hypoalbuminemic patients, and to patients considered fluid overloaded. Albumin utilization was obtained from pharmacy records and compared with outcome quality metrics. In all, 1,401 patients were admitted over 13 months. Albumin use, mortality, ventilator days, patients receiving transfusions, and length of stay were compared for 961 patients before and 440 patients after guidelines were initiated. After restrictive guidelines were instituted, albumin utilization was reduced from a mean of 280 monthly doses to a mean of 101 monthly doses (p albumin doses, the cardiac surgery intensive care unit demonstrated more than $45,000 of wholesale savings per month after restrictions were implemented. Albumin restriction in the cardiac surgery intensive care unit was feasible and safe. Significant reductions in utilization and cost with no changes in morbidity or mortality were demonstrated. These findings may provide a strategy for reducing cost while maintaining quality of care. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantization of Green-Schwarz superstring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallosh, R.E.

    1987-04-01

    The problem of quantization of superstrings is traced back to the nil-potency of gauge generators of the first-generation ghosts. The quantization of such theories is performed. The novel feature of this quantization is the freedom in choosing the number of ghost generations as well as gauge conditions. As an example, we perform quantization of heterotic string in a gauge, which preserves space-time supersymmetry. The equations of motion are those of a free theory. (author). 12 refs, 2 figs

  16. Managing carbon regulatory risk in utility resource planning: Current practices in the Western United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan; Phadke, Amol; Goldman, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about global climate change have substantially increased the likelihood that future policy will seek to minimize carbon dioxide emissions. As such, even today, electric utilities are making resource planning and investment decisions that consider the possible implications of these future carbon regulations. In this article, we examine the manner in which utilities assess the financial risks associated with future carbon regulations within their long-term resource plans. We base our analysis on a review of the most recent resource plans filed by 15 electric utilities in the Western United States. Virtually all of these utilities made some effort to quantitatively evaluate the potential cost of future carbon regulations when analyzing alternate supply- and demand-side resource options for meeting customer load. Even without federal climate regulation in the US, the prospect of that regulation is already having an impact on utility decision-making and resource choices. That said, the methods and assumptions used by utilities to analyze carbon regulatory risk, and the impact of that analysis on their choice of a particular resource strategy, vary considerably, revealing a number of opportunities for analytic improvement. Though our review focuses on a subset of US electric utilities, this work holds implications for all electric utilities and energy policymakers who are seeking to minimize the compliance costs associated with future carbon regulations

  17. FBC utilization prospects in decentralized cogeneration units in Caucasus region countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skodras George

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Great differences are encountered among Caucasus region countries with respect to energy resources reserves and economic conditions. Thermal power plants consist of obsolete and inefficient units, while the Soviet-type large heating systems in the area collapsed after 1992 and their reconstruction is considered uneconomic. Renovation needs of the power and heat sector, and the potential of Fluidised Bed Combustion implementations in decentralized cogeneration units were investigated, since operating oil and gas power plants exhibit high fuel consumption, low efficiency and poor environmental performance. Results showed significant prospects of Fluidised Bed Combustion utilization in decentralized cogeneration units in the Caucausus region heat and power sector. Their introduction constitutes an economically attractive way to cover power and heat demands and promotes utilization of domestic energy resources in all of three countries, provided that financial difficulties could be confronted.

  18. Possible evidence for the quantization of particle lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, R.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of widths of resonant states supports the hypothesis that particle lifetimes are quantized in units of 1/2 or possibly 1/4 the lifetime of the rho meson: (4.40 +- 0.06) x 10 -24 seconds. The probability that the observed regularity in resonance widths (lifetimes) is simply due to chance is estimated to be less than 2 x 10 -4 . Possible ramifications of this result are considered

  19. On the zero mode problem of the light-cone quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Suzhou; Lin, Wei

    1993-01-01

    The light-cone quantization for theories involving arbitrarily interacting scalars is studied systematically. The zero mode, which plays a special role in the light-cone quantization, is treated explicitly. The arguments utilize a lattice regularization and the constrained path-integral method. It is shown, to all orders in coupling constants or the loop expansion, that the ghost fields, introduced to enforce the constraints, decouple from all the virtual processes in the infinite-volume limit. The only possibility for the light-cone quantization to deviate from the equal-time quantization is when the interaction is such that the bosonic ghost fields develop expectation values and consequently alter the location of the minimum point of the effective potential. 24 refs

  20. Twisted condensates of quantized fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallone, F.; Sparzani, A.; Ubertone, G.; Streater, R.F.

    We construct some quasi-free pure states of free quantized fields in 1+1 dimensions, that are localized in the sense of Knight. We consider massless or massive Dirac fields forming a U(n), n >= 1, multiplet and subject it to a local gauge transformation. We also subject a doublet of massive Klein-Gordon fields to local SO(2) transformations. We find the conditions that the resulting automorphism is spatial in Fock space. In some cases the conditions turn out to require that certain parameters, identified as the winding numbers of the gauge, are integers. It is argued that this integer labels states of various charge. (orig.)

  1. Spectral representation in stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Hiromichi.

    1988-10-01

    A spectral representation of stationary 2-point functions is investigated based on the operator formalism in stochastic quantization. Assuming the existence of asymptotic non-interacting fields, we can diagonalize the total Hamiltonian in terms of asymptotic fields and show that the correlation length along the fictious time is proportional to the physical mass expected in the usual field theory. A relation between renormalization factors in the operator formalism is derived as a byproduct and its validity is checked with the perturbative results calculated in this formalism. (orig.)

  2. Completely quantized collapse and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearle, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Promotion of quantum theory from a theory of measurement to a theory of reality requires an unambiguous specification of the ensemble of realizable states (and each state's probability of realization). Although not yet achieved within the framework of standard quantum theory, it has been achieved within the framework of the continuous spontaneous localization (CSL) wave-function collapse model. In CSL, a classical random field w(x,t) interacts with quantum particles. The state vector corresponding to each w(x,t) is a realizable state. In this paper, I consider a previously presented model, which is predictively equivalent to CSL. In this completely quantized collapse (CQC) model, the classical random field is quantized. It is represented by the operator W(x,t) which satisfies [W(x,t),W(x ' ,t ' )]=0. The ensemble of realizable states is described by a single state vector, the 'ensemble vector'. Each superposed state which comprises the ensemble vector at time t is the direct product of an eigenstate of W(x,t ' ), for all x and for 0≤t ' ≤t, and the CSL state corresponding to that eigenvalue. These states never interfere (they satisfy a superselection rule at any time), they only branch, so the ensemble vector may be considered to be, as Schroedinger put it, a 'catalog' of the realizable states. In this context, many different interpretations (e.g., many worlds, environmental decoherence, consistent histories, modal interpretation) may be satisfactorily applied. Using this description, a long-standing problem is resolved, where the energy comes from the particles gain due to the narrowing of their wave packets by the collapse mechanism. It is shown how to define the energy of the random field and its energy of interaction with particles so that total energy is conserved for the ensemble of realizable states. As a by-product, since the random-field energy spectrum is unbounded, its canonical conjugate, a self-adjoint time operator, can be discussed. Finally, CSL

  3. Quantization by stochastic relaxation processes and supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, R.

    1984-01-01

    We show the supersymmetry mechanism resposible for the quantization by stochastic relaxation processes and for the effective cancellation of the additional time dimension against the two Grassmann dimensions. We give a non-perturbative proof of the validity of this quantization procedure. (author)

  4. Deformation quantization of principal fibre bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, S.

    2007-01-01

    Deformation quantization is an algebraic but still geometrical way to define noncommutative spacetimes. In order to investigate corresponding gauge theories on such spaces, the geometrical formulation in terms of principal fibre bundles yields the appropriate framework. In this talk I will explain what should be understood by a deformation quantization of principal fibre bundles and how associated vector bundles arise in this context. (author)

  5. Quantized Predictive Control over Erasure Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Quevedo, Daniel; Østergaard, Jan

    2009-01-01

    .i.d. dropouts, the controller transmits data packets containing quantized plant input predictions. These minimize a finite horizon cost function and are provided by an appropriate optimal entropy coded dithered lattice vector quantizer. Within this context, we derive an equivalent noise-shaping model...

  6. Deformation quantization of the Heisenberg group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonechi, F.

    1994-01-01

    After reviewing the way the quantization of Poisson Lie Groups naturally leads to Quantum Groups, the existing quantum version H(1) q of the Heisenberg algebra is used to give an explicit example of this quantization on the Heisenberg group. (author) 6 refs

  7. Quantization of super Teichmueller spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghaei, Nezhla

    2016-08-01

    The quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of Riemann surfaces has found important applications to conformal field theory and N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories. We construct a quantization of the Teichmueller spaces of super Riemann surfaces, using coordinates associated to the ideal triangulations of super Riemann surfaces. A new feature is the non-trivial dependence on the choice of a spin structure which can be encoded combinatorially in a certain refinement of the ideal triangulation. We construct a projective unitary representation of the groupoid of changes of refined ideal triangulations. Therefore, we demonstrate that the dependence of the resulting quantum theory on the choice of a triangulation is inessential. In the quantum Teichmueller theory, it was observed that the key object defining the Teichmueller theory has a close relation to the representation theory of the Borel half of U q (sl(2)). In our research we observed that the role of U q (sl(2)) is taken by quantum superalgebra U q (osp(1 vertical stroke 2)). A Borel half of U q (osp(1 vertical stroke 2)) is the super quantum plane. The canonical element of the Heisenberg double of the quantum super plane is evaluated in certain infinite dimensional representations on L 2 (R) x C 1 vertical stroke 1 and compared to the flip operator from the Teichmueller theory of super Riemann surfaces.

  8. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, V.G., E-mail: vladislav.kupriyanov@gmail.com [CMCC-Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Tomsk State University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev–Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.

  9. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, V.G.

    2016-01-01

    Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev–Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.

  10. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Kupriyanov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev–Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.

  11. Fuzzy spheres from inequivalent coherent states quantizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazeau, Jean Pierre; Huguet, Eric; Lachieze-Rey, Marc; Renaud, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The existence of a family of coherent states (CS) solving the identity in a Hilbert space allows, under certain conditions, to quantize functions defined on the measure space of CS parameters. The application of this procedure to the 2-sphere provides a family of inequivalent CS quantizations based on the spin spherical harmonics (the CS quantization from usual spherical harmonics appears to give a trivial issue for the Cartesian coordinates). We compare these CS quantizations to the usual (Madore) construction of the fuzzy sphere. Due to these differences, our procedure yields new types of fuzzy spheres. Moreover, the general applicability of CS quantization suggests similar constructions of fuzzy versions of a large variety of sets

  12. Transitional Home Care program utilizing the Integrated Practice Unit concept (THC-IPU: Effectiveness in improving acute hospital utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian Leng Low

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organizing care into integrated practice units (IPUs around conditions and patient segments has been proposed to increase value. We organized transitional care into an IPU (THC-IPU for a patient segment of functionally dependent patients with limited community ambulation. Methods: 1,166 eligible patients were approached for enrolment into THC-IPU. THC-IPU patients received a comprehensive assessment within two weeks of discharge; medication reconciliation; education using standardized action plans and a dedicated nurse case manager for up to 90 days after discharge. Patients who rejected enrolment into THC-IPU received usual post-discharge care planned by their attending hospital physician, and formed the control group. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with at least one unscheduled readmission within 30 days after discharge. Results: We found a statistically significant reduction in 30-day readmissions and emergency department visits in patients on THC-IPU care compared to usual care, even after adjusting for confounders. Conclusion: Delivering transitional care to patients with functional dependence in the form of home visits and organized into an IPU reduced acute hospital utilization in this patient segment. Extending the program into the pre-hospital discharge phase to include discharge planning can have incremental effectiveness in reducing avoidable hospital readmissions.

  13. Inconsistencies Exist in National Estimates of Eye Care Services Utilization in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are limited research and substantial uncertainty about the level of eye care utilization in the United States. Objectives. Our study estimated eye care utilization using, to our knowledge, every known nationally representative, publicly available database with information on office-based optometry or ophthalmology services. Research Design. We analyzed the following national databases to estimate eye care utilization: the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, Joint Canada/US Survey of Health (JCUSH, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS, and the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS. Subjects. US adults aged 18 and older. Measures. Self-reported utilization of eye care services. Results. The weighted number of adults seeing or talking with any eye doctor ranges from 87.9 million to 99.5 million, and the number of visits annually ranges from 72.9 million to 142.6 million. There were an estimated 17.2 million optometry visits and 55.8 million ophthalmology visits. Conclusions. The definitions and estimates of eye care services vary widely across national databases, leading to substantial differences in national estimates of eye care utilization.

  14. Association between unemployment rates and prescription drug utilization in the United States, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background While extensive evidence suggests that the economic recession has had far reaching effects on many economic sectors, little is known regarding its impact on prescription drug utilization. The purpose of this study is to describe the association between state-level unemployment rates and retail sales of seven therapeutic classes (statins, antidepressants, antipsychotics, angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors, opiates, phosphodiesterase [PDE] inhibitors and oral contraceptives) in the United States. Methods Using a retrospective mixed ecological design, we examined retail prescription sales using IMS Health Xponent™ from September 2007 through July 2010, and we used the Bureau of Labor Statistics to derive population-based rates and mixed-effects modeling with state-level controls to examine the association between unemployment and utilization. Our main outcome measure was state-level utilization per 100,000 people for each class. Results Monthly unemployment levels and rates of use of each class varied substantially across the states. There were no statistically significant associations between use of ACE inhibitors or SSRIs/SNRIs and average unemployment in analyses across states, while for opioids and PDE inhibitors there were small statistically significant direct associations, and for the remaining classes inverse associations. Analyses using each state as its own control collectively exhibited statistically significant positive associations between increases in unemployment and prescription drug utilization for five of seven areas examined. This relationship was greatest for statins (on average, a 4% increase in utilization per 1% increased unemployment) and PDE inhibitors (3% increase in utilization per 1% increased unemployment), and lower for oral contraceptives and atypical antipsychotics. Conclusion We found no evidence of an association between increasing unemployment and decreasing prescription utilization, suggesting that any

  15. Equivalence of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian BRST quantizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryan, G.V.; Grigoryan, R.P.; Tyutin, I.V.

    1992-01-01

    Two approaches to the quantization of gauge theories using BRST symmetry are widely used nowadays: the Lagrangian quantization, developed in (BV-quantization) and Hamiltonian quantization, formulated in (BFV-quantization). For all known examples of field theory (Yang-Mills theory, gravitation etc.) both schemes give equivalent results. However the equivalence of these approaches in general wasn't proved. The main obstacle in comparing of these formulations consists in the fact, that in Hamiltonian approach the number of ghost fields is equal to the number of all first-class constraints, while in the Lagrangian approach the number of ghosts is equal to the number of independent gauge symmetries, which is equal to the number of primary first-class constraints only. This paper is devoted to the proof of the equivalence of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian quantizations for the systems with first-class constraints only. This is achieved by a choice of special gauge in the Hamiltonian approach. It's shown, that after integration over redundant variables on the functional integral we come to effective action which is constructed according to rules for construction of the effective action in Lagrangian quantization scheme

  16. Hitchin's connection in metaplectic quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Gammelgaard, Niels Leth; Lauridsen, Magnus Roed

    2012-01-01

    We give a differential geometric construction of a connection, which we call the Hitchin connection, in the bundle of quantum Hilbert spaces arising from metaplectically corrected geometric quantization of a prequantizable, symplectic manifold, endowed with a rigid family of Kähler structures, all...... manifold in question. Furthermore, when we are in a setting similar to the moduli space, we give an explicit formula and show that this connection agrees with previous constructions....... of which give vanishing first Dolbeault cohomology groups. This generalizes work of both Hitchin, Scheinost and Schottenloher, and Andersen, since our construction does not need that the first Chern class is proportional to the class of the symplectic form, nor do we need compactness of the symplectic...

  17. How to quantize supersymmetric theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilga, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    A recipe for resolving the ordering ambiguities in quantum hamiltonians of supersymmetric theories is suggested. The Weyl ordering procedure applied to classical supercharges expressed as functions on the phase space of a classically supersymmetric system is shown to result in quantum operators which satisfy usual SUSY algebra. The quantum hamiltonian does not always coincide with the Weyl ordered classical hamiltonian function. The difference is due to that the Weyl symbol of the supercharge anticommutator does not coincide with the Poisson bracket of their Weyl symbols (i.e. the classical hamiltonian). The procedure is applied to supersymmetric σ-models (both N=2 and N=1 cases are analyzed) and also to the supersymmetric SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. Only quantum mechanical systems following from field theories when fields are assumed to be independent of space coordinates are considered. For gauge theories thesuggested recipe for quantization leads to the same result as the well-known Dirac recipe

  18. Deformation quantization: Twenty years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sternheimer, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    We first review the historical developments, both in physics and in mathematics, that preceded (and in some sense provided the background of) deformation quantization. Then we describe the birth of the latter theory and its evolution in the past twenty years, insisting on the main conceptual developments and keeping here as much as possible on the physical side. For the physical part the accent is put on its relations to, and relevance for, 'conventional' physics. For the mathematical part we concentrate on the questions of existence and equivalence, including most recent developments for general Poisson manifolds; we touch also noncommutative geometry and index theorems, and relations with group theory, including quantum groups. An extensive (though very incomplete) bibliography is appended and includes background mathematical literature

  19. Quantized motion of trapped ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinbach, J.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with a theoretical and numerical study of the preparation and coherent manipulation of quantum states in the external and internal degrees of freedom of trapped ions. In its first part, this thesis proposes and investigates schemes for generating several nonclassical states for the quantized vibrational motion of a trapped ion. Based on dark state preparation specific laser excitation configurations are presented which, given appropriately chosen initial states, realize the desired motional states in the steady-state, indicated by the cessation of the fluorescence emitted by the ion. The focus is on the SU(1,1) intelligent states in both their single- and two-mode realization, corresponding to one- and two-dimensional motion of the ion. The presented schemes are also studied numerically using a Monte-Carlo state-vector method. The second part of the thesis describes how two vibrational degrees of freedom of a single trapped ion can be coupled through the action of suitably chosen laser excitation. Concentrating on a two-dimensional ion trap with dissimilar vibrational frequencies a variety of quantized two-mode couplings are derived. The focus is on a linear coupling that takes excitations from one mode to another. It is demonstrated how this can result in a state rotation, in which it is possible to coherently transfer the motional state of the ion between orthogonal directions without prior knowledge of that motional state. The third part of this thesis presents a new efficient method for generating maximally entangled internal states of a collection of trapped ions. The method is deterministic and independent of the number of ions in the trap. As the essential element of the scheme a mechanism for the realization of a controlled NOT operation that can operate on multiple ions is proposed. The potential application of the scheme for high-precision frequency standards is explored. (author)

  20. Quantized Hall conductance as a topological invariant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Q.; Thouless, Ds.J.; Wu, Y.S.

    1984-10-01

    Whenever the Fermi level lies in a gap (or mobility gap) the bulk Hall conductance can be expressed in a topologically invariant form showing the quantization explicitly. The new formulation generalizes the earlier result by TKNN to the situation where many body interaction and substrate disorder are also present. When applying to the fractional quantized Hall effect we draw the conclusion that there must be a symmetry breaking in the many body ground state. The possibility of writing the fractionally quantized Hall conductance as a topological invariant is also carefully discussed. 19 references

  1. On the quantization of classically chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, N.F. de.

    1988-01-01

    Some propeties of a quantization in terms of observables of a classically chaotic system, which exhibits a strange are studied. It is shown in particular that convenient expected values of some observables have the correct classical limit and that in these cases the limits ℎ → O and t → ∞ (t=time) rigorously comute. This model was alternatively quantized by R.Graham in terms of Wigner function. The Graham's analysis is completed a few points, in particular, we find out a remarkable analogy with general results about the semi-classical limit of Wigner function. Finally the expected values obtained by both methods of quantization were compared. (author) [pt

  2. A Constructive Sharp Approach to Functional Quantization of Stochastic Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Junglen, Stefan; Luschgy, Harald

    2010-01-01

    We present a constructive approach to the functional quantization problem of stochastic processes, with an emphasis on Gaussian processes. The approach is constructive, since we reduce the infinite-dimensional functional quantization problem to a finite-dimensional quantization problem that can be solved numerically. Our approach achieves the sharp rate of the minimal quantization error and can be used to quantize the path space for Gaussian processes and also, for example, Lévy processes.

  3. Thermal Unit Commitment Scheduling Problem in Utility System by Tabu Search Embedded Genetic Algorithm Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Christober Asir Rajan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to find the generation scheduling such that the total operating cost can be minimized, when subjected to a variety of constraints. This also means that it is desirable to find the optimal unit commitment in the power system for the next H hours. A 66-bus utility power system in India demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach; extensive studies have also been performed for different IEEE test systems consist of 24, 57 and 175 buses. Numerical results are shown comparing the cost solutions and computation time obtained by different intelligence and conventional methods.

  4. Superfield extended BRST quantization in general coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Geyer, B.; Gitman, D. M.; Lavrov, P. M.; Moshin, P. Yu.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a superfield formalism of Lagrangian BRST-antiBRST quantization of arbitrary gauge theories in general coordinates with the base manifold of fields and antifields desribed in terms of both bosonic and fermionic variables.

  5. Schroedinger's variational method of quantization revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, K.

    1980-01-01

    Schroedinger's original quantization procedure is revisited in the light of Nelson's stochastic framework of quantum mechanics. It is clarified why Schroedinger's proposal of a variational problem led us to a true description of quantum mechanics. (orig.)

  6. Quantized kernel least mean square algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Badong; Zhao, Songlin; Zhu, Pingping; Príncipe, José C

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a quantization approach, as an alternative of sparsification, to curb the growth of the radial basis function structure in kernel adaptive filtering. The basic idea behind this method is to quantize and hence compress the input (or feature) space. Different from sparsification, the new approach uses the "redundant" data to update the coefficient of the closest center. In particular, a quantized kernel least mean square (QKLMS) algorithm is developed, which is based on a simple online vector quantization method. The analytical study of the mean square convergence has been carried out. The energy conservation relation for QKLMS is established, and on this basis we arrive at a sufficient condition for mean square convergence, and a lower and upper bound on the theoretical value of the steady-state excess mean square error. Static function estimation and short-term chaotic time-series prediction examples are presented to demonstrate the excellent performance.

  7. Constructing canonical bases of quantized enveloping algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Graaf, W.A. de

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm for computing the elements of a given weight of the canonical basis of a quantized enveloping algebra is described. Subsequently, a similar algorithm is presented for computing the canonical basis of a finite-dimensional module.

  8. Null-plane quantization of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustaki, D.

    1990-01-01

    Massive Dirac fermions are canonically quantized on the null plane using the Dirac-Bergmann algorithm. The procedure is carried out in the framework of quantum electrodynamics as an illustration of a rigorous treatment of interacting fermion fields

  9. Quantization in presence of external soliton fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.; Karner, G.

    1986-01-01

    Quantization of a fermi field interacting with an external soliton protential is considered. Classes of interactions leading to unitarily equivalent representations of the canonical anticommutation relations are determined. Soliton-like potentials compared to trivial ones yield inequivalent representations. (Author)

  10. Differential calculus on quantized simple Lie groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurco, B.

    1991-01-01

    Differential calculi, generalizations of Woronowicz's four-dimensional calculus on SU q (2), are introduced for quantized classical simple Lie groups in a constructive way. For this purpose, the approach of Faddeev and his collaborators to quantum groups was used. An equivalence of Woronowicz's enveloping algebra generated by the dual space to the left-invariant differential forms and the corresponding quantized universal enveloping algebra, is obtained for our differential calculi. Real forms for q ε R are also discussed. (orig.)

  11. Speech Data Compression using Vector Quantization

    OpenAIRE

    H. B. Kekre; Tanuja K. Sarode

    2008-01-01

    Mostly transforms are used for speech data compressions which are lossy algorithms. Such algorithms are tolerable for speech data compression since the loss in quality is not perceived by the human ear. However the vector quantization (VQ) has a potential to give more data compression maintaining the same quality. In this paper we propose speech data compression algorithm using vector quantization technique. We have used VQ algorithms LBG, KPE and FCG. The results table s...

  12. Canonical group quantization and boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Florian

    2012-01-01

    In the present thesis, we study quantization of classical systems with non-trivial phase spaces using the group-theoretical quantization technique proposed by Isham. Our main goal is a better understanding of global and topological aspects of quantum theory. In practice, the group-theoretical approach enables direct quantization of systems subject to constraints and boundary conditions in a natural and physically transparent manner -- cases for which the canonical quantization method of Dirac fails. First, we provide a clarification of the quantization formalism. In contrast to prior treatments, we introduce a sharp distinction between the two group structures that are involved and explain their physical meaning. The benefit is a consistent and conceptually much clearer construction of the Canonical Group. In particular, we shed light upon the 'pathological' case for which the Canonical Group must be defined via a central Lie algebra extension and emphasise the role of the central extension in general. In addition, we study direct quantization of a particle restricted to a half-line with 'hard wall' boundary condition. Despite the apparent simplicity of this example, we show that a naive quantization attempt based on the cotangent bundle over the half-line as classical phase space leads to an incomplete quantum theory; the reflection which is a characteristic aspect of the 'hard wall' is not reproduced. Instead, we propose a different phase space that realises the necessary boundary condition as a topological feature and demonstrate that quantization yields a suitable quantum theory for the half-line model. The insights gained in the present special case improve our understanding of the relation between classical and quantum theory and illustrate how contact interactions may be incorporated.

  13. Canonical group quantization and boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Florian

    2012-07-16

    In the present thesis, we study quantization of classical systems with non-trivial phase spaces using the group-theoretical quantization technique proposed by Isham. Our main goal is a better understanding of global and topological aspects of quantum theory. In practice, the group-theoretical approach enables direct quantization of systems subject to constraints and boundary conditions in a natural and physically transparent manner -- cases for which the canonical quantization method of Dirac fails. First, we provide a clarification of the quantization formalism. In contrast to prior treatments, we introduce a sharp distinction between the two group structures that are involved and explain their physical meaning. The benefit is a consistent and conceptually much clearer construction of the Canonical Group. In particular, we shed light upon the 'pathological' case for which the Canonical Group must be defined via a central Lie algebra extension and emphasise the role of the central extension in general. In addition, we study direct quantization of a particle restricted to a half-line with 'hard wall' boundary condition. Despite the apparent simplicity of this example, we show that a naive quantization attempt based on the cotangent bundle over the half-line as classical phase space leads to an incomplete quantum theory; the reflection which is a characteristic aspect of the 'hard wall' is not reproduced. Instead, we propose a different phase space that realises the necessary boundary condition as a topological feature and demonstrate that quantization yields a suitable quantum theory for the half-line model. The insights gained in the present special case improve our understanding of the relation between classical and quantum theory and illustrate how contact interactions may be incorporated.

  14. Quantized Matrix Algebras and Quantum Seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Hans Plesner; Pagani, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We determine explicitly quantum seeds for classes of quantized matrix algebras. Furthermore, we obtain results on centres and block diagonal forms of these algebras. In the case where is an arbitrary root of unity, this further determines the degrees.......We determine explicitly quantum seeds for classes of quantized matrix algebras. Furthermore, we obtain results on centres and block diagonal forms of these algebras. In the case where is an arbitrary root of unity, this further determines the degrees....

  15. Stochastic quantization and topological theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, V.Y.; Subbotin, A.V.; Kuznetsov, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    In the last two years topological quantum field theories (TQFT) have attached much attention. This paper reports that from the very beginning it was realized that due to a peculiar BRST-like symmetry these models admitted so-called Nicolai mapping: the Nicolai variables, in terms of which actions of the theories become gaussian, are nothing but (anti-) selfduality conditions or their generalizations. This fact became a starting point in the quest of possible stochastic interpretation to topological field theories. The reasons behind were quite simple and included, in particular, the well-known relations between stochastic processes and supersymmetry. The main goal would have been achieved, if it were possible to construct stochastic processes governed by Langevin or Fokker-Planck equations in a real Euclidean time leading to TQFT's path integrals (equivalently: to reformulate TQFTs as non-equilibrium phase dynamics of stochastic processes). Further on, if it would appear that these processes correspond to the stochastic quantization of theories of some definite kind, one could expect (d + 1)-dimensional TQFTs to share some common properties with d-dimensional ones

  16. MOBIL CONTAINER UNIT FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE UTILIZATION FROM SMALL AND MEDIUM WASTWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Ledakowicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most wastewater treatment plants in Poland are small and medium plants of flow capacity below 1000 m3/d. These plants are not able to build sludge incineration plants and the transportation costs to the nearest plants increase the total costs of wastewater treatment. Polish company Metal Expert together with the French company ETIA and Lodz University of Technology proposed mobile unit for integrated drying and pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a pilot bench scale with capacity of 100 kg/h of dewatered sludge. The pilot plant was mounted in a typical mobile container which could provide service to small and medium wastewater treatment plants offering thermal processing of sewage sludge. This unit consists of KENKI contact dryer and „Spirajoule”® pyrolyser supplied with electricity utilizing the Joule effect, and a boiler, wherein the pyrolysis gases and volatile products are burned producing steam sent to the contact dryer. The bio-char produced during sludge pyrolysis could be utilized for agriculture purposes. During preliminary experiments and short-term exploitation of the unit at Elbląg Wastewater Treatment Plant the obtained results allowed us to make a mass and energy balance depended on the process conditions in the pyrolysis temperature range of 400÷800 °C. Based on the obtained results a calculator was created in the Excel , which enables assessment of pyrolysis products content and making mass and energy balances depended on process parameters such as initial moisture of sludge, pyrolysis temperature and installation output.

  17. A family of quantization based piecewise linear filter networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    1992-01-01

    A family of quantization-based piecewise linear filter networks is proposed. For stationary signals, a filter network from this family is a generalization of the classical Wiener filter with an input signal and a desired response. The construction of the filter network is based on quantization...... of the input signal x(n) into quantization classes. With each quantization class is associated a linear filter. The filtering at time n is carried out by the filter belonging to the actual quantization class of x(n ) and the filters belonging to the neighbor quantization classes of x(n) (regularization......). This construction leads to a three-layer filter network. The first layer consists of the quantization class filters for the input signal. The second layer carries out the regularization between neighbor quantization classes, and the third layer constitutes a decision of quantization class from where the resulting...

  18. Understanding health-care access and utilization disparities among Latino children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langellier, Brent A; Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Inkelas, Moira; Ortega, Alexander N

    2016-06-01

    It is important to understand the source of health-care disparities between Latinos and other children in the United States. We examine parent-reported health-care access and utilization among Latino, White, and Black children (≤17 years old) in the United States in the 2006-2011 National Health Interview Survey. Using Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition, we portion health-care disparities into two parts (1) those attributable to differences in the levels of sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., income) and (2) those attributable to differences in group-specific regression coefficients that measure the health-care 'return' Latino, White, and Black children receive on these characteristics. In the United States, Latino children are less likely than Whites to have a usual source of care, receive at least one preventive care visit, and visit a doctor, and are more likely to have delayed care. The return on sociodemographic characteristics explains 20-30% of the disparity between Latino and White children in the usual source of care, delayed care, and doctor visits and 40-50% of the disparity between Latinos and Blacks in emergency department use and preventive care. Much of the health-care disadvantage experienced by Latino children would persist if Latinos had the sociodemographic characteristics as Whites and Blacks. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Gauged BPS baby Skyrmions with quantized magnetic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, C.; Wereszczynski, A.

    2017-06-01

    A new type of gauged BPS baby Skyrme model is presented, where the derivative term is just the Schroers current (i.e., gauge invariant and conserved version of the topological current) squared. This class of models has a topological bound saturated for solutions of the pertinent Bogomolnyi equations supplemented by a so-called superpotential equation. In contrast to the gauged BPS baby Skyrme models considered previously, the superpotential equation is linear and, hence, completely solvable. Furthermore, the magnetic flux is quantized in units of 2 π , which allows, in principle, to define this theory on a compact manifold without boundary, unlike all gauged baby Skyrme models considered so far.

  20. Stereotactic radiotherapy of the prostate: fractionation and utilization in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, Josph P.; Schwartz, David; Shao, Meng; Osborn, Virginia; Schreiber, David; Choi, Kwang

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the utilization and fractionation of extreme hypofractionation via stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in the treatment of prostate cancer. Data was analyzed on men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between 2004–2012 and treated with definitive-intent radiation therapy, as captured in the National Cancer Database. This database is a hospital-based registry that collects an estimated 70% of all diagnosed malignancies in the United States. There were 299,186 patients identified, of which 4,962 (1.7%) were identified as receiving SBRT as primary treatment. Of those men, 2,082 had low risk disease (42.0%), 2,201 had intermediate risk disease (44.4%), and 679 had high risk disease (13.7%). The relative utilization of SBRT increased from 0.1% in 2004 to 4.0% in 2012. Initially SBRT was more commonly used in academic programs, though as time progressed there was a shift to favor an increased absolute number of men treated in the community setting. Delivery of five separate treatments was the most commonly utilized fractionation pattern, with 4,635 patients (91.3%) receiving this number of treatments. The most common dosing pattern was 725 cGy × 5 fractions (49.6%) followed by 700 cGy × 5 fractions (21.3%). Extreme hypofractionation via SBRT is slowly increasing acceptance. Currently 700-725 cGy × 5 fractions appears to be the most commonly employed scheme. As further long-term data regarding the safety and efficacy emerges, the relative utilization of this modality is expected to continue to increase

  1. Stereotactic radiotherapy of the prostate: fractionation and utilization in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiner, Josph P.; Schwartz, David; Shao, Meng; Osborn, Virginia; Schreiber, David [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs New York Harbor Healthcare System, Brooklyn (United States); Choi, Kwang [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn (United States)

    2017-06-15

    To analyze the utilization and fractionation of extreme hypofractionation via stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in the treatment of prostate cancer. Data was analyzed on men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer between 2004–2012 and treated with definitive-intent radiation therapy, as captured in the National Cancer Database. This database is a hospital-based registry that collects an estimated 70% of all diagnosed malignancies in the United States. There were 299,186 patients identified, of which 4,962 (1.7%) were identified as receiving SBRT as primary treatment. Of those men, 2,082 had low risk disease (42.0%), 2,201 had intermediate risk disease (44.4%), and 679 had high risk disease (13.7%). The relative utilization of SBRT increased from 0.1% in 2004 to 4.0% in 2012. Initially SBRT was more commonly used in academic programs, though as time progressed there was a shift to favor an increased absolute number of men treated in the community setting. Delivery of five separate treatments was the most commonly utilized fractionation pattern, with 4,635 patients (91.3%) receiving this number of treatments. The most common dosing pattern was 725 cGy × 5 fractions (49.6%) followed by 700 cGy × 5 fractions (21.3%). Extreme hypofractionation via SBRT is slowly increasing acceptance. Currently 700-725 cGy × 5 fractions appears to be the most commonly employed scheme. As further long-term data regarding the safety and efficacy emerges, the relative utilization of this modality is expected to continue to increase.

  2. Assessing the role of federal community assistance programs to develop biomass utilization capacity in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis R. Becker; Mark Nechodom; Adam Barnett; Tad Mason; Eini C. Lowell; John Shelly; Dean Graham

    2008-01-01

    As forest biomass utilization becomes cost effective to harvest, more areas at risk of catastrophic wildfire can be thinned of dense brush and small-diameter trees. In an effort to increase biomass utilization, the USDA Forest Service granted more than $36 million in National Fire Plan-Economic Action Program funds in the Western United States during fiscal years 2001...

  3. Absence of quantized energy-states local diffusion in semiconductor quantum-dash structures

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Cheeloon

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of InAs/InAlGaAs/InP quantum-dash structures utilizing different degrees of postgrowth-lattice-disordering. The observation of digital transitions among quantized states discards the origins of multiple excited states from a single group of dash ensembles.

  4. Voltage quantization by ballistic vortices in two-dimensional superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlando, T.P.; Delin, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The voltage generated by moving ballistic vortices with a mass m ν in a two-dimensional superconducting ring is quantized, and this quantization depends on the amount of charge enclosed by the ring. The quantization of the voltage is the dual to flux quantization in a superconductor, and is a manifestation of the Aharonov-Casher effect. The quantization is obtained by applying the Bohr-Sommerfeld criterion to the canonical momentum of the ballistic vortices. The results of this quantization condition can also be used to understand the persistent voltage predicted by van Wees for an array of Josephson junctions

  5. Tribology of the lubricant quantized sliding state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Capozza, Rosario; Vanossi, Andrea; Santoro, Giuseppe E; Manini, Nicola; Tosatti, Erio

    2009-11-07

    In the framework of Langevin dynamics, we demonstrate clear evidence of the peculiar quantized sliding state, previously found in a simple one-dimensional boundary lubricated model [A. Vanossi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 056101 (2006)], for a substantially less idealized two-dimensional description of a confined multilayer solid lubricant under shear. This dynamical state, marked by a nontrivial "quantized" ratio of the averaged lubricant center-of-mass velocity to the externally imposed sliding speed, is recovered, and shown to be robust against the effects of thermal fluctuations, quenched disorder in the confining substrates, and over a wide range of loading forces. The lubricant softness, setting the width of the propagating solitonic structures, is found to play a major role in promoting in-registry commensurate regions beneficial to this quantized sliding. By evaluating the force instantaneously exerted on the top plate, we find that this quantized sliding represents a dynamical "pinned" state, characterized by significantly low values of the kinetic friction. While the quantized sliding occurs due to solitons being driven gently, the transition to ordinary unpinned sliding regimes can involve lubricant melting due to large shear-induced Joule heating, for example at large speed.

  6. Trends in the Utilization of Brachytherapy in Cervical Cancer in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kathy, E-mail: Kathy.Han@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Milosevic, Michael; Fyles, Anthony [Radiation Medicine Program, Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Pintilie, Melania [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Viswanathan, Akila N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: To determine the trends in brachytherapy use in cervical cancer in the United States and to identify factors and survival benefits associated with brachytherapy treatment. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database, we identified 7359 patients with stages IB2-IVA cervical cancer treated with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) between 1988 and 2009. Propensity score matching was used to adjust for differences between patients who received brachytherapy and those who did not from 2000 onward (after the National Cancer Institute alert recommending concurrent chemotherapy). Results: Sixty-three percent of the 7359 women received brachytherapy in combination with EBRT, and 37% received EBRT alone. The brachytherapy utilization rate has decreased from 83% in 1988 to 58% in 2009 (P<.001), with a sharp decline of 23% in 2003 to 43%. Factors associated with higher odds of brachytherapy use include younger age, married (vs single) patients, earlier years of diagnosis, earlier stage and certain SEER regions. In the propensity score-matched cohort, brachytherapy treatment was associated with higher 4-year cause-specific survival (CSS; 64.3% vs 51.5%, P<.001) and overall survival (OS; 58.2% vs 46.2%, P<.001). Brachytherapy treatment was independently associated with better CSS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.71), and OS (HR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.74). Conclusions: This population-based analysis reveals a concerning decline in brachytherapy utilization and significant geographic disparities in the delivery of brachytherapy in the United States. Brachytherapy use is independently associated with significantly higher CSS and OS and should be implemented in all feasible cases.

  7. AN ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF SPORTS UTILITY VEHICLES IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-08-16

    During the 1990s, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) became the fastest growing segment of the auto industry, especially those in the medium-size category. In 1999, SUV sales reached almost 19% of the total light vehicle market and the mix of SUVs on the road, as measured by registration data, was about 8.7%. This immense popularity has been called by some a passing fad--vehicle purchases based on the SUV ''image''. But the continued yearly increases in SUV sales seem to indicate a more permanent trend. Additional explanations for SUV popularity include the general economic well being in the United States, a perception of safety, and ''utility''. Generally larger and heavier than the typical automobile, SUVs require more fuel per mile to operate and produce greater amounts of pollutants. They are also driven further annually than are automobiles of the same vintage, a fact that exacerbates the fuel-use and emission problems. Although buyers believe that SUVs are safer than automobiles which they are in some cases, SUVs are more prone to roll-overs than are automobiles. In addition, SUVs, with their higher bumpers and greater weight, may be a threat to other vehicles on the highway, especially in side-impact crashes. With sales projected to grow to over 3 million units per year beginning in 2001, SUVs show no sign of decreasing in popularity. These vehicles are used primarily for general mobility, rather than off-road activities. An emphasis on better fuel economy and improved emissions control could address environmental and oil dependency concerns. In fact, recently, two vehicle manufacturers announced intentions of improving the fuel economy of their SUVs in the next few years. Also, tests simulating crashes involving automobiles and SUVs could provide valuable data for identifying potential safety design issues. It is clear that automobiles and SUVs will be sharing the highways for years to come.

  8. The Research of Utilization Hours of Coal-Fired Power Generation Units Based on Electric Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhui; Yang, Jianlian; Wang, Jiangbo; Yang, Meng; Tian, Chunzheng; He, Xinhui

    2018-01-01

    With grid-connected scale of clean energy such as wind power and photovoltaic power expanding rapidly and cross-province transmission scale being bigger, utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units become lower and lower in the context of the current slowdown in electricity demand. This paper analyzes the influencing factors from the three aspects of demand, supply and supply and demand balance, and the mathematical model has been constructed based on the electric energy balance. The utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units have been solved considering the relationship among proportion of various types of power installed capacity, the output rate and utilization hours. By carrying out empirical research in Henan Province, the utilization hours of coal-fired units of Henan Province in 2020 has been achieved. The example validates the practicability and the rationality of the model, which can provide a basis for the decision-making for coal-fired power generation enterprises.

  9. Children's orthodontic utilization in the United States: Socioeconomic and surveillance considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laniado, Nadia; Oliva, Stephanie; Matthews, Gregory J

    2017-11-01

    There has been no epidemiologic study of malocclusion prevalence and treatment need in the United States since the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 1988 to 1991. In this descriptive study, the authors sought to estimate orthodontic treatment prevalence by examining a nationally representative survey to assess current pediatric dental and orthodontic utilization. The 2009 and 2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys were used to categorize and compare all types of pediatric dental and orthodontic procedures in children and adolescents up to 20 years old. Descriptive variables included dental insurance, poverty level, and racial/ethnic background. Visits for orthodontic procedures constituted the third largest treatment category (14.5%) and were greatest among the uninsured and higher income populations. Children with public insurance had the fewest orthodontic visits (9.4%). Racial/ethnic disparities were most pronounced among orthodontic visits, with black and Hispanic children receiving the fewest orthodontic procedures (8.89% and 10.56%, respectively). Orthodontic treatment prevalence data suggest that significant disparities exist in orthodontic utilization based on race/ethnicity, poverty level, and insurance status. To establish the burden of malocclusion, describe populations in greatest need of interventions, and craft appropriate programs and policies, an active orthodontic surveillance system is essential. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Utilization of head CT during injury visits to United States emergency departments: 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Brian J; Borczuk, Pierre; Zachrison, Kori S; Goldstein, Joshua N; Berlyand, Yosef; Raja, Ali S

    2018-05-18

    Studies have shown increasing utilization of head computed tomography (CT) imaging of emergency department (ED) patients presenting with an injury-related visit. Multiple initiatives, including the Choosing Wisely™ campaign and evidence-based clinical decision support based on validated decision rules, have targeted head CT use in patients with injuries. Therefore, we investigated national trends in the use of head CT during injury-related ED visits from 2012 to 2015. This was a secondary analysis of data from the annual United States (U.S.) National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey from 2012 to 2015. The study population was defined as injury-related ED visits, and we sought to determine the percentage in which a head CT was ordered and, secondarily, to determine both the diagnostic yield of clinically significant intracranial findings and hospital characteristics associated with increased head CT utilization. Between 2012 and 2015, 12.25% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.48-13.02%) of injury-related visits received at least one head CT. Overall head CT utilization showed an increased trend during the study period (2012: 11.7%, 2015: 13.23%, p = 0.09), but the results were not statistically significant. The diagnostic yield of head CT for a significant intracranial injury over the period of four years was 7.4% (9.68% in 2012 vs. 7.67% in 2015, p = 0.23). Head CT use along with diagnostic yield has remained stable from 2012 to 2015 among patients presenting to the ED for an injury-related visit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of treatment utilization and barriers to treatment utilization among individuals with lifetime cannabis use disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerridge, Bradley T; Mauro, Pia M; Chou, S Patricia; Saha, Tulshi D; Pickering, Roger P; Fan, Amy Z; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-12-01

    To present information on predictors of treatment utilization and barriers to treatment utilization among individuals with lifetime DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUD). Face-to-face survey of a representative sample of the adult US general population (n=36,309). Treatment rates for CUD were low in this general population survey (13.7%). Severity of CUD and comorbidity of other lifetime drug use disorders were significant predictors of lifetime treatment utilization for CUD. Preference for self-reliance, minimizing problems, fear of stigma, and financial and structural issues were among the most frequently endorsed reasons for respondents not seeking treatment when they perceived the need for treatment among individuals with lifetime CUD, regardless of whether they eventually utilized treatment at some time in their lives. Given the rising prevalence of CUD in the US over the past decade and currently low treatment rates for CUD, increased provision for services for CUD appears critically needed, especially those that screen for and treat, when present, other drug use disorders. Programs to reduce stigma and financial barriers are needed, as well as programs to increase awareness among the general public, health care professionals about the nature and seriousness of CUD, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment for this disorder. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Drug utilization study in a burn care unit of a tertiary care hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoshkumar R Jeevangi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate drug utilization and associated costs for the treatment of patients admitted in burn care unit of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: A prospective cross sectional study was conducted for a period of 15 months at Basaweshwara Teaching and General Hospital (BTGH, Gulbarga and the data collected was analyzed for various drug use indicators. Results: A total of 100 prescriptions were collected with 44% belonging to males and 56% to females. The average number of drugs per prescription ranged from 4.5 to 9.5. 9.5% of generics and 92% of essential drugs were prescribed. The opioid analgesics and sedatives were prescribed to all the patients who were admitted in burn care unit. The (Defined daily dose DDD/1 000/day for amikacin (359 was the highest followed by diclofenac sodium (156, pantoprazole (144, diazepam (130, ceftazidime (124, tramadol (115, ceftriaxone (84 and for paracetamol (4 which was the lowest. Conclusions: Significant amount of the money was spent on procurement of drugs. Most of the money was spent on prescribed antibiotics. The prescription of generic drugs should be promoted, for cost effective treatment. Hence the results of the present study indicate that there is a considerable scope for improvement in the prescription pattern.

  13. National estimates of healthcare utilization by individuals with hepatitis C virus infection in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, James W; Donnelly, John P; Franco, Ricardo A; Overton, Edgar T; Rodgers, Joel B; Wang, Henry E

    2014-09-15

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem in the United States. Although prior studies have evaluated the HCV-related healthcare burden, these studies examined a single treatment setting and did not account for the growing "baby boomer" population (individuals born during 1945-1965). Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample were analyzed. We sought to characterize healthcare utilization by individuals infected with HCV in the United States, examining adult (≥18 years) outpatient, emergency department (ED), and inpatient visits among individuals with HCV diagnosis for the period 2001-2010. Key subgroups included persons born before 1945 (older), between 1945 and 1965 (baby boomer), and after 1965 (younger). Individuals with HCV infection were responsible for >2.3 million outpatient, 73 000 ED, and 475 000 inpatient visits annually. Persons in the baby boomer cohort accounted for 72.5%, 67.6%, and 70.7% of care episodes in these settings, respectively. Whereas the number of outpatient visits remained stable during the study period, inpatient admissions among HCV-infected baby boomers increased by >60%. Inpatient stays totaled 2.8 million days and cost >$15 billion annually. Nonwhites, uninsured individuals, and individuals receiving publicly funded health insurance were disproportionately affected in all healthcare settings. Individuals with HCV infection are large users of outpatient, ED, and inpatient health services. Resource use is highest and increasing in the baby boomer generation. These observations illuminate the public health burden of HCV infection in the United States. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Gravitational surface Hamiltonian and entropy quantization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Bakshi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface Hamiltonian corresponding to the surface part of a gravitational action has xp structure where p is conjugate momentum of x. Moreover, it leads to TS on the horizon of a black hole. Here T and S are temperature and entropy of the horizon. Imposing the hermiticity condition we quantize this Hamiltonian. This leads to an equidistant spectrum of its eigenvalues. Using this we show that the entropy of the horizon is quantized. This analysis holds for any order of Lanczos–Lovelock gravity. For general relativity, the area spectrum is consistent with Bekenstein's observation. This provides a more robust confirmation of this earlier result as the calculation is based on the direct quantization of the Hamiltonian in the sense of usual quantum mechanics.

  15. BRS invariant stochastic quantization of Einstein gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Naohito.

    1989-11-01

    We study stochastic quantization of gravity in terms of a BRS invariant canonical operator formalism. By introducing artificially canonical momentum variables for the original field variables, a canonical formulation of stochastic quantization is proposed in the sense that the Fokker-Planck hamiltonian is the generator of the fictitious time translation. Then we show that there exists a nilpotent BRS symmetry in an enlarged phase space of the first-class constrained systems. The phase space is spanned by the dynamical variables, their canonical conjugate momentum variables, Faddeev-Popov ghost and anti-ghost. We apply the general BRS invariant formulation to stochastic quantization of gravity which is described as a second-class constrained system in terms of a pair of Langevin equations coupled with white noises. It is shown that the stochastic action of gravity includes explicitly the De Witt's type superspace metric which leads to a geometrical interpretation of quantum gravity analogous to nonlinear σ-models. (author)

  16. Second quantized approach to quantum chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surjan, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The subject of this book is the application of the second quantized approach to quantum chemistry. Second quantization is an alternative tool for dealing with many-electron theory. The vast majority of quantum chemical problems are more easily treated using second quantization as a language. This book offers a simple and pedagogical presentation of the theory and some applications. The reader is not supposed to be trained in higher mathematics, though familiarity with elementary quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry is assumed. Besides the basic formalism and standard illustrative applications, some recent topics of quantum chemistry are reviewed in some detail. This book bridges the gap between sophisticated quantum theory and practical quantum chemistry. (orig.)

  17. Fourier duality as a quantization principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R.; Saeger, L.A.

    1996-08-01

    The Weyl-Wigner prescription for quantization on Euclidean phase spaces makes essential use of Fourier duality. The extension of this property to more general phase spaces requires the use of Kac algebras, which provide the necessary background for the implementation of Fourier duality on general locally groups. Kac algebras - and the duality they incorporate are consequently examined as candidates for a general quantization framework extending the usual formalism. Using as a test case the simplest non-trivial phase space, the half-plane, it is shown how the structures present in the complete-plane case must be modified. Traces, for example, must be replaced by their noncommutative generalizations - weights - and the correspondence embodied in the Weyl-Wigner formalism is no more complete. Provided the underlying algebraic structure is suitably adapted to each case, Fourier duality is shown to be indeed a very powerful guide to the quantization of general physical systems. (author). 30 refs

  18. Wave packets, Maslov indices, and semiclassical quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlejohn, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition, as refined by Keller and Maslov, reads I=(n+m/4)h, where I is the classical action, n is the quantum number, and where m is the Maslov index, an even integer. The occurrence of the integers n and m in this formula is a reflection of underlying topological features of semiclassical quantization. In particular, the work of Arnold and others has shown that m/2 is a winding number of closed curves on the classical symplectic group manifold, Sp(2N). Wave packets provide a simple and elegant means of establishing the connection between semiclassical quantization and the homotopy classes of Sp(2N), as well as a practical way of calculating Maslov indices in complex problems. Topological methods can also be used to derive general formulas for the Maslov indices of invariant tori in the classical phase space corresponding to resonant motion. (orig.)

  19. Pseudo-Kähler Quantization on Flag Manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabegov, Alexander V.

    A unified approach to geometric, symbol and deformation quantizations on a generalized flag manifold endowed with an invariant pseudo-Kähler structure is proposed. In particular cases we arrive at Berezin's quantization via covariant and contravariant symbols.

  20. Pisot q-coherent states quantization of the harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazeau, J.P., E-mail: gazeau@apc.univ-paris7.fr [Laboratoire APC, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 75205 Paris (France); Olmo, M.A. del, E-mail: olmo@fta.uva.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica and IMEVA, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47005, Valladolid (Spain)

    2013-03-15

    We revisit the quantized version of the harmonic oscillator obtained through a q-dependent family of coherent states. For each q, 0unit Pisot number, since then the q-deformed integers form Fibonacci-like sequences of integers. We then examine the main characteristics of the corresponding quantum oscillator: localization in the configuration and in the phase spaces, angle operator, probability distributions and related statistical features, time evolution and semi-classical phase space trajectories. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantized version of the harmonic oscillator (HO) through a q-family of coherent states. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For q,0unit Pisot number). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the main physical characteristics of the corresponding quantum oscillator.

  1. Modifications of Sp(2) covariant superfield quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M.; Moshin, P.Yu

    2003-12-04

    We propose a modification of the Sp(2) covariant superfield quantization to realize a superalgebra of generating operators isomorphic to the massless limit of the corresponding superalgebra of the osp(1,2) covariant formalism. The modified scheme ensures the compatibility of the superalgebra of generating operators with extended BRST symmetry without imposing restrictions eliminating superfield components from the quantum action. The formalism coincides with the Sp(2) covariant superfield scheme and with the massless limit of the osp(1,2) covariant quantization in particular cases of gauge-fixing and solutions of the quantum master equations.

  2. Quantization and non-holomorphic modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Unterberger, André

    2000-01-01

    This is a new approach to the theory of non-holomorphic modular forms, based on ideas from quantization theory or pseudodifferential analysis. Extending the Rankin-Selberg method so as to apply it to the calculation of the Roelcke-Selberg decomposition of the product of two Eisenstein series, one lets Maass cusp-forms appear as residues of simple, Eisenstein-like, series. Other results, based on quantization theory, include a reinterpretation of the Lax-Phillips scattering theory for the automorphic wave equation, in terms of distributions on R2 automorphic with respect to the linear action of SL(2,Z).

  3. Differential calculus on quantized simple Lie groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurco, B. (Dept. of Optics, Palacky Univ., Olomouc (Czechoslovakia))

    1991-07-01

    Differential calculi, generalizations of Woronowicz's four-dimensional calculus on SU{sub q}(2), are introduced for quantized classical simple Lie groups in a constructive way. For this purpose, the approach of Faddeev and his collaborators to quantum groups was used. An equivalence of Woronowicz's enveloping algebra generated by the dual space to the left-invariant differential forms and the corresponding quantized universal enveloping algebra, is obtained for our differential calculi. Real forms for q {epsilon} R are also discussed. (orig.).

  4. Fractional quantization and the quantum hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, J.; Calixto, M.; Aldaya, V.

    1998-01-01

    Quantization with constrains is considered in a group-theoretical framework, providing a precise characterization of the set of good operators, i.e., those preserving the constrained Hilbert space, in terms of the representation of the subgroup of constraints. This machinery is applied to the quantization of the torus as symplectic manifold, obtaining that fractional quantum numbers are permitted, provided that we allow for vector valued representations. The good operators turn out to be the Wilson loops and, for certain representations of the subgroup of constraints, the modular transformations. These results are applied to the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect, where interesting implications are derived

  5. On quantization of the SU(2) Skyrmions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurčiukonis, D.; Norvaišas, E.

    2013-01-01

    There are two known approaches for quantizing the SU(2) Skyrme model, the semiclassical and canonical quantization. The semiclassical approach does not take into account the non-commutativity of velocity of quantum coordinates and the stability of the semiclassical soliton is conveniently ensured by the symmetry breaking term. The canonical quantum approach leads to quantum mass correction that is not obtained in the semiclassical approach. In this Letter we argue that these two approaches are not equivalent and lead to different results. We show that the resulting profile functions have the same asymptotic behaviour, however their shape in the region close to the origin is different

  6. Image Coding Based on Address Vector Quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yushu

    Image coding is finding increased application in teleconferencing, archiving, and remote sensing. This thesis investigates the potential of Vector Quantization (VQ), a relatively new source coding technique, for compression of monochromatic and color images. Extensions of the Vector Quantization technique to the Address Vector Quantization method have been investigated. In Vector Quantization, the image data to be encoded are first processed to yield a set of vectors. A codeword from the codebook which best matches the input image vector is then selected. Compression is achieved by replacing the image vector with the index of the code-word which produced the best match, the index is sent to the channel. Reconstruction of the image is done by using a table lookup technique, where the label is simply used as an address for a table containing the representative vectors. A code-book of representative vectors (codewords) is generated using an iterative clustering algorithm such as K-means, or the generalized Lloyd algorithm. A review of different Vector Quantization techniques are given in chapter 1. Chapter 2 gives an overview of codebook design methods including the Kohonen neural network to design codebook. During the encoding process, the correlation of the address is considered and Address Vector Quantization is developed for color image and monochrome image coding. Address VQ which includes static and dynamic processes is introduced in chapter 3. In order to overcome the problems in Hierarchical VQ, Multi-layer Address Vector Quantization is proposed in chapter 4. This approach gives the same performance as that of the normal VQ scheme but the bit rate is about 1/2 to 1/3 as that of the normal VQ method. In chapter 5, a Dynamic Finite State VQ based on a probability transition matrix to select the best subcodebook to encode the image is developed. In chapter 6, a new adaptive vector quantization scheme, suitable for color video coding, called "A Self -Organizing

  7. Stochastic quantization of gravity and string fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpf, H.

    1986-01-01

    The stochastic quantization method of Parisi and Wu is generalized so as to make it applicable to Einstein's theory of gravitation. The generalization is based on the existence of a preferred metric in field configuration space, involves Ito's calculus, and introduces a complex stochastic process adapted to Lorentzian spacetime. It implies formally the path integral measure of DeWitt, a causual Feynman propagator, and a consistent stochastic perturbation theory. The lineraized version of the theory is also obtained from the stochastic quantization of the free string field theory of Siegel and Zwiebach. (Author)

  8. Direct and Indirect Healthcare Resource Utilization and Costs Among Migraine Patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, Machaon; Sapra, Sandhya; Shah, Neel; Tepper, Stewart; Cappell, Katherine; Desai, Pooja

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this analysis was to provide a contemporary estimate of the burden of migraine, incorporating both direct and indirect costs, by comparing the costs of migraine patients to a matched group of patients without migraine in a large, nationally representative sample of commercially insured patients in the United States. Previous studies have shown that the economic burden of migraine in the United States is substantial for payers, patients, and employers. Despite the availability of multiple acute and preventive pharmacological treatment options and a relatively stable migraine prevalence in the United States, there has been a documented increase in migraine-related healthcare resource and pharmacy use. Given the frequently disabling nature of migraine and its high prevalence, especially during peak productive years, and the lack of recent estimates of the burden of migraine, there is a need to update the existing literature with more current data. This retrospective, observational cohort study identified migraine patients in the Truven Health Market Scan Research Databases between January 2008 and June 2013. Adult patients had 12 months of continuous enrollment before (baseline period) and after (follow-up period) the day they received migraine diagnoses and/or medications (index) and no diagnosis of HIV or malignancy during the study period. The patients with migraine were matched 1:1 to a group of patients without migraine on demographic variables and index date. Direct healthcare utilization and costs and indirect (absenteeism, short-term disability, and long-term disability) costs were assessed during the 12-month follow-up period and differences between patients with vs without migraine were assessed. Two additional multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted. First, an analysis was conducted comparing the odds of having a short-term disability claim between patients with and without migraine after controlling for patient demographic and

  9. Mixed quantization dimensions of self-similar measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Meifeng; Wang Xiaoli; Chen Dandan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We define the mixed quantization dimension of finitely many measures. ► Formula of mixed quantization dimensions of self-similar measures is given. ► Illustrate the behavior of mixed quantization dimension as a function of order. - Abstract: Classical multifractal analysis studies the local scaling behaviors of a single measure. However recently mixed multifractal has generated interest. The purpose of this paper is some results about the mixed quantization dimensions of self-similar measures.

  10. Variable Dimension Trellis-Coded Quantization of Sinusoidal Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Holm; Christensen, Mads G.; Jensen, Søren Holdt

    2008-01-01

    In this letter, we propose joint quantization of the parameters of a set of sinusoids based on the theory of trellis-coded quantization. A particular advantage of this approach is that it allows for joint quantization of a variable number of sinusoids, which is particularly relevant in variable...

  11. Dimensional quantization effects in the thermodynamics of conductive filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niraula, D.; Grice, C. R.; Karpov, V. G.

    2018-06-01

    We consider the physical effects of dimensional quantization in conductive filaments that underlie operations of some modern electronic devices. We show that, as a result of quantization, a sufficiently thin filament acquires a positive charge. Several applications of this finding include the host material polarization, the stability of filament constrictions, the equilibrium filament radius, polarity in device switching, and quantization of conductance.

  12. The representations of Lie groups and geometric quantizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qiang

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relation between representations of Lie groups and geometric quantizations. A series of representations of Lie groups are constructed by geometric quantization of coadjoint orbits. Particularly, all representations of compact Lie groups, holomorphic discrete series of representations and spherical representations of reductive Lie groups are constructed by geometric quantizations of elliptic and hyperbolic coadjoint orbits. (orig.)

  13. Spurious-Free Dynamic Range of a Uniform Quantizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Alink, M.S.; Kokkeler, Andre B.J.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Rovers, K.C.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Nauta, Bram

    2009-01-01

    Abstract—Quantization plays an important role in many systems where analog-to-digital conversion and/or digital-to-analog conversion take place. If the quantization error is correlated with the input signal, then the spectrum of the quantization error will contain spurious peaks. Although analytical

  14. Diabetes mellitus and infection: an evaluation of hospital utilization and management costs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbel, Lindsey; Spencer, John David

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the number of diabetics that seek medical treatment in emergency departments or require hospitalization for infection management in the United States. This study also assesses the socioeconomic impact of inpatient infection management among diabetics. We accessed the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Emergency Department Sample database and the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database to perform a retrospective analysis on diabetics presenting to the emergency department or hospitalized for infection management from 2006 to 2011. Emergency Department: Since 2006, nearly 10 million diabetics were annually evaluated in the emergency department. Infection was the primary reason for presentation in 10% of these visits. Among those visits, urinary tract infection was the most common infection, accounting for over 30% of emergency department encounters for infections. Other common infections included sepsis, skin and soft tissue infections, and pneumonia. Diabetics were more than twice as likely to be hospitalized for infection management than patients without diabetes. Hospitalization: Since 2006, nearly 6 million diabetics were annually hospitalized. 8-12% of these patients were hospitalized for infection management. In 2011, the inpatient care provided to patients with DM, and infection was responsible for over $48 billion dollars in aggregate hospital charges. Diabetics commonly present to the emergency department and require hospitalization for infection management. The care provided to diabetics for infection management has a large economic impact on the United States healthcare system. More efforts are needed to develop cost-effective strategies for the prevention of infection in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A supply chain analysis framework for assessing state-level forest biomass utilization policies in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Dennis R.; Moseley, Cassandra; Lee, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The number of state policies aimed at fostering biomass utilization has proliferated in recent years in the United States. Several states aim to increase the use of forest and agriculture biomass through renewable energy production. Several more indirectly encourage utilization by targeting aspects of the supply chain from trees standing in the forest to goods sold. This research classifies 370 state policies from across the United States that provides incentives for forest biomass utilization. We compare those policies by types of incentives relative to the supply chain and geographic clustering. We then develop a framework for policy evaluation building on the supply chain steps, which can be used to assess intended and unintended consequences of policy interactions. These findings may inform policy development and identify synergies at different steps in the supply chain to enhance forest biomass utilization.

  16. Quasi-algebras and general Weyl quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassner, G.A.; Lassner, G.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper we show how the systematic use of the topological properties of the quasi-sup(*)-algebra L(S,S') leads to a systematization of the quantization procedure. With that as background, the multiplication of certain classes of pairs of operators of L(S,S') and the corresponding twisted product of their sybmols are defined. (orig./HSI)

  17. A Modified Scheme of Triplectic Quantization

    OpenAIRE

    Geyer, B.; Gitman, D. M.; Lavrov, P. M.

    1998-01-01

    A modified version of triplectic quantization, first introduce by Batalin and Martnelius, is proposed which makes use of two independent master equations, one for the action and one for the gauge functional such that the initial classical action also obeys that master equation.

  18. Visual data mining for quantized spatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Amy; Kahn, Brian

    2004-01-01

    In previous papers we've shown how a well known data compression algorithm called Entropy-constrained Vector Quantization ( can be modified to reduce the size and complexity of very large, satellite data sets. In this paper, we descuss how to visualize and understand the content of such reduced data sets.

  19. Covariantly second-quantized string. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, W.

    1984-01-01

    BRST invariance is used to second-quantize the interacting relativistic string. The zero-mode of the anticommuting string variables is identified as the Grassmann coordinate of BRST superfields. The massless sector is Yang-Mills theory in the usual Faddeev-Popov formalism. (orig.)

  20. A Krein quantization approach to Klein paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payandeh, Farrin; Fathi, Mohsen; Mohammad Pur, Toradj; Moghaddam, Zahra Gh.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we first introduce the famous Klein paradox. Afterwards by proposing the Krein quantization approach and taking the negative modes into account, we will show that the expected and exact current densities could be achieved without confronting any paradox. (authors)

  1. Nonperturbative quantization of nonabelian gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavnov, A.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: (author)On the basis of the equivalence theorems proven earlier, a new formulation of nonabelian gauge theories is proposed. Contrary to the usual scheme this formulation allows the quantization of gauge theories beyond perturbation theory. The method is applicable both to the Yang-Mills theory and to nonabelian models with spontaneously broken symmetries

  2. Group theoretical quantization of isotropic loop cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livine, Etera R.; Martín-Benito, Mercedes

    2012-06-01

    We achieve a group theoretical quantization of the flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model coupled to a massless scalar field adopting the improved dynamics of loop quantum cosmology. Deparemetrizing the system using the scalar field as internal time, we first identify a complete set of phase space observables whose Poisson algebra is isomorphic to the su(1,1) Lie algebra. It is generated by the volume observable and the Hamiltonian. These observables describe faithfully the regularized phase space underlying the loop quantization: they account for the polymerization of the variable conjugate to the volume and for the existence of a kinematical nonvanishing minimum volume. Since the Hamiltonian is an element in the su(1,1) Lie algebra, the dynamics is now implemented as SU(1, 1) transformations. At the quantum level, the system is quantized as a timelike irreducible representation of the group SU(1, 1). These representations are labeled by a half-integer spin, which gives the minimal volume. They provide superselection sectors without quantization anomalies and no factor ordering ambiguity arises when representing the Hamiltonian. We then explicitly construct SU(1, 1) coherent states to study the quantum evolution. They not only provide semiclassical states but truly dynamical coherent states. Their use further clarifies the nature of the bounce that resolves the big bang singularity.

  3. Quantization of an Ideal Monoatomic Gas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 1. Quantization of an Ideal Monoatomic Gas. E Fermi. Classics Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 82-96. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/01/0082-0096. Author Affiliations.

  4. Multiverse in the Third Quantized Formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizal Mir

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we will analyze the third quantization of gravity in path integral formalism. We will use the time-dependent version of Wheeler—DeWitt equation to analyze the multiverse in this formalism. We will propose a mechanism for baryogenesis to occur in the multiverse, without violating the baryon number conservation. (general)

  5. Gauge theories and their superspace quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falck, N.K.

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis the mathematical formalism for gauge theory is treated together with its extensions to supersymmetry. After a description of the differential calculus in superspace, gauge theories at the classical level are considered. Then the superspace quantization of gauge theories is described. (HSI)

  6. QUANTIZATION OF NON-LAGRANGIAN SYSTEMS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kochan, Denis

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, 28-29 (2009), s. 5319-5340 ISSN 0217-751X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : dissipative quantization * non-Lagrangian system * umbilical string Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.941, year: 2009

  7. Stochastic quantization for the axial model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, C.; Montani, H.; Albuquerque, L.C.

    1991-01-01

    We use bosonization ideas to solve the axial model in the stochastic quantization framework. We obtain the fermion propagator of the theory decoupling directly the Langevin equation, instead of the Fokker-Planck equation. In the Appendix we calculate explicitly the anomalous divergence of the axial-vector current by using a regularization that does not break the Markovian character of the stochastic process

  8. Coherent transform, quantization, and Poisson geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Novikova, E; Itskov, V; Karasev, M V

    1998-01-01

    This volume contains three extensive articles written by Karasev and his pupils. Topics covered include the following: coherent states and irreducible representations for algebras with non-Lie permutation relations, Hamilton dynamics and quantization over stable isotropic submanifolds, and infinitesimal tensor complexes over degenerate symplectic leaves in Poisson manifolds. The articles contain many examples (including from physics) and complete proofs.

  9. Constraints, BRST-Cohomology and stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.

    1989-01-01

    After presenting a pedagogical introduction to the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-formalism we introduce stochastic quantization in extended configuration space. The appearance of a specific projection operator and its relationship to the BRST-cohomology is pointed out. 20 refs. (Author)

  10. Quantization of bag-like solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breit, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The method of collective coordinates is used to quantize bag-like solitons formed by scalar and spinor fields. This method leads to approximate wave functions for quarks in the bag that are orthogonal to the translational modes. Solutions are given for the MIT bag limit of the fields. (orig.)

  11. Bolometric Device Based on Fluxoid Quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Joseph A.; Kenyon, Matthew E.; Leduc, Henry G.; Day, Peter K.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature dependence of fluxoid quantization in a superconducting loop. The sensitivity of the device is expected to surpass that of other superconducting- based bolometric devices, such as superconducting transition-edge sensors and superconducting nanowire devices. Just as important, the proposed device has advantages in sample fabrication.

  12. Black hole bound states and their quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.

    2008-01-01

    We briefly review the construction of multi-centered black hole solutions in type IIA string theory. We then discuss a decoupling limit which embeds these solutions in M-theory on AdS(3) x S-2 x CY, and discuss some aspects of their dual CFT interpretation. Finally, we consider the quantization of

  13. Spatial resolution recovery utilizing multi-ray tracing and graphic processing unit in PET image reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Yicheng; Peng, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) poses a major challenge for a PET system to achieve uniform spatial resolution across the field-of-view, particularly for small animal and organ-dedicated PET systems. In this work, we implemented an analytical method to model system matrix for resolution recovery, which was then incorporated in PET image reconstruction on a graphical processing unit platform, due to its parallel processing capacity. The method utilizes the concepts of virtual DOI layers and multi-ray tracing to calculate the coincidence detection response function for a given line-of-response. The accuracy of the proposed method was validated for a small-bore PET insert to be used for simultaneous PET/MR breast imaging. In addition, the performance comparisons were studied among the following three cases: 1) no physical DOI and no resolution modeling; 2) two physical DOI layers and no resolution modeling; and 3) no physical DOI design but with a different number of virtual DOI layers. The image quality was quantitatively evaluated in terms of spatial resolution (full-width-half-maximum and position offset), contrast recovery coefficient and noise. The results indicate that the proposed method has the potential to be used as an alternative to other physical DOI designs and achieve comparable imaging performances, while reducing detector/system design cost and complexity. (paper)

  14. Drug utilization review of cephalosporins in a secondary care hospital in United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Shaaban, Mohammad; Ali, Areeg Anwer; Rao, Padma G M; Majid, Asif

    2016-12-01

    Background Cephalosporins are one of the most commonly used antibiotics in United Arab Emirates (UAE). Few studies have been carried out to evaluate the antibiotic utilization pattern in UAE in spite of the obvious increase in cephalosporins resistance during the past decade. Objective To assess the prescriptions pattern of cephalosporins among physicians at a secondary care hospital in Ras Al Khaimah, UAE. Method This observational prospective study was carried out during October 2013 to April 2014. The data of in patients were documented in the predesigned patient profile form and was analyzed for patient's, drug's and drug's therapy related parameters. Results The 3rd generation cephalosporins constituted 83.6 % of the prescriptions, with ceftriaxone being the most commonly used one (81.1 %). They were mainly prescribed for the treatment of the lower respiratory tract infections (60.2 %). Seven (3.5 %) different ADRs linked to cephalosporin use were observed ranging from oral thrush to clostridium difficile infection. A total of 1039 antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial medications were prescribed concomitantly with cephalosporins. Conclusion The 3rd generation cephalosporins were commonly prescribed by parenteral route. Thus, there is a strong need for rationalizing their use to preserve their efficacy and prevent the development of resistance in the region.

  15. Design and evaluation of sparse quantization index modulation watermarking schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Bruno; Barbarien, Joeri; Dooms, Ann; Munteanu, Adrian; Cornelis, Jan; Schelkens, Peter

    2008-08-01

    In the past decade the use of digital data has increased significantly. The advantages of digital data are, amongst others, easy editing, fast, cheap and cross-platform distribution and compact storage. The most crucial disadvantages are the unauthorized copying and copyright issues, by which authors and license holders can suffer considerable financial losses. Many inexpensive methods are readily available for editing digital data and, unlike analog information, the reproduction in the digital case is simple and robust. Hence, there is great interest in developing technology that helps to protect the integrity of a digital work and the copyrights of its owners. Watermarking, which is the embedding of a signal (known as the watermark) into the original digital data, is one method that has been proposed for the protection of digital media elements such as audio, video and images. In this article, we examine watermarking schemes for still images, based on selective quantization of the coefficients of a wavelet transformed image, i.e. sparse quantization-index modulation (QIM) watermarking. Different grouping schemes for the wavelet coefficients are evaluated and experimentally verified for robustness against several attacks. Wavelet tree-based grouping schemes yield a slightly improved performance over block-based grouping schemes. Additionally, the impact of the deployment of error correction codes on the most promising configurations is examined. The utilization of BCH-codes (Bose, Ray-Chaudhuri, Hocquenghem) results in an improved robustness as long as the capacity of the error codes is not exceeded (cliff-effect).

  16. Utility-Scale Solar 2013: An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bolinger, M; Weaver, S

    2014-01-01

    The utility-scale solar sector has led the overall U.S. solar market in terms of installed capacity since 2012. In 2016, the utility-scale sector installed more than 2.5 times as much new capacity as did the residential and commercial sectors combined, and is expected to maintain its dominant position for at least another five years. This report—the fifth edition in an ongoing annual series—provides data-driven analysis of the utility-scale solar project fleet in the United States. We analyze...

  17. Noncanonical quantization of two particles interacting via a harmonic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palev, T.D.

    1981-01-01

    Following the ideas of Wigner a non-canonical quantization of a system of two non-relativistic point particles, interacting via a harmonic potential is studied. The center-of-mass phase-space variables are quantized in a canonical way, whereas the internal momentum and the coordinates are assumed to be operators, generating finite-dimensional representations of the Lie superalgebra A(0, 2). It turns out that the operators of the internal Hamiltonian, the relative distance, the internal momentum and the orbital momentum commute with each other. The spectrum of these operators is finite. In particular the distance between the particles is preserved in time and can have four different values so that the particles are confined. Every coordinate operator can be diagonalized, however, the position of the particles cannot be localized, since the operators of the Cartesian cooordinates do not commute. The angular momentum of the system can be either zero or one (in units h/2π/2) [ru

  18. Numerical Optimization Design of Dynamic Quantizer via Matrix Uncertainty Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Sawada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In networked control systems, continuous-valued signals are compressed to discrete-valued signals via quantizers and then transmitted/received through communication channels. Such quantization often degrades the control performance; a quantizer must be designed that minimizes the output difference between before and after the quantizer is inserted. In terms of the broadbandization and the robustness of the networked control systems, we consider the continuous-time quantizer design problem. In particular, this paper describes a numerical optimization method for a continuous-time dynamic quantizer considering the switching speed. Using a matrix uncertainty approach of sampled-data control, we clarify that both the temporal and spatial resolution constraints can be considered in analysis and synthesis, simultaneously. Finally, for the slow switching, we compare the proposed and the existing methods through numerical examples. From the examples, a new insight is presented for the two-step design of the existing continuous-time optimal quantizer.

  19. International Space Station (ISS) Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU) Utilization Plan Assessment Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Pellerano, Amri; Iannello, Christopher J.; Garrett, Henry B.; Ging, Andrew T.; Katz, Ira; Keith, R. Lloyd; Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Schneider, Todd A.; Whittlesey, Edward J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) vehicle undergoes spacecraft charging as it interacts with Earth's ionosphere and magnetic field. The interaction can result in a large potential difference developing between the ISS metal chassis and the local ionosphere plasma environment. If an astronaut conducting extravehicular activities (EVA) is exposed to the potential difference, then a possible electrical shock hazard arises. The control of this hazard was addressed by a number of documents within the ISS Program (ISSP) including Catastrophic Safety Hazard for Astronauts on EVA (ISS-EVA-312-4A_revE). The safety hazard identified the risk for an astronaut to experience an electrical shock in the event an arc was generated on an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) surface. A catastrophic safety hazard, by the ISS requirements, necessitates mitigation by a two-fault tolerant system of hazard controls. Traditionally, the plasma contactor units (PCUs) on the ISS have been used to limit the charging and serve as a "ground strap" between the ISS structure and the surrounding ionospheric plasma. In 2009, a previous NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) team evaluated the PCU utilization plan (NESC Request #07-054-E) with the objective to assess whether leaving PCUs off during non-EVA time periods presented risk to the ISS through assembly completion. For this study, in situ measurements of ISS charging, covering the installation of three of the four photovoltaic arrays, and laboratory testing results provided key data to underpin the assessment. The conclusion stated, "there appears to be no significant risk of damage to critical equipment nor excessive ISS thermal coating damage as a result of eliminating PCU operations during non- EVA times." In 2013, the ISSP was presented with recommendations from Boeing Space Environments for the "Conditional" Marginalization of Plasma Hazard. These recommendations include a plan that would keep the PCUs off during EVAs when the

  20. Updated Value of Service Reliability Estimates for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Michael [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schellenberg, Josh [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Blundell, Marshall [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report updates the 2009 meta-analysis that provides estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the United States (U.S.). The meta-dataset now includes 34 different datasets from surveys fielded by 10 different utility companies between 1989 and 2012. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods, it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-dataset describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the U.S. for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. This report focuses on the backwards stepwise selection process that was used to develop the final revised model for all customer classes. Across customer classes, the revised customer interruption cost model has improved significantly because it incorporates more data and does not include the many extraneous variables that were in the original specification from the 2009 meta-analysis. The backwards stepwise selection process led to a more parsimonious model that only included key variables, while still achieving comparable out-of-sample predictive performance. In turn, users of interruption cost estimation tools such as the Interruption Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator will have less customer characteristics information to provide and the associated inputs page will be far less cumbersome. The upcoming new version of the ICE Calculator is anticipated to be released in 2015.

  1. Utilization of Health Care Coalitions and Resiliency Forums in the United States and United Kingdom: Different Approaches to Strengthen Emergency Preparedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John; Swan, Allan Graeme

    2016-02-01

    The process for developing national emergency management strategies for both the United States and the United Kingdom has led to the formulation of differing approaches to meet similar desired outcomes. Historically, the pathways for each are the result of the enactment of legislation in response to a significant event or a series of events. The resulting laws attempt to revise practices and policies leading to more effective and efficient management in preparing, responding, and mitigating all types of natural, manmade, and technological hazards. Following the turn of the 21st century, each country has experienced significant advancements in emergency management including the formation and utilization of 2 distinct models: health care coalitions in the United States and resiliency forums in the United Kingdom. Both models have evolved from circumstances and governance unique to each country. Further in-depth study of both approaches will identify strengths, weaknesses, and existing gaps to meet continued and future challenges of our respective disaster health care systems.

  2. Utility-Scale Solar 2014. An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Other than the nine Solar Energy Generation Systems (“SEGS”) parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or “utility-scale” solar projects – defined here to include any groundmounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar thermal power (“CSP”) project larger than 5 MWAC – existed in the United States prior to 2007. By 2012 – just five years later – utility-scale had become the largest sector of the overall PV market in the United States, a distinction that was repeated in both 2013 and 2014 and that is expected to continue for at least the next few years. Over this same short period, CSP also experienced a bit of a renaissance in the United States, with a number of large new parabolic trough and power tower systems – some including thermal storage – achieving commercial operation. With this critical mass of new utility-scale projects now online and in some cases having operated for a number of years (generating not only electricity, but also empirical data that can be mined), the rapidly growing utility-scale sector is ripe for analysis. This report, the third edition in an ongoing annual series, meets this need through in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of not just installed project costs or prices – i.e., the traditional realm of solar economics analyses – but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects in the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are presented where appropriate.

  3. Experimental investigations on cylindrical latent heat storage units with sodium acetate trihydrate composites utilizing supercooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Kong, Weiqiang

    2016-01-01

    unit was tested with 116.3 kg SAT with 0.5% Xanthan rubber as a thickening agent and 4.4% graphite powder. The heat exchange capacity rate during charge was significantly lower for the unit with SAT and Xanthan rubber compared to the unit with SAT and extra water. This was due to less convection...

  4. Experimental investigations on prototype heat storage units utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Dragsted, Janne; Fan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory tests of two heat storage units based on the principle of stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) mixtures were carried out. One unit was filled with 199.5 kg of SAT with 9% extra water to avoid phase separation of the incongruently melting salt hydrate. The other unit...

  5. Face recognition algorithm using extended vector quantization histogram features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yan; Lee, Feifei; Wu, Xueqian; Chen, Qiu

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a face recognition algorithm based on a combination of vector quantization (VQ) and Markov stationary features (MSF). The VQ algorithm has been shown to be an effective method for generating features; it extracts a codevector histogram as a facial feature representation for face recognition. Still, the VQ histogram features are unable to convey spatial structural information, which to some extent limits their usefulness in discrimination. To alleviate this limitation of VQ histograms, we utilize Markov stationary features (MSF) to extend the VQ histogram-based features so as to add spatial structural information. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm by achieving recognition results superior to those of several state-of-the-art methods on publicly available face databases.

  6. Tensor products of quantized tilting modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    Let U k denote the quantized enveloping algebra corresponding to a finite dimensional simple complex Lie algebra L. Assume that the quantum parameter is a root of unity in k of order at least the Coxeter number for pound. Also assume that this order is odd and not divisible by 3 if type G 2 occurs. We demonstrate how one can define a reduced tensor product on the family F consisting of those finite dimensional simple U k -modules which are deformations of simple L-modules and which have non-zero quantum dimension. This together with the work of Reshetikhin-Turaev and Turaev-Wenzl prove that (U k , F) is a modular Hopf algebra and hence produces invariants of 3-manifolds. Also by recent work of Duurhus, Jakobsen and Nest it leads to a general topological quantum field theory. The method of proof explores quantized analogues of tilting modules for algebraic groups. (orig.)

  7. Postprocessing MPEG based on estimated quantization parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren

    2009-01-01

    the case where the coded stream is not accessible, or from an architectural point of view not desirable to use, and instead estimate some of the MPEG stream parameters based on the decoded sequence. The I-frames are detected and the quantization parameters are estimated from the coded stream and used...... in the postprocessing. We focus on deringing and present a scheme which aims at suppressing ringing artifacts, while maintaining the sharpness of the texture. The goal is to improve the visual quality, so perceptual blur and ringing metrics are used in addition to PSNR evaluation. The performance of the new `pure......' postprocessing compares favorable to a reference postprocessing filter which has access to the quantization parameters not only for I-frames but also on P and B-frames....

  8. Light-front quantization of field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Prem P. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]|[Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-07-01

    Some basic topics in Light-Front (LF) quantized field theory are reviewed. Poincare algebra and the LF spin operator are discussed. The local scalar field theory of the conventional framework is shown to correspond to a non-local Hamiltonian theory on the LF in view of the constraint equations on the phase space, which relate the bosonic condensates to the non-zero modes. This new ingredient is useful to describe the spontaneous symmetry breaking on the LF. The instability of the symmetric phase in two dimensional scalar theory when the coupling constant grows is shown in the LF theory renormalized to one loop order. Chern-Simons gauge theory, regarded to describe excitations with fractional statistics, is quantized in the light-cone gauge and a simple LF Hamiltonian obtained which may allow us to construct renormalized theory of anyons. (author). 20 refs.

  9. Light-front quantization of field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Prem P.

    1996-07-01

    Some basic topics in Light-Front (LF) quantized field theory are reviewed. Poincare algebra and the LF spin operator are discussed. The local scalar field theory of the conventional framework is shown to correspond to a non-local Hamiltonian theory on the LF in view of the constraint equations on the phase space, which relate the bosonic condensates to the non-zero modes. This new ingredient is useful to describe the spontaneous symmetry breaking on the LF. The instability of the symmetric phase in two dimensional scalar theory when the coupling constant grows is shown in the LF theory renormalized to one loop order. Chern-Simons gauge theory, regarded to describe excitations with fractional statistics, is quantized in the light-cone gauge and a simple LF Hamiltonian obtained which may allow us to construct renormalized theory of anyons. (author). 20 refs

  10. Coherent State Quantization and Moment Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Gazeau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Berezin-Klauder-Toeplitz (“anti-Wick” or “coherent state” quantization of the complex plane, viewed as the phase space of a particle moving on the line, is derived from the resolution of the unity provided by the standard (or gaussian coherent states. The construction of these states and their attractive properties are essentially based on the energy spectrum of the harmonic oscillator, that is on natural numbers. We follow in this work the same path by considering sequences of non-negative numbers and their associated “non-linear” coherent states. We illustrate our approach with the 2-d motion of a charged particle in a uniform magnetic field. By solving the involved Stieltjes moment problem we construct a family of coherent states for this model. We then proceed with the corresponding coherent state quantization and we show that this procedure takes into account the circle topology of the classical motion.

  11. Gauge invariance and Weyl-polymer quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Strocchi, Franco

    2016-01-01

    The book gives an introduction to Weyl non-regular quantization suitable for the description of physically interesting quantum systems, where the traditional Dirac-Heisenberg quantization is not applicable.  The latter implicitly assumes that the canonical variables describe observables, entailing necessarily the regularity of their exponentials (Weyl operators). However, in physically interesting cases -- typically in the presence of a gauge symmetry -- non-observable canonical variables are introduced for the description of the states, namely of the relevant representations of the observable algebra. In general, a gauge invariant ground state defines a non-regular representation of the gauge dependent Weyl operators, providing a mathematically consistent treatment of familiar quantum systems -- such as the electron in a periodic potential (Bloch electron), the Quantum Hall electron, or the quantum particle on a circle -- where the gauge transformations are, respectively, the lattice translations, the magne...

  12. Scalets, wavelets and (complex) turning point quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, C. R.; Brooks, H. A.

    2001-05-01

    Despite the many successes of wavelet analysis in image and signal processing, the incorporation of continuous wavelet transform theory within quantum mechanics has lacked a compelling, first principles, motivating analytical framework, until now. For arbitrary one-dimensional rational fraction Hamiltonians, we develop a simple, unified formalism, which clearly underscores the complementary, and mutually interdependent, role played by moment quantization theory (i.e. via scalets, as defined herein) and wavelets. This analysis involves no approximation of the Hamiltonian within the (equivalent) wavelet space, and emphasizes the importance of (complex) multiple turning point contributions in the quantization process. We apply the method to three illustrative examples. These include the (double-well) quartic anharmonic oscillator potential problem, V(x) = Z2x2 + gx4, the quartic potential, V(x) = x4, and the very interesting and significant non-Hermitian potential V(x) = -(ix)3, recently studied by Bender and Boettcher.

  13. Foundations of quantization for probability distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Siegfried

    2000-01-01

    Due to the rapidly increasing need for methods of data compression, quantization has become a flourishing field in signal and image processing and information theory. The same techniques are also used in statistics (cluster analysis), pattern recognition, and operations research (optimal location of service centers). The book gives the first mathematically rigorous account of the fundamental theory underlying these applications. The emphasis is on the asymptotics of quantization errors for absolutely continuous and special classes of singular probabilities (surface measures, self-similar measures) presenting some new results for the first time. Written for researchers and graduate students in probability theory the monograph is of potential interest to all people working in the disciplines mentioned above.

  14. Quantized vortices in superfluids and superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoulessi, D.J.; Wexler, C.; Ping Ao, Ping; Niu, Qian; Geller, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    We give a general review of recent developments in the theory of vortices in superfluids and superconductors, discussing why the dynamics of vortices is important, and why some key results are still controversial. We discuss work that we have done on the dynamics of quantized vortices in a superfluid. Despite the fact that this problem has been recognized as important for forty years, there is still a lot of controversy about the forces on and masses of quantized vortices. We think that one can get unambiguous answers by considering a broken symmetry state that consists of one vortex in an infinite ideal system. We argue for a Magnus force that is proportional to the superfluid density, and we find that the effective mass density of a vortex in a neutral superfluid is divergent at low frequencies. We have generalized some of the results for a neutral superfluid to a charged system. (Copyright (1998) World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd)

  15. Semiclassical quantization of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohl, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    Using the functional integral technique of Dashen, Hasslacher, and Neveu, we perform a semiclassical quantization of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE), which reproduces McGuire's exact result for the energy levels of the bound states of the theory. We show that the stability angle formalism leads to the one-loop normal ordering and self-energy renormalization expected from perturbation theory, and demonstrate that taking into account center-of-mass motion gives the correct nonrelativistic energy--momentum relation. We interpret the classical solution in the context of the quantum theory, relating it to the matrix element of the field operator between adjacent bound states in the limit of large quantum numbers. Finally, we quantize the NLSE as a theory of N component fermion fields and show that the semiclassical method yields the exact energy levels and correct degeneracies

  16. Adiabatic quantum pumping and charge quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashcheyevs, V; Aharony, A.; Entin-Wohlmanl, O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text:Modern techniques for coherent manipulation of electrons at the nano scale (electrostatic gating, surface acoustic waves) allow for studies of the adiabatic quantum pumping effect - a directed current induced by a slowly varying external perturbation. Scattering theory of pumping predicts transfer of an almost integer number of electrons per cycle if instantaneous transmission is determined by a sequence of resonances. We show that this quantization can be explained in terms of loading/unloading quasi-bound virtual states, and derive a tool for analyzing quantized pumping induced by a general potential. This theory is applied to a simple model of pumping due to surface acoustic waves. The results reproduce all the qualitative features observed in actual experiments

  17. Semi-classical quantization of chaotic billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilansky, U.

    1992-02-01

    The semi-classical quantization of chaotic billiards will be developed using scattering theory approach. This will be used to introduce and explain the inherent difficulties in the semi-classical quantization of chaos, and to show some of the modern tools which were developed recently to overcome these difficulties. To this end, we shall first obtain a semi-classical secular equation which is based on a finite number of classical periodic orbits. We shall use it to derive some spectral properties, and in particular to investigate the relationship between spectral statistics of quantum chaotic systems and the predictions of random-matrix theory. We shall finally discuss an important family of chaotic billiard, whose statistics does not follow any of the canonical ensembles, (GOE,GUE,...) but rather, corresponds to a new universality class. (author)

  18. Ionization in a quantized electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonoskov, I. A.; Vugalter, G. A.; Mironov, V. A.

    2007-01-01

    An analytical expression for a matrix element of the transition from a bound state of an electron in an atom to continuum states is obtained by solving the problem of interaction of the electron with a quantized electromagnetic field. This expression is used to derive formulas for the photoelectron spectrum and the rate of ionization of the simplest model atomic system upon absorption of an arbitrary number of photons. The expressions derived are analyzed and compared with the corresponding relationships obtained via other approaches. It is demonstrated that there are differences as compared to the case of the classical field. In particular, the photoelectron spectrum exhibits dips due to the destructive interference of the transition amplitudes in the quantized electromagnetic field

  19. Second quantization in bit-string physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1992-08-01

    Using a new fundamental theory based on bit-strings we derived a finite and discrete version of the solutions of the free one particle Dirac equation as segmented trajectories with steps of length h/mc along the forward and backward light cones executed at velocity ±c. Interpreting the statistical fluctuations which cause the bends in these segmented trajectories as emission and absorption of radiation, these solutions are analagous to a fermion propagator in a second quantized theory. This allows us to interpret the mass parameter in the step length as the physical mass of the free particle. The radiation in interaction with it has the usual harmonic oscillator structure of a second quantized theory. We sketch on these free particle masses can be generated gravitationally using the combinatorial hierarchy sequence (3,10,137,2 127 +136), and some of the predictive consequences

  20. Inflation and inhomogeneities: a hybrid quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmedo, J; Fernández-Méndez, M; Mena Marugán, G A

    2012-01-01

    We provide a complete quantization of a homogeneous and isotropic spacetime with positive spatial curvature coupled to a massive scalar field in the framework of Loop Quantum Cosmology. The physical Hilbert space is constructed out of the space of initial data on the minimum volume section. By means of a perturbative treatment we introduce inhomogeneities and thereafter we adopt a hybrid quantum approach, in which these inhomogeneous degrees of freedom are described by a standard Fock quantization. For the considered case of compact spatial topology, the requirements of: i) invariance of the vacuum state under the spatial isometries, and ii) unitary implementation of the quantum dynamics, pick up a privileged set of canonical fields and a unique Fock representation (up to unitary equivalence).

  1. Renormalized semiclassical quantization for rescalable Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Takatsuka, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    A renormalized semiclassical quantization method for rescalable Hamiltonians is proposed. A classical Hamilton system having a potential function that consists of homogeneous polynomials like the Coulombic potential can have a scale invariance in its extended phase space (phase space plus time). Consequently, infinitely many copies of a single trajectory constitute a one-parameter family that is characterized in terms of a scaling factor. This scaling invariance in classical dynamics is lost in quantum mechanics due to the presence of the Planck constant. It is shown that in a system whose classical motions have a self-similarity in the above sense, classical trajectories adopted in the semiclassical scheme interact with infinitely many copies of their own that are reproduced by the relevant scaling procedure, thereby undergoing quantum interference among themselves to produce a quantized spectrum

  2. Nonlinear poisson brackets geometry and quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Karasev, M V

    2012-01-01

    This book deals with two old mathematical problems. The first is the problem of constructing an analog of a Lie group for general nonlinear Poisson brackets. The second is the quantization problem for such brackets in the semiclassical approximation (which is the problem of exact quantization for the simplest classes of brackets). These problems are progressively coming to the fore in the modern theory of differential equations and quantum theory, since the approach based on constructions of algebras and Lie groups seems, in a certain sense, to be exhausted. The authors' main goal is to describe in detail the new objects that appear in the solution of these problems. Many ideas of algebra, modern differential geometry, algebraic topology, and operator theory are synthesized here. The authors prove all statements in detail, thus making the book accessible to graduate students.

  3. A logarithmic quantization index modulation for perceptually better data hiding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Nima Khademi; Ahadi, Seyed Mohammad

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, a novel arrangement for quantizer levels in the Quantization Index Modulation (QIM) method is proposed. Due to perceptual advantages of logarithmic quantization, and in order to solve the problems of a previous logarithmic quantization-based method, we used the compression function of mu-Law standard for quantization. In this regard, the host signal is first transformed into the logarithmic domain using the mu-Law compression function. Then, the transformed data is quantized uniformly and the result is transformed back to the original domain using the inverse function. The scalar method is then extended to vector quantization. For this, the magnitude of each host vector is quantized on the surface of hyperspheres which follow logarithmic radii. Optimum parameter mu for both scalar and vector cases is calculated according to the host signal distribution. Moreover, inclusion of a secret key in the proposed method, similar to the dither modulation in QIM, is introduced. Performance of the proposed method in both cases is analyzed and the analytical derivations are verified through extensive simulations on artificial signals. The method is also simulated on real images and its performance is compared with previous scalar and vector quantization-based methods. Results show that this method features stronger a watermark in comparison with conventional QIM and, as a result, has better performance while it does not suffer from the drawbacks of a previously proposed logarithmic quantization algorithm.

  4. Homotopy arguments for quantized Hall conductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, T

    2002-01-01

    Using the strong localization bounds obtained by the Aizenman-Molcanov method for a particle in a magnetic field and a disordered potential, we show that the zero-temperature Hall conductivity of a gas of such particles is quantized and constant as long as both Fermi energy and disorder coupling parameter vary in a region of strong localization of the corresponding two-dimensional phase diagram.

  5. Superfield quantization in Sp(2) covariant formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M

    2001-01-01

    The rules of the superfield Sp(2) covariant quantization of the arbitrary gauge theories for the case of the introduction of the gauging with the derivative equations for the gauge functional are generalized. The possibilities of realization of the expanded anti-brackets are considered and it is shown, that only one of the realizations is compatible with the transformations of the expanded BRST-symmetry in the form of super translations along the Grassmann superspace coordinates

  6. Stochastic quantization and mean field approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jengo, R.; Parga, N.

    1983-09-01

    In the context of the stochastic quantization we propose factorized approximate solutions for the Fokker-Planck equation for the XY and Zsub(N) spin systems in D dimensions. The resulting differential equation for a factor can be solved and it is found to give in the limit of t→infinity the mean field or, in the more general case, the Bethe-Peierls approximation. (author)

  7. Geometry and quantization of moduli spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Jørgen; Riera, Ignasi

    2016-01-01

    This volume is based on four advanced courses held at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM), Barcelona. It presents both background information and recent developments on selected topics that are experiencing extraordinary growth within the broad research area of geometry and quantization of moduli spaces. The lectures focus on the geometry of moduli spaces which are mostly associated to compact Riemann surfaces, and are presented from both classical and quantum perspectives.

  8. Particle states of a quantized meson field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skyrme, T.H.R.

    1994-01-01

    A simple non-linear field theory is considered as the model for a recently proposed classical field theory of mesons and their particle sources. Quantization may be made according to canonical procedures; the problem is to show the existence of quantum states corresponding with the particle-like solutions of the classical field equations. A plausible way to do this is suggested. (author). 5 refs

  9. Inequivalent quantizations and fundamentally perfect spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbo, T.D.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1987-06-01

    We investigate the problem of inequivalent quantizations of a physical system with multiply connected configuration space X. For scalar quantum theory on X we show that state vectors must be single-valued if and only if the first homology group H 1 (X) is trivial, or equivalently the fundamental group π 1 (X) is perfect. The θ-structure of quantum gauge and gravitational theories is discussed in light of this result

  10. Quantization of non-Hamiltonian physical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, A.O.

    1998-09-01

    We propose a general method of quantization of non-Hamiltonian physical systems. Applying it, for example, to a dissipative system coupled to a thermal reservoir described by the Fokker-Planck equation, we are able to obtain the Caldeira-Leggett master equation, the non-linear Schroedinger-Langevin equation and Caldirola-Kanai equation (with an additional term), as particular cases. (author)

  11. Hamiltonian description and quantization of dissipative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enz, Charles P.

    1994-09-01

    Dissipative systems are described by a Hamiltonian, combined with a “dynamical matrix” which generalizes the simplectic form of the equations of motion. Criteria for dissipation are given and the examples of a particle with friction and of the Lotka-Volterra model are presented. Quantization is first introduced by translating generalized Poisson brackets into commutators and anticommutators. Then a generalized Schrödinger equation expressed by a dynamical matrix is constructed and discussed.

  12. On the quantization of constrained generalized dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, C.A.P.; Lemos, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    A special class of degenerate second order Lagrangians, those which differ from a nondegenerate first order Lagrangian by a total time derivative (or a four divergence) of a function of both the coordinates and velocities, is studied in detail. The canonical quantization of such systems is then realized and it is shown that this leads to the same results as in the first order Lagrangian. (M.W.O.) [pt

  13. Fractional statistics and fractional quantized Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, R.; Wu, Y.S.

    1985-01-01

    The authors suggest that the origin of the odd-denominator rule observed in the fractional quantized Hall effect (FQHE) may lie in fractional statistics which govern quasiparticles in FQHE. A theorem concerning statistics of clusters of quasiparticles implies that fractional statistics do not allow coexistence of a large number of quasiparticles at fillings with an even denominator. Thus, no Hall plateau can be formed at these fillings, regardless of the presence of an energy gap. 15 references

  14. Stochastic quantization and 1/N expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunelli, J.C.; Mendes, R.S.

    1992-10-01

    We study the 1/N expansion of field theories in the stochastic quantization method of Parisi and Wu using the supersymmetric functional approach. This formulation provides a systematic procedure to implement the 1/N expansion which resembles the ones used in the equilibrium. The 1/N perturbation theory for the non linear sigma model in two dimensions is worked out as an example. (author). 19 refs., 5 figs

  15. Unique Fock quantization of scalar cosmological perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Méndez, Mikel; Mena Marugán, Guillermo A.; Olmedo, Javier; Velhinho, José M.

    2012-05-01

    We investigate the ambiguities in the Fock quantization of the scalar perturbations of a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker model with a massive scalar field as matter content. We consider the case of compact spatial sections (thus avoiding infrared divergences), with the topology of a three-sphere. After expanding the perturbations in series of eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator, the Hamiltonian of the system is written up to quadratic order in them. We fix the gauge of the local degrees of freedom in two different ways, reaching in both cases the same qualitative results. A canonical transformation, which includes the scaling of the matter-field perturbations by the scale factor of the geometry, is performed in order to arrive at a convenient formulation of the system. We then study the quantization of these perturbations in the classical background determined by the homogeneous variables. Based on previous work, we introduce a Fock representation for the perturbations in which: (a) the complex structure is invariant under the isometries of the spatial sections and (b) the field dynamics is implemented as a unitary operator. These two properties select not only a unique unitary equivalence class of representations, but also a preferred field description, picking up a canonical pair of field variables among all those that can be obtained by means of a time-dependent scaling of the matter field (completed into a linear canonical transformation). Finally, we present an equivalent quantization constructed in terms of gauge-invariant quantities. We prove that this quantization can be attained by a mode-by-mode time-dependent linear canonical transformation which admits a unitary implementation, so that it is also uniquely determined.

  16. New quantization matrices for JPEG steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Yesna O.; Panetta, Karen; Agaian, Sos

    2007-04-01

    Modern steganography is a secure communication of information by embedding a secret-message within a "cover" digital multimedia without any perceptual distortion to the cover media, so the presence of the hidden message is indiscernible. Recently, the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format attracted the attention of researchers as the main steganographic format due to the following reasons: It is the most common format for storing images, JPEG images are very abundant on the Internet bulletin boards and public Internet sites, and they are almost solely used for storing natural images. Well-known JPEG steganographic algorithms such as F5 and Model-based Steganography provide high message capacity with reasonable security. In this paper, we present a method to increase security using JPEG images as the cover medium. The key element of the method is using a new parametric key-dependent quantization matrix. This new quantization table has practically the same performance as the JPEG table as far as compression ratio and image statistics. The resulting image is indiscernible from an image that was created using the JPEG compression algorithm. This paper presents the key-dependent quantization table algorithm and then analyzes the new table performance.

  17. Light-Front Quantization of Gauge Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.

    2003-03-25

    Light-front wavefunctions provide a frame-independent representation of hadrons in terms of their physical quark and gluon degrees of freedom. The light-front Hamiltonian formalism provides new nonperturbative methods for obtaining the QCD spectrum and eigensolutions, including resolvant methods, variational techniques, and discretized light-front quantization. A new method for quantizing gauge theories in light-cone gauge using Dirac brackets to implement constraints is presented. In the case of the electroweak theory, this method of light-front quantization leads to a unitary and renormalizable theory of massive gauge particles, automatically incorporating the Lorentz and 't Hooft conditions as well as the Goldstone boson equivalence theorem. Spontaneous symmetry breaking is represented by the appearance of zero modes of the Higgs field leaving the light-front vacuum equal to the perturbative vacuum. I also discuss an ''event amplitude generator'' for automatically computing renormalized amplitudes in perturbation theory. The importance of final-state interactions for the interpretation of diffraction, shadowing, and single-spin asymmetries in inclusive reactions such as deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering is emphasized.

  18. Light-Front Quantization of Gauge Theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodskey, Stanley

    2002-12-01

    Light-front wavefunctions provide a frame-independent representation of hadrons in terms of their physical quark and gluon degrees of freedom. The light-front Hamiltonian formalism provides new nonperturbative methods for obtaining the QCD spectrum and eigensolutions, including resolvant methods, variational techniques, and discretized light-front quantization. A new method for quantizing gauge theories in light-cone gauge using Dirac brackets to implement constraints is presented. In the case of the electroweak theory, this method of light-front quantization leads to a unitary and renormalizable theory of massive gauge particles, automatically incorporating the Lorentz and 't Hooft conditions as well as the Goldstone boson equivalence theorem. Spontaneous symmetry breaking is represented by the appearance of zero modes of the Higgs field leaving the light-front vacuum equal to the perturbative vacuum. I also discuss an ''event amplitude generator'' for automatically computing renormalized amplitudes in perturbation theory. The importance of final-state interactions for the interpretation of diffraction, shadowing, and single-spin asymmetries in inclusive reactions such as deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering is emphasized.

  19. Statistical Physics and Light-Front Quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raufeisen, J

    2004-08-12

    Light-front quantization has important advantages for describing relativistic statistical systems, particularly systems for which boost invariance is essential, such as the fireball created in a heavy ion collisions. In this paper the authors develop light-front field theory at finite temperature and density with special attention to quantum chromodynamics. They construct the most general form of the statistical operator allowed by the Poincare algebra and show that there are no zero-mode related problems when describing phase transitions. They then demonstrate a direct connection between densities in light-front thermal field theory and the parton distributions measured in hard scattering experiments. The approach thus generalizes the concept of a parton distribution to finite temperature. In light-front quantization, the gauge-invariant Green's functions of a quark in a medium can be defined in terms of just 2-component spinors and have a much simpler spinor structure than the equal-time fermion propagator. From the Green's function, the authors introduce the new concept of a light-front density matrix, whose matrix elements are related to forward and to off-diagonal parton distributions. Furthermore, they explain how thermodynamic quantities can be calculated in discretized light-cone quantization, which is applicable at high chemical potential and is not plagued by the fermion-doubling problems.

  20. Quantizations of D = 3 Lorentz symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukierski, J. [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Tolstoy, V.N. [University of Wroclaw, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Wroclaw (Poland); Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Using the isomorphism o(3; C) ≅ sl(2; C) we develop a new simple algebraic technique for complete classification of quantum deformations (the classical r-matrices) for real forms o(3) and o(2,1) of the complex Lie algebra o(3; C) in terms of real forms of sl(2; C): su(2), su(1,1) and sl(2; R). We prove that the D = 3 Lorentz symmetry o(2,1) ≅ su(1,1) ≅ sl(2; R) has three different Hopf-algebraic quantum deformations, which are expressed in the simplest way by two standard su(1,1) and sl(2; R) q-analogs and by simple Jordanian sl(2; R) twist deformation. These quantizations are presented in terms of the quantum Cartan-Weyl generators for the quantized algebras su(1,1) and sl(2; R) as well as in terms of quantum Cartesian generators for the quantized algebra o(2,1). Finally, some applications of the deformed D = 3 Lorentz symmetry are mentioned. (orig.)

  1. Introduction to quantized LIE groups and algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjin, T.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors give a self-contained introduction to the theory of quantum groups according to Drinfeld, highlighting the formal aspects as well as the applications to the Yang-Baxter equation and representation theory. Introductions to Hopf algebras, Poisson structures and deformation quantization are also provided. After defining Poisson Lie groups the authors study their relation to Lie bialgebras and the classical Yang-Baxter equation. Then the authors explain in detail the concept of quantization for them. As an example the quantization of sl 2 is explicitly carried out. Next, the authors show how quantum groups are related to the Yang-Baxter equation and how they can be used to solve it. Using the quantum double construction, the authors explicitly construct the universal R matrix for the quantum sl 2 algebra. In the last section, the authors deduce all finite-dimensional irreducible representations for q a root of unity. The authors also give their tensor product decomposition (fusion rules), which is relevant to conformal field theory

  2. Quantized orbits in weakly coupled Belousov-Zhabotinsky reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S.; Deegan, R. D.

    2015-06-01

    Using numerical and experimental tools, we study the motion of two coupled spiral cores in a light-sensitive variant of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction. Each core resides on a separate two-dimensional domain, and is coupled to the other by light. When both spirals have the same sense of rotation, the cores are attracted to a circular trajectory with a diameter quantized in integer units of the spiral wavelength λ. When the spirals have opposite senses of rotation, the cores are attracted towards different but parallel straight trajectories, separated by an integer multiple of λ/2. We present a model that explains this behavior as the result of a spiral wavefront-core interaction that produces a deterministic displacement of the core and a retardation of its phase.

  3. Quantization, geometry and noncommutative structures in mathematics and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Pedro; Ocampo, Hernán; Paycha, Sylvie; Lega, Andrés

    2017-01-01

    This monograph presents various ongoing approaches to the vast topic of quantization, which is the process of forming a quantum mechanical system starting from a classical one, and discusses their numerous fruitful interactions with mathematics. The opening chapter introduces the various forms of quantization and their interactions with each other and with mathematics. A first approach to quantization, called deformation quantization, consists of viewing the Planck constant as a small parameter. This approach provides a deformation of the structure of the algebra of classical observables rather than a radical change in the nature of the observables. When symmetries come into play, deformation quantization needs to be merged with group actions, which is presented in chapter 2, by Simone Gutt. The noncommutativity arising from quantization is the main concern of noncommutative geometry. Allowing for the presence of symmetries requires working with principal fiber bundles in a non-commutative setup, where Hopf a...

  4. Algebraic quantization, good operators and fractional quantum numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldaya, V.; Calixto, M.; Guerrero, J.

    1996-01-01

    The problems arising when quantizing systems with periodic boundary conditions are analysed, in an algebraic (group-) quantization scheme, and the failure of the Ehrenfest theorem is clarified in terms of the already defined notion of good (and bad) operators. The analysis of constrained Heisenberg-Weyl groups according to this quantization scheme reveals the possibility for quantum operators without classical analogue and for new quantum (fractional) numbers extending those allowed for Chern classes in traditional Geometric Quantization. This study is illustrated with the examples of the free particle on the circumference and the charged particle in a homogeneous magnetic field on the torus, both examples featuring anomalous operators, non-equivalent quantization and the latter, fractional quantum numbers. These provide the rationale behind flux quantization in superconducting rings and Fractional Quantum Hall Effect, respectively. (orig.)

  5. Health care access and utilization among children of single working and nonworking mothers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Tainya C; Arheart, Kristopher L; Muennig, Peter; Fleming, Lora E; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Dietz, Noella; Lee, David J

    2011-01-01

    To examine indicators of health care access and utilization among children of working and nonworking single mothers in the United States, the authors used data on unmarried women participating in the 1997-2008 National Health Interview Survey who financially supported children under 18 years of age (n = 21,842). Stratified by maternal employment, the analyses assessed health care access and utilization for all children. Outcome variables included delayed care, unmet care, lack of prescription medication, no usual place of care, no well-child visit, and no doctor's visit. The analyses reveal that maternal employment status was not associated with health care access and utilization. The strongest predictors of low access/utilization included no health insurance and intermittent health insurance in the previous 12 months, relative to those with continuous private health insurance coverage (odds ratio ranges 3.2-13.5 and 1.3-10.3, respectively). Children with continuous public health insurance compared favorably with those having continuous private health insurance on three of six access/utilization indicators (odds ratio range 0.63-0.85). As these results show, health care access and utilization for the children of single mothers are not optimal. Passage of the U.S. Healthcare Reform Bill (HR 3590) will probably increase the number of children with health insurance and improve these indicators.

  6. An international investigation into O red blood cell unit administration in hospitals: the GRoup O Utilization Patterns (GROUP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Michelle P; Barty, Rebecca; Aandahl, Astrid; Apelseth, Torunn O; Callum, Jeannie; Dunbar, Nancy M; Elahie, Allahna; Garritsen, Henk; Hancock, Helen; Kutner, José Mauro; Manukian, Belinda; Mizuta, Shuichi; Okuda, Makoto; Pagano, Monica B; Pogłód, Ryszard; Rushford, Kylie; Selleng, Kathleen; Sørensen, Claess Henning; Sprogøe, Ulrik; Staves, Julie; Weiland, Thorsten; Wendel, Silvano; Wood, Erica M; van de Watering, Leo; van Wordragen-Vlaswinkel, Maria; Ziman, Alyssa; Jan Zwaginga, Jaap; Murphy, Michael F; Heddle, Nancy M; Yazer, Mark H

    2017-10-01

    Transfusion of group O blood to non-O recipients, or transfusion of D- blood to D+ recipients, can result in shortages of group O or D- blood, respectively. This study investigated RBC utilization patterns at hospitals around the world and explored the context and policies that guide ABO blood group and D type selection practices. This was a retrospective study on transfusion data from the 2013 calendar year. This study included a survey component that asked about hospital RBC selection and transfusion practices and a data collection component where participants submitted information on RBC unit disposition including blood group and D type of unit and recipient. Units administered to recipients of unknown ABO or D group were excluded. Thirty-eight hospitals in 11 countries responded to the survey, 30 of which provided specific RBC unit disposition data. Overall, 11.1% (21,235/191,397) of group O units were transfused to non-O recipients; 22.6% (8777/38,911) of group O D- RBC units were transfused to O D+ recipients, and 43.2% (16,800/38,911) of group O D- RBC units were transfused to recipients that were not group O D-. Disposition of units and hospital transfusion policy varied within and across hospitals of different sizes, with transfusion of group O D- units to non-group O D- patients ranging from 0% to 33%. A significant proportion of group O and D- RBC units were transfused to compatible, nonidentical recipients, although the frequency of this practice varied across sites. © 2017 AABB.

  7. Semiclassical quantization of nonadiabatic systems with hopping periodic orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    We present a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum–classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems consisting of fast and slow degrees of freedom (DOFs) by extending Gutzwiller’s trace formula to a nonadiabatic form. The quantum–classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow DOF, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels. In addition to the semiclassical quantization condition, we also discuss chaotic dynamics involved in the classical limit of nonadiabatic dynamics

  8. Minimal quantization of two-dimensional models with chiral anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, N.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional gauge models with chiral anomalies - ''left-handed'' QED and the chiral Schwinger model, are quantized consistently in the frames of the minimal quantization method. The choice of the cone time as a physical time for system of quantization is motivated. The well-known mass spectrum is found but with a fixed value of the regularization parameter a=2. Such a unique solution is obtained due to the strong requirement of consistency of the minimal quantization that reflects in the physically motivated choice of the time axis

  9. Utility-Scale Solar 2013: An empirical analysis of project cost, performance, and pricing trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Weaver, Samantha [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-09-17

    Other than the SEGS I-IX parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or "utility-scale" solar projects-defined here to include any ground-mounted photovoltaic ("PV"), concentrating photovoltaic ("CPV"), or concentrating solar power ("CSP" or solar thermal) project larger than 5 MWAC-existed in the United States prior to 2007.

  10. Utility-Scale Solar 2015: An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2016-08-17

    The utility-scale solar sector—defined here to include any ground-mounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar power (“CSP”) project that is larger than 5 MWAC in capacity—has led the overall U.S. solar market in terms of installed capacity since 2012. It is expected to maintain its market-leading position for at least another five years, driven in part by December 2015’s three-year extension of the 30% federal investment tax credit (“ITC”) through 2019 (coupled with a favorable switch to a “start construction” rather than a “placed in service” eligibility requirement, and a gradual phase down of the credit to 10% by 2022). In fact, in 2016 alone, the utility-scale sector is projected to install more than twice as much new capacity as it ever has previously in a single year. This unprecedented boom makes it difficult, yet more important than ever, to stay abreast of the latest utility-scale market developments and trends. This report—the fourth edition in an ongoing annual series—is intended to help meet this need, by providing in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of the utility-scale solar project fleet in the United States. Drawing on empirical project-level data from a wide range of sources, this report analyzes not just installed project costs or prices—i.e., the traditional realm of most solar economic analyses—but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects throughout the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are also presented where appropriate.

  11. New discovery: Quantization of atomic and nuclear rest mass differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareev, F. A.; Zhidkova, I. E.

    2007-01-01

    We come to the conclusion that all atomic models based on either the Newton equation and the Kepler laws, or the Maxwell equations, or the Schrodinger and Dirac equations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We can only suspect that these equations are grounded on the same fundamental principle(s) which is (are) not known or these equations can be transformed into each other. We proposed a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system - nuclei + atoms + condensed matter - nuclear reactions in plasma - can occur at smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. We were able to quantize [1] phenomenologically the first time the differences between atomic and nuclear rest masses by the formula: ΔΔ M = n 1 /n 2 x 0.0076294 (in MeV/c 2 ), n i =1,2,3,... Note that this quantization rule is justified for atoms and nuclei with different A, N and Z and the nuclei and atoms represent a coherent synchronized open systems - a complex of coupled oscillators (resonators). The cooperative resonance synchronization mechanisms are responsible for explanation of how the electron volt world can influence on the nuclear mega electron volt world. It means that we created new possibilities for inducing and controlling nuclear reactions by atomic processes grounded on the fundamental low of physics - conservation law of energy. The results of these research fields can provide new ecologically pure mobile sources of energy independent from oil, gas and coal, new substances, and technologies. For example, this discovery gives us a simple and cheep method for utilization of nuclear waste. References [1] F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova, E-print arXiv Nucl-th/0610002 2006

  12. Backstepping-based nonlinear adaptive control for coal-fired utility boiler-turbine units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Fang; Wei, Le

    2011-01-01

    The control system of boiler-turbine unit plays an important role in improving efficiency and reducing emissions of power generation unit. The nonlinear, coupling and uncertainty of the unit caused by varying working conditions should be fully considered during the control system design. This paper presents an efficient control scheme based on backstepping theory for improving load adaptability of boiler-turbines in wide operation range. The design process of the scheme includes model preprocessing, control Lyapunov functions selection, interlaced computation of adaptive control laws, etc. For simplification and accuracy, differential of steam pipe inlet pressure and integral terms of target errors are adopted. Also, to enhance practicality, implementation steps of the scheme are proposed. A practical nonlinear model of a 500 MW coal-fired boiler-turbine unit is used to test the efficiency of the proposed scheme in different conditions.

  13. Utility of Amyloid and FDG-PET in Clinical Practice: Differences Between Secondary and Tertiary Care Memory Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Carmen; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Pozueta, Ana; Riancho, Javier; Kazimierczak, Martha; Bravo, Maria; Jimenez Bonilla, Julio; de Arcocha Torres, Marıa; Quirce, Remedios; Banzo, Ignacio; Vazquez-Higuera, Jose Luis; Rabinovici, Gil D; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Eloy; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual

    2018-04-27

    The clinical utility of amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) has not been fully established. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of amyloid imaging on clinical decision making in a secondary care unit and compare our results with a previous study in a tertiary center following the same methods. We reviewed retrospectively 151 cognitively impaired patients who underwent amyloid (Pittsburgh compound B [PiB]) PET and were evaluated clinically before and after the scan in a secondary care unit. One hundred and fifty concurrently underwent fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET. We assessed changes between the pre- and post-PET clinical diagnosis and Alzheimer's disease treatment plan. The association between PiB/FDG results and changes in management was evaluated using χ2 and multivariate logistic regression. Concordance between classification based on scan readings and baseline diagnosis was 66% for PiB and 47% for FDG. The primary diagnosis changed after PET in 17.2% of cases. When examined independently, discordant PiB and discordant FDG were both associated with diagnostic change (p PET due to a higher likelihood of diagnostic change. We found that changes in diagnosis after PET in our secondary center almost doubled those of our previous analysis of a tertiary unit (9% versus 17.2%). Our results offer some clues about the rational use of amyloid PET in a secondary care memory unit stressing its utility in mild cognitive impairment patients.

  14. Global properties of systems quantized via bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebner, H.D.; Werth, J.E.

    1978-03-01

    Take a smooth manifold M and a Lie algebra action (g-ation) theta on M as the geometrical arena of a physical system moving on M with momenta given by theta. It is proposed to quantize the system with a Mackey-like method via the associated vector bundle xisub(rho) of a principal bundle xi=(P,π,M,H) with model dependent structure group H and with g-action phi on P lifted from theta on M. This (quantization) bundle xisub(rho) gives the Hilbert space equal to L 2 (xisub(rho),ω) of the system as the linear space of sections in xisub(rho) being square integrable with respect to a volume form ω on M; the usual position operators are obtained; phi leads to a vector field representation D(phisub(rho),theta) of g in an hence Hilbert space to momentum operators. So Hilbert space carries the quantum kinematics. In this quantuzation the physically important connection between geometrical properties of the system, e.g. quasi-completeness of theta and G-maximality of phisub(rho), and global properties of its quantized kinematics, e.g. skew-adjointness of the momenta and integrability of D(phisub(rho), theta) can easily be studied. The relation to Nelson's construction of a skew-adjoint non-integrable Lie algebra representation and to Palais' local G-action is discussed. Finally the results are applied to actions induced by coverings as examples of non-maximal phisub(rho) on Esub(rho) lifted from maximal theta on M which lead to direct consequences for the corresponding quantum kinematics

  15. Fluxoid quantization in disordered, quasiperiodic, and anisotropic superconducting networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzler, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    The quantization of the magnetic fluxoid in the unit cells of a network of superconducting wires gives rise to a system with competing length scales determined by the resulting fluxoid lattice and the underlying network. This system provides an excellent experimental model for studying questions concerning the concept of commensurability, and the first emphasis of this thesis is on the formation of commensurate states in disordered and quasiperiodic geometries. Measurements of the resistive phase boundary Tc(H)|R reveal cusp-like structure signifying the existence of commensurate states at particular values of the applied field. The authors find that sufficient disorder in the tile areas will destroy all commensurate states in any network, and they accurately describe this behavior using the intuitive open-quotes J 2 modelclose quotes in which one considers only the effects of supercurrents generated to satisfy fluxoid quantization (i.e., the London approximation). However, a disturbance of the local tile ordering destroys only certain types of commensurate states. They find that commensurability is not universally predicated by the presence of inflation symmetry in the lattice, but instead is more closely related to the Fourier transform of the lattice geometry. These experimental results in two dimensions are similar to analytical results for one-dimensional systems. Because the description of the superconducting networks using linearized Ginzburg-Landau theory is identical to a Schroedinger equation, these systems can be used to study the nature of electronic ground states on a two-dimensional lattice in a magnetic field. The second emphasis of this thesis addresses this problem in width-anisotropic square networks. They find that network anisotropy induces localization of the superconducting order parameter in one direction at incommensurate fields while in the perpendicular direction the order parameter remains extended

  16. Remarks on the quantization of conformal fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakas, I.

    1988-01-01

    The quantization of a general (b,c) system in two dimensions is formulated in terms of an infinite hierarchy of modules for the Virasoro algebra that interpolate between the space of classical conformal fields of weight j and the Dirac sea of semi-infinite forms. This provides a natural framework in which to study the relation between algebraic geometry and representations of the Virasoro algebra with central charge c j = -2(6j 2 -6j+1). The importance of the construction is discussed in the context of string theory. (orig.)

  17. On the stochastic quantization of gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jona-Lasinio, G.; Parrinello, C.

    1988-11-03

    The non-gradient stochastic quantization scheme for gauge theories proposed by Zwanziger is analyzed in the semiclassical limit. Using ideas from the theory of small random perturbations of dynamical systems we derive a lower bound for the equilibrium distribution in a neighbourhood of a stable critical point of the drift. In this approach the calculation of the equilibrium distribution is reduced to the problem of finding a minimum for the large fluctuation functional associated to the Langevin equation. Our estimate follows from a simple upper bound for this minimum; in addition to the Yang-Mills action a gauge-fixing term which tends to suppress Gribov copies appears.

  18. Quantized hopfield networks for reliability optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourelfath, Mustapha; Nahas, Nabil

    2003-01-01

    The use of neural networks in the reliability optimization field is rare. This paper presents an application of a recent kind of neural networks in a reliability optimization problem for a series system with multiple-choice constraints incorporated at each subsystem, to maximize the system reliability subject to the system budget. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear binary integer programming problem and characterized as an NP-hard problem. Our design of neural network to solve efficiently this problem is based on a quantized Hopfield network. This network allows us to obtain optimal design solutions very frequently and much more quickly than others Hopfield networks

  19. Projective geometry for polarization in geometric quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, P.; Dodson, C.T.J.

    1976-12-01

    It is important to know the extent to which the procedure of geometric quantization depends on a choice of polarization of the symplectic manifold that is the classical phase space. Published results have so far been restricted to real and transversal polarizations. Here we also consider these cases by presenting a formulation in terms of projective geometry. It turns out that there is a natural characterization of real transversal polarizations and maps among them using projective concepts. We give explicit constructions for Rsup(2n)

  20. Temperature quantization from the TBA equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Sergey; Suzuki, Ryo

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz equations for the mirror model which determine the ground state energy of the light-cone AdS 5 xS 5 superstring living on a cylinder. The light-cone momentum of string is equal to the circumference of the cylinder, and is identified with the inverse temperature of the mirror model. We show that the natural requirement of the analyticity of the Y-functions leads to the quantization of the temperature of the mirror model which has never been observed in any other models.

  1. Quantization of soluble classical constrained systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhadi, Z.; Menas, F.; Bérard, A.; Mohrbach, H.

    2014-01-01

    The derivation of the brackets among coordinates and momenta for classical constrained systems is a necessary step toward their quantization. Here we present a new approach for the determination of the classical brackets which does neither require Dirac’s formalism nor the symplectic method of Faddeev and Jackiw. This approach is based on the computation of the brackets between the constants of integration of the exact solutions of the equations of motion. From them all brackets of the dynamical variables of the system can be deduced in a straightforward way

  2. Quantization of soluble classical constrained systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belhadi, Z. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie quantique, Faculté des sciences, Université Mouloud Mammeri, BP 17, 15000 Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); Laboratoire de physique théorique, Faculté des sciences exactes, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia (Algeria); Menas, F. [Laboratoire de physique et chimie quantique, Faculté des sciences, Université Mouloud Mammeri, BP 17, 15000 Tizi Ouzou (Algeria); Ecole Nationale Préparatoire aux Etudes d’ingéniorat, Laboratoire de physique, RN 5 Rouiba, Alger (Algeria); Bérard, A. [Equipe BioPhysStat, Laboratoire LCP-A2MC, ICPMB, IF CNRS No 2843, Université de Lorraine, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex (France); Mohrbach, H., E-mail: herve.mohrbach@univ-lorraine.fr [Equipe BioPhysStat, Laboratoire LCP-A2MC, ICPMB, IF CNRS No 2843, Université de Lorraine, 1 Bd Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex (France)

    2014-12-15

    The derivation of the brackets among coordinates and momenta for classical constrained systems is a necessary step toward their quantization. Here we present a new approach for the determination of the classical brackets which does neither require Dirac’s formalism nor the symplectic method of Faddeev and Jackiw. This approach is based on the computation of the brackets between the constants of integration of the exact solutions of the equations of motion. From them all brackets of the dynamical variables of the system can be deduced in a straightforward way.

  3. Quantization in rotating co-ordinates revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Qadir, A.

    1982-07-01

    Recent work on quantization in rotating co-ordinates showed that no radiation would be seen by an observer rotating with a constant angular speed. This work used a Galilean-type co-ordinate transformation. We show that the same result holds for a Lorentz-type co-ordinate system, in spite of the fact that the metric has a co-ordinate singularity at rΩ = 1. Further, we are able to define positive and negative energy modes for a particular case of a non-static, non-stationary metric. (author)

  4. Phase-space quantization of field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtright, T.; Zachos, C.

    1999-01-01

    In this lecture, a limited introduction of gauge invariance in phase-space is provided, predicated on canonical transformations in quantum phase-space. Exact characteristic trajectories are also specified for the time-propagating Wigner phase-space distribution function: they are especially simple--indeed, classical--for the quantized simple harmonic oscillator. This serves as the underpinning of the field theoretic Wigner functional formulation introduced. Scalar field theory is thus reformulated in terms of distributions in field phase-space. This is a pedagogical selection from work published and reported at the Yukawa Institute Workshop ''Gauge Theory and Integrable Models'', 26-29 January, 1999

  5. Entropy and energy quantization: Planck thermodynamic calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota e Albuquerque, Ivone Freire da.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation analyses the origins and development of the concept of entropy and its meaning of the second Law of thermodynamics, as well as the thermodynamics derivation of the energy quantization. The probabilistic interpretation of that law and its implication in physics theory are evidenciated. Based on Clausius work (which follows Carnot's work), we analyse and expose in a original way the entropy concept. Research upon Boltzmann's work and his probabilistic interpretation of the second Law of thermodynamics is made. The discuss between the atomistic and the energeticist points of view, which were actual at that time are also commented. (author). 38 refs., 3 figs

  6. Quantization of a nonlinearly realized supersymmetric theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shima, K.

    1977-01-01

    The two-dimensional version of the Volkov-Akulov Lagrangian, where the supersymmetry is realized nonlinearly by means of a single Majorana spinor psi (x), is quantized. The equal-time anticommutators for the field are not c numbers but are functions of the field itself. By explicit calculation we shall show that the supersymmetry charges of the model form the supersymmetry algebra (the graded Lie algebra); therefore the Hamiltonian of the system P 0 is written as a bilinear sum of products of supersymmetry charges. We shall also show that the supersymmetry charges exactly generate a constant translation of psi (x) in the spinor space

  7. Quantized fields in external field. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.

    1976-01-01

    The case of a charged scalar field is considered first. The existence of the corresponding Green's functions is proved. For weak fields, as well as pure electric or scalar external fields, the Bogoliubov S-operator is shown to be unitary, covariant, causal up-to-a-phase. These results are generalised to a class of higher spin quantized fields, 'nicely' coupled to external fields, which includes the Dirac theory, and in the case of minimal and magnetic dipole coupling, the spin one Petiau-Duffin-Kemmer theory. (orig.) [de

  8. There are many ways to spin a photon: Half-quantization of a total optical angular momentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Kyle E; Donegan, John F; Eastham, Paul R

    2016-04-01

    The angular momentum of light plays an important role in many areas, from optical trapping to quantum information. In the usual three-dimensional setting, the angular momentum quantum numbers of the photon are integers, in units of the Planck constant ħ . We show that, in reduced dimensions, photons can have a half-integer total angular momentum. We identify a new form of total angular momentum, carried by beams of light, comprising an unequal mixture of spin and orbital contributions. We demonstrate the half-integer quantization of this total angular momentum using noise measurements. We conclude that for light, as is known for electrons, reduced dimensionality allows new forms of quantization.

  9. Study of water quality improvements during riverbank filtration at three midwestern United States drinking water utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W.; Bouwer, E.; Ball, W.; O'Melia, C.; Lechevallier, M.; Arora, H.; Aboytes, R.; Speth, T.

    2003-04-01

    Riverbank filtration (RBF) is a process during which surface water is subjected to subsurface flow prior to extraction from wells. During infiltration and soil passage, surface water is subjected to a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes such as filtration, dilution, sorption, and biodegradation that can significantly improve the raw water quality (Tufenkji et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Kivimaki et al, 1998; Stuyfzand, 1998). Transport through alluvial aquifers is associated with a number of water quality benefits, including removal of microbes, pesticides, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC), nitrate, and other contaminants (Hiscock and Grischek, 2002; Tufenkji et al., 2002; Ray et al, 2002; Kuehn and Mueller, 2000; Doussan et al, 1997; Cosovic et al, 1996; Juttner, 1995; Miettinen et al, 1994). In comparison to most groundwater sources, alluvial aquifers that are hydraulically connected to rivers are typically easier to exploit (shallow) and more highly productive for drinking water supplies (Doussan et al, 1997). Increased applications of RBF are anticipated as drinking water utilities strive to meet increasingly stringent drinking water regulations, especially with regard to the provision of multiple barriers for protection against microbial pathogens, and with regard to tighter regulations for disinfection by-products (DBPs), such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs). In the above context, research was conducted to document the water quality benefits during RBF at three major river sources in the mid-western United States, specifically with regard to DBP precursor organic matter and microbial pathogens. Specific objectives were to: 1. Evaluate the merits of RBF for removing/controlling DBP precursors and certain other drinking water contaminants (e.g. microorganisms). 2. Evaluate whether RBF can improve finished drinking water quality by removing and/or altering natural organic matter (NOM) in a

  10. Trends Analysis of rhBMP2 Utilization in Single-Level Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Lifeng; Cohen, Jeremiah R; Buser, Zorica; Brodke, Darrel S; Yoon, S Tim; Youssef, Jim A; Park, Jong-Beom; Meisel, Hans-Joerg; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2018-04-01

    Retrospective case study. To evaluate the trends and demographics of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP2) utilization in single-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) in the United States. Patients who underwent single-level ALIF from 2005 to 2011 were identified by searching ICD-9 diagnosis and procedure codes in the PearlDiver Patient Records Database (PearlDiver Technologies, Fort Wayne, IN), a national database of orthopedic insurance records. The year of procedure, age, gender, and region of the United States were analyzed for each patient. A total of 921 patients were identified who underwent a single-level ALIF in this study. The average rate of single-level ALIF with rhBMP2 utilization increased (35%-48%) from 2005 to 2009, but sharply decreased to 16.7% in 2010 and 15.0% in 2011. The overall incidence of single-level ALIF without rhBMP2 (0.20 cases per 100 000 patients) was more than twice of the incidence of single-level ALIF with rhBMP2 (0.09 cases per 100 000 patients). The average rate of single-level ALIF with rhBMP2 utilization is highest in West (41.4%), followed by Midwest (33.3%), South (26.5%) and Northeast (22.2%). The highest incidence of single-level ALIF with rhBMP2 was observed in the group aged less than 65 years (compared with any other age groups, P level ALIF increased from 2006 to 2009, but decreased in 2010 and 2011. The Northeast region had the lowest incidence of rhBMP2 utilization. The group aged less than 65 years trended to have the higher incidence of single-level ALIF with rhBMP2 utilization.

  11. Performance of equal gain combining with quantized phases in rayleigh fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Rizvi, Umar H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the error probability of equal gain combining with quantized channel phase compensation for binary phase shift keying signalling over Rayleigh fading channels. The probability density and characteristic functions of the combined signal amplitude are derived and used to compute the analytic expressions for the bit error probability in dependance of the number of quantization levels L, the number of diversity branches N-R and the average received signal-to-noise ratio. The analysis is utilized to outline the trade-off between N-R and L and to compare the performance with non-coherent binary frequency shift keying and differential binary phase shift keying schemes under diversity reception. © 2011 IEEE.

  12. On quantization of time-dependent systems with constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadjiev, S A; Jafarov, R G

    2007-01-01

    The Dirac method of canonical quantization of theories with second-class constraints has to be modified if the constraints depend on time explicitly. A solution of the problem was given by Gitman and Tyutin. In the present work we propose an independent way to derive the rules of quantization for these systems, starting from the physical equivalent theory with trivial non-stationarity

  13. On quantization of time-dependent systems with constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjialieva, F.G.; Jafarov, R.G.

    1993-07-01

    The Dirac method of canonical quantization of theories with second class constraints has to be modified if the constraints depend on time explicitly. A solution of the problem was given by Gitman and Tyutin. In the present work we propose an independent way to derive the rules of quantization for these systems, starting from physical equivalent theory with trivial nonstationarity. (author). 4 refs

  14. On quantization of time-dependent systems with constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadjiev, S A; Jafarov, R G [Institute for Physical Problems, Baku State University, AZ11 48 Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2007-03-30

    The Dirac method of canonical quantization of theories with second-class constraints has to be modified if the constraints depend on time explicitly. A solution of the problem was given by Gitman and Tyutin. In the present work we propose an independent way to derive the rules of quantization for these systems, starting from the physical equivalent theory with trivial non-stationarity.

  15. The classical parafermion algebra, its generalization and its quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardakci, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Poisson bracket algebra of the classical parafermions derived earlier from the lagrangian description of conformal coset models is generalized. It is also shown how to quantize models with commutative monodromy matrices, and progress is made in quantizing the non-commutative case. (orig.)

  16. Lossless image data sequence compression using optimal context quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; WU, Xiaolin; Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    2001-01-01

    Context based entropy coding often faces the conflict of a desire for large templates and the problem of context dilution. We consider the problem of finding the quantizer Q that quantizes the K-dimensional causal context Ci=(X(i-t1), X(i-t2), …, X(i-tK)) of a source symbol Xi into one of M...

  17. Quantization ambiguity and the Aharanov-Bohm effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunstatter, G.

    1983-01-01

    A brief review is given of the role of quantization ambiguity in both quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. The author points out that quantization ambiguity is not relevant to discussions of physical experiments designed to test the Aharanov-Bohm effect. A recent proposal for such an experiment involving Aharanov-Bohm currents in thin superconducting cylinders is mentioned. (Auth.)

  18. Generalized noise terms for the quantized fluctuational electrodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partanen, Mikko; Hayrynen, Teppo; Tulkki, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    position-dependent quantum models for the photon number in resonant structures have only been formulated very recently and only for dielectric media. Here we present a general position-dependent quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism that extends the consistent field quantization...

  19. Quantization Distortion in Block Transform-Compressed Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, A. F.

    1995-01-01

    The popular JPEG image compression standard is an example of a block transform-based compression scheme; the image is systematically subdivided into block that are individually transformed, quantized, and encoded. The compression is achieved by quantizing the transformed data, reducing the data entropy and thus facilitating efficient encoding. A generic block transform model is introduced.

  20. On quantization of the electromagnetic field in radiation gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burzynski, A.

    1982-01-01

    This paper contains a detailed description of quantization of the electromagnetic field (in radiation gauge) and quantization of some basic physical variables connected with radiation field as energy, momentum and spin. The dynamics of the free quantum radiation field and the field interacting with external classical sources is described. The canonical formalism is not used explicity. (author)

  1. A geometrical approach to free-field quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabensky, R.; Valle, J.W.F.

    1977-01-01

    A geometrical approach to the quantization of free relativistic fields is given. Complex probability amplitudes are assigned to the solutions of the classical evolution equation. It is assumed that the evolution is stricly classical, according to the scalar unitary representation of the Poincare group in a functional space. The theory is equivalent to canonical quantization [pt

  2. Berezin and Berezin-Toeplitz quantizations for general function spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engliš, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2006), s. 385-430 ISSN 1139-1138 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1019301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Berezin quantization * Berezin-Toeplitz quantization * star product Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  3. Quantization of fermions in external soliton fields and index calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse, H.

    1986-01-01

    We review recent results on the quantization of fermions in external fields, discuss equivalent and inequivalent representations of the canonical anticommutation relations, indicate how the requirement of implementability of gauge transformations leads to quantization conditions, determine the algebra of charges, identify the Schwinger term and remark finally how one may calculate a ground state charge. (Author)

  4. Problems with quantizing the Skyrmion: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralston, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    We review the motivation and construction of the chiral soliton picture of baryons. We discuss the semi-classical quantization procedure of Adkins, Nappi and Witten and the stability of the semi-classical solution under the collective coordinate quantization. By studying the behavior in the chiral limit and specific numerical predictions, we conclude that the collective coordinate procedure is inadequate

  5. Group representations via geometric quantization of the momentum map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mladenov, I.M.; Tsanov, V.V.

    1992-09-01

    In this paper, we treat a general method of quantization of Hamiltonian systems whose flow is a subgroup (not necessarily closed) of a torus acting freely and symplectically on the phase space. The quantization of some classes of completely integrable systems as well as the Borel-Weil-Bott version of representation theory are special cases. (author). 14 refs

  6. An Analysis of the Impact of Sport Utility Vehicles in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.C.; Truett, L.F.

    2000-08-01

    It may be labeled sport utility vehicle, SUV, sport-ute, suburban assault vehicle, or a friend of OPEC (Organization for Petroleum Exporting Countries). It has been the subject of comics, the object of high-finance marketing ploys, and the theme of Dateline. Whatever the label or the occasion, this vehicle is in great demand. The popularity of sport utility vehicles (SUVs) has increased dramatically since the late 1970s, and SUVs are currently the fastest growing segment of the motor vehicle industry. Hoping to gain market share due to the popularity of the expanding SUV market, more and more manufacturers are adding SUVs to their vehicle lineup. One purpose of this study is to analyze the world of the SUV to determine why this vehicle has seen such a rapid increase in popularity. Another purpose is to examine the impact of SUVs on energy consumption, emissions, and highway safety.

  7. Quantization of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinidis, Clisthenis P.; Piguet, Olivier; Perez, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    We study the phase space structure of the Jackiw-Teitelboim model in its connection variables formulation where the gauge group of the field theory is given by local SL(2,R)[or SU(2) for the Euclidean model], i.e. the de Sitter group in two dimensions. In order to make the connection with two-dimensional gravity explicit, a partial gauge fixing of the de Sitter symmetry can be introduced that reduces it to space-time diffeomorphisms. This can be done in different ways. Having no local physical degrees of freedom, the reduced phase space of the model is finite dimensional. The simplicity of this gauge field theory allows for studying different avenues for quantization, which may use various (partial) gauge fixings. We show that reduction and quantization are noncommuting operations: the representation of basic variables as operators in a Hilbert space depends on the order chosen for the latter. Moreover, a representation that is natural in one case may not even be available in the other leading to inequivalent quantum theories.

  8. Quantization of dissipative systems - some irresponsible speculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochan, Denis

    2007-01-01

    The Newton-Lagrange equations of motion represent the fundamental law of mechanics. Their traditional Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian precursors when available are essential in the context of quantization. However, there are situations that lack Lagrangian and/or Hamiltonian settings. This paper discusses classical and quantal dynamics of such systems and presents some irresponsible speculations by introducing a certain canonical two-form Ω. By its construction Ω embodies kinetic energy and forces acting within the system (not their potential). A new type of variational principle is introduced, where variation is performed over a set of 'umbilical surfaces' instead of system histories. It provides correct Newton-Lagrange equations of motion and something more. The quantization is inspired by the Feynman functional integral approach. The quintessence is to rearrange path integral into an ''umbilical world-sheet'' integral in accordance with the proposed variational principle. In the case of potential-generated forces, the new approach reduces to the standard quantum mechanics

  9. Fedosov quantization and perturbative quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collini, Giovanni

    2016-12-12

    Fedosov has described a geometro-algebraic method to construct in a canonical way a deformation of the Poisson algebra associated with a finite-dimensional symplectic manifold (''phase space''). His algorithm gives a non-commutative, but associative, product (a so-called ''star-product'') between smooth phase space functions parameterized by Planck's constant ℎ, which is treated as a deformation parameter. In the limit as ℎ goes to zero, the star product commutator goes to ℎ times the Poisson bracket, so in this sense his method provides a quantization of the algebra of classical observables. In this work, a generalization of Fedosov's method is developed which applies to the infinite-dimensional symplectic ''manifolds'' that occur in Lagrangian field theories. We show that the procedure remains mathematically well-defined, and we explain the relationship of the method to more standard perturbative quantization schemes in quantum field theory.

  10. On infinite walls in deformation quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryukov, S.; Walton, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    We examine the deformation quantization of a single particle moving in one dimension (i) in the presence of an infinite potential wall (ii) confined by an infinite square well, and (iii) bound by a delta function potential energy. In deformation quantization, considered as an autonomous formulation of quantum mechanics, the Wigner function of stationary states must be found by solving the so-called *-genvalue ('stargenvalue') equation for the Hamiltonian. For the cases considered here, this pseudo-differential equation is difficult to solve directly, without an ad hoc modification of the potential. Here we treat the infinite wall as the limit of a solvable exponential potential. Before the limit is taken, the corresponding *-genvalue equation involves the Wigner function at momenta translated by imaginary amounts. We show that it can be converted to a partial differential equation, however, with a well-defined limit. We demonstrate that the Wigner functions calculated from the standard Schroedinger wave functions satisfy the resulting new equation. Finally, we show how our results may be adapted to allow for the presence of another, non-singular part in the potential

  11. Light-cone quantization of quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.; Pauli, H.C.

    1991-06-01

    We discuss the light-cone quantization of gauge theories from two perspectives: as a calculational tool for representing hadrons as QCD bound-states of relativistic quarks and gluons, and also as a novel method for simulating quantum field theory on a computer. The light-cone Fock state expansion of wavefunctions at fixed light cone time provides a precise definition of the parton model and a general calculus for hadronic matrix elements. We present several new applications of light-cone Fock methods, including calculations of exclusive weak decays of heavy hadrons, and intrinsic heavy-quark contributions to structure functions. A general nonperturbative method for numerically solving quantum field theories, ''discretized light-cone quantization,'' is outlined and applied to several gauge theories, including QCD in one space and one time dimension, and quantum electrodynamics in physical space-time at large coupling strength. The DLCQ method is invariant under the large class of light-cone Lorentz transformations, and it can be formulated such at ultraviolet regularization is independent of the momentum space discretization. Both the bound-state spectrum and the corresponding relativistic light-cone wavefunctions can be obtained by matrix diagonalization and related techniques. We also discuss the construction of the light-cone Fock basis, the structure of the light-cone vacuum, and outline the renormalization techniques required for solving gauge theories within the light-cone Hamiltonian formalism

  12. Light-cone quantization of quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J. (Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Pauli, H.C. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany, F.R.))

    1991-06-01

    We discuss the light-cone quantization of gauge theories from two perspectives: as a calculational tool for representing hadrons as QCD bound-states of relativistic quarks and gluons, and also as a novel method for simulating quantum field theory on a computer. The light-cone Fock state expansion of wavefunctions at fixed light cone time provides a precise definition of the parton model and a general calculus for hadronic matrix elements. We present several new applications of light-cone Fock methods, including calculations of exclusive weak decays of heavy hadrons, and intrinsic heavy-quark contributions to structure functions. A general nonperturbative method for numerically solving quantum field theories, discretized light-cone quantization,'' is outlined and applied to several gauge theories, including QCD in one space and one time dimension, and quantum electrodynamics in physical space-time at large coupling strength. The DLCQ method is invariant under the large class of light-cone Lorentz transformations, and it can be formulated such at ultraviolet regularization is independent of the momentum space discretization. Both the bound-state spectrum and the corresponding relativistic light-cone wavefunctions can be obtained by matrix diagonalization and related techniques. We also discuss the construction of the light-cone Fock basis, the structure of the light-cone vacuum, and outline the renormalization techniques required for solving gauge theories within the light-cone Hamiltonian formalism.

  13. Path integral quantization of parametrized field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadarajan, Madhavan

    2004-01-01

    Free scalar field theory on a flat spacetime can be cast into a generally covariant form known as parametrized field theory in which the action is a functional of the scalar field as well as the embedding variables which describe arbitrary, in general curved, foliations of the flat spacetime. We construct the path integral quantization of parametrized field theory in order to analyze issues at the interface of quantum field theory and general covariance in a path integral context. We show that the measure in the Lorentzian path integral is nontrivial and is the analog of the Fradkin-Vilkovisky measure for quantum gravity. We construct Euclidean functional integrals in the generally covariant setting of parametrized field theory using key ideas of Schleich and show that our constructions imply the existence of nonstandard 'Wick rotations' of the standard free scalar field two-point function. We develop a framework to study the problem of time through computations of scalar field two-point functions. We illustrate our ideas through explicit computation for a time independent (1+1)-dimensional foliation. Although the problem of time seems to be absent in this simple example, the general case is still open. We discuss our results in the contexts of the path integral formulation of quantum gravity and the canonical quantization of parametrized field theory

  14. Structure Sensitive Hashing With Adaptive Product Quantization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianglong; Du, Bowen; Deng, Cheng; Liu, Ming; Lang, Bo

    2016-10-01

    Hashing has been proved as an attractive solution to approximate nearest neighbor search, owing to its theoretical guarantee and computational efficiency. Though most of prior hashing algorithms can achieve low memory and computation consumption by pursuing compact hash codes, however, they are still far beyond the capability of learning discriminative hash functions from the data with complex inherent structure among them. To address this issue, in this paper, we propose a structure sensitive hashing based on cluster prototypes, which explicitly exploits both global and local structures. An alternating optimization algorithm, respectively, minimizing the quantization loss and spectral embedding loss, is presented to simultaneously discover the cluster prototypes for each hash function, and optimally assign unique binary codes to them satisfying the affinity alignment between them. For hash codes of a desired length, an adaptive bit assignment is further appended to the product quantization of the subspaces, approximating the Hamming distances and meanwhile balancing the variance among hash functions. Experimental results on four large-scale benchmarks CIFAR-10, NUS-WIDE, SIFT1M, and GIST1M demonstrate that our approach significantly outperforms state-of-the-art hashing methods in terms of semantic and metric neighbor search.

  15. First quantized noncritical relativistic Polyakov string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaskolski, Z.; Meissner, K.A.

    1994-01-01

    The first quantization of the relativistic Brink-DiVecchia-Howe-Polyakov (BDHP) string in the range 1 < d 25 is considered. It is shown that using the Polyakov sum over bordered surfaces in the Feynman path integral quantization scheme one gets a consistent quantum mechanics of relativistic 1-dim extended objects in the range 1 < d < 25. In particular, the BDHP string propagator is exactly calculated for arbitrary initial and final string configurations and the Hilbert space of physical states of noncritical BDHP string is explicitly constructed. The resulting theory is equivalent to the Fairlie-Chodos-Thorn massive string model. In contrast to the conventional conformal field theory approach to noncritical string and random surfaces in the Euclidean target space the path integral formulation of the Fairlie-Chodos-Thorn string obtained in this paper does not rely on the principle of conformal invariance. Some consequences of this feature for constructing a consistent relativistic string theory based on the ''splitting-joining'' interaction are discussed. (author). 42 refs, 1 fig

  16. Bohmian quantization of the big rip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto-Neto, Nelson; Pantoja, Diego Moraes

    2009-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that minisuperspace quantization of homogeneous and isotropic geometries with phantom scalar fields, when examined in the light of the Bohm-de Broglie interpretation of quantum mechanics, does not eliminate, in general, the classical big rip singularity present in the classical model. For some values of the Hamilton-Jacobi separation constant present in a class of quantum state solutions of the Wheeler-De Witt equation, the big rip can be either completely eliminated or may still constitute a future attractor for all expanding solutions. This is contrary to the conclusion presented in [M. P. Dabrowski, C. Kiefer, and B. Sandhofer, Phys. Rev. D 74, 044022 (2006).], using a different interpretation of the wave function, where the big rip singularity is completely eliminated ('smoothed out') through quantization, independently of such a separation constant and for all members of the above mentioned class of solutions. This is an example of the very peculiar situation where different interpretations of the same quantum state of a system are predicting different physical facts, instead of just giving different descriptions of the same observable facts: in fact, there is nothing more observable than the fate of the whole Universe.

  17. Light-front quantization of the sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkardt, M.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown how to modify the canonical light-front quantization of the (1+1)-dimensional sine-Gordon model such that the zero-mode problem of light-front quantization is avoided. The canonical sine-Gordon Lagrangian is replaced by an effective Lagrangian which does not lead to divergences as k + =(k 0 +k 1 )/ √2 →0. After canonically quantizing the effective Lagrangian, one obtains the effective light-front Hamiltonian which agrees with the naive light-front (LF) Hamiltonian, up to one additional renormalization. The spectrum of the effective LF Hamiltonian is determined using discrete light-cone quantization and agrees with results from equal-time quantization

  18. Parameters Design for Logarithmic Quantizer Based on Zoom Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the problem of designing suitable parameters for logarithmic quantizer such that the closed-loop system is asymptotic convergent. Based on zoom strategy, we propose two methods for quantizer parameters design, under which it ensures that the state of the closed-loop system can load in the invariant sets after some certain moments. Then we obtain that the quantizer is unsaturated, and thus the quantization errors are bounded under the time-varying logarithm quantization strategy. On that basis, we obtain that the closed-loop system is asymptotic convergent. A benchmark example is given to show the usefulness of the proposed methods, and the comparison results are illustrated.

  19. First, Second Quantization and Q-Deformed Harmonic Oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Ngu, Man; Vinh, Ngo Gia; Lan, Nguyen Tri; Viet, Nguyen Ai; Thanh, Luu Thi Kim

    2015-01-01

    Relations between the first, the second quantized representations and deform algebra are investigated. In the case of harmonic oscillator, the axiom of first quantization (the commutation relation between coordinate and momentum operators) and the axiom of second quantization (the commutation relation between creation and annihilation operators) are equivalent. We shown that in the case of q-deformed harmonic oscillator, a violence of the axiom of second quantization leads to a violence of the axiom of first quantization, and inverse. Using the coordinate representation, we study fine structures of the vacuum state wave function depend in the deformation parameter q. A comparison with fine structures of Cooper pair of superconductivity in the coordinate representation is also performed. (paper)

  20. MOBIL CONTAINER UNIT FOR SEWAGE SLUDGE UTILIZATION FROM SMALL AND MEDIUM WASTWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Ledakowicz; Paweł Stolarek; A. Malinowski

    2016-01-01

    The most wastewater treatment plants in Poland are small and medium plants of flow capacity below 1000 m3/d. These plants are not able to build sludge incineration plants and the transportation costs to the nearest plants increase the total costs of wastewater treatment. Polish company Metal Expert together with the French company ETIA and Lodz University of Technology proposed mobile unit for integrated drying and pyrolysis of sewage sludge in a pilot bench scale with capacity of 100 kg/h ...

  1. Water-Chemistry and Its Utility Systems in CCP Power Units (Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larin, B. M.

    2018-01-01

    Damageability of heat transfer surfaces of waste heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) of combined- cycle plants (CCP) can be reduced due to an increase in the quality of make-up and feed water, the use of phosphate-alkaline or amino compound water chemistry (WC), and improved chemical quality control of the heat carrier and make-up water preparation techniques. Temporary quality standards for the heat medium developed by the All-Russia Thermal Engineering institute (VTI) for CCP power units are presented in comparison with the IAPWS standards; preferences for the choice of a WC type for some power units commissioned in Russia in the first decade of this century are shown; and operational data on the quality of feed, boiler water, and steam for two large CCP-450 and CCP-425 power units are given. The state and prospects for the development of chemical-technological monitoring systems and CCP water treatment plants are noted. Estimability of some CCP diagnostic parameters by measuring specific electric conductivity and pH is shown. An extensive bibliography on this topic is given.

  2. Problem alcohol use and healthcare utilization among persons with cannabis use disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, William S; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2017-09-01

    The emergency department (ED) and hospital settings represent crucial opportunities for engaging treatment for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Thus, there is a need to identify factors associated with healthcare utilization among persons with CUD to improve screening and intervention approaches. Problematic alcohol use may be a salient risk factor. Using data from the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health, we determined factors, including different patterns of alcohol use, associated with past-year ED admission and inpatient hospitalization among persons aged 12 years or older meeting criteria for CUD in the past year (N=16,757). We also determined the prevalence and correlates of problem alcohol use among persons with CUD to further inform its association with healthcare utilization. Among persons with CUD, 40.15% and 10.04% reported past-year ED admission and inpatient hospitalization, respectively. Severe alcohol use disorder (AUD) (≥6 AUD symptoms), female sex, Black race, low income, major depressive episode (MDE), and other substance use disorders were associated with increased odds of healthcare utilization; current (i.e., last month) alcohol use patterns were not. Persons with CUD that were males, ages 18-25 (vs. ages 12-17), Hispanic (vs. White), and with low income, other drug use disorders, or MDE had increased odds of AUD. Findings suggest that screening and intervention efforts for improving treatment initiation or engagement for CUD may target cannabis-using women, blacks, low-income adults or those with severe AUD in the past year, another substance use disorder, or MDE. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An evaluation of the utility and limitations of counting motor unit action potentials in the surface electromyogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Zev Rymer, William

    2004-12-01

    The number of motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) appearing in the surface electromyogram (EMG) signal is directly related to motor unit recruitment and firing rates and therefore offers potentially valuable information about the level of activation of the motoneuron pool. In this paper, based on morphological features of the surface MUAPs, we try to estimate the number of MUAPs present in the surface EMG by counting the negative peaks in the signal. Several signal processing procedures are applied to the surface EMG to facilitate this peak counting process. The MUAP number estimation performance by this approach is first illustrated using the surface EMG simulations. Then, by evaluating the peak counting results from the EMG records detected by a very selective surface electrode, at different contraction levels of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles, the utility and limitations of such direct peak counts for MUAP number estimation in surface EMG are further explored.

  4. Pediatric traumatic amputations and hospital resource utilization in the United States, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Kristen A; McKenzie, Lara B; Xiang, Huiyun; Smith, Gary A

    2010-01-01

    Despite the severity of consequences associated with traumatic amputation, little is known about the epidemiology or healthcare resource burden of amputation injuries, and even less is known about these injuries in the pediatric population. An analysis of patients aged lawn mower, motorized vehicle or explosives/fireworks, and children's hospital type were associated with longer LOS. Pediatric traumatic amputations contribute substantially to the health resource burden in the United States, resulting in 21 million dollars in inpatient charges annually. More effective interventions to prevent these costly injuries among children must be implemented.

  5. Twenty-year trends in the utilization of Heller myotomy for achalasia in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haisley, Kelly R; Preston, Jennifer F; Dolan, James P; Diggs, Brian S; Hunter, John G

    2017-08-01

    Trends in the utilization of Heller myotomy for achalasia in the U.S. over time have not been previously described. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database, we analyzed patients undergoing Heller myotomy for achalasia over a 20-year period (1992-2011) to estimate rates of Heller myotomy, locations where the procedures were performed (rural, urban or teaching) and changes in technique (laparoscopic vs open) as well as outcomes of length of stay and in-hospital mortality. Over the last 20 years, the total number of Heller myotomies performed in the U.S. has increased (1576 cases in 1992 to 5046 cases in 2011, p = 0.001). These procedures are now being performed laparoscopically (0.9%-67.0%, p Heller myotomy at teaching institutions with decreased in-hospital mortality and shorter LOS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Characterization and constructive utilization of sludge produced in clari-flocculation unit of water treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Tarique; Ahmad, Kafeel; Alam, Mehtab

    2018-03-01

    All water treatment plants produce waste/residue amid the treatment of raw water. This study selectively investigates the clariflocculator sludge for its physicochemical characteristics and potential reuse options. Sieve analysis, XRF, SEM, XRD, FTIR, and TG-DTA instrumental techniques have been used to characterize the sludge sample. Results show that clariflocculator sludge contains about 78% fine sand having grain size range 150-75 μm. SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3 and CaO constitute the maximum percentage of chemical compounds present in the sludge and quartz is the main crystalline phase of the sludge. Recycling and reuse of this sludge, especially, as fine sand in preparing mortar, concrete mix and other civil engineering products would pave the way for constructive utilization with safe and sustainable sludge management strategies.

  7. The application of high voltage digital and analogue unit protections to utility telecommunications systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farthing, H. [SNC Group, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Verzosa, Q.R.; Care, J.M. [SNC Group, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    The use of fibre optic and digital microwave systems, both within and without utility communications networks was discussed. Their availability has led to the development of phase comparison and differential current relaying systems which provide enhanced protective features for transmission circuits. The application of fibre optic cable or microwave radio data links overcomes problems caused by ground potential rise and transferred potential damage in metallic pilot wire schemes. Some problems were encountered when installing digital differential current and analogue phase comparison relaying systems to a 220 kV power transmission system where a mix of analog microwave, digital microwave radio and multiplexed fibre optic channels were available. However, the relays were successfully installed with the application of digital pilot differential relays to the power system which enabled fast fault clearance to be achieved. 7 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  8. Medication prescribing advice and drug utilization: a review from the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, J; Thompson, A

    1996-01-01

    General Medical Practitioners (GPs) in the United Kingdom are usually the first point of contact with the National Health Service (NHS) for patients. They provide the majority of ambulatory care for their practice population and act as 'gatekeepers' for referral onwards to other services. This article investigates the influence of the purchasing authority prescribing advisors (PAs), including pharmacists and GPs on the prescribing habits in Salford, England, an inner city area in the North of England, close to the city of Manchester. The PAs became known as the prescribing CIA, and used the strategy of Control, progressing to Influence and Autonomy, to develop a mature partnership between the GPs, PAs and other health care professionals. Information collated from prescribing (PACT) data, by the Prescription Pricing Authority, was used to make comparisons between different practices within an area. Savings made by making rational changes in prescribing, were used to enhance practice development for the benefit of patient care.

  9. Quantum mechanics, gravity and modified quantization relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calmet, Xavier

    2015-08-06

    In this paper, we investigate a possible energy scale dependence of the quantization rules and, in particular, from a phenomenological point of view, an energy scale dependence of an effective [Formula: see text] (reduced Planck's constant). We set a bound on the deviation of the value of [Formula: see text] at the muon scale from its usual value using measurements of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. Assuming that inflation has taken place, we can conclude that nature is described by a quantum theory at least up to an energy scale of about 10(16) GeV. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Path integral quantization in the temporal gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, B.; Steiner, F.

    1983-06-01

    The quantization of non-Abelian gauge theories in the temporal gauge is studied within Feynman's path integral approach. The standard asymptotic boundary conditions are only imposed on the transverse gauge fields. The fictituous longitudinal gauge quanta are eliminated asymptotically by modified boundary conditions. This abolishes the residual time-independent gauge transformations and leads to a unique fixing of the temporal gauge. The resulting path integral for the generating functional respects automatically Gauss's law. The correct gauge field propagator is derived. It does not suffer from gauge singularities at n x k = 0 present in the usual treatment of axial gauges. The standard principal value prescription does not work. As a check, the Wilson loop in temporal gauge is calculated with the new propagator. To second order (and to all orders in the Abelian case) the result agrees with the one obtained in the Feynman and Coulomb gauge. (orig.)

  11. Partial quantization of Lagrangian-Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, C.M. do; Soares Filho, P.C.

    1979-05-01

    A classical variational principle is constructed in the Weiss form, for dynamical systems with support spaces of the configuration-phase kind. This extended principle rules the dynamics of classical systems, partially Hamiltonian, in interaction with Lagrangean parameterized subsidiary dynamics. The variational family of equations obtained, consists of an equation of the Hamilton-Jacobi type, coupled to a family of differential equations of the Euler-Lagrange form. The basic dynamical function appearing in the equations is a function of the Routh kind. By means of an ansatz induced by the variationally obtained family, a generalized set of equation, is proposed constituted by a wave equation of Schroedinger type, coupled to a family of equations formaly analog to those Euler-Lagrange equations. A basic operator of Routh type appears in our generalized set of equations. This operator describes the interaction between a quantized Hamiltonian dynamics, with a parameterized classical Lagrangean dynamics in semi-classical closed models. (author) [pt

  12. Vector-Quantization using Information Theoretic Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Schiøler, Tue; Hegde, Anant; Erdogmus, Deniz

    2005-01-01

    interpretation and relies on minimization of a well defined cost-function. It is also shown how the potential field approach can be linked to information theory by use of the Parzen density estimator. In the light of information theory it becomes clear that minimizing the free energy of the system is in fact......The process of representing a large data set with a smaller number of vectors in the best possible way, also known as vector quantization, has been intensively studied in the recent years. Very efficient algorithms like the Kohonen Self Organizing Map (SOM) and the Linde Buzo Gray (LBG) algorithm...... have been devised. In this paper a physical approach to the problem is taken, and it is shown that by considering the processing elements as points moving in a potential field an algorithm equally efficient as the before mentioned can be derived. Unlike SOM and LBG this algorithm has a clear physical...

  13. Canonical quantization inside the Schwarzschild black hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, U. A.; Narayan, K.

    1998-05-01

    We propose a scheme for quantizing a scalar field over the Schwarzschild manifold including the interior of the horizon. On the exterior, the timelike Killing vector and on the horizon the isometry corresponding to restricted Lorentz boosts can be used to enforce the spectral condition. For the interior we appeal to CPT invariance to construct an explicitly positive-definite operator which allows identification of positive and negative frequencies. This operator is the translation operator corresponding to the inexorable propagation to smaller radii as expected from the classical metric. We also propose an expression for the propagator in the interior and express it as a mode sum. The field theory thus obtained is meaningful for small curvatures far from the classical singularity.

  14. Evaluation of Resource Utilization and Treatment Patterns in Patients with Actinic Keratosis in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asche, Carl V; Zografos, Panagiotis; Norlin, Jenny M; Urbanek, Bill; Mamay, Carl; Makin, Charles; Erntoft, Sandra; Chen, Chi-Chang; Hines, Dionne M; Mark Siegel, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    To compare health care resource utilization and treatment patterns between patients with actinic keratosis (AK) treated with ingenol mebutate gel (IngMeb) and those treated with other field-directed AK therapies. A retrospective, propensity-score-matched, cohort study compared refill/repeat and adding-on/switching patterns and outpatient visits and prescriptions (health care resource utilization) over 6 months in patients receiving IngMeb versus those receiving imiquimod, 5-fluorouracil, diclofenac sodium, and methyl aminolevulinate or aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (MAL/ALA-PDT). The final sample analyzed included four matched treatment cohort pairs (IngMeb and comparator; n = 790-971 per treatment arm). Refill rates were similar except for imiquimod (15% vs. 9% for imiquimod and IngMeb, respectively; P < 0.05). MAL/ALA-PDT treatment repetition rates were higher than IngMeb refill rates (20% vs. 10%; P < 0.05). Topical agent add-on/switch rates were comparable. PDT had higher switch rates than did IngMeb (5% vs. 2%; P < 0.05). The IngMeb cohort had a significantly lower proportion of patients with at least one AK-related outpatient visit during the 6-month follow-up than did any other cohort: versus imiquimod (50% vs. 66%; P < 0.0001), versus 5-fluorouracil (50% vs. 69%; P < 0.0001), versus diclofenac sodium (51% vs. 56%; P = 0.034), and versus MAL/ALA-PDT (50% vs. 100%; P < 0.0001). There were significantly fewer AK-related prescriptions among patients receiving IngMeb than among patients in other cohorts. Results based on the first 6 months after treatment initiation suggested that most field-directed AK therapies had clinically comparable treatment patterns except imiquimod, which was associated with higher refill rates, and PDT, which was associated with significantly more frequent treatment sessions and higher switching rates. IngMeb was also associated with significantly fewer outpatient visits than were other field-directed therapies. Copyright

  15. On the general theory of quantized fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredenhagen, K.

    1991-10-01

    In my lecture I describe the present stage of the general theory of quantized fields on the example of 5 subjects. They are ordered in the direction from large to small distances. The first one is the by now classical problem of the structure of superselection sectors. It involves the behavior of the theory at spacelike infinity and is directly connected with particle statistics and internal symmetries. It has become popular in recent years by the discovery of a lot of nontrivial models in 2d conformal-field theory, by connections to integrable models and critical behavior in statistical mechanics and by the relations to the Jones' theory of subfactors in von Neumann algebras and to the corresponding geometrical objects (braids, knots, 3d manifolds, ...). At large timelike distances the by far most important feature of quantum field theory is the particle structure. This will be the second subject of my lecture. It follows the technically most involved part which is concerned with the behavior at finite distances. Two aspets, nuclearity which emphasizes the finite density of states in phase space, and the modular structure which relies on the infinite number of degrees of freedom present even locally, and their mutual relations will be treated. The next point, involving the structure at infinitesimal distances, is the connection between the Haag-Kastler framework of algebras of local and the framework of Wightman fields. Finally, problems in approaches to quantum gravity will be discussed, as far as they are accessible by the methods of the general theory of quantized fields. (orig.)

  16. Water use and supply concerns for utility-scale solar projects in the Southwestern United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Reno, Marissa Devan; Moreland, Barbara Denise.; Zemlick, Katie M.; Macknick, Jordan

    2013-07-01

    As large utility-scale solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrating solar power (CSP) facilities are currently being built and planned for locations in the U.S. with the greatest solar resource potential, an understanding of water use for construction and operations is needed as siting tends to target locations with low natural rainfall and where most existing freshwater is already appropriated. Using methods outlined by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to determine water used in designated solar energy zones (SEZs) for construction and operations & maintenance, an estimate of water used over the lifetime at the solar power plant is determined and applied to each watershed in six Southwestern states. Results indicate that that PV systems overall use little water, though construction usage is high compared to O&M water use over the lifetime of the facility. Also noted is a transition being made from wet cooled to dry cooled CSP facilities that will significantly reduce operational water use at these facilities. Using these water use factors, estimates of future water demand for current and planned solar development was made. In efforts to determine where water could be a limiting factor in solar energy development, water availability, cost, and projected future competing demands were mapped for the six Southwestern states. Ten watersheds, 9 in California, and one in New Mexico were identified as being of particular concern because of limited water availability.

  17. Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.J.; Mercurio, Matthew; Schellenberg, Josh

    2009-06-01

    Information on the value of reliable electricity service can be used to assess the economic efficiency of investments in generation, transmission and distribution systems, to strategically target investments to customer segments that receive the most benefit from system improvements, and to numerically quantify the risk associated with different operating, planning and investment strategies. This paper summarizes research designed to provide estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the US. These estimates were obtained by analyzing the results from 28 customer value of service reliability studies conducted by 10 major US electric utilities over the 16 year period from 1989 to 2005. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-database describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the US for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. Estimated interruption costs for different types of customers and of different duration are provided. Finally, additional research and development designed to expand the usefulness of this powerful database and analysis are suggested.

  18. Report of the first United States conference on utility experience with neutron noise analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, D.N.; Horne, G.P.; Mayo, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    An informal meeting was held in Washington, D.C. on April 3 and 4, 1984, to discuss the current state of the art and experiences with neutron noise analysis in US pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The meeting was attended by 33 persons representing 11 utilities and 3 PWR reactor vendors as well as consultants, universities, and research laboratories. Presentations at the meeting covered several applications of neutron noise for diagnosing such things as vibrations induced by baffle jetting, detection of mechanical degradation of thermal shield supports, and electrical degradation of nuclear instrumentation channels. Twenty-one responses were obtained from a questionnaire circulated to all participants requesting their viewpoints and experiences regarding neutron noise analysis. The meeting participants concluded that a working group on neutron noise analysis should be formed to (1) establish a baseline library of neutron noise data, (2) provide a forum for communicating experiences with neutron noise surveillance, and (3) develop good practices and quality assurance procedures for neutron noise measurement and interpretation

  19. A Quantized Analog Delay for an ir-UWB Quadrature Downconversion Autocorrelation Receiver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagga, S.; Zhang, L.; Serdijn, W.A.; Long, J.R.; Busking, E.B.

    2005-01-01

    A quantized analog delay is designed as a requirement for the autocorrelation function in the quadrature downconversion autocorrelation receiver (QDAR). The quantized analog delay is comprised of a quantizer, multiple binary delay lines and an adder circuit. Being the foremost element, the quantizer

  20. Canonical quantization of spinning relativistic particle in external backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavrilov, S.P. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Gitman, D.M. [Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2000-07-01

    Full text follows: We revise the problem of the quantization of spinning relativistic particle pseudoclassical model, using a modified consistent canonical scheme. It allows one not only to include arbitrary electromagnetic and gravitational backgrounds in the consideration but to get in course of the quantization a consistent relativistic quantum mechanics, which reproduces literally the behavior of the one-particle sector of quantized spinor field. In particular, in a physical sector of the Hilbert space a complete positive spectrum of energies of relativistic particles and antiparticles is reproduced. Requirement to maintain all classical symmetries under the coordinate transformations and under U(1) transformations allows one to realize operator algebra without any ambiguities. (author)

  1. Coherent states and related quantizations for unbounded motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V G; Gazeau, J-P; Gitman, D M; Levin, A D

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the construction of coherent states (CS) for systems with continuous spectra. First, we propose to adopt the Malkin–Manko approach, developed for systems with discrete spectra, to the case under consideration. Following this approach, we consider two examples, a free particle and a particle in a linear potential. Second, we generalize the approach of action-angle CS to systems with continuous spectra. In the first approach we start with a well-defined quantum formulation (canonical quantization) of a physical system and the construction of CS follows from such a quantization. In the second approach, the quantization procedure is inherent to the CS construction itself. (paper)

  2. Networked Predictive Control for Nonlinear Systems With Arbitrary Region Quantizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongjiu; Xu, Yang; Xia, Yuanqing; Zhang, Jinhui

    2017-04-06

    In this paper, networked predictive control is investigated for planar nonlinear systems with quantization by an extended state observer (ESO). The ESO is used not only to deal with nonlinear terms but also to generate predictive states for dealing with network-induced delays. Two arbitrary region quantizers are applied to take effective values of signals in forward channel and feedback channel, respectively. Based on a "zoom" strategy, sufficient conditions are given to guarantee stabilization of the closed-loop networked control system with quantization. A simulation example is proposed to exhibit advantages and availability of the results.

  3. On gauge fixing and quantization of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayi, O.F.

    1989-06-01

    In constrained Hamiltonian systems which possess first class constraints some subsidiary conditions should be imposed for detecting physical observables. This issue and quantization of the system are clarified. It is argued that the reduced phase space and Dirac method of quantization, generally, differ only in the definition of the Hilbert space one should use. For the dynamical systems possessing second class constraints the definition of physical Hilbert space in the BFV-BRST operator quantization method is different from the usual definition. (author). 18 refs

  4. ICTP lectures on covariant quantization of the superstring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkovits, N.

    2003-01-01

    These ICTP Trieste lecture notes review the pure spinor approach to quantizing the superstring with manifest D=10 super-Poincare invariance. The first section discusses covariant quantization of the superparticle and gives a new proof of equivalence with the Brink-Schwarz superparticle. The second section discusses the superstring in a flat background and shows how to construct vertex operators and compute tree amplitudes in a manifestly super-Poincare covariant manner. And the third section discusses quantization of the superstring in curved backgrounds which can include Ramond-Ramond flux. (author)

  5. From the geometric quantization to conformal field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.; Shatashvili, S.

    1990-01-01

    Investigation of 2d conformal field theory in terms of geometric quantization is given. We quantize the so-called model space of the compact Lie group, Virasoro group and Kac-Moody group. In particular, we give a geometrical interpretation of the Virasoro discrete series and explain that this type of geometric quantization reproduces the chiral part of CFT (minimal models, 2d-gravity, WZNW theory). In the appendix we discuss the relation between classical (constant) r-matrices and this geometrical approach. (orig.)

  6. Canonical quantization of gravity and a problem of scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubakov, V.A.

    1980-01-01

    Linearized theory of gravity is quantized both in a naive way and as a proper limit of the Dirac-Wheeler-De Witt approach to the quantization of the full theory. The equivalence between the two approaches is established. The problem of scattering in the canonically quantized theory of gravitation is investigated. The concept of the background metric naturally appears in the canonical formalism for this case. The equivalence between canonical and path-integral approaches is established for the problem of scattering. Some kinetical properties of functionals in Wheeler superspace are studied in an appendix. (author)

  7. ICTP lectures on covariant quantization of the superstring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkovits, N [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-08-15

    These ICTP Trieste lecture notes review the pure spinor approach to quantizing the superstring with manifest D=10 super-Poincare invariance. The first section discusses covariant quantization of the superparticle and gives a new proof of equivalence with the Brink-Schwarz superparticle. The second section discusses the superstring in a flat background and shows how to construct vertex operators and compute tree amplitudes in a manifestly super-Poincare covariant manner. And the third section discusses quantization of the superstring in curved backgrounds which can include Ramond-Ramond flux. (author)

  8. Quantization of a scalar field in the Kerr spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, L.H.

    1974-01-01

    A discussion of field quantization in a curved background spacetime is presented, with emphasis on the quantization of a scalar field in the Kerr spacetime. The ambiguity in the choice of a Fock space is discussed. The example of quantized fields in a rotating frame of reference in Minkowski space is analyzed, and it is shown that there is a preferred choice of states which makes particle number an invariant under transformation to the rotating frame. This choice allows the existence of negative energy quanta of the field

  9. Outpatient Mental Health Treatment Utilization and Military Career Impact in the United States Marine Corps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanlou-Holloway, Marjan; LaCroix, Jessica M; Koss, Kari; Perera, Kanchana U; Rowan, Anderson; VanSickle, Marcus R; Novak, Laura A; Trieu, Theresa H

    2018-04-23

    Service members (SM) are at increased risk of psychiatric conditions, including suicide, yet research indicates SMs believe seeking mental health treatment may negatively impact their military careers, despite a paucity of research examining actual career impacts. This study examined the link between seeking outpatient mental health (MH) treatment and military career impacts within the United States Marine Corps. In Phase 1, a retrospective medical record review of outpatient MH treatment-seeking Marines ( N = 38) was conducted. In Phase 2, a sample of outpatient MH treatment-seeking Marines ( N = 40) was matched to a non-treatment-seeking sample of Marines ( N = 138) to compare career-progression. In Phase 1, there were no significant links between demographic, military, and clinical characteristics and referral source or receipt of career-affecting treatment recommendations. In Phase 2, MH treatment-seeking Marines in outpatient settings were more likely than matched controls to be separated from the military (95.0% versus 63.0%, p = 0.002), but no more likely to experience involuntary separation. MH treatment-seeking Marines were more likely to have documented legal action (45.0% versus 23.9%, p = 0.008) and had a shorter time of military service following the index MH encounter than matched controls ( p < 0.001). Clinical, anti-stigma, and suicide prevention policy implications are discussed.

  10. Physical and occupational therapy utilization in a pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liang R; LaPorte, Megan; Civitello, Matthew; Stanger, Meg; Orringer, Maxine; Casey, Frank; Kuch, Bradley A; Beers, Sue R; Valenta, Cynthia A; Kochanek, Patrick M; Houtrow, Amy J; Fink, Ericka L

    2017-08-01

    To characterize the use of physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT) consultation in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). We studied children aged 1week-18years admitted to a tertiary care PICU for ≥3days. Patient characteristics, details of PT and OT sessions and adverse events were collected. A multivariable logistic regression was performed to determine factors associated with receipt of PT and OT consultation with propensity analysis followed by a regression for factors associated with outcome. Of 138 children studied, 40 (29%) received PT and OT consultation. Services were initiated 6.9±10.0 (mean±standard deviation) days after PICU admission. Range of motion (83%) was the most common therapy provided and 28% of patients were ambulated. Sixty-four of 297 (21.5%) sessions were deferred and 7 (2.4%) sessions were terminated early due to physiologic instability with no serious adverse events. Children who received PT and OT were older, more likely to require neuromuscular blocking agents, and had lower pre-PICU POPC scores (all ptherapies initiated in the ICU to improve outcome for critically ill children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Ambulatory Healthcare Utilization in the United States: A System Dynamics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Rafael; Behr, Joshua G.; Tulpule, Mandar

    2011-01-01

    Ambulatory health care needs within the United States are served by a wide range of hospitals, clinics, and private practices. The Emergency Department (ED) functions as an important point of supply for ambulatory healthcare services. Growth in our aging populations as well as changes stemming from broader healthcare reform are expected to continue trend in congestion and increasing demand for ED services. While congestion is, in part, a manifestation of unmatched demand, the state of the alignment between the demand for, and supply of, emergency department services affects quality of care and profitability. The central focus of this research is to provide an explanation of the salient factors at play within the dynamic demand-supply tensions within which ambulatory care is provided within an Emergency Department. A System Dynamics (SO) simulation model is used to capture the complexities among the intricate balance and conditional effects at play within the demand-supply emergency department environment. Conceptual clarification of the forces driving the elements within the system , quantifying these elements, and empirically capturing the interaction among these elements provides actionable knowledge for operational and strategic decision-making.

  12. Increasing Utilization Of Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery In The United States Between 1997 and 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana Knight, Elia M.; Schiltz, Nicholas K.; Bakaki, Paul M.; Koroukian, Siran M.; Lhatoo, Samden D.; Kaiboriboon, Kitti

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY OBJECTIVE To examine national trends of pediatric epilepsy surgery usage in the United States between 1997 and 2009. METHODS We performed a serial cross-sectional study of pediatric epilepsy surgery using triennial data from the Kids’ Inpatient Database from 1997 to 2009. The rates of epilepsy surgery for lobectomies, partial lobectomies, and hemispherectomies in each study year were calculated based on the number of prevalent epilepsy cases in the corresponding year. The age-race-sex adjusted rates of surgeries were also estimated. Mann-Kendall trend test was used to test for changes in the rates of surgeries over time. Multivariable regression analysis was also performed to estimate the effect of time, age, race, and sex on the annual incidence of epilepsy surgery. RESULTS The rates of pediatric epilepsy surgery significantly increased from 0.85 epilepsy surgeries per 1,000 children with epilepsy in 1997 to 1.44 epilepsy surgeries per 1,000 children with epilepsy in 2009. An increment in the rates of epilepsy surgeries was noted across all age groups, in boys and girls, all races, and all payer types. The rate of increase was lowest in blacks and in children with public insurance. The overall number of surgical cases for each study year was lower than 35% of children who were expected to have surgery, based on the estimates from the Connecticut Study of Epilepsy. SIGNIFICANCE In contrast to adults, pediatric epilepsy surgery numbers have increased significantly in the past decade. However, epilepsy surgery remains an underutilized treatment for children with epilepsy. In addition, black children and those with public insurance continue to face disparities in the receipt of epilepsy surgery. PMID:25630252

  13. Treatment utilization among persons with opioid use disorder in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Zhu, He; Swartz, Marvin S

    2016-12-01

    The United States is experiencing an opioid overdose epidemic. Treatment use data from diverse racial/ethnic groups with opioid use disorder (OUD) are needed to inform treatment expansion efforts. We examined demographic characteristics and behavioral health of persons aged ≥12 years that met criteria for past-year OUD (n=6,125) in the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=503,101). We determined the prevalence and correlates of past-year use of alcohol/drug use treatment and opioid-specific treatment to inform efforts for improving OUD treatment. Among persons with OUD, 81.93% had prescription (Rx) OUD only, 9.75% had heroin use disorder (HUD) only, and 8.32% had Rx OUD+HUD. Persons with Rx OUD+HUD tended to be white, adults aged 18-49, males, or uninsured. The majority (80.09%) of persons with OUD had another substance use disorder (SUD), and major depressive episode (MDE) was common (28.74%). Of persons with OUD, 26.19% used any alcohol or drug use treatment, and 19.44% used opioid-specific treatment. Adolescents, the uninsured, blacks, native-Hawaiians/Pacific-Islanders/Asian-Americans, persons with Rx OUD only, and persons without MDE or SUD particularly underutilized opioid-specific treatment. Among alcohol/drug use treatment users, self-help group and outpatient rehabilitation treatment were commonly used services. Most people with OUD report no use of OUD treatment. Multifaceted interventions, including efforts to access insurance coverage, are required to change attitudes and knowledge towards addiction treatment in order to develop a supportive culture and infrastructure to enable treatment-seeking. Outreach efforts could target adolescents, minority groups, and the uninsured to improve access to treatment. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. An examination of electricity generation by utility organizations in the Southeast United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.; Feng, Song

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of climatic variability on electricity generation in the Southeast United States. The relationship cooling degree days (CDD) and heating degree days (HDD) shared with electricity generation by fuel source was explored. Using seasonal autoregressive integrated weighted average (ARIMA) and seasonal simple exponentially smoothed models, retrospective time series analysis was run. The hypothesized relationship between climatic variability and total electricity generation was supported, where an ARIMA model including CDDs as a predictor explained 57.6% of the variability. The hypothesis that climatic variability would be more predictive of fossil fuel electricity generation than electricity produced by clean energy sources was partially supported. The ARIMA model for natural gas indicated that CDDS were the only predictor for the fossil fuel source, and that 79.4% of the variability was explained. Climatic variability was not predictive of electricity generation from coal or petroleum, where simple seasonal exponentially smoothed models emerged. However, HDDs were a positive predictor of hydroelectric electricity production, where 48.9% of the variability in the clean energy source was explained by an ARIMA model. Implications related to base load electricity from fossil fuels, and future electricity generation projections relative to extremes and climate change are discussed. - Highlights: • Models run to examine impact of climatic variability on electricity generation. • Cooling degree days explained 57.6% of variability in total electricity generation. • Climatic variability was not predictive of coal or petroleum generation. • Cooling degree days explained 79.4% of natural gas generation. • Heating degree days were predictive of nuclear and hydroelectric generation.

  15. Utilizing General Purpose Graphics Processing Units to Improve Performance of Computer Modelling and Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, J.; Zhu, Y.; Koons, P. O.; Segee, B. E.

    2009-12-01

    With the introduction of the G8X series of cards by nVidia an architecture called CUDA was released, virtually all subsequent video cards have had CUDA support. With this new architecture nVidia provided extensions for C/C++ that create an Application Programming Interface (API) allowing code to be executed on the GPU. Since then the concept of GPGPU (general purpose graphics processing unit) has been growing, this is the concept that the GPU is very good a algebra and running things in parallel so we should take use of that power for other applications. This is highly appealing in the area of geodynamic modeling, as multiple parallel solutions of the same differential equations at different points in space leads to a large speedup in simulation speed. Another benefit of CUDA is a programmatic method of transferring large amounts of data between the computer's main memory and the dedicated GPU memory located on the video card. In addition to being able to compute and render on the video card, the CUDA framework allows for a large speedup in the situation, such as with a tiled display wall, where the rendered pixels are to be displayed in a different location than where they are rendered. A CUDA extension for VirtualGL was developed allowing for faster read back at high resolutions. This paper examines several aspects of rendering OpenGL graphics on large displays using VirtualGL and VNC. It demonstrates how performance can be significantly improved in rendering on a tiled monitor wall. We present a CUDA enhanced version of VirtualGL as well as the advantages to having multiple VNC servers. It will discuss restrictions caused by read back and blitting rates and how they are affected by different sizes of virtual displays being rendered.

  16. Utilizing Multi-Sensor Fire Detections to Map Fires in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, S. M.; Picotte, J. J.; Coan, M. J.

    2014-11-01

    In 2006, the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project began a cooperative effort between the US Forest Service (USFS) and the U.S.Geological Survey (USGS) to map and assess burn severity all large fires that have occurred in the United States since 1984. Using Landsat imagery, MTBS is mandated to map wildfire and prescribed fire that meet specific size criteria: greater than 1000 acres in the west and 500 acres in the east, regardless of ownership. Relying mostly on federal and state fire occurrence records, over 15,300 individual fires have been mapped. While mapping recorded fires, an additional 2,700 "unknown" or undocumented fires were discovered and assessed. It has become apparent that there are perhaps thousands of undocumented fires in the US that are yet to be mapped. Fire occurrence records alone are inadequate if MTBS is to provide a comprehensive accounting of fire across the US. Additionally, the sheer number of fires to assess has overwhelmed current manual procedures. To address these problems, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Applied Sciences Program is helping to fund the efforts of the USGS and its MTBS partners (USFS, National Park Service) to develop, and implement a system to automatically identify fires using satellite data. In near real time, USGS will combine active fire satellite detections from MODIS, AVHRR and GOES satellites with Landsat acquisitions. Newly acquired Landsat imagery will be routinely scanned to identify freshly burned area pixels, derive an initial perimeter and tag the burned area with the satellite date and time of detection. Landsat imagery from the early archive will be scanned to identify undocumented fires. Additional automated fire assessment processes will be developed. The USGS will develop these processes using open source software packages in order to provide freely available tools to local land managers providing them with the capability to assess fires at the local level.

  17. Dielectric properties of classical and quantized ionic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Høye, Johan S

    2010-06-01

    We study time-dependent correlation functions of classical and quantum gases using methods of equilibrium statistical mechanics for systems of uniform as well as nonuniform densities. The basis for our approach is the path integral formalism of quantum mechanical systems. With this approach the statistical mechanics of a quantum mechanical system becomes the equivalent of a classical polymer problem in four dimensions where imaginary time is the fourth dimension. Several nontrivial results for quantum systems have been obtained earlier by this analogy. Here, we will focus upon the presence of a time-dependent electromagnetic pair interaction where the electromagnetic vector potential that depends upon currents, will be present. Thus both density and current correlations are needed to evaluate the influence of this interaction. Then we utilize that densities and currents can be expressed by polarizations by which the ionic fluid can be regarded as a dielectric one for which a nonlocal susceptibility is found. This nonlocality has as a consequence that we find no contribution from a possible transverse electric zero-frequency mode for the Casimir force between metallic plates. Further, we establish expressions for a leading correction to ab initio calculations for the energies of the quantized electrons of molecules where now retardation effects also are taken into account.

  18. Utilizing Telemedicine in the Trauma Intensive Care Unit: Does It Impact Teamwork?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzara, Elizabeth H; Benishek, Lauren E; Patzer, Brady; Gregory, Megan E; Hughes, Ashley M; Heyne, Kyle; Salas, Eduardo; Kuchkarian, Fernanda; Marttos, Antonio; Schulman, Carl

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a telemedical robot on trauma intensive care unit (TICU) clinician teamwork (i.e., team attitudes, behaviors, and cognitions) during patient rounds. Thirty-two healthcare providers who conduct rounds volunteered to take surveys assessing teamwork attitudes and cognitions at three time periods: (1) the onset of the study, (2) the end of the 30-day control period, and (3) the end of the 30-day experimental period, which immediately followed the control period. Rounds were recorded throughout the 30-day control period and 30-day experimental period to observe provider behaviors. For the initial 30 days, there was no access to telemedicine. For the final 30 days, the rounding healthcare providers had access to the RP-7 robot (Intouch Health Inc., Santa Barbara, CA), a telemedical tool that can facilitate patient rounds conducted away from bedside. Using a one-tailed, one-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare trust at Times 1, 2, and 3, there was no significant effect on trust: F(2, 14)=1.20, p=0.16. When a one-tailed, one-way repeated-measures ANOVA to compare transactive memory systems (TMS) at Times 1, 2, and 3 was conducted, there was no significant effect on TMS: F(2, 15)=1.33, p=0.15. We conducted a one-tailed, one-way repeated-measures ANOVA to compare team psychological safety at Times 1, 2, and 3, and there was no significant effect on team psychological safety: F(2,15)=1.53, p=0.12. There was a significant difference in communication between rounds with and without telemedicine [t(25)=-1.76, p<0.05], such that there was more task-based communication during telerounds. Telemedicine increased task-based communication and did not negatively impact team trust, psychological safety, or TMS during rounds. Telemedicine may offer advantages for some teamwork competencies without sacrificing the efficacy of others and may be adopted by intact rounding teams without hindering teamwork.

  19. Utility of Ambulance Data for Real-Time Syndromic Surveillance: A Pilot in the West Midlands Region, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todkill, Dan; Loveridge, Paul; Elliot, Alex J; Morbey, Roger A; Edeghere, Obaghe; Rayment-Bishop, Tracy; Rayment-Bishop, Chris; Thornes, John E; Smith, Gillian

    2017-12-01

    Introduction The Public Health England (PHE; United Kingdom) Real-Time Syndromic Surveillance Team (ReSST) currently operates four national syndromic surveillance systems, including an emergency department system. A system based on ambulance data might provide an additional measure of the "severe" end of the clinical disease spectrum. This report describes the findings and lessons learned from the development and preliminary assessment of a pilot syndromic surveillance system using ambulance data from the West Midlands (WM) region in England. Hypothesis/Problem Is an Ambulance Data Syndromic Surveillance System (ADSSS) feasible and of utility in enhancing the existing suite of PHE syndromic surveillance systems? An ADSSS was designed, implemented, and a pilot conducted from September 1, 2015 through March 1, 2016. Surveillance cases were defined as calls to the West Midlands Ambulance Service (WMAS) regarding patients who were assigned any of 11 specified chief presenting complaints (CPCs) during the pilot period. The WMAS collected anonymized data on cases and transferred the dataset daily to ReSST, which contained anonymized information on patients' demographics, partial postcode of patients' location, and CPC. The 11 CPCs covered a broad range of syndromes. The dataset was analyzed descriptively each week to determine trends and key epidemiological characteristics of patients, and an automated statistical algorithm was employed daily to detect higher than expected number of calls. A preliminary assessment was undertaken to assess the feasibility, utility (including quality of key indicators), and timeliness of the system for syndromic surveillance purposes. Lessons learned and challenges were identified and recorded during the design and implementation of the system. The pilot ADSSS collected 207,331 records of individual ambulance calls (daily mean=1,133; range=923-1,350). The ADSSS was found to be timely in detecting seasonal changes in patterns of respiratory

  20. On quantization of systems with couplings depending on time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadzhiev, S.A.; Dzhafarov, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Two main moments, on which the Gitman T yutin quantization is based: formal introduction of pulse, conjugated time and postulate of special nonunitary time dependence of the Schroeinger operators, have been interpreted. 4 refs

  1. A quantization scheme for scale-invariant pure gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hortacsu, M.

    1988-01-01

    A scheme is suggested for the quantization of the recently proposed scale-invariant gauge theories in higher dimensions. The model is minimally coupled to a spinor field. Regularization algorithms are proposed. (orig.)

  2. A possibility to solve the problems with quantizing gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossenfelder, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    It is generally believed that quantum gravity is necessary to resolve the known tensions between general relativity and the quantum field theories of the standard model. Since perturbatively quantized gravity is non-renormalizable, the problem how to unify all interactions in a common framework has been open since the 1930s. Here, I propose a possibility to circumvent the known problems with quantizing gravity, as well as the known problems with leaving it unquantized: By changing the prescription for second quantization, a perturbative quantization of gravity is sufficient as an effective theory because matter becomes classical before the perturbative expansion breaks down. This is achieved by considering the vanishing commutator between a field and its conjugated momentum as a symmetry that is broken at low temperatures, and by this generates the quantum phase that we currently live in, while at high temperatures Planck's constant goes to zero

  3. Quantized Passive Dynamic Output Feedback Control with Actuator Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zu-Xin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problem of passive dynamic output feedback control for fuzzy discrete nonlinear systems with quantization and actuator failures, where the measurement output of the system is quantized by a logarithmic quantizer before being transferred to the fuzzy controller. By employing the fuzzy-basis-dependent Lyapunov function, sufficient condition is established to guarantee the closed-loop system to be mean-square stable and the prescribed passive performance. Based on the sufficient condition, the fuzzy dynamic output feedback controller is proposed for maintaining acceptable performance levels in the case of actuator failures and quantization effects. Finally, a numerical example is given to show the usefulness of the proposed method.

  4. Minimum uncertainty and squeezing in diffusion processes and stochastic quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demartino, S.; Desiena, S.; Illuminati, Fabrizo; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    1994-01-01

    We show that uncertainty relations, as well as minimum uncertainty coherent and squeezed states, are structural properties for diffusion processes. Through Nelson stochastic quantization we derive the stochastic image of the quantum mechanical coherent and squeezed states.

  5. Remarks on the geometric quantization of the Kepler problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, G.; Spera, M.

    1988-01-01

    The geometric quantization of the (three-dimensional) Kepler problem is readily obtained from the one of the harmonic oscillator using a Segre map. The physical meaning of the latter is discussed. (orig.)

  6. New approach to the problem of gauge field quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachkov, N.B.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.

    1987-01-01

    A new scheme of calibration field quantization containing considerable change of the procedure of calibration conditions application on field variables is suggested. The above approach is based on a proved theorem on the subordination of fields to the additional Lorenz condition when applying a wide class of initial calibration conditions on these fields. This condition has the sense of the secondary bond, which must be included in the system of bonds during field quantization. The fact of secondary bond presence in the form of Lorenz condition was not earlier considered in literature and used in quantization. Due to this, the report suggests modification of all existing methods of field quantization: according to Dirac-Bergman, covariant approach using an indefinite metric and the method of functional integration

  7. Effect of threshold quantization in opportunistic splitting algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses algorithms to find the optimal threshold and also investigates the impact of threshold quantization on the scheduling outage performance of the opportunistic splitting scheduling algorithm. Since this algorithm aims at finding

  8. On the quantization of sectorially Hamiltonian dissipative systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagnino, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Rosario, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correos 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gadella, M. [Instituto de Fisica de Rosario, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: manuelgadella@yahoo.com.ar; Lara, L.P. [Instituto de Fisica de Rosario, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad Regional Rosario, UTN, 2000 Rosario (Argentina)

    2009-10-15

    We present a theoretical discussion showing that, although some dissipative systems may have a sectorial Hamiltonian description, this description does not allow for canonical quantization. However, a quantum Liouville counterpart of these systems is possible, although it is not unique.

  9. On the quantization of sectorially Hamiltonian dissipative systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnino, M.; Gadella, M.; Lara, L.P.

    2009-01-01

    We present a theoretical discussion showing that, although some dissipative systems may have a sectorial Hamiltonian description, this description does not allow for canonical quantization. However, a quantum Liouville counterpart of these systems is possible, although it is not unique.

  10. Gupta-Bleuler Photon Quantization in the SME

    CERN Document Server

    Colladay, Don; Potting, Robertus

    2014-01-01

    Photon quantization is implemented in the standard model extension (SME) using the Gupta-Bleuler method and BRST concepts. The quantization prescription applies to both the birefringent and non-birefringent CPT-even couplings. A curious incompatibility is found between the presence of the Lorentz-violating terms and the existence of a nontrivial conjugate momentum $\\Pi^0$ yielding problems with covariant quantization procedure. Introduction of a mass regulator term can avoid the vanishing of $\\Pi^0$ and allows for the implementation of a covariant quantization procedure. Field-theoretic calculations involving the SME photons can then be performed using the mass regulator, similar to the conventional procedure used in electrodynamics for infrared-divergence regulation.

  11. A physically motivated quantization of the electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Robert; Barlow, Thomas M; Beige, Almut

    2016-01-01

    The notion that the electromagnetic field is quantized is usually inferred from observations such as the photoelectric effect and the black-body spectrum. However accounts of the quantization of this field are usually mathematically motivated and begin by introducing a vector potential, followed by the imposition of a gauge that allows the manipulation of the solutions of Maxwell’s equations into a form that is amenable for the machinery of canonical quantization. By contrast, here we quantize the electromagnetic field in a less mathematically and more physically motivated way. Starting from a direct description of what one sees in experiments, we show that the usual expressions of the electric and magnetic field observables follow from Heisenberg’s equation of motion. In our treatment, there is no need to invoke the vector potential in a specific gauge and we avoid the commonly used notion of a fictitious cavity that applies boundary conditions to the field. (paper)

  12. Favorable bed utilization and readmission rates for emergency department observation unit heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrager, Justin; Wheatley, Matthew; Georgiopoulou, Vasiliki; Osborne, Anwar; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas; Hung, Olivia; Butler, Javed; Ross, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare readmission rates and hospital bed-days between acute decompensated heart failure (AHF) patients admitted or discharged following accelerated treatment protocol (ATP)-driven care in an emergency department observation unit (OU). This was a retrospective cohort study conducted at two urban university-affiliated hospitals. A total of 358 selected AHF patients received treatment on an ATP in the OU between October 1, 2007, and June 30, 2011. The comparison of interest was admission or discharge following OU treatment. The outcome of interest was readmission within 30 and 90 days of hospital discharge following care in the OU. We also examined resource use (inpatient, inpatient plus outpatient-days) between the admitted and discharged groups. Time to readmission analysis was performed with Cox proportional hazards regression. Discharged and admitted patients were similar with respect to age, race, sex, ED length of stay (LOS), and OU LOS. Patients admitted from the OU had a higher median B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP; 1,063 pg/mL [interquartile range {IQR} = 552 to 2,067 pg/mL] vs. 708 pg/mL [IQR = 254 to 1,683 pg/mL]; p = 0.002) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN; 19 mg/dL [IQR = 14 to 26 mg/dL] vs. 17 mg/dL [IQR = 13 to 23 mg/dL]) than those discharged (p = 0.04) and a lower median ejection fraction (EF; 22.5% [15% to 43%] vs. 35% [IQR 20% to 55%]; p = 0.002). In models controlling for age, race, sex, clinical site, BNP, BUN, creatinine, and EF, the 30-day readmission rate (13.8% in the study population as a whole) was not significantly different between the patients discharged or admitted following OU care (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.47 to 2.10). The readmission rates were also not significantly different at 90 days (HR = 1.07; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.77). Within 30 days of discharge from the OU, patients spent a median of 1.7 days (IQR = 0.0 to 5.1 days) as inpatients, compared to 3.5 days (IQR = 2.3 to 5.8 days

  13. Metamaterial bricks and quantization of meta-surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memoli, Gianluca; Caleap, Mihai; Asakawa, Michihiro; Sahoo, Deepak R.; Drinkwater, Bruce W.; Subramanian, Sriram

    2017-02-01

    Controlling acoustic fields is crucial in diverse applications such as loudspeaker design, ultrasound imaging and therapy or acoustic particle manipulation. The current approaches use fixed lenses or expensive phased arrays. Here, using a process of analogue-to-digital conversion and wavelet decomposition, we develop the notion of quantal meta-surfaces. The quanta here are small, pre-manufactured three-dimensional units--which we call metamaterial bricks--each encoding a specific phase delay. These bricks can be assembled into meta-surfaces to generate any diffraction-limited acoustic field. We apply this methodology to show experimental examples of acoustic focusing, steering and, after stacking single meta-surfaces into layers, the more complex field of an acoustic tractor beam. We demonstrate experimentally single-sided air-borne acoustic levitation using meta-layers at various bit-rates: from a 4-bit uniform to 3-bit non-uniform quantization in phase. This powerful methodology dramatically simplifies the design of acoustic devices and provides a key-step towards realizing spatial sound modulators.

  14. Bioprinting of Cartilage and Skin Tissue Analogs Utilizing a Novel Passive Mixing Unit Technique for Bioink Precellularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Patrick Scott; Orrhult, Linnea Stridh; Martínez, Héctor

    2018-01-01

    Bioprinting is a powerful technique for the rapid and reproducible fabrication of constructs for tissue engineering applications. In this study, both cartilage and skin analogs were fabricated after bioink pre-cellularization utilizing a novel passive mixing unit technique. This technique was developed with the aim to simplify the steps involved in the mixing of a cell suspension into a highly viscous bioink. The resolution of filaments deposited through bioprinting necessitates the assurance of uniformity in cell distribution prior to printing to avoid the deposition of regions without cells or retention of large cell clumps that can clog the needle. We demonstrate the ability to rapidly blend a cell suspension with a bioink prior to bioprinting of both cartilage and skin analogs. Both tissue analogs could be cultured for up to 4 weeks. Histological analysis demonstrated both cell viability and deposition of tissue specific extracellular matrix (ECM) markers such as glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and collagen I respectively. PMID:29364216

  15. A note on the BFV-BRST operator quantization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayi, O.F.

    1988-03-01

    The BFV-BRST operator quantization method is applied to massive, abelian (Yang-Mills) theory which has only second class constraints. A nilpotent BFV-BRST-charge is derived and used to define a unitarizing hamiltonian. Unphysical degrees of freedom can be eliminated either in a canonical gauge or in a relativistic one. In the latter gauge this is a general feature (at least locally) of the BFV-BRST quantization of the systems with irreducible constraints. (author). 23 refs

  16. On the Langevin equation for stochastic quantization of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Naohito.

    1989-10-01

    We study the Langevin equation for stochastic quantization of gravity. By introducing two independent variables with a second-class constraint for the gravitational field, we formulate a pair of the Langevin equations for gravity which couples with white noises. After eliminating the multiplier field for the second-class constraint, we show that the equations leads to stochastic quantization of gravity including an unique superspace metric. (author)

  17. Vector potential quantization and the photon wave-particle representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meis, C; Dahoo, P R

    2016-01-01

    The quantization procedure of the vector potential is enhanced at a single photon state revealing the possibility for a simultaneous representation of the wave-particle nature of the photon. Its relationship to the quantum vacuum results naturally. A vector potential amplitude operator is defined showing the parallelism with the Hamiltonian of a massless particle. It is further shown that the quantized vector potential satisfies both the wave propagation equation and a linear time-dependent Schrödinger-like equation. (paper)

  18. Poincare invariant algebra from instant to light-front quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Chueng-Ryong; Mitchell, Chad

    2001-01-01

    We present the Poincare algebra interpolating between instant and light-front time quantizations. The angular momentum operators satisfying SU(2) algebra are constructed in an arbitrary interpolation angle and shown to be identical to the ordinary angular momentum and Leutwyler-Stern angular momentum in the instant and light-front quantization limits, respectively. The exchange of the dynamical role between the transverse angular mometum and the boost operators is manifest in our newly constructed algebra

  19. Covarient quantization of heterotic strings in supersymmetric chiral boson formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, F.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation presents the covariant supersymmetric chiral boson formulation of the heterotic strings. The main feature of this formulation is the covariant quantization of the so-called leftons and rightons -- the (1,0) supersymmetric generalizations of the world-sheet chiral bosons -- that constitute basic building blocks of general heterotic-type string models. Although the (Neveu-Schwarz-Ramond or Green-Schwarz) heterotic strings provide the most realistic string models, their covariant quantization, with the widely-used Siegel formalism, has never been rigorously carried out. It is clarified in this dissertation that the covariant Siegel formalism is pathological upon quantization. As a test, a general classical covariant (NSR) heterotic string action that has the Siegel symmetry is constructed in arbitrary curved space-time coupled to (1,0) world-sheet super-gravity. In the light-cone gauge quantization, the critical dimensions are derived for such an action with leftons and rightons compactified on group manifolds G L x G R . The covariant quantization of this action does not agree with the physical results in the light-cone gauge quantization. This dissertation establishes a new formalism for the covariant quantization of heterotic strings. The desired consistent covariant path integral quantization of supersymmetric chiral bosons, and thus the general (NSR) heterotic-type strings with leftons and rightons compactified on torus circle-times d L S 1 x circle-times d R S 1 are carried out. An infinite set of auxiliary (1,0) scalar superfields is introduced to convert the second-class chiral constraint into first-class ones. The covariant gauge-fixed action has an extended BRST symmetry described by the graded algebra GL(1/1). A regularization respecting this symmetry is proposed to deal with the contributions of the infinite towers of auxiliary fields and associated ghosts

  20. On the Fedosov deformation quantization beyond the regular Poisson manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgushev, V.A.; Isaev, A.P.; Lyakhovich, S.L.; Sharapov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    A simple iterative procedure is suggested for the deformation quantization of (irregular) Poisson brackets associated to the classical Yang-Baxter equation. The construction is shown to admit a pure algebraic reformulation giving the Universal Deformation Formula (UDF) for any triangular Lie bialgebra. A simple proof of classification theorem for inequivalent UDF's is given. As an example the explicit quantization formula is presented for the quasi-homogeneous Poisson brackets on two-plane

  1. Renormalization of an abelian gauge theory in stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, S.; Kapoor, A.K.; Srinivasan, V.

    1987-01-01

    The renormalization of an abelian gauge field coupled to a complex scalar field is discussed in the stochastic quantization method. The super space formulation of the stochastic quantization method is used to derive the Ward Takahashi identities associated with supersymmetry. These Ward Takahashi identities together with previously derived Ward Takahashi identities associated with gauge invariance are shown to be sufficient to fix all the renormalization constants in terms of scaling of the fields and of the parameters appearing in the stochastic theory. (orig.)

  2. Assessment of performance and utility of mortality prediction models in a single Indian mixed tertiary intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathe, Prachee M; Bapat, Sharda N

    2014-01-01

    To assess the performance and utility of two mortality prediction models viz. Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) in a single Indian mixed tertiary intensive care unit (ICU). Secondary objectives were bench-marking and setting a base line for research. In this observational cohort, data needed for calculation of both scores were prospectively collected for all consecutive admissions to 28-bedded ICU in the year 2011. After excluding readmissions, discharges within 24 h and age <18 years, the records of 1543 patients were analyzed using appropriate statistical methods. Both models overpredicted mortality in this cohort [standardized mortality ratio (SMR) 0.88 ± 0.05 and 0.95 ± 0.06 using APACHE II and SAPS II respectively]. Patterns of predicted mortality had strong association with true mortality (R (2) = 0.98 for APACHE II and R (2) = 0.99 for SAPS II). Both models performed poorly in formal Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit testing (Chi-square = 12.8 (P = 0.03) for APACHE II, Chi-square = 26.6 (P = 0.001) for SAPS II) but showed good discrimination (area under receiver operating characteristic curve 0.86 ± 0.013 SE (P < 0.001) and 0.83 ± 0.013 SE (P < 0.001) for APACHE II and SAPS II, respectively). There were wide variations in SMRs calculated for subgroups based on International Classification of Disease, 10(th) edition (standard deviation ± 0.27 for APACHE II and 0.30 for SAPS II). Lack of fit of data to the models and wide variation in SMRs in subgroups put a limitation on utility of these models as tools for assessing quality of care and comparing performances of different units without customization. Considering comparable performance and simplicity of use, efforts should be made to adapt SAPS II.

  3. Canonical quantization of so-called non-Lagrangian systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitman, D.M. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Kupriyanov, V.G. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, Sao Paulo, S.P. (Brazil); Tomsk State University, Physics Department, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-04-15

    We present an approach to the canonical quantization of systems with equations of motion that are historically called non-Lagrangian equations. Our viewpoint of this problem is the following: despite the fact that a set of differential equations cannot be directly identified with a set of Euler-Lagrange equations, one can reformulate such a set in an equivalent first-order form that can always be treated as the Euler-Lagrange equations of a certain action. We construct such an action explicitly. It turns out that in the general case the hamiltonization and canonical quantization of such an action are non-trivial problems, since the theory involves time-dependent constraints. We adopt the general approach of hamiltonization and canonical quantization for such theories as described in D.M. Gitman, I.V. Tyutin, Quantization of Fields with Constraints (Springer, Berlin, 1990). to the case under consideration. There exists an ambiguity (that cannot be reduced to the addition of a total time derivative) in associating a Lagrange function with a given set of equations. We present a complete description of this ambiguity. The proposed scheme is applied to the quantization of a general quadratic theory. In addition, we consider the quantization of a damped oscillator and of a radiating point-like charge. (orig.)

  4. Canonical quantization of so-called non-Lagrangian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitman, D.M.; Kupriyanov, V.G.

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach to the canonical quantization of systems with equations of motion that are historically called non-Lagrangian equations. Our viewpoint of this problem is the following: despite the fact that a set of differential equations cannot be directly identified with a set of Euler-Lagrange equations, one can reformulate such a set in an equivalent first-order form that can always be treated as the Euler-Lagrange equations of a certain action. We construct such an action explicitly. It turns out that in the general case the hamiltonization and canonical quantization of such an action are non-trivial problems, since the theory involves time-dependent constraints. We adopt the general approach of hamiltonization and canonical quantization for such theories as described in D.M. Gitman, I.V. Tyutin, Quantization of Fields with Constraints (Springer, Berlin, 1990). to the case under consideration. There exists an ambiguity (that cannot be reduced to the addition of a total time derivative) in associating a Lagrange function with a given set of equations. We present a complete description of this ambiguity. The proposed scheme is applied to the quantization of a general quadratic theory. In addition, we consider the quantization of a damped oscillator and of a radiating point-like charge. (orig.)

  5. Trends Analysis of rhBMP Utilization in Single-Level Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Lifeng; Cohen, Jeremiah R; Buser, Zorica; Brodke, Darrel S; Youssef, Jim A; Park, Jong-Beom; Yoon, S Tim; Wang, Jeffrey C; Meisel, Hans-Joerg

    2017-10-01

    Retrospective study. Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) has been widely used in spinal fusion surgery, but there is little information on rhBMP-2 utilization in single-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the trends and demographics of rhBMP-2 utilization in single-level PLIF. Patients who underwent single-level PLIF from 2005 to 2011 were identified by searching ICD-9 diagnosis and procedure codes in the PearlDiver Patient Records Database, a national database of orthopedic insurance records. The year of procedure, age, gender, and region of the United States were recorded for each patient. Results were reported for each variable as the incidence of procedures identified per 100 000 patients searched in the database. A total of 2735 patients had single-level PLIF. The average rate of single-level PLIF with rhBMP-2 maintained at a relatively stable level (28% to 31%) from 2005 to 2009, but decreased in 2010 (9.9%) and 2011 (11.8%). The overall incidence of single-level PLIF without rhBMP-2 (0.68 cases per 100 000 patients) was statistically higher ( P level PLIF with rhBMP-2 (0.21 cases per 100 000 patients). The average rate of single-level PLIF with rhBMP-2 utilization was the highest in West (30.1%), followed by Midwest (26.9%), South (20.5%), and Northeast (17.8%). The highest incidence of single-level PLIF with rhBMP-2 was observed in the age group level PLIF. There was a 3-fold increase in the rate of PLIF without rhBMP-2 compared to PLIF with rhBMP-2, with both procedures being mainly done in patients less than 65 years of age.

  6. Physician discretion is safe and may lower stress test utilization in emergency department chest pain unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Anthony M; Arrighi, James A; Siket, Matthew S; Gibbs, Frantz J

    2012-03-01

    Chest pain unit (CPU) observation with defined stress utilization protocols is a common management option for low-risk emergency department patients. We sought to evaluate the safety of a joint emergency medicine and cardiology staffed CPU. Prospective observational trial of consecutive patients admitted to an emergency department CPU was conducted. A standard 6-hour observation protocol was followed by cardiology consultation and stress utilization largely at their discretion. Included patients were at low/intermediate risk by the American Heart Association, had nondiagnostic electrocardiograms, and a normal initial troponin. Excluded patients were those with an acute comorbidity, age >75, and a history of coronary artery disease, or had a coexistent problem restricting 24-hour observation. Primary outcome was 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events-defined as death, nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, revascularization, or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. A total of 1063 patients were enrolled over 8 months. The mean age of the patients was 52.8 ± 11.8 years, and 51% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48-54) were female. The mean thrombolysis in myocardial infarction and Diamond & Forrester scores were 0.6% (95% CI, 0.51-0.62) and 33% (95% CI, 31-35), respectively. In all, 51% (95% CI, 48-54) received stress testing (52% nuclear stress, 39% stress echocardiogram, 5% exercise, 4% other). In all, 0.9% patients (n = 10, 95% CI, 0.4-1.5) were diagnosed with a non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and 2.2% (n = 23, 95% CI, 1.3-3) with acute coronary syndrome. There was 1 (95% CI, 0%-0.3%) case of a 30-day major adverse cardiovascular events. The 51% stress test utilization rate was less than the range reported in previous CPU studies (P < 0.05). Joint emergency medicine and cardiology management of patients within a CPU protocol is safe, efficacious, and may safely reduce stress testing rates.

  7. Quantized field formulation of the free-electron laser in the Heisenberg picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, H.

    1985-01-01

    The phase and amplitude operator equations valid for field intensities ranging from a single photon state to an intense laser state are derived by means of quantized field theory. Using the Dirac equation, driving current operators, which are expressed by radiation and electron fields, are separated into spontaneous, stimulated, and spin terms. Then, utilizing the semiclassical nature of the electron state, coherence condition and spectral equations are derived. From the spectral phase equation, a delay-time scaling for oscillator operation is obtained in good agreement with experiments. 1 ref

  8. Quantization of electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations of a Kerr black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelas, P.; Chrzanowski, P.; Howard, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    The electromagnetic and gravitational fluctuations about the classical gravitational field of a rotating black hole are quantized by imposing commutation relations on the Newman-Penrose quantities phi 0 and psi 0 . Two examples which illustrate the utility of the formalism concern the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor for the electromagnetic field in the Boulware vacuum and the response of an Unruh box coupled to fluctuations of the gravitational field. These quantities are computed in the vicinity of the horizon

  9. Cochlear implantation in the world's largest medical device market: utilization and awareness of cochlear implants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkin, Donna L

    2013-03-01

    Provision of cochlear implants (CIs) for those within the criteria for implantation remains lower in the United States than in some other developed nations. When adults and children are grouped together, the rate of utilization/provision remains low at around 6%. For children, the provision rate is about 50% of those who could benefit from an implant, compared with figures of about 90% for the Flanders part of Belgium, the United Kingdom and other European countries. The probable reasons for this underprovision include: low awareness of the benefits of CIs among the population; low awareness among health-care professionals; the lack of specific referral pathways; some political issues relating to the Deaf Community; and financial issues related to health provision. Such financial issues result in situations which either fail to provide for access to implants or provide too low a level of the necessary funding, especially for low-income individuals covered by public health-care programs such as Medicaid. These issues might be mitigated by adoption and publication of standards for best clinical practices for CI provision, availability of current cost-effectiveness data, and the existence of an organization dedicated to cochlear implantation. Such an organization, the American Cochlear Implant Alliance (ACI Alliance), was recently organized and is described in the paper by Niparko et al. in this Supplement.

  10. Quantized gauge invariant periodic TDHF solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, K.-K.; Griffin, J.J.; Lichtner, P.C.; Dworzecka, M.

    1979-01-01

    Time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) is used to study steady state large amplitude nuclear collective motions, such as vibration and rotation. As is well known the small amplitude TDHF leads to the RPA equation. The analysis of periodicity in TDHF is not trivial because TDHF is a nonlinear theory and it is not known under what circumstances a nonlinear theory can support periodic solutions. It is also unknown whether such periodic solution, if they exist, form a continuous or a discrete set. But, these properties may be important in obtaining the energy spectrum of the collective states from the TDHF description. The periodicity and Gauge Invariant Periodicity of solutions are investigated for that class of models whose TDHF solutions depend on time through two parameters. In such models TDHF supports a continuous family of periodic solutions, but only a discrete subset of these is gauge invariant. These discrete Gauge Invariant Periodic solutions obey the Bohr-Summerfeld quantization rule. The energy spectrum of the Gauge Invariant Periodic solutions is compared with the exact eigenergies in one specific example

  11. Quantized Abelian principle connections on Lorentzian manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benini, Marco; Schenkel, Alexander

    2013-03-01

    We construct a covariant functor from a category of Abelian principal bundles over globally hyperbolic spacetimes to a category of *-algebras that describes quantized principal connections. We work within an appropriate differential geometric setting by using the bundle of connections and we study the full gauge group, namely the group of vertical principal bundle automorphisms. Properties of our functor are investigated in detail and, similar to earlier works, it is found that due to topological obstructions the locality property of locally covariant quantum field theory is violated. Furthermore, we prove that, for Abelian structure groups containing a nontrivial compact factor, the gauge invariant Borchers- Uhlmann algebra of the vector dual of the bundle of connections is not separating on gauge equivalence classes of principal connections. We introduce a topological generalization of the concept of locally covariant quantum fields. As examples, we construct for the full subcategory of principal U(1)-bundles two natural transformations from singular homology functors to the quantum field theory functor that can be interpreted as the Euler class and the electric charge. In this case we also prove that the electric charges can be consistently set to zero, which yields another quantum field theory functor that satisfies all axioms of locally covariant quantum field theory.

  12. Quantized Abelian principle connections on Lorentzian manifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benini, Marco [Pavia Univ. (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy); Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Dappiaggi, Claudio [Pavia Univ. (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Pavia (Italy); Schenkel, Alexander [Bergische Univ., Wuppertal (Germany). Fachgruppe Mathematik

    2013-03-15

    We construct a covariant functor from a category of Abelian principal bundles over globally hyperbolic spacetimes to a category of *-algebras that describes quantized principal connections. We work within an appropriate differential geometric setting by using the bundle of connections and we study the full gauge group, namely the group of vertical principal bundle automorphisms. Properties of our functor are investigated in detail and, similar to earlier works, it is found that due to topological obstructions the locality property of locally covariant quantum field theory is violated. Furthermore, we prove that, for Abelian structure groups containing a nontrivial compact factor, the gauge invariant Borchers- Uhlmann algebra of the vector dual of the bundle of connections is not separating on gauge equivalence classes of principal connections. We introduce a topological generalization of the concept of locally covariant quantum fields. As examples, we construct for the full subcategory of principal U(1)-bundles two natural transformations from singular homology functors to the quantum field theory functor that can be interpreted as the Euler class and the electric charge. In this case we also prove that the electric charges can be consistently set to zero, which yields another quantum field theory functor that satisfies all axioms of locally covariant quantum field theory.

  13. Light-cone quantization and hadron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    Quantum chromodynamics provides a fundamental description of hadronic and nuclear structure and dynamics in terms of elementary quark and gluon degrees of freedom. In practice, the direct application of QCD to reactions involving the structure of hadrons is extremely complex because of the interplay of nonperturbative effects such as color confinement and multi-quark coherence. In this talk, the author will discuss light-cone quantization and the light-cone Fock expansion as a tractable and consistent representation of relativistic many-body systems and bound states in quantum field theory. The Fock state representation in QCD includes all quantum fluctuations of the hadron wavefunction, including fax off-shell configurations such as intrinsic strangeness and charm and, in the case of nuclei, hidden color. The Fock state components of the hadron with small transverse size, which dominate hard exclusive reactions, have small color dipole moments and thus diminished hadronic interactions. Thus QCD predicts minimal absorptive corrections, i.e., color transparency for quasi-elastic exclusive reactions in nuclear targets at large momentum transfer. In other applications, such as the calculation of the axial, magnetic, and quadrupole moments of light nuclei, the QCD relativistic Fock state description provides new insights which go well beyond the usual assumptions of traditional hadronic and nuclear physics

  14. Perturbation theory for quantized string fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorn, C.B.; Florida Univ., Gainesville

    1987-01-01

    We discuss the problem of gauge fixing in string field theory. We show that BRST invariance requires the gauge-fixed action to contain terms cubic in the ghost... of ghost of ghost fields. The final BRST invariant gauge-fixed action for the gauge b 0 A=0 is extremely simple: with the proper interpretation (as given in this article), it is essentially the one anticipated earlier in the work of Giddings, Martinec, and Witten in their analysis of the BRST invariant world-sheet approach to string theory. We derive the Feynman rules from this action and explain in detail how the sum over sufaces of the BRST first-quantized string is reproduced. This result depends crucially on the correct assignment for the Grassmann character of the string field and its ghost... of ghost of ghost string fields. If all these fields are unified in a single string field Φ containing all ghost numbers, the requirements is that Φ be uniformly Grassmann odd. Finally, we do some sample calculations which provide some simple checks on our general results. (orig.)

  15. Casimir-Polder interaction in second quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefele, Juergen

    2011-03-21

    The Casimir-Polder interaction between a single neutral atom and a nearby surface, arising from the (quantum and thermal) fluctuations of the electromagnetic field, is a cornerstone of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED), and theoretically well established. Recently, Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of ultracold atoms have been used to test the predictions of cQED. The purpose of the present thesis is to upgrade single-atom cQED with the many-body theory needed to describe trapped atomic BECs. Tools and methods are developed in a second-quantized picture that treats atom and photon fields on the same footing. We formulate a diagrammatic expansion using correlation functions for both the electromagnetic field and the atomic system. The formalism is applied to investigate, for BECs trapped near surfaces, dispersion interactions of the van der Waals-Casimir-Polder type, and the Bosonic stimulation in spontaneous decay of excited atomic states. We also discuss a phononic Casimir effect, which arises from the quantum fluctuations in an interacting BEC. (orig.)

  16. Casimir-Polder interaction in second quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiefele, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    The Casimir-Polder interaction between a single neutral atom and a nearby surface, arising from the (quantum and thermal) fluctuations of the electromagnetic field, is a cornerstone of cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED), and theoretically well established. Recently, Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of ultracold atoms have been used to test the predictions of cQED. The purpose of the present thesis is to upgrade single-atom cQED with the many-body theory needed to describe trapped atomic BECs. Tools and methods are developed in a second-quantized picture that treats atom and photon fields on the same footing. We formulate a diagrammatic expansion using correlation functions for both the electromagnetic field and the atomic system. The formalism is applied to investigate, for BECs trapped near surfaces, dispersion interactions of the van der Waals-Casimir-Polder type, and the Bosonic stimulation in spontaneous decay of excited atomic states. We also discuss a phononic Casimir effect, which arises from the quantum fluctuations in an interacting BEC. (orig.)

  17. Faddeev-Jackiw quantization and constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelos-Neto, J.; Wotzasek, C.

    1992-01-01

    In a recent Letter, Faddeev and Jackiw have shown that the reduction of constrained systems into its canonical, first-order form, can bring some new insight into the research of this field. For sympletic manifolds the geometrical structure, called Dirac or generalized bracket, is obtained directly from the inverse of the nonsingular sympletic two-form matrix. In the cases of nonsympletic manifolds, this two-form is degenerated and cannot be inverted to provide the generalized brackets. This singular behavior of the sympletic matrix is indicative of the presence of constraints that have to be carefully considered to yield to consistent results. One has two possible routes to treat this problem: Dirac has taught us how to implement the constraints into the potential part (Hamiltonian) of the canonical Lagrangian, leading to the well-known Dirac brackets, which are consistent with the constraints and can be mapped into quantum commutators (modulo ordering terms). The second route, suggested by Faddeev and Jackiw, and followed in this paper, is to implement the constraints directly into the canonical part of the first order Lagrangian, using the fact that the consistence condition for the stability of the constrained manifold is linear in the time derivative. This algorithm may lead to an invertible two-form sympletic matrix from where the Dirac brackets are readily obtained. This algorithm is used in this paper to investigate some aspects of the quantization of constrained systems with first- and second-class constraints in the sympletic approach

  18. Quantized vortices in interacting gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butera, Salvatore; Valiente, Manuel; Öhberg, Patrik

    2016-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional weakly interacting ultracold Bose gas whose constituents are two-level atoms. We study the effects of a synthetic density-dependent gauge field that arises from laser–matter coupling in the adiabatic limit with a laser configuration such that the single-particle zeroth-order vector potential corresponds to a constant synthetic magnetic field. We find a new exotic type of current nonlinearity in the Gross–Pitaevskii equation which affects the dynamics of the order parameter of the condensate. We investigate the rotational properties of this system in the Thomas–Fermi limit, focusing in particular on the physical conditions that make the existence of a quantized vortex in the system energetically favourable with respect to the non-rotating solution. We point out that two different physical interpretations can be given to this new nonlinearity: firstly it can be seen as a local modification of the mean field coupling constant, whose value depends on the angular momentum of the condensate. Secondly, it can be interpreted as a density modulated angular velocity given to the cloud. Looking at the problem from both of these viewpoints, we show that the effect of the new nonlinearity is to induce a rotation to the condensate, where the transition from non-rotating to rotating states depends on the density of the cloud. (paper)

  19. The Future of Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs in the United States: Projected Spending and Savings to 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoffman, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-09-11

    We develop projections of future spending on, and savings from, energy efficiency programs funded by electric and gas utility customers in the United States, under three scenarios through 2025. Our analysis, which updates a previous LBNL study, relies on detailed bottom-up modeling of current state energy efficiency policies, regulatory decisions, and demand-side management and utility resource plans. The three scenarios are intended to represent a range of potential outcomes under the current policy environment (i.e., without considering possible major new policy developments). By 2025, spending on electric and gas efficiency programs (excluding load management programs) is projected to double from 2010 levels to $9.5 billion in the medium case, compared to $15.6 billion in the high case and $6.5 billion in the low case. Compliance with statewide legislative or regulatory savings or spending targets is the primary driver for the increase in electric program spending through 2025, though a significant share of the increase is also driven by utility DSM planning activity and integrated resource planning. Our analysis suggests that electric efficiency program spending may approach a more even geographic distribution over time in terms of absolute dollars spent, with the Northeastern and Western states declining from over 70% of total U.S. spending in 2010 to slightly more than 50% in 2025, with the South and Midwest splitting the remainder roughly evenly. Under our medium case scenario, annual incremental savings from customer-funded electric energy efficiency programs increase from 18.4 TWh in 2010 in the U.S. (which is about 0.5% of electric utility retail sales) to 28.8 TWh in 2025 (0.8% of retail sales). These savings would offset the majority of load growth in the Energy Information Administration’s most recent reference case forecast, given specific assumptions about the extent to which future energy efficiency program savings are captured in that forecast

  20. Utility-Scale Solar 2016: An Empirical Analysis of Project Cost, Performance, and Pricing Trends in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark; Seel, Joachim; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi

    2017-09-19

    The utility-scale solar sector has led the overall U.S. solar market in terms of installed capacity since 2012. In 2016, the utility-scale sector installed more than 2.5 times as much new capacity as did the residential and commercial sectors combined, and is expected to maintain its dominant position for at least another five years. This report—the fifth edition in an ongoing annual series—provides data-driven analysis of the utility-scale solar project fleet in the United States. We analyze not just installed project prices, but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement ("PPA") prices from a large sample of utility-scale PV and CSP projects throughout the United States. Highlights from this year's edition include the following: Installation Trends: The use of solar tracking devices dominated 2016 installations, at nearly 80% of all new capacity. In a reflection of the ongoing geographic expansion of the market beyond California and the Southwest, the median long-term average insolation level at newly built project sites declined again in 2016. While new fixed-tilt projects are now seen predominantly in less-sunny regions, tracking projects are increasingly pushing into these same regions. The median inverter loading ratio has stabilized in 2016 at 1.3 for both tracking and fixed-tilt projects. Installed Prices: Median installed PV project prices within a sizable sample have fallen by two-thirds since the 2007-2009 period, to $2.2/WAC (or $1.7/WDC) for projects completed in 2016. The lowest 20th percentile of projects within our 2016 sample were priced at or below $2.0/WAC, with the lowest-priced projects around $1.5/WAC. Overall price dispersion across the entire sample and across geographic regions decreased significantly in 2016. Operation and Maintenance (“O&M”) Costs: What limited empirical O&M cost data are publicly available suggest that PV O&M costs were in the neighborhood of $18/kWAC-year, or $8/MWh, in 2016. These

  1. Stochastic quantization of a topological quantum mechanical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antunes, Sergio; Krein, Gastao; Menezes, Gabriel; Svaiter, Nami Fux

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Stochastic quantization of complex actions has been extensively studied in the literature. In these models, a Markovian Langevin equation is used in order to study the quantization of such systems. In such papers, the advantages of the Markovian stochastic quantization method were explored and exposed. However, many drawbacks of the method were also pointed out, such as instability of the simulations with absence of convergence and sometimes convergence to the wrong limit. Indeed, although several alternative methods have been proposed to deal with interesting physical systems where the action is complex, these approaches do not suggest any general way of solving the particular difficulties that arise in each situation. Here, we wish to make contributions to the program of stochastic quantization of theories with imaginary action by investigating the consequences of a non-Markovian stochastic quantization in a particular situation, namely a quantum mechanical topological action. We analyze the Markovian stochastic quantization for a topological quantum mechanical action which is analog to a Maxwell-Chern-Simons action in the Weyl gauge. Afterwards we consider a Langevin equation with memory kernel and Einstein's relations with colored noise. We show that convergence towards equilibrium is achieved in both regimes. We also sketch a simple numerical analysis to investigate the possible advantages of non-Markovian procedure over the usual Markovian quantization. Both retarded Green's function for the diffusion problem are considered in such analysis. We show that, although the results indicated that the effect of memory kernel, as usually expected, is to delay the convergence to equilibrium, non-Markovian systems imply a faster decay compared to Markovian ones as well as smoother convergence to equilibrium. (author)

  2. Remote Sensing and Quantization of Analog Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Karl F.

    2011-01-01

    This method enables sensing and quantization of analog strain gauges. By manufacturing a piezoelectric sensor stack in parallel (physical) with a piezoelectric actuator stack, the capacitance of the sensor stack varies in exact proportion to the exertion applied by the actuator stack. This, in turn, varies the output frequency of the local sensor oscillator. The output, F(sub out), is fed to a phase detector, which is driven by a stable reference, F(sub ref). The output of the phase detector is a square waveform, D(sub out), whose duty cycle, t(sub W), varies in exact proportion according to whether F(sub out) is higher or lower than F(sub ref). In this design, should F(sub out) be precisely equal to F(sub ref), then the waveform has an exact 50/50 duty cycle. The waveform, D(sub out), is of generally very low frequency suitable for safe transmission over long distances without corruption. The active portion of the waveform, t(sub W), gates a remotely located counter, which is driven by a stable oscillator (source) of such frequency as to give sufficient digitization of t(sub W) to the resolution required by the application. The advantage to this scheme is that it negates the most-common, present method of sending either very low level signals (viz. direct output from the sensors) across great distances (anything over one-half meter) or the need to transmit widely varying higher frequencies over significant distances thereby eliminating interference [both in terms of beat frequency generation and in-situ EMI (electromagnetic interference)] caused by ineffective shielding. It also results in a significant reduction in shielding mass.

  3. Feasibility and utility of mapping disease risk at the neighbourhood level within a Canadian public health unit: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigaratne Susitha

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted spatial analyses to determine the geographic variation of cancer at the neighbourhood level (dissemination areas or DAs within the area of a single Ontario public health unit, Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph, covering a population of 238,326 inhabitants. Cancer incidence data between 1999 and 2003 were obtained from the Ontario Cancer Registry and were geocoded down to the level of DA using the enhanced Postal Code Conversion File. The 2001 Census of Canada provided information on the size and age-sex structure of the population at the DA level, in addition to information about selected census covariates, such as average neighbourhood income. Results Age standardized incidence ratios for cancer and the prevalence of census covariates were calculated for each of 331 dissemination areas in Wellington-Dufferin-Guelph. The standardized incidence ratios (SIR for cancer varied dramatically across the dissemination areas. However, application of the Moran's I statistic, a popular index of spatial autocorrelation, suggested significant spatial patterns for only two cancers, lung and prostate, both in males (p Conclusion This paper demonstrates the feasibility and utility of a systematic approach to identifying neighbourhoods, within the area served by a public health unit, that have significantly higher risks of cancer. This exploratory, ecologic study suggests several hypotheses for these spatial patterns that warrant further investigations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first Canadian study published in the peer-reviewed literature estimating the risk of relatively rare public health outcomes at a very small areal level, namely dissemination areas.

  4. Health care resource utilization before and after perampanel initiation among patients with epilepsy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faught, Edward; Laliberté, François; Wang, Zhixiao; Barghout, Victoria; Haider, Batool; Lejeune, Dominique; Germain, Guillaume; Choi, Jiyoon; Wagh, Aneesha; Duh, Mei Sheng

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in health care resource utilization following the initiation of perampanel for the treatment of epilepsy in the United States. Health care claims from Symphony Health's Integrated Dataverse database between December 2012 and November 2015 were analyzed. Patients newly initiated on perampanel, having ≥1 epilepsy (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification [ICD-9-CM] code 345.xx, ICD-10-CM code G40.xxx) or nonfebrile convulsion (ICD-9-CM code 780.39, ICD-10-CM code R56.9) diagnosis, and having ≥6 months of baseline and observation periods were included. Patients <12 years old at perampanel initiation were excluded. Of the 2,508 perampanel patients included in the study, the mean [median] (±standard deviation [SD]) age was 35.8 [34] (±16.0) years and 56.2% were female. The mean [median] (±SD) observation duration was 459.8 [462] (±146.3) days in the postperampanel period. The postperampanel period was associated with significantly lower rates of all health care resource utilization outcomes than the pre-period. For the post- versus pre-period, perampanel users had 42.3 versus 53.8 overall hospitalizations per 100 person-years (rate ratio [RR] = 0.80, p < 0.001) and 1,240.2 versus 1,343.8 outpatient visits per 100 person-years (RR = 0.91, p < 0.001). Epilepsy-related hospitalizations and outpatient visits were 25.2 versus 33.6 per 100 person-years (RR = 0.76, p < 0.001) and 327.0 versus 389.0 per 100 person-years (RR = 0.84, p < 0.001), respectively. Additionally, a significantly lower rate of status epilepticus in the post-period (1.8 events per 100 person-years) was observed compared to the pre-period (4.4 events per 100 person-years; RR = 0.43, p < 0.001). The monthly time trend of hospitalizations showed an increasing trend leading up to the initiation of perampanel, after which the hospitalizations decreased steadily. Use of perampanel for the treatment of epilepsy was

  5. Quantization and Superselection Sectors I:. Transformation Group C*-ALGEBRAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, N. P.

    Quantization is defined as the act of assigning an appropriate C*-algebra { A} to a given configuration space Q, along with a prescription mapping self-adjoint elements of { A} into physically interpretable observables. This procedure is adopted to solve the problem of quantizing a particle moving on a homogeneous locally compact configuration space Q=G/H. Here { A} is chosen to be the transformation group C*-algebra corresponding to the canonical action of G on Q. The structure of these algebras and their representations are examined in some detail. Inequivalent quantizations are identified with inequivalent irreducible representations of the C*-algebra corresponding to the system, hence with its superselection sectors. Introducing the concept of a pre-Hamiltonian, we construct a large class of G-invariant time-evolutions on these algebras, and find the Hamiltonians implementing these time-evolutions in each irreducible representation of { A}. “Topological” terms in the Hamiltonian (or the corresponding action) turn out to be representation-dependent, and are automatically induced by the quantization procedure. Known “topological” charge quantization or periodicity conditions are then identically satisfied as a consequence of the representation theory of { A}.

  6. Direct comparison of fractional and integer quantized Hall resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Franz J.; Götz, Martin; Pierz, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    We present precision measurements of the fractional quantized Hall effect, where the quantized resistance {{R}≤ft[ 1/3 \\right]} in the fractional quantum Hall state at filling factor 1/3 was compared with a quantized resistance {{R}[2]} , represented by an integer quantum Hall state at filling factor 2. A cryogenic current comparator bridge capable of currents down to the nanoampere range was used to directly compare two resistance values of two GaAs-based devices located in two cryostats. A value of 1-(5.3  ±  6.3) 10-8 (95% confidence level) was obtained for the ratio ({{R}≤ft[ 1/3 \\right]}/6{{R}[2]} ). This constitutes the most precise comparison of integer resistance quantization (in terms of h/e 2) in single-particle systems and of fractional quantization in fractionally charged quasi-particle systems. While not relevant for practical metrology, such a test of the validity of the underlying physics is of significance in the context of the upcoming revision of the SI.

  7. Assistive technology needs, functional difficulties, and services utilization and coordination of children with developmental disabilities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sue C; Gold, Robert S

    2018-01-01

    Assistive technology (AT) enhances the ability of individuals with disabilities to be fully engaged in activities at home, at school, and within their communities-especially for children with developmental disabilities (DD) with physical, sensory, learning, and/or communication impairments. The prevalence of children with DD in the United States has risen from 12.84% in 1997 to 15.04% in 2008. Thus, it is important to monitor the status of their AT needs, functional difficulties, services utilization, and coordination. Using data from the 2009-2010 National Survey on Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN), we conducted bivariate and multivariate statistical analysis, which found that 90% or more of parents of both children with DD and other CSHCN reported that their child's AT needs were met for vision, hearing, mobility, communication, and durable medical equipment; furthermore, children with DD had lower odds of AT needs met for vision and hearing and increased odds for meeting AT needs in mobility and communication. Our findings outline the current AT needs of children with DD nationally. Fulfilling these needs has the potential to engender positive lifelong effects on the child's disabilities, sense of independence, self-confidence, and productivity.

  8. UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) discussed the environmental impacts of extraction, transportation, and utilization of fossil fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    The UNEP (United Nations Environment Program) discussed the environmental impacts of extraction, transportation, and utilization of fossil fuels at a meeting in Warsaw, the first in a series of UNEP undertakings, to be followed by studies on nuclear energy and renewable energy sources. The major issues examined at the meeting were human health effects of atmospheric emissions, especially SO/sub 2/; effects of SO/sub 2/ on vegetation and bodies of fresh water; long-term ecologic effects of oil spills in the sea; and potential effects on climate from atmospheric CO/sub 2/ arising from fossil fuel combustion. A doubling of the atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration would cause an estimated 1.5/sup 0/-3.0/sup 0/C increase in the surface air temperature. With an amount of CO/sub 2/ equivalent to 0.5 x 10/sup 10/ tonnes of carbon annually injected into the atmosphere from fossil fuels, of which only 0.27 x 10/sup 10/ tonnes are removed by some exchange processes with ocean or land. A 17% increase in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ over the 1976 concentration of 332 ppm is expected by the year 2000.

  9. Local inpatient units may increase patients’ utilization of outpatient services: a comparative cohort-study in Nordland County, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklebust, Lars Henrik; Sørgaard, Knut; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the last few decades, there has been a restructuring of the psychiatric services in many countries. The complexity of these systems may represent a challenge to patients that suffer from serious psychiatric disorders. We examined whether local integration of inpatient and outpatient services in contrast to centralized institutions strengthened continuity of care. Methods Two different service-systems were compared. Service-utilization over a 4-year period for 690 inpatients was extracted from the patient registries. The results were controlled for demographic variables, model of service-system, central inpatient admission or local inpatient admission, diagnoses, and duration of inpatient stays. Results The majority of inpatients in the area with local integration of inpatient and outpatient services used both types of care. In the area that did not have beds locally, many patients that had been hospitalized did not receive outpatient follow-up. Predictors of inpatients’ use of outpatient psychiatric care were: Model of service-system (centralized vs decentralized), a diagnosis of affective disorder, central inpatient admission only, and duration of inpatient stays. Conclusion Psychiatric centers with local inpatient units may positively affect continuity of care for patients with severe psychiatric disorders, probably because of a high functional integration of inpatient and outpatient care. PMID:26604843

  10. Local inpatient units may increase patients' utilization of outpatient services: a comparative cohort-study in Nordland County, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myklebust, Lars Henrik; Sørgaard, Knut; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades, there has been a restructuring of the psychiatric services in many countries. The complexity of these systems may represent a challenge to patients that suffer from serious psychiatric disorders. We examined whether local integration of inpatient and outpatient services in contrast to centralized institutions strengthened continuity of care. Two different service-systems were compared. Service-utilization over a 4-year period for 690 inpatients was extracted from the patient registries. The results were controlled for demographic variables, model of service-system, central inpatient admission or local inpatient admission, diagnoses, and duration of inpatient stays. The majority of inpatients in the area with local integration of inpatient and outpatient services used both types of care. In the area that did not have beds locally, many patients that had been hospitalized did not receive outpatient follow-up. Predictors of inpatients' use of outpatient psychiatric care were: Model of service-system (centralized vs decentralized), a diagnosis of affective disorder, central inpatient admission only, and duration of inpatient stays. Psychiatric centers with local inpatient units may positively affect continuity of care for patients with severe psychiatric disorders, probably because of a high functional integration of inpatient and outpatient care.

  11. Long-Term Reliability of a Hard-Switched Boost Power Processing Unit Utilizing SiC Power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikpe, Stanley A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Carr, Gregory A.; Hunter, Don; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wood, William; Iannello, Christopher J.; Del Castillo, Linda Y.; Fitzpatrick, Fred D.; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have demonstrated many performance advantages over their silicon (Si) counterparts. As the inherent material limitations of Si devices are being swiftly realized, wide-band-gap (WBG) materials such as SiC have become increasingly attractive for high power applications. In particular, SiC power metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors' (MOSFETs) high breakdown field tolerance, superior thermal conductivity and low-resistivity drift regions make these devices an excellent candidate for power dense, low loss, high frequency switching applications in extreme environment conditions. In this paper, a novel power processing unit (PPU) architecture is proposed utilizing commercially available 4H-SiC power MOSFETs from CREE Inc. A multiphase straight boost converter topology is implemented to supply up to 10 kilowatts full-scale. High Temperature Gate Bias (HTGB) and High Temperature Reverse Bias (HTRB) characterization is performed to evaluate the long-term reliability of both the gate oxide and the body diode of the SiC components. Finally, susceptibility of the CREE SiC MOSFETs to damaging effects from heavy-ion radiation representative of the on-orbit galactic cosmic ray environment are explored. The results provide the baseline performance metrics of operation as well as demonstrate the feasibility of a hard-switched PPU in harsh environments.

  12. Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin quantization of histories electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noltingk, Duncan

    2002-01-01

    This article is a continuation of earlier work where a classical history theory of pure electrodynamics was developed in which the history fields have five components. The extra component is associated with an extra constraint, thus enlarging the gauge group of histories electrodynamics. In this article we quantize the classical theory developed previously by two methods. First we quantize the reduced classical history space to obtain a reduced quantum history theory. Second we quantize the classical BRST-extended history space, and use the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin charge to define a 'cohomological' quantum history theory. Finally, we show that the reduced history theory is isomorphic (as a history theory) to the cohomological history theory

  13. Hitchin's connection, Toeplitz operators, and symmetry invariant deformation quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a rigid family of Kähler structures on a symplectic manifold. We then prove that a Hitchin connection exists for any rigid holomorphic family of Kähler structures on any compact pre-quantizable symplectic manifold which satisfies certain simple topological constraints...... a mapping class group invariant formal quantization of the smooth symplectic leaves of the moduli space of flat SU(n)-connections on any compact surface....... quantization. Finally, these results are applied to the moduli space situation in which Hitchin originally constructed his connection. First we get a proof that the Hitchin connection in this case is the same as the connection constructed by Axelrod, Della Pietra, and Witten. Second we obtain in this way...

  14. Augmenting Phase Space Quantization to Introduce Additional Physical Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Matthew P. G.

    Quantum mechanics can be done using classical phase space functions and a star product. The state of the system is described by a quasi-probability distribution. A classical system can be quantized in phase space in different ways with different quasi-probability distributions and star products. A transition differential operator relates different phase space quantizations. The objective of this thesis is to introduce additional physical effects into the process of quantization by using the transition operator. As prototypical examples, we first look at the coarse-graining of the Wigner function and the damped simple harmonic oscillator. By generalizing the transition operator and star product to also be functions of the position and momentum, we show that additional physical features beyond damping and coarse-graining can be introduced into a quantum system, including the generalized uncertainty principle of quantum gravity phenomenology, driving forces, and decoherence.

  15. Adaptive Watermarking Scheme Using Biased Shift of Quantization Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Seo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a watermark embedding and extracting method for blind watermarking. It uses the characteristics of a scalar quantizer to comply with the recommendation in JPEG, MPEG series, or JPEG2000. Our method performs embedding of a watermark bit by shifting the corresponding frequency transform coefficient (the watermark position to a quantization index according to the value of the watermark bit, which prevents from losing the watermark information during the data compression process. The watermark can be embedded simultaneously to the quantization process without an additional process for watermarking, which means it can be performed at the same speed to the compression process. In the embedding process, a Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR is used to hide the watermark informations and the watermark positions. The experimental results showed that the proposed method satisfies enough robustness and imperceptibility that are the major requirements for watermarking.

  16. Landau quantization of Dirac fermions in graphene and its multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Long-Jing; Bai, Ke-Ke; Wang, Wen-Xiao; Li, Si-Yu; Zhang, Yu; He, Lin

    2017-08-01

    When electrons are confined in a two-dimensional (2D) system, typical quantum-mechanical phenomena such as Landau quantization can be detected. Graphene systems, including the single atomic layer and few-layer stacked crystals, are ideal 2D materials for studying a variety of quantum-mechanical problems. In this article, we review the experimental progress in the unusual Landau quantized behaviors of Dirac fermions in monolayer and multilayer graphene by using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS). Through STS measurement of the strong magnetic fields, distinct Landau-level spectra and rich level-splitting phenomena are observed in different graphene layers. These unique properties provide an effective method for identifying the number of layers, as well as the stacking orders, and investigating the fundamentally physical phenomena of graphene. Moreover, in the presence of a strain and charged defects, the Landau quantization of graphene can be significantly modified, leading to unusual spectroscopic and electronic properties.

  17. Modeling quantization effects in field effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troger, C.

    2001-06-01

    Numerical simulation in the field of semiconductor device development advanced to a valuable, cost-effective and flexible facility. The most widely used simulators are based on classical models, as they need to satisfy time and memory constraints. To improve the performance of field effect transistors such as MOSFETs and HEMTs these devices are continuously scaled down in their dimensions. Consequently the characteristics of such devices are getting more and more determined by quantum mechanical effects arising from strong transversal fields in the channel. In this work an approach based on a two-dimensional electron gas is used to describe the confinement of the carriers. Quantization is considered in one direction only. For the derivation of a one-dimensional Schroedinger equation in the effective mass framework a non-parabolic correction for the energy dispersion due to Kane is included. For each subband a non-parabolic dispersion relation characterized by subband masses and subband non-parabolicity coefficients is introduced and the parameters are calculated via perturbation theory. The method described in this work has been implemented in a software tool that performs a self-consistent solution of Schroedinger- and Poisson-equation for a one-dimensional cut through a MOS structure or heterostructure. The calculation of the carrier densities is performed assuming Fermi-Dirac statistics. In the case of a MOS structure a metal or a polysilicon gate is considered and an arbitrary gate bulk voltage can be applied. This allows investigating quantum mechanical effects in capacity calculations, to compare the simulated data with measured CV curves and to evaluate the results obtained with a quantum mechanical correction for the classical electron density. The behavior of the defined subband parameters is compared to the value of the mass and the non-parabolicity coefficient from the model due to Kane. Finally the presented characterization of the subbands is applied

  18. Quantization selection in the high-throughput H.264/AVC encoder based on the RD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszak, Grzegorz

    2013-10-01

    In the hardware video encoder, the quantization is responsible for quality losses. On the other hand, it allows the reduction of bit rates to the target one. If the mode selection is based on the rate-distortion criterion, the quantization can also be adjusted to obtain better compression efficiency. Particularly, the use of Lagrangian function with a given multiplier enables the encoder to select the most suitable quantization step determined by the quantization parameter QP. Moreover, the quantization offset added before discarding the fraction value after quantization can be adjusted. In order to select the best quantization parameter and offset in real time, the HD/SD encoder should be implemented in the hardware. In particular, the hardware architecture should embed the transformation and quantization modules able to process the same residuals many times. In this work, such an architecture is used. Experimental results show what improvements in terms of compression efficiency are achievable for Intra coding.

  19. BRS symmetry in stochastic quantization of the gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Naohito.

    1989-12-01

    We study stochastic quantization of gravity in terms of a BRS invariant canonical operator formalism. By introducing artificially canonical momentum variables for the original field variables, a canonical formulation of stochastic quantization is proposed in a sense that the Fokker-Planck hamiltonian is the generator of the fictitious time translation. Then we show that there exists a nilpotent BRS symmetry in an enlarged phase space for gravity (in general, for the first-class constrained systems). The stochastic action of gravity includes explicitly an unique De Witt's type superspace metric which leads to a geometrical interpretation of quantum gravity analogous to nonlinear σ-models. (author)

  20. The general theory of quantized fields in the 1950s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wightman, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    This review describes developments in theoretical particle physics in the 1950s which were important in the race to develop a putative general theory of quantized fields, especially ideas that offered a mathematically rigorous theory. Basic theoretical concepts then available included the Hamiltonian formulation of quantum dynamics, canonical quantization, perturbative renormalization theory and the theory of distributions. Following a description of various important theoretical contributions of this era, the review ends with a summary of the most important contributions of axiomatic field theory to concrete physics applications. (UK)

  1. Deparametrization and path integral quantization of cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Simeone, Claudio

    2001-01-01

    The problem of time is a central feature of quantum cosmology: differing from ordinary quantum mechanics, in cosmology there is nothing "outside" the system which plays the role of clock, and this makes difficult the obtention of a consistent quantization. A possible solution is to assume that a subset of the variables describing the state of the universe can be a clock for the remaining of the system. Following this line, in this book a new proposal consisting in the previous identification of time by means of gauge fixation is applied to the quantization of homogeneous cosmological models. B

  2. A Numerical Study of Quantization-Based Integrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive step size solvers are nowadays considered fundamental to achieve efficient ODE integration. While, traditionally, ODE solvers have been designed based on discrete time machines, new approaches based on discrete event systems have been proposed. Quantization provides an efficient integration technique based on signal threshold crossing, leading to independent and modular solvers communicating through discrete events. These solvers can benefit from the large body of knowledge on discrete event simulation techniques, like parallelization, to obtain efficient numerical integration. In this paper we introduce new solvers based on quantization and adaptive sampling techniques. Preliminary numerical results comparing these solvers are presented.

  3. Group quantization on configuration space: Gauge symmetries and linear fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, M.; Aldaya, V.; Calixto, M.

    1997-01-01

    A new, configuration-space picture of a formalism of group quantization, the GAQ formalism, is presented in the context of a previous algebraic generalization. This presentation serves to make a comprehensive discussion in which other extensions of the formalism, principally to incorporate gauge symmetries, are developed as well. Both images are combined in order to analyze, in a systematic manner and with complete generality, the case of linear fields (Abelian current groups). To illustrate these developments we particularize them for several fields and, in particular, we carry out the quantization of the Abelian Chern endash Simons models over an arbitrary closed surface in detail. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  4. BRST operator quantization of generally covariant gauge systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, R.; Sforza, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    The BRST generator is realized as a Hermitian nilpotent operator for a finite-dimensional gauge system featuring a quadratic super-Hamiltonian and linear supermomentum constraints. As a result, the emerging ordering for the Hamiltonian constraint is not trivial, because the potential must enter the kinetic term in order to obtain a quantization invariant under scaling. Namely, BRST quantization does not lead to the curvature term used in the literature as a means to get that invariance. The inclusion of the potential in the kinetic term, far from being unnatural, is beautifully justified in light of the Jacobi's principle. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  5. Theory of the quantized Hall effect. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, H.; Pruisken, A.M.M.; Libby, S.B.

    1984-01-01

    In the previous paper, we have demonstrated the need for a phase transition as a function of theta in the non-liner sigma-model describing the quantized Hall effect. In this work, we present arguments for the occurrence of exactly such a transition. We make use of a dilute gas instanton approximation as well as present a more rigorous duality argument to show that the usual scaling of the conductivity to zero at large distances is altered whenever sigmasub(xy)sup((0)) approx.= 1/2ne 2 /h, n integer. This then completes our theory of the quantized Hall effect. (orig.)

  6. Renormalization group equations in the stochastic quantization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugnetti, S.

    1987-01-01

    We show that there exists a remarkable link between the stochastic quantization and the theory of critical phenomena and dynamical statistical systems. In the stochastic quantization of a field theory, the stochastic Green functions coverge to the quantum ones when the frictious time goes to infinity. We therefore use the typical techniques of the Renormalization Group equations developed in the framework of critical phenomena to discuss some features of the convergence of the stochastic theory. We are also able, in this way, to compute some dynamical critical exponents and give new numerical valuations for them. (orig.)

  7. On precanonical quantization of gravity in spin connection variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatchikov, I. V. [National Center of Quantum Information in Gdansk (KCIK), 81-824 Sopot (Poland)

    2013-02-21

    The basics of precanonical quantization and its relation to the functional Schroedinger picture in QFT are briefly outlined. The approach is then applied to quantization of Einstein's gravity in vielbein and spin connection variables and leads to a quantum dynamics described by the covariant Schroedinger equation for the transition amplitudes on the bundle of spin connection coefficients over space-time, that yields a novel quantum description of space-time geometry. A toy model of precanonical quantum cosmology based on the example of flat FLRW universe is considered.

  8. Universal R-matrix for quantized (super) algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khoroshkin, S.M.; Tolstoj, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    For quantum deformations of finite-dimensional contragredient Lie (super)algebras an explicit formula for the universal R-matrix is given. This formula generalizes the analogous formulae for quantized semisimple Lie algebras obtained by M. Rosso, A.N. Kirillov and N. Reshetikhin, Yas.S. Soibelman and S.Z. Levendorskii. Approach is based on careful analysis of quantized rank 1 and 2 (super)algebras, a combinatorial structure of the root systems and algebraic properties of q-exponential functions. Quantum Weyl group is not used. 19 refs.; 2 tabs

  9. On the quantization of systems with anticommuting variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casalbuoni, R.

    1976-01-01

    The paper considers the pseudomechanics, that is the mechanics of a system described by ordinary canonical variables and by Grassmann variables. The canonical formalism is studied and in particular the Poisson brackets are defined. It is shown that the algebra of the Poisson brackets is graded Lie algebra. Using this fact as a hint for quantization it is shown that the corresponding quantized theory is the ordinary quantum theory with Fermi operators. It follows that the classical limit of the quantum theory is, in general, the pseudo-mechanics

  10. Conductance quantization suppression in the quantum Hall regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caridad, José M.; Power, Stephen R.; Lotz, Mikkel R.

    2018-01-01

    Conductance quantization is the quintessential feature of electronic transport in non-interacting mesoscopic systems. This phenomenon is observed in quasi one-dimensional conductors at zero magnetic field B, and the formation of edge states at finite magnetic fields results in wider conductance...... conduction channels. Despite being a universal effect, this regime has proven experimentally elusive because of difficulties in realizing one-dimensional systems with sufficiently hard-walled, disorder-free confinement. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the suppression of conductance quantization within...

  11. Exact quantization conditions for the relativistic Toda lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatsuda, Yasuyuki; Mariño, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by recent connections between spectral theory and topological string theory, we propose exact quantization conditions for the relativistic Toda lattice of N particles. These conditions involve the Nekrasov-Shatashvili free energy, which resums the perturbative WKB expansion, but they require in addition a non-perturbative contribution, which is related to the perturbative result by an S-duality transformation of the Planck constant. We test the quantization conditions against explicit calculations of the spectrum for N=3. Our proposal can be generalized to arbitrary toric Calabi-Yau manifolds and might solve the corresponding quantum integrable system of Goncharov and Kenyon.

  12. Constraints and Hamiltonian in light-front quantized field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1993-01-01

    Self-consistent hamiltonian formulation of scalar theory on the null plane is constructed and quantized following the Dirac procedure. The theory contains also constraint equations which would give, if solved, to a nonlocal Hamiltonian. In contrast to the equal-time formulation we obtain a different description of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the continuum and the symmetry generators are found to annihilate the light-front vacuum. Two examples are given where the procedure cannot be applied self-consistently. The corresponding theories are known to be ill-defined from the equal-time quantization. (author)

  13. Covariant canonical quantization of fields and Bohmian mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, H.

    2005-01-01

    We propose a manifestly covariant canonical method of field quantization based on the classical De Donder-Weyl covariant canonical formulation of field theory. Owing to covariance, the space and time arguments of fields are treated on an equal footing. To achieve both covariance and consistency with standard non-covariant canonical quantization of fields in Minkowski spacetime, it is necessary to adopt a covariant Bohmian formulation of quantum field theory. A preferred foliation of spacetime emerges dynamically owing to a purely quantum effect. The application to a simple time-reparametrization invariant system and quantum gravity is discussed and compared with the conventional non-covariant Wheeler-DeWitt approach. (orig.)

  14. Loop quantum cosmology of the Bianchi I model: complete quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín-Benito, M; Garay, L J; Mena Marugán, G A; Wilson-Ewing, E

    2012-01-01

    We complete the canonical quantization of the vacuum Bianchi I model within the improved dynamics scheme of loop quantum cosmology, characterizing the Hilbert structure of the physical states and providing a complete set of observables acting on them. In order to achieve this task, it has been essential to determine the structure of the separable superselection sectors that arise owing to the polymeric quantization, and to prove that the initial value problem obtained when regarding the Hamiltonian constraint as an evolution equation, interpreting the volume as the evolution parameter, is well-posed.

  15. Electromagnetically induced transparency with quantized fields in optocavity mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Sumei; Agarwal, G. S.

    2011-01-01

    We report electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using quantized fields in optomechanical systems. The weak probe field is a narrowband squeezed field. We present a homodyne detection of EIT in the output quantum field. We find that the EIT dip exists even though the photon number in the squeezed vacuum is at the single-photon level. The EIT with quantized fields can be seen even at temperatures on the order of 100 mK, thus paving the way for using optomechanical systems as memory elements.

  16. Quantization of the Poisson SU(2) and its Poisson homogeneous space - the 2-sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, A.J.L.

    1991-01-01

    We show that deformation quantizations of the Poisson structures on the Poisson Lie group SU(2) and its homogeneous space, the 2-sphere, are compatible with Woronowicz's deformation quantization of SU(2)'s group structure and Podles' deformation quantization of 2-sphere's homogeneous structure, respectively. So in a certain sense the multiplicativity of the Lie Poisson structure on SU(2) at the classical level is preserved under quantization. (orig.)

  17. Berezin-Toeplitz Quantization for Compact Kähler Manifolds. A Review of Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Schlichenmaier

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a review on Berezin-Toeplitz operator and Berezin-Toeplitz deformation quantization for compact quantizable Kähler manifolds. The basic objects, concepts, and results are given. This concerns the correct semiclassical limit behaviour of the operator quantization, the unique Berezin-Toeplitz deformation quantization (star product, covariant and contravariant Berezin symbols, and Berezin transform. Other related objects and constructions are also discussed.

  18. Self-reported oral health, oral hygiene habits and dental service utilization among pregnant women in United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, R

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe self-reported oral health, oral hygiene habits and frequency of visits to a dentist among pregnant women visiting maternity hospitals in the United Arab Emirates. A cross-sectional study was conducted, with anonymous structured questionnaires distributed to 800 pregnant women who were chosen at random from attendants of three maternity and child health centres from various geographical areas of UAE, during January-March 2010. The response rate was 93.7% (n = 750). Less than quarter of the participated pregnant women were in their first trimester. Almost a quarter (23.5%) of the women believed that they had periodontal problem currently, while 46.3% reported having carious teeth. More than 44% reported having dental pain, and about 40% women felt that her oral health was poor. About 60% reported having heard about the possible connection between pregnancy and the oral health. About 94% of the women were brushing their teeth at least once a day. More than half of the women (58.3%) visited the dentist during their most recent pregnancy, mostly for dental pain. A large proportion of the pregnant women in this study had oral health problems; however, more than 40% of those women had not visited a dentist during their pregnancy, and the majority of those utilized dental services when they had dental pain only. To provide better oral health care, more knowledge needs to be made available to the pregnant women and the medical community. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Utilizing Physiological Principles of Motor Unit Recruitment to Reduce Fatigability of Electrically-Evoked Contractions: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barss, Trevor S; Ainsley, Emily N; Claveria-Gonzalez, Francisca C; Luu, M John; Miller, Dylan J; Wiest, Matheus J; Collins, David F

    2018-04-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is used to produce contractions to restore movement and reduce secondary complications for individuals experiencing motor impairment. NMES is conventionally delivered through a single pair of electrodes over a muscle belly or nerve trunk using short pulse durations and frequencies between 20 and 40Hz (conventional NMES). Unfortunately, the benefits and widespread use of conventional NMES are limited by contraction fatigability, which is in large part because of the nonphysiological way that contractions are generated. This review provides a summary of approaches designed to reduce fatigability during NMES, by using physiological principles that help minimize fatigability of voluntary contractions. First, relevant principles of the recruitment and discharge of motor units (MUs) inherent to voluntary contractions and conventional NMES are introduced, and the main mechanisms of fatigability for each contraction type are briefly discussed. A variety of NMES approaches are then described that were designed to reduce fatigability by generating contractions that more closely mimic voluntary contractions. These approaches include altering stimulation parameters, to recruit MUs in their physiological order, and stimulating through multiple electrodes, to reduce MU discharge rates. Although each approach has unique advantages and disadvantages, approaches that minimize MU discharge rates hold the most promise for imminent translation into rehabilitation practice. The way that NMES is currently delivered limits its utility as a rehabilitative tool. Reducing fatigability by delivering NMES in ways that better mimic voluntary contractions holds promise for optimizing the benefits and widespread use of NMES-based programs. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Local inpatient units may increase patients' utilization of outpatient services: a comparative cohort-study in Nordland County, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myklebust LH

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lars Henrik Myklebust,1 Knut Sørgaard,1,2 Rolf Wynn21Psychiatric Research Centre of North Norway, Nordland Hospital Trust, Bodø, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, NorwayObjectives: In the last few decades, there has been a restructuring of the psychiatric services in many countries. The complexity of these systems may represent a challenge to patients that suffer from serious psychiatric disorders. We examined whether local integration of inpatient and outpatient services in contrast to centralized institutions strengthened continuity of care.Methods: Two different service-systems were compared. Service-utilization over a 4-year period for 690 inpatients was extracted from the patient registries. The results were controlled for demographic variables, model of service-system, central inpatient admission or local inpatient admission, diagnoses, and duration of inpatient stays.Results: The majority of inpatients in the area with local integration of inpatient and outpatient services used both types of care. In the area that did not have beds locally, many patients that had been hospitalized did not receive outpatient follow-up. Predictors of inpatients' use of outpatient psychiatric care were: Model of service-system (centralized vs decentralized, a diagnosis of affective disorder, central inpatient admission only, and duration of inpatient stays.Conclusion: Psychiatric centers with local inpatient units may positively affect continuity of care for patients with severe psychiatric disorders, probably because of a high functional integration of inpatient and outpatient care.Keywords: psychiatry, hospitalization, decentralization, outpatients, continuity of care, health service research, affective

  1. Creation of particles in the gravitational field and the boundary conditions for quantized fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrustalev, O.A.; Silaev, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    We prove, that if one impose the linear constraints on the quantized fields that satisfy different boundary conditions, it can leads to such a transformation between creation-annihilation operators, that corresponds to particle creation. We also prove, that the correspondence between field, quantized in Minkowski space and the field, quantized in Rindler space has Rindler space can't be observed. 7 refs

  2. Generalized quantization scheme for two-person non-zero sum games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Ahmad; Toor, A H

    2004-01-01

    We proposed a generalized quantization scheme for non-zero sum games which can be reduced to the two existing quantization schemes under an appropriate set of parameters. Some other important situations are identified which are not apparent in the two existing quantization schemes

  3. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS): the United States of America in 2011 chapter II: phosphodiesterase inhibitors utilization among English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaeer, Osama

    2013-02-01

    Utility of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEi's) for the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been the focus of experimental and clinical studies. However, public preferences, attitudes, and experiences with PDEi's are rarely addressed from a population/epidemiology viewpoint. The Global Online Sexuality Survey (GOSS) is a worldwide epidemiologic study of sexuality and sexual disorders, first launched in the Middle East in 2010, followed by the United States in 2011. To describe the utilization rates, trends, and attitudes toward PDEi's in the United States in the year 2011. GOSS was randomly deployed to English-speaking male Web surfers in the United States via paid advertising on Facebook®, comprising 146 questions. Utilization rates and preferences for PDEi's by brand. Six hundred three subjects participated; mean age 53.43 years ± 13.9. Twenty-three point seven percent used PDEi's on more consistent basis, 37.5% of those with ED vs. 15.6% of those without ED (recreational users). Unrealistic safety concerns including habituation were pronounced. Seventy-nine point six percent of utilization was on prescription basis. PDEi's were purchased through pharmacies (5.3% without prescription) and in 16.5% over the Internet (68% without prescription). Nine point six percent nonprescription users suffered coronary heart disease. Prescription use was inclined toward sildenafil, generally, and particularly in severe cases, and shifted toward tadalafil in moderate ED and for recreational use, followed by vardenafil. Nonprescription utilization trends were similar, except in recreational use where sildenafil came first. In the United States unrealistic safety concerns over PDEi's utility exist and should be addressed. Preference for particular PDEi's over the others is primarily dictated by health-care providers, despite lack of guidelines that govern physician choice. Online and over-the-counter sales of PDEi's are common, and can expose a subset of users to health

  4. Quantization and instability of the damped harmonic oscillator subject to a time-dependent force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majima, H.; Suzuki, A.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the one-dimensional motion of a particle immersed in a potential field U(x) under the influence of a frictional (dissipative) force linear in velocity (-γx) and a time-dependent external force (K(t)). The dissipative system subject to these forces is discussed by introducing the extended Bateman's system, which is described by the Lagrangian: L=mxy-U(x+1/2 y)+U(x-1/2 y)+(γ)/2 (xy-yx)-xK(t)+yK(t), which leads to the familiar classical equations of motion for the dissipative (open) system. The equation for a variable y is the time-reversed of the x motion. We discuss the extended Bateman dual Lagrangian and Hamiltonian by setting U(x±y/2)=1/2 k(x±y/2) 2 specifically for a dual extended damped-amplified harmonic oscillator subject to the time-dependent external force. We show the method of quantizing such dissipative systems, namely the canonical quantization of the extended Bateman's Hamiltonian H. The Heisenberg equations of motion utilizing the quantized Hamiltonian H surely lead to the equations of motion for the dissipative dynamical quantum systems, which are the quantum analog of the corresponding classical systems. To discuss the stability of the quantum dissipative system due to the influence of an external force K(t) and the dissipative force, we derived a formula for transition amplitudes of the dissipative system with the help of the perturbation analysis. The formula is specifically applied for a damped-amplified harmonic oscillator subject to the impulsive force. This formula is used to study the influence of dissipation such as the instability due to the dissipative force and/or the applied impulsive force. - Highlights: → A method of quantizing dissipative systems is presented. → In order to obtain the method, we apply Bateman's dual system approach. → A formula for a transition amplitude is derived. → We use the formula to study the instability of the dissipative systems.

  5. Binary Biometric Representation through Pairwise Adaptive Phase Quantization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    Extracting binary strings from real-valued biometric templates is a fundamental step in template compression and protection systems, such as fuzzy commitment, fuzzy extractor, secure sketch, and helper data systems. Quantization and coding is the straightforward way to extract binary representations

  6. Quantization of bosonic closed strings and the Liouville model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paycha, S.

    1988-01-01

    The author shows that by means of a reasonable interpretation of the Lebesgue measure describing the partition function the quantization of closed bosonic strings described by compact surfaces of genus p>1 can be related to that of the Liouville model. (HSI)

  7. Quantization of edge currents for continuous magnetic operators

    CERN Document Server

    Kellendonk, J

    2003-01-01

    For a magnetic Hamiltonian on a half-plane given as the sum of the Landau operator with Dirichlet boundary conditions and a random potential, a quantization theorem for the edge currents is proven. This shows that the concept of edge channels also makes sense in presence of disorder. Moreover, gaussian bounds on the heat kernel and its covariant derivatives are obtained.

  8. Scattering and conductance quantization in three-dimensional metal nanocontacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1997-01-01

    The transmission through three-dimensional nanocontacts is calculated in the presence of localized scattering centers and boundary scattering using a coupled-channel recursion method. Simple confining potentials are used to investigate how robust the observation of quantized conductance is with r...

  9. 2-Step scalar deadzone quantization for bitplane image coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auli-Llinas, Francesc

    2013-12-01

    Modern lossy image coding systems generate a quality progressive codestream that, truncated at increasing rates, produces an image with decreasing distortion. Quality progressivity is commonly provided by an embedded quantizer that employs uniform scalar deadzone quantization (USDQ) together with a bitplane coding strategy. This paper introduces a 2-step scalar deadzone quantization (2SDQ) scheme that achieves same coding performance as that of USDQ while reducing the coding passes and the emitted symbols of the bitplane coding engine. This serves to reduce the computational costs of the codec and/or to code high dynamic range images. The main insights behind 2SDQ are the use of two quantization step sizes that approximate wavelet coefficients with more or less precision depending on their density, and a rate-distortion optimization technique that adjusts the distortion decreases produced when coding 2SDQ indexes. The integration of 2SDQ in current codecs is straightforward. The applicability and efficiency of 2SDQ are demonstrated within the framework of JPEG2000.

  10. Optimal context quantization in lossless compression of image data sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, X.; Andersen, Jakob Dahl

    2004-01-01

    In image compression context-based entropy coding is commonly used. A critical issue to the performance of context-based image coding is how to resolve the conflict of a desire for large templates to model high-order statistic dependency of the pixels and the problem of context dilution due...... to insufficient sample statistics of a given input image. We consider the problem of finding the optimal quantizer Q that quantizes the K-dimensional causal context C/sub t/=(X/sub t-t1/,X/sub t-t2/,...,X/sub t-tK/) of a source symbol X/sub t/ into one of a set of conditioning states. The optimality of context...... quantization is defined to be the minimum static or minimum adaptive code length of given a data set. For a binary source alphabet an optimal context quantizer can be computed exactly by a fast dynamic programming algorithm. Faster approximation solutions are also proposed. In case of m-ary source alphabet...

  11. Multispectral data compression through transform coding and block quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, P. J.; Wintz, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Transform coding and block quantization techniques are applied to multispectral aircraft scanner data, and digitized satellite imagery. The multispectral source is defined and an appropriate mathematical model proposed. The Karhunen-Loeve, Fourier, and Hadamard encoders are considered and are compared to the rate distortion function for the equivalent Gaussian source and to the performance of the single sample PCM encoder.

  12. The Gribov problem in the frame of stochastic quantization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, C. (Rome-1 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica)

    1990-09-01

    We review the Gribov problem in the Landau gauge, from the point of view of stochastic quantization, and briefly sketch a numerical investigation based on a minimization algorithm, with the purpose of collecting wide information about Gribov copies within the first Gribov horizon. (orig.).

  13. On covariant quantization of massive superparticle with first class constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huq, M.

    1990-02-01

    We use the technique of Batalin and Fradkin to convert the second class fermionic constraints of the massive superparticle into first class constraints. Then the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism has been used to quantize covariantly the resulting theory. Appropriate gauge fixing conditions lead to a completely quadratic action. Some interesting properties of the physical space wave functions are discussed. (author). 16 refs

  14. Appropriate quantization of asymmetric games with continuous strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Gan; Chen Xi; Sun Min; Zhou Xianyi; Du Jiangfeng

    2005-01-01

    We establish a new quantization scheme to study the asymmetric Bertrand duopoly with differentiated products. This scheme is more efficient than the previous symmetric one because it can exactly make the optimal cooperative payoffs at quantum Nash equilibrium. It is also a necessary condition for general asymmetric games with continuous strategies to reach such payoffs

  15. Statistical amplitude scale estimation for quantization-based watermarking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shterev, I.D.; Lagendijk, I.L.; Heusdens, R.

    2004-01-01

    Quantization-based watermarking schemes are vulnerable to amplitude scaling. Therefore the scaling factor has to be accounted for either at the encoder, or at the decoder, prior to watermark decoding. In this paper we derive the marginal probability density model for the watermarked and attacked

  16. Remarks on the application of group extensions to quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozrzymas, J.; Rzewuski, J.

    1976-01-01

    Quantization is described in the language of the theory of group extensions. Under the assumption of analyticity the most general form of factor of the extension is derived. A realization of the extended group in terms of functionals is described in the case of quantum field theory. The homomorphism of the extended group with the Weyl group of canonical commutation relations is demonstrated. (author)

  17. Quantized layer growth at liquid-crystal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ocko, B. M.; Braslau, A.; Pershan, P. S.

    1986-01-01

    of the specular reflectivity is consistent with a sinusoidal density modulation, starting at the surface and terminating abruptly, after an integral number of bilayers. As the transition is approached the number of layers increases in quantized steps from zero to five before the bulk undergoes a first...

  18. Magnetic resonance image compression using scalar-vector quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsenian, Nader; Shahri, Homayoun

    1995-12-01

    A new coding scheme based on the scalar-vector quantizer (SVQ) is developed for compression of medical images. SVQ is a fixed-rate encoder and its rate-distortion performance is close to that of optimal entropy-constrained scalar quantizers (ECSQs) for memoryless sources. The use of a fixed-rate quantizer is expected to eliminate some of the complexity issues of using variable-length scalar quantizers. When transmission of images over noisy channels is considered, our coding scheme does not suffer from error propagation which is typical of coding schemes which use variable-length codes. For a set of magnetic resonance (MR) images, coding results obtained from SVQ and ECSQ at low bit-rates are indistinguishable. Furthermore, our encoded images are perceptually indistinguishable from the original, when displayed on a monitor. This makes our SVQ based coder an attractive compression scheme for picture archiving and communication systems (PACS), currently under consideration for an all digital radiology environment in hospitals, where reliable transmission, storage, and high fidelity reconstruction of images are desired.

  19. On the quantization of spin systems and Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combe, P.; Rodriguez, R.; Sirugue, M.

    1978-03-01

    It is shown that spin operators and Fermi operators can be interpreted as the Weyl quantization of some functions on a classical phase space which is a compact group. Moreover the transition from quantum spin to Fermi operators is an isomorphism of the classical phase space preserving the Haar measure

  20. Phase transitions in vector quantization and neural gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witoelar, Aree; Biehl, Michael

    The statistical physics of off-learning is applied to winner-takes-all (WTA) and rank-based vector quantization (VQ), including the neural gas (NG). The analysis is based on the limit of high training temperatures and the annealed approximation. The typical learning behavior is evaluated for systems

  1. Note on path integral quantization of hydrogen atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storchak, S.N.

    1988-01-01

    For path integrals whose integration measures are generated by stochastic processes of a definite form (Stratonovich-type equations are a local form for stochastic differential equations of these processes) it has been shown that under quantization of hydrogen atom the reparametrization and reduction Jacobians are mutually cancelled. 12 refs

  2. Another scheme for quantization of scale invariant gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hortacsu, M.

    1987-10-01

    A new scheme is proposed for the quantization of scale invariant gauge theories for all even dimensions when they are minimally coupled to a spinor field. A cut-off procedure suggests an algorithm which may regularize the theory. (author). 10 refs

  3. Electric charge quantization and the muon anomalous magnetic moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, C.A.S. de; Rodrigues da Silva, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate some proposals to solve the electric charge quantization puzzle that simultaneously explain the recent measured deviation on the muon anomalous magnetic moment. For this we assess extensions of the electro-weak standard model spanning modifications on the scalar sector only. It is interesting to verify that one can have modest extensions which easily account for the solution for both problems

  4. Field-Theoretic Weyl Deformation Quantization of Enlarged Poisson Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lothar Schlafer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available C*-algebraic Weyl quantization is extended by allowing also degenerate pre-symplectic forms for the Weyl relations with infinitely many degrees of freedom, and by starting out from enlarged classical Poisson algebras. A powerful tool is found in the construction of Poisson algebras and non-commutative twisted Banach-*-algebras on the stage of measures on the not locally compact test function space. Already within this frame strict deformation quantization is obtained, but in terms of Banach-*-algebras instead of C*-algebras. Fourier transformation and representation theory of the measure Banach-*-algebras are combined with the theory of continuous projective group representations to arrive at the genuine C*-algebraic strict deformation quantization in the sense of Rieffel and Landsman. Weyl quantization is recognized to depend in the first step functorially on the (in general infinite dimensional, pre-symplectic test function space; but in the second step one has to select a family of representations, indexed by the deformation parameter h. The latter ambiguity is in the present investigation connected with the choice of a folium of states, a structure, which does not necessarily require a Hilbert space representation.

  5. Dynamics, stability analysis and quantization of β-Fermi–Pasta ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Phonon; Fermi–Pasta–Ulam lattice; Floquet theory; semiclassical quantization. PACS Nos 05.45.−a; 45.20.Jj; 47.10.Df; 03.65.Sq. 1. Introduction. Some of the fundamental questions underlying equilibrium statistical mechanics are related to equipartition and ergodicity [1]. These questions for macroscopic systems ...

  6. Quantized Roentgen Effect in Bose-Einstein Condensates

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, U.; Piwnicki, P.

    1998-01-01

    A classical dielectric moving in a charged capacitor can create a magnetic field (Roentgen effect). A quantum dielectric, however, will not produce a magnetization, except at vortices. The magnetic field outside the quantum dielectric appears as the field of quantized monopoles.

  7. Quantization of Robertson-Walker geometry coupled to fermionic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulakis, T.; Zanelli, J.

    1983-06-01

    A Robertson-Walker universe coupled to a spin 1/2 Dirac field is quantized following Dirac's formalism for constrained Hamiltonian systems. It is found that in nearly all cases it can be asserted that the universe avoids the collapse. (author)

  8. Canonical quantization of the Bateman-Morse-Feshbach damped oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rideau, G.; Anderson, R.L.; Hebda, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    The Bateman-Morse-Feshbach classical formulation of the damped oscillator is canonically quantized. The spectrum of the Hamiltonian is given. It is shown that the wavefunctions behave asymptotically as a superposition of damped oscillators when their initial values belong to an appropriately-selected dense subset of the Hilbert space. (orig.)

  9. The cosmological ‘constant’ and quantization in five dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesson, Paul S.

    2011-01-01

    Campbell's theorem ensures that all vacuum space-times in general relativity can be embedded in five dimensions, with the 4D scalar curvature expressed as an effective cosmological ‘constant’ Λ which depends on the extra coordinate. This Λ-landscape can be used to give insight to certain physical phenomena, such as the big bang and quantized particles.

  10. Effect of threshold quantization in opportunistic splitting algorithm

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Haewoon

    2011-12-01

    This paper discusses algorithms to find the optimal threshold and also investigates the impact of threshold quantization on the scheduling outage performance of the opportunistic splitting scheduling algorithm. Since this algorithm aims at finding the user with the highest channel quality within the minimal number of mini-slots by adjusting the threshold every mini-slot, optimizing the threshold is of paramount importance. Hence, in this paper we first discuss how to compute the optimal threshold along with two tight approximations for the optimal threshold. Closed-form expressions are provided for those approximations for simple calculations. Then, we consider linear quantization of the threshold to take the limited number of bits for signaling messages in practical systems into consideration. Due to the limited granularity for the quantized threshold value, an irreducible scheduling outage floor is observed. The numerical results show that the two approximations offer lower scheduling outage probability floors compared to the conventional algorithm when the threshold is quantized. © 2006 IEEE.

  11. Macroscopic charge quantization in single-electron devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burmistrov, I.S.; Pruisken, A.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper by the authors [I. S. Burmistrov and A. M. M. Pruisken, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 056801 (2008)] it was shown that single-electron devices (single-electron transistor or SET) display "macroscopic charge quantization" which is completely analogous to the quantum Hall effect observed on

  12. On the quantization of the Poincare gange model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R.; Pereira, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    A gauge model based on the Yang-Mills equations for the Poincare group cannot be consistently quantized, at least in a perturbative approach. The problem is related to the absence of a Lagrangian. Adding the counterterms required by consistency and renormalizability turns the model into a gauge theory for a de Sitter group. (Author) [pt

  13. Quantizing non-Lagrangian gauge theories: an augmentation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyakhovich, Simon L.; Sharapov, Alexei A.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss a recently proposed method of quantizing general non-Lagrangian gauge theories. The method can be implemented in many different ways, in particular, it can employ a conversion procedure that turns an original non-Lagrangian field theory in d dimensions into an equivalent Lagrangian, topological field theory in d+1 dimensions. The method involves, besides the classical equations of motion, one more geometric ingredient called the Lagrange anchor. Different Lagrange anchors result in different quantizations of one and the same classical theory. Given the classical equations of motion and Lagrange anchor as input data, a new procedure, called the augmentation, is proposed to quantize non-Lagrangian dynamics. Within the augmentation procedure, the originally non-Lagrangian theory is absorbed by a wider Lagrangian theory on the same space-time manifold. The augmented theory is not generally equivalent to the original one as it has more physical degrees of freedom than the original theory. However, the extra degrees of freedom are factorized out in a certain regular way both at classical and quantum levels. The general techniques are exemplified by quantizing two non-Lagrangian models of physical interest

  14. Perspectives for utilization of the experience from the electrical equipment modernization of Kozloduy NPP units 5 and 6 in case of construction of new NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, D.

    2005-01-01

    In 2005 a governmental decision for continue the project for construction of Belene NPP was adopted. In case of start of this significant project in short terms, a good option will be to utilize the already achieved experience by the modernization program of units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP. The process of construction of new NPP is associated with significant amount of engineering, civil construction works, equipment order and delivery, installation works, testing and commissioning activities. It is vital necessity to have optimal technology, strict organization for project implementation and excellent documentation. From technical point of view the experience from the modernization of units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP will be very important in case of utilization of similar types of WWER 1000 units. According to the 'Feasibility study for construction of Belene NPP', the most favorable option is to accomplish the already partially constructed Unit 1 on the basis of upgraded WWER B-320 design - WWER 1000 B-392, in order to fulfill IEC 331-3A, IEC 332-3A, and of US NRC Regulatory Guide 1.70 and to construct the second unit on the basis of ASE WWER/1000 B-466. However, for any type of unit selected, the achieved experience will be an important basis. This article is focused mostly on the modernization aspects of some electrical systems of Kozloduy NPP

  15. Combining nonlinear multiresolution system and vector quantization for still image compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Y.

    1993-12-17

    It is popular to use multiresolution systems for image coding and compression. However, general-purpose techniques such as filter banks and wavelets are linear. While these systems are rigorous, nonlinear features in the signals cannot be utilized in a single entity for compression. Linear filters are known to blur the edges. Thus, the low-resolution images are typically blurred, carrying little information. We propose and demonstrate that edge-preserving filters such as median filters can be used in generating a multiresolution system using the Laplacian pyramid. The signals in the detail images are small and localized to the edge areas. Principal component vector quantization (PCVQ) is used to encode the detail images. PCVQ is a tree-structured VQ which allows fast codebook design and encoding/decoding. In encoding, the quantization error at each level is fed back through the pyramid to the previous level so that ultimately all the error is confined to the first level. With simple coding methods, we demonstrate that images with PSNR 33 dB can be obtained at 0.66 bpp without the use of entropy coding. When the rate is decreased to 0.25 bpp, the PSNR of 30 dB can still be achieved. Combined with an earlier result, our work demonstrate that nonlinear filters can be used for multiresolution systems and image coding.

  16. Photon induced non-linear quantized double layer charging in quaternary semiconducting quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Vishnu; Ananthoju, Balakrishna; Mohapatra, Jeotikanta; Aslam, M

    2018-03-15

    Room temperature quantized double layer charging was observed in 2 nm Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (CZTS) quantum dots. In addition to this we observed a distinct non-linearity in the quantized double layer charging arising from UV light modulation of double layer. UV light irradiation resulted in a 26% increase in the integral capacitance at the semiconductor-dielectric (CZTS-oleylamine) interface of the quantum dot without any change in its core size suggesting that the cause be photocapacitive. The increasing charge separation at the semiconductor-dielectric interface due to highly stable and mobile photogenerated carriers cause larger electrostatic forces between the quantum dot and electrolyte leading to an enhanced double layer. This idea was supported by a decrease in the differential capacitance possible due to an enhanced double layer. Furthermore the UV illumination enhanced double layer gives us an AC excitation dependent differential double layer capacitance which confirms that the charging process is non-linear. This ultimately illustrates the utility of a colloidal quantum dot-electrolyte interface as a non-linear photocapacitor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Consensus of second-order multi-agent dynamic systems with quantized data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Zhi-Hong, E-mail: zhguan@mail.hust.edu.cn [Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Meng, Cheng [Department of Control Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Liao, Rui-Quan [Petroleum Engineering College,Yangtze University, Jingzhou, 420400 (China); Zhang, Ding-Xue, E-mail: zdx7773@163.com [Petroleum Engineering College,Yangtze University, Jingzhou, 420400 (China)

    2012-01-09

    The consensus problem of second-order multi-agent systems with quantized link is investigated in this Letter. Some conditions are derived for the quantized consensus of the second-order multi-agent systems by the stability theory. Moreover, a result characterizing the relationship between the eigenvalues of the Laplacians matrix and the quantized consensus is obtained. Examples are given to illustrate the theoretical analysis. -- Highlights: ► A second-order multi-agent model with quantized data is proposed. ► Two sufficient and necessary conditions are obtained. ► The relationship between the eigenvalues of the Laplacians matrix and the quantized consensus is discovered.

  18. Improved stability and performance from sigma-delta modulators using 1-bit vector quantization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risbo, Lars

    1993-01-01

    A novel class of sigma-delta modulators is presented. The usual scalar 1-b quantizer in a sigma-delta modulator is replaced by a 1-b vector quantizer with a N-dimensional input state-vector from the linear feedback filter. Generally, the vector quantizer changes the nonlinear dynamics...... of the modulator, and a proper choice of vector quantizer can improve both system stability and coding performance. It is shown how to construct the vector quantizer in order to limit the excursions in state-space. The proposed method is demonstrated graphically for a simple second-order modulator...

  19. Quantization of (2 + 1)-spinning particles and bifermionic constraint problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresneda, R [Instituto de FIsica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gavrilov, S P [Instituto de FIsica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gitman, D M [Instituto de FIsica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moshin, P Yu [Instituto de FIsica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66318-CEP, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-03-21

    This work is a natural continuation of our recent study in quantizing relativistic particles. There it was demonstrated that, by applying a consistent quantization scheme to the classical model of a spinless relativistic particle as well as to the Berezin-Marinov model of a 3 + 1 Dirac particle, it is possible to obtain a consistent relativistic quantum mechanics of such particles. In the present paper, we apply a similar approach to the problem of quantizing the massive 2 + 1 Dirac particle. However, we stress that such a problem differs in a nontrivial way from the one in 3 + 1 dimensions. The point is that in 2 + 1 dimensions each spin polarization describes different fermion species. Technically this fact manifests itself through the presence of a bifermionic constant and of a bifermionic first-class constraint. In particular, this constraint does not admit a conjugate gauge condition at the classical level. The quantization problem in 2 + 1 dimensions is also interesting from the physical viewpoint (e.g., anyons). In order to quantize the model, we first derive a classical formulation in an effective phase space, restricted by constraints and gauges. Then the condition of preservation of the classical symmetries allows us to realize the operator algebra in an unambiguous way and construct an appropriate Hilbert space. The physical sector of the constructed quantum mechanics contains spin-1/2 particles and antiparticles without an infinite number of negative-energy levels, and exactly reproduces the one-particle sector of the 2 + 1 quantum theory of a spinor field.

  20. Quantization and Quantum-Like Phenomena: A Number Amplitude Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, T. R.; Haven, E.

    2015-12-01

    Historically, quantization has meant turning the dynamical variables of classical mechanics that are represented by numbers into their corresponding operators. Thus the relationships between classical variables determine the relationships between the corresponding quantum mechanical operators. Here, we take a radically different approach to this conventional quantization procedure. Our approach does not rely on any relations based on classical Hamiltonian or Lagrangian mechanics nor on any canonical quantization relations, nor even on any preconceptions of particle trajectories in space and time. Instead we examine the symmetry properties of certain Hermitian operators with respect to phase changes. This introduces harmonic operators that can be identified with a variety of cyclic systems, from clocks to quantum fields. These operators are shown to have the characteristics of creation and annihilation operators that constitute the primitive fields of quantum field theory. Such an approach not only allows us to recover the Hamiltonian equations of classical mechanics and the Schrödinger wave equation from the fundamental quantization relations, but also, by freeing the quantum formalism from any physical connotation, makes it more directly applicable to non-physical, so-called quantum-like systems. Over the past decade or so, there has been a rapid growth of interest in such applications. These include, the use of the Schrödinger equation in finance, second quantization and the number operator in social interactions, population dynamics and financial trading, and quantum probability models in cognitive processes and decision-making. In this paper we try to look beyond physical analogies to provide a foundational underpinning of such applications.

  1. ADC border effect and suppression of quantization error in the digital dynamic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Li-Na; Liu Hai-Dong; Zhou Wei; Zhai Hong-Qi; Cui Zhen-Jian; Zhao Ming-Ying; Gu Xiao-Qian; Liu Bei-Ling; Huang Li-Bei; Zhang Yong

    2017-01-01

    The digital measurement and processing is an important direction in the measurement and control field. The quantization error widely existing in the digital processing is always the decisive factor that restricts the development and applications of the digital technology. In this paper, we find that the stability of the digital quantization system is obviously better than the quantization resolution. The application of a border effect in the digital quantization can greatly improve the accuracy of digital processing. Its effective precision has nothing to do with the number of quantization bits, which is only related to the stability of the quantization system. The high precision measurement results obtained in the low level quantization system with high sampling rate have an important application value for the progress in the digital measurement and processing field. (paper)

  2. Utilization of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for testicular cancer in the United States: Results from the National Cancer Database (1998-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugen, Cory M; Hu, Brian; Jeldres, Claudio; Burton, Claire; Nichols, Craig R; Porter, Christopher R; Daneshmand, Siamak

    2016-11-01

    Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) for the treatment of testicular cancer is a relatively rare and complex operation that may contribute to differences in utilization. We sought to characterize the use of RPLND between different categories of cancer center facilities in the United States. The National Cancer Database was queried for patients with germ cell tumors treated at different types of cancer centers between 1998 and 2011. The proportion of patients who underwent RPLND was stratified by stage and histology and then compared between treatment facilities. RPLND utilization was then compared between facility types as a function of time. A total of 59,652 patients met inclusion criteria and 5,475 (9.2%) underwent RPLND. The proportion of patients treated with RPLND for non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) was significantly different between cancer center types for all stages (Pcancer centers. There was no difference in the proportion of RPLND utilization for stage II and III seminoma stratified by treatment facility. There was a significantly decreased trend in the utilization of RPLND for stage I (P = 0.032) NSGCT whereas utilization was increased for stage III NSGCT (P≤0.001) over the study period. The proportion of patients undergoing RPLND for NSGCT varies significantly by the type of cancer center and is used most often in academic cancer centers. Utilization of RPLND decreased for stage I NSGCT and increased for stage III NSGCTs during the study period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Are men shortchanged on health? Perspective on health care utilization and health risk behavior in men and women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkhasov, R M; Wong, J; Kashanian, J; Lee, M; Samadi, D B; Pinkhasov, M M; Shabsigh, R

    2010-03-01

    Significant gender disparities exist in life expectancy and major disease morbidity. There is a need to understand the major issues related to men's health that contributes to these significant disparities. It is hypothesized that, high-risk behaviors and low utilization of all and preventive health services contribute to the higher mortality and the higher and earlier morbidity in men. Data was collected from CDC: Health United States, 2007; Health Behavior of Adults: United States 2002-04; and National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2005 Summary. In United States, men are more likely to be regular and heavy alcohol drinkers, heavier smokers who are less likely to quit, non-medical illicit drug users, and are more overweight compared to women. Men are less likely to utilize health care visits to doctor's offices, emergency departments (ED), and physician home visits than women. They are also less likely to make preventive care, hospice care, dental care visits, and have fewer hospital discharges and shorter hospital stays than women. High-risk behaviors and low utilization of health services may contribute to the lower life expectancy in men. In the context of public health, behavioral and preventive interventions are needed to reduce the gender disparity.

  4. Observation of quantized vortices by cryocooler-based scanning Hall probe microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Y.; Konishi, Y.; Tokunaga, M.; Tamegai, T

    2004-10-01

    We have developed a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) system utilizing closed-cycle cryocooler. The Hall probe used in this system is fabricated from a GaAs/GaAlAs two-dimensional electron gas. A stepping-motor-driven XYZ translator is used with a resolution better than 0.1 {mu}m and maximum scan range of 20 x 20 mm{sup 2}. The spatial resolution of the system is about 5 {mu}m and magnetic resolution is about 100 mG. By using this system, we have successfully resolved the quantized vortices on the cleaved surface of Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+y} single crystal.

  5. Utility Values for Advanced Soft Tissue Sarcoma Health States from the General Public in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian F. Guest

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissue sarcomas are a rare type of cancer generally treated with palliative chemotherapy when in the advanced stage. There is a lack of published health utility data for locally advanced “inoperable”/metastatic disease (ASTS, essential for calculating the cost-effectiveness of current and future treatments. This study estimated time trade-off (TTO and standard gamble (SG preference values associated with four ASTS health states (progressive disease, stable disease, partial response, complete response among members of the general public in the UK (n=207. The four health states were associated with decreases in preference values from full health. Complete response was the most preferred health state (mean utility of 0.60 using TTO. The second most preferred health state was partial response followed by stable disease (mean utilities were 0.51 and 0.43, respectively, using TTO. The least preferred health state was progressive disease (mean utility of 0.30 using TTO. The utility value for each state was significantly different from one another (P<0.001. This study demonstrated and quantified the impact that different treatment responses may have on the health-related quality of life of patients with ASTS.

  6. Utilization of transmission probabilities in the calculation of unit-cell by the interface-current method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz Bogado Leite, S. de.

    1989-10-01

    A widely used but otherwise physically incorrect assumption in unit-cell calculations by the method of interface currents in cylindrical or spherical geometries, is that of that of isotropic fluxes at the surfaces of the cell annular regions, when computing transmission probabilities. In this work, new interface-current relations are developed without making use of this assumption and the effects on calculated integral parameters are shown for an idealized unit-cell example. (author) [pt

  7. On the quantization of the massless Bateman system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K.

    2018-03-01

    The so-called Bateman system for the damped harmonic oscillator is reduced to a genuine dual dissipation system (DDS) by setting the mass to zero. We explore herein the condition under which the canonical quantization of the DDS is consistently performed. The roles of the observable and auxiliary coordinates are discriminated. The results show that the complete and orthogonal Fock space of states can be constructed on the stable vacuum if an anti-Hermite representation of the canonical Hamiltonian is adopted. The amplitude of the one-particle wavefunction is consistent with the classical solution. The fields can be quantized as bosonic or fermionic. For bosonic systems, the quantum fluctuation of the field is directly associated with the dissipation rate.

  8. Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestwick, A. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fox, E. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kou, Xufeng [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pan, Lei [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Kang L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Goldhaber-Gordon, D. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-05-04

    In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.

  9. Wavelet/scalar quantization compression standard for fingerprint images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brislawn, C.M.

    1996-06-12

    US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) has recently formulated a national standard for digitization and compression of gray-scale fingerprint images. Fingerprints are scanned at a spatial resolution of 500 dots per inch, with 8 bits of gray-scale resolution. The compression algorithm for the resulting digital images is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform subband decomposition (wavelet/scalar quantization method). The FBI standard produces archival-quality images at compression ratios of around 15 to 1 and will allow the current database of paper fingerprint cards to be replaced by digital imagery. The compression standard specifies a class of potential encoders and a universal decoder with sufficient generality to reconstruct compressed images produced by any compliant encoder, allowing flexibility for future improvements in encoder technology. A compliance testing program is also being implemented to ensure high standards of image quality and interchangeability of data between different implementations.

  10. Quantization with maximally degenerate Poisson brackets: the harmonic oscillator!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutku, Yavuz

    2003-01-01

    Nambu's construction of multi-linear brackets for super-integrable systems can be thought of as degenerate Poisson brackets with a maximal set of Casimirs in their kernel. By introducing privileged coordinates in phase space these degenerate Poisson brackets are brought to the form of Heisenberg's equations. We propose a definition for constructing quantum operators for classical functions, which enables us to turn the maximally degenerate Poisson brackets into operators. They pose a set of eigenvalue problems for a new state vector. The requirement of the single-valuedness of this eigenfunction leads to quantization. The example of the harmonic oscillator is used to illustrate this general procedure for quantizing a class of maximally super-integrable systems

  11. TBA-like integral equations from quantized mirror curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuyama, Kazumi [Department of Physics, Shinshu University,Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Zakany, Szabolcs [Département de Physique Théorique, Université de Genève,Genève, CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2016-03-15

    Quantizing the mirror curve of certain toric Calabi-Yau (CY) three-folds leads to a family of trace class operators. The resolvent function of these operators is known to encode topological data of the CY. In this paper, we show that in certain cases, this resolvent function satisfies a system of non-linear integral equations whose structure is very similar to the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz (TBA) systems. This can be used to compute spectral traces, both exactly and as a semiclassical expansion. As a main example, we consider the system related to the quantized mirror curve of local ℙ{sup 2}. According to a recent proposal, the traces of this operator are determined by the refined BPS indices of the underlying CY. We use our non-linear integral equations to test that proposal.

  12. TBA-like integral equations from quantized mirror curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Kazumi; Zakany, Szabolcs

    2016-03-01

    Quantizing the mirror curve of certain toric Calabi-Yau (CY) three-folds leads to a family of trace class operators. The resolvent function of these operators is known to encode topological data of the CY. In this paper, we show that in certain cases, this resolvent function satisfies a system of non-linear integral equations whose structure is very similar to the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz (TBA) systems. This can be used to compute spectral traces, both exactly and as a semiclassical expansion. As a main example, we consider the system related to the quantized mirror curve of local P2. According to a recent proposal, the traces of this operator are determined by the refined BPS indices of the underlying CY. We use our non-linear integral equations to test that proposal.

  13. Quantization State of Baryonic Mass in Clusters of Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potter F.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotational velocity curves for clusters of galaxies cannot be explained by Newtonian gravitation using the baryonic mass nor does MOND succeed in reducing this discrepancy to acceptable differences. The dark matter hypothesis appears to offer a solution; however, non-baryonic dark matter has never been detected. As an alternative approach, quantum celestial mechanics (QCM predicts that galactic clusters are in quantization states determined solely by the total baryonic mass of the cluster and its total angular momentum. We find excellent agreement with QCM for ten galactic clusters, demonstrating that dark matter is not needed to explain the rotation velocities and providing further support to the hypothesis that all gravitationally bound systems have QCM quantization states.

  14. Background independent quantizations-the scalar field: II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, Wojciech; Lewandowski, Jerzy; Okolow, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    We are concerned with the issue of the quantization of a scalar field in a diffeomorphism invariant manner. We apply the method used in loop quantum gravity. It relies on the specific choice of scalar field variables referred to as the polymer variables. The quantization, in our formulation, amounts to introducing the 'quantum' polymer *-star algebra and looking for positive linear functionals, called states. As assumed in our paper, homeomorphism invariance allows us to derive the complete class of the states. They are determined by the homeomorphism invariant states defined on the CW-complex *-algebra. The corresponding GNS representations of the polymer *-algebra and their self-adjoint extensions are derived, the equivalence classes are found, and invariant subspaces characterized. In part I we outlined those results. Here, we present the technical details

  15. On the quantization of Hall currents in presence of disorder

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, J; Hislop, P

    2005-01-01

    We review recent results of two of the authors concerning the quantization of Hall currents, in particular a general quantization formula for the difference of edge Hall conductances in semi-infinite samples with and without a confining wall. We then study the case where the Fermi energy is located in a region of localized states and discuss new regularizations. We also sketch the proof of localization for 2D-models with constant magnetic field with random potential located in a half-plane in two different situations: 1) with a zero potential in the other half plane and for energies away from the Landau levels and 2) with a confining potential in the other half plane and on an interval of energies that covers an arbitrary number of Landau levels.

  16. Subband directional vector quantization in radiological image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrout, Nabil M.; Diab, Chaouki; Prost, Remy; Goutte, Robert; Amiel, Michel

    1992-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a new scheme for image compression. The method is very efficient for images which have directional edges such as the tree-like structure of the coronary vessels in digital angiograms. This method involves two steps. First, the original image is decomposed at different resolution levels using a pyramidal subband decomposition scheme. For decomposition/reconstruction of the image, free of aliasing and boundary errors, we use an ideal band-pass filter bank implemented in the Discrete Cosine Transform domain (DCT). Second, the high-frequency subbands are vector quantized using a multiresolution codebook with vertical and horizontal codewords which take into account the edge orientation of each subband. The proposed method reduces the blocking effect encountered at low bit rates in conventional vector quantization.

  17. Scattering of quantized solitary waves in the cubic Schrodinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, L.

    1976-01-01

    The quantum mechanics for N particles interacting via a delta-function potential in one space dimension and one time dimension is known. The second-quantized description of this system has for its Euler-Lagrange equations of motion the cubic Schrodinger equation. This nonlinear differential equation supports solitary wave solutions. A quantization of these solitons reproduces the weak-coupling limit to the known quantum mechanics. The phase shift for two-body scattering and the energy of the N-body bound state is derived in this approximation. The nonlinear Schrodinger equation is contrasted with the sine-Gordon theory in respect to the ideas which the classical solutions play in the description of the quantum states

  18. q-Derivatives, quantization methods and q-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twarock, Reidun

    1998-01-01

    Using the example of Borel quantization on S 1 , we discuss the relation between quantization methods and q-algebras. In particular, it is shown that a q-deformation of the Witt algebra with generators labeled by Z is realized by q-difference operators. This leads to a discrete quantum mechanics. Because of Z, the discretization is equidistant. As an approach to a non-equidistant discretization of quantum mechanics one can change the Witt algebra using not the number field Z as labels but a quadratic extension of Z characterized by an irrational number τ. This extension is denoted as quasi-crystal Lie algebra, because this is a relation to one-dimensional quasicrystals. The q-deformation of this quasicrystal Lie algebra is discussed. It is pointed out that quasicrystal Lie algebras can be considered also as a 'deformed' Witt algebra with a 'deformation' of the labeling number field. Their application to the theory is discussed

  19. Black Hole Area Quantization rule from Black Hole Mass Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    We calculate the black hole mass distribution function that follows from the random emission of quanta by Hawking radiation and with this function we calculate the black hole mass fluctuation. From a complete different perspective we regard the black hole as quantum mechanical system with a quantized event horizon area and transition probabilities among the various energy levels and then calculate the mass dispersion. It turns out that there is a perfect agreement between the statistical and ...

  20. Loop quantum gravity and black hole entropy quantization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Using the spin networks and the asymptotic quasinormal mode frequencies of black holes given by loop quantum gravity,the minimum horizon area gap is obtained.Then the quantum area spectrum of black holes is derived and the black hole entropy is a realized quantization.The results show that the black hole entropy given by loop quantum gravity is in full accord with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy with a suitable Immirzi.

  1. Torus as phase space: Weyl quantization, dequantization, and Wigner formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligabò, Marilena, E-mail: marilena.ligabo@uniba.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Bari, I-70125 Bari (Italy)

    2016-08-15

    The Weyl quantization of classical observables on the torus (as phase space) without regularity assumptions is explicitly computed. The equivalence class of symbols yielding the same Weyl operator is characterized. The Heisenberg equation for the dynamics of general quantum observables is written through the Moyal brackets on the torus and the support of the Wigner transform is characterized. Finally, a dequantization procedure is introduced that applies, for instance, to the Pauli matrices. As a result we obtain the corresponding classical symbols.

  2. Matsubara-Fradkin thermodynamical quantization of Podolsky electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonin, C. A.; Pimentel, B. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we apply the Matsubara-Fradkin formalism and the Nakanishi's auxiliary field method to the quantization of the Podolsky electrodynamics in thermodynamic equilibrium. This approach allows us to write consistently the path integral representation for the partition function of gauge theories in a simple manner. Furthermore, we find the Dyson-Schwinger-Fradkin equations and the Ward-Fradkin-Takahashi identities for the Podolsky theory. We also write the most general form for the polarization tensor in thermodynamic equilibrium.

  3. Formality theory from Poisson structures to deformation quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    This book is a survey of the theory of formal deformation quantization of Poisson manifolds, in the formalism developed by Kontsevich. It is intended as an educational introduction for mathematical physicists who are dealing with the subject for the first time. The main topics covered are the theory of Poisson manifolds, star products and their classification, deformations of associative algebras and the formality theorem. Readers will also be familiarized with the relevant physical motivations underlying the purely mathematical construction.

  4. Quantized fluctuational electrodynamics for three-dimensional plasmonic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Partanen, Mikko; Häyrynen, Teppo; Tulkki, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    We recently introduced a quantized fluctuational electrodynamics (QFED) formalism that provides a physically insightful definition of an effective position-dependent photon-number operator and the associated ladder operators. However, this far the formalism has been applicable only for the normal...... formalism, we apply it to study the local steady-state photon numbers and field temperatures in a light-emitting near-surface InGaN quantum-well structure with a metallic coating supporting surface plasmons....

  5. Quantized TDHF for isoscalar giant quadrupole resonances in spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, S.; Okolowicz, J.; Ploszajczak, M.; Caurier, E.

    1988-01-01

    The time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory supplemented with the regularity and single-valuedness quantization condition for the gauge invariant component of the wavefunction is applied to the description of the centroid energy and escape width of isoscalar giant quadrupole resonances in 16 O, 40 Ca and 110 Zr. Calculations are performed using the Skyrme SIII effective interaction. An important role of the finite oscillation amplitude in the mean-field dynamics is emphasized. (orig.)

  6. The Third Quantization: To Tunnel or Not to Tunnel?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Bouhmadi-López

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of the third quantization, we consider the possibility that an initially recollapsing baby universe can enter a stage of near de Sitter inflation by tunnelling through a Euclidean wormhole that connects the recollapsing and inflationary geometries. We present the solutions for the evolution of the scale factor in the Lorentzian and Euclidean regions as well as the probability that the baby universe indeed crosses the wormhole when it reaches its maximum size.

  7. Quantization ambiguity and non-trivial vacuum structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, H.J.; Swieca, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that there is an ambiguity in quantization of any system whose configuration space has a non-trivial topology characterized by a Chern number. In field theories this ambiguity manifests itself through the existence of theta-sectors. The point of view adopted gives a simple interpretation of the difference between the temporal and Coulomb gauge descriptions of instantons. The general ideas are exemplified in the O(3) non-linear sigma-model in two dimensions [pt

  8. Canonical action-angle formalism for quantized nonlinear fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbaczewki, P.

    1987-01-01

    The canonical quantizations of field and action-angle coordinates which (locally) parameterize the phase manifold for the same nonlinear field theory model (e.g. sine-Gordon and nonlinear Schrodinger with the attractive coupling) are reconciled on the common for both cases state space. The classical-quantum relationship is maintained in the mean: coherent state expectation values of operators give rise to classical objects

  9. Energy quantization for approximate H-surfaces and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenzhou Zheng

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider weakly convergent sequences of approximate H-surface maps defined in the plane with their tension fields bounded in $L^p$ for p> 4/3, and establish an energy quantization that accounts for the loss of their energies by the sum of energies over finitely many nontrivial bubbles maps on $mathbb{R}^2$. As a direct consequence, we establish the energy identity at finite singular time to their H-surface flows.

  10. Quantized fields and operators on a partial inner product space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabani, J.

    1985-11-01

    We investigate the connection between the space OpV of all operators on a partial inner product space V and the weak sequential completion of the * algebra L + (Vsup(no.)) of all operators X such that Vsup(no.) is contained in D(X) intersection D(X*) and both X and its adjoint X* leave Vsup(no.) invariant. This connection gives a mathematical description of quantized fields in terms of elements of OpV. (author)

  11. Fractional statistics and fractional quantized Hall effect. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, R.; Wu, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    We suggest that the origin of the odd denominator rule observed in the fractional quantized Hall effect (FQHE) may lie in fractional statistics which governs quasiparticles in FQHE. A theorem concerning statistics of clusters of quasiparticles implies that fractional statistics does not allow coexistence of a large number of quasiparticles at fillings with an even denominator. Thus no Hall plateau can be formed at these fillings, regardless of the presence of an energy gap. 15 references

  12. Noncanonical quantization-on the coexistence of particles and ghosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saller, H.

    1988-01-01

    Local interactions of quantized fields are sometimes parametrized with the aid of ghostlike degrees of freedom, e.g., in non-Abelian gauge theories. These ghosts do not necessarily lead to eigenstates of energy. Such a situation requires a discussion of the asymptotic boundary condition for the ghosts, leading to ghost propagation only for timelike distance. Coexisting particle and ghost degrees of freedom in one basic field operator allow the formulation of interactions for such a field without local ambiguities

  13. A zeta function approach to the semiclassical quantization of maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smilansky, Uzi.

    1993-11-01

    The quantum analogue of an area preserving map on a compact phase space is a unitary (evolution) operator which can be represented by a matrix of dimension L∝ℎ -1 . The semiclassical theory for spectrum of the evolution operator will be reviewed with special emphasize on developing a dynamical zeta function approach, similar to the one introduced recently for a semiclassical quantization of hamiltonian systems. (author)

  14. Supporting Dynamic Quantization for High-Dimensional Data Analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzun, Gheorghi; Canahuate, Guadalupe

    2017-05-01

    Similarity searches are at the heart of exploratory data analysis tasks. Distance metrics are typically used to characterize the similarity between data objects represented as feature vectors. However, when the dimensionality of the data increases and the number of features is large, traditional distance metrics fail to distinguish between the closest and furthest data points. Localized distance functions have been proposed as an alternative to traditional distance metrics. These functions only consider dimensions close to query to compute the distance/similarity. Furthermore, in order to enable interactive explorations of high-dimensional data, indexing support for ad-hoc queries is needed. In this work we set up to investigate whether bit-sliced indices can be used for exploratory analytics such as similarity searches and data clustering for high-dimensional big-data. We also propose a novel dynamic quantization called Query dependent Equi-Depth (QED) quantization and show its effectiveness on characterizing high-dimensional similarity. When applying QED we observe improvements in kNN classification accuracy over traditional distance functions. Gheorghi Guzun and Guadalupe Canahuate. 2017. Supporting Dynamic Quantization for High-Dimensional Data Analytics. In Proceedings of Ex-ploreDB'17, Chicago, IL, USA, May 14-19, 2017, 6 pages. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3077331.3077336.

  15. Quantization of 2 + 1-spinning particles and bifermionic constraint problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresneda, R.; Gavrilov, S.P.; Gitman, D.M.; Moshin, P.Yu. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2004-07-01

    In this paper, we have quantized a P- and T-noninvariant pseudoclassical model of a massive relativistic spin-1=2 particle in 2 + 1 dimensions, on the background of an arbitrary U(1) gauge vector field. A peculiar feature of the model at the classical level is that it contains a bifermionic first-class constraint, which does not admit gauge-fixing. It is shown that this first-class constraint can be realized at the quantum level as a bounded operator, which is imposed as a condition on the state vectors (by analogy with the Dirac quantization method). This allows us to generalize the quantization scheme [?] in case there is a bifermionic first-class constraint.We present a detailed construction of the Hilbert space and verify that the constructed QM possesses the necessary symmetry properties. We show that the condition of preservation of the classical symmetries under the restricted Lorentz transformations and the U(1) transformations allows one to realize the operator algebra in an unambiguous way. Within the constructed relativistic QM, we select a physical subspace which describes the one-particle sector. The physical sector of the QM contains both particles and antiparticles with positive energy hat {omega} levels, and exactly reproduces the one-particle sector of the quantum theory of the 2 + 1 spinor field. (author)

  16. Hamiltonian theories quantization based on a probability operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entral'go, E.E.

    1986-01-01

    The quantization method with a linear reflection of classical coordinate-momentum-time functions Λ(q,p,t) at quantum operators in a space of quantum states ψ, is considered. The probability operator satisfies a system of equations representing the principles of dynamical and canonical correspondences between the classical and quantum theories. The quantization based on a probability operator leads to a quantum theory with a nonnegative joint coordinate-momentum distribution function for any state ψ. The main consequences of quantum mechanics with a probability operator are discussed in comparison with the generally accepted quantum and classical theories. It is shown that a probability operator leads to an appearance of some new notions called ''subquantum'' ones. Hence the quantum theory with a probability operator does not pretend to any complete description of physical reality in terms of classical variables and by this reason contains no problems like Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. The results of some concrete problems are given: a free particle, a harmonic oscillator, an electron in the Coulomb field. These results give hope on the possibility of an experimental verification of the quantization based on a probability operator

  17. Higgs mechanism in light-front quantized field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, P P

    1993-12-31

    The spontaneous symmetry breaking of continuous symmetry in light-front quantized scalar field theory is studied following the standard Dirac procedure for constrained dynamical systems. A non-local constraint is found to follow. The values of the constant backgrounds fields (zero modes) at the tree level, as a consequence, are shown to given by minimizing the light-front energy. The zero modes are shown to commute with the non-zero ones and the isovector built from them is seen to characterize a (non-perturbative) vacuum state and the corresponding physical sector. The infinite degeneracy of the vacuum is described by the continuum of the allowed orientations of this background isovector in the isospin space. The symmetry generators in the quantized field theory annihilate the vacuum is contrast to the case of equal-time quantization. Not all of them are conserved and the conserved ones determine the surviving symmetry of the quantum theory Lagrangian. The criteria for determining the background isovector and the counting of the number of Goldstone bosons goes as in the equal-time case. A demonstration in favour of the absence of Goldstone bosons in two dimensions is also found. Finally, is extended to an understanding of the Higgs mechanism in light-front frame. (author). 13 refs.

  18. ROBUST CONTROL ALGORITHM FOR MULTIVARIABLE PLANTS WITH QUANTIZED OUTPUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Margun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with robust output control algorithm for multivariable plants under disturbances. A plant is described by the system of linear differential equations with known relative degrees. Plant parameters are unknown but belong to the known closed bounded set. Plant state vector is unmeasured. Plant output is measured only via static quantizer. Control system algorithm is based on the high gain feedback method. Developed controller provides exponential convergence of tracking error to the bounded area. The area bounds depend on quantizer parameters and the value of external disturbances. Experimental approbation of the proposed control algorithm is performed with the use of Twin Rotor MIMO System laboratory bench. This bench is a helicopter like model with two degrees of freedom (pitch and yaw. DC motors are used as actuators. The output signals are measured via optical encoders. Mathematical model of laboratory bench is obtained. Proposed algorithm was compared with proportional - integral – differential controller in conditions of output quantization. Obtained results have confirmed the efficiency of proposed controller.

  19. Combinatorial quantization of the Hamiltonian Chern-Simons theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.Yu.; Grosse, H.; Schomerus, V.

    1996-01-01

    This paper further develops the combinatorial approach to quantization of the Hamiltonian Chern Simons theory. Using the theory of quantum Wilson lines, we show how the Verlinde algebra appears within the context of quantum group gauge theory. This allows to discuss flatness of quantum connections so that we can give a mathematically rigorous definition of the algebra of observables A CS of the Chern Simons model. It is a *-algebra of ''functions on the quantum moduli space of flat connections'' and comes equipped with a positive functional ω (''integration''). We prove that this data does not depend on the particular choices which have been made in the construction. The algebra A CS provides a deformation quantization of the algebra of functions on the moduli space along the natural Poisson bracket induced by the Chern Simons action. We evaluate a volume of the quantized moduli space and prove that it coincides with the Verlinde number. This answer is also interpreted as a partition partition function of the lattice Yang-Mills theory corresponding to a quantum gauge group. (orig.). With 1 fig

  20. Higgs mechanism in light-front quantized field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1992-01-01

    The spontaneous symmetry breaking of continuous symmetry in light-front quantized scalar field theory is studied following the standard Dirac procedure for constrained dynamical systems. A non-local constraint is found to follow. The values of the constant backgrounds fields (zero modes) at the tree level, as a consequence, are shown to given by minimizing the light-front energy. The zero modes are shown to commute with the non-zero ones and the isovector built from them is seen to characterize a (non-perturbative) vacuum state and the corresponding physical sector. The infinite degeneracy of the vacuum is described by the continuum of the allowed orientations of this background isovector in the isospin space. The symmetry generators in the quantized field theory annihilate the vacuum is contrast to the case of equal-time quantization. Not all of them are conserved and the conserved ones determine the surviving symmetry of the quantum theory Lagrangian. The criteria for determining the background isovector and the counting of the number of Goldstone bosons goes as in the equal-time case. A demonstration in favour of the absence of Goldstone bosons in two dimensions is also found. Finally, is extended to an understanding of the Higgs mechanism in light-front frame. (author). 13 refs