Sample records for units otus belonging

  1. Belonging and adapting: mental health of Bosnian refugees living in the United States. (United States)

    Keyes, Emily F; Kane, Catherine F


    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the experience of Bosnian refugees currently living in the United States. Using a phenomenological method, seven adult female Bosnian refugees each participated in an audio-recorded interview lasting from one to two hours. Two major themes emerged from the analyses of the text: belonging and adapting. Belonging included concepts of cultural memory, identity and difference, empathy and reciprocity, and perfection of speech. Adapting focused on coping with transitions, coping with memories of past and attendant losses, coping with accepting a new culture while trying to fit into the new culture, and learning the new language perfectly. Implicit in the refugees' experiences were states of culture shock, loneliness, psychic numbness, grief, nostalgia, and feelings of dejection, humiliation, inferiority, and feeling as if they belonged nowhere. Simultaneously, the refugees reported feelings of relief and safety after leaving behind the threat of death in their old homes, feelings of gratefulness for their new freedom to hope for a better life, and their restored ability to notice beauty, as well as a sense of normalcy in their new lives. Recommendations for nursing research include the need to identify additional factors promoting successful belonging and adapting in refugees. Recommendations for nursing practice include the importance of adopting a perspective that is respectful of the uniqueness of each refugee and the necessity for recognizing the normal processes of refugee adaptation.

  2. Citizen or Subordinate: Permutations of Belonging in the United States and the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaina Aber


    Full Text Available The Dominican Republic and the United States have both experienced tensions arising from migratory flows from poorer, less stable neighbors. Until recently, both countries had constitutions which conferred citizenship by birth with very limited exceptions. Despite these similarities, their respective discourses around jus soli citizenship, particularly for the children of unauthorized migrants from the poorer neighboring countries, have manifested in different ways. The identity of the United States as a nation of immigrants has limited the success of campaigns to revoke jus soli citizenship for the children of unauthorized immigrants, but the persistent articulation of this idea as a response to illegal migration has shifted the parameters of the immigration debate. In the Dominican Republic, the historical construction of national identity and anti-Haitian discourse has led to an evolution in Dominican law which codifies already established practices that deny citizenship to children of Haitian migrants. In both cases, movements that support more inclusive understandings of societal belonging, like the DREAMers in the United States and youth movements in the Dominican Republic, may offer the most effective way of protecting universal jus soli citizenship regimes. 

  3. Do I Belong? Factors Contributing to the Development of Social Belonging of Children Who Are Homeless in Southeastern United States Shelters: A Multi-Case Study (United States)

    Ott, Corilyn Mae


    This qualitative multiple case study explored the factors that contribute to the development of social belonging in the classroom for children who are homeless age's five to seven. Previous empirical research has shown the importance of children who are homeless developing belonging in the classroom and other research has shown the negative…

  4. Accuracy of microbial community diversity estimated by closed- and open-reference OTUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Edgar


    Full Text Available Next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA is widely used to survey microbial communities. Sequences are typically assigned to Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs. Closed- and open-reference OTU assignment matches reads to a reference database at 97% identity (closed, then clusters unmatched reads using a de novo method (open. Implementations of these methods in the QIIME package were tested on several mock community datasets with 20 strains using different sequencing technologies and primers. Richness (number of reported OTUs was often greatly exaggerated, with hundreds or thousands of OTUs generated on Illumina datasets. Between-sample diversity was also found to be highly exaggerated in many cases, with weighted Jaccard distances between identical mock samples often close to one, indicating very low similarity. Non-overlapping hyper-variable regions in 70% of species were assigned to different OTUs. On mock communities with Illumina V4 reads, 56% to 88% of predicted genus names were false positives. Biological inferences obtained using these methods are therefore not reliable.

  5. Deviant Citizenship: DREAMer Activism in the United States and Transnational Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquina Weber-Shirk


    Full Text Available My analysis places the assertions of political presence by non-citizen immigrant youth in the U.S. (often referred to as DREAMers within a rapidly globalizing world; this placement re-frames the DREAMers’ movement from a fight for U.S. citizenship to a broader critique of the limits and impossibility of liberal democratic citizenship, which claims to be all-inclusive. Increased transnational migration has brought into stark relief the inequality that current frameworks of nation-state citizenship, as a caste-system of rights, have codified. I am interested in the activism of immigrant youth as a place to explore where immigrants themselves are reasserting the right to politics. This reassertion privileges the social embeddedness of family ties and community above the notion of individual choice or individual rationality. In doing so, this articulation of politics is a critique of the liberal order by forcing the consideration of the contexts and structures that create migration, exploitation, and transnational communities of belonging.

  6. Flammulated Owls (Otus flammeolus) breeding in deciduous forests (United States)

    Carl D. Marti


    The first studies of nesting Flammulated Owls (Otus flammeolus) established the idea that the species needs ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests for breeding. In northern Utah, Flammulated Owls nested in montane deciduous forests dominated by quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides). No pines were present but...

  7. OTUS - Reactor inventory management system based on ORIGEN2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, R; Toivonen, H; Lahtinen, J; Ilander, T


    ORIGEN2 is a computer code that calculates nuclide composition and other characteristics of nuclear fuel. The use of ORIGEN2 requires good knowledge in reactor physics. However, once the input has been defined for a particular reactor type, the calculations can be easily repeated for any burnup and decay time. This procedure produces large output files that are difficult to handle manually. A new computer code, known as OTUS, was designed to facilitate the postprocessing of the data. OTUS makes use of the inventory files precalculated with ORIGEN2 in a way that enables their versatile treatment for different safety analysis purposes. A data base is created containing a comprehensive set of ORIGEN2 calculations as a function of fuel burnup and decay time. OTUS is a reactor inventory management system for a microcomputer with Windows interface. Four major data operations are available: (1) Build data modifies ORIGEN2 output data into a suitable format, (2) View data enables flexible presentation of the data as such, (3) Different calculations, such as nuclide ratios and hot particle characteristics, can be performed for severe accident analyses, consequence analyses and research purposes, (4) Summary files contain both burnup dependent and decay time dependent inventory information related to the nuclide and the reactor specified. These files can be used for safeguards, radiation monitoring and safety assessment. (orig.) (22 refs., 29 figs.).

  8. Conceptualizing belonging. (United States)

    Mahar, Alyson L; Cobigo, Virginie; Stuart, Heather


    To develop a transdisciplinary conceptualization of social belonging that could be used to guide measurement approaches aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of community-based programs for people with disabilities. We conducted a narrative, scoping review of peer reviewed English language literature published between 1990 and July 2011 using multiple databases, with "sense of belonging" as a key search term. The search engine ranked articles for relevance to the search strategy. Articles were searched in order until theoretical saturation was reached. We augmented this search strategy by reviewing reference lists of relevant papers. Theoretical saturation was reached after 40 articles; 22 of which were qualitative accounts. We identified five intersecting themes: subjectivity; groundedness to an external referent; reciprocity; dynamism and self-determination. We define a sense of belonging as a subjective feeling of value and respect derived from a reciprocal relationship to an external referent that is built on a foundation of shared experiences, beliefs or personal characteristics. These feelings of external connectedness are grounded to the context or referent group, to whom one chooses, wants and feels permission to belong. This dynamic phenomenon may be either hindered or promoted by complex interactions between environmental and personal factors.

  9. Differential belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oldrup, Helene


    This paper explores suburban middle-class residents’ narratives about housing choice, everyday life and belonging in residential areas of Greater Copenhagen, Denmark, to understand how residential processes of social differentiation are constituted. Using Savage et al.’s concepts of discursive...... and not only to the area itself. In addition, rather than seeing suburban residential areas as homogenous, greater attention should be paid to differences within such areas....

  10. Ambiguous Belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallesen, Cecil Marie

    and work in the new place and at the same time shallowly enough for them to be able to move on. Not least do they secure that ‘the crown’, which may signify ‘the culture’ or ‘Indianness’, is not buried underneath the soil. Fragarian practices allow the Indians to live transnationally while at the same time...... of ethnographic fieldwork in Moshi, Tanzania, and in London, UK, I explore and analyze intersections of local and transnational belonging, purity, citizenship strategies, networks, and claims for recognition as ‘good citizens’. Arguing that the uncertainty, which has been a fundamental condition for the Indians...

  11. The role of the negative selection activities in securing the competence of an organization belonging to SEN units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boruga, Carmen


    The transformation and the accommodation of National Power System (SEN) units to a new management system, own to a decentralized economy and having financial support from both native capital and foreign capital, in uncertain proportion at the moment and being in a continuous adjustment determined by the reasons and the motivations first of all political, generated conceptual changes in the so-called modern management theory. The accommodation of this theory to the concrete situation from SEN units imposed the concept of negative selection. It is a concept which represents author's desire to be created as an original contribution to the contemporary management theory. Unlike the selection at the hiring (or positive selection), the negative selection is achieved on personal already employed, in the conditions of activities of a decreased number of personnel and also of a redistribution of personnel on the other side. The negative selection, much more than the positive selection activity in this period in the SEN units (recording a drastic decrease from 90.000 employees counted by the energetic system at the end of 9th decade of the past century, to a little over 30.000 who at the moment work in the societies became independent), determines the specialist in human resources to ensure a judicious training and high competence. It concerns the knowledge of the standard systems and is also related to the method of knowledge and valuation of behavior of the organizational employees. This subject was developed on basis of the documentation and the analyses of documents but also on the basis of a set of studies and researches that were made during 1996-2006 in the SEN units. The work methods and models of negative selection used in the SEN units were analysed. This work concerns four companies which constitute currently the SEN nucleus at present at which the nuclear units with a particular status were added. One finds out that these methods and models of negative selection

  12. Acanthamoeba belonging to T3, T4, and T11: genotypes isolated from air-conditioning units in Santiago, Chile. (United States)

    Astorga, Berbeli; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Alarcón, Verónica; Moreno, Johanna; González, Ana C; Navarrete, Elizabeth; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio


    Free-living amoebae (FLA) of the genus Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in the environment, in the air, soil, and water, and have also been isolated from air-conditioning units. The objective of this work was to investigate the presence of this genus of FLA in the air-conditioning equipment at the Institute of Public Health of Chile in Santiago, Chile. Water and air samples were collected from air-conditioning systems and were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. Positive samples were further classified at the genotype level after sequencing the highly variable diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region of the 18S rRNA gene. This is the first report of the T3, T4, and T11 genotypes of Acanthamoeba in air-conditioning units from Chile. Overall, the widespread distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in the studied source demands more awareness within the public and health professionals in Chile as this pathogen is emerging as a risk for human health worldwide. © 2011 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  13. “An atheistic American is a contradiction in terms”: Religion, Civic Belonging and Collective Identity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amandine Barb


    Full Text Available Through the analysis of the status and perception of atheists in American history, from the colonial times to the beginning of the 21st century, this article explores the importance of religion in the structuring of Americans’ national and civic imaginaries. Starting from the assumption that atheists have always tended to be a distrusted minority in the United States, this essay seeks more precisely to explain how and why not to believe in God came to be regarded through the centuries not only as a moral and social deviance, but also as essentially “un-American” behavior. It further demonstrates that the historical “otherness” of the atheist tends to indicate that religion has functioned as one of the “moral boundaries” of a certain American “imagined community”, perceived as an essential warranty of both individual virtue and “good citizenship” and as a basic attribute of the American “self”.I. Introduction

  14. Determination of lead content in blood from the female transit police who belong to the Center and South units of Metropolitan Lima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arosquipa Aguilar, Graciela; Villegas Silva, Elvito


    The average content of lead in blood from the female police who belong to the center and south units from Metropolitan Lima in 2005 and 2008 have been below the threshold level (20 μg Pb/dL) for both workers in the street and in offices. Nevertheless, there is the possibility of occupational risk for the toxicity of lead in any concentration in a human being. For p < 0,05 there are no significant differences between the average contents of lead in blood for the workers in the streets but in different units; and there was similar situation for the workers in offices, in both years 2005 and 2008. (author)

  15. Territories of flammulated owls (Otus flammeolus): Is occupancy a measure of habitat quality? (United States)

    Brian D. Linkhart; Richard T. Reynolds


    Annual territory occupancy by Flammulated Owls (Otus flammeolus) in Colorado was evaluated from 1981-1996. Fourteen territories occurred within a 452 ha study area. Each year, three to six territories were occupied by breeding pairs and three to seven were occupied by unpaired males. Territories were occupied by breeding pairs a mean of 5.1 years (...

  16. Optimization of the development of reproductive organs celepuk jawa (otus angelinae) owl which supplemented by turmeric powder (United States)

    Rini Saraswati, Tyas; Yuniwarti, Enny Yusuf W.; Tana, Silvan


    Otus angelinae is included as a protected animal because of its endangered existence. Whereas, it has many values such as for mice pest control. Therefore, this research aims to optimize the reproductive function of Otus angelinae by administering turmeric powder mixed in its feed. This study was held on a laboratory scale with two male and two female Otus angelinae three months of age. Each subject is divided into two groups: a control group and a treatment group which is treated with turmeric powder 108 mg/owl/day mixed in 30 g catfish/day for a month. The parameter observed were the development of hierarchy follicles and the ovarium weight of female Otus angelinae, whereas the testis organs and testes weight were observed for the male. Both the female’s and male’s body weight, liver weight and the length of ductus reproduction were also observed. The data was analyzed descriptively. The results showed that the administration of turmeric powder can induce the development of ovarian follicles hierarchy and the length of ductus reproduction of female Otus angelinae and also induce the development of the testes and the length of ductus reproduction of male Otus angelinae. The addition of turmeric powder increased the liver weight of the female Otus angelinae, however it does not affect the body weight.

  17. Ambiguity in urban belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin; Simonsen, Kirsten


    mapping of life as an ethnic minority in the city. It revolves around three issues. First, it focuses on the narrators’ experiences of exclusions and blockages in everyday life. This is followed by a focus on urban belonging emphasizing its differential character. Finally, the ambiguity of experiences...

  18. Performing Belonging, celebrating invisibility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristine


    Serbian migrants living transnational lives consciously or unconsciously move between visibility and invisibility in their performance of migrant success stories. A case in point are public festivals, performed to make visible migrants’ successful inclusion in Danish society, i.e. celebrating...... invisibility. Meanwhile, other celebrations are consciously relegated to the invisible confines of the Serbian homeland. This article analyses celebrations in Denmark and in Serbia and shows how visible displays of ethnicity and difference tend to turn into easily palatable heritage versions of Serbian culture...... when performed in a Danish context. In turn, the visibility acquired through celebrations of migrants’ belonging in their homeland is inclined to render invisible those who did not take part in the migration experience....

  19. Nest observations of the long-eared owl (Asio otus) in Benton County, Oregon, with notes on their food habits (United States)

    Richard T. Reynolds


    A nesting pair of long-eared owls was found 10 miles north of Corvallis, Benton County, Oregon, on 24 April, 1969. The pair was observed and photographed until 30 May, when the young left the nest. This is the third record of nesting Asio otus west of the Oregon Cascades. Gabrielson and Jewett (1940) reported that Pope collected eggs from a nest...

  20. The power of belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjøtterud Sigrid


    Full Text Available Coming from a Nordic environment, professionally working in teacher education, both authors engaged in developmental work and research in the Uluguru mountains in Tanzania. The research is carried out in a community-based organization for vulnerable youth, Mgeta Orphan Education Foundation (MOEF, which builds on principles of action learning and action research. We have followed and participated in the development of the organization since 2010, and this article builds on data gathered in 2016-17. We will show and discuss some of the transformations we have witnessed, mainly in the older members. The transformations seem to have an emergent character, and we examine further factors we have seen as crucial for transforming the lives of the young people in the orphan education project. Surprisingly, duty was a factor coming forth in the data. The youth perceived duty in a relational way, mainly caused by inner motivation nurtured by the example of their coordinator, Solomon, and by facing the continuous, emergent need for assistance in their local communities. Less surprisingly, belonging transpired as a fundamental factor. Previously, we have analyzed the transformational learning among the youngsters, and identified a set of transformational tools (Gjotterud, Krogh, Dyngeland, & Mwakasumba, 2015. Building on the transformational tools, we have derived a model for Relational Transformation. Transformative action research is the approach we follow, and one aim of this article is to contribute to the understanding of the reciprocity of transformative processes in transformative research.

  1. Emergence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing strains belonging to cefotaxime-M-1 class from intensive care units patients and environmental surfaces in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqsa Ashraf Bukhari


    Full Text Available Aim: The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR bacteria is the most dangerous threat for the treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli among patients and environment of intensive care units (ICUs of three tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan. Materials and Methods: A total of 82 samples from ICU’s patients and inanimate environment (injection trays, wash basins, door handles, hand swabs of professionals, and ICU fridges were screened for ESBL by culturing on CHROMagar-ESBL. ESBL and carbapenemases production were confirmed by double disc synergy test and modified Hodge’s test, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect ESBL encoding genes bla cefotaxime (CTX-M, blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-9, blaTEM, blaSHV and carbapenemase genes blaKPC, bla New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1, blaOXA-48 and blaVIM. Results: Overall, ESBL production was found high 30/82 (36.5% among isolates of which 15.8% K. pneumoniae and 20.7% E. coli were identified. All the K. pneumoniae and majority of E. coli isolates were MDR, i.e., resistance to three or more antimicrobial categories. Molecular characterization showed the blaCTX-M-1 as the predominant genotype found in 17/21 (80% of the isolates. None of the strains was found positive for carbapenemase-encoding genes. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrates the emergence of MDR ESBL producing strains among ICU patients and hospital environment, posing a serious threat for the control of nosocomial infections.

  2. How to Understand Custodial Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Game


    Full Text Available Debates about ecological responsibility are interested in different forms of belonging. This article develops an understanding of a custodial form of belonging based on the logic of relation, which we distinguish from a proprietorial form of belonging based on the logic of identity. Theorists working on questions of belonging use a language of custodianship when describing a sense of responsibility and care that arises through connection or relation. We argue, however, that the full significance of custodial belonging cannot be appreciated when understandings of connection are derived from within the terms of identity logic. In other words, when belonging is understood in terms of identity and identification, custodianship is inadvertently reduced to a proprietorial form of responsibility and care. We develop this argument by addressing Australian research on custodial belonging. Focusing on the influential work of Deborah Bird Rose, we argue that there are tensions between, on the one hand, her attempts to recognise connected forms of belonging, and, on the other, her conceptual reliance on the assumptions of identity logic. Our primary concern here is to indicate relational possibilities in her work precluded by the language of identity. In particular, we suggest that the concept of ecological being allows for a specificity and inclusiveness that are not recognised by Rose’s concept of the ‘ecologically emplaced self’.

  3. Determination of ABOS 1-3+ system components belonging to the scope of license application of Paks Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 for extension of service life, designated for the review, and verification of completeness of the scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, Agnes Janosine; Tanits, Katalin Baumann-ne; Gosi, Peter; Kovacs, Andras; Ratkai, Sandor


    It is one major requirement of licensing the extension of design service life to determine the systems, structures and components that belong to the scope of licensing. According to the domestic regulatory requirements the ABOS 1-3 safety class components, the non safety system components of seismic safety class 3 and those non safety class components whose failure would occur due to its unmanaged ageing process and which may jeopardize safety class components with the released medium shall be involved into the scope of licensing of service life extension (SLE). In the task the components for the scope of SLE licensing of Unit 1 was determined using and, if necessary, further developing the tools provided by and exploiting, verifying and, as appropriate, supplementing the data included in the central technical database (IMR/MDM) of the NPP. As basis for determination of the scope the systems, structures and individual components categorized into safety class in the Final Safety Report were taken. Digitalized mechanical technological schemes were also used in determining the components of the systems fulfilling safety functions and in verifying the completeness. In order to assign the components belonging to the fulfillment of the function of the systems and to review the scope, the digitalization of the ABOS 2-3 electric and the ABOS 2 I and C circuit diagrams and distributor single-line diagrams and the processing and analysis of the digitalized data was performed. The ABOS + scope components were verified by walkdown. The completed component lists were compared to the components of the SLE licensing scope of the IMR/MDM database and the necessary supplementation, correction of the IMR/MDM data was also performed. In order to identify the components requiring review during licensing, also the active/passive safety function fulfillment modes were determined for every component of the licensing scope for Unit 1, which is now regarded as complete. As the results of

  4. Local community, mobility and belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anja; Arp Fallov, Mia; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.


    ,recent developments in the understandings of mobility and local communities,and presents different theoretical views on local belonging.These questions highlight the necessity to discuss and investigate two overall narratives in social theory about the connection between space and social relations.Namely,1...

  5. Transnational Connections and Multiple Belongings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen; Sparre, Sara Cathrine Lei

    With the purpose of presenting DIMECCE key findings, we in this paper present different aspects, potentials and challenges related to the Middle Eastern Christians transnational connections and multiple belonging. We distinguish between individual transnational connections and practices, such as ......, such as family relations, churches as transnational – or global – institutions, and other organisations and associations established to support politically, socially or culturally connections and development in the country or region of origin....

  6. Comparison of Food Habits of the Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) and the Western Screech-owl (Otus kennicottii) in Southwestern Idaho (United States)

    Charlotte Rains


    I compared the breeding-season diets of Northern Saw-whet Owls (Aegolius acadicus) and Western Screech-owls (Otus kennicottii). Prey items were obtained from regurgitated pellets collected from saw-whet owl and screech-owl nests found in nest boxes in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southwestern Idaho....

  7. [Interpersonal relationships: perception of the communication, treatment and adverse experiences encountered by users of medical units that belong to the Coordinating Commission of the National Institutes of Health and High Specialty Hospitals (CCINSHAE)]. (United States)

    Arroyo-Valerio, América Guadalupe Guadalupe; Cortés-Poza, David; Aguirre Hernández, Rebeca; Fuentes García, Ruth; Ramírez de la Roche, Omar Fernando; Hamui Sutton, Alicia


    User's perception with regard to the attention they received in healthcare units is increasingly being taken into account by the health service providers in order to improve the quality of their service. Describe how the users perceive the health services provided by the CCINSHAE with regard to the communication with the physicians, the attention of the staff and the adverse personal and institutional experiences and to explore their relation with user's demographic characteristics, health condition, physical limitations to carry out daily activities and service area. A questionnaire was designed to collect information about the user and his/her opinion with regard to the healthcare units, the communication with the physicians, the attention of the staff and the adverse personal and institutional experiences. The data were analyzed with STATA using sample weights. A total of 2,176 individuals were interviewed after they had received attention and represent a population of 1,457,964 users, over 6 months, of the CCINSAHE. We then calculated four binary variables that reflect the perception of the users. These four variables were significantly associated with the type of health unit where the user received attention, schooling, limitations to carry out daily activities, facilities provided to the relatives, family income, the use of alternative medicine, and the area of attention. A fundamental aspect of the service provided by the healthcare institutions is the communication between the physicians and the users. We found that the perception of the users with regard to the communication with the physician, the attention of the staff, and the adverse personal and institutional experiences was associated with the type of healthcare unit. The federal reference hospitals produced the most unfavorable perception while the regional hospitals produced the most favorable impression. This study enables the decision-making personnel to determine what needs to be modified in

  8. The Belonging to the University Scale (United States)

    Karaman, Omer; Cirak, Yuksel


    The aim of the study is to develop a belonging to the university scale (BUS) in order to determine the level of fulfillment of the need to belong among university students at the higher education institutions they attend. The population of the investigation includes university students studying at the campus of Ordu University. A 5 point…

  9. Social Inclusion and Local Practices of Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Garbutt


    Full Text Available Social inclusion has been conceptualised as having two key aspects: distributional aspects relating to access to resources including employment, and relational aspects which concern the connections between people and the wider society. While both are important, the emphasis in Australian social inclusion policy has been on distributional aspects. This paper focuses on the relational aspects of social inclusion, and argues that it is critically important to include relational considerations in social inclusion policy. Central to the relational aspects of social inclusion is achieving a sense of belonging, particularly at the everyday, local level. Belonging in this everyday sense can be thought of as an ongoing project achieved through everyday practices, rather than solely in terms of membership of a group. While many such practices, for example regularly engaging in team sports, are accepted ways of establishing and maintaining belonging, for others in a community practices of belonging may necessitate disrupting or at least broadening the established norms of how one belongs. To ground this discussion of inclusion and belonging, this paper draws on practices of belonging in a regional community. Established norms of belonging are examined through the idea of ‘being a local’, a way of belonging that appears to be based on membership. The paper then turns to two local projects which disrupt the exclusive bounds of local membership and establish new and inclusive practices of belonging. To conclude, parallels are drawn between the boundaries which define ‘the social’ in social inclusion and ‘the local community’ in being a local, to argue for the importance of including relational aspects of social inclusion within social inclusion policy debates and program formulation.

  10. Belonging and Unbelonging from an Intersectional Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ann-Dorte


    lives and local communities. The three levels are explained and illustrated with empirical examples from a Nordic context, all based on the perspective of intersectionality between gender, class, race, and ethnicity. Finally, the article discusses some challenges for further research on belonging...

  11. Refugee youth, belonging and community sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.


    This article examines community sport as a site where refugee youth negotiate belonging, which is conceptualised as a dynamic dialectic of ‘seeking’ and ‘granting’. Drawing on three years of ethnographic fieldwork among Somali Australian youth at community football (soccer) clubs in Melbourne, the

  12. Interrogating "Belonging" in Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia (United States)

    Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie


    In this article, the authors interrogate the use of "belonging" in "Belonging, Being and Becoming: the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" (EYLF), Australia's first national curriculum for early childhood education and care settings and, from the authors' interrogation, possibilities are offered for thinking about and…

  13. Stability of operational taxonomic units: an important but neglected property for analyzing microbial diversity. (United States)

    He, Yan; Caporaso, J Gregory; Jiang, Xiao-Tao; Sheng, Hua-Fang; Huse, Susan M; Rideout, Jai Ram; Edgar, Robert C; Kopylova, Evguenia; Walters, William A; Knight, Rob; Zhou, Hong-Wei


    The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) is widely used in microbial ecology. Reproducibility in microbial ecology research depends on the reliability of OTU-based 16S ribosomal subunit RNA (rRNA) analyses. Here, we report that many hierarchical and greedy clustering methods produce unstable OTUs, with membership that depends on the number of sequences clustered. If OTUs are regenerated with additional sequences or samples, sequences originally assigned to a given OTU can be split into different OTUs. Alternatively, sequences assigned to different OTUs can be merged into a single OTU. This OTU instability affects alpha-diversity analyses such as rarefaction curves, beta-diversity analyses such as distance-based ordination (for example, Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCoA)), and the identification of differentially represented OTUs. Our results show that the proportion of unstable OTUs varies for different clustering methods. We found that the closed-reference method is the only one that produces completely stable OTUs, with the caveat that sequences that do not match a pre-existing reference sequence collection are discarded. As a compromise to the factors listed above, we propose using an open-reference method to enhance OTU stability. This type of method clusters sequences against a database and includes unmatched sequences by clustering them via a relatively stable de novo clustering method. OTU stability is an important consideration when analyzing microbial diversity and is a feature that should be taken into account during the development of novel OTU clustering methods.

  14. When the mosque goes Beethoven: Expressing religious belongings through music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Salzbrunn


    Full Text Available The present article will provide insight on music as a vector of religious belonging: a female choir at a mosque in the Lake Geneva Metropolitan Region has reinterpreted Beethoven’s Ode to Joy with new text about the glory of the Messenger, and a regional political and religious event which has united music from Syria, Kosovo and Tunisia in order to put on stage the cosmopolitan characteristics of Swiss Muslims. Religious and national belonging as well as cultural references can be expressed in different ways through ritual practices (prayer, celebrations, food or clothing. These practices, influenced by gender and age, are highly diverse. Celebrations that are performed in public also depend on the local and global political context, the specific social situation and the specific place (location, public, legal framework etc.. As part of a broader research project on “(Invisible Islam in the city,” a research team directed by Monika Salzbrunn has observed various forms of celebration – both religious and secular festive events – in which Muslim citizens are involved. At what audience are these musical performances directed? Can we really separate an analysis of religious belongings from an analysis of political and/or cultural performances?

  15. The Need of Belonging and Sense of Belonging versus Effectiveness of Coping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilczyńska Agnieszka


    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to describe the dependence between the need for and sense of belonging and symptoms of depression vs. one’s capacity to cope effectively. Using path analysis of our data (N = 178, we found direct patterns, in which both depression symptoms and life satisfaction depend to a considerable degree on the sense of belonging. The belonging need influences, in a direct way, the coping focused on the search for social support. Undertaking active techniques of coping, including confrontation with a stressful situation and its negative controlling impact, depends on having a high level of the sense of belonging. In contrast, individuals who cope by means of taking psychoactive drugs show the symptoms of depression.

  16. A Conceptual Shift in Studies of Belonging and the Politics of Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Youkhana


    Full Text Available The study of belonging, its underlying notions, and the politics of belonging shows that social, political, and territorial demarcations are still based on essentialist conceptions of the collective. These are often applied and reproduced in the social sciences as a result of methodological nationalism. Space-sensitive studies of migration and globalization and a return to the material have recently challenged social constructivist lines of argumentation and have provoked a conceptual shift from analytical categories with inherent spatiality, territoriality, and boundary marking to concepts based on movement and flow. In this paper the analysis of belonging and the related politics of belonging in migration studies incorporates space as an analytical category that cross-cuts established categorizations such as race, class, gender, and stage in the life cycle, and integrates a material semiotic perspective more systematically into the study of social relations at the intersection of the social categories mentioned. A new concept of belonging is defined which reflects the complex relations that individuals have with other people, circulating objects, artefacts, and changing social, political, and cultural landscapes, thus mirroring both the material conditions and the underlying power relations. Such an understanding of belonging proceeds from social naturalizations and fixations to the multiplicity and situatedness of individual attachments, which entangle social, imagined, and sensual-material relations that are constantly re-articulated and re-negotiated by actors in their day-to-day practices. In such a reading, belonging comes into being as a result of individual life stories, versatile contexts, and situated experiences and acts. In times of constant exchange through travel, mass media, and communication technologies, the conceptualization of belonging questions established sociocultural and political demarcations, indicates the

  17. Health and nomadism: territory and belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Hillesheim


    Full Text Available This article discusses how territory and linking notions articulate with the health field in Brazil, in view of the relations that are established between health staff and certain social groups who see in the movement a logic of life, survival and resistance: the nomads. The concept of territory is an important organizer of Brazilian’s public policies, and is closely related to inclusion. The data were collected through participant observation of the daily work of two teams of Family Health Strategy, in a medium-sized city located in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. For these services, nomadism is seen as a nuisance. On the other hand, include not only acquires a sense of attachment and population control, but the demarcation of belonging territories, from the investment of the relation of users with health services.

  18. Comparison of the Diet of Two Desert-living Owls, the Long-eared Owl ( Asio otus and Little Owl ( Athene noctua from Southern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M. Scott


    Full Text Available The diet of two sympatric owl species, the long-eared owl ( Asio otus and the little owl ( Athene noctua was investigated in an arid area of southern Mongolia using pellet analysis. In total 334 pellets of long-eared owl and 52 pellets of little owl were analysed, revealing the presence of five small mammal species (Dipodidae, three Muridae and one Soricidae, small birds and invertebrate fragments. Accumulative composition plots indicated a batch size of 35 - 60 pellets was sufficient to reveal representative diet composition. Small mammals comprised the largest component of the diet of long- eared owls with four species recorded, Phodopus was the most frequently occurring (85 %, followed by Meriones (33 %. Bird and invertebrate remains were also found in long-eared owl pellets but comprised less than 2 %. In contrast, invertebrates were the highest occurring component of the diet of little owls (35 %, with small mammals occurring in only 40 % of pellets. Meriones was the most frequently recorded small mammal in little owl pellets (23 % and contributed the greatest in terms of overall rodent biomass. There was a highly statistically significant difference in the diet of the two species (÷ 2 = 2043, d.f. = 4, P < 0.001. Levin’s measure of niche breadth was greater for little owls (0.71 than long-eared owls (0.51, but overall the two species had low niche overlap using Levin’s index (0.22. These results are discussed in relation to previous findings of these two species.

  19. Bats as the main prey of wintering long-eared owl (Asio otus) in Beijing: Integrating biodiversity protection and urban management. (United States)

    Tian, Long; Zhou, Xuwei; Shi, Yang; Guo, Yumin; Bao, Weidong


    The loss of biodiversity from urbanized areas is a major environmental problem challenging policy-makers throughout the world. Solutions to this problem are urgently required in China. We carried out a case study of wintering long-eared owls (Asio otus) and their main prey to illustrate the negative effects of urbanization combined with ineffective conservation of biodiversity in Beijing. Field monitoring of owl numbers at two roosting sites from 2004 to 2012 showed that the owl population had fallen rapidly in metropolitan Beijing. Analysis of pellet contents identified only seven individuals of two species of shrew. The majority of mammalian prey comprised four bat and seven rodent species, making up 29.3% and 29.5% of the prey items, respectively. Prey composition varied significantly among years at the two sample sites. At the urban site the consumption of bats and rodents declined gradually over time, while predation on birds increased. In contrast, at the suburban site the prey composition showed an overall decrease in the number of bats, a sharp increase and a subsequent decrease in bird prey, and the number of rodent prey fell to a low point. Rapid development of real estate and inadequate greenfield management in city parks resulted in negative effects on the bird and small mammal habitat of urban areas in Beijing. We suggest that measures to conserve biodiversity should be integrated into future urban planning to maintain China's rich biodiversity while also achieving sustainable economic development. © 2014 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  20. Perceptions of Stereotype Vulnerability, Belonging and Campus Climate by African Americans Attending a Predominately White Institution (United States)

    Thompson, Loren Wright


    The purpose of this study was to examine of stereotype vulnerability, sense of belonging and campus climate for African American college students at a Predominately White Institution (PWI) in the Southeast. This research used a sociocultural model to explore African American student perceptions at a PWI in the southeast of the United States. This…

  1. Black African Immigrant College Students' Perceptions of Belonging at a Predominately White Institution (United States)

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Aleixo, Marina B.


    A growing number of college-age Blacks in the United States are Black African immigrants. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the researchers interviewed 12 undergraduate Black African immigrant college students attending a predominately White institution (PWI) about their experiences and perceptions of belonging. Findings suggest…

  2. British Citizenship, Gender and Migration: The Containment of Cultural Differences and the Stratification of Belonging (United States)

    Morrice, Linda


    Debates about integration, British values and identity, who can belong and who can become a citizen, have been fuelled by concerns about growing cultural diversity in the United Kingdom. To promote a shared sense of national identity and claim a universal and normative citizen subject, the UK government, along with many other western nations, has…

  3. Microbial Contaminants of Cord Blood Units Identified by 16S rRNA Sequencing and by API Test System, and Antibiotic Sensitivity Profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís França

    Full Text Available Over a period of ten months a total of 5618 cord blood units (CBU were screened for microbial contamination under routine conditions. The antibiotic resistance profile for all isolates was also examined using ATB strips. The detection rate for culture positive units was 7.5%, corresponding to 422 samples.16S rRNA sequence analysis and identification with API test system were used to identify the culturable aerobic, microaerophilic and anaerobic bacteria from CBUs. From these samples we recovered 485 isolates (84 operational taxonomic units, OTUs assigned to the classes Bacteroidia, Actinobacteria, Clostridia, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria and primarily to the Gammaproteobacteria. Sixty-nine OTUs, corresponding to 447 isolates, showed 16S rRNA sequence similarities above 99.0% with known cultured bacteria. However, 14 OTUs had 16S rRNA sequence similarities between 95 and 99% in support of genus level identification and one OTU with 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 90.3% supporting a family level identification only. The phenotypic identification formed 29 OTUs that could be identified to the species level and 9 OTUs that could be identified to the genus level by API test system. We failed to obtain identification for 14 OTUs, while 32 OTUs comprised organisms producing mixed identifications. Forty-two OTUs covered species not included in the API system databases. The API test system Rapid ID 32 Strep and Rapid ID 32 E showed the highest proportion of identifications to the species level, the lowest ratio of unidentified results and the highest agreement to the results of 16S rRNA assignments. Isolates affiliated to the Bacilli and Bacteroidia showed the highest antibiotic multi-resistance indices and microorganisms of the Clostridia displayed the most antibiotic sensitive phenotypes.

  4. Microbial Contaminants of Cord Blood Units Identified by 16S rRNA Sequencing and by API Test System, and Antibiotic Sensitivity Profiling. (United States)

    França, Luís; Simões, Catarina; Taborda, Marco; Diogo, Catarina; da Costa, Milton S


    Over a period of ten months a total of 5618 cord blood units (CBU) were screened for microbial contamination under routine conditions. The antibiotic resistance profile for all isolates was also examined using ATB strips. The detection rate for culture positive units was 7.5%, corresponding to 422 samples.16S rRNA sequence analysis and identification with API test system were used to identify the culturable aerobic, microaerophilic and anaerobic bacteria from CBUs. From these samples we recovered 485 isolates (84 operational taxonomic units, OTUs) assigned to the classes Bacteroidia, Actinobacteria, Clostridia, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria and primarily to the Gammaproteobacteria. Sixty-nine OTUs, corresponding to 447 isolates, showed 16S rRNA sequence similarities above 99.0% with known cultured bacteria. However, 14 OTUs had 16S rRNA sequence similarities between 95 and 99% in support of genus level identification and one OTU with 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 90.3% supporting a family level identification only. The phenotypic identification formed 29 OTUs that could be identified to the species level and 9 OTUs that could be identified to the genus level by API test system. We failed to obtain identification for 14 OTUs, while 32 OTUs comprised organisms producing mixed identifications. Forty-two OTUs covered species not included in the API system databases. The API test system Rapid ID 32 Strep and Rapid ID 32 E showed the highest proportion of identifications to the species level, the lowest ratio of unidentified results and the highest agreement to the results of 16S rRNA assignments. Isolates affiliated to the Bacilli and Bacteroidia showed the highest antibiotic multi-resistance indices and microorganisms of the Clostridia displayed the most antibiotic sensitive phenotypes.

  5. Friends, family and social belonging as we age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Aims: This study investigated if perceptions of social belonging in late adulthood are differentiated by the quality of family and friend relationships. Method:  The study consisted of two phases.  In Phase 1, 260 university staff and students, aged 18 to 75, completed an online survey investigating the quality of family and friend relationships and their association with social belonging.  In Phase 2, 88 older adults completed a refined print version of the survey.   Results:  Multiple regression was used to analyse the predictive ability of family and friend relationships on social belonging. In Phase 1, significant associations were found between both family and friend relationships and social belonging, with friendship yielding the strongest relationship.  Interestingly, in Phase 2 the association between quality of family and friend relationships and social belonging was mediated by age. Those aged 65 to 74 reported a significant relationship between friends and social belonging, which contrasted with those aged over 75.  A significant association between social belonging and family relationships was also found for the entire cohort aged over 65, while high quality friend relationships enhanced social belonging when family relationships were not strong. Conclusions: These results are tentative, but suggest that future research should consider the role that both friendships and family play in promoting social belonging in older adults.

  6. Acculturative Stress and School Belonging among Latino Youth (United States)

    Roche, Cathy; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.


    Dimensions of acculturative stress and their implications for school belonging and achievement were examined among 199 Latino middle-school students. The proposed model hypothesized that school belonging would mediate the association between acculturative stress dimensions and low school achievement. Eighty percent youth of the sample were…

  7. Migrant Rap in the Periphery: Performing Politics of Belonging (United States)

    Leppänen, Sirpa; Westinen, Elina


    Focusing on a YouTube performance by an emergent Finnish Somali rapper and the audience responses it has generated, this paper looks at ways in which rap music engages with the issue of belonging. Drawing on recent theorizations of belonging as a multi-dimensional, contingent and fluid process, along with sociolinguistic work on globalization and…

  8. Belonging as a Guiding Principle in the Education of Adolescents (United States)

    Allen, Kelly A.; Bowles, Terence


    Belonging has been shown to have a significant impact on a range of factors associated with wellbeing. These areas include life satisfaction, general wellbeing, clinical depression, cognitive performance, academic outcomes, and physical health. Belonging is an important aspect of psychological functioning. Schools offer unique opportunities for…

  9. Multiple Religious Belonging: Hermeneutical Challenges for Theology of Religions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oostveen Daan F.


    Full Text Available The phenomenon of multiple religious belonging is studied from different perspectives, each of which reveals a different understanding of religion, religious diversity and religious belonging. This shows that the phenomenon of multiple religious belonging is challenging the applicability of these central notions in academic enquiry about religion. In this article, I present the different perspectives on multiple religious belonging in theology of religions and show how the understanding of some central scholarly notions is different. In Christian theology, the debate on multiple religious belonging is conducted between particularists, who focus on the uniqueness of religious traditions, and pluralists, who focus on the shared religious core of religious traditions. Both positions are criticized by feminist and post-colonial theologians. They believe that both particularists and pluralists focus too strongly on religious traditions and the boundaries between them. I argue that the hermeneutic study of multiple religious belonging could benefit from a more open understanding of religious traditions and religious boundaries, as proposed by these feminist and post-colonial scholars. In order to achieve this goal we could also benefit from a more intercultural approach to multiple religious belonging in order to understand religious belonging in a nonexclusive way.

  10. Social inhibition sense of belonging and vulnerability to internalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moor, E.L.; Denollet, J.; Laceulle, O.M.


    Background The aim of this study was to provide a conceptual test of how social inhibition, sense of belonging and internalizing problems are related, and whether sense of belonging moderates or mediates the relation between social inhibition and internalizing problems. Methods Data were used from

  11. How the Host Nation's Boundary Drawing Affects Immigrants' Belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær


    Across Western democracies, the place for newcomers in the host society is debated, involving often a questioning of immigrants’ belonging to their new nation. This article argues that immigrants’ feeling of host national belonging depends on how the host nation imagines its community and its...

  12. Social Class and Belonging: Implications for Graduate Students' Career Aspirations (United States)

    Ostrove, Joan M.; Stewart, Abigail J.; Curtin, Nicola L.


    We examined the role that social class background plays in graduate students' career goals. Class background was significantly related to the extent to which students struggled financially in graduate school, which related to their sense of belonging in graduate school. Sense of belonging related to academic self-concept, which predicted students'…

  13. Hybrid Citizenship: Latina Youth and the Politics of Belonging (United States)

    Bondy, Jennifer M.


    Drawing from interview data collected from high school students in Broward County, Florida, this article explores how eight adolescent Latinas understand citizenship and belonging vis-à-vis circulating images and discourses on Latina/o immigration, immigrant, and Latina. The author examines Latina youths' citizenship identities and belonging using…

  14. It Feels Good to Learn Where I Belong: School Belonging, Academic Emotions, and Academic Achievement in Adolescents (United States)

    Lam, Un Fong; Chen, Wei-Wen; Zhang, Jingqi; Liang, Ting


    This study examined the relationships between school belonging, academic emotions, and academic achievement in Macau adolescents. A survey of 406 junior high school students in Macau was used to collect information on the extent to which these students felt accepted and respected in their schools (school belonging), the emotions they experienced…

  15. Disentangling Memories. Complex (Be)longings and Social Categories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Chistina Hee; Frølunde, Lisbeth


    This presentation analyses the complex workings of social categories in constructions of (be)longing in memories of young university students in Bolivia and Peru. In a methodology course the participants explored how socio economic and socio cultural differences had affected the lives...... belonging to a specific social or racial group. (Be)longing to a specific gendered and radicalised body constitutes in the analysis of these stories an excellent “location,” from which to analyse how socio/cultural and socio/economic categories like class, nationality and age intersect with one another...... to produce insights and consciousness about the socio-cultural impact of sense making processes....

  16. Homegrown religious radicalization and the quest for belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khawaja, Iram

    this seemingly religious radicalization, from the point of view of the youngsters, by drawing on a study of young Muslims in religious communities in Copenhagen and combining it with existing blogs, twitter profiles etc. of youngsters sympathizing with Islamic radicalized movements. What are the youngsters...... framework based on a focus on belonging, self-construction and the sense of community will be proposed. The framework will be utilized in an analysis of narratives from youngsters who have chosen a radicalized path in life. The paper will shed light on how the sense of and yearning for belonging...

  17. Multiculturalism, Mauritian Style : Cultural Diversity, Belonging, and a Secular State

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ng Tseung-Wong, Caroline; Verkuijten, Maykel


    Multiculturalism is on the retreat in many Western countries. As an ideology, it is criticized for failing to engender national belonging and social cohesion and thereby to encourage groups of citizens to have parallel lives. In this article, we present the case of Mauritius that is often viewed as

  18. Experiences of School Belonging for Young Children with Refugee Backgrounds (United States)

    Due, Clemence; Riggs, Damien W.; Augoustinos, Martha


    Previous research with adolescents with refugee backgrounds living in countries of resettlement has found that school belonging has an impact on a range of well-being and developmental outcomes, including mental health, peer relationships, self-esteem and self-efficacy, and academic achievement. However, very little research has explored school…

  19. Relentless Verity: Education for Being-Becoming-Belonging. (United States)

    Kidd, James Robbins

    The dynamic relationship of the concepts of being, becoming, and belonging is and must be the heart and central goal of adult education. The concept can be understood most readily by examination of the writings of humanist psychologists such as Carl Rogers, Fritz Perls, Gordon Allport, and Abraham Maslow. Some characteristics or dimensions of an…

  20. Discrimination and Sleep: The Protective Role of School Belonging (United States)

    Huynh, Virginia W.; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari


    Ethnic minority adolescents experience certain sleep problems, yet factors that affect their sleep are poorly understood. This study examined the association between ethnic discrimination and sleep during adolescence and the extent to which perceived stress mediated these associations. This study also examined whether school belonging can protect…

  1. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging (United States)

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael


    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a major…

  2. Examining belonging at the interface of ethnicity, social status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examining belonging at the interface of ethnicity, social status and masculinities in transnational space among foreign African male students at the University of ... finance and production as well as the on going processes of political and economic integration has led to an unprecedented increase in international migration.

  3. The politics of identity, belonging and the integration of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article will be looking at the political and institutional structures in place, which either facilitate or constrain a sense of belonging and integration of professional migrants of African origin into the new democratic state of South Africa. Discussions in this article are based on a qualitative in-depth study conducted among ...

  4. Belongings: Oral History, Objects and an Online Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis Wilton


    Full Text Available The New South Wales Migration Heritage Centre was established in 1998. Since 2003 its physical presence has been located within Sydney’s Powerhouse Museum and it has had the strategic brief to record the memories of ageing migrants before their stories are lost. The Centre is, however, a museum without a collection; a heritage authority without heritage sites; a cultural institution whose main presence is in cyberspace. Among its high profile projects is one entitled Objects through time and another Belongings. Both focus on the ways in which objects can convey aspects of the migration experience. Belongings, the focus of this article, presents the remembered experiences of people who migrated to Australia after World War II, and seeks to highlight significant features of their experiences through asking them to share their memories and to nominate and talk about significant objects. As a project it grew out of movable heritage policy work within state government agencies, and its initiators – John Petersen, Kylie Winkworth and Meredith Walker – were central players in this development. It was also inspired by the National Quilt Register of the Pioneer Women’s Hut at Tumbarumba. With its object-centred approach and accompanying edited interview transcripts, Belongings provides a focus for exploring the messages and emphases that emerge when oral history interviews concerned with migration have the specific brief to ask about material culture and its significance. Belongings also enables an exploration of the layering of those messages that emerges when object captions are located back in the context of the oral history interviews from which they were extracted. As a virtual exhibition, Belongings also provides the opportunity to consider the challenges for museums (virtual and real when they need to condense the richness of migrant oral histories and life stories to captioned objects that can be put on display.

  5. Cosmopolitanism, geographical imaginaries and belonging in North London. (United States)

    Devadason, Ranji


    Cosmopolitanism has been described as the cultural habitus of globalisation. It is therefore, albeit defined somewhat loosely, often associated with ethnically diverse, global cities. This paper considers the extent to which London engenders cosmopolitan values amongst its residents. It draws on survey data from the LOCAL MULTIDEM study of minorities' political participation to address these themes. The analysis examines perceptions of respect, belonging and geographical imaginaries - amongst established minorities and the ethnic majority - in north London. It is argued that cosmopolitan ethics are transformative and dialectical and, critically, cannot remain the preserve of the privileged in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods. The analysis presented demonstrates that a sense of belonging and cosmopolitan imaginaries are not evenly accessed by different ethnic groups; notably, that Bangladeshi Londoners who are born and bred in the city are less likely to appropriate these discourses than Caribbean, Indian or White residents.

  6. Creating a hybrid sense of belonging in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monka, Malene

    to local products and culturally by enacting the competition (Coupland 2014). Yet, I argue that the participants do not create a copy of the activity as it is played out in its original setting, rather it is ascribed a certain urban coolness, which might be a way of demonstrating hybrid senses of belonging...... the first event, a Facebook-community was set up to organize and promote succeeding events. By analyzing empirical data from Facebook I point to how the participants draw on a range of ‘languagecultural practices’ (Cornips & de Rooij in press) to re-contextualize the rural tradition to an urban setting. I...... discuss whether and how the two dimensions of ‘belonging’ (Antonsich 2010), i.e. place-belongingness and politics of belonging, are made relevant by the participants. The connection to Southern Jutland is pointed to in several ways: linguistically by using dialect orthography, materially by pointing...

  7. Fostering Academic Self-Concept: Advisor Support and Sense of Belonging among International and Domestic Graduate Students (United States)

    Curtin, Nicola; Stewart, Abigail J.; Ostrove, Joan M.


    International doctoral students in the United States face challenges of acculturation in academia yet complete graduate school at higher rates and more quickly than their domestic counterparts. This study examined advisor support, sense of belonging, and academic self-concept among international and domestic doctoral students at a research…

  8. Detailed abundances in stars belonging to ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal galaxies


    François, P.; Monaco, L.; Villanova, S.; Catelan, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Bellazzini, M.; Bidin, C. Moni; Marconi, G.; Geisler, D.; Sbordone, L.


    We report preliminary results concerning the detailed chemical composition of metal poor stars belonging to close ultra-faint dwarf galaxies (hereafter UfDSphs). The abundances have been determined thanks to spectra obtained with X-Shooter, a high efficiency spectrograph installed on one of the ESO VLT units. The sample of ultra-faint dwarf spheroidal stars have abundance ratios slightly lower to what is measured in field halo star of the same metallicity.We did not find extreme abundances in...

  9. The Religious Quest As Transformative Journey: Interspiritual Religious Belonging And The Problem Of Religious Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEntee Rory


    Full Text Available As scholars and the public grope towards understanding emergent forms of religiosity (multiple-religious belonging, spiritual but not religious, interspirituality, notions of discernment, religious depth, and spiritual practice figure prominently in defining and assessing these forms. Some form of commitment to a particular religious tradition is often considered the most important factor in the discernment of religious depth, while “spiritual but not religious” is often seen as the amorphous searching or the drifting whims of an immature ego. I will argue, however, that failing to take into account the most mature forms of emerging religiosity is bound to miss important developments, just as similar methodologies would for traditional religions. Further, I point out problems with correlating religious depth with belonging to a particular religious tradition, and offer an alternate way to conceive of religious depth. In doing so I develop the concept of the religious quest as transformative journey, allowing for a more capacious understanding of religious consciousness. I then introduce interspiritual religious belonging, contrasting it with certain understandings of “multiple-religious” belonging, and providing mature examples of its embodiment. Finally, utilizing new surveys from Pew and PPRI showing accelerating growth among the “spiritual but not religious” and “religiously unaffiliated”-as well as expanding religious and racial diversity within the United States-I briefly reference potential political ramifications the interspiritual movement might have, and address the importance of developing mature theological perspectives from within it. It is my hope that the Theology Without Walls project can provide academic space for the latter.

  10. Queer families: valuing stories of adversity, diversity and belonging. (United States)

    Newman, Christy E


    The 2017 Australian Marriage Law Postal Survey provided an unwelcome reminder that the concepts of queer sexuality and family life continue to be viewed as incompatible by many. However, campaigns in support of marriage equality also provide opportunities to document and disseminate stories of queer belonging within families. This commentary proposes three new ways of understanding and valuing accounts of what family means to LGBTQ communities, based on emerging findings from social research studies. It argues that in post-marriage equality contexts, it is time to learn to accept and to celebrate the differences that exist within every community, including within the diverse forms of families that are made.

  11. Transnationalism among Second-Generation Muslim Americans: Being and Belonging in Their Transnational Social Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Byng


    Full Text Available An increase in transnationalism, the ability of individuals and families to travel and maintain relationships across national borders, has led to questions about its impact on identity especially for the children of migrants. When combined with concerns about global and national security such as those that are associated with Muslims and Islam, then questions about the strength national identity are particularly pertinent. This analysis uses the theories of transnational social fields and intersectionality to examine the transnational experiences of second-generation Muslim Americans. It relies on qualitative interview data. The data show the intersection of their national, religious, and gender identities. It demonstrates that they experience transnational being in their parents’ country of origin and belonging in the United States. Nationality, religion, and gender influence what they experience in each location. The analysis demonstrates the stability and centrality of American national identity in what second-generation Muslims experience in both locations. Moreover, their belonging in the United States rests squarely on their perceptions of themselves as Americans and their construction of their Muslim identity as an American religious identity.

  12. Identity and Belonging as Positionality. An Approach from Intersectionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Arce-Cuadros


    Full Text Available In this article terms we may use to refer to identities and the meanings of belonging in a multicultural context are considered. For this purpose, we study Stuart Hall’s concept of vernacular cosmopolitism, which recognizes identities as points of suture between discourses and practices; that is, alignments between two scopes: a constitutive outside, and interiority produced by the self. On the other hand, we study the intersectionality approach, which considers that axes of social stratification are mutually organized and interconnected; therefore, identities are not built in relation to fixed groups such as class, ethnic group, nation, but as social positionalities letting the representation of multiple identities to operate simultaneously as possible.

  13. The need to belong can motivate belief in God. (United States)

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Maio, Gregory R


    The need to belong can motivate belief in God. In Study 1, 40 undergraduates read bogus astrophysics articles "proving" God's existence or not offering proof. Participants in the proof-for-God condition reported higher belief in God (compared to control) when they chronically imagined God as accepting but lower belief in God when they imagined God as rejecting. Additionally, in Study 2 (72 undergraduates), these effects did not occur when participants' belongingness need was satisfied by priming close others. Study 3 manipulated 79 Internet participants' image of God. Chronic believers in the God-is-rejecting condition reported lower religious behavioral intentions than chronic believers in the God-is-accepting condition, and this effect was mediated by lower desires for closeness with God. In Study 4 (106 Internet participants), chronic believers with an accepting image of God reported that their belief in God is motivated by belongingness needs. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Personality © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Bacterial diversity in relatively pristine and anthropogenically-influenced mangrove ecosystems (Goa, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, S.O.; Kirchman, D.L.; Michotey, V.D.; Bonin, P.C.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    at both locations comprising 43-46% of total tags. The Tuvem ecosystem was characterized by an abundance of members belonging to the class Deltaproteobacteria (21%), ~ 2100 phylotypes and 1561 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) sharing > 97% similarity...

  15. Biogeography of thermophilic phototrophic bacteria belonging to Roseiflexus genus. (United States)

    Gaisin, Vasil A; Grouzdev, Denis S; Namsaraev, Zorigto B; Sukhacheva, Marina V; Gorlenko, Vladimir M; Kuznetsov, Boris B


    Isolated environments such as hot springs are particularly interesting for studying the microbial biogeography. These environments create an 'island effect' leading to genetic divergence. We studied the phylogeographic pattern of thermophilic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria, belonging to the Roseiflexus genus. The main characteristic of the observed pattern was geographic and geochronologic fidelity to the hot springs within Circum-Pacific and Alpine-Himalayan-Indonesian orogenic belts. Mantel test revealed a correlation between genetic divergence and geographic distance among the phylotypes. Cluster analysis revealed a regional differentiation of the global phylogenetic pattern. The phylogeographic pattern is in correlation with geochronologic events during the break up of Pangaea that led to the modern configuration of continents. To our knowledge this is the first geochronological scenario of intercontinental prokaryotic taxon divergence. The existence of the modern phylogeographic pattern contradicts with the existence of the ancient evolutionary history of the Roseiflexus group proposed on the basis of its deep-branching phylogenetic position. These facts indicate that evolutionary rates in Roseiflexus varied over a wide range. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  16. The diversity of polyprenol pattern in leaves of fruit trees belonging to Rosaceae and Cornaceae. (United States)

    Wanke, M; Chojnacki, T; Swiezewska, E


    The polyprenol pattern in leaves of fruit trees belonging to the Rosaceae (genera: Prunus, Malus) and Cornaceae (genus: Cornus) families is presented. The content of polyprenyl acetates varied within plant species between 10-50 mg per gram of dry weight. In genus Prunus, Cornus and in representatives of species Malus domestica, a mixture of polyprenols composed of 18, 19, 20, 21 isoprene units was found. In six species of genus Prunus (sour-cherry): P. serrulata-spontanea, P. yedoensis, P. fruticosa. P. kurilensis, P. subhirtella and P. incisa the presence of a second polyprenol family, i.e. the group of prenologues consisting of prenol -35, -36, -37, etc. up to -42 was detected.

  17. The role of isomorphous substitutions in natural selenides belonging to the pyrite group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindi, Luca; Cipriani, Curzio; Pratesi, Giovanni; Trosti-Ferroni, Renza


    The present paper reports chemical and structural data of selenide minerals belonging to the pyrite group. Eighteen samples of minerals in this group with variable chemical composition (7 samples of penroseite, NiSe 2 ; 10 samples of krutaite, CuSe 2 ; 1 sample of trogtalite, CoSe 2 ) were studied by means of X-ray single-crystal diffraction and electron microprobe. On the basis of information gained from the chemical characterization, we can conclude that a complete solid solution between NiSe 2 and CuSe 2 exists in nature with the absence of pure end-members. Although verified only for the Ni-rich members, we also infer a solid solution between NiSe 2 and CoSe 2 . The unit-cell parameters were modeled using a multiple regression method as a function of the Co, Ni, and Cu contents

  18. The role of isomorphous substitutions in natural selenides belonging to the pyrite group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindi, Luca [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy)], E-mail:; Cipriani, Curzio [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Pratesi, Giovanni [Museo di Storia Naturale, sez. di Mineralogia e Litologia, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy); Trosti-Ferroni, Renza [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Firenze, via La Pira 4, I-50121 Firenze (Italy)


    The present paper reports chemical and structural data of selenide minerals belonging to the pyrite group. Eighteen samples of minerals in this group with variable chemical composition (7 samples of penroseite, NiSe{sub 2}; 10 samples of krutaite, CuSe{sub 2}; 1 sample of trogtalite, CoSe{sub 2}) were studied by means of X-ray single-crystal diffraction and electron microprobe. On the basis of information gained from the chemical characterization, we can conclude that a complete solid solution between NiSe{sub 2} and CuSe{sub 2} exists in nature with the absence of pure end-members. Although verified only for the Ni-rich members, we also infer a solid solution between NiSe{sub 2} and CoSe{sub 2}. The unit-cell parameters were modeled using a multiple regression method as a function of the Co, Ni, and Cu contents.

  19. Young Children in Day and Night Care: Negotiating and Constructing Belonging during Daily Arrivals (United States)

    Salonen, Eija; Laakso, Marja-Leena; Sevón, Eija


    The paper aims at understanding the processes related to young children's belonging during daily arrivals at day and night care. Two aspects of a child's belonging are considered: membership and sense of belonging. Data were gathered by ethnographic observation of 8 children aged from 20 to 36 months in two Finnish day care centres offering day…

  20. Fostering School Belonging in Secondary Schools Using a Socio-Ecological Framework (United States)

    Allen, Kelly-Ann; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Waters, Lea


    The benefits of belonging and feeling connected to school for adolescent mental health and wellbeing are well documented, but how belonging is fostered is less understood. The present article puts forward a new conceptual framework of school belonging based on Bronfenbrenner's (1979) sociological model of human development, using evidence from a…

  1. What Schools Need to Know about Fostering School Belonging: A Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Allen, Kelly; Kern, Margaret L.; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Hattie, John; Waters, Lea


    Belonging is an essential aspect of psychological functioning. Schools offer unique opportunities to improve belonging for school-aged children. Research on school belonging, however, has been fragmented and diluted by inconsistency in the use of terminology. To resolve some of these inconsistencies, the current study uses meta-analysis of…

  2. How culture shapes community: bible belief, theological unity, and a sense of belonging in religious congregations. (United States)

    Stroope, Samuel


    Feeling that you belong in a group is an important and powerful need. The ability to foster a sense of belonging can also determine whether groups survive. Organizational features of groups cultivate feelings of belonging, yet prior research fails to investigate the idea that belief systems also play a major role. Using multilevel data, this study finds that church members' traditional beliefs, group-level belief unity, and their interaction associate positively with members' sense of belonging. In fact, belief unity can be thought of as a “sacred canopy” under which the relationship between traditional beliefs and feelings of belonging thrives.

  3. Do sealless pumps belong in hydrocarbon processing services?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Shawn L. [Sundyne Corporation, Arvada, CO (Brazil)


    Sealless pump technology seems unimaginable in the hot, dirty and high-pressure world of hydrocarbon processing. Furthermore the high flow rates typical of the industry seem incompatible with sealless pumps. Seals and their environmental controls used in conventional technologies are not immune from these factors making sealless worth another look. In October 2000 the Sealless Centrifugal Pump Specification API 685 was published. This specification lends sealless pumps credibility and emphasizes the proper application of the technology. In many process units seal leaks can be extremely dangerous and costly. The heavy hydrocarbons can auto-ignite and light hydrocarbons will tend to find a source of ignition. The ever-increasing requirements for clean fuels are driving many of the current refinery upgrades. Best Also available control technology requirements and additional focus on Environmental Health and Safety increase the attractiveness of sealless technology to mitigate the hazards associated with seal leaks. Sealless has a place in hydrocarbon processing to eliminate seals, provide mechanical simplification, and ensure personnel/environmental protection. The proper application involves evaluating canned motor/magnetic drive technology, API 685 Guidelines, and vapor pressure versus pump circuit pressure analysis. There are four (4) specific processes where sealless pumps should be targeted: Alkylation, Sulfur Recovery/Hydrotreating, Naphtha Reforming Production, and Neutralization. (author)

  4. A case study for effects of operational taxonomic units from intracellular endoparasites and ciliates on the eukaryotic phylogeny: phylogenetic position of the haptophyta in analyses of multiple slowly evolving genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayoshi Nozaki

    Full Text Available Recent multigene phylogenetic analyses have contributed much to our understanding of eukaryotic phylogeny. However, the phylogenetic positions of various lineages within the eukaryotes have remained unresolved or in conflict between different phylogenetic studies. These phylogenetic ambiguities might have resulted from mixtures or integration from various factors including limited taxon sampling, missing data in the alignment, saturations of rapidly evolving genes, mixed analyses of short- and long-branched operational taxonomic units (OTUs, intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs with unusual substitution etc. In order to evaluate the effects from intracellular endoparasite and ciliate OTUs co-analyzed on the eukaryotic phylogeny and simplify the results, we here used two different sets of data matrices of multiple slowly evolving genes with small amounts of missing data and examined the phylogenetic position of the secondary photosynthetic chromalveolates Haptophyta, one of the most abundant groups of oceanic phytoplankton and significant primary producers. In both sets, a robust sister relationship between Haptophyta and SAR (stramenopiles, alveolates, rhizarians, or SA [stramenopiles and alveolates] was resolved when intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs were excluded, but not in their presence. Based on comparisons of character optimizations on a fixed tree (with a clade composed of haptophytes and SAR or SA, disruption of the monophyly between haptophytes and SAR (or SA in the presence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs can be considered to be a result of multiple evolutionary reversals of character positions that supported the synapomorphy of the haptophyte and SAR (or SA clade in the absence of intracellular endoparasite/ciliate OTUs.

  5. Ethnic pride, self-esteem, and school belonging: A reciprocal analysis over time


    Hernández, MM; Robins, RW; Widaman, KF; Conger, RD


    © 2017 American Psychological Association. School belonging (i.e., social connectedness to school) has positive implications for academic achievement and well-being. However, few studies have examined the developmental antecedents of school belonging, particularly for students of Mexican origin. To address this gap in the research literature, the present study examined reciprocal relations between school belonging and two self-affirmation beliefs-self-esteem and ethnic pride- using data from ...

  6. The interconnection between mental health, work and belonging: A phenomenological investigation


    Tangvald-Pedersen, Svein Olav; Bongaardt, Robert (Rob)


    It is well-known that a sense of belonging is crucial in relation to gaining and maintaining sound mental health. Work is also known to be an essential aspect of recovery from mental health problems. However, there is scant knowledge of what a sense of belonging in the workplace represents. This study explores the nature and meaning of a sense of belonging in the workplace as experienced by persons struggling with mental health issues. Using a descriptive phenomenological methodology, sixt...

  7. Intervention to Improve Engineering Self-Efficacy and Sense of Belonging of First-Year Engineering Students (United States)

    Jordan, Kari L.

    The percentage of bachelor's degrees in STEM awarded to women and underrepresented minority students needs to increase dramatically to reach parity with their majority counterparts. While three key underrepresented minority (URM) groups, African Americans, Hispanic/Latinos, and Native Americans constitute some 30 percent of the overall undergraduate student population in the United States, the share of engineering degrees earned by members of these groups declines as degree level increases. Underrepresented minority students accounted for about 12% of engineering bachelor's degrees awarded in 2009, 7% of master's degrees and 3% of doctorates (NSF Science Resource Statistics, 2009). The percent in engineering has been steadily decreasing, while overall participation in higher education among these groups has increased considerably. Keeping those thoughts in mind it is important to examine the historical theories and frameworks that will help us not only understand why underrepresented minority students pursue and persist in STEM majors in low numbers, but to also develop interventions to improve the alarming statistics that hamper engineering diversity. As indicated by our past two U.S. Presidents, there has been an increased discussion on the national and state level regarding the number of students entering engineering disciplines in general and underrepresented minority students in particular. Something happens between a student's freshman year and the point they decide to either switch their major or drop out of school altogether. Some researchers attribute the high dropout rate of underrepresented minority students in engineering programs to low engineering self-efficacy (e.g. Jordan et al., 2011). A student's engineering self-efficacy is his/her belief that he/she can successfully navigate the engineering curriculum and eventually become a practicing engineer. A student's engineering self-efficacy is formed by mastery experiences, vicarious experiences, his

  8. An Assessment of School Belonging and Academic Motivation among Latino Middle School Students (United States)

    Santos, Juan Manuel


    The purpose of this correlational study was to investigate and examine the self-reported feelings of school belonging and academic motivation among seventh and eighth grade students in a suburban setting, with a specific focus on the Latino subgroup. A corollary purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between school belonging and…

  9. A Pilot Study of Motor Disturbances in Children with ADHD Belonging to Chilean Schools (United States)

    Ancatén González, Carlos; Montes, Rodrigo; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Cristian


    The present pilot study aimed to determine motor control alterations in children with ADHD belonging to public schools, using Da Fonseca's Psychomotor Battery (BPM). This was a descriptive cross-sectional comparative study. The sample consisted of two groups, each group composed of 15 children between 7 and 9 years old belonging to public…

  10. Self-defeating behaviors in organizations : The relationship between thwarted belonging and interpersonal work behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thau, Stefan; Aquino, Karl; Poortvliet, P. Marijn

    This multisource field study applied belongingness theory to examine whether thwarted belonging, defined as the perceived discrepancy between one's desired and actual levels of belonging with respect to one's coworkers, predicts interpersonal work behaviors that are self-defeating. Controlling for

  11. Ethnic Pride, Self-Esteem, and School Belonging: A Reciprocal Analysis over Time (United States)

    Hernández, Maciel M.; Robins, Richard W.; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.


    School belonging (i.e., social connectedness to school) has positive implications for academic achievement and well-being. However, few studies have examined the developmental antecedents of school belonging, particularly for students of Mexican origin. To address this gap in the research literature, the present study examined reciprocal relations…

  12. Probability distributions for first neighbor distances between resonances that belong to two different families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Difilippo, F.C.


    For a mixture of two families of resonances, we found the probability distribution for the distance, as first neighbors, between resonances that belong to different families. Integration of this distribution gives the probability of accidental overlapping of resonances of one isotope by resonances of the other, provided that the resonances of each isotope belong to a single family. (author)

  13. Development of a Sense of Belonging for Privileged and Minoritized Students: An Emergent Model (United States)

    Vaccaro, Annemarie; Newmand, Barbara M.


    This article reports findings from a constructionist grounded theory study with 51 first-year college students. We explored student definitions and development of a sense of belonging during their first year of college. Belonging for all participants was shaped by 3 themes: environmental perceptions, involvement, and relationships. Yet, there were…

  14. A Sense of Belonging among College Students with Disabilities: An Emergent Theoretical Model (United States)

    Vaccaro, Annemarie; Daly-Cano, Meada; Newman, Barbara M.


    Higher education research suggests that the development of a sense of belonging is key to academic success and persistence, yet we know little about how first-year students with disabilities develop a sense of belonging as they transition into and through their first year in postsecondary environments. Themes from a grounded theory study of 8…

  15. University Belonging, Friendship Quality, and Psychological Adjustment during the Transition to College (United States)

    Pittman, Laura D.; Richmond, Adeya


    The authors collected questionnaire data from college students (N = 79) at 2 time points during their freshman year to examine how changes in a sense of university belonging, quality of friendships, and psychological adjustment were associated. Students who had positive changes in university belonging had corresponding positive changes in…

  16. A Sense of Belonging through the Eyes of First-Year LGBPQ Students (United States)

    Vaccaro, Annemarie; Newman, Barbara M.


    Using grounded theory methods, the authors examined how LGBPQ students developed a sense of belonging during the first year of college. Sense of belonging transformed and deepened over the year and was fostered in three different contexts: university, group, and friendship. It was influenced by sexual identity and outness, university messaging,…

  17. "Row, Row, Row Your Boat": Singing, Identity and Belonging in a Nursery (United States)

    Niland, Amanda


    The concept of belonging is widely recognised as a fundamental part of human development and a key element of early childhood curricula. The research presented here explores the role of singing in the development of children's sense of belonging in a day nursery for children aged from six months to two years. The research design incorporated…

  18. A longitudinal study of school belonging and academic motivation across high school. (United States)

    Neel, Cari Gillen-O'; Fuligni, Andrew


    This longitudinal study examined how school belonging changes over the years of high school, and how it is associated with academic achievement and motivation. Students from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds participated (N = 572; age span = 13.94-19.15 years). In ninth grade, girls' school belonging was higher than boys'. Over the course of high school, however, girls' school belonging declined, whereas boys' remained stable. Within-person longitudinal analyses indicated that years in which students had higher school belonging were also years in which they felt that school was more enjoyable and more useful, above and beyond their actual level of achievement. Results highlight the importance of belonging for maintaining students' academic engagement during the teenage years. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  19. How a gender gap in belonging contributes to the gender gap in physics participation (United States)

    Stout, Jane G.; Ito, Tiffany A.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Pollock, Steven J.


    A great deal of research indicates that feeling a secure sense of belonging in academic settings is critical to students' achievement. In the current work, we present data collected over multiple semesters of a calculus-based introductory physics class indicating that women feel a lower sense of belonging than men in physics. This finding is important because our data also indicate that having a strong sense of belonging in physics positively predicts the degree to which all students see the value of physics in their daily life (an outcome that predicts motivation and persistence in achievement settings) as well as performance on exams in the course. We identify one potential antecedent of women's relatively lower sense of belonging in physics, namely, negative cultural stereotypes about women's inferior ability in physics compared to men. We then discuss pedagogical strategies that might be employed to enhance women's sense of belonging in physics.

  20. How Is Developing the Sense of Belonging in Iranian Adolescent Girls? A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Mousavi


    CONCLUSION: Adequate parental education and the proper management of girls’ interactions with the family and society can play an important role in the development of a sense of belonging among adolescent girls.

  1. Self-defeating behaviors in organizations: the relationship between thwarted belonging and interpersonal work behaviors. (United States)

    Thau, Stefan; Aquino, Karl; Poortvliet, P Marijn


    This multisource field study applied belongingness theory to examine whether thwarted belonging, defined as the perceived discrepancy between one's desired and actual levels of belonging with respect to one's coworkers, predicts interpersonal work behaviors that are self-defeating. Controlling for demographic variables, job type, justice constructs, and trust in organization in a multilevel regression analysis using data from 130 employees of a clinical chemical laboratory and their supervisors, the authors found that employees who perceive greater levels of desired coworker belonging than actual levels of coworker belonging were more likely to engage in interpersonally harmful and less likely to engage in interpersonally helpful behaviors. Implications for the application of belongingness theory to explain self-defeating behaviors in organizations are discussed. 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  2. Belonging and quality of life as perceived by people with advanced cancer who live at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peoples, Hanne; Nissen, Nina; Brandt, Åse

    Purpose: In previous research (Peoples, Nissen, Brandt, & la Cour, 2017), we explored how people with advanced cancer who live at home perceive quality of life. Findings from our previous study indicate that dimensions of belonging in various ways may be connected to quality of life when living...... with an impending death. These findings prompted our curiosity to further explore, how perceived quality of life may be linked to belonging when living with advanced cancer. By drawing on our findings and the theoretical concept of belonging within occupational science, the purpose of this study was to gain...... a deeper understanding of the ways in which quality of life may be related to belonging as perceived by people with advanced cancer. Method: The study employed a qualitative approach using a combination of qualitative interviews and photo-elicitation. A thematic approach was used to analyse the data. Ten...

  3. Building a sense of belonging among tertiary commuter students: The Monash Non-Residential Colleges program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fernandes


    Full Text Available Student engagement at university is significantly influenced by sense of belonging. In 2013, our university developed a novel extra-curricular program designed to foster a sense of belonging in students who commute to university – the Monash Non-Residential Colleges (NRC program. This study examines whether participation in the Monash NRC program changed students’ perceptions about their university experience and their sense of belonging to the university community. We show that our NRC program appears to be effective in fostering a more positive university experience for students when compared with non-NRC students. Additionally, we demonstrate that our NRC program influenced students’ sense of belonging through increased interaction with peers and staff as well as greater reported attendance on campus.

  4. Negotiations of believing and belonging among Iraqi and Egyptian Christians in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galal, Lise Paulsen

    This presentation explores negotiations of belonging among Christian immigrants of Iraqi and Egyptian background in Denmark. Based on transnational and diaspora studies, experiences and practices of belonging are explored as multi-directional and situational springing from everyday encounters...... and personal life trajectory, political events in both the region of origin and in the receiving country (Denmark), as well as opportunity structures empowering Middle Eastern Christians as collective and individual actors....

  5. Deep sequencing of the viral phoH gene reveals temporal variation, depth-specific composition, and persistent dominance of the same viral phoH genes in the Sargasso Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn B. Goldsmith


    Full Text Available Deep sequencing of the viral phoH gene, a host-derived auxiliary metabolic gene, was used to track viral diversity throughout the water column at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS site in the summer (September and winter (March of three years. Viral phoH sequences reveal differences in the viral communities throughout a depth profile and between seasons in the same year. Variation was also detected between the same seasons in subsequent years, though these differences were not as great as the summer/winter distinctions. Over 3,600 phoH operational taxonomic units (OTUs; 97% sequence identity were identified. Despite high richness, most phoH sequences belong to a few large, common OTUs whereas the majority of the OTUs are small and rare. While many OTUs make sporadic appearances at just a few times or depths, a small number of OTUs dominate the community throughout the seasons, depths, and years.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina Maric


    Full Text Available The article explores the phenomenon of electronic sport (e-sport, which refers to organised and competitive video gaming. It is approached as a 'social world' and a specific culture of gaming, which produces organised groups, events and broadcasting. Located at the intersection of gaming and sports, e-sport adopts elements from both areas. From a grounded theory perspective, the article discusses the contexts, meanings and practices of pro-gaming within e-sport as researched in a study consisting of semi-structured interviews with e-sport fans, gamers, journalists and team managers and observation of e-sport events and clubhouses. The results point out that territorial belonging and gender remain relevant for pro-gaming. Both can inspire belonging and result in exclusions or inclusions. But while territorial belonging is adopted as a flexible practice, gender is structuring gaming within e-sport.

  7. Student-teacher relationships matter for school inclusion: school belonging, disability, and school transitions. (United States)

    Crouch, Ronald; Keys, Christopher B; McMahon, Susan D


    For students with disabilities, the process of school inclusion often begins with a move from segregated settings into general education classrooms. School transitions can be stressful as students adjust to a new environment. This study examines the adjustment of 133 students with and without disabilities who moved from a school that served primarily students with disabilities into 23 public schools in a large urban school district in the Midwest. These students and 111 of their teachers and other school staff rated the degree that students felt they belonged in their new schools and the quality of their social interactions. Results show that students who experienced more positive and fewer negative social interactions with school staff had higher school belonging. Teachers accurately noted whether students felt they belonged in their new settings, but were not consistently able to identify student perceptions of negative social interactions with staff. Implications for inclusion and improving our educational system are explored.

  8. Organizational identification and commitment: correlates of sense of belonging and affective commitment. (United States)

    Dávila, Ma Celeste; Jiménez García, Gemma


    The general purpose of this work is to analyze the overlap between organizational identification and commitment. Specifically, our study focuses on the analysis of the differences and similarities between sense of belonging (a dimension of organizational identification) and affective commitment (a dimension of organizational commitment). In order to do this, we analyzed their discriminant validity and raised their relationship with variables that previous research had showed like precedent and subsequent variables of them: value congruence, perceived support, organizational citizenship behavior, and intention to continue in the organization. A total of 292 people at one organization completed surveys measuring the variables previously described. The results showed that sense of belonging and affective commitment are different concepts and they have different relationships with relation to precedent and subsequent variables. Affective commitment seems to be more useful than sense of belonging to predict organizational citizenship behavior aimed at the organization and intention to continue. Some practical implications are described.

  9. Demystifying values-affirmation interventions: writing about social belonging is a key to buffering against identity threat. (United States)

    Shnabel, Nurit; Purdie-Vaughns, Valerie; Cook, Jonathan E; Garcia, Julio; Cohen, Geoffrey L


    Two experiments examined for the first time whether the specific content of participant-generated affirmation essays-in particular, writing about social belonging-facilitated an affirmation intervention's ability to reduce identity threat among negatively stereotyped students. Study 1, a field experiment, revealed that seventh graders assigned to a values-affirmation condition wrote about social belonging more than those assigned to a control condition. Writing about belonging, in turn, improved the grade point average (GPA) of Black, but not White students. In Study 2, using a modified "belonging-affirmation" intervention, we directly manipulated writing about social belonging before a math test described as diagnostic of math ability. The more female participants wrote about belonging, the better they performed, while there was no effect of writing about belonging for males. Writing about social belonging improved performance only for members of negatively stereotyped groups. Implications for self-affirmation theory and practice are discussed.

  10. The second immunoglobulin class is commonly present in cartilaginous fish belonging to the order Rajiformes. (United States)

    Kobayashi, K; Tomonaga, S


    Six species of cartilaginous fish distributed into four orders, Rajiformes (skates and guitarfishes), Myliobatiformes (rays), Heterodontiformes (sharks) and Carcharhiniformes (sharks), were investigated for the possible presence of a second class of immunoglobulin (Ig) other than IgM. Among those orders, fish belonging to the order Rajiformes were found to have a second Ig (IgR) with a non-covalently associated dimeric structure in which the H chain was different from that of IgM in mol. wt and antigenicity. Cartilaginous fish belonging to the other orders investigated had only one class of IgM.

  11. The association between Act-Belong-Commit indicators and problem drinking among older Irish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Nielsen, Line; Hinrichsen, Carsten


    The Act-Belong-Commit campaign is the world's first comprehensive, population-wide, community-based program to promote mental health. However, its potential for preventing substance use disorders is unknown. Further, a literature gap is evident concerning behavioral modification strategies...... to prevent such disorders. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the association between indicators of the Act-Belong-Commit behavioral domains and the development of problem drinking. Data from two waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. The sample consisted...

  12. A Pedagogy of Belonging: Troubling Encounters with Ethnic and Religious Difference (United States)

    Edgeworth, Kathryn; Santoro, Ninetta


    Understanding the construction of belonging, and how unbelonging might be troubled, is critical work. For schools in many parts of the world one of the many challenges of globalisation is the task of teaching with, and for, ethnic and cultural diversity. This paper examines the exclusionary practices of teaching that construct ethnic and religious…

  13. Library Informational Technology Workers: Their Sense of Belonging, Role, Job Autonomy and Job Satisfaction (United States)

    Lim, Sook


    This study examines the characteristics of library information technology (IT) workers using a mail survey. The IT workers showed a moderate level of a sense of belonging, playing the broker's role, job autonomy, and job satisfaction. There were differences between librarian IT workers and non-librarian IT workers regarding most of these…

  14. Device of Definition of Hand-Written Documents Belonging to One Executor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Kulik


    Full Text Available Results of working out of the device of definition of hand-written documents belonging to the executor of the text in Russian are presented. The device is intended for automation of work of experts and allows to solve problems of information security and search of criminals.

  15. School Belonging of Adolescents: The Role of Teacher-Student Relationships, Peer Relationships and Family Involvement (United States)

    Uslu, Fatma; Gizir, Sidika


    This study examines the extent to which teacher-student relationships, peer relationships, and family involvement can be used to predict a sense of school belonging among adolescents, according to gender. The sample of the study consists of 815 students enrolled in nine state primary schools in the central districts of Mersin, Turkey. The data was…

  16. Teacher and Peer Support for Young Adolescents' Motivation, Engagement, and School Belonging (United States)

    Kiefer, Sarah M.; Alley, Kathleen M.; Ellerbrock, Cheryl R.


    The purpose of this sequential explanatory mixed methods study was to investigate teacher and peer support for young adolescents' academic motivation, classroom engagement, and school belonging within one large, urban, ethnically diverse middle school. In the initial quantitative phase, associations among aspects of teacher support (autonomy,…

  17. Educational and Psychological Aspects of Environmental Awareness and a Sense of Belonging (United States)

    Rode, Ojars


    The research problem concerns the sphere of relationships with the environment and an individual's awareness in the aspect of satisfying the need for belonging. This research aims to determine the conditions of relationships with the environment and an individual's awareness in the process of personality formation. The research is constituted by…

  18. Sense of belonging and social cohesion in a desegregated former House of Delegates school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramodungoane Tabane


    Full Text Available The ideal of creating a non-racial and equitable school environment is embedded in the South African Constitution. This ideal is informed by a desire to overcome the divisions of the apartheid past by pursuing policies and strategies that will promote the achievement of social cohesion, without denying space for various identities. Schools are seen as important vehicles for driving social cohesion amongst learners and it is therefore important that all learners, irrespective of their race, experience a sense of belonging in the school. Using a case study and an interactive qualitative analysis research methodology, we explored the experiences of black and Indian learners in a desegregated former House of Delegates school to determine the successes and possible challenges of ensuring racial integration at the school level and therefore its contribution to social cohesion. The study demonstrates the importance of eight concepts (namely, the school as a welcoming space; belonging; respect; security; equality in the way we socialise; tender loving care; motivation; and freedom to the study of racial integration and social cohesion. This article focuses on the contribution that sense of belonging has on creating a school environment that is enabling, contributing to learner achievement and concludes that sense of belonging, integration, and social cohesion are intertwined and important in creating an environment that is welcoming and a "home" to diverse learners and educators.

  19. Meeting the need to belong: Predicting effects of a friendship enrichment program for older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, N.L.; Martina, C.M.S.; Westerhof, G.J.


    Purpose: This study explores the effects of participation in a program designed to enrich friendship and reduce loneliness among women in later life. Several hypotheses based on the need to belong, socioemotional selectivity theory, and the social compensation model were tested. Design and Methods:

  20. Belonging, racism and white backlash in the 2016 US Presidential Election.


    Gabriel, Deborah


    Donald Trump’s victory in the 2016 presidential election has been attributed to disaffection among the American populace and its disengagement with the US political system, leading to a seismic shift towards populism. However, in common with Brexit, dominant discourses in Trump’s campaign centred on issues around belonging and identity with clearly marked boundaries of inclusion and exclusion.

  1. Academic "Place-Making": Fostering Attachment, Belonging and Identity for Indigenous Students in Australian Universities (United States)

    Carter, Jennifer; Hollinsworth, David; Raciti, Maria; Gilbey, Kathryn


    Place is a concept used to explore how people ascribe meaning to their physical and social surrounds, and their emotional affects. Exploring the university as a place can highlight social relations affecting Australian Indigenous students' sense of belonging and identity. We asked what university factors contribute to the development of a positive…

  2. Using Popular Theatre for Engaging Racialized Minority Girls in Exploring Questions of Identity and Belonging (United States)

    Lee, Jo-Anne; De Finney, Sandrina


    This chapter examines the use of popular theatre as a methodology to investigate racialized minority girls' processes of identity formation and experiences of exclusion and belonging in predominantly white, urban Victoria, B.C., Canada. The article draws on transnational feminist frameworks that emphasize intersectionality and locality to…

  3. Hip-Hop Is the Healer: Sense of Belonging and Diversity among Hip-Hop Collegians (United States)

    Sulé, V. Thandi


    Sense of belonging is recognized as a factor contributing to persistence to graduation. Furthermore, interactional diversity is associated with learning and civic outcomes--touted higher education goals. Hip-hop culture, one of the most influential cultural creations of the mid-20th century, has succeeded in attracting devotees from diverse…

  4. Exploring the Association between School Belonging and Emotional Health among Adolescents (United States)

    Arslan, Gökmen


    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the association between school belonging and well-being, distress, and emotional health status yielded from a bidimensional model among adolescents. Participants comprised of 413--49.7% female and 50.3% male--adolescents, ranging in age between 11 and 18 years (M = 13.96, SD = 1.64). Findings from…

  5. Applying visual methods in the study of place affiliation, mobility, and belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Møller, Karina Torp; Pristed Nielsen, Helene


    In this short essay we present a Danish research project called ‘Images of the Global Periphery’. Through the use of visual methodologies, the project focuses on belonging and home-making among newcomers, thereby addressing how geographic mobility is implicated in ‘everyday belonging’ and people...

  6. Meeting the Need to Belong: Predicting Effects of a Friendship Enrichment Program for Older Women (United States)

    Stevens, Nan L.; Martina, Camille M. S.; Westerhof, Gerben J.


    Purpose: This study explores the effects of participation in a program designed to enrich friendship and reduce loneliness among women in later life. Several hypotheses based on the need to belong, socioemotional selectivity theory, and the social compensation model were tested. Design and Methods: Study 1 involved two measurement points, one at…

  7. Synthesis of insect pheromones belonging to the group of (Z)-trisubstituted alkenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorieva, Natalia Ya; Tsiklauri, Paata G


    Stereo- and regiocontrolled methods for the construction of a (Z)-trisubstituted C=C bond and for the regiospecific introduction of a chiral fragment are exemplified in total syntheses of insect pheromones belonging to (Z)-trisubstituted alkenes. The bibliography includes 113 references.

  8. School Values: A Comparison of Academic Motivation, Mental Health Promotion, and School Belonging with Student Achievement (United States)

    Allen, Kelly-Ann; Kern, Margaret L.; Vella-Brodrick, Dianne; Waters, Lea


    School vision and mission statements are an explicit indication of a school's priorities. Research has found academic motivation, mental health promotion, and school belonging to be the most frequently cited themes in these statements. The present study sought to examine whether these themes relate to student academic achievement, as indicated by…

  9. The village as a ‘community of practice’ Constitution of village belonging through leisure sociality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Barlocco


    Full Text Available This paper looks at the formation and display of a form of identification alternative to the national one, the belonging to the village, within the leisure practices of Kadazan villagers in Sabah, East Malaysia, both constituted by the regular meetings of peer groups and by festive events. The analysis of the paper applies the concept of ‘community of practice’ to the group of villagers who regularly invest most of their resources of free time, but also money, in interacting between themselves and in organising celebrations for various life-cycle events or for other occasions, and argues that a strong sense of belonging to the village is developed through this engagement. These practices are informed by a powerful and widely spread local ideology, positing the village as the central point of reference for its inhabitants’ sense of belonging and as the locus of a traditionalist ‘way of life’, based on cooperation, sharing and egalitarian principles, and rejecting the modern, multi-ethnic urban world from which the majority of the villagers derive their livelihood. This ideology defines the village as Kadazan and Christian, determining a rootedness in everyday life of ethnic identity as well as a general rejection of government-led nationalist propaganda and of its policies. This ideology is an essential part of the affirmation by the villagers of the primacy of the local and of direct involvement and participation over their sense of belonging to collective categories.

  10. Predicting Social Responsibility and Belonging in Urban After-School Physical Activity Programs with Underserved Children (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Byrd, Brigid; Garn, Alex; McCaughtry, Nate; Kulik, Noel; Centeio, Erin


    The purpose of this cross sectional study was to predict feelings of belonging and social responsibility based on the motivational climate perceptions and contingent self-worth of children participating in urban after-school physical activity programs. Three-hundred and four elementary school students from a major Midwestern city participated.…

  11. Community Strikes Back? Belonging and Exclusion in Rural English Villages in Networked Times (United States)

    Hillyard, Sam; Bagley, Carl


    The paper draws upon ethnographic research of two contrasting English primary schools and their villages to explore the themes of belonging and exclusion in contemporary rural contexts. The paper first describes the schools and the villages. A second, conceptual section explores the meaning of rurality in relation to the themes of class, belonging…

  12. Work-Integrated Learning and the Importance of Peer Support and Sense of Belonging (United States)

    McBeath, Margaret; Drysdale, Maureen T. B.; Bohn, Nicholas


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between peer support and sense of belonging on the mental health and overall well-being, with a specific focus on comparing the perceptions of students in a work-integrated learning (WIL) program to those in a traditional non-WIL program. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured…

  13. Students’ sense of belonging at school in 41 countries: cross-cultural variability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiu, M.M.; Chow, B.W.Y.; McBride, C.; Mol, S.T.


    This study examined whether students’ sense of belonging at school (SOBAS) differed across attributes of countries, families, schools, teachers, or students. Multilevel analyses of survey and test data from 193,073 15-year-old students in 41 countries yielded four main findings. First, students in

  14. Differentiation of Self, Personal Adjustment, Problem Solving, and Ethnic Group Belonging among Persons of Color. (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.


    This study focused on examining the cross-cultural validity of Bowen family systems theory (M. Bowen, 1978), namely differentiation of self for individuals of color. Ethnic minority men and women completed measures of differentiation of self, ethnic group belonging, and 3 indices of personal adjustment. Initial support for the cross-cultural…

  15. Simpson, His Donkey and the Rest of Us--Public Pedagogies of the Value of Belonging (United States)

    Tsolidis, Georgina


    At the heart of this paper is an exploration of belonging and how this is assumed to connect with a set of values represented as national. There is a particular interest in the relationship between these values and education. Because the significance of the learning that occurs through the public domain outside educational institutions such as…

  16. Does Hamlet Belong in Freshman Composition? The Debatable Role of Canonical Literature in Composition (United States)

    Fitzwilliam, Marie A.


    The question of whether "Hamlet" belongs in a freshman composition classroom is one that institutions are making easier to answer, though perhaps for political rather than pedagogical reasons. This article describes a project in which Marie Fitzwilliam and her colleagues were asked to engage in a dialogue with the administration on…

  17. Social integration, a sense of belonging and the Cenotaph Service: old soldiers reminisce about Remembrance. (United States)

    Barron, Duncan S; Davies, Stephen P; Wiggins, Richard D


    This study explored how war commemorations such as the Cenotaph Service in the UK enable older veterans to benefit from a feeling of integration and belonging gained from both comradeship and acknowledgement from wider society. Focus groups preceded by a video clip of the Cenotaph Service with 45 veterans were used to discuss the significance of collective commemorations for older veterans. Findings indicated that social integration and a sense of belonging are fostered both by comradeship and societal support during collective commemorations allowing veterans to reminisce safely. Spontaneous reminiscences involving troubling memories may be processed more easily with the support, social integration and sense of belonging which occurs at collective commemorations. Many Korean War and female World War II veterans felt forgotten and socially isolated, but described gaining vicarious support via collective commemorations. Cohen and Wills' (1985) main-effects and buffering models of social support are used to discuss the findings further. Collective commemorations can be important sources of support for many older veterans. Both comradeship and societal support promote social integration and a sense of belonging (main-effects), which enabled reminiscing and processing (buffering) to occur.

  18. "In Your Face" Democracy: Education for Belonging and Its Challenges in Israel (United States)

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Mustafa, Muhanad; Jabareen, Yousef T.


    This article will juxtapose the goals and implications of two pedagogical programmes that promote education for belonging in Israel. Representing the official knowledge of the Ministry of Education, the first is the "100 Concepts in Heritage, Zionism and Democracy" curriculum. The second, which embodies the counter knowledge produced and…

  19. School Belonging, School Victimization, and the Mental Health of LGBT Young Adults: Implications for School Psychologists (United States)

    Heck, Nicholas C.; Lindquist, Lauri M.; Machek, Greg R.; Cochran, Bryan N.


    This study investigates the mediating role of school victimization in the relationship between lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) young adults' feelings of high school belonging and current mental health (both depression and general psychological distress) outcomes. A total of 145 LGBT young adults were recruited from college LGBT…

  20. Pinnipedia belonging to collection of Department of Paleontology of the Science Faculty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Garcia, M.


    Pinnipedia belonging to collection of Department of Paleontology, Facultad de Ciencias, are shown. They are an astragalus and partial humerus, found the former in the coast of Departamento of San Jose and the latter in Rocha Department. The astragalus is assigned to Arctocephalus (southern fur seal) and humerus to Phocidae. (author)

  1. The Importance of Belonging: Learning from the Student Experience of Democratic Education (United States)

    Hope, Max A.


    This article grew out of an extensive piece of grounded theory research that explored students' experiences of democratic education. A small democratic school in the south of England is used as a case study. Students in this school experienced a strong sense of belonging--to the school itself, with teachers, and with peers. This appeared to make a…

  2. Black Undergraduate Women and Their Sense of Belonging in STEM at Predominantly White Institutions (United States)

    Dortch, Deniece; Patel, Chirag


    Because little work exists on the sense of belonging focusing on just Black undergraduate women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), especially at highly selective predominantly white institutions (PWIs), this study takes a phenomenological approach to understand the lived experiences of Black undergraduate women in STEM by…

  3. A Prospective Study Investigating the Impact of School Belonging Factors on Negative Affect in Adolescents (United States)

    Shochet, Ian M.; Smith, Coral L.; Furlong, Michael J.; Homel, Ross


    School belonging, measured as a unidimensional construct, is an important predictor of negative affective problems in adolescents, including depression and anxiety symptoms. A recent study found that one such measure, the Psychological Sense of School Membership scale, actually comprises three factors: Caring Relations, Acceptance, and Rejection.…

  4. Belonging and quality of life as perceived by people with advanced cancer who live at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peoples, Hanne; Nissen, Nina; Brandt, Åse


    Baggrund: I en tidligere artikel, udforskede hvordan personer med fremskreden kræft oplever deltagelse i aktivitet og livskvalitet i deres hverdag, som pegede på betydningen af at gøre noget sammen med og for andre. Disse fund relaterer sig til det teoretiske begreb belonging, inden for aktivitet...

  5. The Impact of Culture on Filipino American Students' Sense of Belonging (United States)

    Museus, Samuel D.; Maramba, Dina C.


    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of cultural factors on Filipino American students' sense of belonging in college. The authors utilized structural equation modeling techniques to analyze a single-institution sample of 143 Filipino American undergraduates and estimate the impact of pressure to commit "cultural…

  6. The Portrait of Market Leader in Flower Market Vendors at Pasar Rawa Belong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Aryanti W. Puspokusumo


    Full Text Available A good prospect in flowers’ business has made many newcomers from different cities interested in trying the opportunity to become a succesful florist. Since Pasar Rawa Belong has grown up and become more well-known as the marketing and promotion center for flowers, it creates a conducive and atmospheric place to start the business. Many florists in Pasar Rawa Belong have made big profits from the businesses. It can be said that they all are successful florists. However, there will be barely a single florist who is considerately leading forward in the competitive environment. An observation through population of all florists in Pasar Rawa Belong and samples of 50 florists was done in order to find the forthcoming market leader. The method used in observing florists in Pasar Rawa Belong was survey and interview. Next, the results were summarized and analyzed based on certain theoremes from textbooks, articles, and online documents. The theorems are mostly related to management aspects of a competitive and conducive environment while operating a business. According to the data, Yurie Florist, Kusumawardani, and Anadisha come out as the market leaders in 2011 since they have the highest sales per month or beyond 100 million. Meanwhile, no more than 16 percent of florists in Pasar Rawa Belong are able to gain profit of more than 100 million rupiahs per month. Yurie Florist, Kusumawardani, and Anadisha have wide-scale of distribution channels and sells imported flowers which support their high sales. The sales become indicator to determine market share of the shops. The market share itself is decisive indicator to determine the market leader

  7. Relevant Factors in the Process of Socialization, Involvement and Belonging of Descendants in Family Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melquicedec Lozano-Posso


    Full Text Available This research works toward the identification of the factors that comprise the process of socialization, involvement and initial belonging of descendants in family businesses and the key relationships between them. By means of a qualitative detailed study of four cases, complemented by a quantitative survey of 274 Colombian family businesses, the authors generate a new model that takes into account both factors explored in previous research as well as others identified in this study. Findings confirm the specific dependency of each stage on the subsequent ones; socialization influences involvement, which in turn influences the belonging of the descendants to the family business, with a strong presence of factors such as knowledge, leadership, mode, timing, and motivation. Those responsible for the orientation of potential successors may examine these findings in order to optimize their preparation efforts and support of family human resources for the continuity of the business.

  8. Lectotypification of three Iberian endemic species belonging to monotypic genera described by Cosson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buira, Antoni


    Full Text Available Three lectotypes are here designated for Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. and Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., whose genera are monospecific and endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. The selected types of the two former species are kept at P and belong to Cosson’s personal herbarium, whilst the last one is kept at MA and belongs to the historical herbarium of Cavanilles.Se designan los lectótipos de Euzomodendron bourgaeanum Coss., Guiraoa arvensis Coss. y Laserpitium scabrum Cav. (Guillonea scabra (Cav. Coss., cuyos géneros son monoespecíficos y endémicos de la Península Ibérica. Los tipos seleccionados para las dos primeras especies se encuentran en P y pertenecen al herbario personal de Cosson, mientras que el de la última se encuentra en MA y pertenece al herbario histórico de Cavanilles.

  9. Increasing the emotional engagement of first year mature-aged distance students: Interest and belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella Kahu


    Full Text Available This research followed 19 mature-aged distance students through their first semester of undergraduate study. The analysis of interviews and video diaries presented in this paper focuses on two key elements of emotional engagement: interest and belonging. Findings highlight the importance of interest triggered by personal preferences and experiences. Interest led to enjoyment, increased behavioural engagement with greater time and effort expended, and improved cognitive engagement in terms of depth and breadth of learning. In contrast, there was less evidence of the social side of emotional engagement, belonging. Participants felt little connection to the university, but connecting with fellow students through face-to-face courses and online forums was important for some to reduce their sense of isolation. However, distance study was not for all. The findings highlight the need for staff to consider emotional engagement when designing and delivering the curriculum and when interacting with students, particularly in the all-important first year.


    CERN Document Server


    Operational Circular No. 4 (Rev. 1) entitled “Use of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN”, approved by the Director-general following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 15 February 2012, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: It cancels and replaces Operational Circular No. 4 entitled “Conditions for use by members of the CERN personnel of vehicles belonging to or rented by CERN” of April 2003. This new version enables, in particular, to include CERN contractors and their personnel, to harmonize the structure of the circular with other circulars and to simplify the procedures by permitting electronics forms. Department Head Office HR Department

  11. Latinos' Changing Ethnic Group Representation From Elementary to Middle School: Perceived Belonging and Academic Achievement. (United States)

    Morales-Chicas, Jessica; Graham, Sandra


    This study examined the association between change in ethnic group representation from elementary to middle school and Latino students' school belonging and achievement. The ethnic diversity of students' middle school was examined as a moderator. Participants were 1,825 Latino sixth graders from 26 ethnically diverse urban middle schools. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that a change in ethnic representation toward fewer Latinos in middle school than elementary school was related to less perceived belonging and lower achievement in schools with low ethnic diversity. There were no mean differences as a function of declining representation in more diverse middle schools, suggesting that greater school diversity was protective. Findings highlight the importance of examining school ethnic context, especially across the middle school transition. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  12. Empty Selves and Multiple Belonging: Gadamer and Nāgārjuna on Religious Identity’s Hidden Plurality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hustwit J. R.


    Full Text Available The reaction to multiple religious belonging has been fraught with anxiety in the monotheistic traditions. Nevertheless, increasing numbers of people report belonging to multiple religions. I propose that it is most useful to think of multiple religious belonging not so much as an expression of choice, but just the opposite. Multiple religious belonging is best explained as the ontological condition of two or more religious traditions constituting the self, so that the self’s possibilities are constrained by those religions. Furthermore, I argue that multiple religious belonging per se does not threaten traditional religious communities. Threats are by definition future possibilities, and ontologically speaking, we always already belong to multiple religions. We belong to multiple religions because every religious tradition is an amalgam of earlier distinct traditions. There is nothing new about multiple religious belonging. It is nearly unremarkable. Two philosophers in particular-one a twentieth-century German phenomenologist, the other a second-century Indian Buddhist-have given particularly careful examination of the phenomenon of belonging. Hans-Georg Gadamer’s concept of Wirkungsgeschichte [history of effects] and Nāgārjuna’s teaching of śūnyatā [emptiness] both imply that multiple religious belonging is the ontological condition of all human beings, and that producing any monolithic religious identity requires significant mental gymnastics.

  13. Identification of Recent Bats belonging to the Rhinolophidae by the Humeral Characters


    Yoon, Myung Hee; Uchida, Teruaki; 内田, 照章


    Humeral characters of eleven recent species and one subspecies belonging to three genera of the Rhinolophidae including two subfamilies were described. A key provides for their identification as well as the identification of the fossil bats found on the Akiyoshi-dai Plateau. Further, we discussed differences in the adaptability for flight of the bats not only within each taxon of the family but also between the phylogenetically less advanced Rhinolophidae and the more advanced Vespertilionida...

  14. The Strongylidae belonging to Strongylus genus in horses from southeastern Poland


    Studzińska, M. B.; Tomczuk, K.; Demkowska-Kutrzepa, M.; Szczepaniak, K.


    Postmortem parasitic examinations of the large intestines of 725 slaughtered horses from individual farmers in southeastern Poland were carried out. The examinations were carried out monthly since February 2006 until January 2007 (except for August 2007 because of a technological stoppage in the slaughterhouse). The examinations included the intensiveness and extensiveness of the infestation of the Strongylidae belonging to the Strongylus genus. The Strongylidae were found in 26.5 % of the ex...

  15. Contested Spaces. Meaningful Places. Contemporary Performances of Place and Belonging in Spain and Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. C. Krom


    Full Text Available This essay aims to contribute to current anthropological debate on space and place, analysing in two instances of festival performance how, on the one hand the politics of appropriation of space contributes to the configuration of power relations, and how on the other hand, participants in these festivals engage individually and collectively with physical space(s to create places which they experience as meaningful in terms of identity and belonging.

  16. Morphology, ecology and phylogeny of cyanobacteria belonging to genera Nostoc and Desmonostoc in Lithuania


    Špakaitė, Ina


    The aim of the study was to investigate the morphology, ecology and phylogeny of cyanobacteria belonging to genera Nostoc and Desmonostoc in Lithuania. The detailed research of freshwater and terrestrial Nostoc and Desmonostoc species provided new data on taxonomy, biology and ecology of these cyanobacteria and the overall diversity of algae in Lithuania. 20 Nostoc species and two intraspecific taxa, and 18 taxa to the Nostoc genus level were identified. Twelve Nostoc species and intraspecifi...

  17. Critical Taxonomic Appraisal of Some Taxa of Pedicularis from Indian Himalayas Belonging to Section Siphonanthae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arti Garg


    Full Text Available The existing confusion on the taxonomic status of five taxa of Pedicularis viz. P. punctata Decne, P. siphonantha D. Don, P. hookeriana Wall. ex Benth., P. megalantha D. Don and P. hoffmeisteri Kl. ex Kl. & Garcke is resolved on the basis of critical morphological study. These taxa belong to section Siphonanthae, subgenus Longirostres. Pennell’s view of segregating these taxa into distinct species is defended and upheld.

  18. Accuracy evaluation of the prescribed calibration factors for ionisation chambers belonging to radiotherapy centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Taufik Dolah; Supian Samat; Taiman Kadni


    Air kerma and exposure calibration factors of 14 ionisation chambers belonging to ten local radiotherapy centres have been determined by SSDL in the recent last ten month (1/10/1998 - 31/7/1999). The results obtained were compared either with previous SSDL results, or the chambers certificate values. The range of the percentage deviations obtained was -1.70% to 1.18%, which lies between the IAEA accepted value of range ±3.5%. (author)

  19. [Factors of persistence and (or) pathogenicity in vibrios and aeromonads belonging to different ecotopes]. (United States)

    Bukharin, O V; Boĭko, A V; Zhuravleva, L A


    Factors of persistence and/or pathogenicity in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Aeromonas hydrophila (hemolytic, lipase, lecithin, DNAase, RNAase, antilysozyme, "anti-interferon", anticomplementary activities and capacity for absorbing Congo red) were studied. The study revealed the interspecific and subpopulation (hospital and extraorganismal parts of the population) differences in the activity of the manifestation of these factors. Strong dependence of the whole complex of persistence and pathogenicity factors of their belonging to the hostal part of Vibrio and Aeromonas populations was shown.

  20. Transcultural and Imagological Figures: Disenchantment, Allophilia, and Belonging in Enrique Vila-Matas and Antonio Tabucchi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria João Simões


    Full Text Available In some contemporary literary works, the presence of the ‘other’ and the representation of the ‘foreigner’ emphasize the problematic ways by which human beings relate to foreign people, revealing how those issues are pressing concerns in modern society. This study questions how the shift in the way we perceive identity and belonging are depicted in Enrique Vila-Matas and Antonio Tabucchi’s fictions. Both authors aesthetically represent episodes and situations where characters’ relation to space is problematic, showing how the idea of belonging can be related not only to a specific country or a special space, but also to a desired space.  Furthermore, based  on the pregnancy of the notion of ‘dwelling’ theorized by Emmanuel Levinas, this study  analyses how characters and narrators aesthetically represent the complexity of belonging and examines some of the transnational transfers and multicultural connexions displayed by both autors, mainly in Never Any End to Paris and It’s Getting Later All the Time.

  1. Benefits of belonging: experimental manipulation of social inclusion to enhance psychological and physiological health parameters. (United States)

    Begen, Fiona M; Turner-Cobb, Julie M


    Acute changes in social belonging are important triggers for alterations in health and well-being, yet research has emphasised the negative effects of 'exclusion' at the expense of evaluating the potentially positive effects of 'inclusion'. This study examined the impact of acute belonging on physiological and psychological outcomes. A healthy population (N = 138) were randomly allocated to 'included' or 'excluded' conditions. Condition-dependent differences in pre/during-task heart rate and pre/post-task self-reports of negative/positive mood, and social self-esteem, were assessed. Included participants showed decreased heart rate and negative mood, and increased social self-esteem. No inclusion-related change in positive mood was shown. An increase in heart rate was observed in excluded participants though no changes in negative/positive mood or social self-esteem were shown. Shifts in social self-esteem acted as a mechanism through which inclusion/exclusion impacted upon negative and positive mood alterations. Results remained significant in presence of covariates (sex, global self-esteem, rumination and social anxiety). Findings suggest that acting to enhance belonging through 'inclusion' resulted in adaptive physiological and psychological outcomes. Neutral and potentially protective responses were observed in the immediate aftermath of 'exclusion'. Self-esteem served as one route through which these effects were transmitted.

  2. A brief social-belonging intervention improves academic and health outcomes of minority students. (United States)

    Walton, Gregory M; Cohen, Geoffrey L


    A brief intervention aimed at buttressing college freshmen's sense of social belonging in school was tested in a randomized controlled trial (N = 92), and its academic and health-related consequences over 3 years are reported. The intervention aimed to lessen psychological perceptions of threat on campus by framing social adversity as common and transient. It used subtle attitude-change strategies to lead participants to self-generate the intervention message. The intervention was expected to be particularly beneficial to African-American students (N = 49), a stereotyped and socially marginalized group in academics, and less so to European-American students (N = 43). Consistent with these expectations, over the 3-year observation period the intervention raised African Americans' grade-point average (GPA) relative to multiple control groups and halved the minority achievement gap. This performance boost was mediated by the effect of the intervention on subjective construal: It prevented students from seeing adversity on campus as an indictment of their belonging. Additionally, the intervention improved African Americans' self-reported health and well-being and reduced their reported number of doctor visits 3 years postintervention. Senior-year surveys indicated no awareness among participants of the intervention's impact. The results suggest that social belonging is a psychological lever where targeted intervention can have broad consequences that lessen inequalities in achievement and health.

  3. Two-stage clustering (TSC: a pipeline for selecting operational taxonomic units for the high-throughput sequencing of PCR amplicons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Tao Jiang

    Full Text Available Clustering 16S/18S rRNA amplicon sequences into operational taxonomic units (OTUs is a critical step for the bioinformatic analysis of microbial diversity. Here, we report a pipeline for selecting OTUs with a relatively low computational demand and a high degree of accuracy. This pipeline is referred to as two-stage clustering (TSC because it divides tags into two groups according to their abundance and clusters them sequentially. The more abundant group is clustered using a hierarchical algorithm similar to that in ESPRIT, which has a high degree of accuracy but is computationally costly for large datasets. The rarer group, which includes the majority of tags, is then heuristically clustered to improve efficiency. To further improve the computational efficiency and accuracy, two preclustering steps are implemented. To maintain clustering accuracy, all tags are grouped into an OTU depending on their pairwise Needleman-Wunsch distance. This method not only improved the computational efficiency but also mitigated the spurious OTU estimation from 'noise' sequences. In addition, OTUs clustered using TSC showed comparable or improved performance in beta-diversity comparisons compared to existing OTU selection methods. This study suggests that the distribution of sequencing datasets is a useful property for improving the computational efficiency and increasing the clustering accuracy of the high-throughput sequencing of PCR amplicons. The software and user guide are freely available at

  4. The organisation and needs of young sections belonging to UEG National Societies: Results of a Europe-wide survey. (United States)

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Castro, Valeria; Dolak, Werner; Ilie, Mădălina; Holleran, Grainne; Salaga, Maciej; van Herwaarden, Yasmijn; Burisch, Johan


    One of the aims of the Young Talent Group (YTG) is to make United European Gastroenterology (UEG) more attractive for young fellows interested in gastroenterology, and to involve them actively in UEG activities, by collaborating with young GI sections (YGIS) across Europe. Therefore, the YTG launched a survey to collect up-to-date information on YGISs belonging to UEG National Societies. The Friends of YTG were chosen as the target population and received a web-based questionnaire concerning their personal information, the structure of YGIS in their respective country, the YGIS' support mechanisms for young trainees, and ideas on how to improve them. Overall, 24 of 29 Friends answered the survey (83%). Among the Societies surveyed, only half have a young section. Typically, YGIS are supported, but not influenced, by National Societies through several initiatives. Results of the survey suggest that a lack of funding, of harmonised education, and of active roles available within National Societies, were the concerns most prevalent among young fellows. Our survey shows that the development of YGIS is being hindered by organisational, financial, and political issues. The YTG believes that a close collaboration between National Societies, UEG, and the YTG is necessary in order to offer young fellows the most productive and professionally satisfying future possible.

  5. The organisation and needs of young sections belonging to UEG National Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Castro, Valeria; Dolak, Werner


    launched a survey to collect up-to-date information on YGISs belonging to UEG National Societies. The Friends of YTG were chosen as the target population and received a web-based questionnaire concerning their personal information, the structure of YGIS in their respective country, the YGIS' support...... suggest that a lack of funding, of harmonised education, and of active roles available within National Societies, were the concerns most prevalent among young fellows. Our survey shows that the development of YGIS is being hindered by organisational, financial, and political issues. The YTG believes...

  6. Four New Ladybug Species Belonging to Decadiomus Chapin (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) from Puerto Rico. (United States)

    Segarra-Carmona, A E; Otero, M


    While searching for native natural enemies attacking invasive insect pests in Puerto Rico, we found four undescribed ladybug species belonging to the Caribbean ladybug genus Decadiomus Chapin. In this article, we describe the following species from Puerto Rico: Decadiomus seini n. sp., Decadiomus ramosi n. sp., Decadiomus hayuyai n. sp., and Decadiomus martorelli n. sp. Illustrations of the dorsal habitus, shape of prosternal carinae, and drawings of male and female genitalia are presented. We also present a key for Diomini of Puerto Rico and discuss their importance as potential biocontrol agents.

  7. Chemical of shales belonging to Castellanos and Migues formations (Cretaceous), Santa Lucia basin - Uruguay: Paleoenvironment considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peel, E.; Veloslavsky, G.; Fulfaro, J.


    In the present work there are analyzed 16 samples of shales belonging to Castellanos and Migues formations (Cretaceous), taken from cores of various boreholes of the Santa Lucia Basin (Uruguay). Chemical analysis of major elements, trace elements (B,V, Sr, Rb, Cr y Ga) and X- ray diffractometry were done to them in order to obtain a geochemical characterization. The characterization shows that their chemical composition is comparable to the world average composition of shales. Besides, the X-ray diffractometry. Based on that, it is clear to deduce that it existed a change in the environment conditions having a shift from a redactor environment which agrees with former micropaleontologic studies. (author)

  8. Phyto-therapeutic claims about euphorbeaceous plants belonging to pakistan; an ethnomedicinal review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, A.T.; Shinwari, ZK.


    Ethnobotany has attracted many researchers in the modern era in order to find novel and cheaper approaches to alleviate the human sufferings. Since ancient times, plants are used traditionally for cure. In the last few years herbal practices have attained global relevance. Among the different important plant families, the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) is well known for its therapeutic potential. Different plants are used in folk medicinal practices in different forms to treat several diseases. Plants belonging to Euphorbiaceae are common in Pakistan and used for different purposes. The present communication deals with the different ethnomedicinal uses reported in the peer reviewed articles of the various species present in Pakistan. (author)

  9. Belonging to and in the Shale Gas Fields. A Case-Study of the Noordoostpolder, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhne, Michiel; Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm


    This article analyses how belonging becomes articulated in relation to large-scale extractive projects. It does so through an ethnographic analysis of the construction of belonging expressed in languages of valuation (the meanings that people give to natural resources discursively and in practice)

  10. Does Students' Machismo Fit in School? Clarifying the Implications of Traditional Gender Role Ideology for School Belonging (United States)

    Huyge, Ellen; Van Maele, Dimitri; Van Houtte, Mieke


    How much students feel at home in school predicts academic outcomes. In view of the gender achievement gap, it is worth examining the gendered pattern of this school belonging. Studies on school belonging, however, have barely acknowledged possible obstructive effects of traditional gender role attitudes of individual students and student…

  11. Remaking Selves, Repositioning Selves, or Remaking Space: An Examination of Asian American College Students' Processes of "Belonging" (United States)

    Samura, Michelle


    The importance of "belonging" for college students has been well documented. Students' sense of belonging is closely related to their academic achievement, retention, engagement, satisfaction with student life, mental health, and overall well-being (Astin, 1993; Baumeister & Leary, 1995; Bowman, 2010; Hausmann, Schofield, &…

  12. The parasites of cereal stem borers (Lepidoptera: Cossidae, Crambidae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae) in Africa, belonging to the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Polaszek, A.


    A review is given of the parasites (parasitoids) of the African cereal stem borers (including introduced species) belonging to the family Braconidae (Hymenoptera); 38 species belonging to 19 genera are keyed and treated. Three new species are described: Macrocentrus sesamivorus spec. nov. from

  13. A journey of negotiation and belonging: understanding students' transitions to science and engineering in higher education (United States)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars


    The paper presents results from a longitudinal study of students' decisions to enrol on a higher education science programme and their experiences of it. The aim is to give insights into students' transition process and negotiation of identity. This is done by following a cohort of 38 students in a series of qualitative interviews during a 3-year period starting as they were about to finish upper secondary school. We find that the students' choice of study is an ongoing process of meaning-making, which continues when the students enter higher education and continuously work on their identities to gain a sense of belonging to their science or engineering programme. The use of a narrative methodology provides understanding of choice of study as involving changes in future perspectives and in the interpretation of past experiences. Further, we gain access into how this meaning-making process over time reflects the students' negotiations in terms of belonging to higher education and their coping strategies when their expectations of their new programme interact with their first-year experiences.

  14. Against the odds: foster carers' perceptions of family, commitment and belonging in successful placements. (United States)

    Oke, Nicholas; Rostill-Brookes, Helen; Larkin, Michael


    This study examines carer attributes associated with placement stability for teenagers growing up in long term foster care, focusing on unexpected placement success. We explored experiences and perceptions relating to family, belonging and commitment in a group of foster carers providing a stable placement for a young person who had not been expected to settle. These placements showed positive outcome, despite factors in the child's history that might have predicted otherwise. Seven foster carers were interviewed following a semi-structured guide, which covered their ideas about their relationship with the child in question, about the foster family, and the child's sense of belonging in foster and birth family. Analysis of carers' accounts of placements which had succeeded 'against the odds' revealed four major themes, described under the headings My Child--emotional bonding, the carers' enlarged view of family and their parental regard for the young person; Jam in the Sandwich--working within a 'compromised space' between Local Authority and birth family; Repair and Rebuild--the craft of fostering including managing the foster/birth family boundary; Sticking with It--resilience, tenacity and maintaining hopefulness. The carers' accounts offer pointers towards the ingredients of successful placements and prompt reflection on how these may be supported and promoted. They also highlight tensions inherent in the foster carer task relating to carers' parental functioning for young people in long-term foster care.

  15. Depression, anxiety and stress among adolescent students belonging to affluent families: a school-based study. (United States)

    Bhasin, Sanjiv K; Sharma, Rahul; Saini, N K


    To study depression, anxiety and stress (DAS) among adolescent school students belonging to affluent families and the factors associated with high levels of DAS. 242 adolescent students belonging to class 9-12th selected for the study. DASS-21 questionnaire was used for assessing DAS. The scores in the three domains (DAS) were found to be remarkably correlated. It was seen that depression was significantly more among the females (mean rank 132.5) than the males (mean rank 113.2), p=0.03. Depression (p=0.025), Anxiety (0.005) and Stress (pstudents. Depression and Stress were found to be significantly associated with the number of adverse events in the student's life that occurred in last one year. A significant proportion of the students were found to be having high levels of DAS and several important factors were found to be associated with them. Proactive steps at the school-level and community-level and steps for improved parent-adolescent communication are needed for amelioration of the problem.

  16. To belong, contribute, and hope: first stage development of a measure of social recovery. (United States)

    Marino, Casadi Khaki


    Recovery from mental health challenges is beginning to be explored as an inherently social process. There is a need to measure social recovery. Targeted measures would be utilized in needs assessment, service delivery, and program evaluation. This paper reports on the first stage of development of a social recovery measure. Explore the social aspects of recovery as reported by individuals with lived experience. A qualitative study using thematic analysis of data from focus groups with 41 individuals in recovery. Three meta-themes of social recovery emerged: community, self-concept, and capacities. Each theme contained a number of sub-themes concerned with a sense of belonging, inherent acceptability of the self, and ability to cope with mental distress and engage socially. Study participants clearly spoke to common human needs to belong, contribute, and have hope for one's future. Findings converged with results of consumer-led research that emphasize the importance of overcoming the impact of illness on the self and social context.

  17. BOX-PCR-based identification of bacterial species belonging to Pseudomonas syringae: P. viridiflava group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abi S.A. Marques


    Full Text Available The phenotypic characteristics and genetic fingerprints of a collection of 120 bacterial strains, belonging to Pseudomonas syringae sensu lato group, P. viridiflava and reference bacteria were evaluated, with the aim of species identification. The numerical analysis of 119 nutritional characteristics did not show patterns that would help with identification. Regarding the genetic fingerprinting, the results of the present study supported the observation that BOX-PCR seems to be able to identify bacterial strains at species level. After numerical analyses of the bar-codes, all pathovars belonging to each one of the nine described genomospecies were clustered together at a distance of 0.72, and could be separated at genomic species level. Two P. syringae strains of unknown pathovars (CFBP 3650 and CFBP 3662 and the three P. syringae pv. actinidiae strains were grouped in two extra clusters and might eventually constitute two new species. This genomic species clustering was particularly evident for genomospecies 4, which gathered P. syringae pvs. atropurpurea, coronafaciens, garçae, oryzae, porri, striafaciens, and zizaniae at a noticeably low distance.

  18. Questions of migration and belonging: understandings of migration under neoliberalism in Ecuador. (United States)

    Lawson, V


    This paper explores alternative understandings and experiences of migration under neoliberalism in Ecuador. Through the case study, the study examines migrants' multiple motivations for mobility and their ambivalence toward the process. Insights from the transnational migration literature were drawn in order to think through the implications of an increasingly contradictory context of economic modernization and its impact upon the sense of possibilities and belonging of migrants. In-depth interviews with urban-destined migrants in Ecuador were drawn to argue that mobility produces ambivalent development subjects. This argument is developed in three sections. First, the paper centers on the epistemological and theoretical basis for the relevance of migrant narratives in extending theorizations of migration. Second, in-depth interviews with migrants to Quito are drawn to explore migrants' sense of belonging and regional affiliation, identity formation through migration, and experiences of alienation and disruption in their lives. Lastly, this paper concludes with a retheorization of the role of migration places in the migrant identity construction.

  19. Effect of Freezing on Spermatozoa from Tigaie Rams Belonging to the Mountain Ecotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Miclea


    Full Text Available Our aim was to study the influence of freezing on the viability and frequency of abnormalities in frozen ram spermatozoa. Sperm was collected form 20 rams belonging to the mountain ecotype of the Tigaie breed using the artificial vagina technique and volume and motility were assessed. Afterward it was diluted with Tryladil (1:4 supplemented with 20% egg yolk and heated at 37°C. Subsequently the temperature decreased at a rate of 0.2°C/minute until reaching 4°C and an equilibration time of 2 hours followed. During this time the diluted sperm was packaged in 0.25 ml straws. After sealing these were kept 6 cm above liquid nitrogen level for 13 minutes (- 120°C and then plunged into nitrogen. Volume, motility and concentration were assessed before freezing. After thawing sperm morphology was assessed using Hancock’s method and at the same time the endurance (at 10, 30 and 60 minutes and HOST tests were performed. The highest motility (0.40 was graded at 30 minutes. It could be correlated with the increased percentage of HOST positive spermatozoa, 27.78%. The percentage of abnormal spermatozoa was also high (47.89%, 38.44% of them having acrosome flaws. Cryopreservation has a negative effect on the characteristics of sperm cells from Tigaie rams belonging to the mountain ecotype.

  20. Sexual Harassment Victimization, School Belonging, and Depressive Symptoms Among LGBTQ Adolescents: Temporal Insights. (United States)

    Hatchel, Tyler; Espelage, Dorothy L; Huang, Yuanhong


    Peer victimization and the associated poor outcomes among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (LGBTQ) youth have been the focus of countless studies. School climate is a factor that has garnered significant attention. Perceptions of school contexts may even be mechanisms that define how victimization relates to poor outcomes. However, there is a lack of rigorous scholarship that could demonstrate directionality and therefore further augment our understanding of these relations. Specifically, it is not clear if victimization is strictly an antecedent to mental health issues like depressive symptoms. This longitudinal study examined the associations among sexual harassment victimization, school belonging, and depressive symptoms among LGBTQ high school students (n = 404). Self-report measures were completed at 3 time points across 3 school years in 6 Midwest high schools. Structural equation modeling indicated that peer victimization was an antecedent to depressive symptoms, and that school belonging mediated the association. Implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. The Journey from Welcoming to Belonging: Stories of a New Principal in a Latino Community (United States)

    Marasco, Corena


    From Catholic education's inception in the United States, Catholic schools were established for the immigrant population and the leadership was successful at building enrollment with the high European immigrant populations. At this point in United States history, Catholic education is in need of innovative change, especially in regard to…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanayda M.I.


    Full Text Available Introduction. One of the important sources of therapeutic and prophylactic agents of modern medicines are essential oils of medicinal plants. Essential oils are the main group of biologically active substances of a number of plants belonging to Lamiaceae Juss. Family. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plants belonging to Lamiaceae Family many scientists associated with containing of essential oils. In this regard, considerable interest presents the comparative analysis of the antimicrobial properties of essential oils of Lamiaceae Family representatives. Material and methods.The antimicrobial activity of essential oils of investigated plants was studied with using in vitro condition. The essential oils derived from the aerial parts of cultivated plants of Ocimum, Hyssopus, Dracocephalum, Lophanthus, Monarda and Satureja genus harvested during flowering period (in terms of Ternopil region. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils studied plants was studied by serial dilution method and disk diffusion assay. It has been applied on standard microorganism test strains: Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Candida albicans ATCC 885-653. Results and discussion. It was conducted a comparative study of the influence of some essential oils of cultivated plants belonging to Lamiaceae family on microorganisms in conditions in vitro. It was found that essential oils of the studied plants were most effective in the maximum concentration (1:10. Gram-positive cocci S. aureus and yeast C. albicans were the most sensitive to influence of investigated essential oils. It was analyzed the relationship of the biological activity with the component composition of essential oils of plants. Essential oils of L. anisatus, M. fistulosa and S. hortensis characterized by the dominance of aromatic compounds and had shown stronger antimicrobial activity than essential oils of

  3. A Study on the Social Belonging of People to Iranian Society and its Relationship with Social Trust and Individualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pari Naz Bidel


    Full Text Available The aim of The present study investigated the extent of social belonging of people of Mashhad to Iran society and the relationship with social trust and individualism has been. Research has been Survey and data was collected through questionnaires. The Statistical Society' who was twenty years in Mashhad with a population 1530827 equals the number 384 as the sample size by using multi-stage cluster sampling is the selection and Specified. The results show the average amount of social belonging, respondents scored2/7, and to a maximum of5 points, the value of 2/3 is the score. The social belonging of the people of Mashhad to Iran is in the middle. Social belonging with increasing age and also social belonging in the Persians than other ethnic groups as well as practitioners than other people and in The middle class than other classes more have been. Overall, the independent variables were entered into multiple regression coefficients with 40% of the changes made to explain the dependent variable (R2=0/40 the variable «social trust» by a factor of 0/61 had the greatest impact on social belonging and then « extreme individualism «-0/1 8 determining factor influencing the next time it is used, thus increasing social distrust of the people most affected has had on their social belonging.

  4. Becoming, belonging and sharing: Striving to live in the spirit of Ubuntu in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Horta


    Full Text Available In this paper I examine the non-formal education programme of the Ubuntu Academy in Portugal, a non-profit organisation that aims to empower and train young adults with strong leadership potential. The participants, who come mostly from African immigrant communities and contexts of social exclusion, are trained to develop and implement social entrepreneur and outreach projects in their communities. I explore the Ubuntu Academy’s use of the Southern African communitarian philosophy of ubuntu and draw on ubuntu literature to argue that this specific education programme’s focus on the notions of humaneness and interdependence encapsulated in the concept of ubuntu has introduced a paradigm shift from an individualistic worldview prevalent in the West to a communitarian form of becoming, belonging and sharing. In this context, I consider the role of testimony and narrative in both promoting personal growth and developing a sense of interdependence and connectedness among people of diverse backgrounds and identities.

  5. Seeking "a place where one belongs": elderly Korean immigrant women using day care services in Japan. (United States)

    Lee, Kumsun; Herrera C, Lourdes R; Lee, Setsuko; Nakamura, Yasuhide


    The study examined the subjective life experiences of elderly first-generation Korean women living in Japan and investigated their adjustment to the local Japanese community. The study group comprised 14 elderly Korean women residents at a Korean-oriented, insurance-based, day services center in midwestern Japan. They were interviewed in depth, and the data were analyzed using the modified grounded theory approach. The study designated the core category as "conservation of ethnic identity" and identified five subcategories: (a) loneliness, (b) returning to one's homeland culture, (c) physical decline as a result of aging, (d) family ties, and (e) a place where one belongs. The results elucidated that although the participants had adapted to Japanese culture, they were strongly influenced by the memories of their hometowns and wished to return to their homeland. The study suggests that elderly immigrants need day care support that provides an environment where they can enjoy their culture.

  6. Tuber aztecorum sp. nov., a truffle species from Mexico belonging to the Maculatum clade (Tuberaceae, Pezizales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Guevara-Guerrero


    Full Text Available A new species of truffle, T. aztecorum, is described from central Mexico. Tuber aztecorum can be distinguished from other related Tuber species synoptically by a combination of morphological features including ascospore size, pellis cells with irregular thickness, cystidia, ascoma colour and associated host (Abies religiosa an endemic Abies species from central Mexico; sequence variation on the ITS rDNA also distinguishes T. aztecorum from related species. A phylogenetic analysis of the ITS rDNA demonstrates that T. aztecorum belongs to the Maculatum clade and is unique from other similar small, white-cream coloured Tuber species distributed in north-eastern Mexico such as T. castilloi and T. guevarai.

  7. Ixodes ticks belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex encode a family of anticomplement proteins. (United States)

    Daix, V; Schroeder, H; Praet, N; Georgin, J-P; Chiappino, I; Gillet, L; de Fays, K; Decrem, Y; Leboulle, G; Godfroid, E; Bollen, A; Pastoret, P-P; Gern, L; Sharp, P M; Vanderplasschen, A


    The alternative pathway of complement is an important innate defence against pathogens including ticks. This component of the immune system has selected for pathogens that have evolved countermeasures. Recently, a salivary protein able to inhibit the alternative pathway was cloned from the American tick Ixodes scapularis (Valenzuela et al., 2000; J. Biol. Chem. 275, 18717-18723). Here, we isolated two different sequences, similar to Isac, from the transcriptome of I. ricinus salivary glands. Expression of these sequences revealed that they both encode secreted proteins able to inhibit the complement alternative pathway. These proteins, called I. ricinus anticomplement (IRAC) protein I and II, are coexpressed constitutively in I. ricinus salivary glands and are upregulated during blood feeding. Also, we demonstrated that they are the products of different genes and not of alleles of the same locus. Finally, phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that ticks belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex encode a family of relatively small anticomplement molecules undergoing diversification by positive Darwinian selection.

  8. Posttraumatic stress and growth: the contribution of cognitive appraisal and sense of belonging to the country. (United States)

    Dekel, Rachel; Nuttman-Shwartz, Orit


    The study has three aims: (1) to compare the effect of the Qassam attacks in two types of communities: development town and kibbutz; (2) to examine the relationship between posttraumatic stress (PTS) and posttraumatic growth (PTG); and (3) to examine the contribution that level of exposure, cognitive appraisal, and sense of belonging to the country make to PTS and PTG. The sample consisted of 134 residents, 67 living on two kibbutzim and 67 living in the development town of Sderot. Results revealed that the development town residents reported more PTS symptoms and more PTG than did the kibbutz residents, and the association between PTS and PTG was positive. In addition, the findings show that most of the predictors contribute to either PTS or PTG, or predicted them differently. The discussion examines the results in light of the current literature on PTS and PTG.

  9. Inhibition of RNA Helicases of ssRNA+ Virus Belonging to Flaviviridae, Coronaviridae and Picornaviridae Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Briguglio


    Full Text Available Many viral pathogens encode the motor proteins named RNA helicases which display various functions in genome replication. General strategies to design specific and selective drugs targeting helicase for the treatment of viral infections could act via one or more of the following mechanisms: inhibition of the NTPase activity, by interferences with ATP binding and therefore by limiting the energy required for the unwinding and translocation, or by allosteric mechanism and therefore by stabilizing the conformation of the enzyme in low helicase activity state; inhibition of nucleic acids binding to the helicase; inhibition of coupling of ATP hydrolysis to unwinding; inhibition of unwinding by sterically blocking helicase translocation. Recently, by in vitro screening studies, it has been reported that several benzotriazole, imidazole, imidazodiazepine, phenothiazine, quinoline, anthracycline, triphenylmethane, tropolone, pyrrole, acridone, small peptide, and Bananin derivatives are endowed with helicase inhibition of pathogen viruses belonging to Flaviviridae, Coronaviridae, and Picornaviridae families.

  10. A journey of negotiation and belonging: understanding students' transition to science and engineering in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup; Madsen, Lene Møller; Ulriksen, Lars


    The paper presents results from a longitudinal study of students’ decisions to enrol on a higher education science programme and their experiences of it. The aim is to give insights into students’ transition process and negotiation of identity. This is done by following a cohort of 38 students...... in a series of qualitative interviews during a 3-year period starting as they were about to finish upper secondary school. We find that the students’ choice of study is an ongoing process of meaning-making, which continues when the students enter higher education and continuously work on their identities...... to gain a sense of belonging to their science or engineering programme. The use of a narrative methodology provides understanding of choice of study as involving changes in future perspectives and in the interpretation of past experiences. Further, we gain access into how this meaning-making process over...

  11. Belonging to the Land in Tura: Reforms, Migrations, and Indentity Politics in Evenkia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Povoroznyuk


    Full Text Available Tura is a mixed community where Evenks live alongside other indigenous groups and Russians. The establishment of Evenk autonomy, with the centre in Tura, in 1930 strengthened Evenk ethnic identity and unity through increased political and cultural representation, as well as through the integration of migrants from other regions. In the post-Soviet period, the community witnessed a population loss, a declining socio-economic situation, and the abolition of autonomy. In the long course of reforms and identity construction, the indigenous intelligentsia has manipulated the concept of belonging to the land either to stress or to erase cultural differences, and thus, to secure the access of the local elite to valuable resources. currently, the most hotly debated boundaries are those dividing Evenks into local and migrant, authentic and unauthentic, urban and rural. The paper illustrates the intricate interrelations between ethnic, indigenous, and territorial identities from an identity politics perspective.

  12. [The social-political-environmental and health reality of families belonging to a vulnerable community]. (United States)

    Marzari, Carla Kowalski; Backes, Dirce Stein; Backes, Marli Stein; Marchiori, Mara Teixeira; Souza, Martha Teixeira de; Carpes, Adriana Dornelles


    The scope of this paper is to ascertain the perception of community leadership, health professionals and users regarding citizenship status and the enhancement of the healthcare conditions of families belonging to a vulnerable community. This is an exploratory study of a qualitative nature, guided by theory based on data. Data were collected between July and December 2009, by means of interviews with four community health leaders, a team of eight family health team professionals and twelve health users. The codification of the data resulted in the following categories: Understanding the social conditions, the political conditions, the environmental conditions and the health conditions of families in a vulnerable community. The conclusions reached were, that if on the one hand the social security and health policies made it possible to reduce poverty and local inequalities, on the other hand they do not ensure the requisite enhancement of citizenship or even the improvement of health conditions.

  13. Stranger-ness and Belonging in a Neighbourhood WhatsApp Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixon Natalie


    Full Text Available The messaging application WhatsApp is often adopted in urban neighbourhoods to distribute and discuss information as part of neighbourhood watch programmes. In this context, certain notions of information sharing and the cherishing this implies, are often entangled with ideals of protection in the neighbourhood. Using the case study of an enclosed neighbourhood in Johannesburg, this essay draws on theories of affect and mobility to introduce the concept of affective mooring. That is, that a neighbourhood WhatsApp group constitutes an affective mooring-an established practice and point of fixity-that generates a sense of being held in a community through feelings of collective presence and safety. Notably, these feelings of presence and safety are hinged on acts of resistance and alienation towards strangers. In this way, WhatsApp as an affective mooring in the neighbourhood is also a site for negotiating ideals of belonging.

  14. Belonging to the Land in Tura: Reforms, Migrations, and Indentity Politics in Evenkia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Povoroznyuk


    Full Text Available Tura is a mixed community where Evenks live alongside other indigenous groups and Russians. The establishment of Evenk autonomy, with the centre in Tura, in 1930 strengthened Evenk ethnic identity and unity through increased political and cultural representation, as well as through the integration of migrants from other regions. In the post-Soviet period, the community witnessed a population loss, a declining socio-economic situation, and the abolition of autonomy. In the long course of reforms and identity construction, the indigenous intelligentsia has manipulated the concept of belonging to the land either to stress or to erase cultural differences, and thus, to secure the access of the local elite to valuable resources. currently, the most hotly debated boundaries are those dividing Evenks into local and migrant, authentic and unauthentic, urban and rural. The paper illustrates the intricate interrelations between ethnic, indigenous, and territorial identities from an identity politics perspective.

  15. Repair of ultraviolet radiation damage in xeroderma pigmentosum cells belonging to complementation group F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, H.; Ishizaki, K.; Yagi, T.; Takebe, H.; Inoue, M.; Sekiguchi, M.; Kyoto Univ.


    DNA-repair characteristics of xeroderma pigmentosum belonging to complementation group F were investigated. The cells exhibited an intermediate level of repair as measured in terms of (1) disappearance of T4 endonuclease-V-susceptible sites from DNA, (2) formation of ultraviolet-induced strand breaks in DNA, and (3) ultraviolet-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis during post-irradiation incubation. The impaired ability of XP3YO to perform unscheduled DNA synthesis was restored, to half the normal level, by the concomitant treatment with T4 endonuclease V and ultraviolet-inactivated Sendai virus. It is suggested that xeroderma pigmentosum cells of group F may be defective, at least in part, in the incision step of excision repair. (orig.)

  16. Between difference and belonging: configuring self and others in inpatient treatment for eating disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Eli

    Full Text Available Dedicated inpatient care for eating disorders has profound impact on patients' embodied practices and lived realities. Analyses of inpatients' accounts have shown that participants endorse complex and conflicting attitudes toward their experiences in eating disorders wards, yet the apparent ambivalence that characterizes inpatient experiences has not been subject to critical examination. This paper examines the narrated experiences of 13 participants (12 women and one man; age 18-38 years at first interview with past or present anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder not otherwise specified, who had been hospitalized in an inpatient eating disorders ward for adults in central Israel. The interviews, which took place in 2005-2006, and again in 2011, were part of a larger longitudinal study exploring the subjective experiences of eating disorders and recovery among Israeli adults. Employing qualitative analysis, this study finds that the participants' accounts were concerned with dynamics of difference and belonging, as they played out in various aspects of inpatient care, including diagnosis, treatment, relationships with fellow patients and staff, and everyday life in hospital. Notably, participants simultaneously defined themselves as connected to, but also distinct from, the eating disordered others who formed their reference group at the ward. Through negotiating a protectively ambivalent positioning, participants recognized their eating disordered identities and connected with others on the ward, while also asserting their non-disordered individuality and distancing themselves from the potential dangers posed by 'excessive' belonging. The paper suggests that this ambivalent positioning can usefully be understood through the anthropological concept of liminality: being both a part of and apart from one's community.

  17. Entitativity and intergroup bias: How belonging to a cohesive group allows people to express their prejudices. (United States)

    Effron, Daniel A; Knowles, Eric D


    We propose that people treat prejudice as more legitimate when it seems rationalistic-that is, linked to a group's pursuit of collective interests. Groups that appear to be coherent and unified wholes (entitative groups) are most likely to have such interests. We thus predicted that belonging to an entitative group licenses people to express prejudice against outgroups. Support for this idea came from 3 correlational studies and 5 experiments examining racial, national, and religious prejudice. The first 4 studies found that prejudice and discrimination seemed more socially acceptable to third parties when committed by members of highly entitative groups, because people could more easily explain entitative groups' biases as a defense of collective interests. Moreover, ingroup entitativity only lent legitimacy to outgroup prejudice when an interests-based explanation was plausible-namely, when the outgroup could possibly threaten the ingroup's interests. The last 4 studies found that people were more willing to express private prejudices when they perceived themselves as belonging to an entitative group. Participants' perceptions of their own race's entitativity were associated with a greater tendency to give explicit voice to their implicit prejudice against other races. Furthermore, experimentally raising participants' perceptions of ingroup entitativity increased explicit expressions of outgroup prejudice, particularly among people most likely to privately harbor such prejudices (i.e., highly identified group members). Together, these findings demonstrate that entitativity can lend a veneer of legitimacy to prejudice and disinhibit its expression. We discuss implications for intergroup relations and shifting national demographics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Korean indigenous bacterial species with valid names belonging to the phylum Actinobacteria. (United States)

    Bae, Kyung Sook; Kim, Mi Sun; Lee, Ji Hee; Kang, Joo Won; Kim, Dae In; Lee, Ji Hee; Seong, Chi Nam


    To understand the isolation and classification state of actinobacterial species with valid names for Korean indigenous isolates, isolation source, regional origin, and taxonomic affiliation of the isolates were studied. At the time of this writing, the phylum Actinobacteria consisted of only one class, Actinobacteria, including five subclasses, 10 orders, 56 families, and 330 genera. Moreover, new taxa of this phylum continue to be discovered. Korean actinobacterial species with a valid name has been reported from 1995 as Tsukamurella inchonensis isolated from a clinical specimen. In 1997, Streptomyces seoulensis was validated with the isolate from the natural Korean environment. Until Feb. 2016, 256 actinobacterial species with valid names originated from Korean territory were listed on LPSN. The species were affiliated with three subclasses (Acidimicrobidae, Actinobacteridae, and Rubrobacteridae), four orders (Acidimicrobiales, Actinomycetales, Bifidobacteriales, and Solirubrobacterales), 12 suborders, 36 families, and 93 genera. Most of the species belonged to the subclass Actinobacteridae, and almost of the members of this subclass were affiliated with the order Actinomycetales. A number of novel isolates belonged to the families Nocardioidaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Intrasporangiaceae, and Streptomycetaceae as well as the genera Nocardioides, Streptomyces, and Microbacterium. Twenty-six novel genera and one novel family, Motilibacteraceae, were created first with Korean indigenous isolates. Most of the Korean indigenous actionobacterial species were isolated from natural environments such as soil, seawater, tidal flat sediment, and fresh-water. A considerable number of species were isolated from artificial resources such as fermented foods, wastewater, compost, biofilm, and water-cooling systems or clinical specimens. Korean indigenous actinobacterial species were isolated from whole territory of Korea, and especially a large number of species were from Jeju

  19. Nucleosome organizations in induced pluripotent stem cells reprogrammed from somatic cells belonging to three different germ layers. (United States)

    Tao, Yu; Zheng, Weisheng; Jiang, Yonghua; Ding, Guitao; Hou, Xinfeng; Tang, Yitao; Li, Yueying; Gao, Shuai; Chang, Gang; Zhang, Xiaobai; Liu, Wenqiang; Kou, Xiaochen; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Cizhong; Gao, Shaorong


    Nucleosome organization determines the chromatin state, which in turn controls gene expression or silencing. Nucleosome remodeling occurs during somatic cell reprogramming, but it is still unclear to what degree the re-established nucleosome organization of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) resembles embryonic stem cells (ESCs), and whether the iPSCs inherit some residual gene expression from the parental fibroblast cells. We generated genome-wide nucleosome maps in mouse ESCs and in iPSCs reprogrammed from somatic cells belonging to three different germ layers using a secondary reprogramming system. Pairwise comparisons showed that the nucleosome organizations in the iPSCs, regardless of the iPSCs' tissue of origin, were nearly identical to the ESCs, but distinct from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). There is a canonical nucleosome arrangement of -1, nucleosome depletion region, +1, +2, +3, and so on nucleosomes around the transcription start sites of active genes whereas only a nucleosome occupies silent transcriptional units. Transcription factor binding sites possessed characteristic nucleosomal architecture, such that their access was governed by the rotational and translational settings of the nucleosome. Interestingly, the tissue-specific genes were highly expressed only in the parental somatic cells of the corresponding iPS cell line before reprogramming, but had a similar expression level in all the resultant iPSCs and ESCs. The re-established nucleosome landscape during nuclear reprogramming provides a conserved setting for accessibility of DNA sequences in mouse pluripotent stem cells. No persistent residual expression program or nucleosome positioning of the parental somatic cells that reflected their tissue of origin was passed on to the resulting mouse iPSCs.

  20. Of decentralization of public power Ukrainian land that belonged to Lithuanian (XIII – the early XVII century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. V. Manuilova


    Full Text Available A comprehensive crisis in Ukraine and continued military confrontation in the Donbass demonstrated the urgent need to establish effective governance, which would imply decentralization of public power. Note that in implementing the decentralization of power in Ukraine insists the International Monetary Fund; United Nations Development Program; the transfer of authority to the field and decentralization of power in Ukraine is one of the points of the Minsk agreements and obligations of Ukraine to the EU. The article deals with the Ukrainian lands topical issue features the decentralization of public power in the XIII - the beginning of XVII century. The importance of the topic due to the need to study the historical experience of the implementation of decentralization. It was, emphasized that the success of the reforms depends largely because of the historical experience and features of the decentralization of public power in the past. Characterized by the development of local government in the Ukrainian lands was part of the Lithuanian state. The purpose of the article is to clarify the characteristics of decentralization of public authority on Ukrainian lands were part of the Lithuanian state during the XVII century XIII. To address this goal, outline decentralization of public power in the state; analyze, competence of local government in the Ukrainian lands that belonged to the Lith uanian State; determine how close to the power of the people. The level of decentralization of public power in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the XIII - the beginning of XVII century was high. It was, found that Lithuania had not established a centralized state. It is, noted that the Board of the nobility limited the princely power. The effect of delegated deputies from different parts of the Lithuanian statehood solutions nobility Council.Clarified the facts that confirm the existence of decentralization of public power in Lithuania: the functioning of local

  1. Belonging and Mental Wellbeing Among a Rural Indian-Canadian Diaspora: Navigating Tensions in "Finding a Space of Our Own". (United States)

    Caxaj, C Susana; Gill, Navjot K


    Belonging is linked to a variety of positive health outcomes. Yet this relationship is not well understood, particularly among rural immigrant diasporas. In this article, we explore the experiences of community belonging and wellbeing among a rural Indian-Canadian diaspora in the Interior of British Columbia, Canada, our central research questions being, "What are the experiences of belonging in this community? How does a sense of belonging (or lack of) shape mental health and wellbeing among local residents?" Using a situational analysis research approach, our findings indicate that local residents must navigate several tensions within an overarching reality of finding a space of our own. Such tensions reveal contradictory experiences of tight-knitedness, context-informed notions of cultural continuity, access/acceptability barriers, particularly in relation to rural agricultural living, and competing expectations of "small town" life. Such tensions can begin to be addressed through creative service provision, collaborative decision making, and diversity-informed program planning.

  2. “I Like to Play with My Friends”: Children with Spina Bifida and Belonging in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Bannink


    Full Text Available This paper describes experiences of living and belonging from the perspectives of Ugandan children with spina bifida and their siblings and parents. We explored belonging at micro, meso and macro level taking into consideration African Childhood Disability Studies, central concepts of family, cultural conceptions of disability, poverty, and the notion of ‘ubuntu’, and using child-friendly culturally adjusted interview methods including play. Whilst children with spina bifida had a strong sense of belonging at household level, they experienced more difficulties engaging in larger social networks, including school. Poverty and stigma were important barriers to inclusion. We propose strengthening the network at family level, where the environment is more enabling for the children to find a place of belonging and support, and expanding investment and awareness at community and national level.

  3. Dimensions of belonging as an aspect of racial-ethnic-cultural identity: an exploration of indigenous Australians. (United States)

    Neville, Helen A; Oyama, Kathleen E; Odunewu, Latifat O; Huggins, Jackie G


    Sense of belonging is a key aspect of racial and ethnic identity. Interestingly, there is little exploration of the multiple characteristics of belongingness within the racial and ethnic identity literature. Through individual interviews and a focus group, we explored the sense of racial-ethnic-cultural (REC) belonging among 19 self-identified Black Indigenous Australians (Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders). Using dimensional analysis, we uncovered 5 core interrelated dimensions of REC belonging: History/Memory, Place, and Peoplehood; Sense of Community; Acceptance and Pride; Shared Language and Culture; and Interconnections. We also uncovered 3 main barriers undermining participants' sense of REC belonging: phenotype, social identity, and history of colonization. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Fungal communities in soils along a vegetative ecotone. (United States)

    Karst, Justine; Piculell, Bridget; Brigham, Christy; Booth, Michael; Hoeksema, Jason D


    We investigated the community composition and diversity of soil fungi along a sharp vegetative ecotone between coastal sage scrub (CSS) and nonnative annual grassland habitat at two sites in coastal California. USA- We pooled soil samples across 29 m transects on either side of the ecotone at each of the two sites, and. using clone libraries of fungal ribosomal DNA, we identified 280 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from a total 40 g soil. We combined information from partial LSU and ITS sequences and found that the majority of OTUs belonged to the phylum Ascomycota, followed by Basidiomycota. Within the Ascomycota. a quarter of OTUs were Sordariomycetes. 17% were, 16% were Dothideomycetes and the remaining OTUs were distributed among the classes Eurotiomycetes, Pezizomycetes, Lecanoromycetes, Orbiliomycetes and Arthoniomycetes. Within the Basidiomycota. all OTUs but one belonged to the subphylum Agaricomycotina. We also sampled plant communities at the same sites to offer a point of comparison for patterns in richness of fungal communities. Fungal communities had higher alpha and beta diversity than plant communities; fungal communities were approximately 20 times as rich as plant communities and the majority of OTUs were found in single soil samples. Soils harbored a unique mycoflora that did not reveal vegetative boundaries or site differences. High alpha and beta diversity and possible sampling artifacts necessitate extensive sampling to reveal differentiation in these fungal communities.

  5. Pertencimento, medos corriqueiros e redes de solidariedade Belonging, current fears and nets of solidarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Guilherme Pinheiro Koury


    Full Text Available Este ensaio busca entender como os processos de construção da semelhança e da dessemelhança entre os indivíduos e os grupos sociais se formam e se informam. Procura compreender também, as bases da afirmação e as maneiras da superação do medo do outro e as estratégias de solidariedade usadas pelos habitantes de um bairro popular. Analisa os processos aparentemente sentidos como polares pelos cidadãos que os vivenciam, e entendido, neste ensaio como opostos e complementares no estabelecimento de ações e afirmações socialmente dispostas no processo permanente de construção de novos significados de pertencimento.This essay looks for to understand as the processes of construction of similarity and of dissimilarity between social individuals and groups are formed and are inquired. This paper search to understand, also, the bases of affirmation and ways of overcoming of fear of the other, and the strategies of solidarity used for the inhabitants of a popular quarter. This essay still analyzes the processes seen, apparently, as polar for the citizens that live deeply them, and understood in this work as opposing and complementary in the establishment of action and affirmations socially made in the process of construction of new meanings of belonging.

  6. The Strongylidae belonging to Strongylus genus in horses from southeastern Poland. (United States)

    Studzińska, M B; Tomczuk, K; Demkowska-Kutrzepa, M; Szczepaniak, K


    Postmortem parasitic examinations of the large intestines of 725 slaughtered horses from individual farmers in southeastern Poland were carried out. The examinations were carried out monthly since February 2006 until January 2007 (except for August 2007 because of a technological stoppage in the slaughterhouse). The examinations included the intensiveness and extensiveness of the infestation of the Strongylidae belonging to the Strongylus genus. The Strongylidae were found in 26.5% of the examined horses. Strongylus vulgaris was the most dominant nematode and had a 22.8% prevalence, Strongylus edentatus was carried by 18.3% of the horses. Strongylus equinus was identified only in 1.7% of the examined horses. Our findings revealed that combined infestation of S. vulgaris and S. edentatus occurred in 100 (52.1%) of the 725 horses infected by the Strongylidae. The present results indicate that the lowest prevalence of strongyle species except for S. equinus was found in January, February, and March. However, it is difficult to draw a conclusion because of an extremely low extensiveness of infestation. The results indicate that the prevalence of the Strongylidae in horses from southeastern Poland is limited.

  7. Religious Belonging, Religious Agency, and Women’s Autonomy in Mozambique (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor; Yabiku, Scott T.


    Women’s autonomy has frequently been linked with women’s opportunities and investments, such as education, employment, and reproductive control. The association between women’s autonomy and religion in the developing world, however, has received less attention, and the few existing studies make comparisons across major religious traditions. In this study, we focus on variations in levels of female decision-making autonomy within a single religious tradition—Christianity. Using unique survey data from a predominantly Christian area in Mozambique, we devise an autonomy scale and apply it to compare women affiliated to different Christian denominations as well as unaffiliated women. In addition to affiliation, we examine the relationship between autonomy and women’s religious agency both within and outside their churches. Multivariate analyses show that women belonging to more liberal religious traditions (such as Catholicism and mainline Protestantism) and tend to have higher autonomy levels, regardless of other factors. These results are situated within the cross-national scholarship on religion and women’s empowerment and are interpreted in the context of gendered religious dynamics in Mozambique and similar developing settings. PMID:26973353

  8. Perceived Status and National Belonging: The Case of Russian Speakers in Finland and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuuli Anna Renvik


    Full Text Available Despite the abundance of research on disadvantaged minority group members, the research field on the ramifications of low group status is largely split between more material and psychological lines of explanation. There is also a lack of research on how subjectively perceived socio-economic status and discrimination cumulatively affect the sense of national belonging of ethnic minority group members. This survey study was conducted among Russian-speaking immigrants in Finland ('N' = 316 and Estonia ('N' = 501. The results in Estonia showed that for national identification to be high, both indicators of subjective group status had to be perceived as relatively high. In Finland, there was no interaction between the two indicators of subjectively perceived low group status. The study shows how perceptions of cumulative disadvantage may provoke a backlash in the form of immigrants’ psychological distancing from the national ingroup. The findings are discussed in relation to the pervasiveness of low status in different intergroup contexts and minority group members’ perceived investments to society.

  9. Ambient belonging: how stereotypical cues impact gender participation in computer science. (United States)

    Cheryan, Sapna; Plaut, Victoria C; Davies, Paul G; Steele, Claude M


    People can make decisions to join a group based solely on exposure to that group's physical environment. Four studies demonstrate that the gender difference in interest in computer science is influenced by exposure to environments associated with computer scientists. In Study 1, simply changing the objects in a computer science classroom from those considered stereotypical of computer science (e.g., Star Trek poster, video games) to objects not considered stereotypical of computer science (e.g., nature poster, phone books) was sufficient to boost female undergraduates' interest in computer science to the level of their male peers. Further investigation revealed that the stereotypical broadcast a masculine stereotype that discouraged women's sense of ambient belonging and subsequent interest in the environment (Studies 2, 3, and 4) but had no similar effect on men (Studies 3, 4). This masculine stereotype prevented women's interest from developing even in environments entirely populated by other women (Study 2). Objects can thus come to broadcast stereotypes of a group, which in turn can deter people who do not identify with these stereotypes from joining that group.

  10. Re-utilization by '' Stud Welding'' of capsules charpy-V belonged to surveillance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapena, J.; Perosanz, F. J.; Gachuz, M.


    The perspectives of nuclear plants life extension that are approximating to their end of design life compels to make new surveillance programs. The re-utilization of specimens belonging to surveillance capsules already tested in these new surveillance programs seems be a solution worldwide accepted. The two possible re-utilization processes of this irradiated material are: Subsized specimens and Reconstitution. While the first alternative (Subsized specimens) outlines serious problems for apply the results, the reconstitution eliminates this problem, since the resulting specimens after of the reconstruction procedure would be of the same dimensions that the original. The reconstruction process involves welds, and therefore it has associated the specific problems of this type of joints. Furthermore, by be tried to material irradiated with certain degree of internal damage, that is the variable to evaluate, requires that the heat contribution to the piece not originate local thermal treatments that alter its mechanical qualities. In this work has been followed the evolution by the variables of the weld process and their influence on the quality by the union from metallographic al point of view as well as mechanical for a weld procedure by Stud Welding. The principal objective is to optimize said parameters to assure a good mechanical continuity, without detriment of the microstructural characteristics of the original material. To verify this last have been accomplished with metallographical tests, temperature profile, hardness and will be carried out also Charpy tests. (Author)

  11. As if they do not exist. Images of (belonging and of owning Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Neidhardt


    Full Text Available Films from or about Palestine are frequently programmed at international film festivals. They are sometimes released in cinemas and quite often presented in special screenings at various institutions all over the Western World. Due to the scarcity of screens and the boycott of Israel, they are seen to a lesser extend in Arab countries. Compared to screenings of other Arab films or the presentation of movies from other former colonies and mandatory territories, Western audiences often react highly emotional to the images from Palestine. In debates questions for a better understanding of the films’ subject or context are barely ever asked. Rather the foreign spectators seem to have a sense of belonging and to claim the right for co-determination. Where do these emotional ties originate from? In recent years a large number of films shot in Palestine during the late Ottoman period and the British mandate were made accesssible online, mainly by the Steven Spielberg Film Archive in Jerusalem and the British War Museum in London. Libraries like the Library of Congress in Washington digitized parts of their photographic collections. Based on them as well as on the films I work with as distributor and programmer for Arab film series, in this article I look at images on and from Palestine and ask for what purpose, in which context and by whom they were made and distributed.

  12. In A Queer Place in Time: Fictions of Belonging in Italy 1890-2010 (United States)

    Atwood, Christopher Burke

    In a Queer Place in Time: Fictions of Belonging in Italy 1890-2010 maps the "elsewheres"---spatial, temporal and intertextual--- that authorize same-sex desire in modern Italy. Tracing a genealogy that spans from nineteenth century travel writing about Italy to contemporary Italian novels, I argue that texts exported from the Northern Europe and the U.S. function as vital site of affiliation and vexing points of discrepancy for Italy's queers. Pier Vittorio Tondelli's Camere separate (1989), for instance, cites the British novelist Christopher Isherwood as proof that -- somewhere else -- silence did not yoke homosexuality. Rather than defining sexuality as a constant set of desires, I demonstrate it to be a retroactive fiction. It is the fleeting affinity that the reading of inherited texts can evoke. In examining the reception of transnational gay narratives in the national context of Italy, this dissertation argues that the concept of "Western" homosexuality is internally riven. Ultimately, In a Queer Place in Time illuminates how local histories -- including affective differences like shame, estrangement and backwardness -- continue to haunt gay culture's global fictions. !

  13. A key to larvae of species belonging to the genus Diamesa from Alps and Apennines (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rossaro


    Full Text Available A key to species belonging to the genus Diamesa Meigen, 1835 (Diptera, Chironomidae from the Alps and Apennines (Italy is presented using characters observable in the fourth-instar larva. The larvae are separated on the basis of qualitative and quantitative characters. At present fifteen species from the Italian Alps are described in all three life stages, but only twelve species groups can be separated as larvae. The separation is based on the length and thickness of anal setae, antennal ratio, head capsule color and few other characters of the labrum and mentum. The shape of mental and mandibular teeth is still a valid taxonomic character, but unfortunately these characters can be rarely used because teeth are often excessively worn in samples collected in the field. Quantitative characters show variability within each species, differing according to the duration of larval development and must be used with caution. The species groups which can be separated in the larval stage are: the dampfi group, which includes D. dampfi and D. permacra, the latitarsis group including D. modesta and D. latitarsis, the zernyi group including D. zernyi and D. vaillanti. The species within each of these groups at present cannot be separated. D. starmachi, D. steinboecki, D. goetghebueri, D. bertrami, D. aberrata, D. incallida, D. cinerella, D. tonsa and D. insignipes can be separated from all the other known species in larval stage.

  14. Isolation and survey of novel fluoroacetate-degrading bacteria belonging to the phylum Synergistetes. (United States)

    Davis, Carl K; Webb, Richard I; Sly, Lindsay I; Denman, Stuart E; McSweeney, Chris S


    Microbial dehalogenation of chlorinated compounds in anaerobic environments is well known, but the degradation of fluorinated compounds under similar conditions has rarely been described. Here, we report on the isolation of a bovine rumen bacterium that metabolizes fluoroacetate under anaerobic conditions, the mode of degradation and its presence in gut ecosystems. The bacterium was identified using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as belonging to the phylum Synergistetes and was designated strain MFA1. Growth was stimulated by amino acids with greater quantities of amino acids metabolized in the presence of fluoroacetate, but sugars were not fermented. Acetate, formate, propionate, isobutryate, isovalerate, ornithine and H(2) were end products of amino acid metabolism. Acetate was the primary end product of fluoroacetate dehalogenation, and the amount produced correlated with the stoichiometric release of fluoride which was confirmed using fluorine nuclear magnetic resonance ((19) F NMR) spectroscopy. Hydrogen and formate produced in situ were consumed during dehalogenation. The growth characteristics of strain MFA1 indicated that the bacterium may gain energy via reductive dehalogenation. This is the first study to identify a bacterium that can anaerobically dehalogenate fluoroacetate. Nested 16S rRNA gene-specific PCR assays detected the bacterium at low numbers in the gut of several herbivore species. © 2012 Commonwealth of Australia.

  15. A Sense of Belonging: Childrens' Views of Acceptance in "Inclusive" Mainstream Schools (United States)

    Rose, Richard; Shevlin, Michael


    In recent years, international initiatives such as the Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education (UNESCO, 1994) and the Sustainable Development Goals (United Nations General Assembly, 2015) have encouraged educational researchers to focus their attentions on those conditions that enable schools to become more…

  16. Ecology, Inhibitory Activity, and Morphogenesis of a Marine Antagonistic Bacterium Belonging to the Roseobacter Clade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Jesper Bartholin; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Hjelm, Mette


    Roseobacter strain 27-4 has been isolated from a turbot larval rearing unit and is capable of reducing mortality in turbot egg yolk sac larvae. Here, we demonstrate that the supernatant of Roseobacter 27-4 is lethal to the larval pathogens Vibrio anguillarum and Vibrio splendidus in a buffer syst...

  17. Social Belonging and College Retention: Results from a Quasi-Experimental Pilot Study (United States)

    Silver Wolf, David A. Patterson; Perkins, Jacob; Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T.; Walker, Thomas A., Jr.


    Educators, policymakers, and institutions have worked for decades to increase rates of college graduation, but about half of students who enter college drop out without completing a bachelor's degree. Although the rate of student attrition is higher in the United States than in any other industrialized nation, about 30% of U.S. students will drop…

  18. Patriotism, Multiculturalism and Belonging: Political Discourse and the Teaching of History (United States)

    Osler, Audrey


    This paper examines the British Labour government's developing political discourse on patriotism, citizenship and multiculturalism since 1997, particularly following the 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States and the 2005 London bombings. It focuses on the speeches of key government figures, notably Prime Ministers Tony Blair and Gordon…

  19. Characterization of exopolysaccharides produced by three moderately halophilic bacteria belonging to the family Alteromonadaceae. (United States)

    Mata, J A; Béjar, V; Bressollier, P; Tallon, R; Urdaci, M C; Quesada, E; Llamas, I


    To study the exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by three novel moderately halophilic species belonging to the family Alteromonadaceae to optimize EPS yields, characterize their physical and chemical properties and evaluate possible biotechnological applications for these polymers. EPSs synthesized by Idiomarina fontislapidosi F32(T), Idiomarina ramblicola R22(T) and Alteromonas hispanica F23(T) were collected and analysed under optimum conditions: MY medium supplemented with 7.5% (w/v) salts; 32 degrees C; and 1% (w/v) glucose. Polymers were synthesized mainly during the early stationary growth phase with yields ranging from 1 to 1.5 g l(-1). The Idiomarina species each produced an anionic EPS composed mainly of glucose, mannose and galactose. A. hispanica synthesized an anionic EPS composed mainly of glucose, mannose and xylose. Solutions of all the polymers were low in viscosity and pseudoplastic in their behaviour. They showed emulsifying activity and the capacity to bind some metals. The Alteromonadaceae species studied in this work produced EPSs with physical and chemical properties different from those produced by other halophilic and nonhalophilic bacteria, suggesting that the wide diversity of micro-organisms being encountered nowadays in hypersaline environments offers enormous potential resources for biotechnological applications. We have optimized the EPS production and analysed new biopolymers produced by some recently described, moderately halophilic bacteria. These biopolymers are chemically and physically different from others already in use in biotechnology and offer hopes for new applications, especially in the case of A. hispanica, which may prove to be a viable source of xylo-oligosaccharides.

  20. A set of particle locating algorithms not requiring face belonging to cell connectivity data (United States)

    Sani, M.; Saidi, M. S.


    Existing efficient directed particle locating (host determination) algorithms rely on the face belonging to cell relationship (F2C) to find the next cell on the search path and the cell in which the target is located. Recently, finite volume methods have been devised which do not need F2C. Therefore, existing search algorithms are not directly applicable (unless F2C is included). F2C is a major memory burden in grid description. If the memory benefit from these finite volume methods are desirable new search algorithms should be devised. In this work two new algorithms (line of sight and closest cell) are proposed which do not need F2C. They are based on the structure of the sparse coefficient matrix involved (stored for example in the compressed row storage, CRS, format) to determine the next cell. Since F2C is not available, testing a cell for the presence of the target is not possible. Therefore, the proposed methods may wrongly mark a nearby cell as the host in some rare cases. The issue of importance of finding the correct host cell (not wrongly hitting its neighbor) is addressed. Quantitative measures are introduced to assess the efficiency of the methods and comparison is made for typical grid types used in computational fluid dynamics. In comparison, the closest cell method, having a lower computational cost than the family of line of sight and the existing efficient maximum dot product methods, gives a very good performance with tolerable and harmless wrong hits. If more accuracy is needed, the method of approximate line of sight then closest cell (LS-A-CC) is recommended.

  1. Glossina palpalis palpalis populations from Equatorial Guinea belong to distinct allopatric clades. (United States)

    Cordon-Obras, Carlos; Cano, Jorge; Knapp, Jenny; Nebreda, Paloma; Ndong-Mabale, Nicolas; Ncogo-Ada, Policarpo Ricardo; Ndongo-Asumu, Pedro; Navarro, Miguel; Pinto, Joao; Benito, Agustin; Bart, Jean-Mathieu


    Luba is one of the four historical foci of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) on Bioko Island, in Equatorial Guinea. Although no human cases have been detected since 1995, T. b. gambiense was recently observed in the vector Glossina palpalis palpalis. The existence of cryptic species within this vector taxon has been previously suggested, although no data are available regarding the evolutionary history of tsetse flies populations in Bioko. A phylogenetic analysis of 60 G. p. palpalis from Luba was performed sequencing three mitochondrial (COI, ND2 and 16S) and one nuclear (rDNA-ITS1) DNA markers. Phylogeny reconstruction was performed by Distance Based, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference methods. The COI and ND2 mitochondrial genes were concatenated and revealed 10 closely related haplotypes with a dominant one found in 61.1% of the flies. The sequence homology of the other 9 haplotypes compared to the former ranged from 99.6 to 99.9%. Phylogenetic analysis clearly clustered all island samples with flies coming from the Western African Clade (WAC), and separated from the flies belonging to the Central Africa Clade (CAC), including samples from Mbini and Kogo, two foci of mainland Equatorial Guinea. Consistent with mitochondrial data, analysis of the microsatellite motif present in the ITS1 sequence exhibited two closely related genotypes, clearly divergent from the genotypes previously identified in Mbini and Kogo. We report herein that tsetse flies populations circulating in Equatorial Guinea are composed of two allopatric subspecies, one insular and the other continental. The presence of these two G. p. palpalis cryptic taxa in Equatorial Guinea should be taken into account to accurately manage vector control strategy, in a country where trypanosomiasis transmission is controlled but not definitively eliminated yet.

  2. Structural and biochemical characterization of novel bacterial α-galactosidases belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 31. (United States)

    Miyazaki, Takatsugu; Ishizaki, Yuichi; Ichikawa, Megumi; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Tonozuka, Takashi


    Glycoside hydrolase family 31 (GH31) proteins have been reportedly identified as exo-α-glycosidases with activity for α-glucosides and α-xylosides. We focused on a GH31 subfamily, which contains proteins with low sequence identity (Pedobacter heparinus and Pedobacter saltans. The enzymes unexpectedly exhibited α-galactosidase activity, but were not active on α-glucosides and α-xylosides. The crystal structures of one of the enzymes, PsGal31A, in unliganded form and in complexes with D-galactose or L-fucose and the catalytic nucleophile mutant in unliganded form and in complex with p-nitrophenyl-α-D-galactopyranoside, were determined at 1.85-2.30 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution. The overall structure of PsGal31A contains four domains and the catalytic domain adopts a (β/α)8-barrel fold that resembles the structures of other GH31 enzymes. Two catalytic aspartic acid residues are structurally conserved in the enzymes, whereas most residues forming the active site differ from those of GH31 α-glucosidases and α-xylosidases. PsGal31A forms a dimer via a unique loop that is not conserved in other reported GH31 enzymes; this loop is involved in its aglycone specificity and in binding L-fucose. Considering potential genes for α-L-fucosidases and carbohydrate-related proteins within the vicinity of Pedobacter Gal31, the identified Gal31 enzymes are likely to function in a novel sugar degradation system. This is the first report of α-galactosidases which belong to GH31 family. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  3. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of clinical species belonging to Aspergillus genus and Rhizopus oryzae. (United States)

    Kachuei, R; Khodavaisy, S; Rezaie, S; Sharifynia, S


    Among filamentous fungal pathogens, Aspergillus spp. and zygomycetes account for highest rates of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Recently developed antifungal drugs offer the potential to improve management and therapeutic outcomes of fungal infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the in vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 54 isolates belonging to different clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and R. oryzae was tested for four antifungal agents using a microdilution reference method (CLSI, M38-A2). All isolates were identified by typical colony and microscopic characteristics, and also characterized by molecular methods. Caspofungin (MEC range: 0.008-0.25 and MEC50: 0.0023μg/mL) was the most active drug in vitro against Aspergillus spp., followed by voriconazole (MIC range: 0.031-8 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), itraconazole (MIC range: 0.031-16 and MIC50: 0.25μg/mL), and amphotericin B (MIC range: 0.125-4 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), in order of decreasing activity. The caspofungin, voriconazole, and itraconazole demonstrated poor in vitro activity against R. oryzae isolates evaluated, followed by amphotericin B. This study demonstrates that caspofungin had good antifungal activity and azole agents had better activity than amphotericin B against Aspergillus species. Although, azole drugs are considered ineffective against R. oryzae. This result is just from a small scale in vitro susceptibility study and we did not take other factors into consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding Intersectionality and Resiliency among Transgender Adolescents: Exploring Pathways among Peer Victimization, School Belonging, and Drug Use. (United States)

    Hatchel, Tyler; Marx, Robert


    Transgender youth experience elevated levels of victimization and may therefore report greater drug use than their cisgender peers, yet little is known about protective factors like school belonging that may mediate this relationship. Further, scant research has explored the experiences of youth at the intersection of transgender identity and youth of color status or low socioeconomic status, especially with respect to these multiple minority statuses’ associations with peer victimization, drug use, and school belonging. Using data from the California Healthy Kids Survey, the current study employs structural equation modeling to explore the relationships among school belonging, peer victimization, and drug use for transgender youth. Findings indicate that school belonging does mediate the pathway between peer victimization and drug use for transgender youth and that although youth of color experience greater victimization, they do not engage in greater drug use than their white transgender peers. Based on these results, those concerned with the healthy futures of transgender youth should advocate for more open and affirming school climates that engender a sense of belonging and treat transgender youth with dignity and fairness.

  5. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.


    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  6. Ectoparasites of dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bryson


    Full Text Available A total of 344 dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa, was examined for ectoparasites, and all visible arthropods were collected from the left side of each dog. By doubling these numbers it was estimated that the dogs harboured 14 724 ixodid ticks, belonging to 6 species, 1028 fleas, belonging to 2 species, and 26 lice. Haemaphysalis leachi accounted for 420 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus for 14 226 of the ticks. Pure infestations of H. leachi were present on 14 dogs and of R. sanguineus on 172 dogs. Small numbers of Amblyomma hebraeum, R. appendiculatus, R. evertsi evertsi and R. simus were also collected. The predominance of R. sanguineus accounts for the high prevalence of canine ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis within the survey region, compared to canine babesiosis (Babesia canis, which is transmitted by H. leachi, and is a much rarer disease.

  7. Comparative genomic characterization of Francisella tularensis strains belonging to low and high virulence subspecies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia D Champion


    Full Text Available Tularemia is a geographically widespread, severely debilitating, and occasionally lethal disease in humans. It is caused by infection by a gram-negative bacterium, Francisella tularensis. In order to better understand its potency as an etiological agent as well as its potential as a biological weapon, we have completed draft assemblies and report the first complete genomic characterization of five strains belonging to the following different Francisella subspecies (subsp.: the F. tularensis subsp. tularensis FSC033, F. tularensis subsp. holarctica FSC257 and FSC022, and F. tularensis subsp. novicida GA99-3548 and GA99-3549 strains. Here, we report the sequencing of these strains and comparative genomic analysis with recently available public Francisella sequences, including the rare F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica FSC147 strain isolate from the Central Asian Region. We report evidence for the occurrence of large-scale rearrangement events in strains of the holarctica subspecies, supporting previous proposals that further phylogenetic subdivisions of the Type B clade are likely. We also find a significant enrichment of disrupted or absent ORFs proximal to predicted breakpoints in the FSC022 strain, including a genetic component of the Type I restriction-modification defense system. Many of the pseudogenes identified are also disrupted in the closely related rarely human pathogenic F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica FSC147 strain, including modulator of drug activity B (mdaB (FTT0961, which encodes a known NADPH quinone reductase involved in oxidative stress resistance. We have also identified genes exhibiting sequence similarity to effectors of the Type III (T3SS and components of the Type IV secretion systems (T4SS. One of the genes, msrA2 (FTT1797c, is disrupted in F. tularensis subsp. mediasiatica and has recently been shown to mediate bacterial pathogen survival in host organisms. Our findings suggest that in addition to the duplication of

  8. The Relationship between Ethnic Classroom Composition and Turkish-Origin and German Students' Reading Performance and Sense of Belonging. (United States)

    Mok, Sog Yee; Martiny, Sarah E; Gleibs, Ilka H; Keller, Melanie M; Froehlich, Laura


    Past research on ethnic composition effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance has reported inconclusive results: Some studies have found no relationship between the proportion of migrant students in school and students' performance, some revealed positive effects, whereas others showed negative effects of the proportion of migrant students. Most of the studies did not consider whether an increase in the proportion of migrant students in the classroom has different effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance. For this reason, the present study (N = 9215) extends previous research by investigating the cross-level interaction effect of the proportion of Turkish-origin students in classrooms on Turkish-origin and German students' reading performance with data based on the German National Assessment Study 2008/2009 in the school subject German. In addition, we examined the cross-level interaction effect of Turkish-origin students' proportion on sense of belonging to school for Turkish-origin and German students, as sense of belonging has been shown to be an important predictor of well-being and integration. No cross-level interaction effect on performance emerged. Only a small negative main effect of the Turkish-origin students' proportion on all students' performance was found. As predicted, we showed a cross-level interaction on sense of belonging. Only Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging was positively related to the proportion of Turkish-origin students: The more Turkish-origin students there were in a classroom, the higher Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging. German students' sense of belonging was not related to the ethnic classroom composition. Implications of the results in the educational context are discussed.

  9. The Study of Relationship between Organizational Culture and Organizational Belonging in Employees of Varamin County Office of Education (United States)

    Tabatabaee, Seyed Mahmoud; Koohi, Amirhasan; Ghandali, Abbas; Tajik, Tayebeh


    The purpose of the present research is to study the relationship between organizational culture and organizational belonging among employees of Varamin County ministry of education. This is a descriptive-survey study. The statistical population is consisted of all 274 official and contract employees of ministry of education in Varamin County of…

  10. The moderating effect of the need to belong and classroom composition on belongingness seeking of minority adolescents. (United States)

    Kuo, Fu Wen; Yang, Shu Ching


    This study aimed to elucidate whether the interaction of classroom composition and the need to belong influences belongingness seeking and, if so, to investigate how upward comparison mediates the effects. The analyses were conducted with a cross-sectional sample of 383 Taiwanese aboriginal adolescents (39.7% male) recruited from schools with mixed-sex/ethnicity (n = 113), single-sex (n = 122), and minority-only (n = 148) classrooms. After controlling for socioeconomic status, the moderation analyses indicated that participants with a chronic need to belong in classes with diversity (mixed sex/ethnicity) perceived higher social acceptance, while those with a chronic need to belong in homogeneous classes (single-sex and minority-only) reported greater feelings of rejection. Upward comparison for differentiation was found to influence the indirect effects of the need to belong on feelings of rejection and depression in single-sex and minority-only classes. In particular, the mediating effect of upward comparison was stronger in minority-only classes. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Teacher Job Satisfaction and Motivation to Leave the Teaching Profession: Relations with School Context, Feeling of Belonging, and Emotional Exhaustion (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M.; Skaalvik, Sidsel


    This study examines the relations between school context variables and teachers' feeling of belonging, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and motivation to leave the teaching profession. Six aspects of the school context were measured: value consonance, supervisory support, relations with colleagues, relations with parents, time pressure, and…

  12. Emotions on the Move: Belonging, Sense of Place and Feelings Identities among Young Romanian Immigrants in Spain (United States)

    Marcu, Silvia


    This article examines the experiences in terms of belonging and sense of place among young Romanian immigrants who came to Spain in search of opportunities for professional development. The research detects and analyses the process of mobility, the search for job opportunities and the necessity of working below one's level of training or…

  13. Personally committed to emotional labor: Surface acting, emotional exhaustion and performance among service employees with a strong need to belong. (United States)

    Yagil, Dana; Medler-Liraz, Hana


    Individual differences in emotional labor and subsequent vulnerability to burnout have been explored through the prism of Congruence Theory, which examines the congruence between personality traits and job requirements (Bono & Vey, 2007; Moskowitz & Coté, 1995). Drawing on theory and research dealing with the association between the need to belong and self-regulation (Baumeister, DeWall, Ciarocco & Twenge, 2005), this study examined the relationship between need to belong and service employees' surface acting and associated outcomes. In Study 1, participants (N = 54) were asked to write a response to an aggressive email from a hypothetical customer. The need to belong was positively related to display of positive emotions and negatively to display of negative emotions in the responses, but not related to felt anger, suggesting that it is associated with the inclination to engage in surface acting. In Study 2, a field study conducted with 170 service employee-customer dyads, surface acting mediated the positive relationship between fear of isolation and emotional exhaustion, and emotional exhaustion mediated the relationship between surface acting and customer satisfaction. These results suggested that service employees with a strong need to belong might have a heightened risk of burnout because of their inclination to engage in emotional labor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Effects induced by γ-radiation on the noise in junction field-effect transistors belonging to monolithic processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredi, P.F.; Re, V.; Manfredi, P.F.; Speziali, V.; Re, V.; Manfredi, P.F.; Speziali, V.


    The effects of γ-rays on the noise characteristics of junction field-effect transistors belonging to three monolithic technologies have been investigated. A substantially different behavior of the radiation-induced noise in N and P -channel JFETs was observed. This may result in interesting design considerations. (authors)

  15. Belonging to a Workplace: First-Year Apprentices' Perspectives on Factors Determining Engagement and Continuation through Apprenticeship (United States)

    Chan, Selena


    The transition to work through apprenticeship is one taken by many young people. A sense of belonging to a workplace is posited to be an important precursor for initial and on-going engagement with practice communities. This article details a study of beginning apprentices in ten trades. The project sought to identify factors influencing…

  16. "Ikasi Style" and the Quiet Violence of Dreams: A Critique of Youth Belonging in Post-Apartheid South Africa (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene; Harding, James Hamilton; De Lannoy, Ariane


    Drawing on empirical data from two recent research studies in post-Apartheid South Africa, this paper asks what it means to be poor, young and black, and belong in a society that has suffered debilitating and dehumanising racial subjugation, actively excluding people from citizenship, and how poverty serves to perpetuate this exclusion. It…

  17. The Relationship between the Physical Environment of Schools and Teacher Morale, Sense of Belonging, and Work Ethic (United States)

    Wiley, Ben D.


    This study examines the physical environment of school buildings and the effects it has on teacher morale, sense of belonging, and work ethic. Within this mixed-method study, four New York State schools were given the researcher developed School Environment Survey, and multiple school stakeholders were interviewed to determine the extent of these…

  18. The Impact of Denominational Affiliation on Organizational Sense of Belonging and Commitment of Adjunct Faculty at Bible Colleges and Universities (United States)

    Pilieci, Kimberly M.


    The majority of faculty in higher education, including secular and biblical institutions, are adjunct faculty. The literature suggests that adjunct faculty are less effective and satisfied, and have weaker organizational sense of belonging (OSB) and affective organizational commitment (AOC). Denominational affiliation (DA) and religious commitment…

  19. Is the igeneration a 'we' generation? Social networking use among 9- to 13-year-olds and belonging. (United States)

    Quinn, Sally; Oldmeadow, Julian A


    Research suggests that online communication is associated with increased closeness to friends and friendship quality. Children under 13 years of age are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs), but research with this younger age group is scarce. This study examined the relationship between SNS use and feelings of belonging among children aged 9-13 years. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 443 children (48.98% boys), asking about their SNS use and their sense of belonging to their friendship group. SNS users reported a stronger sense of belonging to their friendship group than non-users, but this was found only among older boys. Furthermore, among boy SNS users, a positive linear relationship was found between the intensity of usage and feelings of belonging. No significant relationships were found for girls. These findings suggest that boys who use these sites are gaining friendship benefits over and above those boys who are non-users or low-intensity users. Longitudinal studies should investigate the causal relationships between SNS use and social effects within this age group. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Critical Care and Problematizing Sense of School Belonging as a Response to Inequality for Immigrants and Children of Immigrants (United States)

    DeNicolo, Christina Passos; Yu, Min; Crowley, Christopher B.; Gabel, Susan L.


    This chapter examines the factors that contribute to a sense of school belonging for immigrant and immigrant-origin youth. Through a review of the education research on critical care, the authors propose a framework informed by "cariño conscientizado"--critically conscious and authentic care--as central to reconceptualizing notions of…

  1. Identity and Belonging in Social Learning Groups: The Importance of Distinguishing Social, Operational and Knowledge-Related Identity Congruence (United States)

    Hughes, Gwyneth


    Collaborative learning has much to offer but not all learners participate fully and peer groups can be exclusive. The article examines how belonging or "congruence" in learning groups is related to identities of gender, age, ethnicity and socio-economic status. A study of student experiences of collaborative learning on three different…

  2. The Social Network: Homeless Young Women, Social Capital, and the Health Implications of Belonging outside the Nuclear Family (United States)

    Oliver, Vanessa; Cheff, Rebecca


    This article looks at the means through which homeless young women are able to improve their flow of social capital by attaining a sense of belonging and forming positive attachments to supportive people and places. In so doing, they also develop relationships with health and social services and improve their overall physical and mental health…

  3. Is the "I"generation a "We" Generation? Social Networking Use among 9- to 13-Year-Olds and Belonging (United States)

    Quinn, Sally; Oldmeadow, Julian A.


    Research suggests that online communication is associated with increased closeness to friends and friendship quality. Children under 13 years of age are increasingly using social networking sites (SNSs), but research with this younger age group is scarce. This study examined the relationship between SNS use and feelings of belonging among children…

  4. Creating Belonging and Transformation through the Adoption of Flexible Pedagogies in Masters Level International Business Management Students (United States)

    Matheson, Ruth; Sutcliffe, Mark


    Flexible pedagogies [Ryan and Tilbury 2013. "Flexible Pedagogies: New Pedagogical Ideas." York: Higher Education Academy] place learner empowerment at the centre of curriculum development. Learner empowerment requires students to feel that they belong and are active in the learning process. This paper illuminates how, through the…

  5. Production and characterization of a thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase that belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.P.; Uria, A.R.; Kengen, S.W.M.; Oost, van der J.


    The gene encoding a novel alcohol dehydrogenase that belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily has been identified in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. The gene, referred to as adhD, was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli and subsequently purified to homogeneity. The

  6. Integrating Facebook into a University Cohort to Enhance Student Sense of Belonging: A Pilot Program in Sport and Exercise Science (United States)

    McGuckin, Teneale Alyce; Sealey, Rebecca Maree


    University initiatives that enhance a students' sense of belonging may increase student retention and the overall student experience. Previous initiatives have largely focussed on face-to-face interactions however with the high usage of social networking, an online initiative may prove beneficial. The aim of this study was to establish a Facebook…

  7. Brief report: Contextual predictors of African American adolescents' ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and resistance to peer pressure. (United States)

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J


    The current study examined whether contextual factors (i.e., familial cultural socialization, percentage of same-ethnicity friends in high school, and neighborhood ethnic-racial composition) predicted ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and, in turn, resistance to peer pressure to engage in problem behavior. Participants were 250 African American adolescents (M age = 15.57 years; SD = 1.22). Consistent with ecological theory, findings indicated that familial cultural socialization and percentage of same-ethnicity friends predicted greater ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging. Furthermore, consistent with notions from social identity theory, youth who reported higher ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging also reported greater resistance to peer pressure. Findings highlight the significance of the family and school context, as well as the importance of ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging, for African American youths' positive development. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Whole-genome pyrosequencing of an epidemic multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain belonging to the European clone II group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacono, M.; Villa, L.; Fortini, D.


    The whole-genome sequence of an epidemic, multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strain (strain ACICU) belonging to the European clone II group and carrying the plasmid-mediated bla(OXA-58) carbapenem resistance gene was determined. The A. baumannii ACICU genome was compared with the genomes...

  9. On the role of phraseological units in nowadays English periodicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipova I. A.


    Full Text Available the current study is aimed at functional analysis of phraseological units in today’s English periodicals. An everlasting interest of contemporary researches to the above mentioned object of studies stems from the thesis that phraseological units are a potent linguistic means to convey emotional potential and vivid images of texts belonging to the publicistic genre.

  10. Crystal structure analysis of a bacterial aryl acylamidase belonging to the amidase signature enzyme family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Saeyoung; Park, Eun-Hye; Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Bang, Won Gi; Kim, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Choi, In-Geol


    The atomic structure of a bacterial aryl acylamidase (EC; AAA) is reported and structural features are investigated to better understand the catalytic profile of this enzyme. Structures of AAA were determined in its native form and in complex with the analgesic acetanilide, p-acetaminophenol, at 1.70 Å and 1.73 Å resolutions, respectively. The overall structural fold of AAA was identified as an α/β fold class, exhibiting an open twisted β-sheet core surrounded by α-helices. The asymmetric unit contains one AAA molecule and the monomeric form is functionally active. The core structure enclosing the signature sequence region, including the canonical Ser-cisSer-Lys catalytic triad, is conserved in all members of the Amidase Signature enzyme family. The structure of AAA in a complex with its ligand reveals a unique organization in the substrate-binding pocket. The binding pocket consists of two loops (loop1 and loop2) in the amidase signature sequence and one helix (α10) in the non-amidase signature sequence. We identified two residues (Tyr"1"3"6 and Thr"3"3"0) that interact with the ligand via water molecules, and a hydrogen-bonding network that explains the catalytic affinity over various aryl acyl compounds. The optimum activity of AAA at pH > 10 suggests that the reaction mechanism employs Lys"8"4 as the catalytic base to polarize the Ser"1"8"7 nucleophile in the catalytic triad. - Highlights: • We determined the first structure of a bacterial aryl acylamidase (EC • Structure revealed spatially distinct architecture of the substrate-binding pocket. • Hydrogen-bonding with Tyr"1"3"6 and Thr"3"3"0 mediates ligand-binding and substrate.

  11. Crystal structure analysis of a bacterial aryl acylamidase belonging to the amidase signature enzyme family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Saeyoung; Park, Eun-Hye; Ko, Hyeok-Jin; Bang, Won Gi [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoungbuk-Gu, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye-Yeon [Protein Structure Research Team, Korea Basic Science Institute, Ochang, Chungbuk, 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung Heon [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoungbuk-Gu, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, In-Geol, E-mail: [Department of Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, Anam-Dong, Seoungbuk-Gu, Seoul, 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)


    The atomic structure of a bacterial aryl acylamidase (EC; AAA) is reported and structural features are investigated to better understand the catalytic profile of this enzyme. Structures of AAA were determined in its native form and in complex with the analgesic acetanilide, p-acetaminophenol, at 1.70 Å and 1.73 Å resolutions, respectively. The overall structural fold of AAA was identified as an α/β fold class, exhibiting an open twisted β-sheet core surrounded by α-helices. The asymmetric unit contains one AAA molecule and the monomeric form is functionally active. The core structure enclosing the signature sequence region, including the canonical Ser-cisSer-Lys catalytic triad, is conserved in all members of the Amidase Signature enzyme family. The structure of AAA in a complex with its ligand reveals a unique organization in the substrate-binding pocket. The binding pocket consists of two loops (loop1 and loop2) in the amidase signature sequence and one helix (α10) in the non-amidase signature sequence. We identified two residues (Tyr{sup 136} and Thr{sup 330}) that interact with the ligand via water molecules, and a hydrogen-bonding network that explains the catalytic affinity over various aryl acyl compounds. The optimum activity of AAA at pH > 10 suggests that the reaction mechanism employs Lys{sup 84} as the catalytic base to polarize the Ser{sup 187} nucleophile in the catalytic triad. - Highlights: • We determined the first structure of a bacterial aryl acylamidase (EC • Structure revealed spatially distinct architecture of the substrate-binding pocket. • Hydrogen-bonding with Tyr{sup 136} and Thr{sup 330} mediates ligand-binding and substrate.

  12. Microbial diversity of an anoxic zone of a hydroelectric power station reservoir in Brazilian Amazonia. (United States)

    Graças, Diego A; Miranda, Paulo R; Baraúna, Rafael A; McCulloch, John A; Ghilardi, Rubens; Schneider, Maria Paula C; Silva, Artur


    Microbial diversity was evaluated in an anoxic zone of Tucuruí Hydroelectric Power Station reservoir in Brazilian Amazonia using a culture-independent approach by amplifying and sequencing fragments of the 16S rRNA gene using metagenomic DNA as a template. Samples obtained from the photic, aphotic (40 m) and sediment (60 m) layers were used to construct six 16S rDNA libraries containing a total of 1,152 clones. The sediment, aphotic and photic layers presented 64, 33 and 35 unique archaeal operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The estimated richness of these layers was evaluated to be 153, 106 and 79 archaeal OTUs, respectively, using the abundance-based coverage estimator (ACE) and 114, 83 and 77 OTUs using the Chao1 estimator. For bacterial sequences, 114, 69 and 57 OTUs were found in the sediment, aphotic and photic layers, which presented estimated richnesses of 1,414, 522 and 197 OTUs (ACE) and 1,059, 1,014 and 148 OTUs (Chao1), respectively. Phylogenetic analyses of the sequences obtained revealed a high richness of microorganisms which participate in the carbon cycle, namely, methanogenic archaea and methanotrophic proteobacteria. Most sequences obtained belong to non-culturable prokaryotes. The present study offers the first glimpse of the huge microbial diversity of an anoxic area of a man-made lacustrine environment in the tropics.

  13. Molecular Genetic Diversity and Quantitation of Methanogen in Ruminal Fluid of Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis Fed Ration (Wheat Straw and Concentrate Mixture Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Singh


    Full Text Available High roughage diet causes more methane emissions; however, the total methanogen abundance is not influenced by roughage proportion. Technologies to reduce methane emissions are lacking, and development of inhibitors and vaccines that mitigate rumen-derived methane by targeting methanogens relies on present knowledge of the methanogens. In this work, we have investigated molecular diversity of rumen methanogens of Surti buffalo. DNA from rumen fluid was extracted, and 16S rRNA encoding genes were amplified using methanogen specific primer to generate 16S rDNA clone libraries. Seventy-six clones were randomly selected and analysed by RFLP resulting in 21 operational taxonomic units (OTUs. BLAST analysis with available sequences in database revealed sequences of 13 OTUs (55 clones showing similarity with Methanomicrobium sp, 3 OTUs (15 clones with Methanobrevibacter sp. The remaining 5 OTUs (6 clones belonged to uncultured archaea. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that methanogenic communities found in the library were clustered in the order of Methanomicrobiales (18 OTUs and Methanobacteriales (3 OTUs. The population of Methanomicrobiales, Methanobacteriales, and Methanococcales were also observed, accounting for 1.94%, 0.72%, and 0.47% of total archaea, respectively.

  14. “Having to Belong to Be”: The Consumption of New Medias and the Identity Projection These Days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Dal Bello


    Full Text Available Based on the emergency of the hi-tech youth, we look into the necessity of consumption of communication and information technologies, relating the context in which the new media are necessary and their involvements in social relations as well in the perception of the individual himself. For that, we try to understand the importance of new media for the experience of the post modern subject in a global, capitalist and media society, organized in net. In this society, the new media have access devices, and without them, the youth could not get connected to access and be accessible. Thus, the consumption for the access. Without these devices, how can a person belong to a new net of relations that are established in the media environment? If one does not belong, how can he exist?

  15. The protective properties of Act-Belong-Commit indicators against incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment among older Irish adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Koyanagi, Ai; Tyrovolas, Stefanos


    -Belong-Commit and incident depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment at two-year follow-up. The adjusted model showed that each increase in the number of social/recreational activities (Act) inversely predicted the onset of depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment. The same was the case for social network...... integration (Belong); that is, being well integrated into social networks was a significant protective factor against all mental health outcomes. Finally, frequency of participation in social/recreational activities (Commit) significantly and inversely predicted the onset of depression and anxiety, while...... two consecutive waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. The analytical sample consisted of 6098 adults aged ≥ 50 years. Validated scales for depression, anxiety, and cognitive impairment were used. The number of social/recreational activities engaged in was used...

  16. Youth, normality and belonging - How young people construct and understand youth, identity and normality in their local environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk; Gravesen, David Thore; Mikkelsen, Sidse Hølvig

    of social media such as My Stories on Snapchat. The idea of individualisation, which by many a sociologist is considered one of the late modernity’s most significant characteristics of the norm- and tradition free youth, appear to be a bit simplified in the light of this research, as the young informants...... construct meaning and a sense of belonging in a contingent late modern society? The classic distinction between the normal and the outsiders, by Howard Becker (Becker, 2013) is used in our analysis to initially shed a light on and ultimately come closer to an understanding of the young people...... the youth groupings is only a few kilometres, the symbolic distance should rather be measured in light years. Relevance for Nordic Educational Research: The understanding of young people’s take on youth, normality and sense of belonging, will shed light on important issues regarding socializing practices...

  17. Banks Belonging to the Erste Group and their Sensitivity to the Confidence Crisis on the Interbank Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavla Klepková Vodová


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to measure the sensitivity of commercial banks from the Erste Group to the confidence crisis on the interbank market and to compare their sensitivity with average sensitivity of banks in particular countries. We have used the methodology of scenario analysis for the liquid asset ratio. All banks belonging to the Erste Group should be able to withstand the confidence crisis on the interbank market. The group of the most vulnerable banks consists from Erste bank Hungary and Banca Comerciala Romana from Romania. In some cases, banks from the Erste Group are more sensitive; while in other cases are banks belonging to the Erste Group less vulnerable than corresponding banking sectors. Except of banks from Hungary, Romania and Slovakia, subsidiary banks are less sensitive to the confidence crisis than the parent bank. Banks (and banking sectors who are net borrowers on the interbank market are much more sensitive to the confidence crisis on this market.

  18. Sodium butyrate stimulates cellular recovery from UV damage in xeroderma pigmentosum cells belonging to complementation group F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishigori, Chikako; Takebe, Hiraku


    Possible stimulation of the DNA repair capacity by sodium butyrate in normal and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cells was investigated. XP cells belonging to the complementation group F showed considerable stimulation of DNA repair by sodium butyrate in terms of both the amount of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and the colony-forming ability after UV irradiation. UDS in XP cells belonging to the complementation group A was not enhanced, while normal cells showed slight enhancement, but less than that of XP F cells. In XP A, XP C, and normal cells, sodium butyrate treatment enhanced the killing effect of UV irradiation. The residual repair capacity in XP F cells appeared to be stimulated by sodium butyrate. (author)

  19. Identification of a novel acetate-utilizing bacterium belonging to Synergistes group 4 in anaerobic digester sludge. (United States)

    Ito, Tsukasa; Yoshiguchi, Kazumi; Ariesyady, Herto Dwi; Okabe, Satoshi


    Major acetate-utilizing bacterial and archaeal populations in methanogenic anaerobic digester sludge were identified and quantified by radioisotope- and stable-isotope-based functional analyses, microautoradiography-fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH) and stable-isotope probing of 16S rRNA (RNA-SIP) that can directly link 16S rRNA phylogeny with in situ metabolic function. First, MAR-FISH with (14)C-acetate indicated the significant utilization of acetate by only two major groups, unidentified bacterial cells and Methanosaeta-like filamentous archaeal cells, in the digester sludge. To identify the acetate-utilizing unidentified bacteria, RNA-SIP was conducted with (13)C(6)-glucose and (13)C(3)-propionate as sole carbon source, which were followed by phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA. We found that bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 were commonly detected in both 16S rRNA clone libraries derived from the sludge incubated with (13)C-glucose and (13)C-propionate. To confirm that this bacterial group can utilize acetate, specific FISH probe targeting for Synergistes group 4 was newly designed and applied to the sludge incubated with (14)C-acetate for MAR-FISH. The MAR-FISH result showed that bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 significantly took up acetate and their active population size was comparable to that of Methanosaeta in this sludge. In addition, as bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 had high K(m) for acetate and maximum utilization rate, they are more competitive for acetate over Methanosaeta at high acetate concentrations (2.5-10  mM). To our knowledge, it is the first time to report the acetate-utilizing activity of uncultured bacteria belonging to Synergistes group 4 and its competitive significance to acetoclastic methanogen, Methanosaeta.

  20. Embeddings of graphs into Euclidean space under which the number of points that belong to a hyperplane is minimal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblakov, Konstantin I; Oblakova, Tat' yana A [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The paper is devoted to the characteristic of a graph that is the minimal (over all embeddings of the graph into a space of given dimension) number of points that belong to the same hyperplane. Upper and lower estimates for this number are given that linearly depend on the dimension of the space. For trees a more precise upper estimate is obtained, which asymptotically coincides with the lower one for large dimension of the space. Bibliography: 9 titles.

  1. Genome sequencing and comparative genomics analysis revealed pathogenic potential in Penicillium capsulatum as a novel fungal pathogen belonging to Eurotiales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang


    Full Text Available Penicillium capsulatum is a rare Penicillium species used in paper manufacturing, but recently it has been reported to cause invasive infection. To research the pathogenicity of the clinical Penicillium strain, we sequenced the genomes and transcriptome of the clinical and environmental strains of P. capsulatum. Comparative analyses of these two P. capsulatum strains and close related strains belonging to Eurotiales were performed. The assembled genome sizes of P. capsulatum are approximately 34.4 Mbp in length and encode 11,080 predicted genes. The different isolates of P. capsulatum are highly similar, with the exception of several unique genes, INDELs or SNP in the genes coding for glycosyl hydrolases, amino acid transporters and circumsporozoite protein. A phylogenomic analysis was performed based on the whole genome data of 38 strains belonging to Eurotiales. By comparing the whole genome sequences and the virulence-related genes from 20 important related species, including fungal pathogens and non-human pathogens belonging to Eurotiales, we found meaningful pathogenicity characteristics between P. capsulatum and its closely related species. Our research indicated that P. capsulatum may be a neglected opportunistic pathogen. This study is beneficial for mycologists, geneticists and epidemiologists to achieve a deeper understanding of the genetic basis of the role of P. capsulatum as a newly reported fungal pathogen.

  2. In vitro antibacterial activity of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea (Camellia sinensis L. belonging to different agro-climatic elevations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antibacterial properties of three grades of orthodox Sri Lankan black tea belonging to the three agro-climatic elevations. Methods: Methanloic extracts of orange pekoe (OP, broken orange pekoe fannings (BOPF and Dust No. 1 belonging to three agro-climatic elevations (low, mid and high grown were made and tested in vitro (concentration: 300 µg/disc against Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923 (S. aureus and Bacillus cereus (ATCC 11778 (B. cereus, and two Gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027 (P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218 (E. coli, using agar disc diffusion assay. Gentamycin (10 µg/disc was used as the positive control and methanol as the negative control. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were evaluated, using micro dilution method. Results: None of the tea extracts exerted an antibacterial action against P. aeruginosa and E. coli. In contrast mild to moderate antibacterial activity was exerted against S. aureus and B. cereus. Further gentamycin exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all the four bacterial species. Further low MIC values were evident for tea samples against the two Gram-positive bacteria. The order of anti-bacterial activity for tea extracts was Dust No. 1 > BOPF > OP. Conclusions: It is concluded that Sri Lankan orthodox black tea belonging to Dust No. 1, BOPF, and OP pocess in vitro antibacterial activity against S. aureus and B. cereus but not against Gram-positive bacteria P. aeruginosa and E. coli.

  3. Why narcissists are at risk for developing Facebook addiction: The need to be admired and the need to belong. (United States)

    Casale, Silvia; Fioravanti, Giulia


    Building upon previous research establishing a positive association between grandiose and vulnerable narcissism and problematic social networking use, the present study tests a model that explains how grandiose and vulnerable narcissists might develop Facebook (Fb) addiction symptoms through the need for admiration and the need to belong. A sample of 535 undergraduates (50.08% F; mean age 22.70±2.76years) completed measures of grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism, Fb addiction symptoms, and two brief scales measuring the need for admiration and the need to belong. Results from structural equation modelling show that the association between grandiose narcissism and Fb addiction levels was completely mediated by the need for admiration and the need to belong. On the other hand, vulnerable narcissism was not found to be associated either directly or indirectly with Fb addiction levels. The variables in the model accounted for 30% of the variance in Fb addiction levels. The present study represents a step toward a better understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying the link between grandiose narcissism and problematic Fb use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Generating Units (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  5. The relationships between sense of belonging to the gay community, body image dissatisfaction, and self-esteem among Australian gay men. (United States)

    Kousari-Rad, Pantea; McLaren, Suzanne


    Body image dissatisfaction has been linked to belonging to the gay community and poor self-esteem among gay men. This study was designed to explore the applicability of a moderation model and a mediation model in explaining the relations between sense of belonging to the gay community, body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem among 90 self-identified Australian gay men. Participants completed the psychological subscale of the Sense of Belonging Instrument, the Body Satisfaction Scale, and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results supported the moderation model; the relation between body image dissatisfaction and self-esteem was found to be statistically significant only at average and high levels of belonging to the gay community. The mediation model was also supported; body image dissatisfaction partially mediated the sense of belonging-self-esteem relation. Educating gay men and health professionals about the possible negative outcomes of "belonging" to an appearance-oriented community is important.

  6. ``But it doesn't come naturally'': how effort expenditure shapes the benefit of growth mindset on women's sense of intellectual belonging in computing (United States)

    Stout, Jane G.; Blaney, Jennifer M.


    Research suggests growth mindset, or the belief that knowledge is acquired through effort, may enhance women's sense of belonging in male-dominated disciplines, like computing. However, other research indicates women who spend a great deal of time and energy in technical fields experience a low sense of belonging. The current study assessed the benefits of a growth mindset on women's (and men's) sense of intellectual belonging in computing, accounting for the amount of time and effort dedicated to academics. We define "intellectual belonging" as the sense that one is believed to be a competent member of the community. Whereas a stronger growth mindset was associated with stronger intellectual belonging for men, a growth mindset only boosted women's intellectual belonging when they did not work hard on academics. Our findings suggest, paradoxically, women may not benefit from a growth mindset in computing when they exert a lot of effort.

  7. Fitting in or opting out: A review of key social-psychological factors influencing a sense of belonging for women in physics (United States)

    Lewis, Karyn L.; Stout, Jane G.; Pollock, Steven J.; Finkelstein, Noah D.; Ito, Tiffany A.


    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] A number of cultural, social, environmental, and biological factors have been suggested to explain women's relatively lower representation in physics and other science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. Given its persistence, the causes of gender disparities are likely to be complex and multiply determined. In this review paper, we discuss how a sense of belonging relates to women's interest, persistence, and achievement in physics. We explore what it means to "fit in" and belong in academic contexts, the situational and interpersonal antecedents to belonging, and the consequences of a lack of belonging. We review the empirical evidence for the efficacy of interventions designed to bolster a sense of belonging. Based on these interventions we conclude the paper with a number of practical recommendations to affirm women's sense of belonging and create more welcoming and inclusive physics environments for all students.

  8. Quality control in the geometry of the beam of a unit of volumetric modulated arcotheraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente Gutierrez, F.; Ramirez Ros, J. C.; Cabello Murillo, E.; Casa de Julian, M. A. de la


    We report here the evidence offered for the regular quality control (monthly) beam geometry (flatness and symmetry) for a unit of 6 MV Elekta Synergy with VMAT, belonging to the Radiation Oncology Service of the Defense Central Hospital Gomez Ulla.

  9. Determination of Misconceptions Belonging to the "Solar System and Beyond: Space Puzzle" Unit in 7th Grade Science and Technology Curriculum with Two-Tier Diagnostic Tests (United States)

    Töman, Ögr. Gör. Ufuk; Ergen, Yusuf


    Today's World is in period of rapid development of science and technology. There is science and technology education that not based on rote, practical on the basis of development in science and technology. Misconceptions are a major obstacle in order to take the desired efficiency. Because concepts that learned wrong obstacle attainment of right…

  10. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of XAC1151, a small heat-shock protein from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri belonging to the α-crystallin family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilario, Eduardo; Teixeira, Elaine Cristina; Pedroso, Gisele Audrei; Bertolini, Maria Célia [Departamento de Bioquímica e Tecnologia Química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara-SP (Brazil); Medrano, Francisco Javier, E-mail: [Departamento de Cristalografia de Proteínas, Centro de Biologia Molecular Estrutural, Laboratório Nacional de Luz Síncrotron, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13084-971, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Departamento de Bioquímica e Tecnologia Química, Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara-SP (Brazil)


    XAC1151, a small heat-shock protein from X. axonopodis pv. citri belonging to the α-crystallin family, was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of ammonium phosphate. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.65 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The hspA gene (XAC1151) from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri encodes a protein of 158 amino acids that belongs to the small heat-shock protein (sHSP) family of proteins. These proteins function as molecular chaperones by preventing protein aggregation. The protein was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of ammonium phosphate. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.65 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystal belongs to the rhombohedral space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 128.7, c = 55.3 Å. The crystal structure was solved by molecular-replacement methods. Structure refinement is in progress.

  11. De novo clustering methods outperform reference-based methods for assigning 16S rRNA gene sequences to operational taxonomic units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L. Westcott


    Full Text Available Background. 16S rRNA gene sequences are routinely assigned to operational taxonomic units (OTUs that are then used to analyze complex microbial communities. A number of methods have been employed to carry out the assignment of 16S rRNA gene sequences to OTUs leading to confusion over which method is optimal. A recent study suggested that a clustering method should be selected based on its ability to generate stable OTU assignments that do not change as additional sequences are added to the dataset. In contrast, we contend that the quality of the OTU assignments, the ability of the method to properly represent the distances between the sequences, is more important.Methods. Our analysis implemented six de novo clustering algorithms including the single linkage, complete linkage, average linkage, abundance-based greedy clustering, distance-based greedy clustering, and Swarm and the open and closed-reference methods. Using two previously published datasets we used the Matthew’s Correlation Coefficient (MCC to assess the stability and quality of OTU assignments.Results. The stability of OTU assignments did not reflect the quality of the assignments. Depending on the dataset being analyzed, the average linkage and the distance and abundance-based greedy clustering methods generated OTUs that were more likely to represent the actual distances between sequences than the open and closed-reference methods. We also demonstrated that for the greedy algorithms VSEARCH produced assignments that were comparable to those produced by USEARCH making VSEARCH a viable free and open source alternative to USEARCH. Further interrogation of the reference-based methods indicated that when USEARCH or VSEARCH were used to identify the closest reference, the OTU assignments were sensitive to the order of the reference sequences because the reference sequences can be identical over the region being considered. More troubling was the observation that while both USEARCH and

  12. Winter-summer succession of unicellular eukaryotes in a meso-eutrophic coastal system. (United States)

    Christaki, Urania; Kormas, Konstantinos A; Genitsaris, Savvas; Georges, Clément; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Viscogliosi, Eric; Monchy, Sébastien


    The objective of this study was to explore the succession of planktonic unicellular eukaryotes by means of 18S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing in the eastern English Channel (EEC) during the winter to summer transition. The 59 most representative (>0.1%, representing altogether 95% of total reads), unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from all samples belonged to 18 known high-level taxonomic groups and 1 unaffiliated clade. The five most abundant OTUs (69.2% of total reads) belonged to Dinophyceae, Cercozoa, Haptophyceae, marine alveolate group I, and Fungi. Cluster and network analysis between samples distinguished the winter, the pre-bloom, the Phaeocystis globosa bloom and the post-bloom early summer conditions. The OTUs-based network revealed that P. globosa showed a relatively low number of connections-most of them negative-with all other OTUs. Fungi were linked to all major taxonomic groups, except Dinophyceae. Cercozoa mostly co-occurred with the Fungi, the Bacillariophyceae and several of the miscellaneous OTUs. This study provided a more detailed exploration into the planktonic succession pattern of the EEC due to its increased depth of taxonomic sampling over previous efforts based on classical monitoring observations. Data analysis implied that the food web concept in a coastal system based on predator-prey (e.g. grazer-phytoplankton) relationships is just a part of the ecological picture; and those organisms exploiting a variety of strategies, such as saprotrophy and parasitism, are persistent and abundant members of the community.

  13. Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA) Isolates from Recent Bacterial Canker of Kiwifruit Outbreaks Belong to the Same Genetic Lineage (United States)

    Taratufolo, Maria C.; Cai, Rongman; Almeida, Nalvo F.; Goodman, Tokia; Guttman, David S.; Vinatzer, Boris A.; Balestra, Giorgio M.


    Intercontinental spread of emerging plant diseases is one of the most serious threats to world agriculture. One emerging disease is bacterial canker of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa and A. chinensis) caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (PSA). The disease first occurred in China and Japan in the 1980s and in Korea and Italy in the 1990s. A more severe form of the disease broke out in Italy in 2008 and in additional countries in 2010 and 2011 threatening the viability of the global kiwi fruit industry. To start investigating the source and routes of international transmission of PSA, genomes of strains from China (the country of origin of the genus Actinidia), Japan, Korea, Italy and Portugal have been sequenced. Strains from China, Italy, and Portugal have been found to belong to the same clonal lineage with only 6 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3,453,192 bp and one genomic island distinguishing the Chinese strains from the European strains. Not more than two SNPs distinguish each of the Italian and Portuguese strains from each other. The Japanese and Korean strains belong to a separate genetic lineage as previously reported. Analysis of additional European isolates and of New Zealand isolates exploiting genome-derived markers showed that these strains belong to the same lineage as the Italian and Chinese strains. Interestingly, the analyzed New Zealand strains are identical to European strains at the tested SNP loci but test positive for the genomic island present in the sequenced Chinese strains and negative for the genomic island present in the European strains. Results are interpreted in regard to the possible direction of movement of the pathogen between countries and suggest a possible Chinese origin of the European and New Zealand outbreaks. PMID:22590555

  14. Associations Between Resilience, Community Belonging, and Social Participation Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: Results From the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey. (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Roy, Mathieu; Michallet, Bernard; St-Hilaire, France; Maltais, Danielle; Généreux, Mélissa


    To examine the associations between resilience, community belonging, and social participation, and the moderating effect of resilience on the association between community belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional; secondary analyses of the Eastern Townships Population Health Survey. Community. A sample (N=4541) of women (n=2485) and men (n=2056) aged ≥60 years was randomly selected according to area. Most participants had community belonging, and resilience were collected by phone interviewer-administered questionnaire. A social participation scale measured frequency of participation in 8 community activities. A 4-point Likert scale ranging from "very strong" to "very weak" estimated sense of belonging to the local community. Social participation and sense of belonging questions came from Statistics Canada surveys. Resilience was assessed with the 10-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, capturing the ability to cope with adversity. Controlling for age, education, and psychological distress, greater resilience and community belonging were associated with greater social participation among women (R 2 =.13; Pcommunity belonging and social participation varied as a function of resilience, especially in men. Greater community belonging further enhanced social participation, especially among women (P=.03) and men (Pcommunity belonging and social participation among community-dwelling older women and, especially, men. Interventions targeting social participation should consider the potential impact of resilience on improving community belonging. Future studies should investigate why resilience moderates associations between community belonging and social participation, and how to enhance resilience among older adults. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of the genetic variability of isolated belonging to the group B of the Respiratory Virus Human Sincicial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfraro, A.


    The study allows analyzing the genetic variability of stumps belonging to the group B of the Breathing Virus Sincicial (Vrs), isolated in Uruguay among the years 1990 and 1996. They were evidenced by sequence the nucleotides changes and the changes were determined that take place at level of amino acids, the following ones were used technical: enzyme immunoassay, of extraction of viral RNA, of reverse transcription and Pcr, of purification of DNA and electrophoresis of nucleic acids. The result proven in the entirety of the isolated virus the genetic variability, enlarging and confirming the evolution pattern proposed by Sullender and collaborators, (1991) for the group B of Vrs [es

  16. Unit Manning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinniss, Mike


    .... This decision combines two crucial initiatives: first, transforming the Army from an individual soldier replacement system to a unit manning system that enhances cohesion and keeps trained soldiers, leaders, and commanders together longer, thereby...

  17. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia


    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  18. Drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanchik, N P; Demin, A V; Khrustalev, N N; Linnik, G N; Lovchev, S V; Rozin, M M; Sidorov, R V; Sokolov, S I; Tsaregradskiy, Yu P


    A drilling unit is proposed which includes a hydraulic lifter, hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump with valve distribution and sectional drilling pump with separators of the working and flushing fluid. In order to reduce metal consumption and the overall dimensions of the drilling unit, the working cavity of each cylinder of the hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump is equipped with suction and injection valves and is hydraulically connected to the working cavity by one of the sections of the drilling pump.

  19. Resilience among Men Farmers: The Protective Roles of Social Support and Sense of Belonging in the Depression-Suicidal Ideation Relation (United States)

    McLaren, Suzanne; Challis, Chantal


    This study investigated the applicability of 3 models of resiliency for the prediction of suicidal ideation from depression (the risk factor) and social support and sense of belonging (the protective factors). A sample of 99 Australian men farmers completed measures of depression, suicidal ideas, social support, and sense of belonging. Sense of…

  20. A Descriptive Analysis of Students with Disabilities' Experiences in an Inclusive Setting: A Phenomenological Study of Belonging and Self-Esteem (United States)

    Konecni-Upton, Gail


    A sense of belonging is critical in the development of positive self-worth, the enhancement of social skills, and the definition of one's role in society. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe students with disabilities' perceptions of belonging and self-esteem in an inclusive classroom community by addressing a gap in practice…

  1. Latino/a Students' Perceptions of Their Sense of Belonging at Kansas State University: Mi Casa Es Su Casa... or Is It Really? (United States)

    Esquivel, Sonia


    This qualitative multiple case study explored the campus climate and sense of belonging of Latino/a undergraduate student participants at a predominately White university. Guided by the work of Hurtado and Carter (1997), relationships among several aspects of the college environment and sense of belonging were examined. In depth interviews…

  2. Examining the Effects of Campus Climate, Ethnic Group Cohesion, and Cross-Cultural Interaction on Filipino American Students' Sense of Belonging in College (United States)

    Maramba, Dina C.; Museus, Samuel D.


    The purpose of this study is to explore how campus climate, ethnic group cohesion and cross cultural interaction influence Filipino American college students' sense of belonging in college. Specifically, we examine the impact of three environmental and behavioral factors on students' sense of belonging: 1) campus racial climate, 2) ethnic group…

  3. [Food insecurity in rural communities in Northeast Brazil: does belonging to a slave-descendent community make a difference? (United States)

    Silva, Etna Kaliane Pereira da; Medeiros, Danielle Souto de; Martins, Poliana Cardoso; Sousa, Líllian de Almeida; Lima, Gislane Pereira; Rêgo, Maria Amanda Sousa; Silva, Tainan Oliveira da; Freire, Alessandra Silva; Silva, Fernanda Moitinho


    This study aimed to measure the prevalence of food insecurity in a rural area of Northeast Brazil and investigate this outcome according to residence in quilombola communities (descendants of African slaves) versus non-quilombola communities. This was a cross-sectional study in 21 rural communities, 9 of which quilombolas, in 2014, using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (EBIA). Prevalence rates and prevalence ratios were estimated for food insecurity, and Poisson multiple regression analysis with robust variance was performed. Food insecurity was found in 52.1% of the families: 64.9% in quilombola communities and 42% in the others. Food insecurity was associated with belonging to a quilombola community (PR = 1.25), lower economic status (PR = 1.89; 2.98, and 3.22 for status C2, D, and E, respectively), beneficiaries of Bolsa Família program (PR = 1.52), and four or more household members (PR = 1.20). Food insecurity prevalence was high in the entire population, but it was even higher in quilombola communities, even though they belonged to the same coverage area. The results emphasize this population's vulnerability.

  4. Teachers' feeling of belonging, exhaustion, and job satisfaction: the role of school goal structure and value consonance. (United States)

    Skaalvik, Einar M; Skaalvik, Sidsel


    In their daily teaching and classroom management, teachers inevitably communicate and represent values. The purpose of this study was to explore relations between teachers' perception of school level values represented by the goal structure of the school and value consonance (the degree to which they felt that they shared the prevailing norms and values at the school), teachers' feeling of belonging, emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and motivation to leave the teaching profession. The participants were 231 Norwegian teachers in elementary school and middle school. Data were analyzed by means of structural equation modeling (SEM). Teachers' perception of mastery goal structure was strongly and positively related to value consonance and negatively related to emotional exhaustion, whereas performance goal structure, in the SEM model, was not significantly related to these constructs. Furthermore, value consonance was positively related to teachers' feeling of belonging and job satisfaction, whereas emotional exhaustion was negatively associated with job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was the strongest predictor of motivation to leave the teaching profession. A practical implication of the study is that educational goals and values should be explicitly discussed and clarified, both by education authorities and at the school level.

  5. Assessment of the effective supplementary doses for people belonging to a critical group placed nearby an uranium mining zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurelian, Florian; Popescu, Mihai; Georgescu, Dan


    Full text: The paper presents a case study concerning the impact on environment and population of a exploration uranium mining area. The paper is structured on three levels and presents: First stage will consist of the investigation and characterization of the sources, respectively the transfer pathways: terrestrial, aerial and aquatic ones followed by the assessment of the effective supplementary doses received by the people of population through all the transfer pathways based on some scenarios according to which their presence was permanent or temporary. Second stage concerns the assessment of the supplementary effective doses for the working staff during the caring out the closing workings. There are references concerning the monitoring 'of rehabilitation' during the time when the disaffection workings are ongoing beside the survey of the professional exposed people and the calculation of the supplementary doses for people of population and the ones belonging to the critical group during the disaffection time. Within the third stage framework there are calculated, described and discussed the individual and collective effective doses for people belonging to the population and to the critical groups, which it is expected to be recorded after the disaffection works cessation. The last part of the paper focuses on the long-term miniaturization of the environmental factors following the disaffection works conclusion and on the long-term evolution of the supplementary doses as well. (author)

  6. Power, Gender and the Nation: Negotiations of Belonging in Evelyn Conlon’s Short Story “Park-Going Days”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Amor Barros-del Río


    Full Text Available In the central decades of the 20th century, the feminine icons of “Mother Church” and “Mother Ireland” were set as conduct models to follow by Irish women. Simultaneously, legal, moral and economic forces collaborated in limiting the scope of their agency. In order to elicit where women situated and how female expressions of belonging and not belonging took shape, this article uses intersectionality to look into the short story “Park-Going Days” authored by women’s rights activist and writer Evelyn Conlon. The plot displays the ambivalent feelings of the newcomer, a childless married woman, towards the other women in the community and her difficulties fitting in. At the same time, this story provides the reader with the unspoken personal experiences of these women in relation to marriage, work and motherhood. Thus, the analysis will show how this situation is constructed and understood by the author. Besides, the use of intersectionality will allow a multi-level analysis to unveil the interdependence of structures, social categories and representations that result in socially constructed forms of differentiation and exclusion for (some women, and the consequent forms of resistance and consent. Finally, new paths for literary analysis are suggested within the frame of intersectionality.

  7. The first fossil of a bolbitidoid fern belongs to the early-divergent lineages of Elaphoglossum (Dryopteridaceae). (United States)

    Lóriga, Josmaily; Schmidt, Alexander R; Moran, Robbin C; Feldberg, Kathrin; Schneider, Harald; Heinrichs, Jochen


    • Closing gaps in the fossil record and elucidating phylogenetic relationships of mostly incomplete fossils are major challenges in the reconstruction of the diversification of fern lineages through time. The cosmopolitan family Dryopteridaceae represents one of the most species-rich families of leptosporangiate ferns, yet its fossil record is sparse and poorly understood. Here, we describe a fern inclusion in Miocene Dominican amber and investigate its relationships to extant Dryopteridaceae.• The morphology of the fossil was compared with descriptions of extant ferns, resulting in it being tentatively assigned to the bolbitidoid fern genus Elaphoglossum. This assignment was confirmed by reconstructing the evolution of the morphological characters preserved in the inclusion on a molecular phylogeny of 158 extant bolbitidoid ferns. To assess the morphology-based assignment of the fossil to Elaphoglossum, we examined DNA-calibrated divergence time estimates against the age of the amber deposits from which it came.• The fossil belongs to Elaphoglossum and is the first of a bolbitidoid fern. Its assignment to a particular section of Elaphoglossum could not be determined; however, sects. Lepidoglossa, Polytrichia, and Setosa can be discounted because the fossil lacks subulate scales or scales with acicular marginal hairs. Thus, the fossil might belong to either sects. Amygdalifolia, Wrightiana, Elaphoglossum, or Squamipedia or to an extinct lineage.• The discovery of a Miocene Elaphoglossum fossil provides remarkable support to current molecular clock-based estimates of the diversification of these ferns. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  8. Tourism as a factor of sustainable development of rural areas belonging to Rudnička Morava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Lela


    Full Text Available The paper looks at tourism as an essential component of sustainable development of rural areas belonging to Rudnička Morava territory. The aim of the paper is to point to the role of tourism in the integration of rural areas into the national and international economy based on the analysis of the relevant rural development model and in terms of more efficient endogenous development. The main hypothesis is that rural areas belonging to Rudnička Morava territory have significant natural and anthropogenic resources for tourism development. However, what lacks is an integrated strategy that would contribute to sustainability and strengthening of the competitiveness of the rural economy. In accordance with the subject of the paper, its aim and the set hypotheses, qualitative, quantitative and SWOT analysis were applied during the research. A survey was conducted in order to obtain positions and feedback from the key actors involved in tourism development. The paper is organized in eight sections. The main result of the research points to the necessity of giving priority to rural tourism development as an essential component of the revitalization of villages and local communities.

  9. This belongs to you

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderhoff, Merete


    The Reprogram series investigates the changes in museums around the world from a collection of essays, articles and lectures transcripts of some of the most influential museum thinkers of our time. It is a collaborative effort of shared content and publishing made possible by crowdfunding...

  10. Shame, Belonging, and Biopolitics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Nicolai Krejberg


    an ontological significance. That shame has an ontological significance is also a belief held in current debates on moral emotions and the phenomenology of intersubjectivity, but despite this common philosophical intuition phenomenologists have criticized Agamben’s account of shame. In this paper, I will try...

  11. Back where we belong. (United States)

    Critelli, Michael J


    If you were the CEO of Pitney Bowes, the postage meter maker, how would you envision the future of the business? The company has an undeniable core competence in the solutions it provides to high-volume postal service users. But with snail mail on the decline, some would say that core has about as much future as the buggy whip. In this article, Pitney Bowes chairman and CEO Michael Critelli gives us a glimpse of how he leads his company's strategy development--and how that development has supported a counterintuitive return to the company's core after decades of diversification. He and others in the company begin the process by tapping into deeply knowledgeable people and organizations to understand key trends in the business and the rate at which change is occurring. Then, it's a question of the firm reshaping the environment in which it does business, whether through R&D investments or work with regulators and policy makers who influence market forces; this is especially important in emerging markets. Focusing on a core business area enables a company to find adjacent high-margin opportunities and to offer comprehensive solutions to customers. What stands out most sharply in this account, however, is the importance of having a strategist's mind-set. Whether Critelli is reading the day's news, visiting a key account, or spending an hour with his own people working in the context of a customer mail room, he is constantly extrapolating possible long-term competitive implications from the immediate facts. Often inspired by strategic thinkers, Critelli believes that the greatest thing he can do for his organization is to shift the terms of the debate. "Rarely am I credited with sterling words or bold, symbolic actions", he writes. "Instead, I help people to see the business we are in differently and to reach a shared vision as to where we want to end up. And, little by little, things move in the right direction".

  12. mPUMA: a computational approach to microbiota analysis by de novo assembly of operational taxonomic units based on protein-coding barcode sequences. (United States)

    Links, Matthew G; Chaban, Bonnie; Hemmingsen, Sean M; Muirhead, Kevin; Hill, Janet E


    Formation of operational taxonomic units (OTU) is a common approach to data aggregation in microbial ecology studies based on amplification and sequencing of individual gene targets. The de novo assembly of OTU sequences has been recently demonstrated as an alternative to widely used clustering methods, providing robust information from experimental data alone, without any reliance on an external reference database. Here we introduce mPUMA (microbial Profiling Using Metagenomic Assembly,, a software package for identification and analysis of protein-coding barcode sequence data. It was developed originally for Cpn60 universal target sequences (also known as GroEL or Hsp60). Using an unattended process that is independent of external reference sequences, mPUMA forms OTUs by DNA sequence assembly and is capable of tracking OTU abundance. mPUMA processes microbial profiles both in terms of the direct DNA sequence as well as in the translated amino acid sequence for protein coding barcodes. By forming OTUs and calculating abundance through an assembly approach, mPUMA is capable of generating inputs for several popular microbiota analysis tools. Using SFF data from sequencing of a synthetic community of Cpn60 sequences derived from the human vaginal microbiome, we demonstrate that mPUMA can faithfully reconstruct all expected OTU sequences and produce compositional profiles consistent with actual community structure. mPUMA enables analysis of microbial communities while empowering the discovery of novel organisms through OTU assembly.

  13. Introducing SONS, a tool for operational taxonomic unit-based comparisons of microbial community memberships and structures. (United States)

    Schloss, Patrick D; Handelsman, Jo


    The recent advent of tools enabling statistical inferences to be drawn from comparisons of microbial communities has enabled the focus of microbial ecology to move from characterizing biodiversity to describing the distribution of that biodiversity. Although statistical tools have been developed to compare community structures across a phylogenetic tree, we lack tools to compare the memberships and structures of two communities at a particular operational taxonomic unit (OTU) definition. Furthermore, current tests of community structure do not indicate the similarity of the communities but only report the probability of a statistical hypothesis. Here we present a computer program, SONS, which implements nonparametric estimators for the fraction and richness of OTUs shared between two communities.

  14. [Conservation Units. (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  15. [Diversity of Plants Belonging to the Genus Ligularia (Asteraceae) Based on Terpenoids and Synthetic Studies on Some Terpenoids]. (United States)

    Tori, Motoo


    The terpenoid constituents of Ligularia virgaurea (30 samples), Ligularia pleurocaulis (8 samples), Ligularia dictyoneura (8 samples), Ligularia brassicoides (5 samples), Ligularia lingiana (1 sample), and Ligularia liatroides (1 sample)(all belonging to section Senecillis of Ligularia, Asteraceae and collected in Yunnan, Sichuan, Qinghai, and Gansu provinces, China), from which 220 compounds were isolated, including 113 novel ones, are reviewed. Five chemotypes were identified in L. virgaurea based on their chemical constituents, while three clades were detected from the base sequences. Although intra-specific diversity was found in L. virgaurea, more samples were needed of other species in order to reach a definite conclusion. Inter-specific diversity was also examined in section Senecillis but was restricted due to the scarcity of samples. Synthetic studies on chiral natural products to determine their absolute configurations, especially those of riccardiphenols A and B as well as crispatanolide, which were all isolated from the liverwort, are briefly reviewed.

  16. Clinical-anthropometric characteristics of COPD outpatients belonging to the different groups and having different severity of airway obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gashynova K.Y.


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the clinical and anthropometric characteristics of patients with COPD, which differ in the degree of airways obstruction and belong to groups A, B, C, D in accordance with GOLD, 2011 classification. A total of 112 ambulatory COPD patients in remission made the study sample. Anthropometric data, body mass index, medical history, dyspnea by mMRC scale, and spirometry was performed for all patients. There was confirmed that outpatients with COPD is a heterogeneous group, in which the majority are those with moderate (48.22 % and severe (30.36 %, airway obstruction. Despite the vast majority of men among outpatients, the percentage of women among patients with mild to moderate obstruction (22.58±5.31 % was significantly higher (p=0.002 as compared with those with severe or very severe limitation of airflow (6.00±3.36 %. Patients with severe and very severe obstruction were of significantly older age (p = 0.024. At the same time, the distribution of patients according to the GOLD, 2011 classification, demonstrate that all groups did not differ on any of the anthropometric indicators, including gender and age (p > 0.050. Distribution of patients by groups with different risk for future exacerbations is not a mirror image of gradation in accordance with the degree of airway obstruction. Every second (50.00±4.43 % of cases patient is included in group C and every tenth (10.20±4.32 % belongs to the group D not due to degree of bronchial obstruction, but due to the number of exa­cerbations in the past year. Therefore, in future studies it is advisable to use both principles of patients’ classification.

  17. Belonging out of Context: the Intersection of Place, Networks and Ethnic Identity among Retired British Migrants Living in the Costa Blanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya AHMED


    Full Text Available Intra-European migration is now a well-documented phenomenon among older people and for UK retirees, Spain is the most popular choice. ‘Belonging’ is particularly important when attempting to understand experiences of migration since often people become aware that they need to belong precisely when they realise that they do not. However, although belonging is a recurrent theme in identity and migration discourse it is rarely defined. This paper explores the concept of belonging in relation to the experiences of a group of retired women living in the Costa Blanca in Spain and considers its multiple and overlapping representations. The myriad forms of belonging that these ‘lifestyle migrants’ construct through narrative in relation to place, networks and ethnic identity and the central intersecting role of language are considered and discussed.

  18. Draft Genome Sequences of Two Extensively Drug-Resistant Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Belonging to the Euro-American S Lineage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malinga, L.A.; Abeel, T.; Desjardins, C.A.; Dlamini, T.C.; Cassell, G.; Chapman, S.B.; Birren, B.W.; Earl, A.M.; Van der Walt, M.


    We report the whole-genome sequencing of two extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis strains belonging to the Euro-American S lineage. The RSA 114 strain showed single-nucleotide polymorphisms predicted to have drug efflux activity.

  19. Microcontroller Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulaev, A.B.


    The general purpose micro controller unit based on 8-bit single-chip microcomputer of the MCS-51 family is described. The controller has the data and program memories, a serial interface and an external bus for functional I/O extensions. The controller consists of a microcomputer chip, up to 4 ROM-RAM chips and 10 SSI and MSI chips, and it measures 160x120 mm. Both hardware and software micro system debugging tools are described. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. The perceived benefits of belonging to an extra curricular group within a pre-registration nursing course. (United States)

    Gerrard, Sabina; Billington, John


    This study describes a qualitative research design that focuses on nursing students who were aligned to different extra-curricular groups (a student representative committee, a Nurses' Day Committee and a magazine editorial team) within the School of Health. The study explores the nursing students' experiences and perceptions of belonging to an extra-curricular group within a pre-registration nursing course. Data were collected using focus groups. The findings of this study suggest that students who are members of extra-curricular groups perceive group membership to have many positive benefits. The findings were grouped into three main themes namely: employability, retention and personal gain. The findings suggest that students are clearly aware of their career development and expressed how group membership meant they were able to develop skills around employability. Students highlighted that they gained support and built lasting relationships through the groups which supported and reassured them which it was felt enabled them to progress successfully through the course. These themes reinforce the value of having established groups within a pre-registration curriculum. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Time, Space, and National Belonging in The Namesake: Redrawing South Asian American Citizenship in the Shadow of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Brennan


    Full Text Available The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.

  2. Array-based genotyping and genetic dissimilarity analysis of a set of maize inbred lines belonging to different heterotic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambrović Antun


    Full Text Available Here we describe the results of the detailed array-based genotyping obtained by using the Illumina MaizeSNP50 BeadChip of eleven inbred lines belonging to different heterotic groups relevant for maize breeding in Southeast Europe - European Corn Belt. The objectives of this study were to assess the utility of the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip platform by determining its descriptive power and to assess genetic dissimilarity of the inbred lines. The distribution of the SNPs was found not completely uniform among chromosomes, but average call rate was very high (97.9% and number of polymorphic loci was 33200 out of 50074 SNPs with known mapping position indicating descriptive power of the MaizeSNP50 BeadChip. The dendrogram obtained from UPGMA cluster analysis as well as principal component analysis (PCA confirmed pedigree information, undoubtedly distinguishing lines according to their background in two population varieties of Reid Yellow Dent and Lancaster Sure Crop. Dissimilarity analysis showed that all of the inbred lines could be distinguished from each other. Whereas cluster analysis did not definitely differentiate Mo17 and Ohio inbred lines, PCA revealed clear genetic differences between them. The studied inbred lines were confirmed to be genetically diverse, representing a large proportion of the genetic variation occurring in two maize heterotic groups.

  3. Coanatomical, developing and comparative analysis of 40 wood species belonging to two associations in colombian Andes highland forest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanco Tapia Cesar; Grande Pulido Diana Carolina


    In this paper we conducted a relationship of the timber found with ecological aspects arising from an earlier study of the characterization, structure and floral composition practiced in the Carpatos Forest Reserve, bordering the site from which wood samples were obtained. This comparison shows a strong link between the microscopic anatomical characteristics of vegetal species with the type of association to which they belong. For example, characters such as the grouping form, the type of perforated and intervessel pits, height, number of cells wide, stratification and type of cells that make up the radio and type fiber, show a greater degree of change in the exclusive species of Ocotea callophylla-Weinmannietum pinnatae (OW) association, while the same characters show minor changes in the exclusive species of Clusia multiflorae - Weinmannietum balbisianae(CW) association. The evolution of the timber was identified through an index that suggests the research based on references like Carlquist (2001) and Leon (2001), and its relationship with the plant associations found in the study area is argued.

  4. Rhinusa Stephens: a taxonomic revision of the species belonging to the R. tetra and R. bipustulata groups (Coleoptera Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Caldara


    Full Text Available The species of Rhinusa Stephens, 1829 (Curculionidae, Curculioninae, Mecinini belonging to the R. tetra and R. bipustulata groups are revised. Four of them from Middle East are new to science. The R. bipustulata group includes five species: R. bipustulata (Rossi, 1792; R. pelletieri sp. nov.; R. scrophulariae Caldara, 2009; R. algirica (Brisout de Barneville, 1862; R. emmrichi (Bajtenov, 1979, whereas the R. tetra group includes nine species: R. tetra (Fabricius, 1792; R. verbasci (Rosenschoeld, 1838; R. ensifer sp. nov.; R. moroderi (Reitter, 1906; R. weilli sp. nov.; R. comosa (Rosenschoeld, 1838; R. acifer sp. nov.; R asellus (Gravenhorst, 1807; R. tenuirostris (Stierlin, 1888. The following new synonym is proposed: Rhinusa bipustulata (Rossi, 1792 (= Gymnetron municipale Voss, 1960 syn. nov.. The neotype of Rhynchaenus asellus Gravenhorst, 1807 was designated. Moreover, the following lectotypes are designated: Cionus spilotus Germar, 1821; Gymnetron bipustulatum var. germari Faust, 1889; Gymnetron bodenheimeri Wagner, 1926; Gymnetron cylindrirostre Gyllenhal, 1838; Gymnetron nasutum Rosenschoeld, 1838; Gymnetron plagiatum Gyllenhal, 1838; Gymnetron polonicum Rosenschoeld, 1838; Gymnetron tenuirostre Stierlin, 1888. A key to the species, diagnoses of species groups, descriptions or redescriptions, notes on type specimens, synonymies, comparative notes, distribution, bionomics when available, photographs of habitus and drawings of rostra, terminalia and other useful characters for taxonomy are provided.

  5. The Influence of Scalded Flour, Fermentation, and Plants Belonging to Lamiaceae Family on the Wheat Bread Quality and Acrylamide Content. (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Bartkevics, Vadims; Krungleviciute, Vita; Pugajeva, Iveta; Zadeike, Daiva; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Cizeikiene, Dalia


    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of additives such as plants belonging to Lamiaceae family (Thymus vulgaris, Carum carvi, Origanum vulgare, Ocimum basilicum, and Coriandrum sativum), scalded flour (SF) or scalded flour fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135 (SFFLp) on the quality and acrylamide formation in wheat bread. The formation of acrylamide and bread quality significantly depended on the king of plants used and the amount of SF and SFFLp used. The additives of T. vulgaris and SF increased the content of acrylamide by 3.4-fold in comparison with bread prepared without SF, whereas the addition of SFFLp significantly reduced the content of acrylamide in bread, especially using 5% of SFFLp supplemented with O. vulgare and 15% of SFFLp supplemented with C. sativum (respectively by 40% and 29.4%) therefore could be recommended for safer bread production. The addition of 5% (from total wheat flour content) of scalded wheat flour fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135 strain (SFFLp) with Origanum vulgare addition, and 5% or 10% of SFFLp prepared with Ocimum basilicum, and 15% of SFFLp prepared with Coriandrum sativum significantly reduce the content of acrylamide in wheat bread, therefore could be recommended for safer bread production. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. A Qualitative Evaluation of the 4-H Record Book in Light of the PYD Concepts: Belonging, Mastery, Independence, and Generosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynette H. Bikos


    Full Text Available The highlights of a study of the 4-H Record Book (RB in light of the four positive youth development (PYD concepts: belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity are discussed in this paper. Utilizing qualitative methods we interviewed 21 participants (14 leaders, 9 recent 4-H alumni from 9 states. Results describe the ways in which participants perceived that the RB (a supports the four PYD concepts (e.g., “RB fosters independence through the goal setting, monitoring, and appraising process” and (b does not support, or should be revised to support the concept (e.g., “RB competitions may hinder mastery”. Our results support the RB as a PYD intervention but we recommend that states/counties consider these results when revising RBs. In light of concerns about age and developmental appropriateness, we suggest that the most pressing question is whether or not the traditionally formatted RB is appropriate for all 4-Hers. We encourage RB committees to engage professionals with developmental expertise (e.g., educators in RB revisions.

  7. Fermentation of glycolate by a pure culture of a strictly anaerobic gram-positive bacterium belonging to the family Lachnospiraceae. (United States)

    Janssen, Peter H; Hugenholtz, Philip


    The component bacteria of a three-membered mixed culture able to ferment glycolate to acetate, propionate and CO(2) were isolated in pure culture. All three strains were strict anaerobes that, on the basis of comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, belonged to the order Clostridiales in the phylum Firmicutes (low G+C gram-positive bacteria). Two of the strains were not involved in glycolate metabolism. The third, the glycolate-fermenting strain 19gly4 (DSM 11261), was related to members of the family Lachnospiraceae. The cells of strain 19gly4 were oval- to lemon-shaped, 0.85 microm long and 0.65 microm in diameter, occurring singly, in pairs, or in chains of up to 30 cells. Strain 19gly4 fermented glycolate or fumarate to acetate, succinate, and CO(2). Hydrogen was not formed, and strain 19gly4 was able to grow on glycolate in pure culture without any syntrophic hydrogen transfer and without the use of an external electron acceptor. There was no evidence for homoacetogenic metabolism. This bacterium therefore differs in metabolism from previously reported glycolate-utilising anaerobes.

  8. Salutogenesis and culture: personal and community sense of coherence among adolescents belonging to three different cultural groups. (United States)

    Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Sagy, Shifra


    The salutogenic theory considers sense of coherence (SOC) as a cross-cultural concept ( Antonovsky, 1987 ), meaning that in all cultures and at all stages of coping with a stressor, a person with a strong SOC is at an advantage in preventing tension from being transformed into stress. However, in seeking to understand how the SOC works, it is culture which seems to define which resources are appropriate. The aim of our paper is to examine this theoretical assumption of Antonovsky. Data on personal and community SOC as well as on stress reactions were gathered after the last fire in northern Israel (December 2010) among adolescents aged 12-18 belonging to three cultural groups (Jews, Druze, Muslims). We compared the pattern of personal versus community SOC in explaining stress reactions in the three cultures. Results indicate that personal SOC was the strongest predictor of stress reactions in all cultures. Community SOC, however, played a significant role mainly for Druze. Results are discussed relating to Antonovsky's theory and to adolescence as a 'universal' period, as well as considering the uniqueness of each culture separately.

  9. The association between Act-Belong-Commit indicators and problem drinking among older Irish adults: Findings from a prospective analysis of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA). (United States)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Nielsen, Line; Hinrichsen, Carsten; Tolstrup, Janne S; Vinther, Johan L; Koyanagi, Ai; Donovan, Robert J; Koushede, Vibeke


    The Act-Belong-Commit campaign is the world's first comprehensive, population-wide, community-based program to promote mental health. However, its potential for preventing substance use disorders is unknown. Further, a literature gap is evident concerning behavioral modification strategies to prevent such disorders. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess the association between indicators of the Act-Belong-Commit behavioral domains and the development of problem drinking. Data from two waves of the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) were analyzed. The sample consisted of 3950 adults aged ≥50years. A validated scale for problem drinking was used. The number of social/recreational activities engaged in was used as an indicator of Act, social network integration as an indicator of Belong, and frequency of participation in these social/recreational activities as an indicator of Commit. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess associations between baseline indicators of Act-Belong-Commit and the development of problem drinking at two-year follow-up. Each increase in the number of social/recreational activities (Act) inversely predicted the onset of problem drinking. Similarly, being well integrated into social networks (Belong) was negatively associated with the development of problem drinking. Finally, frequency of participation in social/recreational activities (Commit) also inversely predicted the onset of problem drinking. These associations were apparent regardless of the presence of baseline common mental disorders. Act-Belong-Commit indicators are shown to be associated with a reduced risk for problem drinking. This lends further support to the Act-Belong-Commit domains and has wide-ranging implications for preventing substance use disorders in the aging community. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Solar unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, A M; Trushevskiy, S N; Tveryanovich, E V


    A solar unit is proposed which contains an inclined solar collector with supply and outlet pipelines, the first of which is connected to the source of a heat carrier, while the second is connected through the valve to the tank for collecting heated heat carrier equipped with a device for recovery. In order to improve the effectiveness of heating the heat carrier, it additionally contains a concentrator of solar radiation and a device for maintaining a level of the heat carrier in the collector in the zone of the focal spot of the concentrator, while the heat pipeline is connected to the source of the heat carrier with the help of a device for maintaining the level of the heat carrier.

  11. Global investigation of composition and interaction networks in gut microbiomes of individuals belonging to diverse geographies and age-groups. (United States)

    Yadav, Deepak; Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Mande, Sharmila S


    Factors like ethnicity, diet and age of an individual have been hypothesized to play a role in determining the makeup of gut microbiome. In order to investigate the gut microbiome structure as well as the inter-microbial associations present therein, we have performed a comprehensive global comparative profiling of the structure (composition, relative heterogeneity and diversity) and the inter-microbial networks in the gut microbiomes of 399 individuals of eight different nationalities. The study identified certain geography-specific trends with respect to composition, intra-group heterogeneity and diversity of the gut microbiomes. Interestingly, the gut microbial association/mutual-exlusion networks were observed to exhibit several cross-geography trends. It was seen that though the composition of gut microbiomes of the American and European individuals were similar, there were distinct patterns in their microbial interaction networks. Amongst European gut-microbiomes, the co-occurrence network obtained for the Danish population was observed to be most dense. Distinct patterns were also observed within Chinese, Japanese and Indian datasets. While performing an age-wise comparison, it was observed that the microbial interactions increased with the age of individuals. Furthermore, certain bacterial groups were identified to be present only in the older age groups. The trends observed in gut microbial networks could be due to the inherent differences in the diet of individuals belonging to different nationalities. For example, the higher number of microbial associations in the Danish population as compared to the Spanish population, may be attributed to the evenly distributed diet of the later. This is in line with previously reported findings which indicate an increase in functional interdependency of microbes in individuals with higher nutritional status. To summarise, the present study identifies geography and age specific patterns in the composition as well as

  12. Ixodid ticks on cattle belonging to small-scale farmers at 4 communal grazing areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bryson


    Full Text Available Ixodid ticks were collected during the period September 1991 to August 1993 from cattle belonging to small-scale farmers utilising 4 communal grazing areas. Three of these were in North West Province and 1 in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Ten tick species were collected in North West Province and 7 in Mpumalanga. The adults of Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were most numerous in North West Province, while in Mpumalanga Boophilus decoloratus comprised more than 75% of the total population. Amblyomma hebraeum was present on all grazing areas, and heavy infestations of adults occurred during the period October to May on 1 of these. Few B. decoloratus were collected in North West Province, chiefly because the sampling method was inadequate, and most of these were present during early summer (October to December and late summer and autumn (March to May. The initially low population of B. decoloratus in Mpumalanga increased substantially towards the conclusion of the survey, probably because of the cessation of dipping. Boophilus microplus was present in small numbers on 2 grazing areas in the North West Province. Adult Hyalomma marginatum rufipes reached peak numbers from December to February and Hyalomma truncatum from February to April in the North West Province. Only H. marginatum rufipes was collected in Mpumalanga. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was present on all the grazing areas, with most adults present from December to April. Most adult Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were collected from September to April and Rhipicephalus simus was present during the period October-April.

  13. The Stars Belong to Everyone: The rhetorical practices of astronomer and science writer Dr. Helen Sawyer Hogg (1905--1993) (United States)

    Cahill, Maria J.

    Astronomer and science writer Dr. Helen Sawyer Hogg (University of Toronto) reached a variety of audiences through different rhetorical forms. She communicated to her colleagues through her scholarly writings; she reached out to students and the public through her Toronto Star newspaper column entitled "With the Stars," which she authored for thirty years; she wrote The Stars Belong to Everyone , a book that speaks to a lay audience; she hosted a successful television series entitled Ideas ; and she delivered numerous speeches at scientific conferences, professional women's associations, school programs, libraries, and other venues. Adapting technical information for different audiences is at the heart of technical communication, and Sawyer Hogg's work exemplifies adaptation as she moves from writing for the scientific community (as in her articles on globular cluster research) to science writing for lay audiences (as in her newspaper column, book, and script for her television series). Initially she developed her sense of audience through a male perspective informed largely by her scholarly work with two men (Harlow Shapley and her husband, Frank Hogg) as well as the pervasive masculine culture of academic science. This dissertation situates Sawyer Hogg in what is slowly becoming a canon of technical communication scholarship on female scientists. Toward this end, I discuss how she rhetorically engaged two different audiences, one scholarly and one popular, how Sawyer Hogg translated male dominated scientific rhetoric to writing for the public, and how science writing helped her achieve her professional goals. Complementing the archival research in addressing the questions of this study, I employ social construction analysis (also known as the social perspective) for my research methodology. She was ahead of her time and embodied the social perspective years before its definition as a rhetorical concept. In short, my study illuminates one scientific woman's voice

  14. Molecular cloning and immunochemical characterization of a novel major Japanese cedar pollen allergen belonging to the aspartic protease family. (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Ragaa Nour; Kawamoto, Seiji; Aki, Tsunehiro; Shimada, Yayoi; Rikimaru, Satoshi; Onishi, Nobukazu; Babiker, Elfadil Elfadl; Oiso, Isao; Hashimoto, Kunihiko; Hayashi, Takaharu; Ono, Kazuhisa


    Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) pollen is a major cause of seasonal pollinosis in Japan. Protease activity in the pollen grains may trigger pro-allergic responses but no such proteases have yet been identified as pollen allergens. We report the molecular cloning and immunochemical characterization of a novel C. japonica pollen allergen belonging to the aspartic protease family. We focused on the C. japonica pollen allergen spot No. 63 (CPA63, 47.5% IgE binding frequency) on our 2-dimensional IgE immunoblot map. The internal amino acid sequences were determined using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Full-length cpa63 cDNA was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. Recombinant CPA63 (r-CPA63) was expressed using the baculovirus-insect cell culture system and its IgE binding capacity was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The proteolytic activity of r-CPA63 was also assessed using a putative mature enzyme produced upon autolysis. cpa63 cDNA encoded a 472 amino acid polypeptide showing about 40% sequence identity to members of the plant atypical aspartic protease family. ELISA showed that r-CPA63 was recognized by IgE antibodies in the serum of 58% (18/31) of Japanese cedar pollinosis patients. We also demonstrated an aspartic protease-like enzyme activity of the putative mature r-CPA63. We have identified the first plant aspartic protease allergen from Japanese cedar pollen. The availability of the CPA63 sequence and its recombinant allergen production system are useful not only for pharmaceutical applications but also for further examination of the role of protease activity in the pathogenesis of cedar pollinosis. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Diversity, Localization, and Physiological Properties of Filamentous Microbes Belonging to Chloroflexi Subphylum I in Mesophilic and Thermophilic Methanogenic Sludge Granules (United States)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Kamagata, Yoichi; Ohashi, Akiyoshi; Harada, Hideki


    We previously reported that the thermophilic filamentous anaerobe Anaerolinea thermophila, which is the first cultured representative of subphylum I of the bacterial phylum Chloroflexi, not only was one of the predominant constituents of thermophilic sludge granules but also was a causative agent of filamentous sludge bulking in a thermophilic (55°C) upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor in which high-strength organic wastewater was treated (Y. Sekiguchi, H. Takahashi, Y. Kamagata, A. Ohashi, and H. Harada, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:5740-5749, 2001). To further elucidate the ecology and function of Anaerolinea-type filamentous microbes in UASB sludge granules, we surveyed the diversity, distribution, and physiological properties of Chloroflexi subphylum I microbes residing in UASB granules. Five different types of mesophilic and thermophilic UASB sludge were used to analyze the Chloroflexi subphylum I populations. 16S rRNA gene cloning-based analyses using a 16S rRNA gene-targeted Chloroflexi-specific PCR primer set revealed that all clonal sequences were affiliated with the Chloroflexi subphylum I group and that a number of different phylotypes were present in each clone library, suggesting the ubiquity and vast genetic diversity of these populations in UASB sludge granules. Subsequent fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of the three different types of mesophilic sludge granules using a Chloroflexi-specific probe suggested that all probe-reactive cells had a filamentous morphology and were widely distributed within the sludge granules. The FISH observations also indicated that the Chloroflexi subphylum I bacteria were not always the predominant populations within mesophilic sludge granules, in contrast to thermophilic sludge granules. We isolated two mesophilic strains and one thermophilic strain belonging to the Chloroflexi subphylum I group. The physiological properties of these isolates suggested that these populations may contribute to the

  16. "Occupational Exposure To Xylene In Workers, Employing At Pathology Wards Of Hospitals Belonging To The Qazvin University Of Medical Sciences "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Taheri SJ


    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylene are extensively used in the different environments and industries, causing adverse effects on individuals who are being exposed occupationally and environmentally to these hazardous compounds. In this study, occupational exposure to xylene in workers, employing at pathology wards of hospitals belonging to the Qazvin University of Medical Sciences have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Methyl Hiporic Acid (MHA as a main metabolite of xylene in urine was used to evaluate the workers exposure to this chemical. The urine samples were taken from all 30 workers from 4 hospitals, i.e. Kosar, Shahid Rajaei, Booali and Qods. Through this study, 30 administrative employees were also selected as control group. The direct DBA colorimetric method was used to measure MHA in the workers urine. Results: The results obtained from this study showed that, there were significant differences between MHA and working days, type of jobs, and length of exposure time. This study also showed that, there were no significant differences between urinary MHA concentration and sex, age, and smoking habit. Conclusion: Through this study, it was also clearly obtained that, xylene exposure can not affect on the total and direct serum bilirobin in the workers blood. Finally, it is worth mentioning that, although this study showed no acute exposure to xylene in hospitals pathology wards, the effect of chronic exposure to such compound cannot be ignored, therefore protecting workers against like these organic solvents are strongly recommended as their TLVs are considerably being reduced during these years

  17. A new Eastern Central Atlantic skate Raja parva sp. nov. (Rajoidei: Rajidae) belonging to the Raja miraletus species complex. (United States)

    Last, Peter R; Séret, Bernard


    An investigation of combined CO1 and NADH2 data for rajid skates referable to Raja miraletus provided evidence that populations ranging from southern Africa to the North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea, once considered to represent a cline, belong to a species complex consisting of at least four valid species. Raja miraletus appears to be confined to the Mediterranean Sea, and the North-East Atlantic from the Bay of Biscay south to Morocco and Madeira. The southernmost species, referable to the resurrected Raja ocellifera, occurs off southern Africa, off Namibia and from False Bay to Durban (South Africa). Two species occur off tropical West Africa, including Raja parva sp. nov. (Senegal, Liberia and Angola but is probably more widespread within the region), and another unidentified species needing further investigation. Raja cf. miraletus, confirmed from Mauritania and Senegal, appears to be a larger skate with a broader disc, more broadly pointed snout, larger spiracles, and a slightly longer and broader tail. Raja parva sp. nov. differs from nominal members of the complex in having an unusually long procaudal tail (exceeding 22% TL), as well as a combination of other external characters. Past investigators observed morphological and anatomical differences between these forms but these were thought to be due to intraspecific variability. They postulated that an upwelling at Cape Blanco (21°N) may have isolated the Mediterranean form (R. miraletus) from Mauritania-Senegal form (now known to be two species). Similarly, the Benguela Current and upwelling off Cape Frio (18°S) were thought to be responsible for separating the Angolan form (R. parva) and South African form (R. ocellifera).

  18. Presence and mechanisms of acquired antimicrobial resistance in Belgian Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates belonging to different clonal complexes. (United States)

    Mahu, M; Pasmans, F; Vranckx, K; De Pauw, N; Vande Maele, L; Vyt, Philip; Vandersmissen, Tamara; Martel, A; Haesebrouck, F; Boyen, F


    Swine dysentery (SD) is an economically important disease for which antimicrobial treatment still occupies an important place to control outbreaks. However, acquired antimicrobial resistance is increasingly observed in Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. In this study, the Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC) of six antimicrobial compounds for 30 recent Belgian B. hyodysenteriae isolates were determined using a broth microdilution method. In addition, relevant regions of the 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA and the L3 protein encoding genes were sequenced to reveal mutations associated with acquired resistance. Finally, a phylogeny was reconstructed using minimal spanning tree analysis of multi locus sequence typing of the isolates. For lincomycin, doxycycline, tylosin and tylvalosin, at least 70% of the isolates did not belong to the wild-type population and were considered to have acquired resistance. For valnemulin and tiamulin, this was over 50%. In all isolates with acquired resistance to doxycycline, the G1058C mutation was present in their 16S rRNA gene. All isolates showing acquired resistance to lincomycin and both macrolides displayed the A2058T mutation in their 23S rRNA gene. Other mutations in this gene and the N148S mutation in the L3 protein were present in both wild-type isolates and isolates considered to have acquired resistance. Multi locus sequence analysis revealed a previously undescribed clonal complex, with 4 novel sequence types in which the majority of isolates showed acquired resistance to all tested antimicrobial products. In conclusion, acquired antimicrobial resistance is widespread among Belgian B. hyodysenteriae isolates. The emergence of multi-resistant clonal complexes can pose a threat to swine industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Sonorensin: an antimicrobial peptide, belonging to the heterocycloanthracin subfamily of bacteriocins, from a new marine isolate, Bacillus sonorensis MT93. (United States)

    Chopra, Lipsy; Singh, Gurdeep; Choudhary, Vikas; Sahoo, Debendra K


    Marine environments are the greatest fronts of biodiversity, representing a resource of unexploited or unknown microorganisms and new substances having potential applications. Among microbial products, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have received great attention recently due to their applications as food preservatives and therapeutic agents. A new marine soil isolate producing an AMP was identified as Bacillus sonorensis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. It produced an AMP that showed a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The peptide, named sonorensin, was purified to homogeneity using a combination of chromatographic techniques. The intact molecular mass of the purified peptide, 6,274 Da, as revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF), was in agreement with Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis. A PCR array of primers was used to identify AMP structural genes, which allowed the successful amplification of the related genes from strain MT93. The putative open reading frame of sonorensin was amplified, cloned into the pET-32a(+) vector, expressed as a thioredoxin (Trx) fusion protein in Escherichia coli, and then purified. Sequence alignment analysis revealed that the bacteriocin being reported could belong to new subfamily of bacteriocins, heterocycloanthracin. The peptide indicated its potential as a biocontrol agent or food antimicrobial agent, due to its antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first report of the production, purification, and characterization of wild-type and recombinant bacteriocin by B. sonorensis and the first bacteriocin of the heterocycloanthracin subfamily to be characterized.

  20. Differences in genotype and virulence among four multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates belonging to the PMEN1 clone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Luisa Hiller

    Full Text Available We report on the comparative genomics and characterization of the virulence phenotypes of four S. pneumoniae strains that belong to the multidrug resistant clone PMEN1 (Spain(23F ST81. Strains SV35-T23 and SV36-T3 were recovered in 1996 from the nasopharynx of patients at an AIDS hospice in New York. Strain SV36-T3 expressed capsule type 3 which is unusual for this clone and represents the product of an in vivo capsular switch event. A third PMEN1 isolate - PN4595-T23 - was recovered in 1996 from the nasopharynx of a child attending day care in Portugal, and a fourth strain - ATCC700669 - was originally isolated from a patient with pneumococcal disease in Spain in 1984. We compared the genomes among four PMEN1 strains and 47 previously sequenced pneumococcal isolates for gene possession differences and allelic variations within core genes. In contrast to the 47 strains - representing a variety of clonal types - the four PMEN1 strains grouped closely together, demonstrating high genomic conservation within this lineage relative to the rest of the species. In the four PMEN1 strains allelic and gene possession differences were clustered into 18 genomic regions including the capsule, the blp bacteriocins, erythromycin resistance, the MM1-2008 prophage and multiple cell wall anchored proteins. In spite of their genomic similarity, the high resolution chinchilla model was able to detect variations in virulence properties of the PMEN1 strains highlighting how small genic or allelic variation can lead to significant changes in pathogenicity and making this set of strains ideal for the identification of novel virulence determinants.

  1. Peer relationship and adolescent smartphone addiction: The mediating role of self-esteem and the moderating role of the need to belong. (United States)

    Wang, Pengcheng; Zhao, Meng; Wang, Xingchao; Xie, Xiaochun; Wang, Yuhui; Lei, Li


    Background and aims Adolescent smartphone addiction has received increased attention in recent years, and peer relationship has been found to be a protective factor in adolescent smartphone. However, little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relation. The aim of this study was to investigate (a) the mediating role of self-esteem in the association between student-student relationship and smartphone addiction, and (b) the moderating role of the need to belong in the indirect relationship between student-student relationship and adolescent smartphone addiction. Methods This model was examined with 768 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 16.81 years, SD = 0.73); the participants completed measurements regarding student-student relationship, self-esteem, the need to belong, and smartphone addiction. Results The correlation analyses indicated that student-student relationship was significantly negatively associated with adolescent smartphone addiction, and the need to belong was significantly positively associated with adolescent smartphone addiction. Mediation analyses revealed that self-esteem partially mediated the link between student-student relationship and adolescent smartphone addiction. Moderated mediation further indicated that the mediated path was weaker for adolescents with lower levels of the need to belong. Discussion and conclusion High self-esteem could be a protective factor against smartphone addiction for adolescents with a strong need to belong as these students appeared to be at elevated risk of developing smartphone addiction.

  2. Does citizenship always further Immigrants' feeling of belonging to the host nation? A study of policies and public attitudes in 14 Western democracies. (United States)

    Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær


    Immigrants' access to citizenship in their country of residence is increasingly debated in Western democracies. It is an underlying premise of these debates that citizenship and national belonging are closely linked, but at the same time there is considerable cross-country variation in how citizenship is approached in Western democracies. In the literature, these differences are typically understood to reflect varying degrees of openness to seeing immigrants as part of the host national community. Motivated by this observation, the article examines whether the degree to which immigrants experience greater attachment to the host nation (i.e. belonging) from having host country citizenship is affected by the host country's approach to citizenship. This question is analysed with multilevel regressions on survey and country-level data from 14 Western democracies. The findings show that citizenship is associated with increased host national belonging in countries where the host population attaches great importance to citizenship as a mark of national membership, while there is no positive association between citizenship and belonging in countries where the host population considers citizenship less important. Interestingly, citizenship policy does not have a moderating effect on the association between citizenship and national belonging. Implications for future studies of the subjective experience of citizenship are discussed.

  3. Termination unit (United States)

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK


    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  4. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann


    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  5. Investigations of the Anopheline (Diptera: Culicidae fauna from three areas belonging to the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve in order to evaluate the risk of malaria re-emergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FALCUTA Elena


    Full Text Available The survey focused on the comparative analyses of the anopheline fauna belonging to the maculipennis group between three areas of the Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve, two of them situated near theRazim-Sinoe lagoonal complex and one belonging to the fluvial delta. The study that was carried out during 2006 and 2007 intended to establish the composition of the anopheline fauna as well as the longevity of the various species in order to evaluate the risk of malaria re-emergence. A number of 2437 mosquitoes, belonging to Anopheles maculipennis group were collected. The presence of the former vector species was pointed up: Anopheles atroparvus, Anophelesmesseae and Anopheles maculipennis sensu stricto. The investigations of the number of egg batches laid by a female have shown the physiological age of the respective female and namely if the female could infect or not the humans.

  6. [Doctors belonging to the Senegalese Association of Sport Medicine and doping in sports: survey on knowledge and attitudes]. (United States)

    Dièye, Amadou Moctar; Diallo, Boubacar; Fall, Assane; Ndiaye, Mamadou; Cissè, Fallou; Faye, Babacar


    Doping in sports is as old as sports, but it grew considerably during the 20th century with the arrival in stadiums during the 1990s of amphetamines and anabolic steroids as well as such peptide hormones as erythropoietin. The international fight against doping took a giant step forward in 1999 with the creation of the world antidoping agency (WADA). This study is part of that fight. It follows an earlier survey of retail pharmacists in Senegal and aims to evaluate the knowledge about doping of doctors belonging to the Senegalese Association of Sports Medicine and to assess their attitude towards this phenomenon. Its goal is to determine how best to involve them in preventive actions. We conducted a survey in 2001 and randomly selected and interviewed 60 of the 92 doctors in the association. The questionnaire focused on three areas: their knowledge of doping, their attitudes to it, and the means of prevention that they proposed. The results showed that only 11 of the 60 doctors knew the definition of doping and 15% of doctors could not cite any family of doping products. They were aware mainly of testosterone and other anabolic steroids (84.3%), then amphetamines and other stimulants (64.7%), and finally peptide hormones (58.8%). The subjects mentioned blood doping and pharmacological manipulations as forbidden methods. They considered that the four groups of drugs most often used by athletes for doping were, in descending order, anabolic steroids, stimulants, peptide hormones and corticoids. Eighty per cent of doctors think that Senegalese athletes use doping products and that the sports most involved are football, wrestling, track and field and basketball. They also think that doping is a form of drug addiction and a public health problem. Eleven doctors (18%) said they had been contacted for information on use of doping products. The interviewees consider that the three best methods of prevention include information about side effects, unannounced urine and

  7. Expression of genes belonging to the interacting TLR cascades, NADPH-oxidase and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in septic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Nucci

    Full Text Available Sepsis is a complex disease that is characterized by activation and inhibition of different cell signaling pathways according to the disease stage. Here, we evaluated genes involved in the TLR signaling pathway, oxidative phosphorylation and oxidative metabolism, aiming to assess their interactions and resulting cell functions and pathways that are disturbed in septic patients.Blood samples were obtained from 16 patients with sepsis secondary to community acquired pneumonia at admission (D0, and after 7 days (D7, N = 10 of therapy. Samples were also collected from 8 healthy volunteers who were matched according to age and gender. Gene expression of 84 genes was performed by real-time polymerase chain reactions. Their expression was considered up- or down-regulated when the fold change was greater than 1.5 compared to the healthy volunteers. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered significant.Twenty-two genes were differently expressed in D0 samples; most of them were down-regulated. When gene expression was analyzed according to the outcomes, higher number of altered genes and a higher intensity in the disturbance was observed in non-survivor than in survivor patients. The canonical pathways altered in D0 samples included interferon and iNOS signaling; the role of JAK1, JAK2 and TYK2 in interferon signaling; mitochondrial dysfunction; and superoxide radical degradation pathways. When analyzed according to outcomes, different pathways were disturbed in surviving and non-surviving patients. Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative phosphorylation and superoxide radical degradation pathway were among the most altered in non-surviving patients.Our data show changes in the expression of genes belonging to the interacting TLR cascades, NADPH-oxidase and oxidative phosphorylation. Importantly, distinct patterns are clearly observed in surviving and non-surviving patients. Interferon signaling, marked by changes in JAK-STAT modulation, had prominent changes in

  8. Molecular Characterization of Two Lysophospholipid:acyl-CoA Acyltransferases Belonging to the MBOAT Family in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghui Zhang

    Full Text Available In the remodeling pathway for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC, acyl-CoA-dependent lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC acyltransferase (LPCAT catalyzes the reacylation of lysoPC. A number of genes encoding LPCATs have been cloned and characterized from several plants in recent years. Using Arabidopsis and other plant LPCAT sequences to screen the genome database of Nicotiana benthamiana, we identified two cDNAs encoding the putative tobacco LPCATs (NbLPCAT1 and NbLPCAT2. Both of them were predicted to encode a protein of 463 amino acids with high similarity to LPCATs from other plants. Protein sequence features such as the presence of at least eight putative transmembrane regions, four highly conserved signature motifs and several invariant residues indicate that NbLPCATs belong to the membrane bound O-acyltransferase family. Lysophospholipid acyltransferase activity of NbLPCATs was confirmed by testing lyso-platelet-activating factor (lysoPAF sensitivity through heterologous expression of each full-length cDNA in a yeast mutant Y02431 (lca1△ disrupted in endogenous LPCAT enzyme activity. Analysis of fatty acid profiles of phospholipids from the NbLPCAT-expressing yeast mutant Y02431 cultures supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids suggested more incorporation of linoleic acid (18:2n6, LA and α-linolenic acid (18:3n3, ALA into PC compared to yeast mutant harbouring empty vector. In vitro enzymatic assay demonstrated that NbLPCAT1had high lysoPC acyltransferase activity with a clear preference for α-linolenoyl-CoA (18:3, while NbLPCAT2 showed a high lysophosphatidic acid (lysoPA acyltransferase activity towards α-linolenoyl-CoA and a weak lysoPC acyltransferase activity. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed a ubiquitous expression of NbLPCAT1 and NbLPCAT2 in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and seeds, and a strong expression in developing flowers. This is the first report on the cloning and characterization of lysophospholipid

  9. Ocular consequences of blunt trauma in two species of nocturnal raptors (Athene noctua and Otus scops). (United States)

    Seruca, Cristina; Molina-López, Rafael; Peña, Teresa; Leiva, Marta


      To determine the type, prevalence, and prognosis of ocular and periocular lesions in free-living little owls (LO) and scops owls (SO), injured by blunt trauma.   Medical records from LO and SO with ocular or periocular lesions secondary to blunt trauma were reviewed. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed in all birds. Short protocol electroretinography (ERG) and ocular ultrasound were performed as dictated by the case.   During the study period, a total of 158 LO and 99 SO with blunt trauma were admitted. Among these, 43 LO (27.8%) and 27 SO (27.3%) had ocular or periocular lesions. Bilateral injuries (72.1% LO and 81.5% SO) were more common than unilateral. Common findings in both species were: corneal erosions/superficial ulcers, anterior and posterior uveitis, cataracts, hyphema, posterior synechia, vitreal hemorrhage, and retinal detachment. Electroretinography was performed in 32 LO and eight SO, which had posterior segment lesions or opacity of the transparent media. Normal to nonrecordable b-wave amplitudes were observed. Follow-up was available in 13 LO and 11 SO. Among these, nine LO (14 eyes) and 10 SO (17 eyes) had resolution of the clinical signs following medical treatment.   Ocular lesions are common in LO and SO injured by blunt trauma. Electroretinography is a valuable diagnostic tool to assess the severity of retinal dysfunction secondary to blunt trauma and to determine the response to medical treatment. A complete ophthalmic examination is a determining factor in the early management of trauma in these species. © 2011 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. [Yeast urinary tract infections. Multicentre study in 14 hospitals belonging to the Buenos Aires City Mycology Network]. (United States)

    Maldonado, Ivana; Arechavala, Alicia; Guelfand, Liliana; Relloso, Silvia; Garbasz, Claudia


    Urinary tract infections are a frequent ailment in patients in intensive care units. Candida and other yeasts cause 5-12% of these infections. The value of the finding of any yeast is controversial, and there is no consensus about which parameters are adequate for differentiating urinary infections from colonization or contamination. To analyse the epidemiological characteristics of patients with funguria, to determine potential cut-off points in cultures (to distinguish an infection from other conditions), to identify the prevalent yeast species, and to determine the value of a second urine sample. A multicentre study was conducted in intensive care units of 14 hospitals in the Buenos Aires City Mycology Network. The first and second samples of urine from every patient were cultured. The presence of white cells and yeasts in direct examination, colony counts, and the identification of the isolated species, were evaluated. Yeasts grew in 12.2% of the samples. There was no statistical correlation between the number of white cells and the fungal colony-forming units. Eighty five percent of the patients had indwelling catheters. Funguria was not prevalent in women or in patients over the age of 65. Candida albicans, followed by Candida tropicalis, were the most frequently isolated yeasts. Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata appeared less frequently. The same species were isolated in 70% of second samples, and in 23% of the cases the second culture was negative. It was not possible to determine a useful cut-off point for colony counts to help in the diagnosis of urinary infections. As in other publications, C. albicans, followed by C. tropicalis, were the most prevalent species. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Cultural norm fulfillment, interpersonal belonging, or getting ahead? : A large-scale cross-cultural test of three perspectives on the function of self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebauer, J.E.; Sedikides, C.; Wagner, J.; Bleidorn, W.; Rentfrow, P.J.; Potter, J.; Gosling, S.D.


    What is the function of self-esteem? We classified relevant theoretical work into 3 perspectives. The cultural norm-fulfillment perspective regards self-esteem a result of adherence to cultural norms. The interpersonal-belonging perspective regards self-esteem as a sociometer of interpersonal

  12. Implementing a Mentally Healthy Schools Framework Based on the Population Wide Act-Belong-Commit Mental Health Promotion Campaign: A Process Evaluation (United States)

    Anwar-McHenry, Julia; Donovan, Robert John; Nicholas, Amberlee; Kerrigan, Simone; Francas, Stephanie; Phan, Tina


    Purpose: Mentally Healthy WA developed and implemented the Mentally Healthy Schools Framework in 2010 in response to demand from schools wanting to promote the community-based Act-Belong-Commit mental health promotion message within a school setting. Schools are an important setting for mental health promotion, therefore, the Framework encourages…

  13. The Belonging of Online-buying Group%论网络团购中的消费者归属感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚艳萍; 吴金典


    The online-buying group is emerging in Internet market, and the online-buying group belonging can prompt to maintaining consumer behavior.This paper expounds the connotation of the online-buying group and belonging, analyzes the influence of the online-buying group belonging,discusses the network the cultivation of the online-buying grouo belonging.%网络团购是网络市场的新兴产物,而消费者归属感的形成可促使消费者产生习惯性的消费行为,要想长期维持网络团购,必须促使消费者对网络团购形成归属感.本文阐述了网络团购及归属感的内涵,分析了网络团购中归属感的影响因素,探讨了网络团购中消费者归属感的培养.

  14. Finding My Way: Perceptions of Institutional Support and Belonging in Low-Income, First-Generation, First-Year College Students (United States)

    Means, Darris R.; Pyne, Kimberly B.


    For this qualitative case study we explored students' perceptions of institutional support and sense of belonging within the college environment. Following 10 low-income, first-generation college students out of a college access program and through their first year of college, we examined institutional support structures that have been reported to…

  15. Exploring overlapping functional units with various structure in protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fei Zhang

    Full Text Available Revealing functional units in protein-protein interaction (PPI networks are important for understanding cellular functional organization. Current algorithms for identifying functional units mainly focus on cohesive protein complexes which have more internal interactions than external interactions. Most of these approaches do not handle overlaps among complexes since they usually allow a protein to belong to only one complex. Moreover, recent studies have shown that other non-cohesive structural functional units beyond complexes also exist in PPI networks. Thus previous algorithms that just focus on non-overlapping cohesive complexes are not able to present the biological reality fully. Here, we develop a new regularized sparse random graph model (RSRGM to explore overlapping and various structural functional units in PPI networks. RSRGM is principally dominated by two model parameters. One is used to define the functional units as groups of proteins that have similar patterns of connections to others, which allows RSRGM to detect non-cohesive structural functional units. The other one is used to represent the degree of proteins belonging to the units, which supports a protein belonging to more than one revealed unit. We also propose a regularizer to control the smoothness between the estimators of these two parameters. Experimental results on four S. cerevisiae PPI networks show that the performance of RSRGM on detecting cohesive complexes and overlapping complexes is superior to that of previous competing algorithms. Moreover, RSRGM has the ability to discover biological significant functional units besides complexes.

  16. Belonging and doing: important factors for satisfaction with sexual relations as perceived by people with persistent mental illness. (United States)

    Eklund, Mona; Ostman, Margareta


    It is increasingly acknowledged that satisfaction with sexual relations forms an important aspect of people's lives, but little is known of factors associated with this phenomenon among people with mental illness. This study aimed to investigate how demographic, social, clinical, and health-related factors were related to satisfaction with sexual relations. Patients with persistent mental illness (N = 103), recruited from an outpatient unit, were assessed regarding the target variables. No clinical variable, and only one demographic factor, namely being a cohabitant, was found to be important to satisfaction with sexual relations. Several social factors, pertaining to how everyday occupations were valued and how the social network was perceived, were shown to be of importance. General quality of life, but not self-rated health or interviewer-assessed psychopathology, was also important for satisfaction with sexual relations. A multivariate analysis showed that the most significant factor for satisfaction with sexual relations was how everyday activities were valued, and being a cohabitant explained some additional variation. Previous research indicates that the mental health care services largely neglect sexual problems among people with mental illness, and the findings may provide additional knowledge that may be used in the support of this target group.

  17. Non-cancer mortality in poultry slaughtering/processing plant workers belonging to a union pension fund. (United States)

    Johnson, Eric S; Ndetan, Harrison


    The role of the biological environment in the occurrence of many chronic human diseases has been little studied. Humans are commonly exposed to transmissible agents that infect and cause a wide variety of subacute and chronic diseases in chickens and turkeys. The objective of this study is to investigate whether these agents cause similar diseases in humans, by studying workers in poultry slaughtering and processing plants who have one of the highest human exposures to these agents. Mortality in poultry workers was compared with that in the United States general population through the estimation of standardized mortality ratios. Excess mortality from infectious and parasitic diseases was observed in the poultry workers. In addition, excess occurrences of deaths involving several sites of the cardiovascular, neurological, endocrine, gastrointestinal and reproductive systems, were observed, although the numbers involved were few in some instances. The results indicate that poultry workers are at increased risk of dying from certain causes of death, including infections. This is consistent with other reports. Although it is possible that occupational exposure to transmissible agents present in poultry may be one of the causes of the excess occurrence of some of these diseases, other factors that were not considered because of the nature of the study design, could be equally important. Also, the small number of deaths involved in some instances calls for caution in interpreting the results. However, the study is important, as it has succeeded in newly identified areas that need further research, and which may have implications not only for workers, but also for the general population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dominant petroleum hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the Archipelago Sea in South-West Finland (Baltic Sea) belong to different taxonomic groups than hydrocarbon degraders in the oceans. (United States)

    Reunamo, Anna; Riemann, Lasse; Leskinen, Piia; Jørgensen, Kirsten S


    The natural petroleum hydrocarbon degrading capacity of the Archipelago Sea water in S-W Finland was studied in a microcosm experiment. Pristine and previously oil exposed sites were examined. Bacterial community fingerprinting was performed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and samples from selected microcosms were sequenced. The abundance of PAH degradation genes was measured by quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities in diesel exposed microcosms diverged from control microcosms during the experiment. Gram positive PAH degradation genes dominated at both sites in situ, whereas gram negative PAH degrading genes became enriched in diesel microcosms. The dominant bacterial groups after a 14 days of diesel exposure were different depending on the sampling site, belonging to the class Actinobacteria (32%) at a pristine site and Betaproteobacteria (52%) at a previously oil exposed site. The hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the Baltic Sea differ from those in the oceans, where most hydrocarbon degraders belong to Gammaproteobacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tuberothalamic artery infarction following coil embolization of a ruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysm belonging to a transitional type posterior cerebral artery. A case report. (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong Duk; Kwon, Soon Chan; Muniandy, Sarawana; Park, Eun Suk; Sim, Hong Bo; Lyo, In Uk


    There are many potential anatomical variations in the connection between the internal carotid artery and the posterior circulation through the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). We describe the endovascular treatment of an aneurysm arising near the origin of the PCoA belonging to a transitional type posterior cerebral artery. Coil embolization subsequently resulted in thrombo-occlusion of the adjacent PCoA causing thalamic infarction even though sufficient retrograde flow had been confirmed pre-operatively by Allcock's test.

  20. Tuberothalamic Artery Infarction Following Coil Embolization of a Ruptured Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Belonging to a Transitional Type Posterior Cerebral Artery: A Case Report


    Lee, Kyeong Duk; Kwon, Soon Chan; Muniandy, Sarawana; Park, Eun Suk; Sim, Hong Bo; Lyo, In Uk


    There are many potential anatomical variations in the connection between the internal carotid artery and the posterior circulation through the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). We describe the endovascular treatment of an aneurysm arising near the origin of the PCoA belonging to a transitional type posterior cerebral artery. Coil embolization subsequently resulted in thrombo-occlusion of the adjacent PCoA causing thalamic infarction even though sufficient retrograde flow had been confirm...

  1. Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy and Sense of Class and School Belonging for Majors in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Disciplines (United States)

    Hogue, Barbara A.

    Research into women's underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines has become a topic of interest due to the increasing need for employees with technical expertise and a shortage of individuals to fill STEM jobs. The discrepancy in women's representation between STEM and other fields cannot adequately be explained by factors such as women's need to balance work and family (medicine and law are both extremely demanding careers), women's fear of competition (admissions into medical and law schools are highly competitive), or women's inability to excel in science (e.g., entry into medicine requires excellent achievement in the basic sciences). The purpose of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the role and/or impact a sense of belonging has inside and outside of STEM classrooms. Research questions focused on the role and/or impact of belonging contributes to students' self-efficacy beliefs as a STEM major. Bandura's self-efficacy theory serves as the theoretical framework. Data sources include close-ended surveys of 200 sophomore- and junior-level college students majoring in a STEM discipline. A quantitative exploratory approach allowed participants' responses to be analyzed using both correlation and multiple regression analyses to understand whether a student's sense of belonging is associated with his or her self-efficacy beliefs. Findings suggested that positive support systems impact students' self-efficacy and play a role in fostering students' motivation and decision to major in STEM disciplines. This study contributes to positive social change by providing empirical evidence faculty and administrators may use to promote university-based STEM support programs reflecting the impact belonging has on students' self-efficacy and potentially increasing the number of students majoring in STEM disciplines.

  2. Cultural norm fulfillment, interpersonal belonging, or getting ahead? A large-scale cross-cultural test of three perspectives on the function of self-esteem. (United States)

    Gebauer, Jochen E; Sedikides, Constantine; Wagner, Jenny; Bleidorn, Wiebke; Rentfrow, Peter J; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D


    What is the function of self-esteem? We classified relevant theoretical work into 3 perspectives. The cultural norm-fulfillment perspective regards self-esteem a result of adherence to cultural norms. The interpersonal-belonging perspective regards self-esteem as a sociometer of interpersonal belonging. The getting-ahead perspective regards self-esteem as a sociometer of getting ahead in the social world, while regarding low anxiety/neuroticism as a sociometer of getting along with others. The 3 perspectives make contrasting predictions on the relation between the Big Five personality traits and self-esteem across cultures. We tested these predictions in a self-report study (2,718,838 participants from 106 countries) and an informant-report study (837,655 informants from 64 countries). We obtained some evidence for cultural norm fulfillment, but the effect size was small. Hence, this perspective does not satisfactorily account for self-esteem's function. We found a strong relation between Extraversion and higher self-esteem, but no such relation between Agreeableness and self-esteem. These 2 traits are pillars of interpersonal belonging. Hence, the results do not fit the interpersonal-belonging perspective either. However, the results closely fit the getting-ahead perspective. The relation between Extraversion and higher self-esteem is consistent with this perspective, because Extraversion is the Big Five driver for getting ahead in the social world. The relation between Agreeableness and lower neuroticism is also consistent with this perspective, because Agreeableness is the Big Five driver for getting along with others. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The draft genome sequence of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain CCBH4851, a nosocomial isolate belonging to clone SP (ST277 that is prevalent in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melise Silveira


    Full Text Available The high occurrence of nosocomial multidrug-resistant (MDR microorganisms is considered a global health problem. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated in Brazil that belongs to the endemic clone ST277. The genome encodes important resistance determinant genes and consists of 6.7 Mb with a G+C content of 66.86% and 6,347 predicted coding regions including 60 RNAs.

  4. Europe is for being recognized for more than an ethnic background” : middle class British, Dutch and German minority citizens’ perspectives on EU citizenship and belonging to Europe’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike M Vieten


    Full Text Available The paper pinpoints some crucial themes of European belonging arising in the narratives of minority key activists with various hyphened legal national citi-zenship status, e.g. South Asian Brits, Moroccan-Dutch and Turkish/ Kurd-ish-Germans. The interviews capture how visible minorities’ perspectives on European belonging are influenced by structural racism, but also by national-ly specific discourses of symbolic inclusion or exclusion of ethnic minorities respectively. In this original research project in total 43 key minority activists, men and women and all of middle class social status were interviewed between au-tumn 2009 and summer 2012, e.g. pre-Brexit, in Britain, the Netherlands and Germany. The findings of the study underline ambivalent post-cosmopolitan identities and more contradictory notions of ‘race’ and ‘ethnicity in Britain and the Netherlands, due to specific colonial / post-colonial contexts, and a different use of these categories in Britain and the rest of Europe. The minor-ity citizens interviewed in Germany expressed a more troubled position here as their relationship to the European Union is influenced by their feelings of belonging to Turkey, the latter outside the EU and at the border of Europe. As the ‘new’ citizens interviewed in this sample live in major cities, such as London, Berlin and Amsterdam, individual feelings of belonging to Europe, perceptions of being European and cosmopolitan were very much shaped by the concrete city spaces and a positive identification with metropolitan urban identity.



    Fatma A. Ahmed, Nadia Hafez Salah El-Din Ouda, Sherif Moussa Husseiny and Abeer Adel


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of eight essential oils against some multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacteria (three different isolates of each Acinetobacter baumannii and Klebsiella pneumoniae). The hydrodistilled essential oils of the fresh aerial part of some medicinal plants belonging to family Lamiaceae namely: Origanum majorana L. , Origanum majorana L. , Origanum syriacum L., Thymus capitatus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Salvia fruticosa Mill., Mentha vir...

  6. In vitro antifungal activity against Candida species of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea (Camellia sinensis L. belonging to different agro-climatic elevations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanigasekara Daya Ratnasooriya


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antifungal potential of different grades of Sri Lankan orthodox black tea [orange pekoe, broken orange pekoe fannings (BOPF and Dust No. 1] belonging to the three agro-climatic elevations (low, mid and high. Methods: Antifungal activity was assessed in vitro using methanolic extracts (300 µg/disc and agar disc diffusion bioassay technique against three Candida species, Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida glabrata (C. glabrata, and Candida tropicalis. ketoconazole and itraconazole mixture was used as positive control (10 µg/disc and methanol was used as the negative control. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were also determined using standard protocols. Results: None of the extracts were effective against Candida tropicalis. Furthermore, orange pekoe grade tea belonging to all agro-climatic elevations did not induce any antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata as well. Conversely, Dust No. 1 belonging to all three agro-climatic elevations and low-grown BOPF showed moderate antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata. Interestingly, the severity of the antifungal effect varied with agroclimatic elevations. The minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 64.00–128.00 µg/mL against C. glabrata and 128.00-256.00 µg/mL against C. albicans. Conclusions: Sri Lankan Dust No. 1 and BOPF have marked antifungal activity in vitro and offer promise to be used as a supplementary beverage in prophylaxis and during drug treatment in candidiasis.

  7. Patterns of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) diversity and assemblages among diverse hosts and the coral reef environment of Lizard Island, Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren


    Large-scale environmental disturbances may impact both partners in coral host-Symbiodinium systems. Elucidation of the assembly patterns in such complex and interdependent communities may enable better prediction of environmental impacts across coral reef ecosystems. In this study, we investigated how the community composition and diversity of dinoflagellate symbionts in the genus Symbiodinium were distributed among 12 host species from six taxonomic orders (Actinaria, Alcyonacea, Miliolida, Porifera, Rhizostoma, Scleractinia) and in the reef water and sediments at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef before the 3rd Global Coral Bleaching Event. 454 pyrosequencing of the ITS2 region of Symbiodinium yielded 83 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) at a 97% similarity cut-off. Approximately half of the Symbiodinium OTUs from reef water or sediments were also present in symbio. OTUs belonged to six clades (A-D, F-G), but community structure was uneven. The two most abundant OTUs (100% matches to types C1 and A3) comprised 91% of reads and OTU C1 was shared by all species. However, sequence-based analysis of these dominant OTUs revealed host species-specificity, suggesting that genetic similarity cut-offs of Symbiodinium ITS2 data sets need careful evaluation. Of the less abundant OTUs, roughly half occurred at only one site or in one species and the background Symbiodinium communities were distinct between individual samples. We conclude that sampling multiple host taxa with differing life history traits will be critical to fully understand the symbiont diversity of a given system and to predict coral ecosystem responses to environmental change and disturbance considering the differential stress response of the taxa within. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. SI units in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, P S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiation Protection


    The proposal of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements that the special units of radiation and radioactivity-roentgen, rad, rem and curie-be replaced by the International System (SI) of Units has been accepted by international bodies. This paper reviews the resons for introducing the new units and their features. The relation between the special units and the corresponding SI units is discussed with examples. In spite of anticipated difficulties, the commission recommends a smooth and efficient changeover to the SI units in ten years.

  9. Comparison of methanogen diversity of yak (Bos grunniens) and cattle (Bos taurus) from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau, China (United States)


    Background Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect. It is worthwhile to compare methanogen from “energy-saving” animal (yak) and normal animal (cattle) in order to investigate the link between methanogen structure and low methane production. Results Diversity of methanogens from the yak and cattle rumen was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from rumen digesta samples from four yaks (209 clones) and four cattle (205 clones) from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTP). Overall, a total of 414 clones (i.e. sequences) were examined and assigned to 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using MOTHUR, based upon a 98% species-level identity criterion. Forty-six OTUs were unique to the yak clone library and 34 OTUs were unique to the cattle clone library, while 15 OTUs were found in both libraries. Of the 95 OTUs, 93 putative new species were identified. Sequences belonging to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Linage C (TALC) were found to dominate in both libraries, accounting for 80.9% and 62.9% of the sequences from the yak and cattle clone libraries, respectively. Sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriales represented the second largest clade in both libraries. However, Methanobrevibacter wolinii (QTPC 110) was only found in the cattle library. The number of clones from the order Methanomicrobiales was greater in cattle than in the yak clone library. Although the Shannon index value indicated similar diversity between the two libraries, the Libshuff analysis indicated that the methanogen community structure of the yak was significantly different than those from cattle. Conclusion This study revealed for the first time the molecular diversity of methanogen community in yaks and cattle in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different from that of cattle

  10. Investigation of class 1 integrons in Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical and microbiota isolates belonging to different phylogenetic groups in Recife, State of Pernambuco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsandra Maria Silva Lima


    Full Text Available Introduction The high prevalence of Klebsiella pneumoniae infections is related to the ability of K. pneumoniae to acquire and disseminate exogenous genes associated with mobile elements, such as R plasmids, transposons and integrons. This study investigated the presence of class 1 integrons in clinical and microbiota isolates of K. pneumoniae belonging to different phylogenetic groups and correlated these results with the antimicrobial resistance profiles of the studied isolates. Methods Of the 51 isolates of K. pneumoniae selected for this study, 29 were from multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, and 22 were from children's microbiota. The susceptibility profile was determined using the disk diffusion method, and class 1 integrons were detected through polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results The results showed that none of the 22 microbiota isolates carried class 1 integrons. Among the 29 clinical isolates, 19 (65.5% contained class 1 integrons, and resistance to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was identified in 18 of these isolates (94.7%. Among the K. pneumoniae isolates with class 1 integrons, 47% belonged to the KpI phylogenetic group, and one isolate (14.3% carrying these genetic elements belonged to the KpIII group. Conclusions The wide variety of detected class 1 integrons supports the presence of high rates of antimicrobial resistance, genetic variability, and rapid dissemination of beta-lactamase genes among K. pneumoniae clinical isolates in recent years in hospitals in Recife-PE, Brazil. The findings of this study indicate that the surveillance of K. pneumoniae integrons in clinical isolates could be useful for monitoring the spread of antibiotic resistance genes in the hospital environment.

  11. Tuberothalamic Artery Infarction Following Coil Embolization of a Ruptured Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Belonging to a Transitional Type Posterior Cerebral Artery (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong Duk; Kwon, Soon Chan; Muniandy, Sarawana; Park, Eun Suk; Sim, Hong Bo; Lyo, In Uk


    Summary There are many potential anatomical variations in the connection between the internal carotid artery and the posterior circulation through the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). We describe the endovascular treatment of an aneurysm arising near the origin of the PCoA belonging to a transitional type posterior cerebral artery. Coil embolization subsequently resulted in thrombo-occlusion of the adjacent PCoA causing thalamic infarction even though sufficient retrograde flow had been confirmed pre-operatively by Allcock’s test. PMID:24070079

  12. Temporal succession in carbon incorporation from macromolecules by particle-attached bacteria in marine microcosms: Particle-attached bacteria incorporating organic carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayali, Xavier [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stewart, Benjamin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mabery, Shalini [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weber, Peter K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Here, we investigated bacterial carbon assimilation from stable isotope-labelled macromolecular substrates (proteins; lipids; and two types of polysaccharides, starch and cellobiose) while attached to killed diatom detrital particles during laboratory microcosms incubated for 17 days. Using Chip-SIP (secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis of RNA microarrays), we identified generalist operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from the Gammaproteobacteria, belonging to the genera Colwellia, Glaciecola, Pseudoalteromonas and Rheinheimera, and from the Bacteroidetes, genera Owenweeksia and Maribacter, that incorporated the four tested substrates throughout the incubation period. Many of these OTUs exhibited the highest isotope incorporation relative to the others, indicating that they were likely the most active. Additional OTUs from the Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria exhibited generally (but not always) lower activity and did not incorporate all tested substrates at all times, showing species succession in organic carbon incorporation. We also found evidence to suggest that both generalist and specialist OTUs changed their relative substrate incorporation over time, presumably in response to changing substrate availability as the particles aged. This pattern was demonstrated by temporal succession from relatively higher starch incorporation early in the incubations, eventually switching to higher cellobiose incorporation after 2 weeks.

  13. Alba from Thermoplasma volcanium belongs to α-NAT's: An insight into the structural aspects of Tv Alba and its acetylation by Tv Ard1. (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Pathak, Chinar; Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Ki-Young; Jang, Sun-Bok; Nam, Minjoo; Im, Hookang; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Lee, Bong-Jin


    The Alba superfamily proteins have been regarded as a conserved group of proteins in archaea and eukarya, which have shown to be important in nucleic acid binding, chromatic organization and gene regulation. These proteins often belong to the N-acetyltransferase (NAT) category (N(α)-acetyltransferases or N(ε)-acetyltransferases) and undergo post-translational modifications. Here, we report the crystal structure of Alba from Thermoplasma volcanium (Tv Alba) at 2.4 Å resolution. The acetylation of Tv Alba was monitored and the N-terminal of Tv Alba has been shown to interact with acetyl coenzyme A (Ac-CoA). The chemical shift perturbation experiments of Tv Alba were performed in the presence of Ac-CoA and/or Tv Ard1, another T. volcanium protein that treats Tv Alba as a substrate. To examine the DNA binding capabilities of Tv Alba alone and in the presence of Ac-CoA and/or Tv Ard1, EMSA experiments were carried out. It is shown that although Tv Alba binds to Ac-CoA, the acetylation of Tv Alba is not related with its binding to dsDNA, and the involvement of the N-terminus in Ac-CoA binding demonstrates that Tv Alba belongs to the N(α)-acetyltransferase family. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Individual differences in in-person and social media television coviewing: the role of emotional contagion, need to belong, and coviewing orientation. (United States)

    Cohen, Elizabeth L; Lancaster, Alexander L


    The popularity of social media television coviewing is growing, but little is known about why people engage in these connected viewing experiences or how they differ from in-person coviewing. This study investigated how engaging in in-person and social media coviewing is predicted by individual differences: emotional contagion, need to belong, and three dimensions of a coviewing orientation scale created for this research (need for company, need for solitude, and audience monitoring). On Amazon Mechanical Turk, 451 people were recruited for an online survey. The mean age was 34.64 years (SD=13.16 years), and 52% of the sample was female. Emotional contagion predicted in-person coviewing only. Need to belong predicted several mediated co-viewing activities. Need for solitude negatively predicted in-person coviewing, but need for company positively predicted in-person coviewing. Results indicate that viewers have different motivations for engaging in various coviewing activities. Findings also suggest that social media coviewing can provide valuable opportunities for social connection among viewers who watch television in physical solitude.

  15. Belonging and Longing of the Beautiful Jewess and the Jewish Villain in the Nineteenth-Century German, English and French Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Jeannine Bartlett


    Full Text Available The antithetic pair of the Jewish Villain and his daughter the Beautiful Jewess made their entry into literature with Shakespeare’s ‘The Merchant of Venice’ and Marlowe’s ‘The Jew of Malta’. Nineteenth-century non-Jewish novelists re-use them to reflect their ambiguous feelings towards Jews. As an object of conquest and conversion, the character of the Beautiful Jewess is portrayed as belonging to the Bible and the Orient. Due to his resistance to conversion the Jewish villain is confined to the fading ghettos where he withdraws into an inanimate world of his own creation. Although following different paths, their longing to belong to society is denied. At the end of the nineteenth century a passage from religious to racial Anti-Semitism takes place, leading them back to the status of pariah. From now on both of them are accused of coveting the money of a decadent aristocracy, who is struggling to cope with economic change. She is reduced to a prostitute and he to a dangerous cosmopolitan parvenu, exposing the shattered values of nineteenth-century society.

  16. Critical Community Building: Beyond Belonging (United States)

    Bettez, Silvia Cristina


    In this paper, the author talks about community building and the power of active listening. Active listening is a particular kind of listening that requires conscious effort; it is a type of listening that some rarely practice and sometimes is virtually absent from classroom interactions. Thus active listening itself may be deceptively simple…

  17. To belong to the living

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Nebeling


    Med udgangspunkt i Lee Edelmans polemiske argumentation imod reproduktiv futurisme og Sara Ahmeds fokus på queer attachments analyserer og diskuterer artiklen queer slægtskab, som det fremstilles i den amerikanske spillefilm The Kids Are All Right. Der argumenteres for, at børnenes heteronormative...

  18. Sense of belonging / Tõnu Naelapea

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Naelapea, Tõnu, 1962-


    Väliseestlastest ja nende kokkukuuluvustundest Eestiga. Artiklis on tsiteeritud president Toomas Hendrik Ilvese kõnet kodakondsustunnistuste kätteandmisel 28. mail 2009 Tallinnas Kumu kunstimuuseumis

  19. Territorial stigmatization and local belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sune Qvotrup; Christensen, Ann-Dorte


    Loïc Wacquant has made a widely read and debated contribution to critical research on contemporary urban marginality. A central part of the theoretical framework is that residents of deprived areas internalize territorial stigmatization, which then has a range of negative effects. Based on empiri......; a discussion of the specific political culture of Scandinavian societies; and a problematization of Wacquant's reliance on Bourdieu's conception of symbolic violence....

  20. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  1. United States housing, 2012 (United States)

    Delton Alderman


    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  2. United Cerebral Palsy (United States)

    ... your local affiliate Find your local affiliate United Cerebral Palsy United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) is a trusted resource for individuals with Cerebral Palsy and other disabilities and their networks. Individuals with ...

  3. Malaria Treatment (United States) (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  4. [Diversity and enzyme-producing activity of culturable halophilic bacteria in Daishan Saltern of East China]. (United States)

    Yang, Dan-Dan; Li, Qian; Huang, Jing-Jing; Chen, Min


    Soil and saline water samples were collected from the Daishan Saltern of East China, and the halophilic bacteria were isolated and cultured by using selective media, aimed to investigate the diversity and enzyme-producing activity of culturable halophilic bacteria in saltern environment. A total of 181 strains were isolated by culture-dependent method. Specific primers were used to amplify the 16S rRNA gene of bacteria and archaea. The operation taxonomy units (OTUs) were determined by ARDRA method, and the representative strain of each OTU was sequenced. The phylogenetic position of all the isolated strains was determined by 16S rRNA sequencing. The results showed that the isolated 181 strains displayed 21 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), of which, 12 OTUs belonged to halophilic bacteria, and the others belonged to halophilic archaea. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that there were 7 genera presented among the halophilic bacteria group, and 4 genera presented among the halophilic archaea group. The dominant halophilic strains were of Halomonas and Haloarcula, with 46.8% in halophilic bacteria and 49.1% in halophilic archaea group, respectively. Enzyme-producing analysis indicated that most strains displayed enzyme-producing activity, including the activities of producing amylase, proteinase and lipase, and the dominant strains capable of enzyme-producing were of Haloarcula. Our results showed that in the environment of Daishan Saltern, there existed a higher diversity of halophilic bacteria, being a source sink for screening enzyme-producing bacterial strains.

  5. Complete orthonormal sets on the past light cone - II: Functions belonging to spin 1/2 and non-zero rest mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrick, G.H.


    This is the second of a series of papers preparing the mathematical framework for a past light cone formulation for the quantum mechanics of particles of arbitrary mass and spin. The aim of past light cone quantum theory is to define quantum states solely in terms of data accessible to an observer, i.e. information from within his current past light cone. In order to set up such a theory one needs to define on the past light cone complete orthonormal sets of functions which belong to the appropriate representation of the Poincare group. Such functions are interpreted as energy-momentum eigenfunctions. The present paper treats the case of spin 1/2 and non-zero rest mass. (author). 7 refs

  6. Speaking of Belonging: Learning to be “Good Citizens” in the Context of Voluntary Language Coaching Projects in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiannon Mosher


    Full Text Available This article explores citizenship education for adult immigrants through informal language education in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Based on data collected over thirteen months of ethnographic research among volunteer Dutch language coaches in Amsterdam, the primary methods used in this study were in-depth semi-structured interviews and participant observation. While the primary focus of this article is on the ways in which informal educational settings contribute to processes of adult citizenship education, this paper also underscores some of the perceived barriers to integration faced by adult immigrants in the Netherlands. Adopting a Foucauldian theoretical approach to governmentality, this paper considers how volunteer Dutch language coaches both reproduce and challenge contemporary discourses around citizenship and belonging in Dutch society. Experiences and expressions of citizenship among volunteer Dutch language coaches reveal how entangled discourses of cultural difference and neoliberal “active” citizenship shape state and everyday notions of good citizenship practice and integration.

  7. Genotypic diversity of oscillatoriacean strains belonging to the genera Geitlerinema and Spirulina determined by 16S rDNA restriction analysis. (United States)

    Margheri, Maria C; Piccardi, Raffaella; Ventura, Stefano; Viti, Carlo; Giovannetti, Luciana


    Genotypic diversity of several cyanobacterial strains mostly isolated from marine or brackish waters, belonging to the genera Geitlerinema and Spirulina, was investigated by amplified 16S ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and compared with morphological features and response to salinity. Cluster analysis was performed on amplified 16S rDNA restriction profiles of these strains along with profiles obtained from sequence data of five Spirulina-like strains, including three representatives of the new genus Halospirulina. Our strains with tightly coiled trichomes from hypersaline waters could be assigned to the Halospirulina genus. Among the uncoiled strains, the two strains of hypersaline origin clustered together and were found to be distant from their counterparts of marine and freshwater habitat. Moreover, another cluster, formed by alkali-tolerant strains with tightly coiled trichomes, was well delineated.

  8. Fore limb bones of late Pleistocene dwarf hippopotamuses (Mammalia, Cetartiodactyla from Madagascar previously determined as belonging to the crocodylid Voay Brochu, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hampe


    Full Text Available A humerus and two radii of juvenile dwarf hippopotamuses are redescribed. The subfossil bones from the collection of the Museum für Naturkunde Berlin were erroneously assigned to the horned crocodile Voay robustus (Grandidier & Vaillant, 1872 by Bickelmann & Klein (2009. All three limb bones presented here belong to immature animals. The epiphyses are not fused, except the proximal extremity of the right radius; and the radius and ulna are also unfused. The two radii are from individuals of different size, whereas the left radius and the humerus are from animals of similar size. Morphologically, the limb bones cannot be identified to species level. A tentative assignment to Hippopotamus madagascariensis is discussed based on the knowledge of the geographic origin on the island. doi:10.1002/mmng.201000003

  9. Phytotoxic activity against Bromus tectorum for secondary metabolites of a seed-pathogenic Fusarium strain belonging to the F. tricinctum species complex. (United States)

    Masi, Marco; Meyer, Susan; Pescitelli, Gennaro; Cimmino, Alessio; Clement, Suzette; Peacock, Beth; Evidente, Antonio


    The winter annual grass Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) has become highly invasive in semiarid ecosystems of western North America. In these areas, a natural phenomenon, complete cheatgrass stand failure ('die-off'), is apparently caused by a complex interaction among soilborne fungal pathogens. Several Fusarium strains belonging to the Fusarium tricinctum species complex were isolated from these soils and found to be pathogenic on B. tectorum seeds. One of these strains was produced in cheatgrass seed culture to evaluate its ability to produce phytotoxins. Six metabolites were isolated and identified by spectroscopic methods (essentially 1D and 2D NMR and ESIMS) as acuminatopyrone (1), blumenol A (2), chlamydosporol (3), isochlamydosporol (4), ergosterol (5) and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (6). Upon testing against B. tectorum in a seedling bioassay, (6) the coleoptile and radicle length of cheatgrass seedlings were significantly reduced. Compounds 1 and 2 showed moderate activity, while 3-5 were not significantly different from the control.

  10. From Soil to Structure, a Novel Dimeric β-Glucosidase Belonging to Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 Isolated from Compost Using Metagenomic Analysis (United States)

    McAndrew, Ryan P.; Park, Joshua I.; Heins, Richard A.; Reindl, Wolfgang; Friedland, Gregory D.; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Northen, Trent; Sale, Kenneth L.; Simmons, Blake A.; Adams, Paul D.


    A recent metagenomic analysis sequenced a switchgrass-adapted compost community to identify enzymes from microorganisms that were specifically adapted to switchgrass under thermophilic conditions. These enzymes are being examined as part of the pretreatment process for the production of “second-generation” biofuels. Among the enzymes discovered was JMB19063, a novel three-domain β-glucosidase that belongs to the GH3 (glycoside hydrolase 3) family. Here, we report the structure of JMB19063 in complex with glucose and the catalytic variant D261N crystallized in the presence of cellopentaose. JMB19063 is first structure of a dimeric member of the GH3 family, and we demonstrate that dimerization is required for catalytic activity. Arg-587 and Phe-598 from the C-terminal domain of the opposing monomer are shown to interact with bound ligands in the D261N structure. Enzyme assays confirmed that these residues are absolutely essential for full catalytic activity. PMID:23580647

  11. Seroprevalence of Sandfly-Borne Phleboviruses Belonging to Three Serocomplexes (Sandfly fever Naples, Sandfly fever Sicilian and Salehabad in Dogs from Greece and Cyprus Using Neutralization Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaf Alwassouf


    Full Text Available Phleboviruses transmitted by sandflies are endemic in the Mediterranean area. The last decade has witnessed the description of an accumulating number of novel viruses. Although, the risk of exposure of vertebrates is globally assessed, detailed geographic knowledge is poor even in Greece and Cyprus where sandfly fever has been recognized for a long time and repeatedly. A total of 1,250 dogs from mainland Greece and Greek archipelago on one hand and 422 dogs from Cyprus on the other hand have been sampled and tested for neutralising antibodies against Toscana virus (TOSV, Sandfly fever Sicilian virus (SFSV, Arbia virus, and Adana virus i.e. four viruses belonging to the 3 sandfly-borne serocomplexes known to circulate actively in the Mediterranean area. Our results showed that (i SFSV is highly prevalent with 71.9% (50.7-84.9% depending on the region in Greece and 60.2% (40.0-72.6% in Cyprus; (ii TOSV ranked second with 4.4% (0-15.4% in Greece and 8.4% (0-11.4% in Cyprus; (iii Salehabad viruses (Arbia and Adana displayed also substantial prevalence rates in both countries with values ranging from 0-22.6% depending on the region and on the virus strain used in the test. These results demonstrate that circulation of viruses transmitted by sand flies can be estimated qualitatively using dog sera. As reported in other regions of the Mediterranean, these results indicate that it is time to shift these viruses from the "neglected" status to the "priority" status in order to stimulate studies aiming at defining and quantifying their medical and veterinary importance and possible public health impact. Specifically, viruses belonging to the Sandfly fever Sicilian complex should be given careful consideration. This calls for implementation of direct and indirect diagnosis in National reference centers and in hospital microbiology laboratories and systematic testing of unelucidated febrile illness and central and peripheral nervous system febrile

  12. Detection of Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Related Genes in E. coli Strains Belonging to B2 Phylogroup Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections in Combination with Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Staji


    Full Text Available Background:  This study was conducted to detect the prevalence of EHEC virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance profile of Escherichia coli strains belonging to B2 phylogroup implicated in Urinary tract infections in Semnan, Iran.Methods:   From 240 urine samples 160 E. coli strains were isolated, biochemically. Then, E. coli isolates were examined by Multiplex-PCR for phylogenetic typing and detection of virulence genes (hly, stx1, stx2, eae associated with Enterohemorrhagic E. coli. Finally, Antimicrobial resistance of E. coli isolates were characterized using Disk Diffusion method.  Results:  From 160 E. coli isolates, 75 strains (47% were assigned to B2 phylogenetic group and prevalence of virulence genes were as follow: hly (21.3%, stx1 (16%, stx2 (10.6% and eae (6.7%, subsequently.  Phenotypic antimicrobial resistance of B2 isolates showed that all isolates were sensitive to Meropenem and Furazolidone and then highest frequency of resistance was observed to Streptomycin, Oxytetracycline, Neomycin, Nalidixic acid and Ampicillin (98.7% to 49.3%. Also low resistance prevalence was observed in case of Ceftizoxime, Lincospectin, Imipenem, Chloramphenicol and flurefenicole (16% to 1.3%.Conclusion:   The data suggest a high prevalence of antibiotic resistance in UPEC strains belonging to B2 phylogroup even for the antimicrobials using in pet and farm animals and their potential to cause EHEC specific clinical symptoms which may represent a serious health risk since these strains can be transmitted to GI tract and act as a reservoir for other uropathogenic E. coli and commensal strains.

  13. [Sickle cell anemia and transfusion safety in Bamako, Mali. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections and alloimmunization belonged to Rh and Kell systems in sickle cell anemia patients]. (United States)

    Diarra, A B; Guindo, A; Kouriba, B; Dorie, A; Diabaté, D T; Diawara, S I; Fané, B; Touré, B A; Traoré, A; Gulbis, B; Diallo, D A


    Red cell transfusion is one of the main treatments in sickle cell disease. However there are potential risks of blood transfusions. In order to propose strategies to improve blood safety in sickle cell disease in Mali, we conducted a prospective study of 133 patients with sickle cell anemia recruited at the sickle cell disease research and control center of Bamako, November 2010 to October 2011. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections by serum screening and the frequency of red cell alloimmunization before and after blood transfusion. The diagnosis of sickle cell syndrome was made by HPLC, the detection of markers of viral infection was performed by ELISA, and the diagnosis of alloimmunization was conducted by the Indirect Coombs test. Prevalence of viral infections observed at the time of enrolment of patients in the study was 1%, 3% and 1% respectively for HIV, HBV and HCV. Three cases of seroconversion after blood transfusion were detected, including one for HIV, one for HBV and one another for HCV in sickle cell anemia patients. All these patients had received blood from occasional donors. The red cell alloimmunization was observed in 4.4% of patients. All antibodies belonged to Rh system only. Blood transfusion safety in sickle cell anemia patients in Mali should be improved by the introduction of at least the technique for detecting the viral genome in the panel of screening tests and a policy of transfusions of blood units only from regular blood donors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Detection of termites and other insects consumed by African great apes using molecular fecal analysis. (United States)

    Hamad, Ibrahim; Delaporte, Eric; Raoult, Didier; Bittar, Fadi


    The consumption of insects by apes has previously been reported based on direct observations and/or trail signs in feces. However, DNA-based diet analyses may have the potential to reveal trophic links for these wild species. Herein, we analyzed the insect-diet diversity of 9 feces obtained from three species of African great apes, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and bonobo (Pan paniscus), using two mitochondrial amplifications for arthropods. A total of 1056 clones were sequenced for Cyt-b and COI gene libraries, which contained 50 and 56 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), respectively. BLAST research revealed that the OTUs belonged to 32 families from 5 orders (Diptera, Isoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, and Orthoptera). While ants were not detected by this method, the consumption of flies, beetles, moths, mosquitoes and termites was evident in these samples. Our findings indicate that molecular techniques can be used to analyze insect food items in wild animals.

  15. A multiplicity logic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.


    The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)

  16. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  17. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  18. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  19. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States. (United States)


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  20. The effects of playing Nintendo Wii on depression, sense of belonging and social support in Australian aged care residents: a protocol study of a mixed methods intervention trial. (United States)

    Chesler, Jessica; McLaren, Suzanne; Klein, Britt; Watson, Shaun


    The proportion of people aged 65 or older is the fastest growing age group worldwide. Older adults in aged care facilities have higher levels of depression, and lower levels of social support and sense of belonging compared with older adults living in the community. Research has begun to assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the mental health of residents and has found both cognitive and physical benefits of video game playing. The benefits of playing these games in a group may also lead to greater social interaction and decreased loneliness. The current study aims to investigate an intervention program designed to foster relationships among older adults in care based on shared interests. Residents will be assessed on the effectiveness of a 6 week program of playing Wii bowling in comparison to a control group. Participants will be allocated to the intervention (Wii bowling) or the control group based on their place of residence. Participants in the intervention group will be invited to participate in Wii bowling twice weekly, with up to three other residents for a period of 6 weeks. Residents in both conditions will be assessed for depression, social support, sense of belonging, and current self-rated mood at pre-intervention (0 weeks), post-intervention (6 weeks), and at 2-month follow up (14 weeks). Qualitative data on social interaction between group members will also be collected at weeks 1, 3, and 6. Both groups will receive a Wii console after week 6 to establish if residents and staff engage with the Wii without intervention. The Wii provides a user friendly platform for older adults to use video games, and it incorporates both social and competitive aspects in the game play. Existing research has not extensively investigated the social aspects of using this type of technology with older adults. If found to be effective, incorporating Wii games into an activity schedule may benefit the mental health of older adults living in care by

  1. Diversity and distribution of lichen-associated fungi in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic) as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Xin-Li; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan


    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of fungal communities associated with seven lichen species in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic) using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Lichen-associated fungal communities showed high diversity, with a total of 42,259 reads belonging to 370 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being found. Of these OTUs, 294 belonged to Ascomycota, 54 to Basidiomycota, 2 to Zygomycota, and 20 to unknown fungi. Leotiomycetes, Dothideomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes were the major classes, whereas the dominant orders were Helotiales, Capnodiales, and Chaetothyriales. Interestingly, most fungal OTUs were closely related to fungi from various habitats (e.g., soil, rock, plant tissues) in the Arctic, Antarctic and alpine regions, which suggests that living in association with lichen thalli may be a transient stage of life cycle for these fungi and that long-distance dispersal may be important to the fungi in the Arctic. In addition, host-related factors shaped the lichen-associated fungal communities in this region. Taken together, these results suggest that lichens thalli act as reservoirs of diverse fungi from various niches, which may improve our understanding of fungal evolution and ecology in the Arctic. PMID:26463847

  2. Diversity and distribution of lichen-associated fungi in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic) as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing. (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Wei, Xin-Li; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yu, Li-Yan


    This study assessed the diversity and distribution of fungal communities associated with seven lichen species in the Ny-Ålesund Region (Svalbard, High Arctic) using Roche 454 pyrosequencing with fungal-specific primers targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal rRNA gene. Lichen-associated fungal communities showed high diversity, with a total of 42,259 reads belonging to 370 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) being found. Of these OTUs, 294 belonged to Ascomycota, 54 to Basidiomycota, 2 to Zygomycota, and 20 to unknown fungi. Leotiomycetes, Dothideomycetes, and Eurotiomycetes were the major classes, whereas the dominant orders were Helotiales, Capnodiales, and Chaetothyriales. Interestingly, most fungal OTUs were closely related to fungi from various habitats (e.g., soil, rock, plant tissues) in the Arctic, Antarctic and alpine regions, which suggests that living in association with lichen thalli may be a transient stage of life cycle for these fungi and that long-distance dispersal may be important to the fungi in the Arctic. In addition, host-related factors shaped the lichen-associated fungal communities in this region. Taken together, these results suggest that lichens thalli act as reservoirs of diverse fungi from various niches, which may improve our understanding of fungal evolution and ecology in the Arctic.

  3. Neighbors United for Health (United States)

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Corvin, Jaime; Virella, Irmarie


    Modeled upon the ecclesiastic community group concept of Latin America to unite and strengthen the bond between the Church and neighborhoods, a community-based organization created Vecinos Unidos por la Salud (Neighbors United for Health) to bring health messages into urban Latino neighborhoods. The model is based on five tenants, and incorporates…

  4. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel


    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to

  5. Conjugal properties of the Sinorhizobium meliloti plasmid mobilome. (United States)

    Pistorio, Mariano; Giusti, María A; Del Papa, María F; Draghi, Walter O; Lozano, Mauricio J; Tejerizo, Gonzalo Torres; Lagares, Antonio


    The biology and biochemistry of plasmid transfer in soil bacteria is currently under active investigation because of its central role in prokaryote adaptation and evolution. In this work, we examined the conjugal properties of the cryptic plasmids present in a collection of the N(2)-fixing legume-symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti. The study was performed on 65 S. meliloti isolates recovered from 25 humic soils of Argentina, which were grouped into 22 plasmid-profile types [i.e. plasmid operational taxonomic units (OTUs)]. The cumulative Shannon index calculated for the observed plasmid profiles showed a clear saturation plateau, thus indicating an adequate representation of the S. meliloti plasmid-profile types in the isolates studied. The results show that isolates of nearly 14% of the plasmid OTUs hosted transmissible plasmids and that isolates of 29% of the plasmid OTUs were able to retransfer the previously characterized mobilizable-cryptic plasmid pSmeLPU88b to a third recipient strain. It is noteworthy that isolates belonging to 14% of the plasmid OTUs proved to be refractory to the entrance of the model plasmid pSmeLPU88b, suggesting either the presence of surface exclusion phenomena or the occurrence of restriction incompatibility with the incoming replicon. Incompatibility for replication between resident plasmids and plasmid pSmeLPU88b was observed in c. 20% of the OTUs. The results reported here reveal a widespread compatibility among the conjugal functions of the cryptic plasmids in S. meliloti, and this fact, together with the observed high proportion of existing donor genotypes, points to the extrachromosomal compartment of the species as being an extremely active plasmid mobilome.

  6. METRIC context unit architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.O.


    METRIC is an architecture for a simple but powerful Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). Its speed comes from the simultaneous processing of several instruction streams, with instructions from the various streams being dispatched into METRIC's execution pipeline as they become available for execution. The pipeline is thus kept full, with a mix of instructions for several contexts in execution at the same time. True parallel programming is supported within a single execution unit, the METRIC Context Unit. METRIC's architecture provides for expansion through the addition of multiple Context Units and of specialized Functional Units. The architecture thus spans a range of size and performance from a single-chip microcomputer up through large and powerful multiprocessors. This research concentrates on the specification of the METRIC Context Unit at the architectural level. Performance tradeoffs made during METRIC's design are discussed, and projections of METRIC's performance are made based on simulation studies.

  7. A Subject of Sea and Salty Sediment: Diasporic Labor and Queer (Belonging in Monique Truong’s The Book of Salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Peek


    Full Text Available Caught having an affair while employed at the home of the governor-general of Saigon, Vietnamese cook, migrant worker, and narrator of Monique Truong’s The Book of Salt, Binh, is cast out of his natal home, and sets off for the open sea, winding up as a live-in cook in the household of lesbian couple Gertrude Stein and Alice B. Toklas. As an abstract source of labor and culinary pleasure to those he encounters in Paris, Binh concludes, despondently, that he is, “nothing but a series of destinations with no meaningful expanses in between.” Yet the “expanses in between,” most notably in reference to waterways, allude to a central trope of Vietnamese culture. Incorporating Vietnamese symbolism with formative migratory experiences, this essay argues that Truong constructs a subject who can be read through both affective forms of national belonging as well as a broader queer diasporic community. It also explores Binh’s percipient tongue as one that is ever critical of the dynamics of power and privilege, and ever sensitive to the variances in salt (of sea, sweat, tears. The Book of Salt thus mediates the possibility of a gustatory epistemology and community constituted in the sensate, attuned to divergent experiences of mobility, labor, and love.

  8. 'My heart belongs to daddy'. Some reflections on the difference between generations as the organiser of the triangular structure of the mind. (United States)

    Sapisochin, G


    The author begins his paper with a historical review of the concept of the difference between generations, which is in his opinion a metaphorical transformation that underpins the three-dimensional functioning of the psychic apparatus by introducing a differentiating intergenerational space between subject and object. He postulates that at the point of intersection between the intersubjective and the intrapsychic the subject clings to the specific fragments of his parents' history that are consistent with a belief about himself and the oedipal couple in which intergenerational links are severed and infantile incestuous wishes are seen as fulfilled. Disavowal of this generation gap is considered to lead to failure of post-oedipal secondary identifications, resulting in disturbance of the triangular structuring of the mind and consequent impairment of the genesis of thought processes. These ideas are compared with related conceptions of other authors and illustrated, with an account of the associated transference/countertransference vicissitudes, by a clinical example of the constellation the author calls 'My heart belongs to daddy', which he sees as a way station in the negotiation of the female Oedipus complex.

  9. Relationships between Religion and Two Forms of Homonegativity in Europe—A Multilevel Analysis of Effects of Believing, Belonging and Religious Practice (United States)

    Doebler, Stefanie


    This paper examines relationships between religion and two forms of homonegativity across 43 European countries using a bivariate response binary logistic multilevel model. The model analyzes effects of religious believing, belonging and practice on two response variables: a) a moral rejection of homosexuality as a practice and b) intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. The findings indicate that both forms of homonegativity are prevalent in Europe. Traditional doctrinal religious believing (belief in a personal God) is positively related to a moral rejection of homosexuality but to a much lesser extent associated with intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. Members of religious denominations are more likely than non-members to reject homosexuality as morally wrong and to reject homosexuals as neighbors. The analysis found significant differences between denominations that are likely context-dependent. Attendance at religious services is positively related to homonegativity in a majority of countries. The findings vary considerably across countries: Religion is more strongly related to homonegativity in Western than in Eastern Europe. In the post-soviet countries homonegativity appears to be largely a secular phenomenon. National contexts of high religiosity, high perceived government corruption, high income inequality and shortcomings in the implementation of gay rights in the countries’ legislations are statistically related to higher levels of both moralistic homonegativity and intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. PMID:26247352

  10. Relationships between Religion and Two Forms of Homonegativity in Europe--A Multilevel Analysis of Effects of Believing, Belonging and Religious Practice. (United States)

    Doebler, Stefanie


    This paper examines relationships between religion and two forms of homonegativity across 43 European countries using a bivariate response binary logistic multilevel model. The model analyzes effects of religious believing, belonging and practice on two response variables: a) a moral rejection of homosexuality as a practice and b) intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. The findings indicate that both forms of homonegativity are prevalent in Europe. Traditional doctrinal religious believing (belief in a personal God) is positively related to a moral rejection of homosexuality but to a much lesser extent associated with intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. Members of religious denominations are more likely than non-members to reject homosexuality as morally wrong and to reject homosexuals as neighbors. The analysis found significant differences between denominations that are likely context-dependent. Attendance at religious services is positively related to homonegativity in a majority of countries. The findings vary considerably across countries: Religion is more strongly related to homonegativity in Western than in Eastern Europe. In the post-soviet countries homonegativity appears to be largely a secular phenomenon. National contexts of high religiosity, high perceived government corruption, high income inequality and shortcomings in the implementation of gay rights in the countries' legislations are statistically related to higher levels of both moralistic homonegativity and intolerance toward homosexuals as a group.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The objective of the Functional Data Analysis techniques is to study such type of data which consist of observed functions or curves evaluated at a finite subset of some real interval.   Techniques in Functional Data Analysis can be used to study the variation in a random sample of real functions, xi(t, i=1, 2, …, N and their derivatives. In practice, these functions are often a consequence of a preliminary smoothing process applied to discrete data and in this work, Spline Smoothing Methods are used.  As the number of functions and the number of observation points increases, it would be difficult to handle the functions  altogether. In order to overcome this complexity, we utilize Functional and Regularized Functional Principal Component Analyses where a high percentage of total variation  could be accounted for with only a few component functions.  Finally, an application on the daily closing data for the share prices of the companies belonging to the ISE-30 index is also given.

  12. SugE belongs to the small multidrug resistance (SMR) protein family involved in tributyltin (TBT) biodegradation and bioremediation by alkaliphilic Stenotrophomonas chelatiphaga HS2. (United States)

    Hassan, Hamdy A


    Tributyltin (TBT) used in a variety of industrial processes, subsequent discharge into the environment, its fate, toxicity and human exposure are topics of current concern. TBT degradation by alkaliphilic bacteria may be a key factor in the remediation of TBT in high pH contaminated sites. In this study, Stenotrophomonas chelatiphaga HS2 were isolated and identified from TBT contaminated site in Mediterranean Sea. S. chelatiphaga HS2 has vigor capability to transform TBT into dibutyltin and monobutyltin (DBT and MBT) at pH 9 and 7% NaCl (w/v). A gene was amplified and characterized from strain HS2 as SugE protein belongs to SMR protein family, a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis confirmed that SugE protein involved in the TBT degradation by HS2 strain. TBT bioremediation was investigated in stimulated TBT contaminated sediment samples (pH 9) using S chelatiphaga HS2 in association with E. coli BL21 (DE3)-pET28a(+)-sugE instead of S chelatiphaga HS2 alone reduced significantly the TBT half-life from 12d to 5d, although no TBT degradation appeared using E. coli BL21 (DE3)-pET28a(+)-sugE alone. This finding indicated that SugE gene increased the rate and degraded amount of TBT and is necessary in enhancing TBT bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Time, Space, and National Belonging in The Namesake: Redrawing South Asian American Citizenship in the Shadow of 9/11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Brennan


    Full Text Available

    The terms of national belonging after 9/11 for South Asian Americans have taken shape through a vague and depoliticized discourse around ethnic identity, one in which the clichés of multiculturalism and melting-pot nationalism stand in for the specific socioeconomic and historical conditions that helped form the South Asian diaspora in the US. This paper explores the ways in which Jhumpa Lahiri’s novel The Namesake and its cinematic adaptation by filmmaker Mira Nair challenge the erasure of South Asian American citizenship following 9/11. Recounting the journey of a young Bengali graduate student and his wife migrating to the US in the late 1960s, each text speaks back to the erasure of South Asian American citizenship through the materialization of time in space: while Lahiri foregrounds the state itself in producing the rhythms through which immigrants are assimilated into the nation, Nair creates a narrative world in which filmic space materializes many, and often competing, histories, unifying multiple temporalities and histories through the representations of space. I argue that the cinematic adaptation of The Namesake generates a new spatiotemporal state of affairs, one in which the iconography of 9/11 both challenges post-9/11 racial logics and destabilizes the singular, progressive, and institutionalized temporality through which Lahiri writes South Asian American immigrants back into nation.

  14. Expression and characterization of a recombinant psychrophilic γ-carbonic anhydrase (NcoCA) identified in the genome of the Antarctic cyanobacteria belonging to the genus Nostoc. (United States)

    De Luca, Viviana; Del Prete, Sonia; Vullo, Daniela; Carginale, Vincenzo; Di Fonzo, Pietro; Osman, Sameh M; AlOthman, Zeid; Supuran, Claudiu T; Capasso, Clemente


    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs, EC catalyze the CO2 hydration/dehydration reversible reaction: CO2 + H2O ⇄ [Formula: see text] + H(+). Living organisms encode for at least six distinct genetic families of such catalyst, the α-, β-, γ-, δ-, ζ- and η-CAs. The main function of the CAs is to quickly process the CO2 derived by metabolic processes in order to regulate acid-base homeostasis, connected to the production of protons (H(+)) and bicarbonate. Few data are available in the literature on Antarctic CAs and most of the scientific information regards CAs isolated from mammals or prokaryotes (as well as other mesophilic sources). It is of great interest to study the biochemical behavior of such catalysts identified in organism living in the Antarctic sea where temperatures average -1.9 °C all year round. The enzymes isolated from Antarctic organisms represent a useful tool to study the relations among structure, stability and function of proteins in organisms adapted to living at constantly low temperatures. In the present paper, we report in detail the cloning, purification, and physico-chemical properties of NcoCA, a γ-CA isolated from the Antarctic cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. This enzyme showed a higher catalytic efficiency at lower temperatures compared to mesophilic counterparts belonging to α-, β-, γ-classes, as well as a limited stability at moderate temperatures.

  15. The belonging of gpMuc, a glycoprotein from Mucuna pruriens seeds, to the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor family explains its direct anti-snake venom activity. (United States)

    Scirè, Andrea; Tanfani, Fabio; Bertoli, Enrico; Furlani, Emiliano; Nadozie, Hope-Onyekwere N; Cerutti, Helena; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Bini, Luca; Guerranti, Roberto


    In Nigeria, Mucuna pruriens seeds are locally prescribed as an oral prophylactic for snake bite and it is claimed that when two seeds are swallowed they protect the individual for a year against snake bites. In order to understand the Mucuna pruriens antisnake properties, the proteins from the acqueous extract of seeds were purified by three chromatographic steps: ConA affinity chromatography, tandem anionic-cationic exchange and gel filtration, obtaining a fraction conventionally called gpMucB. This purified fraction was analysed by SDS-PAGE obtaining 3 bands with apparent masses ranging from 20 to 24 kDa, and by MALDI-TOF which showed two main peaks of 21 and 23 kDa and another small peak of 19 kDa. On the other hand, gel filtration analysis of the native protein indicated a molecular mass of about 70 kDa suggesting that in its native form, gpMucB is most likely an oligomeric multiform protein. Infrared spectroscopy of gpMucB indicated that the protein is particularly thermostable both at neutral and acidic pHs and that it is an all beta protein. All data suggest that gpMucB belongs to the Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor family explaining the direct anti-snake venom activity of Mucuna pruriens seeds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationships between Religion and Two Forms of Homonegativity in Europe--A Multilevel Analysis of Effects of Believing, Belonging and Religious Practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Doebler

    Full Text Available This paper examines relationships between religion and two forms of homonegativity across 43 European countries using a bivariate response binary logistic multilevel model. The model analyzes effects of religious believing, belonging and practice on two response variables: a a moral rejection of homosexuality as a practice and b intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. The findings indicate that both forms of homonegativity are prevalent in Europe. Traditional doctrinal religious believing (belief in a personal God is positively related to a moral rejection of homosexuality but to a much lesser extent associated with intolerance toward homosexuals as a group. Members of religious denominations are more likely than non-members to reject homosexuality as morally wrong and to reject homosexuals as neighbors. The analysis found significant differences between denominations that are likely context-dependent. Attendance at religious services is positively related to homonegativity in a majority of countries. The findings vary considerably across countries: Religion is more strongly related to homonegativity in Western than in Eastern Europe. In the post-soviet countries homonegativity appears to be largely a secular phenomenon. National contexts of high religiosity, high perceived government corruption, high income inequality and shortcomings in the implementation of gay rights in the countries' legislations are statistically related to higher levels of both moralistic homonegativity and intolerance toward homosexuals as a group.

  17. Isolation and characterization of bacteria from wasted ionic exchange resins kept at Area de Gestion Ezeiza belonging to RA-3 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera Rodriguez, Leon; Pizarro, Ramon A.


    A spent ionic exchange resin kept at Area de Gannet's Ezeiza (Age), belonging to RA-3 Reactor, was treated with sterile water. Microorganisms suspended in the aqueous sample were isolated by several methods, broadening as much as possible cell recovery conditions. Bacteria were subject to purity controls and re-isolation when necessary. Characterization of the strains found in the sample included morphological, physiological and biochemical tests as well as stains. Being the spent resins volume reduction at Age the main purpose, a screening experiment is proposed based on bacteria capability to take carbon from the sediment present in the liquid sample. Recovered bacteria are at least the following: Method I: Bacillus cereus, Bacillus circulans, Bacillus sp., Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, Pseudomonas acidovorans, Pseudomonas sp. Method II: Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas alcaligenes, Flavimonas sp., Agrobacterium sp. Method III: Bacillus circulans, Bacillus sphaericus, Kocuria rosea, Kytococcus sedentarius, Pseudomonas acidovorans. Microorganisms present in the sample are characteristic of those having low microbiological-contamination levels. Way III is an isolation method whose design would lead to find bacteria having the desired properties in order to diminish the volume of RA-3 Reactor spent resins. (author)

  18. Revision of fleas of the genus Plocopsylla belonging to the 'angusticeps-lewisi' complex in the Andean biogeographic region, with the description of a new species. (United States)

    Sanchez, J; Beaucournu, J-C; Lareschi, M


    In Argentina, the Andean biogeographic region accommodates the most diverse population of fleas in the country. The Craneopsyllinae (Siphonaptera: Stephanocircidae) represent one of the most commonly found subfamilies in this region and show some endemism and high diversity. Plocopsylla is the most diverse genus of Craneopsyllinae; it includes 10 species mainly distributed in the Patagonian subregion, which parasitize sigmodontine rodents (Rodentia: Cricetidae). We describe and illustrate the morphology of the aedeagus in species of Plocopsylla that belong to the 'angusticeps-lewisi' complex. This character is of diagnostic value in differentiating among species. A new species of this complex, Plocopsylla (Plocopsylla) linardii sp. n., is described and identified by the shape and chaetotaxy of the distal arm of sternite IX, as well as by the shape of the median dorsal lobe of the aedeagus. New host associations for this complex and range extensions for most of its species are reported. Plocopsylla (P.) silewi is recorded for the first time in Argentina. The southern limits of the distributions of Plocopsylla (P.) lewisi and Plocopsylla (P.) wilesi are extended to Santa Cruz Province. The angusticeps-lewisi complex is found for the first time in San Juan Province. The information may be useful in epidemiological studies of flea-borne diseases. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  19. Contribution to the theoretical study, modelling and implementation of a multi-source system belonging to a micro-grid: considerations on power quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houssamo, Issam


    The objective of this thesis is to study, analyze and develop a multi-source system belonging to a DC micro-grid with consideration of some aspects of the power quality. Chapter I presents the interest of the smart grid to ensure better coordination between distributed generation and power consumption. Having in view the prediction, a purely experimental model of photovoltaic source is developed and presented in Chapter II. Furthermore, in order to extract the maximum power of the photovoltaic source, a classical algorithm is improved and the extracted energy is compared with three other methods. In Chapter III, the security system elements, the electrochemical storage and the public grid, are characterized. In the case of a storage shortage, the public grid is used to supply power to the load, but also trade back excess energy. Chapter IV presents the control of multi-source system and its experimental validation. The energy management strategy taken into account is based on switching between the elements which secure the multi-source system. For this, the priority is given to storage characterized by its state of charge. Thanks to this strategy, the technical feasibility of the multi-source system is experimentally validated. Chapter V gives some aspects related to the improvement of the power quality: for the public grid side, a resonant controller is proposed, for the DC bus side, the pulsating power is eliminated by injecting the opposite signal supplied by the electrochemical storage. (author) [fr

  20. The strategy role of transitional care units to support Integrated Care and Personalised pathways for frail persons


    Morando, Verdiana; Tozzi, Valeria D.


    The paper presents a comparative analysis of three models of transitional care units that have been set up in Italy in the last three years within the processes of Regional Healthcare Services and healthcare organisations’ reforms. The comparative analysis is worth of providing interesting insights and generalizable lessons learnt from integrated care in practice. The three cases of transitional care units belong to a similar background wherein greater needs for care coordination across the s...

  1. Common Input to Motor Units of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Hand Muscles During Two-Digit Object Hold


    Winges, Sara A.; Kornatz, Kurt W.; Santello, Marco


    Anatomical and physiological evidence suggests that common input to motor neurons of hand muscles is an important neural mechanism for hand control. To gain insight into the synaptic input underlying the coordination of hand muscles, significant effort has been devoted to describing the distribution of common input across motor units of extrinsic muscles. Much less is known, however, about the distribution of common input to motor units belonging to different intrinsic muscles and to intrinsi...

  2. Análisis de los escurrimientos de una microcuenca de Pampa Ondulada bajo diferentes sistemas de labranza Runoff analysis of a watershed belonging to the rolling Pampa under different tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario G. Castiglioni


    Rolling Pampa. However, scarce studies have been carried out in a watershed scale about its effects on runoff dynamics, as compared to other tillage systems. The aim of the present study was to compare different parameters related to the surface runoff response of a watershed associated with changes in the tillage systems. The studied watershed has 300 ha and is located in the Northern part of the mid basin of the Tala river in San Pedro, Buenos Aires Province. The soils belong to the Ramallo Series (Vertic Argiudoll and its eroded phases. Hydrographs and hietographs belonging to different storms that took place through the period 1995-2002 were calculated and runoff was analyzed, first globally and then the increasing and decreasing branches of the flow separately. No tillage system originated larger curve number values than the conventional tillage system. The runoff duration was larger under no tillage due to the enlargement of the decreasing branch of the hydrograph. The runoff flow generated per rainfall unit was always lower under no tillage compared to conventional tillage. The amount of runoff during the decreasing branch of the hydrographs was not different between tillage systems because the lesser flow recorded under no tillage was compensated by the larger duration of this phase compared to conventional tillage.

  3. "We Created That Space with Everybody:" Constructing a Community-Based Space of Belonging and "Familia" in a Latina/o Youth Group (United States)

    Ventura, Julissa


    As the Latino population grows across the United States and particularly in places outside traditional gateway cities, questions arise around the challenges and opportunities for Latinos in these new areas of settlement. Situated within this context of Latino demographic change, this article examines the construction of a youth-led, grassroots…

  4. Decision unit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjar, N.; Pastor, C.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.; Giorni, A.; Dauchy, A.


    A decision unit has been built to simplify the electronic logic set-up in multi-detectors experiments. This unit, designed with fast memories used as decision making tables, replaces conventional logic modules. Nine inputs are provided for receiving the fast detector signals (charged particles, gammas, neutrons, ...). Fifteen independent outputs allow the identification of the choosen events among the 2 9 possible events. A CAMAC interface between the unit and the computer, or a manual control auxiliary module, is used to load, in the memory, the pattern of the choosen events [fr

  5. Smart Rocking Armour Units


    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel


    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to double-layer units in order to compare the results to the existing knowledge for this type of armour layers. In contrast to previous research, the gyroscope reading is used to determine the (rocking)...

  6. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala


    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... auction, which is the multi unit analogue of a second-price auction. Furthermore, we characterize these equilibria when valuations take a number of different forms: diminishing marginal valuations, increasing average valuations, and marginal valuations with single turning points...

  7. Evaluación del maltrato en ancianos pertenecientes a un policlínico universitario Evaluation of abuse to the elderly belonging to an university polyclinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neity Mendo Alcolea


    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y transversal de 3 382 ancianos pertenecientes al área de salud del Policlínico Universitario "Frank País García" de Santiago de Cuba, durante el primer semestre del 2011, con vistas a evaluar algunas variables de interés relacionadas con el maltrato a este grupo poblacional. Los integrantes de la casuística de menos edad fueron los más afectados, con mayor frecuencia del daño psicológico, la negligencia y el financiero familiar (en ese orden, en tanto, aquellos más longevos padecieron, en menor cuantía, abusos físicos y carencias económicas. Asimismo, el sexo masculino resultó mayormente perjudicado en casi todas las formas de agravio y la familia constituyó, en general, la principal perpetradora del maltratamiento al anciano, de la cual los comisores fundamentales eran los hijos y nietos.A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 3 382 aged persons belonging to the health area of "Frank País García" University Polyclinic from Santiago de Cuba, was carried out during the first semester of the 2011, aimed at evaluating some interest variables related to the abuse to this populational group. The younger members of the case material were the most affected, with higher frequency of psychological damage, negligence and family-financial damage (in that order, while the older ones suffered, physical abuses and economic scarcities, in lower quantity. Also, the male sex was mostly damaged in almost all the offense forms and the family constituted, in general, the main perpetrator of the ill-treatment to the elderly, from which children and grandchildren were mainly those committing abuse.

  8. Gene cloning and characterization of a cold-adapted β-glucosidase belonging to glycosyl hydrolase family 1 from a psychrotolerant bacterium Micrococcus antarcticus. (United States)

    Fan, Hong-Xia; Miao, Li-Li; Liu, Ying; Liu, Hong-Can; Liu, Zhi-Pei


    The gene bglU encoding a cold-adapted β-glucosidase (BglU) was cloned from Micrococcus antarcticus. Sequence analysis revealed that the bglU contained an open reading frame of 1419 bp and encoded a protein of 472 amino acid residues. Based on its putative catalytic domains, BglU was classified as a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 1 (GH1). BglU possessed lower arginine content and Arg/(Arg+Lys) ratio than mesophilic GH1 β-glucosidases. Recombinant BglU was purified with Ni2+ affinity chromatography and subjected to enzymatic characterization. SDS-PAGE and native staining showed that it was a monomeric protein with an apparent molecular mass of 48 kDa. BglU was particularly thermolabile since its half-life time was only 30 min at 30°C and it exhibited maximal activity at 25°C and pH 6.5. Recombinant BglU could hydrolyze a wide range of aryl-β-glucosides and β-linked oligosaccharides with highest activity towards cellobiose and then p-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (pNPG). Under the optimal conditions with pNPG as substrate, the K(m) and k(cat) were 7 mmol/L and 7.85 × 103/s, respectively. This is the first report of cloning and characterization of a cold-adapted β-glucosidase belonging to GH1 from a psychrotolerant bacterium. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation and binding free energy studies of novel leads belonging to the benzofuran class inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Polyketide Synthase 13. (United States)

    Cruz, Jorddy N; Costa, José F S; Khayat, André S; Kuca, Kamil; Barros, Carlos A L; Neto, A M J C


    In this work, the binding mechanism of new Polyketide Synthase 13 (Pks13) inhibitors has been studied through molecular dynamics simulation and free energy calculations. The drug Tam1 and its analogs, belonging to the benzofuran class, were submitted to 100 ns simulations, and according to the results obtained for root mean square deviation, all the simulations converged from approximately 30 ns. For the analysis of backbone flotation, the root mean square fluctuations were plotted for the Cα atoms; analysis revealed that the greatest fluctuation occurred in the residues that are part of the protein lid domain. The binding free energy value (ΔG bind ) obtained for the Tam16 lead molecule was of -51.43 kcal/mol. When comparing this result with the ΔG bind values for the remaining analogs, the drug Tam16 was found to be the highest ranked: this result is in agreement with the experimental results obtained by Aggarwal and collaborators, where it was verified that the IC 50 for Tam16 is the smallest necessary to inhibit the Pks13 (IC 50  = 0.19 μM). The energy decomposition analysis suggested that the residues which most interact with inhibitors are: Ser1636, Tyr1637, Asn1640, Ala1667, Phe1670, and Tyr1674, from which the greatest energy contribution to Phe1670 was particularly notable. For the lead molecule Tam16, a hydrogen bond with the hydroxyl of the phenol not observed in the other analogs induced a more stable molecular structure. Aggarwal and colleagues reported this hydrogen bonding as being responsible for the stability of the molecule, optimizing its physic-chemical, toxicological, and pharmacokinetic properties.

  10. HIV-infected men who have sex with men who identify themselves as belonging to subcultures are at increased risk for hepatitis C infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Matser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV emerged as sexually transmitted infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM. We studied whether HCV circulated in identifiable high-risk MSM subcultures and performed phylogenetic analysis. METHODS: HIV-infected MSM were recruited at the sexually transmitted infections (STI outpatient clinic and a university HIV clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2008-2009. Participants completed a detailed questionnaire and were tested for HCV antibodies and RNA, with NS5B regions sequenced for analysis of clusters. RESULTS: Among 786 participants, the median age was 43 (IQR 37-48 years, and 93 (11.8% were HCV-positive. Seropositivity was associated with belonging to subcultures identified as leather (aOR 2.60; 95% CI 1.56-4.33, rubber/lycra (aOR 2.15; 95% CI 1.10-4.21, or jeans (aOR 2.23; 95% CI 1.41-3.54. The two largest HCV-RNA monophyletic clusters were compared; MSM in cluster I (genotype 1a, n = 13 reported more partners (P = 0.037 than MSM in cluster II (genotype 4d, n = 14, but demographics, subculture characteristics and other risk behaviors did not differ significantly between the two clusters. DISCUSSION: HCV infection is associated with identifiable groups of leather/rubber/lycra/jeans subcultures among HIV-infected MSM. Separate epidemiological HCV transmission networks were not revealed. Active HCV screening and treatment within specific subcultures may reduce HCV spread among all MSM.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Chandrashekar


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The incidence and the spectrum of paediatric dermatological diseases vary from one part of the world to another.1 Skin diseases, though very common in many developing countries are not often regarded as a significant health problem.2 Majority of the skin diseases tend to occur in children under the age of 5 years. This high prevalence could be due to the lower immunity or higher frequency of hospital visits by infants due to greater parental care. The aim of the study is to compare the present spectrum of cutaneous disorders between two age groups of children less than 5 years and 5-14 years old and their correlation with socioeconomic status attending primary health centre, Bangalore rural, south. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from March 22 to November 22, 2017, in children with skin disorders under 14 years old who attended primary health centre at Bangarappanagar and Uttarahalli in Bangalore. RESULTS A total of 522 children with skin diseases, 486 children were included in the study and they were divided into two groups of those less than 5 years with the sex ratio (M:F 1.5:1 and 5-14 years old with the sex ratio (M:F 1.3:1. The most common dermatological disease among less than 5 years age group was infections, eczema, infestations and pigmentary disorders and the most common dermatological diseases between 5-14 years was infections, scabies, eczema and acne. CONCLUSION Skin problems mainly scabies, tinea, impetigo and eczema were common in children who attended the primary health centres at Bangalore rural. There is a high prevalence of communicable diseases among children belonging to parents of low socioeconomic status. Community health education regarding personal hygiene coupled with that of the surrounding environment can help in controlling these diseases in the long run.

  12. Pathogenicity evaluation of twelve West Nile virus strains belonging to four lineages from five continents in a mouse model: discrimination between three pathogenicity categories. (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Elisa; Llorente, Francisco; Del Amo, Javier; Fall, Gamou; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Lubisi, Alison; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Vázquez, Ana; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Ángel


    Rodent models have been used extensively to study West Nile virus (WNV) infection because they develop severe neurological symptoms similar to those observed in human WNV neuroinvasive disease. Most of this research has focused on old lineage (L) 1 strains, while information about pathogenicity is lacking for the most recent L1 and L2 strains, as well as for newly defined lineages. In this study, 4-week-old Swiss mice were inoculated with a collection of 12 WNV isolates, comprising 10 old and recent L1 and L2 strains, the putative L6 strain from Malaysia and the proposed L7 strain Koutango (KOU). The intraperitoneal inoculation of 10-fold dilutions of each strain allowed the characterization of the isolates in terms of LD50, median survival times, ID50, replication in neural and extraneural tissues and antibody production. Based on these results, we classified the isolates in three groups: high virulence (all L1a strains, recent L2 strains and KOU), moderate virulence (B956 strain) and low virulence (Kunjin and Malaysian isolates). We determined that the inoculation of a single dose of 1000 p.f.u. would be sufficient to classify WNV strains by pathotype. We confirmed the enhanced virulence of the KOU strain with a high capacity to cause rapid systemic infection. We also corroborated that differences in pathogenicity among strains do not correlate with phylogenetic lineage or geographic origin, and confirmed that recent European and African WNV strains belonging to L1 and L2 are highly virulent and do not differ in their pathotype profile compared to the prototype NY99 strain.

  13. [Spread of genetically related methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus belonging to CC45, in healthy nasal carriers in Child Day Care Centers of Medellin, Colombia]. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tamayo, Erika Andrea; Ruiz-Cadavid, Alejandra; Sánchez-González, Leidy Maritza; García-Valencia, Natalia; Jiménez-Quiceno, Judy Natalia


    Colonization plays a major role in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infections. The child population is one of the most susceptible to colonization; however, community and children studies are limited in Colombia. To assess the clonal relationship of S.aureus strains isolated from colonized children in eight day care centers (DCCs) from Medellin and to determine the presence of epidemiological characteristics in these populations. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 200 children aged from 6 months to 5 years attending eight DCCs in Medellin, Colombia, during 2011. Nasal samples were collected from each nostril. The isolates species and methicillin resistance were molecularly confirmed using nuc and mec genes. Genotypic analysis included SCCmec typing, spa typing, PFGE and MLST. Epidemiological information was obtained from the parents and analyzed using the statistics program SPSS 21.0 RESULTS: The colonization frequency in DCCs ranged from 16.7% (n=3) to 53.6% (n=15). Genetically related isolates were identified inside four DCCs. Half (50%) of the isolates were grouped in 3 clusters, which belonged to the clonal complexes CC45, CC30, and CC121. Molecular typing of isolates from colonized children and comparison among DCCs showed the spread of colonizing strains inside DCCs in Medellin; predominantly the CC45 clone, a successful child colonizer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  14. Tax Unit Boundaries (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  15. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit (United States)

    Leger, Heather


    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  16. UnitedHealth Group (United States)

    UnitedHealth Group provides accessible and affordable services, improved quality of care, coordinated health care efforts, and a supportive environment for shared decision making between patients and their physicians.

  17. Operable Unit Boundaries (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  18. Flywheel and power unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, R.W.


    A power unit, e.g. for an electrically driven vehicle, incorporates a flywheel for storing kinetic energy and a battery for storing electrical energy. The battery is incorporated as a substantial part of the rotating mass of the flywheel. Preferably the unit further includes an electrical machine being a motor or generator or machine operable either as a motor or a generator for transferring energy between the battery and the flywheel and/or for the input or output of rotary energy therefrom or thereto. The motor may be used for powering the flywheel and may also operate in a regenerative mode for recharging the unit on de-acceleration of the vehicle. The unit of the invention may also be utilized as an electrical stored power source, e.g. wind or water driven. (author)

  19. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months (United States)

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis


    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  20. UniTed


    Harma, Eero


    UniTed on Teddy boy- tyylistä inspiroitunut kevät/kesä mallisto naisille.Mallistossa yhdistyy perinteinen teddy boy- vaatetus ja klassinen feminiinisyys, sekä menneisyys ja nykyisyys. Suunnittelun lähtökohtia olivat naisellisuus, tyylikkyys ja pyrkimys luoda nykyaikaista suunnittelua menneisyydestä lainaillen. United is a teddy boy- style inspired spring/summer collection for women. The collection combines traditional Teddy boy style with classical feminity and past with the present. The b...

  1. Freestanding midwifery unit versus obstetric unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Møller, Anna Margrethe; Fenger-Grøn, Morten


    low-risk women intending FMU birth and a matched control group of 839 low-risk women intending OU birth were included at the start of care in labour. OU women were individually chosen to match selected obstetric/socio-economic characteristics of FMU women. Analysis was by intention to treat. Main......Objective To compare perinatal and maternal morbidity and birth interventions in low-risk women giving birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMUs) and two obstetric units (OUs). Design A cohort study with a matched control group. Setting The region of North Jutland, Denmark. Participants 839...... women were significantly less likely to experience an abnormal fetal heart rate (RR: 0.3, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.5), fetal–pelvic complications (0.2, 0.05 to 0.6), shoulder dystocia (0.3, 0.1 to 0.9), occipital–posterior presentation (0.5, 0.3 to 0.9) and postpartum haemorrhage >500 ml (0.4, 0.3 to 0...

  2. Inventory of power plants in the United States: December 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, L.R.


    This 1979 inventory of power plants provides a comprehensive list of existing, standby, out-of-service, retired and projected electric generating plants in the U.S. Arranged under the broad sections of existing, jointly owned and projected units, tabulated data on individual plants in each state are presented. These data include unit name, location, type, MW rating, primary fuel, alternative fuel, status, year built, and whether or not it is jointly owned. Jointly owned plants are separately identified as to the percent of ownership belonging to named owners. Projected plants have data on plant characteristics, current status and scheduled completion date. Summaries of the total number of each type of power plant in each state are also provided

  3. Venezuelas Pursuit of Caribbean Basin Interests: Implications for United States National Security. (United States)


    sold to buyers in Western Europe and the United States. The most important Venezuelan exports in the 19th century were cocoa and coffee. In the 20th...confusion in the U.S. Congress over the difference between the Organiza- tion of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC), of which Venezuela was not a...member, and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), to which Venezuela belonged, the action remained in force even though Caracas had

  4. Expert system for operational personnel support during power unit operation control in regulation range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanitskij, V.A.


    The problems met when developing the systems for NPP operator support in the process of power unit operation are considered. The expert system for NPP personnel intelligent support combining the properties belonging to the artificial intelligence systems including selection of the analysis method taking into account the concrete technological situation and capability of application of algothmic calculations of the equipment characteristics using the information accumulated during the system development, erection and operation is described

  5. Weighted Anisotropic Integral Representations of Holomorphic Functions in the Unit Ball of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arman Karapetyan


    Full Text Available We obtain weighted integral representations for spaces of functions holomorphic in the unit ball and belonging to area-integrable weighted -classes with “anisotropic” weight function of the type ∏=1(1−|1|2−|2|2−⋯−||2, =(1,2,…,∈. The corresponding kernels of these representations are estimated, written in an integral form, and even written out in an explicit form (for =2.

  6. CLOTU: An online pipeline for processing and clustering of 454 amplicon reads into OTUs followed by taxonomic annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalchian-Tabrizi Kamran


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of high throughput sequencing for exploring biodiversity poses high demands on bioinformatics applications for automated data processing. Here we introduce CLOTU, an online and open access pipeline for processing 454 amplicon reads. CLOTU has been constructed to be highly user-friendly and flexible, since different types of analyses are needed for different datasets. Results In CLOTU, the user can filter out low quality sequences, trim tags, primers, adaptors, perform clustering of sequence reads, and run BLAST against NCBInr or a customized database in a high performance computing environment. The resulting data may be browsed in a user-friendly manner and easily forwarded to downstream analyses. Although CLOTU is specifically designed for analyzing 454 amplicon reads, other types of DNA sequence data can also be processed. A fungal ITS sequence dataset generated by 454 sequencing of environmental samples is used to demonstrate the utility of CLOTU. Conclusions CLOTU is a flexible and easy to use bioinformatics pipeline that includes different options for filtering, trimming, clustering and taxonomic annotation of high throughput sequence reads. Some of these options are not included in comparable pipelines. CLOTU is implemented in a Linux computer cluster and is freely accessible to academic users through the Bioportal web-based bioinformatics service (

  7. Rapanos v. United States & Carabell v. United States (United States)

    Documents associated with guidance for implementing the definition of waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act following the Rapanos v. United States, and Carabell v. United States Supreme Court decision.

  8. [Structuro-functional units of the salivary and lacrimal glands]. (United States)

    Kostilenko, Iu P; Mysliuk, I V; Deviatkin, E A


    By means of the multilayer graphic and plastic reconstruction methods using series of semithin sections, spatial tridimensional organization of the epithelial complexes and blood microcirculatory bed in the rat palatal salivary glands and the lacrimal gland of the human newborn have been studied. Since their ducts serve not only for discharging their secrete into the external medium, but also for accumulation (as collectors), the sublobular unit--adenomere should be referred to as a part of elementary level of organization of the epithelial complexes. The adenomere has in its composition a collecting centrally situating duct. However, while studying structure of the blood microcirculatory bed, it is found out that there is not any strict territorial correspondence between its functional units and structural units of the glandular epithelium. Nevertheless, giving a great importance to a tight syntopic connection of the collecting ducts of the adenomeres with the postcapillary venules (that belong to filtrating microvessels), these are sublobular units--adenomeres that are distinguished as structural-functional units in the glands.

  9. Canine caliciviruses of four serotypes from military and research dogs recovered in 1963-1978 belong to two phylogenetic clades in the Vesivirus genus. (United States)

    Binn, Leonard N; Norby, Erica A; Marchwicki, Ruth H; Jarman, Richard G; Keiser, Paul B; Hang, Jun


    Vesiviruses (family Caliciviridae) had been shown capable of invading a variety of host species, raising concern of their zoonotic potential. Since the 1980's, several canine caliciviruses (CaCV) isolates have been reported and are phylogenetically related to the vesiviruses with features distinct from both Vesicular exanthema of swine virus (VESV) and Feline calicivirus (FCV) species in phylogeny, serology and cell culture specificities. Etiological studies of canine diseases in dogs used for military services and laboratory studies were conducted in 1963-1978 at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Multiple known and unknown viral pathogens including caliciviruses were recovered. Four unidentified isolates were recovered in Walter Reed Canine Cells (WRCC) from respiratory, fecal and penile specimens. Physicochemical tests, electron microscopy, viral cultivation in human and animal cells, antibody neutralization assays, and recently the genome sequencing were used to characterize the isolates. Sera from these dogs and their cohorts were tested with the isolates to determine origin and prevalence of the infections. The viral isolates were small non-enveloped spherical RNA virions, 27 to 42 nm in diameter with cup-like structures, indicating they are caliciviruses. They propagated in WRCC and MDCK cells, not in either other canine cells or human and other animal cells. Each isolate is antigenically distinct and react with dog sera in respective cohorts. The genomes have nucleotide identities ranging from 70.3% to 90.7% and encode the non-structural polyprotein (1810 amino acids), major capsid protein (691 amino acids) and minor structural protein (134 amino acids). They belong to two different phylogenetic clades in Vesivirus genus with close relation with canine calicivirus (CaCV). These CaCV isolates have restricted cell tropism, antigenic diversity and genetic variation. Further investigation will shed light on antigenic relation to other vesiviruses, and

  10. Flammulated, boreal, and great gray owls in the United States: A technical conservation assessment (United States)

    G. D. Hayward; J. Verner


    Flammulated (Otus flammeolus), boreal (Aegolius funereus), and great gray (Strix nebulosa) owls occur over a broad portion of North America and each is designated as a "sensitive species" in four or more USDA Forest Service regions. The insectivorous flammulated owl is a neotropical migrant requiring...

  11. Gas-centrifuge unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, T.M.


    An isotope-enrichment unit is described for separating a gaseous mixture feedstock including a compound of a light nuclear isotope at a predetermined concentration and a compound of a heavy nuclear isotope at a predetermined concentration into at least two unit-output fractions including a waste fraction depleted in the light isotope to a predetermined concentration and a product fraction enriched in the light isotope to a predetermined concentration. The unit comprises a first group of cascades of gas centrifuges, each cascade having an enriching stage, a stripping stage, an input, a light-fraction output, and a heavy-fraction output for separating the gaseous-mixture feed stock into light and heavy gaseous-mixture fractions; and an auxillary cascade

  12. Mechanical strainer unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraeling, J.B.; Netkowicz, R.J.; Schnall, I.H.


    The mechanical strainer unit is connected to a flanged conduit which originates in and extends out of a suppression chamber in a nuclear reactor. The strainer includes a plurality of centrally apertured plates positioned along a common central axis and in parallel and spaced relationship. The plates have a plurality of bores radially spaced about the central axis. Spacer means such as washers are positioned between adjacent plates to maintain the plates is spaced relationship and form communicating passages of a predetermined size to the central apertures. Connecting means such as bolts or studs extend through the aligned bores to maintain the unit in assembled relationship and secure the unit to the pipe. By employing perforated plates and blocking off certain of the communicating passages, a dual straining effect can be achieved

  13. About the problem of the delays between particles belonging to the cosmic radiation; Sur le probleme des retards entre des particules appartenant au rayonnement cosmique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogozinski, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    After having examined briefly the problem of the delays who can appear between particles of high energy, issued of a same mother particle, we studied in a more details the case of the loaded particles, loosing their energy by ionization. The delay that settles between two particles of mass M belonging to this last species is defined by the difference between the times that they take to do the same distance. In the vacuum, the delays can reach any values. But, when the particles diffuse themselves in a middle absorbing, the delays stretch toward a definite limit whatever the initial energies of the particles is. One demonstrates that the maximum delay is given by ({delta}t){sub max} {approx_equal} 0,6 E{sub 0} / cK{sub min}, where E{sub 0} = Mc{sup 2} represents the energy to the rest of the particle and K{sub min} the minimum loss of energy by cm of course in the given middle. For example, in the case of the protons crossing different absorbing surroundings, the values of ({delta}t){sub max} for air (Tpn), water, the Al and the Pb are respectively equal to 8,3.10{sup -6}, 9,7.10{sup -9}, 45.10{sup -9} and 1,6 10{sup -9} dry. The corresponding values of ({delta}t){sub max} for the electrons, are the order of 10{sup -9} dry for air and the order of 10{sup -12} dry for the condensed surroundings. It results that, if the particles belonging has a sheaf demonstrated between them of the superior delays to those that are indicate, the fact would constitute a sufficient proof of the existence of heavy particles to the breast of the sheaf. Otherwise, the relation that joins ({delta}t){sub max} to the mass M could act as basis to a method of mass spectrography of the big energy particles. (author) [French] Apres avoir examine succintement le probleme des retards qui peuvent apparaitre entre des particules de grande energie, issues d'une meme particule mere, on etudie d'une facon plus detaillee le cas des particules chargees, ne perdant leur energie que par ionisation. Le

  14. Mobile emergency response unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadi, W.J.; Trolan, R.T.; Becker, J.F.


    The Hotspot quick-response unit was the solution to a requirement to find, identify, and control areas of radioactive contamination at the scene of a nuclear weapons accident. The unit consists of two trucks and two trailers, and is designed to be transported by one U.S. Air Force C-141. One truck (generator truck) carries a 40 kW generator-heater-air conditioner combination, spare tires, and accessories. The other (water truck) carries supplies and a 250-gal water tank. One trailer (counting trailer) contains detecting, counting, and recording equipment. The other (decontaminating trailer) contains a shower, sink, 30-gal hot water tank, and supplies

  15. Scanning unit for collectrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaige, Yves.


    This invention concerns a measurement scanning assembly for collectron type detectors. It is used in measuring the neutron flux in nuclear reactors. As the number of these detectors in a reactor can be very great, they are not usually all connected permanently to the measuring facility but rather in turn by means of a scanning device which carries out, as it were, multiplexing between all the collectrons and the input of a single measuring system. The object of the invention is a scanning assembly which is of relative simplicity through an original organisation. Specifically, according to this organisation, the collectrons outputs are grouped together in bunches, each of these bunches being processed by a multiplexing sub-assembly belonging to a first stage, the different outputs of these multiplexing subassemblies of this first stage being grouped together yet again in bunches processed by multiplexors forming a new stage and so forth. Further, this structure is specially adapted for use with collectrons by utilising a current amplifier at each multiplexing level so that from one end to the other of the multiplexing system, the commutations are carried out on currents and not on voltages [fr

  16. Contribution of Mochovce Units completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdova, J.


    In spite of the on-going economic crisis in Europe, Slovakia is still showing economic growth. Slovenske elektrarne belong to the key companies within the Slovak economy. Not only because of its position in the electricity market, basis for the operation of companies and homes, but also because of its influence on the social and economic development of the country. (author)

  17. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum


    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  18. United States Attorney Prosecutions (United States)


    property of CocaCola Bottling Company, Fayetteville, North Carolina, of a value in excess of $100.00, in violation of Title 18 United States Code, Section...another, to-wit: a Cocacola soft drink machine, the amount of damage to said personal property being more than $200.00, in violation of North Carolina

  19. Planter unit test stand (United States)

    A planter test stand was developed to evaluate individual row-crop metering units in early 2013. This test stand provided the ability to quantify actual seed metering in terms of population, seed spacing, skips, and multiples over a range of meter RPMs and vacuum pressures. Preliminary data has been...

  20. United Kingdom's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, S.M.


    This is a presentation of the United Kingdom's experience with power transmission open access. The topics of the presentation include the objectives of changing, commercial arrangements and economic drivers, long term effects, the effects of moving to a more competitive environment, and factors affecting open access such as political climate and market regulation

  1. Whale Teaching Unit. (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Materials in this teaching unit are designed to foster an interest in whale preservation among intermediate grade and junior high school students. Several readings provide background information on various types of whales and the economic value of whales. Student activities include a true and false game, a crossword, and a mobile. A resource list…

  2. Multifunctional centrifugal grinding unit (United States)

    Sevostyanov, V. S.; Uralskij, V. I.; Uralskij, A. V.; Sinitsa, E. V.


    The article presents scientific and engineering developments of multifunctional centrifugal grinding unit in which the selective effect of grinding bodies on the crushing material is realized, depending on its physical and mechanical characteristics and various schemes for organizing the technological process

  3. United in change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanneke Posthumus; Josje den Ridder; Joep de Hart


    Original title: Verenigd in verandering The importance of citizens who unite in civil society organisations is broadly recognised. Organisations bind people to each other, to the community and to the political system. How are civil-society organisations in the Netherlands faring? Is there

  4. Unit III: International Conflict. (United States)

    Maxey, Phyllis


    This lesson helps students understand the global network involved in international events. Students have an opportunity to examine the impact of international law and the role of international organizations, national governments, and private individuals in the effort to secure the release of United States hostages in Iran. (AM)

  5. Unit 16 - Output


    Unit 16, CC in GIS; Star, Jeffrey L.


    This unit discusses issues related to GIS output, including the different types of output possible and the hardware for producing each. It describes text, graphic and digital data that can be generated by a GIS as well as line printers, dot matrix printers/plotters, pen plotters, optical scanners and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) as technologies for generating the output.

  6. Defining line replaceable units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parada Puig, J. E.; Basten, R. J I


    Defective capital assets may be quickly restored to their operational condition by replacing the item that has failed. The item that is replaced is called the Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and the so-called LRU definition problem is the problem of deciding on which item to replace upon each type of

  7. Sequence and RT-PCR expression analysis of two peroxidases from Arabidopsis thaliana belonging to a novel evolutionary branch of plant peroxidases. (United States)

    Kjaersgård, I V; Jespersen, H M; Rasmussen, S K; Welinder, K G


    cDNA clones encoding two new Arabidopsis thaliana peroxidases, ATP 1a and ATP 2a, have been identified by searching the Arabidopsis database of expressed sequence tags (dbEST). They represent a novel branch of hitherto uncharacterized plant peroxidases which is only 35% identical in amino acid sequence to the well characterized group of basic plant peroxidases represented by the horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) isoperoxidases HRP C, HRP E5 and the similar Arabidopsis isoperoxidases ATP Ca, ATP Cb, and ATP Ea. However ATP 1a is 87% identical in amino acid sequence to a peroxidase encoded by an mRNA isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). As cotton and Arabidopsis belong to rather diverse families (Malvaceae and Crucifereae, respectively), in contrast with Arabidopsis and horseradish (both Crucifereae), the high degree of sequence identity indicates that this novel type of peroxidase, albeit of unknown function, is likely to be widespread in plant species. The atp 1 and atp 2 types of cDNA sequences were the most redundant among the 28 different isoperoxidases identified among about 200 peroxidase encoding ESTs. Interestingly, 8 out of totally 38 EST sequences coding for ATP 1 showed three identical nucleotide substitutions. This variant form is designated ATP 1b. Similarly, six out of totally 16 EST sequences coding for ATP 2 showed a number of deletions and nucleotide changes. This variant form is designated ATP 2b. The selected EST clones are full-length and contain coding regions of 993 nucleotides for atp 1a, and 984 nucleotides for atp 2a. These regions show 61% DNA sequence identity. The predicted mature proteins ATP 1a, and ATP 2a are 57% identical in sequence and contain the structurally and functionally important residues, characteristic of the plant peroxidase superfamily. However, they do show two differences of importance to peroxidase catalysis: (1) the asparagine residue linked with the active site distal histidine via hydrogen bonding is absent

  8. Characterization of the Unit Tangent Sphere Bundle with $ g $-Natural Metric and Almost Contact B-metric Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Firuzi


    Full Text Available We consider unit tangent sphere bundle of a Riemannian manifold $ (M,g $ as a $ (2n+1 $-dimensional manifold and we equip it with pseudo-Riemannian $ g $-natural almost contact B-metric structure. Then, by computing coefficients of the structure tensor $ F$, we completely characterize the unit tangent sphere bundle equipped to this structure, with respect to the relevant classification of almost contact B-metric structures, and determine a class such that the unit tangent sphere bundle with mentioned structure belongs to it. Also, we find some curvature conditions such that the mentioned structure satisfies each of eleven basic classes.

  9. Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Gram-Positive, Catalase-Negative Cocci Not Belonging to the Streptococcus or Enterococcus Genus and Benefits of Database Extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens Jørgen; Dargis, Rimtas; Hammer, Monja


    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry with a Bruker Daltonics microflex LT system was applied to 90 well-characterized catalase-negative, Gram-positive cocci not belonging to the streptococci or enterococci. Biotyper version software...

  10. Contamination analysis unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.


    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig

  11. Combustion strategy : United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, D. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edingburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom). School of Engineering and Physical Sciences


    The United Kingdom's combustion strategy was briefly presented. Government funding sources for universities were listed. The United Kingdom Research Councils that were listed included the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) and the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC); the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC); the Economic and Social Research Council; the Medical Research Council; the Natural Environment Research Council; and the Science and Technology Facilities Council. The EPSRC supported 65 grants worth 30.5 million pounds. The combustion industry was noted to be dominated by three main players of which one was by far the largest. The 3 key players were Rolls-Royce; Jaguar Land Rover; and Doosan Babcock. Industry and government involvement was also discussed for the BIS Technology Strategy Board, strategy technology areas, and strategy application areas.

  12. Uranium chemistry research unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The initial field of research of this Unit, established in 1973, was the basic co-ordination chemistry of uranium, thorium, copper, cobalt and nickel. Subsequently the interest of the Unit extended to extractive metallurgy relating to these metals. Under the term 'co-ordination chemistry' is understood the interaction of the central transition metal ion with surrounding atoms in its immediate vicinity (within bonding distance) and the influence they have on each other - for example, structural studies for determining the number and arrangement of co-ordinated atoms and spectrophotometric studies to establish how the f electron energy levels of uranium are influenced by the environment. New types of uranium compounds have been synthesized and studied, and the behaviour of uranium ions in non-aqueous systems has also received attention. This work can be applied to the development and study of extractants and new extractive processes for uranium

  13. Laser color recording unit (United States)

    Jung, E.


    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  14. Optimally Locating MARFORRES Units


    Salmeron, Javier; Dell, Rob


    Javier Salmeron and Rob Dell The U.S. Marine Forces Reserve (USMCR, MARFORRES) is conducting realignment studies where discretionary changes may benefit from formal mathematical analysis. This study has developed an optimization tool to guide and/or support Commander, MARFORRES (CMFR) decisions. A prototype of the optimization tool has been tested with data from the units and Reserve Training Centers (RTCs) in the San Francisco, CA and Sacramento, CA areas. Prepared for: MARFORRES, POC:...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov


    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  16. Radiation quantities and units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report supersedes ICRU Report 19. Since ICRU Report 19 was published, a number of discussions have taken place between members of the Report Committee on Fundamental Quantities and Units and other workers in the field. Some of these discussions have resulted in the acceptance of certain modifications in the material set out in Report 19 and these modifications are incorporated in the current report. In addition, there has been some expansion and rearrangement of the material in the earlier report. In line, with providing more didactic material and useful source material for other ICRU reports, the general considerations in subsection 1.A of Report 19 have been expanded and placed in a separate subsection. The additional material includes discussions of four terms that are used in this document - quantity, unit, stochastic, and non-stochastic - along with a brief discussion of the mathematical formalism used in ICRU reports. As in ICRU Report 19, the definitions of quantities and units specifically designed for radiation protection (Part B) are separated from those of the general quantities (Part A). The inclusion of the index concept outlined in ICRU Report 25[4] required an extension of Part B

  17. United States rejoin ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.


    Upon pressure from the United States Congress, the US Department of Energy had to withdraw from further American participation in the ITER Engineering Design Activities after the end of its commitment to the EDA in July 1998. In the years since that time, changes have taken place in both the ITER activity and the US fusion community's position on burning plasma physics. Reflecting the interest in the United States in pursuing burning plasma physics, the DOE's Office of Science commissioned three studies as part of its examination of the option of entering the Negotiations on the Agreement on the Establishment of the International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project. These were a National Academy Review Panel Report supporting the burning plasma mission; a Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) report confirming the role of ITER in achieving fusion power production, and The Lehman Review of the ITER project costing and project management processes (for the latter one, see ITER CTA Newsletter, no. 15, December 2002). All three studies have endorsed the US return to the ITER activities. This historical decision was announced by DOE Secretary Abraham during his remarks to employees of the Department's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The United States will be working with the other Participants in the ITER Negotiations on the Agreement and is preparing to participate in the ITA

  18. United States advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.R.


    In the United States, the advanced technologies have been applied to uranium enrichment as a means by which it can be assured that nuclear fuel cost will remain competitive in the future. The United States is strongly committed to the development of advanced enrichment technology, and has brought both advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) programs to a point of significant technical refinement. The ability to deploy advanced technologies is the basis for the confidence in competitive future price. Unfortunately, the development of advanced technologies is capital intensive. The year 1985 is the key year for advanced technology development in the United States, since the decision on the primary enrichment technology for the future, AGC or AVLIS, will be made shortly. The background on the technology selection process, the highlights of AGC and AVLIS programs and the way to proceed after the process selection are described. The key objective is to maximize the sales volume and minimize the operating cost. This will help the utilities in other countries supply low cost energy on a reliable, long term basis. (Kako, I.)

  19. [Organization of primary health care in cities belonging to project for expansion and consolidation of the family health strategy in Mato Grosso State, Brazil]. (United States)

    Melo, Elza Machado de; Paiva, Lúcia; Alvares, Juliana; Flecha, André Luiz Dumont


    This article presents part of the results from the Baseline Study on the PROESF. The objective was to evaluate primary health care in the cities of Cuiabá, Várzea Grande, and Rondonópolis, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, based on the inter-subjectivity in human relations (among health workers, users of health services, and the public at large and within institutionalized levels of social control). A qualitative and quantitative methodology was used, including interviews with key informants; short meetings with managers; focal groups with managers; and interviews with users and health professionals from pre-selected health units. Scores were assigned to all the questions that indicated participatory processes in primary care practices in the various municipalities. Despite the geopolitical identity among the municipalities and their similar access to the same public policies, there was a significant difference in their performance of the functions pertaining to the organization of primary care and the Family Health Program, in terms of portal of entry into the system, longitudinality, comprehensiveness, and coordination. Differences were observed in the type of relations that were established (participatory versus non-participatory), corresponding to the previous difference.

  20. Life in the spray zone – overlooked diversity in West African torrent-frogs (Anura, Odontobatrachidae, Odontobatrachus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Barej


    Full Text Available West African torrent-frogs of the genus Odontobatrachus currently belong to a single species: Odontobatrachus natator (Boulenger, 1905. Recently, molecular results and biogeographic separation led to the recognition of five Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs thus identifying a species-complex. Based on these insights, morphological analyses on more than 150 adult specimens, covering the entire distribution of the family and all OTUs, were carried out. Despite strong morphological congruence, combinations of morphological characters made the differentiation of OTUs successful and allowed the recognition of five distinct species: Odontobatrachus natator, and four species new to science: Odontobatrachus arndti sp. n., O. fouta sp. n., O. smithi sp. n. and O. ziama sp. n. All species occur in parapatry: Odontobatrachus natator is known from western Guinea to eastern Liberia, O. ziama sp. n. from eastern Guinea, O. smithi sp. n. and O. fouta sp. n. from western Guinea, O. arndti sp. n. from the border triangle Guinea-Liberia-Côte d’Ivoire. In addition, for the first time the advertisement call of a West African torrent-frog (O. arndti sp. n. is described.

  1. Fungi Sailing the Arctic Ocean: Speciose Communities in North Atlantic Driftwood as Revealed by High-Throughput Amplicon Sequencing. (United States)

    Rämä, Teppo; Davey, Marie L; Nordén, Jenni; Halvorsen, Rune; Blaalid, Rakel; Mathiassen, Geir H; Alsos, Inger G; Kauserud, Håvard


    High amounts of driftwood sail across the oceans and provide habitat for organisms tolerating the rough and saline environment. Fungi have adapted to the extremely cold and saline conditions which driftwood faces in the high north. For the first time, we applied high-throughput sequencing to fungi residing in driftwood to reveal their taxonomic richness, community composition, and ecology in the North Atlantic. Using pyrosequencing of ITS2 amplicons obtained from 49 marine logs, we found 807 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on clustering at 97 % sequence similarity cut-off level. The phylum Ascomycota comprised 74 % of the OTUs and 20 % belonged to Basidiomycota. The richness of basidiomycetes decreased with prolonged submersion in the sea, supporting the general view of ascomycetes being more extremotolerant. However, more than one fourth of the fungal OTUs remained unassigned to any fungal class, emphasising the need for better DNA reference data from the marine habitat. Different fungal communities were detected in coniferous and deciduous logs. Our results highlight that driftwood hosts a considerably higher fungal diversity than currently known. The driftwood fungal community is not a terrestrial relic but a speciose assemblage of fungi adapted to the stressful marine environment and different kinds of wooden substrates found in it.

  2. Phylogenetic evidence of noteworthy microflora from the subsurface of the former Homestake gold mine, Lead, South Dakota (United States)

    Waddell, Evan J.; Elliott, Terran J.; Sani, Rajesh K.; Vahrenkamp, Jefferey M.; Roggenthen, William M.; Anderson, Cynthia M.; Bang, Sookie S.


    Molecular characterization of subsurface microbial communities in the former Homestake gold mine, South Dakota, was carried out by 16S rDNA sequence analysis using a water sample and a weathered soil–like sample. Geochemical analyses indicated that both samples were high in sulfur, rich in nitrogen and salt, but with significantly different metal concentrations. Microbial diversity comparisons unexpectedly revealed three distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the archaeal phylum Thaumarchaeota typically identified from marine environments, and one OTU to a potentially novel phylum that falls sister to Thaumarchaeota. To our knowledge this is only the second report of Thaumarchaeota in a terrestrial environment. The majority of the clones from Archaea sequence libraries fell into two closely related OTUs and grouped most closely to an ammonia–oxidizing, carbon–fixing and halophilic thaumarchaeote genus, Nitrosopumilus. The two samples showed neither Euryarchaeota nor Crenarchaeota members that were often identified from other subsurface terrestrial ecosystems. Bacteria OTUs containing the highest percentage of sequences were related to sulfur-oxidizing bacteria of the orders Chromatiales and Thiotrichales. Community members of Bacteria from individual Homestake ecosystems were heterogeneous and distinctive to each community with unique phylotypes identified within each sample. PMID:20662386

  3. Response of forest soil euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Cercozoa) to pig cadavers assessed by high-throughput sequencing. (United States)

    Seppey, Christophe V W; Fournier, Bertrand; Szelecz, Ildikò; Singer, David; Mitchell, Edward A D; Lara, Enrique


    Decomposing cadavers modify the soil environment, but the effect on soil organisms and especially on soil protists is still poorly documented. We conducted a 35-month experiment in a deciduous forest where soil samples were taken under pig cadavers, control plots and fake pigs (bags of similar volume as the pigs). We extracted total soil DNA, amplified the SSU ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene V9 region and sequenced it by Illumina technology and analysed the data for euglyphid testate amoebae (Rhizaria: Euglyphida), a common group of protozoa known to respond to micro-environmental changes. We found 51 euglyphid operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 45 of which did not match any known sequence. Most OTUs decreased in abundance underneath cadavers between days 0 and 309, but some responded positively after a time lag. We sequenced the full-length SSU rRNA gene of two common OTUs that responded positively to cadavers; a phylogenetic analysis showed that they did not belong to any known euglyphid family. This study confirmed the existence of an unknown diversity of euglyphids and that they react to cadavers. Results suggest that metabarcoding of soil euglyphids could be used as a forensic tool to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) particularly for long-term (>2 months) PMI, for which no reliable tool exists.

  4. Three operational taxonomic units of Eimeria are common in Nigerian chickens and may undermine effective molecular diagnosis of coccidiosis. (United States)

    Jatau, Isa D; Lawal, Idris A; Kwaga, Jacob K P; Tomley, Fiona M; Blake, Damer P; Nok, Andrew J


    Chicken is fast becoming the world's most consumed meat. As a consequence poultry health is more important now than ever before, with pathogens of chickens recognised as serious threats to food security. One such threat are Eimeria species parasites, protozoa which can cause the disease coccidiosis. Eimeria can compromise economic poultry production and chicken welfare, and have serious consequences for poor livestock keepers. Seven Eimeria species that infect chickens are recognised with a global enzootic distribution. More recently three cryptic Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUx, y and z) have been described in populations of Eimeria recovered from chickens in Australia. Two of the three OTUs have also been detected in sub-Saharan Africa, but their occurrence, pathology and the risk they pose is largely unknown. Nigeria has witnessed a dramatic expansion in poultry production and is now the largest poultry producer in Africa. Here, faecal samples collected from nine of 12 commercial chicken farms sampled in Kaduna state, Nigeria, were found to contain eimerian oocysts. After amplification by in vivo propagation all three cryptic OTU genotypes were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including OTUy for the first time outside of Australia. Comparison with a widely used, established Eimeria species-specific PCR assay revealed failure to detect the OTU genotypes. All three of the Eimeria OTU genotypes appear to be common in north-western Nigeria. The failure of a leading species-specific molecular assay to detect these genotypes indicates a risk of false negative Eimeria diagnosis when using molecular tools and suggests that the spatial occurrence of each OTU may be far wider than has been recognised. The risk posed by these novel genotypes is unknown, but it is clear that a better understanding of Eimeria occurrence is required together with the validation of effective diagnostics.

  5. The Military Emergency Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Requena, J. M.


    One of the most justified and pressing demands that society makes of the State, requiring a fast, forceful and effective response, is that it guarantees the safety of people and their assets when a disaster seriously endangers them. At the proposal of the President of the Government, the Cabinet of Ministers, in its meeting held on October 7, 2005, agreed to create the Military Emergency Unit, known since the as the UME. Its mission is to intervene anywhere in the national territory when the President of the Government, or the Minister to whom he delegates, so decides in order to assure the safety and welfare of citizens in cases of serious risk, disaster, catastrophe or any other public need. The UME is organically incorporated into the Ministry of Defense and its actions may be supported with all the available human and material needs of the Armed Forces. Availability and effectiveness, with calmness and humility, have characterized the early actions of the Military Emergency Unit and are the guidelines for future action. The first steps of this military unit have focused on a clear goal: collaboration and participation in situations whose seriousness requires the coordination of different forces in order to immediately respond to them. The UME is the States tool to join forces and, with other administration and institutions, help to rapidly and effectively deal with emergencies. It has taken its first step and achieved the capacity specified in the UME Operations Order for 2007. The 150 men and women per battalion, plus the 80 in the Gando detachment, are on active duty and have sufficient material means to deploy, if necessary and when requested by the regions, town councils an other administrative bodies, to help in the extinction of forest fires. (Author)

  6. Decommissioning Unit Cost Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, P. C.; Stevens, J. L.; Brandt, R.


    The Rocky Flats Closure Site (Site) is in the process of stabilizing residual nuclear materials, decommissioning nuclear facilities, and remediating environmental media. A number of contaminated facilities have been decommissioned, including one building, Building 779, that contained gloveboxes used for plutonium process development but did little actual plutonium processing. The actual costs incurred to decommission this facility formed much of the basis or standards used to estimate the decommissioning of the remaining plutonium-processing buildings. Recent decommissioning activities in the first actual production facility, Building 771, implemented a number of process and procedural improvements. These include methods for handling plutonium contaminated equipment, including size reduction, decontamination, and waste packaging, as well as management improvements to streamline planning and work control. These improvements resulted in a safer working environment and reduced project cost, as demonstrated in the overall project efficiency. The topic of this paper is the analysis of how this improved efficiency is reflected in recent unit costs for activities specific to the decommissioning of plutonium facilities. This analysis will allow the Site to quantify the impacts on future Rocky Flats decommissioning activities, and to develop data for planning and cost estimating the decommissioning of future facilities. The paper discusses the methods used to collect and arrange the project data from the individual work areas within Building 771. Regression and data correlation techniques were used to quantify values for different types of decommissioning activities. The discussion includes the approach to identify and allocate overall project support, waste management, and Site support costs based on the overall Site and project costs to provide a ''burdened'' unit cost. The paper ultimately provides a unit cost basis that can be used to support cost estimates for

  7. Unit for air decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano H, E.


    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

  8. Waste Water Treatment Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.


    A wastewater treatment plant to treat both the sanitary and industrial effluent originated from process, utilities and off site units of the refinery is described. The purpose is to obtain at the end of the treatment plant, a water quality that is in compliance with contractual requirements and relevant environmental regulations. first treatment (pretreatment). Primary de-oiling, Equalization, Neutralization, Secondary de-oiling. Second treatment (Biological), The mechanism of BOD removal, Biological flocculation, Nutrient requirements, Nitrification, De-nitrification, Effect of temperature, Effect of ph, Toxicity

  9. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark


    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  10. Study of the uses of Information and Communication Technologies by Pain Treatment Unit Physicians. (United States)

    Muriel Fernandez, Jorge; Sánchez Ledesma, María José; López Millan, Manuel; García Cenador, María Begoña


    Adequate use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in health has been shown to save the patient and caregiver time, improve access to the health system, improve diagnosis and control of disease or treatment. All this results in cost savings, and more importantly, they help improve the quality of service and the lives of patients. The purpose of this study is to analyse the differences in the uses of this ICTs between those physicians that belong to Pain Treatment Units (PU) and other physicians that work in pain not linked to these PUs. An online survey, generated by Netquest online survey tool, was sent to both groups of professionals and the data collected was statistical analysed through a logistic regression methodology which is the Logit binomial model. Our results show that those physicians that belong to PUs use ICTs more frequently and consider it more relevant to their clinical practice.

  11. Pathogenic strains of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers are of the same subtype as pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from humans and may be a source of human infection in Jiangsu Province, China. (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cui, Zhigang; Wang, Hua; Tang, Liuying; Yang, Jinchuan; Gu, Ling; Jin, Dong; Luo, Longze; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Xiong, Haiping; Kan, Biao; Xu, Jianguo; Jing, Huaiqi


    We isolated 326 Yersinia enterocolitica strains from 5,919 specimens from patients with diarrhea at outpatient clinics, livestock, poultry, wild animals, insect vectors, food, and the environment in the cities of Nantong and Xuzhou in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2004 to 2008. The results showed that the 12 pathogenic strains were of the O:3 serotype. Six strains were isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers and were found to be the primary carriers of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, especially in Xuzhou. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the pathogenic strains from dogs belonging to farmers showed that they shared the same patterns as strains from diarrhea patients isolated in 1994. This indicates that the strains from domestic dogs have a close correlation with the strains causing human infections.

  12. Inverse spectral results for Schroedinger operators on the unit interval with partial information given on the potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amour, L.; Raoux, T.; Faupin, J.


    We pursue the analysis of the Schroedinger operator on the unit interval in inverse spectral theory initiated in the work of Amour and Raoux [''Inverse spectral results for Schroedinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in Lp spaces,'' Inverse Probl. 23, 2367 (2007)]. While the potentials in the work of Amour and Raoux belong to L 1 with their difference in L p (1≤p k,1 spaces having their difference in W k,p , where 1≤p≤+∞, k(set-membership sign)(0,1,2). It is proved that two potentials in W k,1 ([0,1]) being equal on [a,1] are also equal on [0,1] if their difference belongs to W k,p ([0,a]) and if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently high. Naturally, this number decreases as the parameter a decreases and as the parameters k and p increase

  13. Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with partial information given on the potentials (United States)

    Amour, L.; Faupin, J.; Raoux, T.


    We pursue the analysis of the Schrödinger operator on the unit interval in inverse spectral theory initiated in the work of Amour and Raoux ["Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in Lp spaces," Inverse Probl. 23, 2367 (2007)]. While the potentials in the work of Amour and Raoux belong to L1 with their difference in Lp (1≤p<∞), we consider here potentials in Wk,1 spaces having their difference in Wk,p, where 1≤p≤+∞, k ɛ{0,1,2}. It is proved that two potentials in Wk,1([0,1]) being equal on [a,1] are also equal on [0,1] if their difference belongs to Wk,p([0,a]) and if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently high. Naturally, this number decreases as the parameter a decreases and as the parameters k and p increase.

  14. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice


    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  15. The United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.


    The history of nuclear development in the United Kingdom is traced, together with the factors (eg electricity demand, fossil fuel prices, political policy) that have influenced policy choices. Many of the research establishments and the fissile material production plants were established in the late 1940s. In these early years the civil and military development programmes were not separate. The initial growth period was in the 1950s when the plan was to build twelve reactors in three groups of four over ten years. The first were to be Magnox type reactors. This was trebled in 1957 and the advanced gas cooled reactor was developed. The Windscale fire in 1957 affected confidence in the nuclear programme. However, five AGR twin-reactor stations were ordered in 1964. These ran into construction problems and delay and it was not until 1980 that more new units were contemplated. The plan then was to build a pressurized water reactor at Sizewell-B. A delay to allow for the public inquiry put back the start of this until 1987 with commissioning planned for 1994. A list of the UK nuclear power stations is given and their operating performance discussed. The present situation and future prospects for nuclear power are reviewed. (U.K.)

  16. Influence of Tempo and Rhythmic Unit in Musical Emotion Regulation. (United States)

    Fernández-Sotos, Alicia; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Latorre, José M


    This article is based on the assumption of musical power to change the listener's mood. The paper studies the outcome of two experiments on the regulation of emotional states in a series of participants who listen to different auditions. The present research focuses on note value, an important musical cue related to rhythm. The influence of two concepts linked to note value is analyzed separately and discussed together. The two musical cues under investigation are tempo and rhythmic unit. The participants are asked to label music fragments by using opposite meaningful words belonging to four semantic scales, namely "Tension" (ranging from Relaxing to Stressing), "Expressiveness" (Expressionless to Expressive), "Amusement" (Boring to Amusing) and "Attractiveness" (Pleasant to Unpleasant). The participants also have to indicate how much they feel certain basic emotions while listening to each music excerpt. The rated emotions are "Happiness," "Surprise," and "Sadness." This study makes it possible to draw some interesting conclusions about the associations between note value and emotions.

  17. Functional unit for a processor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohani, A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.


    The invention relates to a functional unit for a processor, such as a Very Large Instruction Word Processor. The invention further relates to a processor comprising at least one such functional unit. The invention further relates to a functional unit and processor capable of mitigating the effect of

  18. Design of hydraulic recuperation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandourek Pavel


    Full Text Available This article deals with design and measurement of hydraulic recuperation unit. Recuperation unit consist of radial turbine and axial pump, which are coupled on the same shaft. Speed of shaft with impellers are 6000 1/min. For economic reasons, is design of recuperation unit performed using commercially manufactured propellers.

  19. Snakes: An Integrated Unit Plan. (United States)

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This document presents an integrated unit plan on snakes targeting second grade students. Objectives of the unit include developing concepts of living things, understanding the contribution and importance of snakes to the environment, and making connections between different disciplines. The unit integrates the topic of snakes into the areas of…

  20. Inlet Geomorphology Evolution Work Unit (United States)


    Coastal Inlets Research Program Inlet Geomorphology Evolution Work Unit The Inlet Geomorphology Evolution work unit of the CIRP develops methods...morphologic response. Presently, the primary tool of the Inlet Geomorphology Evolution work unit is the Sediment Mobility Tool (SMT), which allows the user

  1. Aerobic and facultative microorganisms isolated from corroded metallic structures in a hydroeletric power unit in the amazon region of Brazil


    Correia, Amabel Fernandes; Segoviae, Jorge Federico Orellana; Bezerra, Roberto Messias; Gonçalves, Magda Celeste Alvares; Ornelas, Sócrates Souza; Silveira, Dâmaris; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares; Diniz, Sérgio Paulo Severo de Souza; Kanzaki, Luis Isamu Barros


    Aerobic and facultative bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Bacillaceae, Corynebacteriaceae and Streptococcaceae families have been isolated from corroded metallic structures of a hydroelectric power unit in the Amazon region of Brazil. In addition to anamorphic dematiaceous and moniliaceous fungi, members of the archeobacteria kingdom were also detected in the same samples. Scanning electron micrographs of metal bars cultivated with consortia of the isolated micro...

  2. United Arab Emirates. (United States)


    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  3. UNITED KINGDOM: under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    While attempting bravely to sustain the legacy left by J.J. Thomson, Rutherford, Chadwick, Cockcroft, Blackett, Dirac and others earlier this century, the United Kingdom, one of the major contributors to CERN, has suffered in recent years from an erosion of the international purchasing power of the pound sterling. At the same time, the national scientific community has squabbled over the apportionment of the research cake. In recent years, the CERN budget has remained constant in real terms, but the pound has drifted steadily down. In 1984 one pound bought 3.15 Swiss francs, now it gets just over 2. The hypersensitivity which left calculations at the mercy of exchange rate hiccups was cushioned in 1988 by a new method of calculating national CERN contributions, introduced by Chris Llewellyn Smith, now the Laboratory's Director General, using less sensitive input data

  4. United Kingdom national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, B.


    Report of the United Kingdom deals with life extension granted to Calder Hall and Chapelcross reactors for further 10 years operation. The two well recognised life-limiting features of Magnox type reactors are graphite core ageing and materials properties of the reactor pressure circuit components. These features have been scrutinised particularly closely and the conclusion has been reached that there are no safety factors which will necessarily limit the plant life to less than 50 years. Two other life-limiting factors are hear exchanger tubes and the heat exchanger tube failures internal to boiler shells and the integrity of the main engineering structures of the plant. It was concluded that appropriate routine ageing monitoring programs are in place in respect to these features to support continuing operation beyond 40 years

  5. Mobile power plant units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, R


    Diesel engines of the MaK line 282 AK/332 with a cylinder power up to 160 kW are used, either as 6-cylinder or 8-cylinder in-line engine or as 12-cylinder V engine. Fuel consumption is between 207 and 212 g/kW. The engine is mounted on a frame, together with a generator. The fuel reserve in the tank will last for 8 hours. The lubricating system, the cooling water and starting air system, the switchboard system, and the frame are described. The switchboard plant is mounted either on a skid undercarriage or on the undercarriage. The plant can be operated independently or parallel to the network. The unit can be remote-controlled via push buttons or control knobs. A picture is presented of a mobile diesel aggregate which is in service in Libya.

  6. The United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Art, R.J.


    This paper reports that at least in the national security arena, the outcomes of bureaucratic infighting and domestic political struggles are not determined wholly by what goes on with the state. Rather struggles among contending groups are greatly affected by what is perceived to be happening outside the nation. Because external conditions give greater potency to some domestic forces over other, the external environment is never neutral in its domestic impact. The decisions of the period 1950-53 discussed above illustrate the point. But so too do the decisions of 1947, 1960-61 and 1969-72. In the 1947 case, Soviet intransigence provoked US nuclear rearmament. In the 1960-61 case, extended deterrent considerations pushed the United States to preserve its again newly discovered nuclear superiority. In the 1969-72 case, a Soviet determination to remain equal forced US acceptance of nuclear equality. And perhaps the best evidence of all, the perpetuation of parity ended the US inclination to resort to nuclear brinkmanship. In each instance, concerns about relative position heavily affected nuclear choice. Finally, the events of the past three years testify to the effects of international events on domestic choice. Under the terms of the 1987 INF Treaty, the two superpowers decided to dismantle and destroy an entire class of missiles of intermediate range (500-3000 kilometers) that both had deployed in Europe in the 1970s and 1980s, and in their June 1990 joint statement on strategic nuclear weapons, President Gorbachev and Brush agreed to cut the number of Soviet and US long range nuclear forces by 30 per cent. This agreement marks a watershed in US-Soviet strategic arm negotiations because for the first time the United States and the Soviet Union agreed in principals to reduce the number of weapons aimed at one another. Between 1985 and 1990 the cold war was brought to a close

  7. SI units in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, D.


    In the field of radiation protection all hitherto used units for activity, activity concentrations, exposure, absorbed dose, and dose rates have to be replaced by SI units during the next years. For this purpose graphs and conversion tables are given as well as recommendations on unit combinations preferentially to be used. As to the dose equivalent, it is suggested to introduce a new special unit being 100 times greater than the rem, instead of maintaining the rem or using the gray for both absorbed dose and dose equivalent. Measures and time schedule relating to the gradual transition to SI units in measuring techniques, training, and publishing et cetera are explained. (author)

  8. SI units in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.K.; Soman, S.D.


    International System of Units abbreviated as SI units has been adopted by most of the countries of the world. Following this development, the implementation of SI units has become mandatory with a transition period of about ten years. Some of the journals have already adopted the SI units and any material sent for publication to them must use only these. International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) published letters in several journals including Physics in Medicine and Biology, Health Physics, British Journal of Radiology, etc. outlining the latest recommendations on SI units to elicit the reactions of scientists in the general field of radiological sciences. Reactions to the letters were numerous as can be seen in the correspondence columns of these journals for the last few years and ranged from great misgivings and apprehension to support and appreciation. SI units have also been the subject of editorial comments in several journals. On the basis of a survey of this literature, it may be said that there was general agreement on the long term advantage of SI units inspite of some practical difficulties in their use particularly in the initial stages. This report presents a review of SI units in radiological sciences with a view to familiarize the users with the new units in terms of the old. A time table for the gradual changeover to the SI units is also outlined. (auth.)

  9. SI units in biomedical dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liden, K.


    The International commission on radiation units and measurements (ICRU), during the period from 1953 to 1962 presented its definitions of the quantities absorbed dose, exposure, activity, and dose equivalent and the corresponding special units the rad, the roentgen, the curie, and the rem. At the same time an international practical system of units was developed, Le Systeme International d'Unites (SI). It was adopted by the 11th Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM) in 1960 and is now officially introduced in almost all countries. The general implementation of the SI means difficulties for the future use of the special radiation units, because the numerical factors involved prevent their adoption as SI units. In view of this, and after having sampled the opinion in the radiological field, the ICRU prepared a Statement on Units in July, 1974 which was forwarded to the Comite International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) and its Comite Consultatif des Unites (CCU) for consideration. As a result of this statement the CIPM has now proposed, that the 15rh CGPM adopt special names for two SI units, namely the becquerel, symbol Bq, for the unit of activity of radionuclides equal to the reciprocal second, s 1- , and the gray, symbol Gy, for the unit of absorbed dose equal to the joule per kilogram, J/kg. The 15th CGPM will consider this matter in May, 1975. (author)

  10. Exploring the sources of bacterial spoilers in beefsteaks by culture-independent high-throughput sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca De Filippis

    Full Text Available Microbial growth on meat to unacceptable levels contributes significantly to change meat structure, color and flavor and to cause meat spoilage. The types of microorganisms initially present in meat depend on several factors and multiple sources of contamination can be identified. The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbial diversity in beefsteaks before and after aerobic storage at 4°C and to investigate the sources of microbial contamination by examining the microbiota of carcasses wherefrom the steaks originated and of the processing environment where the beef was handled. Carcass, environmental (processing plant and meat samples were analyzed by culture-independent high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The microbiota of carcass swabs was very complex, including more than 600 operational taxonomic units (OTUs belonging to 15 different phyla. A significant association was found between beef microbiota and specific beef cuts (P<0.01 indicating that different cuts of the same carcass can influence the microbial contamination of beef. Despite the initially high complexity of the carcass microbiota, the steaks after aerobic storage at 4°C showed a dramatic decrease in microbial complexity. Pseudomonas sp. and Brochothrix thermosphacta were the main contaminants, and Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter and Enterobacteriaceae were also found. Comparing the relative abundance of OTUs in the different samples it was shown that abundant OTUs in beefsteaks after storage occurred in the corresponding carcass. However, the abundance of these same OTUs clearly increased in environmental samples taken in the processing plant suggesting that spoilage-associated microbial species originate from carcasses, they are carried to the processing environment where the meat is handled and there they become a resident microbiota. Such microbiota is then further spread on meat when it is handled and it represents the starting microbial association

  11. [Changing medical practices and nosocomial infection rates in French maternity units from 1997 to 2000]. (United States)

    Vincent-Boulétreau, A; Caillat-Vallet, E; Dumas, A M; Ayzac, L; Chapuis, C; Emery, M N; Girard, R; Haond, C; Lafarge-Leboucher, J; Tissot-Guerraz, F; Fabry, J


    In this study we describe the changes in medical practices and nosocomial infection rates in obstetrics observed through a surveillance network in the South East of France. The maternity units which belong to this network participated in voluntary surveillance using the network's methodology. The criteria for the diagnosis of nosocomial infections were in accordance with the methods described by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 101240 pregnancies including 18503 caesareans (18.3%) were included in the network from 1997 to 2000. During the study period, nosocomial infection rates following caesarean section and vaginal delivery decreased respectively from 7.8% to 4.3% (p infection control programs in maternity units has been confirmed by the results of this surveillance network. During the study period, both obstetrics-related risk factors for nosocomial infection and observed hospital-acquired infection rates were dramatically reduced, what prove an improvement of quality of care in maternity units.

  12. [United theory of aging]. (United States)

    Trubitsyn, A G


    In attempts to develop a means of life prolongation the humankind has created more than three hundred theories of the aging; each of them offers the original cause of aging. However, none of them has given practical result by now. The majority of the theories have now only historical interest. There are several different theories that are mainly under consideration currently. They are based on reliable, proven evidence: the free radical theory, the protein error theory, the replicative senescence theory, the theory of reparation weakening, the immunological theory, several versions of neuroendocrinal theories, and programmed aging theory. The theory presented here is based on conception that the life as the phenomenon represents many of the interconnected physical and chemical processes propelled by energy of the mitochondrial bioenergetical machine. Gradual degradation of all vital processes is caused by the programmed decrease in level of bioenergetics. This theory unites all existing theories of aging constructed on authentic facts: it is shown, that such fundamental phenomena accompanying aging process as the increase in level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the decrease in the general level of protein synthesis, the limitation of cellular dividing (Haiflick limit), decrease in efficiency of reparation mechanisms are caused by bioenergetics attenuation. Each of these phenomena in turn generates a number of harmful secondary processes. Any of the theories bases on one of these destructive phenomena or their combination. Hence, each of them describes one of sides of process of the aging initially caused by programmed decrease of level of bioenergetics. This united theory gives the chance to understand the nature of aging clock and explains a phenomenon of increase in longevity at the condition of food restriction. Failures of attempts to develop means from aging are explained by that the manipulations with the separate secondary phenomena of attenuation of

  13. United Kingdom position paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In any system employing liquid sodium as a coolant, large heat transfer coefficients exist between the metal structure containing the coolant, and the coolant itself. Any rapidly varying temperatures, either space wise or time wise, in the sodium are readily transmitted to the surrounding metal structure, resulting in the generation of appreciable thermal stresses within these structures. In particular, the phenomenon of thermal stratification in the sodium coolant has the potential to induce unacceptable thermal stresses throughout the system. With respect to the present U.K. fast reactor design, a large programme of work in connection with the thermal hydraulic aspects of the plant is in hand. This programme is being undertaken as a joint effort by the National Nuclear Corporation, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, and the Central Electricity Generating Board. Work is in progress both to identify the areas of the system that will be susceptible to, and to ensure that the design is capable of successfully withstanding any thermal stratification effects. The production of stratification phenomena depends both upon the design and the operation of the reactor system. These are briefly described below. Areas where thermal stratification effects exist are then identified and the programme of work associated with each area is outlined

  14. Intensive Care Unit Delirium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongsuk Kim


    Full Text Available Delirium is described as a manifestation of acute brain injury and recognized as one of the most common complications in intensive care unit (ICU patients. Although the causes of delirium vary widely among patients, delirium increases the risk of longer ICU and hospital length of stay, death, cost of care, and post-ICU cognitive impairment. Prevention and early detection are therefore crucial. However, the clinical approach toward delirium is not sufficiently aggressive, despite the condition’s high incidence and prevalence in the ICU setting. While the underlying pathophysiology of delirium is not fully understood, many risk factors have been suggested. As a way to improve delirium-related clinical outcome, high-risk patients can be identified. A valid and reliable bedside screening tool is also needed to detect the symptoms of delirium early. Delirium is commonly treated with medications, and haloperidol and atypical antipsychotics are commonly used as standard treatment options for ICU patients although their efficacy and safety have not been established. The approaches for the treatment of delirium should focus on identifying the underlying causes and reducing modifiable risk factors to promote early mobilization.

  15. Mobile contingency unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio O. da; Magalhaes, Milton P. de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Junqueira, Rodrigo A.; Torres, Carlos A.R. [PETROBRAS Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This paper is aimed at presenting what is already a reality in TRANSPETRO in the area covered by OSBRA, a pipeline that carries by-products to the Mid-West region of Brazil. In order to meet the needs of covering occasional accidents, TRANSPETRO counts on a standardized system of emergency management. It is a great challenge to secure an efficient communication along the 964 km of extension, considering that there are shadow zones where it is not possible to use conventional means of communication such as mobile telephony and internet. It was in this context that the Mobile Contingency Unit Via Satellite - MCU was developed, to extend the communication facilities existing in fixed installations to remote places, mainly the pipeline right of ways. In case of emergency, simulation and work in the pipeline right of way, MCU is fully able to provide the same data, voice, closed-circuit TV and satellite video conference facilities that are available in any internal area of the PETROBRAS system. (author)

  16. Biobank Report: United Kingdom. (United States)

    Kaye, Jane; Bell, Jessica; Briceno, Linda; Mitchell, Colin


    The United Kingdom is a leader in genomics research, and the presence of numerous types of biobanks and the linking of health data and research within the UK evidences the importance of biobank-based research in the UK. There is no biobank-specific law in the UK and research on biobank materials is governed by a confusing set of statutory law, common law, regulations, and guidance documents. Several layers of applicable law, from European to local, further complicate an understanding of privacy protections. Finally, biobanks frequently contain data in addition to the samples; the legal framework in the UK generally differentiates between data and samples and the form of the data affects the applicability of legal provisions. Biobanks must be licensed by the Human Tissue Authority; certain projects must be reviewed by Research Ethics Committees, and all projects are encouraged to be reviewed by them. Data Access Committees in biobanks are also common in the UK. While this confusing array of legal provisions leaves privacy protections in biobanking somewhat unclear, changes at the EU level may contribute to harmonization of approaches to privacy. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  17. The United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, S.; Williams, P.


    The possession of nuclear weapons by the United Kingdom has long been a controversial issue in British politics, and among historians and strategists. Part of the controversy has revolved around questions of motivation. Why did the British Government under Prime Minister Clement Attlee develop nuclear weapons? Why have successive British governments maintained and, in fact, modernized the national nuclear force? This paper reports that a frequent response to these questions is to place the issue of the acquisition of nuclear weapons by the UK into a post-colonial context. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Britain was a great power with global assets and commitments. After the Empire was reduced in size and importance, however, and eventually swept away, Britain could not longer claim to be a superpower in any modern sense. Nevertheless, it is suggested, British policy makers had developed a foreign policy based upon certain assumptions about Britain's position and power and they were reluctant to relinquish these assumptions. Furthermore, it is contended, the decision to develop nuclear weapons was taken to reinforce what were the pretensions of a medium power, and the continued obsession of successive British governments with nuclear weapons provides evidence that Britain has still not come to terms with its reduced role and limited influence. In short, the British infatuation with nuclear weapons over the past 40 years is best explained in terms of concerns about status

  18. Units of rotational information (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Hu, Qinheping


    Entanglement in angular momentum degrees of freedom is a precious resource for quantum metrology and control. Here we study the conversions of this resource, focusing on Bell pairs of spin-J particles, where one particle is used to probe unknown rotations and the other particle is used as reference. When a large number of pairs are given, we show that every rotated spin-J Bell state can be reversibly converted into an equivalent number of rotated spin one-half Bell states, at a rate determined by the quantum Fisher information. This result provides the foundation for the definition of an elementary unit of information about rotations in space, which we call the Cartesian refbit. In the finite copy scenario, we design machines that approximately break down Bell states of higher spins into Cartesian refbits, as well as machines that approximately implement the inverse process. In addition, we establish a quantitative link between the conversion of Bell states and the simulation of unitary gates, showing that the fidelity of probabilistic state conversion provides upper and lower bounds on the fidelity of deterministic gate simulation. The result holds not only for rotation gates, but also to all sets of gates that form finite-dimensional representations of compact groups. For rotation gates, we show how rotations on a system of given spin can simulate rotations on a system of different spin.

  19. Hanford Site Waste management units report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This report summarizes the operable units in several areas of the Hanford Site Waste Facility. Each operable unit has several waste units (crib, ditch, pond, etc.). The operable units are summarized by describing each was unit. Some of the descriptions are unit name, unit type, waste category start data, site description, etc. The descriptions will vary for each waste unit in each operable unit and area of the Hanford Site

  20. Color- and motion-specific units in the tectum opticum of goldfish. (United States)

    Gruber, Morna; Behrend, Konstantin; Neumeyer, Christa


    Extracellular recordings were performed from 69 units at different depths between 50 and [Formula: see text]m below the surface of tectum opticum in goldfish. Using large field stimuli (86[Formula: see text] visual angle) of 21 colored HKS-papers we were able to record from 54 color-sensitive units. The colored papers were presented for 5[Formula: see text]s each. They were arranged in the sequence of the color circle in humans separated by gray of medium brightness. We found 22 units with best responses between orange, red and pink. About 12 of these red-sensitive units were of the opponent "red-ON/blue-green-OFF" type as found in retinal bipolar- and ganglion cells as well. Most of them were also activated or inhibited by black and/or white. Some units responded specifically to red either with activation or inhibition. 18 units were sensitive to blue and/or green, 10 of them to both colors and most of them to black as well. They were inhibited by red, and belonged to the opponent "blue-green-ON/red-OFF" type. Other units responded more selectively either to blue, to green or to purple. Two units were selectively sensitive to yellow. A total of 15 units were sensitive to motion, stimulated by an excentrically rotating black and white random dot pattern. Activity of these units was also large when a red-green random dot pattern of high L-cone contrast was used. Activity dropped to zero when the red-green pattern did not modulate the L-cones. Neither of these motion selective units responded to any color. The results directly show color-blindness of motion vision, and confirm the hypothesis of separate and parallel processing of "color" and "motion".