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  1. Bariatric Orthopaedics: Total Knee Arthroplasty in Super-obese Patients (BMI > 50 kg/m2). Survivorship and Complications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Naziri, Qais; Issa, Kimona; Malkani, Arthur L; Bonutti, Peter M; Harwin, Steven F; Mont, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    Some studies have suggested that patients who are super obese (BMI > 50 kg/m2) may have poorer outcomes and more frequent complications when undergoing TKA compared with those who have lower BMI, however, the literature on this is...

  2. Bariatric surgery in 1119 patients with preoperative body mass index<35 (kg/m(2)): results at 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiz, Cristóbal; Alvarado, Juan; Quezada, Nicolás; Salinas, José; Funke, Ricardo; Boza, Camilo

    2015-01-01

    The use of body mass index (BMI) as the only criterion to indicate bariatric surgery is currently under discussion. There is growing evidence that supports bariatric surgery in carefully selected patients with lower BMI. To report our experience in bariatric surgery in>1000 patients with BMI<35 kg/m(2) and their results at 1 year. University hospital (censored). A retrospective analysis was performed in patients who underwent laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) or sleeve gastrectomy (SG) with preoperative BMI<35 kg/m(2) from January 2008 to December 2011. Demographic and anthropometric data, preoperative co-morbidities, and perioperative variables were retrieved. Weight loss and co-morbidities progression were analyzed 1 year after surgery and compared among procedures. A P value<.05 was considered significant. We identified 1119 patients: mean age 38.8±11.4, 951 (85%) women, preoperative weight 87.5±9.3 kg and BMI 33.1 (31.9-34.1) kg/m(2). Preoperatively, 11.7% had type 2 diabetes mellitus, 25.9% arterial hypertension, 55.6% insulin resistance, and 53.2% dyslipidemia. In total, 283 patients (25.2%) underwent LRYGB and 836 (74.8%) SG. One year after surgery (follow-up: 66.67%) patients reached 24.5 (22.8-26.4) BMI and the percentage of excess of weight loss (%EWL) was 107.9±36.6%. Diabetes, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia remission/improvement rates were 54/39%, 58/29%, 72/17%, and 54/30%, respectively. Bariatric surgery in selected class I obesity patients can safely be performed. We have observed good results in terms of weight loss and co-morbidity improvement/remission. Long-term follow-up is required. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy for Mildly Obese Patients (Body Mass Index of 30 <35 kg/m2: Operative Outcome and Short-Term Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Noun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data concerning laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG in mild obesity are under investigation. Aim/Objective. May 2010 to May 2012, 122 consecutive patients with preoperative body mass index (BMI of 33±2.5 kg/m2 (range 30–34.9 undergoing LSG were studied. Mean age was 33±10 years (range 15–60, and 105 (86% were women. Mean preoperative weight was 91±9.7 kg (range 66–121, and preoperative excess weight was 30±6.7 kg (range 19–43. Comorbidities were detected in 44 (36% patients. Results. Mean operative time was 58±15 min (range 40–95, and postoperative stay was 1.8±0.19 days (range 1.5–3. There were no admissions to intensive care unit and no deaths within 30 days of surgery. The rates of leaks and strictures were 0%, and of hemorrhage 1.6%. At 12 months, BMI decreased to 24.7±2, and the percentage of excess weight loss (% EWL reached 76.5%. None of the patients had a BMI below 20 kg/m2. Comorbidities resolved in 70.5% or improved in 29.5%. Patient satisfaction scoring (1–5 at least 1 year after was 4.6±0.8 for body image and 4.4±0.6 for food tolerance. Conclusion. LSG for mildly obese patients has proved to be technically relatively easy, safe, and benefic in the short term.

  4. BMI > or = 50 kg/m2 is associated with a younger age of onset of overweight and a high prevalence of adverse metabolic profiles.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Jean

    2010-07-01

    To study the demographic and clinical parameters of three different categories of obesity, with particular focus on a cohort of individuals with BMI > or = 50 kg\\/m2, the fastest growing category of obesity.

  5. Association between class III obesity (BMI of 40-59 kg/m2 and mortality: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari M Kitahara

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The prevalence of class III obesity (body mass index [BMI]≥40 kg/m2 has increased dramatically in several countries and currently affects 6% of adults in the US, with uncertain impact on the risks of illness and death. Using data from a large pooled study, we evaluated the risk of death, overall and due to a wide range of causes, and years of life expectancy lost associated with class III obesity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies from the United States, Sweden, and Australia, we estimated sex- and age-adjusted total and cause-specific mortality rates (deaths per 100,000 persons per year and multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for adults, aged 19-83 y at baseline, classified as obese class III (BMI 40.0-59.9 kg/m2 compared with those classified as normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m2. Participants reporting ever smoking cigarettes or a history of chronic disease (heart disease, cancer, stroke, or emphysema on baseline questionnaires were excluded. Among 9,564 class III obesity participants, mortality rates were 856.0 in men and 663.0 in women during the study period (1976-2009. Among 304,011 normal-weight participants, rates were 346.7 and 280.5 in men and women, respectively. Deaths from heart disease contributed largely to the excess rates in the class III obesity group (rate differences = 238.9 and 132.8 in men and women, respectively, followed by deaths from cancer (rate differences = 36.7 and 62.3 in men and women, respectively and diabetes (rate differences = 51.2 and 29.2 in men and women, respectively. Within the class III obesity range, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for total deaths and deaths due to heart disease, cancer, diabetes, nephritis/nephrotic syndrome/nephrosis, chronic lower respiratory disease, and influenza/pneumonia increased with increasing BMI. Compared with normal-weight BMI, a BMI of 40-44.9, 45-49.9, 50-54.9, and 55-59.9 kg/m2 was associated with an

  6. The feasibility phase of a community antenatal lifestyle programme [The Lifestyle Course (TLC)] for women with a body mass index (BMI)≥ 30 kg/m(2.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Debbie M; Taylor, Wendy; Whitworth, Melissa K; Roberts, Stephen; Sibley, Colin; Lavender, Tina

    2015-02-01

    maternal obesity [body mass index (BMI)≥30kg/m(2)] is a cause for concern because of increasing rates and risk of associated complications. However, little is known about how to improve the health of women with a BMI≥30kg/m(2). a 10-week antenatal lifestyle programme (The Lifestyle Course - TLC), underpinned by behaviour change theory, was developed in a programme of research which included a prospective, multicentred, feasibility phase (n=227). Participants had a BMI≥30kg/m(2) at the start of their pregnancy, planned to deliver in two areas of Greater Manchester and were aged 18 or over. The objectives were to (1) assess the feasibility of the intervention and (2) to pilot the trial processes and outcome measures. (1) Trial intervention: only 22% of women in the feasibility phase had received gestational weight advice prior to the study. One or more TLC sessions were attended by 79% of women and 97% said they would recommend TLC to a friend due to the content suitability, perceived personal gains and extra care received. Changes to the TLC were suggested and implemented in the pilot phase. (2) Trial processes: recruitment rates (36%), retention rates (100%) and questionnaire completion rates up to one year (33%) were found. Daily general 'lifestyle' diaries and pedometers were not acceptable data collection tools (response rates of 32% and 16% respectively). However, specific food diaries were acceptable (response rates of 80-81%). The major challenge was the collection of maternal weight data at the follow-up points. the antenatal intervention (TLC) designed for this programme of work appears to suit the needs of women with a BMI≥30kg/m(2). The need for an antenatal intervention is clear from this study and also highlights reflections on effective communication with pregnant women with a BMI≥30kg/m(2). Lessons learnt for designing a future trial include effective ways to communicate with pregnant women with a BMI≥30kg/m(2). ISRCTN29860479. Copyright

  7. Thoracic epidural analgesia in obese patients with body mass index of more than 30 kg/m 2 for off pump coronary artery bypass surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Munish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Perioperative Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA is an important part of a multimodal approach to improve analgesia and patient outcome after cardiac and thoracic surgery. This is particularly important for obese patients undergoing off pump coronary artery bypass surgery (OPCAB. We conducted a randomized clinical trial at tertiary care cardiac institute to compare the effect of TEA and conventional opioid based analgesia on perioperative lung functions and pain scores in obese patients undergoing OPCAB. Sixty obese patients with body mass index> 30 kg/m 2 for elective OPCAB were randomized into two groups (n=30 each. Patients in both the groups received general anesthesia but in group 1, TEA was also administered. We performed spirometry as preoperative assessment and at six hours, 24 hours, second, third, fourth and fifth day after extubation, along with arterial blood gases analysis. Visual analogue scale at rest and on coughing was recorded to assess the degree of analgesia. The other parameters observed were: time to endotracheal extubation, oxygen withdrawal time and intensive care unit length of stay. On statistical analysis there was a significant difference in Vital Capacity at six hours, 24 hours, second and third day postextubation. Forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in one second followed the same pattern for first four postoperative days and peak expiratory flow rate remained statistically high till second postoperative day. ABG values and PaO 2 /FiO 2 ratio were statistically higher in the study group up to five days. Visual analogue scale at rest and on coughing was significantly lower till fourth and third postoperative day respectively. Tracheal extubation time, oxygen withdrawal time and ICU stay were significantly less in group 1. The use of TEA resulted in better analgesia, early tracheal extubation and shorter ICU stay and should be considered for obese patients undergoing OPCAB.

  8. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with a BMI < 28 kg/m2: a multi-institutional study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Liang; Wei Guan; Yanling Yang; Zhongqi Mao; Yijun Mei; Huan Liu; Yi Miao

    2015-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) has been demonstrated to be successful for treating type-Ⅱ diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with a body mass index (BMI) <30 kg/m2,but reports of RYGB for T2DM patients with a BMI <28 kg/m2 are lacking.T2DM patients with a BMI <28 kg/m2 were prospectively recruited to participate in this study in four hospitals.The endpoint was T2DM remission (defined by fasting blood glucose (FBG) level <110 mg/dL and hemoglobin (Hb)A1c level <6.0% at 12 months postoperatively).Predictors of remission were investigated by univariate and multivariate analyses.Eighty-six patients were assessed.Eighty-five patients underwent RYGB,with one conversion to open surgery.We compared the values of various variables before and after surgery.The mean BMI decreased from 24.68 ± 2.12 to 21.72 ± 2.43 kg/m2 (P<0.001).Fifty-eight (67.4%) patients were not treated by drugs or insulin after surgery,and 20 patients (23.3%) had complete remission of T2DM at 12 months after surgery with an acceptable number of complications.The mean HbA1c level in the remission group was significantly lower than that in the non-remission group.Patients with a higher weight,lower HbA1c level,higher C-peptide level,and higher FBG level were more likely to have T2DM remission in multivariate analyses.In conclusion,RYGB was effective and safe for treating T2DM patients with a BMI <28 kg/m2.Complete remission can be predicted by cases having a higher weight,lower HbA1c level,higher C-peptide level,and higher FBG level.

  9. Laparoscopic gastrectomy versus open gastrectomy for gastric cancer in patients with body mass index of 30 kg/m2 or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Sang-Yong; Jung, Do-Hyun; Lee, Chang Min; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Ahn, Hye Seong; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung-Ho

    2015-08-01

    High body mass index (BMI) and high visceral fat area (VFA) are known to be a preoperative risk factor for laparoscopic gastrectomy (LG) for gastric cancer. However, the impact of obesity on LG still remains controversial. In the present study, we compared the operative outcomes of LG with those of OG in patients with BMI of 30 kg/m(2) or more. Seventy-seven patients who underwent distal or total gastrectomy for gastric cancer were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups by approach method; an OG group (n = 19) and a LG group (n = 62). Aquarius iNtuition(®) program was used to measure VFA. The operation time, estimated blood loss, complication rate, the number of retrieved lymph nodes, and patient survival were compared between two groups. The mean BMI and VFA were 31.6 kg/m(2) and 195.3 cm(2). The complication rate was 42.1 % in OG group and 14.5 % in LG group, respectively (P = 0.010). LG group showed less estimated blood loss (P = 0.030) and fast recovery of bowel movement (P < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in operation time, the number of retrieved lymph nodes, and the length of hospital stay between two groups. In subgroup analysis, there was significant correlation between estimated blood loss and VFA (R (2) = 0.113, P = 0.014), but there was no correlation between operation time and VFA (R(2) = 0.002, P = 0.734). In stage I, the 5-year survival was not different between two groups (P = 0.220). LG showed better operative outcomes compared with OG, in terms of less estimated blood loss, fast recovery of bowel movement, and low complication rate, in patients with BMI of ≥ 30 kg/m(2) or more.

  10. Laparoscopic adjustable banded roux-en-y gastric bypass as a primary procedure for the super-super-obese (body mass index > 60 kg/m2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Dessel Els

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is no consensus opinion regarding the optimal procedure of choice in super-super-morbid obesity (Body mass index, BMI > 60 kg/m2. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB is associated with failure to achieve or maintain 50% excess weight loss (EWL or BMI 35 following RYGB surgery in this group. The addition of adjustable gastric band (AGB to RYGB has been reported as a revisional procedure but this combined bariatric procedure has not been explored as a primary operation. Methods In a primary laparoscopic RYGB, an AGB is drawn around the gastric pouch through a small opening between the blood vessels on the lesser curve and the gastric pouch. The band is then fixed by suturing the gastric remnant to the gastric pouch both above and below the band to prevent slippage. Results Between November 2009 and March 2010, 6 consecutive super-super-obese patients underwent a primary laparoscopic adjustable banded Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure at our institution. One male patient (21 years, BMI 70 kg/m² developed a pneumonia postoperatively. No other postoperative complications were observed. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, this is the first series of patients that underwent a laparoscopic adjustable banded RYGB as a primary operation for the super-super obese in the indexed literature. With the combined procedure, a sequential action mechanism for weight loss is to be expected. The restrictive, malabsorptive and hormonal working mechanism of the RYGB will induce weight loss from the start reaching a stabilised plateau of weight after 12 - 18 months. At that time, filling of the band can be started resulting in further gastric pouch restriction and increased weight loss. Moreover, besides improving the results of total weight loss, a gradual filling of the band can as well prevent the RYGB patient from weight regain if restriction would fade away with time.

  11. Better Outcomes in Severe and Morbid Obese Patients (BMI>35 kg/m2 in Primary Endo-Model Rotating-Hinge Total Knee Arthroplasty

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    Luis M. Lozano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Endo-Model rotating-hinge prosthesis is preferably indicated as a primary implant in patients with advanced axial deviation of the lower limbs or unstable knees with severe bone defects. Outcomes were studied in 111 knees, operated in a three-year period; the mean followup was 28 months. Joint balance enhancement and limbs mechanical axis correction were achieved after surgery. There were 6 deep infections and 16 patients referred postoperative anterior knee pain. WOMAC index scores disaggregated by gender and BMI showed better outcomes in obese patients (specifically, those with a BMI of 35–40 kg/m2 and in men. Although the lack of a control group did not allow definite conclusions and despite a nonnegligible complication rate, our results reveal that the Endo-Model total knee arthroplasty can be a useful tool to deal with severe and morbid obese patients affected of severe gonarthrosis associated with marked axial deviations, ligament instability, or bone defects.

  12. Effects of laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes and body mass index <28 kg/m2%腹腔镜下胃旁路术对体质指数<28 kg/m2的2型糖尿病患者的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭妍; 李慧华; 刘超乾; 邹大进

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨腹腔镜下胃旁路术对体质指数(BMI) <28 kg/m2的2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者的安全性及有效性.方法 回顾性分析2008年1月至2012年12月在第二军医大学附属长海医院接受胃旁路手术治疗的27例血糖控制不佳的非肥胖T2DM患者的术前资料,对其进行电话和(或)门诊随访,了解术后患者BMI、腰围、血糖、血压、血脂、术后并发症、饮食习惯及手术满意度等.两组之间比较采用t检验.结果 成功随访21例(77.8%),平均随访时间(2.7±1.1)年,无l例死亡,2例术后出现吻合口溃疡.术后空腹血糖(FPG)及糖化血红蛋白(HbAlc)较术前明显改善[FPG:(6.4±1.5)比(8.2±3.2)mmol/L,t=2.787,P<0.05;HbAlc:(6.6±1.2)%比(7.8±1.9)%,t=2.473,P<0.05].手术前后体重及BMI差异有统计学意义[分别为(65±12)比(77±10) kg,t=4.474,P<0.05;(22.8±4.6)比(25.1±2.3)kg/m2,t2.756,P<0.05],术后腰围较术前减小,差异有统计学意义[(83±8)比(93±12)cm,t =3.133,P<0.05].术后13例(61.9%)患者糖尿病缓解,5例(23.8%)疗效改善,无效者3例(14.3%).糖尿病缓解者与未缓解者相比,术前各项指标无统计学差异(均P >0.05).此外,胃旁路术后高血压缓解率为54.5% (6/11),血脂异常缓解率为66.7% (10/15),所有患者对手术平均满意度为(83±17)%.结论 腹腔镜下胃旁路术对于BMI<28 kg/m2的T2DM患者是较为安全和有效的,在减轻体重及改善血糖的同时还具有控制血压和调节血脂的作用.%Objective To explore the effect and safety of laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and body mass index (BMI) < 28 kg/m2.Methods Twenty-seven consecutively selected diabetic patients with BMI < 28 kg/m2 underwent gastric bypass in a tertiary-care hospital from January,2008 to December,2012 were retrospectively studied and followed up with telephone interview.Postoperative changes in BMI,waist circumference,glycaemic control

  13. Introduction to Mass Unit kg%浅谈质量单位千克

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄爱军; 赵明泽

    2014-01-01

    Kilogram in the international unit system is the basic unit of mass, its symbol is kg, and it is equal to the mass of the international kilogram original device. The use of kilogram is increasingly frequent. Deeply and correctly understanding and using kilogram are benefit for people to have a more comprehensive understanding of the mass of the object, and play a more and more important role in ensuring unite, accurate and consistent of the mass value. This paper studies and reviews the origin and the development history of mass unit kg, laying a solid foundation for the future development of related research.%在国际单位制中千克是表示质量的基本单位,它的符号是kg,它等于国际千克原器的质量。千克的使用日渐频繁,深入地了解千克、正确地理解和使用千克对于人们对物体的质量有较全面的认识大有裨益,对于保证质量量值的统一、准确、一致的作用越来越大。本文研究和回顾了质量单位千克的由来和发展历史,为今后相关研究的开展打下了坚实基础。

  14. One-Stage vs Two-Stage Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass in Obese Patients with Body Mass Index >55 Kg/m(2); 5-YEAR FOLLOW UP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Tobarra, María; Cassinello Fernández, Norberto; Jordá Gómez, Pablo; Nofal, Mohammad Nebih; Alfonso Ballester, Raquel; Ortega Serrano, Joaquín

    2017-04-01

    Surgical strategies in patients with BMI > 55 kg/m(2) are not well established. The objective of this study is to compare the long term results and complications of 1- vs. 2-stage laparoscopic "Roux-en-Y″ gastric bypass (LRYGB) for patients with BMI > 55 kg/m(2). Retrospective review of the complications and outcomes, between January 2007 and January 2010, for patients with a BMI > 55 kg/m(2) who underwent directly a LRYGB (1-stage) or a LRYGB as a 2nd stage of a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Twenty-four patients were enrolled (no patient was lost during the 5-year follow-up). In the 1-stage LRYGB group, two patients had grade II complications according to Clavien-Dindo classification. In the 2-stage LRYGB group, complications of the first and the second surgery were summed. There were no differences between the two groups despite being heterogenous (more men with a higher BMI in the 2-stage group). There was a statistically significant difference in the final BMI in 1-stage LRYGB group compared to the 2-stage LRYGB group (34.46 ± 6.29 vs. 40.40 ± 3.47; p = 0.01, respectively) and in percentage of excess of BMI loss (%EBMIL; 69.80 ± 19.96 vs. 54.54 ± 13.93; p = 0.04, respectively). In patients with a BMI > 55 kg/m(2), both 1- and 2-stage LRYGB give good long-term results. If feasible, a 1-stage LRYGB obtains a better percentage of excess of BMI loss but if not possible, the strategy of initially performing a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy followed by a LRYGB is safe and there were no differences in complications.

  15. The design of a community lifestyle programme to improve the physical and psychological well-being of pregnant women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmiel Catherine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a global public health issue. Having a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more (classifying a person as obese at the start of pregnancy is a significant risk factor for maternal and fetal morbidity. There is a dearth of evidence to inform suitable inteventions to support pregnant women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more. Here we describe a study protocol to test the feasibility of a variety of potential healthy lifestyle interventions for pregnant women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more in a community based programme. Methods/Design Four hundred women will be approached to attend a 10-week community lifestyle programme. The programme will be provided as a supplement to standard antenatal care. The programme is multi-faceted, aimed at equipping participants with the skills and knowledge needed to adopt healthy behaviours. The social (cognitive learning theory will be used as a tool to encourage behaviour change, the behaviour change techniques are underpinned by five theoretical components; self-efficacy, outcome expectancies, goal setting, feedback and positive reinforcement. The main outcomes are pregnancy weight gain and caesarean section rate. Other important outcomes include clinical outcomes (e.g., birth weight and psychological outcomes (e.g., well-being. Secondary outcomes include women's experience of pregnancy and health care services, amount of physical activity, food intake and the suitability of the intervention components. A prospective study using quantitative and qualitative methods will inform the feasibility of implementing the community lifestyle programme with pregnant women with a BMI of 30 kg/m2 or more. Mixed methods of data collection will be used, including diaries, focus groups/interviews, pedometers, validated and specifically designed questionnaires, a programme register, weight gain during pregnancy and perinatal outcome data. Discussion Findings from this current feasibility study will inform future

  16. Milestone Report - Demonstrate Braided Material with 3.5 g U/kg Sorption Capacity under Seawater Testing Condition (Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 - 1/30/2015)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Das, Sadananda [ORNL; Oyola, Yatsandra [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T [ORNL; Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wood, Jordana [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2015-01-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-15OR0310041 (1/30/2015) entitled, Demonstrate braided material with 3.5 g U/kg sorption capacity under seawater testing condition . This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent braided materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed four braided fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 3.5 g U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. The braided adsorbents were synthesized by braiding or leno weaving high surface area polyethylene fibers and conducting radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile monomers onto the braided materials followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. The four braided adsorbents demonstrated capacity values ranging from 3.7 to 4.2 g U/kg adsorbent after 56 days of exposure in natural coastal seawater at 20 oC. All data are normalized to a salinity of 35 psu.

  17. The effects of continuous and intermittent aerobic exercise on lipid profile and fasting blood sugar in women with a body mass index more than 25 kg/m2: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Z

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Obesity is a major health problem all around the world. On the other hand, few people, especially women, are physically active to the levels recommended by Healthy People 2010 web site managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The objective of this study was to compare the potential effects of intermittent and continuous exercise programs combined with concurrent calorie restriction diets on lipid profile and fasting blood sugar in overweight and obese females."n"nMethods : Forty-five women with a sedentary life style and a BMI greater than 25 kg/m2, were randomly assigned to one of the three groups (15 subjects in each group: a 40 minutes of medium-intensity intermittent exercise (64-76% of maximal heart rate, 3 bouts per day for 5 days a week, b a single bout of a 40-minute continuous exercise per day for 5 days a week, C the non-exercising control group. A self-monitored calorie restricted diet was recommended to all participants by a dietitian. The lipid profile, fasting blood sugar and blood pressure of all participants were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks after the intervention period."n"nResults : After the intervention, there were no significant differences among the groups in terms of lipid profile [cholesterol (P=0.94, triglyceride (P=0.62] fasting blood sugar (P=0.054, systolic blood pressure (P=0.84 or diastolic blood pressure (P=0.30."n"nConclusion: There seems to be no significant differences between short term continuous and intermittent aerobic

  18. Optimization of kV Selection on Third-generation High-pitch Dual-source Coronary CT Angiography Using Ultra-low Contrast Media Protocols in Patients with Body Mass Index between 20-30 kg/m(2) under Automatic Tube Voltage Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Yi, Yan; Cao, Jian; Wang, Yining; Qi, Bing; Ma, Shuo; Wang, Yun

    2017-02-20

    Objective To investigate the application of automatic tube voltage selection (CARE-kV)coronary CT angiography (CCTA)using ultra-low contrast media (CM)protocols in patients with body mass index (BMI)between 20 kg/m(2) and 30 kg/m(2) on third-generation dual-source CT (DSCT). Methods We prospectively included 134 consecutive patients with BMI between 20 kg/m(2) and 30 kg/m(2)who underwent CARE-kV prospective high-pitch CCTA on third-generation DSCT using the ultra-low CM protocols and divided them into two groups according to the CARE-kV results:70 kV group(n=91):65 patients with normal BMI(20 kg/m(2)≤BMI≤25 kg/m(2))and 26 patients with high BMI(25 kg/m(2)image quality (IQ),and results of patients in each group and subgroup were evaluated and compared.ResultsThe ED of 70 kV group was(0.24±0.04)mSv,which was 53% lower(H=3.37,P=0.02)than that of 80 kV group [(0.51±0.05)mSv]. No significant difference of CNR and SNR had been found in normal BMI patients(H=1.81,P=0.23)and high BMI patients (H=0.91,P=0.84)among 70 kV group and 80 kV group,as well as the subjective IQ in normal BMI patients(Z=0.79,P=0.76)and high BMI patients (Z=0.77,P=0.81)among 70 kV group and 80 kV group. Conclusion sWhen patients with BMI between 20 kg/m(2) and 30 kg/m(2) receive CARE-kV prospective high-pitch CCTA on third-generation DSCT,the CARE-kV results for a portion of patients may be higher than other patients with the same BMI level,so as to guarantee the equivalent IQ. The CARE-kV can help to select the patients' optimal tube voltage value more accurately and reasonably.

  19. Middle infrared (wavelength range: 8 μm-14 μm) 2-dimensional spectroscopy (total weight with electrical controller: 1.7 kg, total cost: less than 10,000 USD) so-called hyperspectral camera for unmanned air vehicles like drones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naoyuki; Saito, Tsubasa; Ogawa, Satoru; Ishimaru, Ichiro

    2016-05-01

    We developed the palm size (optical unit: 73[mm]×102[mm]×66[mm]) and light weight (total weight with electrical controller: 1.7[kg]) middle infrared (wavelength range: 8[μm]-14[μm]) 2-dimensional spectroscopy for UAV (Unmanned Air Vehicle) like drone. And we successfully demonstrated the flights with the developed hyperspectral camera mounted on the multi-copter so-called drone in 15/Sep./2015 at Kagawa prefecture in Japan. We had proposed 2 dimensional imaging type Fourier spectroscopy that was the near-common path temporal phase-shift interferometer. We install the variable phase shifter onto optical Fourier transform plane of infinity corrected imaging optical systems. The variable phase shifter was configured with a movable mirror and a fixed mirror. The movable mirror was actuated by the impact drive piezo-electric device (stroke: 4.5[mm], resolution: 0.01[μm], maker: Technohands Co.,Ltd., type:XDT50-45, price: around 1,000USD). We realized the wavefront division type and near common path interferometry that has strong robustness against mechanical vibrations. Without anti-mechanical vibration systems, the palm-size Fourier spectroscopy was realized. And we were able to utilize the small and low-cost middle infrared camera that was the micro borometer array (un-cooled VOxMicroborometer, pixel array: 336×256, pixel pitch: 17[μm], frame rate 60[Hz], maker: FLIR, type: Quark 336, price: around 5,000USD). And this apparatus was able to be operated by single board computer (Raspberry Pi.). Thus, total cost was less than 10,000 USD. We joined with KAMOME-PJ (Kanagawa Advanced MOdule for Material Evaluation Project) with DRONE FACTORY Corp., KUUSATSU Corp., Fuji Imvac Inc. And we successfully obtained the middle infrared spectroscopic imaging with multi-copter drone.

  20. Modification on Electrostatic Precipitator at Head of 230 m2 Sintering Machine of United Special Steel%联合特钢公司230 m2烧结机机头电除尘器改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勃兴

    2015-01-01

    为满足日益严格的环保要求,针对天钢联合特钢有限公司230 m2烧结机头电除尘器运行不稳定的问题,从电场、卸灰阀、阴阳极振打系统、阴阳极大小框架校正、阴阳极系统校正及漏风检查等方面对230 m2烧结机机头电除尘器进行改造。改造后电除尘器运行正常,能够满足国家排放标准。%In order to meet more and more strict environmental requirement and to solve the problem of unstable running of electrical precipitator at head of sintering machine, the electrical precipitator at head of 230 m2 Sintering Machine of Tianjin Tiangang United Special Steel Co., Ltd. was modified from aspects of electric field, dust discharge valve, anode-cathode vibrating system, calibration of anode-cathode big and small frames, calibration of anode-cathode system and air leakage inspection. After modification, the electrical precipitator ran normally, meeting the emission requirement by national standard.

  1. 不同胃囊容积腹腔镜Roux-en-Y胃旁路术对体重指数<35kg/m2的2型糖尿病患者治疗疗效的对比观察%Effects of LRYGB with different gastric pouch volume on type 2 diabetic patients with BMI <35 kg/m2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易波; 李鹏洲; 蒋娟; 粟晗; 宋智; 朱晒红

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨不同胃囊容积腹腔镜 Roux‐en‐Y 胃旁路术(LRYGB)对BMI <35 kg/m2的T2DM患者的术后疗效。方法60例T2DM患者分别行保留大部分胃囊的腹腔镜Roux‐en‐Y胃旁路术(下称“大胃囊LRYGB”)和缩小胃囊容积的改良LRYGB(下称“小胃囊LRYGB”,胃囊容积控制约50 ml)。患者术后随访12个月,比较两组手术前后BMI 、WC、体脂率、FPG、2 hPG、HbA1c、胰岛素抵抗指数(HOMA‐IR)变化及术后并发症发生率。结果两种手术方式均能降低 FPG、2 hPG、HbA1c水平,改善IR;小胃囊LRYGB对于BMI、体脂率、WC、术后吻合口溃疡发生率、糖代谢异常及IR的改善优于大胃囊LRYGB。结论两种手术方式均可缓解BMI<35 kg/m2的 T2DM 患者糖代谢异常。相比大胃囊LRYGB ,小胃囊LRYGB更能改善腹型肥胖,且对糖代谢异常、IR的治疗优势更加明显。%Objective To explore effects of LRYGB with different gastric pouch volume on type 2diabeticpatientswithBMI<35kg/m2.Methods 60T2DMpatientswererecruitedandrandomizedto undergo either LRYGB with a big gastric pouch or LRYGB with a small gastric pouch (about 50 ml). All patients were followed up for 12 months. Pre‐and post‐operative changes in BMI ,waist circumference , body fat rate ,FPG ,2 hPG ,HbA1c ,HOMA‐IR and incidence of post‐operative complication were compared between the two groups. Results Both procedures were successful in reducing FPG ,2 hPG and HbA1 c , and improving HOMA‐IR. LRYGB with a small gastric pouch resulted in a greater reduction in BMI ,body fat rate ,WC ,incidence of postoperative marginal ulcer ,glucose metabolism disorders and HOM A‐IR compared with LRYGB with a big gastric pouch. Conclusion Both procedures are effective in treating glucose metabolism disorders for T2DM patients with BMI < 35 kg/m2. LRYGB with a small gastric pouch is better in releasing abdominal obesity ,restoring glucose metabolism disorders and

  2. The M2 Channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santner, Paul

    and inhibition mechanisms, drug design studies were recently able to achieve successes in finding new potent inhibitors, some of which are even able to inhibit resistant M2 variants. Effective and robust methods for measuring M2 activity on the other hand are still scarce and tactics to assess the genetic...... barrier of new inhibitors as well as resistance development non-existent. Therefore we developed a fluorescence sensor based assay that directly measures proton conduction (pHlux assay) and combined it with an already established directed evolution selection and screening system of M2 to identify possible...... resistance escape routes from drug inhibition. We thereby were hopefully able to provide a platform for the large-scale evaluation of M2 channel activity, inhibitors and resistance....

  3. EnviroAtlas - Average Direct Normal Solar resources kWh/m2/Day by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The annual average direct normal solar resources by 12-Digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) was estimated from maps produced by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory for...

  4. Homogeneous M2 duals

    CERN Document Server

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, José

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with $N>4$ supersymmetry --- equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra $\\mathfrak{osp}(N|4)$ for $N>4$ --- we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra $\\mathfrak{so}(n) \\oplus \\mathfrak{so}(3,2)$ for $n=5,6,7$. We find that there are no new backgrounds with $n=6,7$ but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with $n=5$. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form $\\operatorname{AdS}_4 \\times P^7$, with $P$ riemannian and homogeneous under the action of $\\operatorname{SO}(5)$, or $S^4 \\times Q^7$ with $Q$ lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of $\\operatorname{SO}(3,2)$. At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only $N=2$) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund--Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  5. 400 Wh/kg Secondary Battery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Summary Lithium-ion battery technology will not provide significant breakthroughs beyond 200 Wh/kg. It will not provide adequate specific energy and cycle life for...

  6. Guest Foreword by Lord Phillips KG PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Phillips

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Rt Hon The Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers KG PC, President of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Ambition and excellence. Those two words epitomize Qatar. Under the leadership of his Highness the Emir, this small State has set out to make an impact on the world that belies its size. Ambitious was the plan to have an international broadcasting station. Ambitious was the plan to build from scratch a Museum of Islamic Art. Ambitious was the bid – the successful bid to host the World Cup in 2022. Ambitious is the bid to stage the Olympic Games in 2020. Qatar not merely has ambitions, it realizes its ambitions. And when it does so it is not enough to say that the result is ‘world class’, for Qatar sets out to be a world leader in whatever it puts its hand to. Excellence is the norm. Al Jazeera has established itself as the broadcasting station of choice for many throughout the world. The Doha Museum of Islamic Art is recognized as being second to none. In addition, the scale and standard of development in Doha itself is setting new standards of excellence in the fields of architecture and civil engineering. Thus when Qatar focuses its energies on education and the law, high achievements are expected. I shall have the honour of helping to achieve those expectations when I succeed Lord Woolf as President of Qatar’s new and impressive Civil and Commercial Court. The College of Law at Qatar University is already achieving excellence in the field of legal education. So, naturally, all expect great things of this new International Review of Law and I am delighted to have been invited to welcome it by this foreword. The range of the first edition is both international and topical. Those countries that have experienced the turbulence of the Arab Spring are settling new constitutions, and other countries are bent on constitutional reform designed to avoid such turbulence. So an erudite article on

  7. What is $\\Delta m^2_{ee}$ ?

    CERN Document Server

    Parke, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The current short baseline reactor experiments, Daya Bay and RENO (Double Chooz) have measured (or are capable of measuring) an effective $\\Delta m^2$ associated with the atmospheric oscillation scale of 0.5 km/MeV in electron anti-neutrino disappearance. In this paper, I compare and contrast the different definitions of such an effective $\\Delta m^2$ and argue that the simple, L/E independent, definition given by $\\Delta m^2_{ee} \\equiv \\cos^2 \\theta_{12} \\Delta m^2_{31}+ \\sin^2 \\theta_{12} \\Delta m^2_{32}$, i.e. "the $\

  8. M2M massive wireless access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanella, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele; Santos, André F.

    2013-01-01

    of the current cellular standards. Here, we provide insights and introduce potential solutions for the cellular radio protocol that will allow the efficient support of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications. The paper focuses on the massive aspect of M2M. We will introduce PHY and MAC approaches such as Coded...... and research guidelines for enabling future networks to support efficiently M2M communications....

  9. Density Measurement System for Weights of 1 kg to 20 kg Using Hydrostatic Weighing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jae; Lee, Woo Gab; Abdurahman, Mohammed; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    This paper presents a density measurement system to determine density of weights from 1 kg to 20 kg using hydrostatic weighing. The system works based on Archimedes principle. The density of reference liquid is determined using this setup while determining the density of the test weight. Density sphere is used as standard density ball to determine density of the reference liquid. A new immersion pan is designed for dual purpose to carry the density sphere and the cylindrical test weight for weighing in liquid. Main parts of the setup are an electronic balance, a thermostat controlled liquid bath, reference weights designed for bottom weighing, dual purpose immersion pans and stepping motors to load and unload in weighing process. The results of density measurement will be evaluated as uncertainties for weights of 1 kg to 20 kg.

  10. Pregnancy outcomes in a cohort of women with a preconception body mass index >50 kg/m²

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, Barbara; Secher, Niels J; Møller, Lars K

    2013-01-01

    We describe characteristics and risk factors regarding pregnancy outcome in women with a preconception body mass index (BMI) >50 kg/m(2) compared with women with BMI ≤50 kg/m(2) in a retrospective population cohort study in singleton pregnancies from the Danish Medical Birth Registry. Results were...... analyzed as relative risks by a two-proportion z-test. Women with preconception BMI >50 kg/m(2) smoked, developed gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia, and needed induction of labor more frequently than mothers with BMI ≤50 kg/m(2) . Examination of the case records showed that many attempted vaginal...... women with BMI ≤50 kg/m(2) . Women with an extremely high preconception BMI develop more pregnancy complications and their neonates appear affected by this as well....

  11. Hofbauer cells of M2a, M2b and M2c polarization may regulate feto-placental angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loegl, J; Hiden, U; Nussbaumer, E; Schliefsteiner, C; Cvitic, S; Lang, I; Wadsack, C; Huppertz, B; Desoye, G

    2016-11-01

    The human placenta comprises a special type of tissue macrophages, the Hofbauer cells (HBC), which exhibit M2 macrophage phenotype. Several subtypes of M2-polarized macrophages (M2a, M2b and M2c) exist in almost all tissues. Macrophage polarization depends on the way of macrophage activation and leads to the expression of specific cell surface markers and the acquisition of specific functions, including tissue remodeling and the promotion of angiogenesis. The placenta is a highly vascularized and rapidly growing organ, suggesting a role of HBC in feto-placental angiogenesis. We here aimed to characterize the specific polarization and phenotype of HBC and investigated the role of HBC in feto-placental angiogenesis. Therefore, HBC were isolated from third trimester placentas and their phenotype was determined by the presence of cell surface markers (FACS analysis) and secretion of cytokines (ELISA). HBC conditioned medium (CM) was analyzed for pro-angiogenic factors, and the effect of HBC CM on angiogenesis, proliferation and chemoattraction of isolated primary feto-placental endothelial cells (fpEC) was determined in vitro Our results revealed that isolated HBC possess an M2 polarization, with M2a, M2b and M2c characteristics. HBC secreted the pro-angiogenic molecules VEGF and FGF2. Furthermore, HBC CM stimulated the in vitro angiogenesis of fpEC. However, compared with control medium, chemoattraction of fpEC toward HBC CM was reduced. Proliferation of fpEC was not affected by HBC CM. These findings demonstrate a paracrine regulation of feto-placental angiogenesis by HBC in vitro Based on our collective results, we propose that the changes in HBC number or phenotype may affect feto-placental angiogenesis. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  12. Assigning error to an M2 measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, T. Sean

    2006-02-01

    The ISO 11146:1999 standard has been published for 6 years and set forth the proper way to measure the M2 parameter. In spite of the strong experimental guidance given by this standard and the many commercial devices based upon ISO 11146, it is still the custom to quote M2 measurements without any reference to significant figures or error estimation. To the author's knowledge, no commercial M2 measurement device includes error estimation. There exists, perhaps, a false belief that M2 numbers are high precision and of insignificant error. This paradigm causes program managers and purchasers to over-specify a beam quality parameter and researchers not to question the accuracy and precision of their M2 measurements. This paper will examine the experimental sources of error in an M2 measurement including discretization error, CCD noise, discrete filter sets, noise equivalent aperture estimation, laser fluctuation and curve fitting error. These sources of error will be explained in their experimental context and convenient formula given to properly estimate error in a given M2 measurement. This work is the result of the author's inability to find error estimation and disclosure of methods in commercial beam quality measurement devices and building an ISO 11146 compliant, computer- automated M2 measurement device and the resulting lessons learned and concepts developed.

  13. Progress On 58m2 Passive Resonant Ring Laser Gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, G. L.; Rotge, J.; Simmons, B. J.

    1986-01-01

    An update of the large area (now 60m2) Passive Resonant Ring Laser Gyro (PRRLG) is given. Some aspects of last year's design have changed; but performance is still predicted to be in the 10-10 earth rate unit (ERU) range. This is of interest for a number of geophysical applications.

  14. Tachyonic Anti-M2 Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; Kuperstein, Stanislav; Massai, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    We study the dynamics of anti-M2 branes in a warped Stenzel solution with M2 charges dissolved in fluxes by taking into account their full backreaction on the geometry. The resulting supergravity solution has a singular magnetic four-form flux in the near-brane region. We examine the possible resolution of this singularity via the polarization of anti-M2 branes into M5 branes, and compute the corresponding polarization potential for branes smeared on the finite-size four-sphere at the tip of the Stenzel space. We find that the potential has no minimum. We then use the potential for smeared branes to compute the one corresponding to a stack of localized anti-M2 branes, and use this potential to compute the force between two anti-M2 branes at tip of the Stenzel space. We find that this force, which is zero in the probe approximation, is in fact repulsive. This surprising result points to a tachyonic instability of anti-M2 branes in backgrounds with M2 brane charge dissolved in flux.

  15. M2M massive wireless access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanella, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele; Santos, André F.

    2013-01-01

    In order to make the Internet of Things a reality, ubiquitous coverage and low-complexity connectivity are required. Cellular networks are hence the most straightforward and realistic solution to enable a massive deployment of always connected Machines around the globe. Nevertheless, a paradigm...... of the current cellular standards. Here, we provide insights and introduce potential solutions for the cellular radio protocol that will allow the efficient support of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications. The paper focuses on the massive aspect of M2M. We will introduce PHY and MAC approaches such as Coded...

  16. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2011-12-20

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  17. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2013-04-16

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  18. Anti-influenza M2e antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2013-04-16

    Humanized recombinant and monoclonal antibodies specific for the ectodomain of the influenza virus M2 ion channel protein are disclosed. The antibodies of the invention have anti-viral activity and may be useful as anti-viral therapeutics and/or prophylactic/vaccine agents for inhibiting influenza virus replication and for treating individuals infected with influenza.

  19. Digestible phosphorus levels for barrows from 50 to 80 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Maria Oliveira dos Santos Nieto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was carried out to evaluate the levels of digestible phosphorus in diets for barrows with a high potential for lean meat deposition from 50 to 80 kg. Eighty barrows, with an initial weight of 47.93±3.43 kg, were distributed in completely randomized blocks, with each group given five levels of digestible phosphorus (1.86, 2.23, 2.61, 2.99, and 3.36 g kg−1. There were eight replicates, and two animals per experimental unit. Phosphorus levels did not significantly influence feed intake, weight gain, or feed conversion ratio. Daily digestible phosphorus intake increased linearly as levels of phosphorus in the diet were increased. Phosphorus levels did not significantly influence muscle depth, loin eye area, backfat thickness, or the percentage and quantity of lean meat in the carcass. A linear increase was observed for feeding cost as the levels of digestible phosphorus in the diet were increased, and the level of 1.86 g kg−1 cost 29.4% less when compared with the level of 2.61 g kg−1. The dry matter, natural matter, the coefficient of the residue, and volatile solids of the waste were not significantly influenced by phosphorus levels. Conversely, it was possible to observe an increasing linear effect for total solids, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen in the waste of animals receiving diets with increased levels of digestible phosphorus. The level of 1.86 g kg−1, which corresponded to a daily intake of 4.77 g−1 of digestible phosphorus, meets the requirements of barrows weighing 50 to 80 kg.

  20. Superconformal indices and M2-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eager, Richard [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI),University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Schmude, Johannes [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-12-10

    We derive the superconformal index of the world-volume theory on M2-branes probing the cone over an arbitrary Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifold. The index is expressed in terms of the cohomology groups of the cone. We match our supergravity results with known results from gauge theory. Along the way we derive the spectrum of short Kaluza-Klein multiplets on generic Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifolds.

  1. Superconformal indices and M2-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eager, Richard; Schmude, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    We derive the superconformal index of the world-volume theory on M2-branes probing the cone over an arbitrary Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifold. The index is expressed in terms of the cohomology groups of the cone. We match our supergravity results with known results from gauge theory. Along the way we derive the spectrum of short Kaluza-Klein multiplets on generic Sasaki-Einstein seven-manifolds.

  2. Atmospheric Turbulence Measurements With the Automatic Mini UAV 'M2AV Carolo'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bange, J.; van den Kroonenberg, A. C.; Spieß, T.; Buschmann, M.; Krüger, L.; Heindorf, A.; Vörsmann, P.

    2007-05-01

    The limitations of manned airborne meteorological measurements led to the development of an autonomously operating mini aircraft, the Meteorological Mini-UAV (M2AV), at the Institute of Aerospace Systems, Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany. The task was to develop, test and verify a meteorological sensor package as payload for an already available automatic carrier aircraft, the UAV 'Carolo T200', which operates autonomously i.e. without remote control. The M2AV is a self constructed model aircraft with two electrically powered engines and a wingspan of two meters. The maximum take-off weight is 4.5~kg (the M2AV is therefore classified as an model plane which simplifies authority issues), including 1.5~kg of payload. It is hand-launched which makes operation of the aircraft easy. With an endurance of approximately 50 minutes, the range accounts for 60 km at a cruising speed of 20~m/s. The M2AV is capable of performing turbulence measurements (wind vector, temperature and humidity) within the troposphere and offers an economic component during meteorological campaigns. The meteorological sensors are mounted on a noseboom to minimise the aircraft's influence on the measurements and to position the sensors closely to each other. Wind is measured via a small five-hole probe, an inertia measurement unit and GPS. The flight mission (waypoints, altitudes, airspeed) is planned and assigned to the aircraft before the semi- automatic launch. The flight is only controlled by the on-board autopilot system which only communicates with a ground station (laptop PC) for the exchange of measured data and command updates like new waypoints etc. The talk gives details on the technical items, calibration and first missions. Results from first field experiments like the LAUNCH-2005 campaign near Berlin are used for data quality assessment by comparison with simultaneous lidar and sodar measurements. An in situ comparison with the highly accurate helicopter-borne turbulence

  3. LOSA-M2 aerosol Raman lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balin, Yu S; Bairashin, G S; Kokhanenko, G P; Penner, I E; Samoilova, S V [V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-31

    The scanning LOSA-M2 aerosol Raman lidar, which is aimed at probing atmosphere at wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm, is described. The backscattered light is received simultaneously in two regimes: analogue and photon-counting. Along with the signals of elastic light scattering at the initial wavelengths, a 607-nm Raman signal from molecular nitrogen is also recorded. It is shown that the height range of atmosphere probing can be expanded from the near-Earth layer to stratosphere using two (near- and far-field) receiving telescopes, and analogue and photon-counting lidar signals can be combined into one signal. Examples of natural measurements of aerosol stratification in atmosphere along vertical and horizontal paths during the expeditions to the Gobi Desert (Mongolia) and Lake Baikal areas are presented.

  4. Periodic Arrays of M2-Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, Imtak; Richmond, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We consider periodic arrays of M2-branes in the ABJM model in the spirit of a circle compactification to D2-branes in type IIA string theory. The result is a curious formulation of three-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in terms of fermions, seven transverse scalars, a non-dynamical gauge field and an additional scalar `dual gluon'. Upon further T-duality on a transverse torus we obtain a non-manifest-Lorentz-invariant description of five-dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills. Here the additional scalar field can be thought of as the components of a two-form along the torus. This action can be viewed as an M-theory description of M5-branes on ${\\mathbb T}^3$.

  5. The (178m2)Hf Controversy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, J A; Gemmell, D S; Schiffer, J P; Wilhelmy, J B

    2003-07-24

    Since its discovery in the 1960's the {sup 178m2}Hf isomer has garnered high attention from both the basic and applied communities in nuclear science. It's combination of high spin (16+), long half life (31 yrs), and high excitation energy (2.446 MeV) offer unique possibilities as an energy storage medium. Interest in the isomer was rekindled beginning in 1999 when a series of publications began to appear from a group (referred to here as the ''Texas collaboration'') primarily based at the University of Texas, Dallas [1]. They reported observations that some of the stored energy could be released (''triggered'') when the isomer was exposed to a fluence of photons in the energy range {approx}10 to {approx}60 keV. The implications of this observation are profound. Even though the claimed cross section for the process was {approx}7 orders of magnitude greater than would be predicted from the known systematics of photon absorption by nuclei in this mass range [2], such a highly efficient method for triggering the isomeric deexcitation immediately suggested applications utilizing the explosive or the controlled gradual energy release from a very compact source. The prospect of such applications has focused considerable interest on realizing the promise that is implicit in the reported observations. However, two experiments performed by a group from ANL/LANL/LLNL at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne (the ''APS collaboration'') reported negative results for the observation of any photon-triggered deexcitation of the {sup 178m2}Hf isomer [3]. This has led to a continued controversy, where both sides have adamantly defended their observations. At this point an outsider has difficulty determining whether there is indeed a triggering effect that should be pursued energetically with substantial resources, or whether the phenomenon consists of overly optimistic interpretation of data.

  6. Vitamin D deficiency in population with BMI greater than 25 kg/m2 and its association with demographic and anthropometric indices

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Today obesity and overweightness are the major health problem all over the world. The relation between decreasing serum level of vitamin D and some chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity was shown in the available studies. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among obese and overweight Iranian population and its relation with age, sex, occupation, body fat percentage and body weight according to body mass index. Methods: In a desc...

  7. Vitamin D deficiency in population with BMI greater than 25 kg/m2 and its association with demographic and anthropometric indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alizadeh

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was high in obese and overweight population especially among individuals younger than 50 years. It seems that, it is necessary to add prevention and management of this deficiency to obesity treatment protocols especially in the young adults.

  8. Evidence of paired M2 muscarinic receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, L.T.; Ballesteros, L.A.; Bichajian, L.H.; Ferrendelli, C.A.; Fisher, A.; Hanchett, H.E.; Zhang, R. (Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, FL (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Binding assays involving various antagonists, including N-(3H) methylscopolamine, (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate, AFDX-116, pirenzepine, and propylbenzilylcholine mustard, disclosed only a single population of M2 muscarinic receptors in membranes from the rat brainstem (medulla, pons, and colliculi). However, competition curves between N-(3H)methylscopolamine and various agonists, including oxotremorine, cis-dioxolane, and acetylethylcholine mustard, showed approximately equal numbers of guanine nucleotide-sensitive high affinity (H) sites and guanine nucleotide-insensitive low affinity (L) sites. This 50% H phenomenon persisted in different buffers, at different temperatures, after the number of receptors was halved (and, thus, the remaining receptor to guanine nucleotide-binding protein ratio was doubled), after membrane solubilization with digitonin, and when rabbit cardiac membranes were used instead of rat brainstem membranes. Preferential occupation of H sites with acetylethylcholine mustard, and of L sites with quinuclidinyl benzilate or either mustard, yielded residual free receptor populations showing predominantly L and H sites, respectively. Low concentrations of (3H)-oxotremorine-M labeled only H sites, and the Bmax for these sites was 49% of the Bmax found with (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate plus guanine nucleotide. These and other results are most consistent with the idea that H and L receptor sites exist on separate but dimeric receptor molecules and with the hypothesis that only the H receptors cycle between high and low affinity, depending upon interactions between this receptor molecule and a guanine nucleotide-binding protein.

  9. HF183/BFDrev and HumM2 qPCR data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Concentration estimates for HF183/BFDrev and HumM2 qPCR genetic markers in raw sewage collected from 54 geographic locations across the United States. This dataset...

  10. Development of a New, High Sensitivity 2000 kg Mechanical Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian

    2017-04-13

    Mass measurement of more than 500 kg on an electronic mass comparator has no better repeatability and linearity of measurement for meeting the calibration requirement of over class F1 weights from pharmacy and power generation plants. For this purpose, a new 2000 kg mechanical balance was developed by the National Institute of Metrology (NIM). The advantages of measurement of more than 500 kg on a new 2000 kg mechanical balance are introduced in the paper. In order to obtain high measurement uncertainty, four vertical forces of two sides of beam are measured and used as reference for adjustment of the beam position. Laser displacement sensors in the indication system are more effective for decreasing reading errors caused by human vision. To improve the repeatability and sensitivity of the equipment, a synchronous lifting control is designed for synchronously lifting the beam ends along the vertical direction. A counterweight selection system is developed to get any combination of weights in a limited space. The sensitivity of the new mechanical balance for 2000 kg is more than 1.7 parts in 10(-4) rad/g. The extended uncertainties for the mechanical balance of 500 kg, 1000 kg and 2000 kg are 0.47 g, 1.8 g and 3.5 g respectively.

  11. Construction and performance of XMASS 800kg detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing [Kamioka Satellite, Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 456 Higashi Mozumi, Kamioka-cho, Hida-shi, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    The XMASS 800kg detector, aiming primarily at the dark matter search, is currently under commissioning at the Kamioka Underground Observatory, Japan. The construction and performance of the detector are briefly reviewed.

  12. Is low VO2max/kg in obese heart failure patients indicative of cardiac dysfunction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothi, S S; Tan, D K; Partridge, G; Tan, L B

    2015-04-01

    Low peak O2 consumption (VO2max/kg) has been widely used as an indirect indicator of poor cardiac fitness, and often guides management of patients with severe heart failure (HF). We hypothesized that it should be as good an indicator of cardiac dysfunction in obese and non-obese HF patients. We compared the cardiopulmonary exercise performance and non-invasive hemodynamics of 152 obese (BMI>34 kg.m(-2)) and 173 non-obese (BMI≤32) male HF patients in NYHA classes II and III, with reference to 101 healthy male controls. Their physical and cardiac functional reserves were measured during treadmill exercise testing with standard respiratory gas analyses and CO2 rebreathing to measure cardiac output non-invasively during peak exercise. Data are given as mean ± SD. Obese HF patients with BMI 40.9 ± 7.5 kg·m(-2) (age 56.1 ± 14.0 years, NYHA 2.5 ± 0.5) exercised to acceptable cardiopulmonary limits (peak RER=1.07 ± 0.12), and achieved a mean VO2max/kg of 18.6 ± 5.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), significantly lower than in non-obese HF counterparts (19.9 ± 5.6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), P=0.02, age 55.8 ± 10.6 years, BMI 26.6 ± 3.1, NYHA 2.4 ± 0.5, peak RER=1.07 ± 0.09), with both lower than controls (38.5 ± 9.7 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), PVO2max was higher in obese (2.31 ± 0.69 ml·min(-1)) than non-obese HF patients (1.61 ± 0.49 ml·min(-1), PVO2max/kg is not a generally reliable indicator of cardiac fitness in all patients. Instead, we found that despite having lower VO2max/kg, obese HF patients had stronger hearts capable of generating greater cardiac power than non-obese HF patients of equivalent clinical HF status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The modulatory role of M2 muscarinic receptor on apomorphine-induced yawning and genital grooming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamberini, Maria Thereza; Bolognesi, Maria Laura; Nasello, Antonia Gladys

    2012-12-01

    The interaction between dopaminergic and cholinergic pathways in the induction of behavioral responses has been previously established. In the brain, M2 receptors are found predominantly in presynaptic cholinergic neurons as autoreceptors, and in dopaminergic neurons as heteroceptors, suggesting a control role of acetylcholine and dopamine release, respectively. Our aim was to investigate the role of M2 receptors on the yawning and genital grooming of rats induced by apomorphine, a dopaminergic receptor agonist, focusing on the interaction between cholinergic and dopaminergic pathways. Initially, the effect of atropine, a non-selective muscarinic antagonist, on yawning and genital grooming induced by apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.) was analyzed. Atropine doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before induction of the behavioral responses by apomorphine. Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were quantified over a 60 min period. Apomorphine-induced yawning was increased by low dose (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) but not by high doses (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) of atropine. Genital grooming was antagonized by 2 mg/kg i.p. of atropine and showed no changes at the other doses tested. Tripitramine, a selective M2 cholinergic antagonist, was used as a tool for distinguishing between M2 and all other muscarinic receptor subtypes in yawning and genital grooming. Tripitramine doses of 0.01, 0.02 and 0.04 μmol/kg i.p. were administered to Wistar rats 30 min before apomorphine (100 μg/kg s.c.). Number of yawns and time spent genital grooming were also quantified over a 60 min period. Tripitramine 0.01 μmol/kg increased all parameters. Higher doses, which possibly block all subtypes of muscarinic receptor, did not modify the response of apomorphine, suggesting a non-selective effect of tripitramine at these doses. Given that low doses of tripitramine increased the behavioral responses induced by apomorphine and that the main distribution of the M2

  14. Ipilimumab 10 mg/kg versus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg in patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ascierto, Paolo A; Del Vecchio, Michele; Robert, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A phase 2 trial suggested increased overall survival and increased incidence of treatment-related grade 3-4 adverse events with ipilimumab 10 mg/kg compared with ipilimumab 3 mg/kg in patients with advanced melanoma. We report a phase 3 trial comparing the benefit-risk profile...... of ipilimumab 10 mg/kg versus 3 mg/kg. METHODS: This randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase 3 trial was done in 87 centres in 21 countries worldwide. Patients with untreated or previously treated unresectable stage III or IV melanoma, without previous treatment with BRAF inhibitors or immune checkpoint...... for metastatic melanoma, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status. The patients, investigators, and site staff were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population and safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one...

  15. Corn types with different nutritional profiles, extruded or not, on piglets (6 to 15 kg feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina de Oliveira

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and verify piglets' performance in the nursery phase fed with diets containing common corn (CC, extruded common corn (ECC, high-lysine corn (HLC, extruded high-lysine corn (EHLC, high-oil corn (HOC and extruded high-oil corn (EHOC. In the total digestibility trial 14 barrows averaging 6.49 ± 0.16 kg initial body weight were allotted in metabolism cages, distributed in a randomized design with seven diets, six replicates, and one piglet per experimental unit. The values of digestible energy (DE, as well as metabolizable energy (ME as-fed basis for CC, ECC, HLC, EHLC, HOC and EHOC were: 3,428 and 3,327 kcal/kg; 3,439 and 3,355 kcal/kg; 3,533 and 3,414 kcal/kg; 3,515 and 3,427 kcal/kg; 3,483 and 3,377 kcal/kg; 3,585 and 3,482 kcal/kg, respectively. In the performance experiment, 84 piglets, weaned at 21 days old, initial live weight of 6.06 ± 0.54 kg were used. Animals were allotted in a completely randomized design in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, using three types of corn (CC, HLC and HOC, two forms of processing (processed or not by extrusion, seven replicates and two piglets per experimental unit. Six diets containing CC, ECC, HLC, EHLC, HOC and EHOC were studied. There were no advantages in the digestibility and performance by extruding the types of corn with different nutritional profiles, for their use in commercial diets for piglets. The results of the two experiments emphasize the importance of segregating the types of corn, extruded or not, in their real chemical and energetic composition as well as the values of true digestible amino acids for the formulation of piglet diets in the nursery phase.

  16. Main: 1M2Q [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1M2Q トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Casein Kinase Ii, Alpha Chain Name=Ack2; Zea Mays Mole...LVGRHSRKPWLKFMNADNQHLVSPEAIDFLDKLLRYDHQERLTALEAMTHPYFQQVRAAENSRTRA corn_1M2Q.jpg ...

  17. Main: 1M2P [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1M2P トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Casein Kinase Ii, Alpha Chain Name=Ack2; Zea Mays Mole...LVGRHSRKPWLKFMNADNQHLVSPEAIDFLDKLLRYDHQERLTALEAMTHPYFQQVRAAENSRTRA corn_1M2P.jpg ...

  18. Main: 1M2R [RPSD[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1M2R トウモロコシ Corn Zea mays L. Casein Kinase Ii, Alpha Chain Name=Ack2; Zea Mays Mole...ELLVDLQDYDYSLDMWSLGCMFAGMIFRKEPFFYGHDNHDQLVKIAKVLGTDGLNVYLNKYRIELDPQLEALVGRHSRKPWLKFMNADNQHLVSPEAIDFLDKLLRYDHQERLTALEAMTHPYFQQVRAAENSRTRA corn_1M2R.jpg ...

  19. Large-Scale Mini-Magnetosphere Plasma Propulsion (M2P2) Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winglee, R. M.; Slough, J.; Ziemba, T.; Euripides, P.; Adrian, M. L.; Gallagher, D.; Craven, P.; Tomlinson, W.; Cravens, J.; Burch, J.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Mini-Magnetosphere Plasma Propulsion (M2P2) is an innovative plasma propulsion system that has the potential to propel spacecraft at unprecedented speeds of 50 to 80 km per second with a low-power requirement of approx. 1 kW per 100 kg of payload and approx. 1 kg of neutral gas [fuel] consumption per day of acceleration. Acceleration periods from several days to a few months are envisioned. High specific impulse and efficiency are achieved through coupling of the spacecraft to the 400 km per second solar wind through an artificial magnetosphere. The mini-magnetosphere or inflated magnetic bubble is produced by the injection of cold dense plasma into a spacecraft-generated magnetic field envelope. Magnetic bubble inflation is driven by electromagnetic processes thereby avoiding the material and deployment problems faced by mechanical solar sail designs, Here, we present the theoretical design of M2P2 as well as initial results from experimental testing of an M2P2 prototype demonstrating: 1) inflation of the dipole magnetic field geometry through the internal injection of cold plasma; and 2) deflection of and artificial solar wind by the prototype M2P2 system. In addition, we present plans for direct laboratory measurement of thrust imparted to a prototype M2P2 by an artificial solar wind during the summer of 2001.

  20. Comparison of antigenic proteins from Lactococcus garvieae KG- and KG+ strains that are recognized by olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gee-Wook; Nho, Seong-Won; Park, Seong-Bin; Jang, Ho-Bin; Cha, In-Seok; Ha, Mi-Ae; Kim, Young-Rim; Dalvi, Rishikesh S; Joh, Seong-Joon; Jung, Tae-Sung

    2009-10-20

    Lactococcus garvieae is an important etiological agent of lactococcosis in various fish species including olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). In this study, proteomic and immunoproteomic analyses were employed to compare the antigenic profiles of strains KG9408, MS93003, and NSS9310 strains of L. garvieae. Proteomic analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) revealed differences in five protein spots among the different L. garvieae strains. In immunoproteomic analysis, there was a significant difference in the 2-DE immunoblot profiles of the L. garvieae strains using sera collected from fish surviving infection with either L. garvieae strains KG9408 or NSS9310. These sera reacted with 8 and 7 unique antigenic protein spots, respectively. Heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and DNA-directed RNA polymerase were among the specific antigens recognized by the anti-NSS9310 serum. In addition, the anti-NSS9310 and anti-KG9408 olive flounder sera reacted with 25 common antigenic protein spots of all the L. garvieae strains, which included elongation factor (EF)-Tu, arginine deiminase (AD), inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphomannomutase (PMM), L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH), 6-phosphofructokinase and UDP-galactose 4-epimerase (UDP-galactose). Based on the present results, the 8 antigens recognized by the anti-KG9408 serum and the 25 common antigens recognized by both sera may serve as potential markers for developing an effective vaccine against this bacterium.

  1. Basement configuration of KG offshore basin from magnetic anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, V.; Swamy, K. V.; Raj, Neetha

    2016-04-01

    Marine magnetic anomalies along three representative profiles falling between shelf break and continent-ocean boundary in the offshore Krishna-Godavari basin were quantitatively interpreted for understanding the nature and structure of the magnetic basement using inversion technique. The interpretation of the anomalies shows that the magnetic basement lies deeper than the base of the sediments, i.e., acoustic basement identified by the seismic studies. This interpretation also shows that the magnetic basement is faulted along the NW-SE direction with the upthrown side lying to the north of the anomaly trend of this region. The coincidence of magnetizations observed through the present interpretation with that of charnockites of neighbouring EGMB and onshore K-G basin areas indicates that EGMB geology (charnockites, granitic gneiss, etc.) extends up to COB in the offshore K-G basin.

  2. Dark matter limits froma 15 kg windowless bubble chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydagis, Matthew Mark [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-03-01

    The COUPP collaboration has successfully used bubble chambers, a technology previously applied only to high-energy physics experiments, as direct dark matter detectors. It has produced the world's most stringent spin-dependent WIMP limits, and increasingly competitive spin-independent limits. These limits were achieved by capitalizing on an intrinsic rejection of the gamma background that all other direct detection experiments must address through high-density shielding and empirically-determined data cuts. The history of COUPP, including its earliest prototypes and latest results, is briefly discussed in this thesis. The feasibility of a new, windowless bubble chamber concept simpler and more inexpensive in design is discussed here as well. The dark matter limits achieved with a 15 kg windowless chamber, larger than any previous COUPP chamber (2 kg, 4 kg), are presented. Evidence of the greater radiopurity of synthetic quartz compared to natural is presented using the data from this 15 kg device, the first chamber to be made from synthetic quartz. The effective reconstruction of the three-dimensional positions of bubbles in a highly distorted optical field, with ninety-degree bottom lighting similar to cloud chamber lighting, is demonstrated. Another innovation described in this thesis is the use of the sound produced by bubbles recorded by an array of piezoelectric sensors as the primary means of bubble detection. In other COUPP chambers, cameras have been used as the primary trigger. Previous work on bubble acoustic signature differentiation using piezos is built upon in order to further demonstrate the ability to discriminate between alpha- and neutron-induced events.

  3. Use of ground and extruded canola seeds in feed for 15-30 kg piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Scherer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Determine the nutritional values of ground (SCI or extruded (SCE canola seed and evaluate its use in the performance of piglets from 15 to 30 kg. Materials and methods. Two experimental diets with canola seed were evaluated in a digestibility trial. We used 15 barrows with an initial weight of 19.79±1.43kg, distributed in a completely randomized design. In the performance, four experimental diets were evaluated consisting of a diet with soybean oil added (RAS, one with the of addition of canola oil (RAC and two oil-free; one with 11% SCI included and one with 6% SCE (RSCE included. 40 commercial hybrid piglets were used that had 15.25±1.5kg initial body weight, randomly distributed, in four treatments and five replicates; two animals per experimental unit. Results. The digestible energy values for SCI and SCE were 4.197 kcal/kg and 5.234 kcal/kg, respectively. The extrusion process improved the digestibility coefficients. Piglets fed with RSCI showed less daily weight gain (DWG and F:G ratio. Conclusion. Results suggest that SCE can be included in diets of piglets from 15 to 30 kg until 6% without negatively affecting performance.

  4. The 10 km/s, 10 kg railgun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, R.A. (WBM Stalker Pty. Ltd., 99 Leichhardt St., Brisbane, Qld. (AU)); Barber, J.P. (IAP Research, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States))

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the system design for a railgun powered by capacitor-based energy stores distributed along its length is presented. It is assumed that it is required to accelerate a mass of 10kg to a velocity of 10 km/s. Parameters for the railgun and its energy stores are derived and the performance of the system is computed with particular attention being paid to the efficiency with which store energy is converted to launch package kinetic energy. It is shown that efficiencies of 90 percent can be expected from a properly designed system.

  5. Towards Horizontal Architecture for Autonomic M2M Service Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Latvakoski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Today, increasing number of industrial application cases rely on the Machine to Machine (M2M services exposed from physical devices. Such M2M services enable interaction of physical world with the core processes of company information systems. However, there are grand challenges related to complexity and “vertical silos” limiting the M2M market scale and interoperability. It is here expected that horizontal approach for the system architecture is required for solving these challenges. Therefore, a set of architectural principles and key enablers for the horizontal architecture have been specified in this work. A selected set of key enablers called as autonomic M2M manager, M2M service capabilities, M2M messaging system, M2M gateways towards energy constrained M2M asset devices and creation of trust to enable end-to-end security for M2M applications have been developed. The developed key enablers have been evaluated separately in different scenarios dealing with smart metering, car sharing and electric bike experiments. The evaluation results shows that the provided architectural principles, and developed key enablers establish a solid ground for future research and seem to enable communication between objects and applications, which are not initially been designed to communicate together. The aim as the next step in this research is to create a combined experimental system to evaluate the system interoperability and performance in a more detailed manner.

  6. Revisiting the Endocytosis of the M2 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Wymke Ockenga; Ritva Tikkanen

    2015-01-01

    The agonist-induced endocytosis of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is different from that of the other members of the muscarinic receptor family. The uptake of the M2 receptor involves the adapter proteins of the β-arrestin family and the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6. However, it has remained inconclusive if M2 endocytosis is dependent on clathrin or the large GTPase dynamin. We here show by means of knocking down the clathrin heavy chain that M2 uptake upon agonist stimul...

  7. 76 FR 76293 - Airworthiness Directives; BRP-Powertrain GmbH & Co. KG Reciprocating Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ..., 912 F3, 912 F4, 912 S2, 912 S3, 912 S4, 914 F2, 914 F3, and 914 F4 reciprocating engines. This AD... AD applies to BRP-Powertrain GmbH & Co. KG Rotax 912 F2, 912 F3, 912 F4, 912 S2, 912 S3, 912 S4, 914..., 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Authority for This Rulemaking Title 49 of the United States Code specifies...

  8. 77 FR 51462 - Airworthiness Directives; BRP-Powertrain GmbH & Co KG Rotax Reciprocating Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ...- Powertrain GmbH & Co KG Rotax 912 F2; 912 F3; 912 F4; 912 S2; 912 S3; and 912 S4 reciprocating engines. This... F2; 912 F3; 912 F4; 912 S2; 912 S3; and 912 S4 reciprocating engines, with a fuel pump part number (P... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Authority for This Rulemaking Title 49 of the United States...

  9. Neutralized semi-purified glycerin in pre-starting piglet feeding (6 To 15 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Marcela Diaz-Huepa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value of neutralized semi-purified glycerin (NSPG and to evaluate the performance of pre-starting piglets (6-15 kg fed on diets containing increasing levels of NSPG. In Experiment I, a digestibility trial with 30 barrows (11.80 ± 5.12 kg live weight was conducted, in which they were allotted in a randomized block design. Replacement levels of the basal diet by NSPG were 3, 6, 9, and 12%. The values (as-fed-base of digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME of NSPG were 3535 and 3279 kcal/kg, respectively. In Experiment II, 135 piglets, weaned at 21 days of age (6.85 ± 1.28 to 15.04 ± 2.06 kg, were allotted in a randomized-block design. Treatments consisted of five diets (3, 6, 9, and 12% NSPG as well as a control diet with 0% of NSPG, with nine replications, and three piglets per experimental unit. The results show that, in the pre-starting I (6-10 kg phase, adding NSPG promoted a linear improvement in the average daily gain (ADG and the feed-to-gain ratio (F:G. For the total period (6-15 kg, only linear improvements (P ? 0.05 to ADG were observed. The plasma variables were not influenced (P ? 0.05 by the inclusion of NSPG, as it remained within the biological range of the species. The results suggest that up to 12% NSPG can be included in the diets of piglets (6-15 kg without impairing the plasmatic variables, performance, and economic feasibility.

  10. The Demand for Divisia M2 in China%中国Divisa M2需求模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘红宇; 邓述慧

    2001-01-01

    本文计算中国Divisa M2指数并对其建立需求模型,研究发现实际Divisa M2 与实际产出存在协整关系,采用误差校正方法建立的动态需求模型具有良好的稳定性。%This paper computes the Divisa M2 in China and makes the money demand model for it. The research finds that the demand for real Divisa M2 is cointegrated with the real output, the short-run model is stable also.

  11. A Survey on M2M Service Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhani Latvakoski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of industrial applications relying on the Machine to Machine (M2M services exposed from physical world has been increasing in recent years. Such M2M services enable communication of devices with the core processes of companies. However, there is a big challenge related to complexity and to application-specific M2M systems called “vertical silos”. This paper focuses on reviewing the technologies of M2M service networks and discussing approaches from the perspectives of M2M information and services, M2M communication and M2M security. Finally, a discussion on technologies and approaches potentially enabling future autonomic M2M service networks are provided. According to our conclusions, it is seen that clear definition of the architectural principles is needed to solve the “vertical silo” problem and then, proceeding towards enabling autonomic capabilities for solving complexity problem appears feasible. Several areas of future research have been identified, e.g., autonomic information based services, optimization of communications with limited capability devices, real-time messaging, creation of trust and end to end security, adaptability, reliability, performance, interoperability, and maintenance.

  12. M2 factor of four-petal Gaussian beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Guo-Quan; Fan Yan

    2008-01-01

    Based on the second-order moments,this paper derives an analytical expression of the M2 factor of four-petal Gaussian beam.The results show that the M2 factor is only determined by the beam order n.The corresponding numerical calculations are also given.As the beam order increases,the augment of M2 factor is disciplinary.As the expression of M2 factor is expressed in series form and becomes more complicated,a new concise formula of M2 factor is also presented by using curve fitting of numerical calculations.When 3≤n≤200,the maximum error rate of fitting formula will not exceed 2.6% and the average error rate is 0.28%.This research is helpful to the applications of four-petal Gaussian beam.

  13. M2 polarization enhances silica nanoparticle uptake by macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eHoppstädter

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available While silica nanoparticles have enabled numerous industrial and medical applications, their toxicological safety requires further evaluation. Macrophages are the major cell population responsible for nanoparticle clearance in vivo. The prevailing macrophage phenotype largely depends on the local immune status of the host. Whereas M1-polarized macrophages are considered as pro-inflammatory macrophages involved in host defense, M2 macrophages exhibit anti-inflammatory and wound-healing properties, but also promote tumor growth.We employed different models of M1 and M2 polarization: GM-CSF/LPS/IFN-gamma was used to generate primary human M1 cells and M-CSF/IL-10 to differentiate M2 monocyte-derived macrophages. PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were polarized towards an M1 type by LPS/IFN-gamma and towards M2 by IL-10. Uptake of fluorescent silica nanoparticles (Ø 26 and 41 nm and microparticles (Ø 1.75 µm was quantified. At the concentration used (50 µg/ml, silica nanoparticles did not influence cell viability as assessed by MTT assay. Nanoparticle uptake was enhanced in M2-polarized primary human monocyte-derived macrophages compared with M1 cells, as shown by flow cytometric and microscopic approaches. In contrast, the uptake of microparticles did not differ between M1 and M2 phenotypes. M2 polarization was also associated with increased nanoparticle uptake in the macrophage-like THP-1 cell line. In accordance, in vivo polarized M2-like primary human tumor-associated macrophages (TAM obtained from lung tumors took up more nanoparticles than M1-like alveolar macrophages isolated from the surrounding lung tissue.In summary, our data indicate that the M2 polarization of macrophages promotes nanoparticle internalization. Therefore, the phenotypical differences between macrophage subsets should be taken into consideration in future investigations on nanosafety, but might also open up therapeutic perspectives allowing to specifically target M2

  14. Lipopolysaccharide preconditioning facilitates M2 activation of resident microglia after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kentaro; Okazaki, Rentaro; Morioka, Kazuhito; Nakamura, Kozo; Tanaka, Sakae; Ogata, Toru

    2014-12-01

    The inflammatory response following spinal cord injury (SCI) has both harmful and beneficial effects; however, it can be modulated for therapeutic benefit. Endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) preconditioning, a well-established method for modifying the immune reaction, has been shown to attenuate damage induced by stroke and brain trauma in rodent models. Although such effects likely are conveyed by tissue-repairing functions of the inflammatory response, the mechanisms that control the effects have not yet been elucidated. The present study preconditioned C57BL6/J mice with 0.05 mg/kg of LPS 48 hr before inducing contusion SCI to investigate the effect of LPS preconditioning on the activation of macrophages/microglia. We found that LPS preconditioning promotes the polarization of M1/M2 macrophages/microglia toward an M2 phenotype in the injured spinal cord on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemical analyses. Flow cytometric analyses reveal that LPS preconditioning facilitates M2 activation in resident microglia but not in infiltrating macrophages. Augmented M2 activation was accompanied by vascularization around the injured lesion, resulting in improvement in both tissue reorganization and functional recovery. Furthermore, we found that M2 activation induced by LPS preconditioning is regulated by interleukin-10 gene expression, which was preceded by the transcriptional activation of interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-3, as demonstrated by Western blotting and an IRF-3 binding assay. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that LPS preconditioning has a therapeutic effect on SCI through the modulation of M1/M2 polarization of resident microglia. The present study suggests that controlling M1/M2 polarization through endotoxin signal transduction could become a promising therapeutic strategy for various central nervous system diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. TNF Counterbalances the Emergence of M2 Tumor Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Kratochvill

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cancer can involve non-resolving, persistent inflammation where varying numbers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs infiltrate and adopt different activation states between anti-tumor M1 and pro-tumor M2 phenotypes. Here, we resolve a cascade causing differential macrophage phenotypes in the tumor microenvironment. Reduction in TNF mRNA production or loss of type I TNF receptor signaling resulted in a striking pattern of enhanced M2 mRNA expression. M2 gene expression was driven in part by IL-13 from eosinophils co-recruited with inflammatory monocytes, a pathway that was suppressed by TNF. Our data define regulatory nodes within the tumor microenvironment that balance M1 and M2 populations. Our results show macrophage polarization in cancer is dynamic and dependent on the balance between TNF and IL-13, thus providing a strategy for manipulating TAMs.

  16. TNF counterbalances the emergence of M2 tumor macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvill, Franz; Neale, Geoffrey; Haverkamp, Jessica M.; de Velde, Lee-Ann Van; Smith, Amber M.; Kawauchi, Daisuke; McEvoy, Justina; Roussel, Martine F.; Dyer, Michael A.; Qualls, Joseph E.; Murray, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a form of non-resolving, persistent inflammation where varying numbers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) infiltrate and adopt different activation states between anti-tumor M1 and pro-tumor M2 phenotypes. Here we resolve a cascade causing differential macrophage phenotypes in the tumor microenvironment. Reduction in TNF mRNA production or loss of Type I TNF receptor signaling resulted in a striking pattern of enhanced M2 mRNA expression. M2 gene expression was driven in part by IL-13 from eosinophils co-recruited with inflammatory monocytes, a pathway that was suppressed by TNF. Our data define regulatory nodes within the tumor microenvironment that balance M1 and M2 populations. Our results show macrophage polarization in cancer is dynamic and dependent on the balance between TNF and IL-13, thus providing a strategy for manipulating TAMs. PMID:26365184

  17. Multiple Access Technologies for Cellular M 2M Communications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahyar Shirvanimoghaddam; Sarah J. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the multiple access techniques for machine⁃to⁃machine (M2M) communications in future wireless cellular net⁃works. M2M communications aims at providing the communication infrastructure for the emerging Internet of Things (IoT), which will revolutionize the way we interact with our surrounding physical environment. We provide an overview of the multiple access strategies and explain their limitations when used for M2M communications. We show the throughput efficiency of different multi⁃ple access techniques when used in coordinated and uncoordinated scenarios. Non⁃orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is also shown to support a larger number of devices compared to orthogonal multiple access techniques, especially in uncoordinated sce⁃narios. We also detail the issues and challenges of different multiple access techniques to be used for M2M applications in cellu⁃lar networks.

  18. Theoretical Assessment of 178m2Hf De-Excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartouni, E P; Chen, M; Descalle, M A; Escher, J E; Loshak, A; Navratil, P; Ormand, W E; Pruet, J; Thompson, I J; Wang, T F

    2008-10-06

    This document contains a comprehensive literature review in support of the theoretical assessment of the {sup 178m2}Hf de-excitation, as well as a rigorous description of controlled energy release from an isomeric nuclear state.

  19. Characterization of M2 antibodies in asymptomatic Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hua Jiang; Ren-Qian Zhong; Xiao-Yun Fan; Yin Hu; Feng An; Jian-Wen Sun; Xian-Tao Kong

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the presence of M2 antibodies specific for pdmary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) in asymptomatic Chinese and identify patients with early PBC.METHODS: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ElISA)tests for M2 antibodies to recombinant protein were performed in 5 011 subjects (age range, 26-85 years; mean age: 45.81±15.02 years) who took an annual physical examination. M2-positive subjects were further analyzed for immunoglobulin (Ig) classes and subclasses of M2 antibodies.Clinical, biochemical and immunological data were obtained for M2-positive subjects. In addition, ultrasonography (US)or endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP)was performed to exclude any disorders other than PBC.RESULTS: M2 antibodies were detected in 8 (0.16%) of the 5 0LL subjects studied. Of the 8 subjects, 7 were female and 1 was male (age range: 40-74 years). An unexplained increase of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) values, often to striking levels,was detected in 4 M2-positive subjects, 3 of them accorded with the diagnostic criteria recommended by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, even though they had no symptoms of PBC (such as fatigue, pruritus or jaundice).Liver biopsy was performed in two M2-positive subjects and the histology was compatible with PBC in both cases.CONCLUSION: Our data, while not assessing the true prevalence of asymptomatic PBC in the general population,suggest that asymptomatic PBC is much more common in China than has been supposed.

  20. M2-Edge Colorings Of Cacti And Graph Joins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czap Július

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An edge coloring φ of a graph G is called an M2-edge coloring if |φ(v| ≤ 2 for every vertex v of G, where φ(v is the set of colors of edges incident with v. Let 2(G denote the maximum number of colors used in an M2-edge coloring of G. In this paper we determine 2(G for trees, cacti, complete multipartite graphs and graph joins.

  1. Study of {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vishnevsky, I. N.; Zheltonozhsky, V. A., E-mail: zhelton@kinr.kiev.ua; Savrasov, A. N. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute for Nuclear Research (Ukraine); Mazur, V. M. [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Institute of Electronic Physics (Ukraine)

    2016-12-15

    Isomeric ratios of {sup 179}Hf{sup m2,g} yields in the (γ, n) reaction and the cross section for the {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} population in the (α, p) reaction are measured for the first time at the end-point energies of 15.1 and 17.5 MeV for bremsstrahlung photons and 26 MeV for alpha particles. The results are σ = (1.1 ± 0.11) × 10{sup −27} cm{sup 2} for the {sup 176}Lu(α, p){sup 179}Hf{sup m2} reaction and Y{sub m2}/Y{sub g} = (6.1 ± 0.3) × 10{sup −6} and (3.7 ± 0.2) × 10{sup −6} for the {sup 180}Hf(γ, n){sup 179}Hf{sup m22} reaction at E{sub ep} =15.1 and 17.5 MeV, respectively. The experimental data on the relative {sup 179}Hf{sup m2} yield indicate a single-humped shape of the excitation function for the {sup 180}Hf(γ, n){sup 179}Hf{sup m2} reaction. Simulation is performed using the TALYS-1.4 and EMPIRE-3.2 codes.

  2. Revisiting the endocytosis of the m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenga, Wymke; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2015-05-12

    The agonist-induced endocytosis of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is different from that of the other members of the muscarinic receptor family. The uptake of the M2 receptor involves the adapter proteins of the β-arrestin family and the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6. However, it has remained inconclusive if M2 endocytosis is dependent on clathrin or the large GTPase dynamin. We here show by means of knocking down the clathrin heavy chain that M2 uptake upon agonist stimulation requires clathrin. The expression of various dominant-negative dynamin-2 mutants and the use of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function revealed that dynamin expression and membrane localization as such appear to be necessary for M2 endocytosis, whereas dynamin GTPase activity is not required for this process. Based on the data from the present and from previous studies, we propose that M2 endocytosis takes place by means of an atypical clathrin-mediated pathway that may involve a specific subset of clathrin-coated pits/vesicles.

  3. Revisiting the Endocytosis of the M2 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wymke Ockenga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The agonist-induced endocytosis of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is different from that of the other members of the muscarinic receptor family. The uptake of the M2 receptor involves the adapter proteins of the β-arrestin family and the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6. However, it has remained inconclusive if M2 endocytosis is dependent on clathrin or the large GTPase dynamin. We here show by means of knocking down the clathrin heavy chain that M2 uptake upon agonist stimulation requires clathrin. The expression of various dominant-negative dynamin-2 mutants and the use of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function revealed that dynamin expression and membrane localization as such appear to be necessary for M2 endocytosis, whereas dynamin GTPase activity is not required for this process. Based on the data from the present and from previous studies, we propose that M2 endocytosis takes place by means of an atypical clathrin-mediated pathway that may involve a specific subset of clathrin-coated pits/vesicles.

  4. A randomized comparison of daunorubicin 90 mg/m2 vs 60 mg/m2 in AML induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burnett, A. K.; Russell, N. H.; Hills, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    remission rate (73% vs 75%; odds ratio, 1.07 [0.83-1.39]; P = .6) or in any recognized subgroup. The 60-day mortality was increased in the 90 mg/m(2) arm (10% vs 5% (hazard ratio [HR] 1.98 [1.30-3.02]; P = .001), which resulted in no difference in overall 2-year survival (59% vs 60%; HR, 1.16 [0.95-1.43]; P...... recommended as a standard of care. However, 60 mg/m(2) is widely used and has never been directly compared with 90 mg/m(2). As part of the UK National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) AML17 trial, 1206 adults with untreated AML or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, mostly younger than 60 years of age, were...... randomized to a first-induction course of chemotherapy, which delivered either 90 mg/m(2) or 60 mg/m(2) on days 1, 3, and 5 combined with cytosine arabinoside. All patients then received a second course that included daunorubicin 50 mg/m(2) on days 1, 3, and 5. There was no overall difference in complete...

  5. Exigência de treonina para leitoas dos 15 aos 30 kg Threonine requirement for gilts from 15 to 30 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Pozza

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 40 leitoas, com peso médio inicial de 15,47 kg, distribuídas em um delineamento de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos (0,49; 0,54; 0,59; 0,64; e 0,69% de treonina, quatro repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental, com o objetivo de estimar a exigência de treonina digestível para leitoas de 15 a 30 kg. As rações experimentais foram formuladas à base de milho, sorgo, farelo de soja e glúten de milho, suplementadas com minerais, vitaminas e aminoácidos, tendo sido fornecidas à vontade aos animais. No final do experimento, quando os animais atingiram o peso médio de 33,36 kg, foram coletadas amostras de sangue para análise de uréia no soro sangüíneo. A determinação da exigência de treonina total foi realizada com base nos parâmetros de desempenho e teor de uréia no soro sangüíneo e estimada por meio dos modelos quadrático e, ou, descontínuo LRP. Na determinação da exigência de treonina digestível verdadeira, foi utilizado um coeficiente de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira da treonina da ração basal de 84,6%, em que a treonina sintética foi considerada 100% digestível. Observou-se efeito quadrático dos níveis de treonina sobre o consumo de ração, a conversão alimentar e o teor de uréia no soro sangüíneo. Entretanto, para o teor de uréia no soro sangüíneo, o modelo descontínuo LRP permitiu melhor ajustamento dos níveis de treonina em relação aos resultados obtidos. A exigência de treonina total foi estimada em 0,60% e a de treonina digestível verdadeira, em 0,53%.Forty gilts, averaging 15,47 kg initial weight, allotted to a randomized complete block design, with five treatments: .49, .54, .59, .64 and .69% of total threonine, four replicates and two animals per experimental unit, were used to determine the threonine requirement for gilts from 15 to 30 kg. The experimental diets were formulated with corn, sorghum, and soybean meal and corn gluten meal, supplemented

  6. Wireless Access Control with Smart Antenna for M2M Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Bandai, Masaki; Watanabe, Takashi

    Machine to machine (M2M) is a promising technology to achieve an ubiquitous environment by uniting machines and machines over the Internet. The network used for M2M consists of core network and access network. This paper discusses effective controls of the wireless access network for M2M. Among typical examples of the wireless access network for M2M is a wireless sensor network (WSN). WSN for M2M may require energy efficiency, high reliability and throughput. For these requirements, in this paper, we propose a scheme to build a hierarchical sensor network using smart antenna. The proposed scheme uses omni-directional antennas together with smart antennas. Since smart antennas can extend communications distance, the proposed scheme enables reduction of number of hops to reduce the traffic load on relay nodes. As a result, the energy consumption, data collection ratio and throughput can be improved. We implement the proposed scheme on a real testbed. The testbed uses UNAGI as smart antenna nodes and Mica Mote as sensor nodes. In addition to the fundamental evaluation on the testbed, we simulate large-scale sensor networks. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical sensor network with smart antennas.

  7. M$^2$I Communication: From Theoretical Modeling to Practical Design

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Hongzhi

    2015-01-01

    Wireless communications in complex environments are constrained by lossy media and complicated structures. Magnetic Induction (MI) has been proved to be an efficient solution to extend the communication range. Due to the small coil antenna's physical limitation, however, MI's communication range is still very limited. To this end, Metamaterial-enhanced Magnetic Induction (M$^2$I) communication has been proposed and the theoretical results suggest that it can significantly increase the communication performance, namely, data rate and communication range. Nevertheless, currently, the real implementation of M$^2$I is still a challenge and there is no guideline on design and fabrication of spherical metamaterial. In this paper, we propose a practical design by using a spherical coil array to realize M$^2$I and we prove that it can achieve negative permeability and there exists a resonance condition where the radiated magnetic field can be significantly amplified. The radiation and communication performance are ev...

  8. M2-F1 on lakebed with pilot Milt Thompson

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    NASA Flight Research Pilot Milt Thompson, shown here on the lakebed with the M2-F1 lifting body, was an early backer of R. Dale Reed's lifting-body proposal. He urged Flight Research Center director Paul Bikle to approve the M2-F1's construction. Thompson also made the first glide flights in both the M2-F1 and its successor, the heavyweight M2-F2. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, NASA Flight Research Center (later Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved

  9. M2磁带机挑战极限

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    日前安百特(Exabyte)公司宣布,其OEM合作伙伴Cybernetics在对Mammoth-2(M2)磁带机的性能和可靠性测试中取得了创记录的结果,从而加快了M2的商业交付计划。M2磁带机以部门级价格提供了企业级的性能,其容量增加50%,达到60GB,性能提高一倍,传输率达到12MB/s,可在一小时内备份43GB数据(未压缩)。Cybernetics利用该公司为了故意“破坏”磁带机而创建的定制软件对M2进行了测试,包括读/写能力测试、

  10. Dimeric Complexes of Tryptophan with M2+ Metal Ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunbar, R. C.; Steill, J. D.; Polfer, N. C.; Oomens, J.

    2009-01-01

    IRMPD spectroscopy using the FELIX free electron laser and a Fourier transform ICR mass spectrometer was used to characterize the structures of electrosprayed dimer complexes M(2+)Trp(2) of tryptophan with a series of eight doubly charged metal ions, including alkaline earths Ca, Sr, and Ba, and tra

  11. M2e-Based Universal Influenza A Vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Deng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The successful isolation of a human influenza virus in 1933 was soon followed by the first attempts to develop an influenza vaccine. Nowadays, vaccination is still the most effective method to prevent human influenza disease. However, licensed influenza vaccines offer protection against antigenically matching viruses, and the composition of these vaccines needs to be updated nearly every year. Vaccines that target conserved epitopes of influenza viruses would in principle not require such updating and would probably have a considerable positive impact on global human health in case of a pandemic outbreak. The extracellular domain of Matrix 2 (M2e protein is an evolutionarily conserved region in influenza A viruses and a promising epitope for designing a universal influenza vaccine. Here we review the seminal and recent studies that focused on M2e as a vaccine antigen. We address the mechanism of action and the clinical development of M2e-vaccines. Finally, we try to foresee how M2e-based vaccines could be implemented clinically in the future.

  12. Internal steel structure of M2-F1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The internal steel structure for the M2-F1 was built at the Flight Research Center (predecessor of the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, CA) in a section of the calibration hangar dubbed 'Wright Bicycle Shop.' Visible are the stick, rudder pedals, and ejection seat. The external wooden shell was attached to the steel structure. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly

  13. Experiment on an Integrated Ricefish Polyculture System (6 Species, 1- 2 fish/m2 in the Mekong Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan, LM.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Our ricefish polyculture (6 species results at two stocking densities (1 and 2 fish/m2 show that: The water quality in a ricefish polyculture system, such as water temperature (29.1 – 29.0 °C, water pH (6.6 – 6.7, water transparency (18.0 – 20.8 cm, dissolved O2 (4.7 – 4.6 ppm, CO2 (22.8 – 23.1 ppm, COD (11.9 – 12.7 ppm, are similar at both densities and acceptable for the 6 tropical fish species. Ammonium and phosphorus concentrations are statistically higher at 1 fish/m2 (0.4 and 0.2 ppm. The primary productivity is similar for both densities (6.5 – 6.8 g O2/m3/day and suitable for fish culture. The phytoplankton biodiversity is relatively high and at the same level for both treatments (74 – 63 taxa, but the densities of phytoplankton, of zooplankton, and the biomass of zoobenthos are lower at the highest density (2 fish/m2, probably due to a higher predation by fish.The fish yield (808 kg/ha at 2 fish/m2 is higher than at 1 fish/m2 (482 kg/ha. The cost ratio benefit (1.84 and the cost ratio profit (1.81 for farm households at 1 fish/m2 are lower than those values at 2 fish/m2 (2.1 and 2.05 respectively. Regarding the aquaculture extension program, the model of the ricefish polyculture (6 species system with the stocking density of 2 fish/m2 could be extended in the rice fields to improve farmer's income in the Mekong delta.

  14. Tyrosine 129 of the murine gammaherpesvirus M2 protein is critical for M2 function in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya S Rangaswamy

    Full Text Available A common strategy shared by all known gammaherpesviruses is their ability to establish a latent infection in lymphocytes--predominantly in B cells. In immunocompromised patients, such as transplant recipients or AIDS patients, gammaherpesvirus infections can lead to the development of lymphoproliferative disease and lymphoid malignancies. The human gamma-herpesviruses, EBV and KSHV, encode proteins that are capable of modulating the host immune signaling machinery, thereby subverting host immune responses. Murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68 infection of laboratory strains of mice has proven to be useful small-animal model that shares important pathogenic strategies with the human gamma-herpesviruses. The MHV68 M2 protein is known to manipulate B cell signaling and, dependent on route and dose of virus inoculation, plays a role in both the establishment of latency and virus reactivation. M2 contains two tyrosines that are targets for phosphorylation, and have been shown to interact with the B cell signaling machinery. Here we describe in vitro and in vivo studies of M2 mutants which reveals that while both tyrosines Y120 and Y129 are required for M2 induction of IL-10 expression from primary murine B cells in vitro, only Y129 is critical for reactivation from latency and plasma cell differentiation in vivo.

  15. Tyrosine 129 of the murine gammaherpesvirus M2 protein is critical for M2 function in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Udaya S; O'Flaherty, Brigid M; Speck, Samuel H

    2014-01-01

    A common strategy shared by all known gammaherpesviruses is their ability to establish a latent infection in lymphocytes--predominantly in B cells. In immunocompromised patients, such as transplant recipients or AIDS patients, gammaherpesvirus infections can lead to the development of lymphoproliferative disease and lymphoid malignancies. The human gamma-herpesviruses, EBV and KSHV, encode proteins that are capable of modulating the host immune signaling machinery, thereby subverting host immune responses. Murine gamma-herpesvirus 68 (MHV68) infection of laboratory strains of mice has proven to be useful small-animal model that shares important pathogenic strategies with the human gamma-herpesviruses. The MHV68 M2 protein is known to manipulate B cell signaling and, dependent on route and dose of virus inoculation, plays a role in both the establishment of latency and virus reactivation. M2 contains two tyrosines that are targets for phosphorylation, and have been shown to interact with the B cell signaling machinery. Here we describe in vitro and in vivo studies of M2 mutants which reveals that while both tyrosines Y120 and Y129 are required for M2 induction of IL-10 expression from primary murine B cells in vitro, only Y129 is critical for reactivation from latency and plasma cell differentiation in vivo.

  16. Níveis de lisina digestível para leitões dos 6 aos 15 kg Digestible lysine level for piglets from 6 to 15 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Garcia Vilela Nunes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de lisina digestível na ração sobre o desempenho de leitões dos 6 aos 15 kg. Foram utilizados 120 leitões (80 machos castrados e 40 fêmeas, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos (1,06; 1,16; 1,26; 1,36 e 1,46% de lisina digestível na ração, oito repetições e três animais por unidade experimental, mantidos em ambiente termoneutro. Os níveis de lisina digestível na ração não influenciaram o consumo diário de ração. Entretanto, o consumo de lisina digestível, o ganho de peso e a deposição de proteína corporal aumentaram de forma linear de acordo com os níveis de lisina digestível na ração. Os níveis de lisina digestível na ração influenciaram a conversão alimentar, que variou de forma quadrática, reduzindo até o nível estimado de 1,41% de lisina digestível. O nível estimado de no mínimo de 1,46% proporcionou melhores resultados de ganho de peso e deposição de proteína na carcaça de leitões dos 6 aos 15 kg mantidos em ambiente termoneutro.This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of different levels of digestible lysine in diets on the performance of piglets from 6 to 15 kg. One hundred and twenty piglets (80 castrated males and 40 females were used. The piglets were allotted to a completely randomized block design, with five treatments (1.06, 1.16, 1.26, 1.36, and 1.46% of digestible lysine, eight replicates and three animals per experimental unit, kept in thermoneutral environment. The dietary level of digestible lysine did not affect daily feed intake. However, the digestible lysine intake, weight gain and body protein deposition increased linearly according to the dietary lysine levels. The dietary digestible lysine levels affected feed:gain ratio that reduced in a quadratic way until the estimated dietary digestible lysine level of 1.41%. The estimated level at least of 1

  17. Activation and dynamic network of the M2 muscarinic receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Yinglong; Nichols, Sara E.; Gasper, Paul M.; Metzger, Vincent T; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate cellular responses to various hormones and neurotransmitters and are important targets for treating a wide spectrum of diseases. Although significant advances have been made in structural studies of GPCRs, details of their activation mechanism remain unclear. The X-ray crystal structure of the M2 muscarinic receptor, a key GPCR that regulates human heart rate and contractile forces of cardiomyocytes, was determined recently in an inactive antagonist...

  18. Wilson Loops for M2- and M5-brane spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Quijada, Edward

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the quark and anti-quark interaction energy in different positions in spaces generated by $N$ coincident $M2$- and $M5$-branes. We use the Maldacena-Rey-Yee method for calculating this energy as a function of quark-antiquark separation. We obtain the solution for these problems as integrals of the metric elements. For limiting regimes we find simpler solutions for which some potentials exhibit a confinement behavior.

  19. Quark nuggets search using 2350 Kg gravitational waves aluminum bar detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Astone, P; Coccia, E; D'Antonio, S; Fafone, V; Giordano, G; Marini, A; Minenkov, Y; Modena, I; Moleti, A; Pallottino, G V; Pizzella, G; Rocchi, A; Ronga, F; Visco, M

    2013-01-01

    The gravitational wave resonant detectors can be used as detectors of quark nuggets, like nuclearites (nuclear matter with a strange quark). This search has been carried out using data from two 2350 Kg, 2 K cooled, aluminum bar detectors: NAUTILUS, located in Frascati (Italy), and EXPLORER, that was located in CERN Geneva (CH). Both antennas are equipped with cosmic ray shower detectors: signals in the bar due to showers are continuously detected and used to characterize the antenna performances. The bar excitation mechanism is based on the so called thermo-acoustic effect, studied on dedicated experiments that use particle beams. This mechanism predicts that vibrations of bars are induced by the heat deposited in the bar from the particle. The geometrical acceptance of the bar detectors is 19.5 $\\rm m^2$ sr, that is smaller than that of other detectors used for similar searches. However, the detection mechanism is completely different and is more straightforward than in other detectors. We will show the resu...

  20. Available phosphorus in diets for 15 to 30 kg pigs genetically selected for meat deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Luiz Corrêa Arouca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to evaluate the effect of dietary available phosphorus levels (aP on the performance, blood and bone parameters of castrated male and female pigs, genetically selected for meat deposition, 60 commercial hybrids pigs with initial weight of 15.54±0.68 kg were allotted in a completely randomized block design, with six treatments (0.103, 0.210, 0.317, 0.424, 0.531, and 0.638% aP, five replicates, and two animals per experimental unit. Pigs were fed ad libitum and water was provided until the end of the experimental period (21 days, when animals reached 31.31±2.94 kg. Daily weight gain and daily feed intake increased, while the feed conversion improved quadratically up to 0.534, 0.487, and 0.574% aP maximum responses, respectively. The aP intake and the values of inorganic phosphorus in serum increased linearly with increasing the levels of aP in the diets. Alkaline phosphatase activity increased quadratically up to 0.558% maximum response. Bone breaking strength and calcium, phosphorus, and ash contents in the bones increased linearly with increasing aP concentration in the diets. The available phosphorus requirement of castrated male and female pigs genetically selected for meat deposition from 15 to 30 kg for best results of performance is 0.574%, corresponding to a daily intake of 8.26 g of available phosphorus.

  1. Available phosphorus for 15- to 30-kg pigs kept in hot environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Alebrante

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the requirement of available phosphorus (aP for pigs kept in hot environment. Seventy-two pigs (36 castrated males and 36 females with initial weight of 15.10±0.31 kg were allotted in a completely randomized block design with six treatments (0.107, 0.214, 0.321, 0.428, 0.535, and 0.642% of aP, six replicates and two pigs (1 castrated male and 1 female per experimental unit. Pigs were kept in a hot environment with temperature of 34.1±0.8 ºC. The levels of aP influenced the daily weight gain, which increased quadratically up to the estimated level of 0.477%, and feed conversion, which improved quadratically up to the estimated level of 0.457%. The levels of aP also influenced the content of phosphorus in the bone, which increased quadratically up to the estimated level of 0.529%. The available phosphorus requirement of 15- to 30-kg pigs kept in a hot environment, for the best results of daily weight gain, feed conversion and bone parameters are 0.477, 0.457, and 0.529%, corresponding to the estimated daily available phosphorus intakes of 4.75; 4.55 and 5.27 g, respectively.

  2. M2-Branes in N = 3 Harmonic Superspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ivanov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a brief account of the recently proposed N = 3 superfield formulation of the N = 6, 3D superconformal theory of Aharony et al (ABJM describing a low-energy limit of the system of multiple M2-branes on the AdS4×S7/Zk background. This formulation is given in harmonic N = 3 superspace and reveals a number of surprising new features. In particular, the sextic scalar potential of ABJM arises at the on-shell component level as the result of eliminating appropriate auxiliary fields, while there is no explicit superpotential at the off-shell superfield level.

  3. M2-branes and AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Klebanov, Igor R

    2009-01-01

    These notes provide a brief introduction to the ABJM theory, the level k U(N) x U(N) superconformal Chern-Simons matter theory which has been conjectured to describe N coincident M2-branes. We discuss its dual formulation in terms of M-theory on AdS_4 x S^7/Z_k and review some of the evidence in favor of the conjecture. We end with a brief discussion of the important role played by the monopole operators.

  4. Superconformal M2-branes and generalized Jordan triple systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, Bengt E W

    2008-01-01

    Three-dimensional conformal theories with six supersymmetries and SU(4) R-symmetry describing stacks of M2-branes are here proposed to be related to generalized Jordan triple systems. Writing the four-index structure constants in an appropriate form, the Chern-Simons part of the action immediately suggests a connection to such triple systems. In this note we show that the whole theory with six manifest supersymmetries can be naturally expressed in terms of structure constants of generalized Jordan triple systems. We comment on the associated graded Lie algebra, which corresponds to an extension of the gauge group.

  5. Milestone Report - Complete New Adsorbent Materials for Marine Testing to Demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg Adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Das, Sadananda [ORNL; Oyola, Yatsandra [ORNL; Mayes, Richard T. [ORNL; Saito, Tomonori [ORNL; Brown, Suree [ORNL; Gill, Gary [PNNL; Kuo, Li-Jung [PNNL; Wood, Jordana [PNNL

    2014-08-01

    This report describes work on the successful completion of Milestone M2FT-14OR03100115 (8/20/2014) entitled, “Complete new adsorbent materials for marine testing to demonstrate 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent”. This effort is part of the Seawater Uranium Recovery Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, and involved the development of new adsorbent materials at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and marine testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). ORNL has recently developed two new families of fiber adsorbents that have demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities greater than 4.5 g-U/kg adsorbent after marine testing at PNNL. One adsorbent was synthesized by radiation-induced graft polymerization of itaconic acid and acrylonitrile onto high surface area polyethylene fibers followed by amidoximation and base conditioning. This fiber showed a capacity of 4.6 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. The second adsorbent was prepared by atom-transfer radical polymerization of t-butyl acrylate and acrylonitrile onto halide-functionalized round fibers followed by amidoximation and base hydrolysis. This fiber demonstrated uranium adsorption capacity of 5.4 g-U/kg adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL.

  6. A comprehensive survey of M(2)AX phase elastic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover, M F; Warschkow, O; Bilek, M M M; McKenzie, D R

    2009-07-29

    M(2)AX phases are a family of nanolaminate, ternary alloys that are composed of slabs of transition metal carbide or nitride (M(2)X) separated by single atomic layers of a main group element. In this combination, they manifest many of the beneficial properties of both ceramic and metallic compounds, making them attractive for many technological applications. We report here the results of a large scale computational survey of the elastic properties of all 240 elemental combinations using first-principles density functional theory calculations. We found correlations revealing the governing role of the A element and its interaction with the M element on the c axis compressibility and shearability of the material. The role of the X element is relatively minor, with the strongest effect seen in the in-plane constants C(11) and C(12). We identify several elemental compositions with extremal properties such as W(2)SnC, which has by far the lowest value of C(44), suggesting potential applications as a high-temperature dry lubricant.

  7. A PROSPECTIVE, RANDOMIZED, DOUBLE BLIND, CONTROLLED CLINICAL STUDY OF ADJUVANT EFFECT OF FENTANYL (1 µg/kg OR CLONIDINE (2µg / kg TO ROPIVACAINE 0.2% 1ML/KG FOR CAUDAL ANALGESIA IN CHILDREN UNDERGOING LOWER ABDOMINAL SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ropivacaine having better safety profile and less motor blockade than bupivacaine is well suited for caudal analgesia. Since studies done regarding the effect of fentanyl and clonidine as adjuvants to ropivacaine for prolongation of caudal analgesia are scant and have shown conflicting results, the present study was conducted. METHODS: A total of 90 children aged between 3-6yrs belonging to ASA class I and II undergoing surgical procedures below the umbilicus were randomly allocated to one of two groups: Group R received ropivacaine 0.2%, 1 ml/kg with saline 0.02ml/kg and Group RF received ropivacaine 0.2%, 1 ml/kg with fentanyl 1 μg/kg (0.02ml/kg and Group RC (clonidine received 1ml/kg of 0.2% Ropivacaine plus clonidine 2µg / kg caudally after induction of general endotracheal anaesthesia. The pain score was evaluated using Hannallah pain scale, motor blockade using modified bromage scale and sedation assessed using 4 point sedation score at 30 minutes after extubation and at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h. The time to awakening, first analgesic requirement time, number of doses of rescue analgesic and side-effects in a 24 hours period were also recorded. The results were evaluated using SPSS 17 statistical method. RESULTS: There were no differences in demographic characteristics between the groups. However, mean duration of caudal analgesia was 659.5 minutes in group R, 784.5 minutes in group RF and 960.5 minutes in group RC which was statistically highly significant (P<0.01.The total dose of rescue analgesic in 24 hours was lower in groups RF and RC. Also the number of children receiving rescue analgesia at 12 hours was higher in placebo group than fentanyl group and clonidine group which was statistically highly significant (P<0.01. Increased incidence of urinary retention and pruritis was noted in group RF which was statistically not significant (P=0.366. CONCLUSION: Addition of inj. Fentanyl 1µg/kg or clonidine 2µg/kg to Ropivacaine 0.2% 1ml/kg

  8. Impaired atrial M(2)-cholinoceptor function in obesity-related hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelat, M; Verwaerde, P; Merial, C; Galitzky, J; Berlan, M; Montastruc, J L; Senard, J M

    1999-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of the parasympathetic limb of the baroreflex arch in a canine model of obesity-related hypertension. Twelve male beagle dogs were randomized into 2 groups. Six dogs were fed with normal canine food and 6 were submitted to a 10-week high-fat diet (HFD). We have evaluated the consequences of HFD on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) circadian cycles and methylscopolamine dose-response curves. Binding of [(3)H]-AF-DX 384 and adenylyl cyclase activity were investigated to determine the density and functionality of M(2)-cholinoceptors on right atrial membranes from control and HFD dogs. HFD induced a significant increase in body weight (15+/-1 vs 12+/-1 kg), systolic BP (161+/-5 vs 145+/-4 mm Hg), diastolic BP (92+/-3 vs 79+/-2 mm Hg), and HR (96+/-4 vs 81+/-3 bpm). Circadian rhythms of HR and BP observed in the baseline period were abolished after 9 weeks of HFD. After propranolol (1 mg/kg) pretreatment, the dose of methylscopolamine able to induce 50% maximum tachycardia was significantly increased after 9 weeks of HFD (7.4+/-0.3 vs 4.7+/-0.1 microg/kg). In the control group, the experimental period failed to modify these parameters. The numbers of M(2)-cholinoceptors measured in right atrial membranes were significantly lower in HFD than in control groups (54+/-6 vs 27+/-6 fmol/mg protein). The ability of carbachol to inhibit isoproterenol-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity was significantly lower in HFD than in control groups (IC(50)=47+/-12 vs 6.4+/-1.4 micromol/L). However, the basal activity of adenylyl cyclase was unchanged by HFD. HFD decreases M(2)-cholinoceptor number and function in cardiomyocytes. This could explain the abolition of circadian rhythm of HR and the changes in chronotropic effect brought about by methylscopolamine.

  9. Rapacuronium 2.0 or 2.5 mg kg(-1) for rapid-sequence induction : comparison with succinylcholine 1.0 mg kg(-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blobner, M; Mirakhur, RK; Wierda, JMKH; Wright, PMC; Olkkola, KT; Debaene, B; Pendeville, P; Engbaek, J; Rietbergen, H; Sparr, HJ

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this nine-centre study in 602 patients was to show that the frequency of acceptable intubating conditions after rapacuronium 2.0 or 2.5 mg kg(-1) is not more than 10% lower than the frequency after succinylcholine 1.0 mg kg(-1) during rapid-sequence induction of anaesthesia with fenta

  10. Active vitamin D prevents podocyte injury via regulation of macrophage M1 and M2 phenotype in diabetic nephropathy rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭银凤

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of active vitamin D(VD)on macrophage M1 and M2 phenotype and its role in protecting podocyte impairment in diabetic nephropathy(DN).Methods Diabetes mellitus rats were established by intraperitoneal injection with streptozocin.Rats were randomly divided into four groups:normal-1(NC-1,n=8),normal-2(NC-2,n=8,normal rats treated with calcitriol 0.1μg·kg-1·d-1by gavages),

  11. The Extreme Type I Planetary Nebula M2-52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Peña

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados obtenidos a partir de espectroscopía de alta resolución de la parte central de la nebulosa planetaria bipolar M2-52 que muestra un tipo morfológico Br. Hemos confirmado que M2-52 es una nebulosa de Tipo I de Peimbert, con un espectro rico en líneas de alto y bajo grado de ionización y un fuerte enriquecimiento de He y N. La composición química del gas ionizado es: He/H = 0:165 0:010, O/H = (2:6 0:5 x 10_4, N/O = 2:3 0:3, Ne/O = 0:37 0:10, Ar/O = (9:2 2:0 x 10_3 y S/O > 2:0 x 10_3. La velocidad de expansión de la nebulosa es, en promedio, de 20 2 km s_1 y varía ligeramente dependiendo del ión considerado. Los iones de menor grado de ionización, N+ y S+, muestran vexp _ 18 km s_1, O++ y He+ muestran vexp _ 20 km s_1, en tanto que He++ y H+ muestran vexp _ 22 km s_1. Es posible que la zona de N+ y S+ esté siendo frenada por el anillo de material molecular encontrado alrededor de la estrella.

  12. Marginal fluctuations as instantons on M2/D2-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naghdi, M. [University of Ilam, Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Sciences, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    We introduce some (anti-) M/D-branes through turning on the corresponding field strengths of the 11- and 10-dimensional supergravity theories over AdS{sub 4} x M{sup 7} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 6} spaces, where we use S{sup 7}/Z{sub k} and CP{sup 3} for the internal spaces. Indeed, when we add M2/D2-branes on the same directions with the near horizon branes of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis- Maldacena model, all symmetries and supersymmetries are preserved trivially. In this case, we obtain a localized object just in the horizon. This normalizable bulk massless scalar mode is a singlet of SO(8) and SU(4) x U(1), and it agrees with a marginal boundary operator of the conformal dimension of Δ{sub +} = 3. However, after performing a special conformal transformation, we see that the solution is localized in the Euclideanized AdS{sub 4} space and is attributable to the included anti-M2/D2-branes, which are also necessary to ensure that there is no back-reaction. The resultant theory now breaks all N = 8, 6 supersymmetries to N = 0, while the other symmetries are so preserved. The dual boundary operator is then set up from the skew-whiffing of the representations 8s and 8v for the supercharges and scalars, respectively, while the fermions remain fixed in 8c of the original theory. Besides, we also address another alternate bulk to boundary matching procedure through turning on one of the gauge fields of the full U(N){sub k} x U(N){sub -k} gauge group along the same lines with a similar situation to the one faced in the AdS{sub 5}/CFT{sub 4} correspondence. The latter approach covers the difficulty already faced with in the bulk-boundary matching procedure for k = 1, 2 as well. (orig.)

  13. Seamless communication in supply chains based on M2M technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Moneimne

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to information is the key element in the successful and efficient organization of transport & logistic processes. The importance of real-time access to information is confirmed by a panel workshop carried out with support of design thinking methodology. There are two ways of gaining access to the right information - manual, where human agency is needed and fully automatic, where new M2M technology is implemented. Implementation of such technology improves seamless communication during transport execution and allows real-time access to needed information. The aim of the paper is to evaluate the influence of the effectiveness of using M2M technology and traditional way of communication as well as data gathering in order to ensure seamless communication in the supply chain. Methods: Survey, design thinking, desk research and real case study results were used in the paper. Results and conclusions: Seamless communication and implementation of M2M technology within the whole supply (including modes of transport and transport units chain is a backbone of the lean and reliable digital supply chain.

  14. Obstetric and neonatal characteristics of pregnancy and delivery for infant birthweight ≥5.0 kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, David A; Ahmed, Sahar; Razley, Aminah; Morrison, John J

    2017-12-01

    Infant birthweight ≥5.0 kg represents a significant risk factor for mother and neonate. The objective of this study was to examine the obstetric and neonatal outcome measures in a large cohort of such deliveries. The data used for this study were prospectively entered into an obstetric computerized database during the period 1989-2013. All pregnancies where the delivery resulted in an infant weighing ≥5.0 kg were identified. The results were retrospectively analyzed separately for parity, and a separate analysis was performed comparing the outcome measures observed in the earlier years of the study with those of the later years. There were 73,796 deliveries in the time period of which there were n = 201 (0.3%) infants with birth weight ≥5.0 kg. The mean maternal body mass index (BMI) was in the obese category range (30.9 kg/m(2)) and the median gestation at delivery was 40.8 weeks. The cesarean delivery rate for nulliparous women was 56.3% and for parous women 30.8%. The overall rate of third degree perineal tears was 3.8%, the rate of shoulder dystocia was 4.6% and the rate of Erb's Palsy was 1.5%. There was a significant increase in cesarean delivery in the latter of the study (26.7% versus 43.0%, p = 0.02), due to an increase in the planned pre-labor cesarean deliveries (30.0 versus 12.9%, p = 0.005). There was no difference in adverse outcomes in both groups. These findings describe the features of pregnancy associated with infant birthweight ≥5.0 kg, and outline reliable maternal and neonatal morbidity data for these pregnancies. In this cohort, there was no apparent benefit from increased planned pre-labor cesarean delivery rates.

  15. Available phosphorus levels for 95 to 120 kg barrows genetically selected for lean gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Luís Corrêa Arouca

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating available phosphorus (aP levels in diets for barrows selected for lean meat deposition, eighty commercial hybrid pigs with initial weight of 94.05±1.05 kg were used in this experiment. Pigs were allotted in a completely randomized block design, with five treatments (0.092, 0.156, 0.220, 0,284, and 0.348% of aP, eight replicates and two pigs per experimental unit. The average daily weight gain of pigs increased and the feed conversion improved quadratically with increasing aP in the diets up to the estimated levels of 0.21 and 0.20%, respectively. There was no effect of the dietary aP on average daily feed intake. However, aP intake, bone strength and concentration of phosphorus in the bones increased linearly with increasing aP in the diets. The levels of aP did not affect carcass traits; however, the alkaline phosphatase activity was improved and the values of serum inorganic phosphorus increased quadratically up to the estimated levels of 0.26 and 0.27% of aP, respectively. The available phosphorus levels of 0.21, 0.27, and 0.35%, corresponding to daily aP intakes of 6.34, 8.13, and 10.44 g result, respectively, in greatest performance, blood and bone parameters of 95 to 120 kg barrows selected for lean gain.

  16. Advantages of ivermectin at a single dose of 400 micrograms/kg compared with 100 micrograms/kg for community treatment of lymphatic filariasis in Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, N L; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-01-01

    In April and October in 1991-1993, 5 supervised single doses of ivermectin were given to inhabitants aged > or = 3 years in a Polynesian district: the first 3 treatments were with 100 micrograms/kg and the 2 latter with 400 micrograms/kg. At each treatment, about 97% of the eligible population (899) were treated and blood samples were collected just before treatment from 96% of the 613 inhabitants aged > or = 15 years. Following the 5 successive treatments, adverse reactions were observed in, respectively, 23.8, 13, 6.2, 13.6 and 7.9% of the microfilariae (mf) carriers, and in less than 1% of amicrofilaraemic subjects. Neither the frequency nor the intensity of adverse reactions was significantly different between single doses of 100 micrograms/kg and 400 micrograms/kg. Although the geometric mean microfilaraemia (GMM) was reduced, the mf carrier prevalence remained unchanged before and after 3 mass treatments with 100 micrograms/kg (21.4 and 20.7% respectively), and the mf recurrence rate 6 months after each dose of 100 micrograms/kg was roughly stable (respectively, 34.3%, 21.6% and 31.2% of the initial GMM). In contrast, after one dose round of 400 micrograms/kg, the mf carrier prevalence decreased significantly to 14.9% (P < 10(-6)), and the mf recurrence rate dropped to 9.9% (P < 10(-3)) of the initial GMM. These results confirm the safety and the effectiveness of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin for lymphatic filariasis control.

  17. Multiwavelength photometry in the Globular Cluster M2

    CERN Document Server

    Dalessandro, E; Lanzoni, B; Ferraro, F R; Schiavon, R; Rood, R T

    2009-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength photometric analysis of the globular cluster M2. The data-set has been obtained by combining high-resolution (HST/WFPC2 and ACS) and wide-field (GALEX) space observations and ground based (MEGACAM-CFHT, EMMI-NTT) images. The photometric sample covers the entire cluster extension from the very central regions up to the tidal radius and beyond. It allows an accurate determination of the cluster center of gravity and other structural parameters derived from the star count density profile. Moreover we study the BSS population and its radial distribution. A total of 123 BSS has been selected, and their radial distribution has been found to be bimodal (highly peaked in the center, decreasing at intermediate radii and rising outward), as already found in a number of other clusters. The radial position of the minimum of the BSS distribution is consistent with the radius of avoidance caused by the dynamical friction of massive objects over the cluster age. We also searched for gradients in...

  18. Metric 3-Leibniz algebras and M2-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Méndez-Escobar, Elena

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with superconformal Chern-Simons theories with matter in 3 dimensions. The interest in these theories is two-fold. On the one hand, it is a new family of theories in which to test the AdS/CFT correspondence and on the other, they are important to study one of the main objects of M-theory (M2-branes). All these theories have something in common: they can be written in terms of 3-Leibniz algebras. Here we study the structure theory of such algebras, paying special attention to a subclass of them that gives rise to maximal supersymmetry and that was the first to appear in this context: 3-Lie algebras. In chapter 2, we review the structure theory of metric Lie algebras and their unitary representations. In chapter 3, we study metric 3-Leibniz algebras and show, by specialising a construction originally due to Faulkner, that they are in one to one correspondence with pairs of real metric Lie algebras and unitary representations of them. We also show a third characterisation for six extreme...

  19. Fermi surface behavior in the ABJM M2-brane theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWolfe, Oliver; Henriksson, Oscar; Rosen, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    We calculate fermionic Green's functions for states of the three-dimensional Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena M2-brane theory at large N using the gauge-gravity correspondence. We embed extremal black brane solutions in four-dimensional maximally supersymmetric gauged supergravity, obtain the linearized Dirac equations for each spin-1 /2 mode that cannot mix with a gravitino, and solve these equations with infalling boundary conditions to calculate retarded Green's functions. For generic values of the chemical potentials, we find Fermi surfaces with universally non-Fermi liquid behavior, matching the situation for four-dimensional N =4 super-Yang-Mills. Fermi surface singularities appear and disappear discontinuously at the point where all chemical potentials are equal, reminiscent of a quantum critical point. One limit of parameter space has zero entropy at zero temperature, and fermionic fluctuations are perfectly stable inside an energy region around the Fermi surface. An ambiguity in the quantization of the fermions is resolved by supersymmetry.

  20. BariSurg trial: Sleeve gastrectomy versus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in obese patients with BMI 35–60 kg/m2 – a multi-centre randomized patient and observer blind non-inferiority trial

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Roux-en-Ygastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) rank among the most frequently applied bariatric procedures worldwide due to their positive risk/benefit correlation. A systematic review revealed a similar excess weight loss (EWL) 2 years postoperatively between SG and RYGB. However, there is a lack of randomized controlled multi-centre trials comparing SG and RYGB, not only concerning EWL, but also in terms of remission of obesity-related co-morbidities, gastroesophagea...

  1. The Stretched Lens Array (SLA): A Low-Risk, Cost-Effective Array Offering Wing-Level Performance of 180 W/KG and 300 W/M2 at 300 VDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONeill, Mark; Piszczor, Michael F.; Eskenazi, Michael I.; McDanal, A. J.; George, Patrick J.; Botke, Matthew M.; Brandhorst, Henry W.; Edwards, David L.; Jaster, Paul A.; Lyons, Valerie J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    At IECEC 2001, our team presented a paper on the new stretched lens array (SLA), including its evolution from the successful SCARLET array on the NASA/JPL Deep Space 1 spacecraft. Since that conference, the SLA team has made significant advances in the SLA technology, including component-level improvements, array-level optimization, space environment exposure testing, and prototype hardware fabrication and evaluation. This paper describes the evolved version of the SLA, highlighting recent improvements in the lens, solar cell, photovoltaic receiver, rigid panel structure, and complete solar array wing.

  2. Laparoscopic jejunoileal side-to-side anastomosis for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese patients with a body mass index of 24–32 kg/m2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: LJISSA seems to be a promising procedure for the control of T2DM. A multicenter study with a larger number of patients and a longer follow-up period is needed to substantiate our preliminary findings.

  3. Lightweight Solar Paddle with High Specific Power of 150 W/Kg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Kazunori; Takahashi, Masato; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Takamoto, Tatsuya; Ito, Takehiko; Nozaki, Yukishige; Kusawake, Hiroaki

    2014-08-01

    A lightweight solar paddle using space solar sheet (SSS) is currently being developed, which uses glass-type SSS (G-SSS) comprising InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs triple- junction high-efficiency thin-film solar cells. To avoid damage to the G-SSS due to vibration during launch, we adopted a new architecture on a panel. This panel employed a curved frame-type structure, on which the G-SSS is mounted and test models were manufactured to evaluate the vibration tolerance. The dimensions of the 1.0-cm-thick unit panel were about 1.0 × 1.0 m. Acoustic and sine vibration tests were performed on the model and the results demonstrated the high durability of the curved panel in an acoustic and vibration environments. The specific power of the solar paddle using the curved panel is estimated at approximately 150 W/kg at an array power of about 10 kW.

  4. Clinical experience with autologous M2 macrophages in children with severe cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernykh, Elena R; Kafanova, Marina Yu; Shevela, Ekaterina Ya; Sirota, Sergei I; Adonina, Elena I; Sakhno, Lyudmila V; Ostanin, Alexander A; Kozlov, Vladimir V

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell-based therapy is considered to be a new approach for the treatment of cerebral palsy (CP). Given the potent anti-inflammatory activity and high regenerative potential of M2 macrophages, these cells may be an alternative source for cell transplantation. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of autologous M2 macrophages, we conducted a pilot clinical trial in 21 children with severe CP. The primary outcome measure was safety, which included assessment of mortality of any cause, immediate adverse reactions, and serious adverse effects and comorbidities during 5-year follow-up. The secondary outcome measure was functional improvement in Gross Motor Function Measure (66-item GMFM) test, Peabody Developmental Motor Scale-Fine Motor (PDMS-FM) test, Ashworth scale, MRC scale, and an easy-to-understand questionnaire for evaluation of cognitive functions in our modification. Intradural injection of M2 cells (in mean dose of 0.8 × 10(6)/kg) into the lumbar spinal area did not induce any serious adverse events. No cases of mortality, psychomotor worsening, exacerbation of seizures, and long-term comorbidities, including tumors, were observed during a 5-year follow-up. After 3 months, GMFM score increased from 13.7 ± 7.8 to 58.6 ± 14.6, PDMS-FM score improved from 0.76 ± 0.42 to 5.05 ± 0.97, and the Ashworth score decreased from 3.8 ± 0.21 to 3.3 ± 0.24. Along with gross and fine motor function enhancement, an improvement of cognitive activity (from 1.62 ± 0.41 to 4.05 ± 0.64, according to questionnaire assessment) and reduction of seizure syndrome were registered as well. The neurological improvements did not diminish during the 5-year follow-up period. The data obtained suggest that cell therapy based on M2 macrophages is safe, does not induce early adverse effects and long-term comorbidities, and is accompanied with a significant improvement of motor and cognitive activities in severe CP patients. This manuscript is

  5. RBP-J is required for M2 macrophage polarization in response to chitin and mediates expression of a subset of M2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldi, Julia; Shang, Yingli; Zhao, Baohong; Ivashkiv, Lionel B; Hu, Xiaoyu

    2016-03-01

    Development of alternatively activated (M2) macrophage phenotypes is a complex process that is coordinately regulated by a plethora of pathways and factors. Here, we report that RBP-J, a DNA-binding protein that integrates signals from multiple pathways including the Notch pathway, is critically involved in polarization of M2 macrophages. Mice deficient in RBP-J in the myeloid compartment exhibited impaired M2 phenotypes in vivo in a chitin-induced model of M2 polarization. Consistent with the in vivo findings, M2 polarization was partially compromised in vitro in Rbpj-deficient macrophages as demonstrated by reduced expression of a subset of M2 effector molecules including arginase 1. Functionally, myeloid Rbpj deficiency impaired M2 effector functions including recruitment of eosinophils and suppression of T cell proliferation. Collectively, we have identified RBP-J as an essential regulator of differentiation and function of alternatively activated macrophages.

  6. 25kgTNT当量爆炸容器的安全考核实验%Explosion proof testing of the 25kg TNT equivalent explosion containment vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡八一; 谷岩; 陈石勇; 刘宇; 胡美娥

    2011-01-01

    对25 kgTNT当量钢制球形爆炸容器进行了7发爆轰加载的安全考核实验.前2发实验采用RHT-901炸药饼,其TNT当量分别为7.55 kg和10.32 kg;中间4发采用TNT炸药球,其当量分别为10.16 kg、14.95 kg、18.30 kg和24.96kg;最后1发炸药的rNT当量为18.73 kg,但其表面包有一层7mm厚的钢壳.考核实验测量了作用于容器内壁的爆炸反射超压、容器内爆轰产物准静态气体压力和温度的变化规律,同时还监测了容器外表6个特征点的动态应变及容器相邻实验室的爆炸冲击噪声.以上力学参数的测量为该爆炸容器的安全评估及考核验收提供了必要的实验结果.

  7. Reseach on Business Model of M2M Virtual Opertion%M2M虚拟运营的商业模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景士颖; 乔新春

    2014-01-01

    M2M市场在未来几年拥有较大的增长空间,随着移动转售业务牌照的发放,M2M将成为虚拟运营商可以切入的具备潜力的市场领域之一。探讨M2M虚拟运营的商业模式,分析国际开展M2M虚拟运营的案例,并给出国内开展M2M虚拟运营的建议。%M2M has more market space for growth in the coming years, with the issuance of mobile resale service license, M2M wil become a potential market area where MVNOs can cut into. This article discusses the business model of M2M virtual operation, analyzes the international M2M MVNO business cases, and gives advices to MNOs and MVNOs on how to provide better M2M services in China.

  8. M2e通用流感疫苗的研究进展%Universal influenza vaccine based on the extracellular domain of M2 protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花艳红; 王希良

    2009-01-01

    M2基质蛋白是A型流感病毒膜蛋白,在A型流感病毒的生命周期中,M2具有重要的生物学功能,已成为抗病毒药物研究的靶蛋白.其胞外区M2e(M2 eetodomain,M2e)为24个氨基酸残基,该片段在多病毒株中具有极高的保守性.针对M2e产生IgG型抗体能够防止流感病毒引发的死亡,减少动物模型中流感的发病率.了解有关M2e疫苗的研究进展,以及关于M2e作为A型流感疫苗靶抗原的关键问题很重要.%Matrix protein M2 (M2) is the membrane protein of Influenza A with an extracellular domain of 24 amino acid residues, which is strongly conserved across virus strains. M2 plays an important role in the life cy-cle of the Influenza A virus and has been the target of antiviral drugs. IgG subtype antibodies directed against M2e can prevent death from influenza and reduce morbidity in animal models for influenza disease. This review summarizes the findings on M2e vaccine candidates and addresses some key questions about this Influenza A vaccine target.

  9. Optimum standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratio for pigs weighing 7–14 kg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Pedersen, Trine Friis; Assadi Soumeh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    /treatment. The diets contained similar crude protein (154 g/kg), NE (10.5 MJ/kg), and SID Lys (10.9 g/kg). Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined for a 21-d period. Blood and urine samples were collected on d 8 and 15. Urea concentration in plasma...

  10. Characterization of flavor and texture development within large (291 kg) blocks of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carunchia Whetstine, M E; Luck, P J; Drake, M A; Foegeding, E A; Gerard, P D; Barbano, D M

    2007-07-01

    Cheddar cheese is a natural product that has a variable flavor and texture profile. Many companies produce 291-kg blocks of Cheddar cheese, which are subsequently cut and shipped, or stored and subsequently cut. Previous research has shown that compositional differences exist within 291-kg blocks and that these differences may influence flavor and texture development. The objectives of this study were to systematically characterize flavor and texture differences within 291-kg blocks. On 2 different occasions, a 291-kg block was manufactured at each of 4 manufacturing facilities. After 7 d, the 291-kg blocks were sliced into sixteen 18-kg sample portions using a predetermined diagram, and each portion was labeled appropriately (outer corner, inner corner, etc.) and stored at 7 degrees C. Cheese from different locations within the 291-kg blocks was evaluated at 1, 4, 8, and 12 mo. At each time point, two 18-kg portions representing an inside and outside location with the 291-kg block cross-section (from inside to outside) were sampled. The moisture content was lower in the inner than outer locations within the 291-kg blocks. Protein hydrolysis was higher in the inner location and inner locations developed aged Cheddar flavors sulfur, nutty, and brothy more rapidly than the outer locations. However, plant-to-plant differences in aging were often larger than differences caused by block location. These differences were due to differences in cheese manufacturing practices among plants. Dynamic headspace results for flavor volatiles were consistent with descriptive sensory flavor results, documenting differences between inner and outer locations within 291-kg blocks. The inner locations were more fracturable and the outer locations were more cohesive and had more residual in the mouth. Inner locations had greater fracture strain than outer locations. Documenting the differences in aging of 291-kg blocks of Cheddar cheese is important in understanding how to make a

  11. Microwave and magnetic (M2 proteomics of a mouse model of mild traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa M. Evans

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Short-term increases in oxidative stress and decreases in motor function, including debilitating effects on balance and motor control, can occur following primary mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI. However, the long-term effects on motor unit impairment and integrity as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying secondary injuries are poorly understood. We hypothesized that changes in central nervous system-specific protein (CSP expression might correlate to these long-term effects. To test our hypothesis, we longitudinally assessed a closed-skull mTBI mouse model, vs. sham control, at 1, 7, 30, and 120 days post-injury. Motor impairment was determined by rotarod and grip strength performance measures, while motor unit integrity was determined using electromyography. Relative protein expression was determined by microwave and magnetic (M2 proteomics of ipsilateral brain tissue, as previously described. Isoprostane measurements were performed to confirm a primary oxidative stress response. Decoding the relative expression of 476 ± 56 top-ranked proteins for each specimen revealed statistically significant changes in the expression of two well-known CSPs at 1, 7 and 30 days post-injury: P < 0.001 for myelin basic protein (MBP and p < 0.05 for myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG. This was confirmed by Western blot. Moreover, MAG, αII-spectrin (SPNA2 and neurofilament light (NEFL expression at 30 days post-injury were directly related to grip strength (p < 0.05. While higher-powered studies of larger cohorts merit further investigation, this study supports the proof-of-concept that M2 proteomics is a rapid method to quantify putative protein biomarkers and therapeutic targets of mTBI and suggests the feasibility of CSP expression correlations to long-term effects on motor impairment.

  12. 77 FR 67582 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ... directive (AD) for certain Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Tay 611-8 turbofan engines. This... issued Alert Service Bulletin TAY-72-A1696, Revision 1, dated June 11, 2012. The actions described in... Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Tay 611-8 turbofan engines, serial numbers 16245, 16256, 16417, 16418, 16584, 16585...

  13. 77 FR 71085 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... serial number (S/N) Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) TAY 620- 15 turbofan engines. This AD... specified products. The MCAI states: Fan blade off on a TAY 620-15 engine has recently been reported... AD applies to Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) TAY 620-15 engines, serial numbers 17054...

  14. 78 FR 17075 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Tay 611-8 turbofan engines. This AD requires inspection and replacement, if... ADs None. (c) Applicability This AD applies to Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) Tay 611-8... Agency AD 2012-0163, dated August 28, 2012, and RRD Alert Service Bulletin TAY-72-A1696, Revision 1...

  15. 78 FR 59291 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co. KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co. KG (RRD) Tay 620-15, 650-15, and 651- 54 turbofan engines. This... history of Tay series engines discovered that low pressure compressor (LPC) fan blade leading edge could... Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co. KG (RRD) Tay 620-15, 650-15, and 651-54 turbofan engines. (d) Reason...

  16. The structure of the third intracellular loop of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyama, Susumu; Oka, Yoshiaki; Haga, Kazuko; Kojima, Shuichi; Tateishi, Yukihiro; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Haga, Tatsuya

    2006-01-09

    We have examined whether the long third intracellular loop (i3) of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 subtype has a rigid structure. Circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of M2i3 expressed in and purified from Escherichia coli indicated that M2i3 consists mostly of random coil. In addition, the differential CD spectrum between the M2 and M2deltai3 receptors, the latter of which lacks most of i3 except N- and C-terminal ends, gave no indication of secondary structure. These results suggest that the central part of i3 of the M2 receptor has a flexible structure.

  17. Effect of gender, housing density and the interaction on growth performance and carcass and meat quality of pigs slaughtered at 110 kg body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Serrano

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 228 crossbred pigs were used to investigate the effect of gender (gilts and barrows, density at housing (0.84 and 0.76 m2/pig and the interaction on growth performance and carcass and merit from 19.4 to 110 kg body weight. Feed intake of gilts increased as the space allowance decreased but no effect was observed in barrows (p<0.05 for the interaction. However, no interaction was observed for average daily gain or feed-to-gain ratio. Barrows had 2.4% less (p<0.01 carcass lean percentage but 9% more (p<0.05 intramuscular fat content than gilts. The concentration of linoleic acid in the outer layer of backfat was higher (p<0.05 for gilts than for barrows when pigs were allocated at 0.84 m2/pig, but no differences were observed at 0.76 m2/pig. Also, barrows had 2.7% more (p<0.05 total saturated fatty acids (SFA in the outer layer of backfat and lower monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA (p<0.01 and linoleic acid (p<0.05 content in the inner layer than gilts. Housing density did not affect any of the carcass quality traits studied but an increase in space allowance decreased (p<0.05 MUFA content in both layers. Pigs allocated at 0.84 m2/pig tended (p<0.10 to have higher SFA content in the inner layer than pigs allocated at 0.76 m2/pig. We concluded that gilts and barrows respond differently to space allocation in respect to feed intake and unsaturation of backfat. Housing density did not affect growth performance of pigs slaughtered at 110 kg but MUFA content decreased with increases in space allowance.

  18. Live performance, carcass quality, and economic assessment of over 100kg slaughtered pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent genetic improvement has developed pigs with maximum potential for protein deposit at higher weights; however, their optimal slaughter weight still needs to be determined. The objective of the study was to evaluate live performance, carcass traits, and economic viability of 417 Agroceres PIC pigs slaughtered with 100, 115, 130, and 145kg live weight. Pigs were reared in pens with 10-11 barrows and gilts each, offered a feed allowance of 2.8kg/pig/day until the following slaughter weights (SW: 99.65±0.82kg, 118.53±0.98kg, 133.97±1.17kg, and 143.90±1.24. There was no interaction between sex and SW (P>0.05. Backfat thickness, fat area, and loin eye area linearly increased with SW (P0.05, and feed conversion ratio (R²=43.29% linearly worsened with SW (P<0.001, but the effect of SW on live production cost (R$/kg was quadratic, with the minimum point at 134.8kg. It was concluded that, under the applied management, increasing SW results in larger amount of lean tissue with no change in its yield and little effect on growth performance.

  19. Perbandingan Granisetron 0,01 mg/KgBb dengan Ondansetron 0,08 Mg/Kg.Bb Untuk Mencegah Mual Muntah Pascaoperasi Dini Mastektomi Radikal Modifikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Fitriyana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative nausea and vomiting not only cause discomfort to the patient, but also lead to electrolyte imbalance, regurgitation and aspiration, bleeding and loss of surgical sutures. Patients who experience postoperative nausea and vomiting will require further attention and treatment which of course increases the cost of medical services. Women who underwent mastectomy with accompanying decision underarm lymph nodes have a high risk of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Many anti-vomiting are given including antihistamines, butyrophenon, and dopamine receptor antagonists have been reported to have undesirable side effects including excessive sedation, hypotension, dry mouth, dysphoria, hallucinations and extrapyramidal effects. 5 HT3 receptor antagonists provide a major advancement for treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting due to fewer side effects when compared with anti-vomiting medications before. This study will compare the two drugs 5 HT3 receptor antagonist granisetron with ondansetron in preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting modified radical mastectomy early. Conducted research on 58 patients ASA I and II modified radical mastectomy is performed under general anesthesia. Sampling was carried out using double-blind randomized controlled trial. Samples were divided into two groups by block randomization. Group G is given granisetron 0.01 gr / kg.bb and group O is given ondansetron 0.08 mg / kg.bb. Drug treatment is administered intravenously 30 minutes before the surgery ended on a complete evaluation of blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation and length of surgery. Postoperative nausea and vomiting shortly after surgery assessed every hour until 6 hours after surgery (early postoperative nausea and vomiting to 4 scale (0-3. Data were analyzed by t-test, Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney test and Fisher's Exact test on Windows SPSS ver.16 The results suggest there is a tendency complaints of postoperative nausea and

  20. The Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula mKG Suppresses Pulmonary Fibrosis of Mice Induced by Bleomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Gao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary fibrosis (PF is a serious progressive lung disease and it originates from inflammation-induced parenchymal injury with excessive extracellular matrix deposition to result in the destruction of the normal lung architecture. Modified Kushen Gancao Formula (mKG, derived from traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has a prominent anti-inflammatory effect. The present study is to explore the inhibitory effects of mKG on bleomycin (BLM-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice. mKG significantly decreased pulmonary alveolitis, fibrosis scores, and interleukin-6 (IL-6, interleukin-17 (IL-17, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β and hydroxyproline (HYP levels in lung tissue of mice compared with BLM treatment. It markedly alleviated the increase of HYP content in the lung tissues and pathologic changes of pulmonary fibrosis caused by BLM instillation. In conclusion, mKG has an anti-fibrotic effect and might be employed as a therapeutic candidate agent for attenuating pulmonary fibrosis.

  1. Control of bancroftian filariasis in an endemic area of Polynesia by ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, N L; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Cartel, J L

    1996-01-01

    Community treatment with ivermectin was implemented in Opoa, French Polynesia from April 1991 to October 1993. All consenting inhabitants aged 3 years or more were treated with twice-yearly single doses of ivermectin, pregnant women excepted. A dosage of 100 microgram/kg was used for the 3 first treatments and then abandoned because it did not reduce the prevalence of microfilariae (mf) carriers. With a dosage of 400 micrograms/kg dosage, this prevalence decreased dramatically from 21% to 7%, and the mf level in carriers dropped to only 0.5% of its initial value after 3 treatments. The 400 micrograms/kg dosage was well tolerated and compliance was excellent. The twice-yearly single dose strategy with ivermectin at 400 micrograms/kg is safe and highly effective for filariasis control in an endemic area.

  2. Sugammadex 4.0 mg kg-1 reversal of deep rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Buwei; Wang, Xiangrui; Hansen, Søren Helbo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Maintenance of deep Neuro Muscular Blockade (NMB) until the end of surgery may be beneficial in some surgical procedures. The selective relaxant binding agent sugammadex rapidly reverses deep levels of rocuronium-induced NMB. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy...... and safety of sugammadex 4.0 mg kg-1 for reversal of deep rocuronium-induced NMB in Chinese and Caucasian patients. Methods: This was an open-label, multicenter, prospective Phase III efficacy study in adult American Society of Anesthesiologists Class 1-3 patients scheduled for surgery under general...... anesthesia and requiring deep NMB. All patients received intravenous propofol and opioids for induction and maintenance of anesthesia, and a single intubation dose of rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg, with maintenance doses of 0.1-0.2 mg/kg as required. Sugammadex 4.0 mg/kg was administered after the last dose...

  3. 78 FR 48795 - Airworthiness Directives; BRP-Powertrain GmbH & Co KG Rotax Reciprocating Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... & Co KG Rotax model 912 F2; 912 F3; 912 F4; 912 S2; 912 S3; 912 S4; 914 F2; 914 F3; and 914 F4... INFORMATION: Discussion On April 4, 2013, we issued AD 2013-07-12, amendment 39-17416 (78 FR 22166, April 15, 2013), for certain BRP-Powertrain GmbH & Co KG Rotax model 912 F2; 912 F3; 912 F4; 912 S2; 912 S3;...

  4. The equivalence between B-W and K-G and R-S equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄时中; 阮图南; 吴宁; 郑志鹏

    2003-01-01

    The equivalence between the Bargmann-Wigner (B-W) equations and the Klein-Gordon (K-G) equations for integral spin, and the Rarita-Schwinger (R-S) equations for half integral spin is established by explicit derivation, starting from the lowest spin cases. It is demonstrated that all the constraints or subsidiary conditions imposed on the K-G or R-S equations are included in the B-W equations.

  5. M2M在3GPP SA2的研究进展%The Progress of M2M in 3GPP SA2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜加懂

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of Internet of things,almost all communication standardization organizations put their focus on the standards of M2M.3GPP as the main mobile communication SDO is working hard on research and standards on M2M.Based on the brief introduction of the 3GPP working groups on M2M,this paper mainly introduces the 3GPP SA2 research progress and standardization on M2M.%随着物联网的快速发展,M2M成为各个标准化组织研究和标准制定的工作重点。3GPP作为移动通信技术的主要研究和标准制定者,对M2M的相关研究和标准制定也在加紧进行。本文在介绍3GPP各个工作组的工作情况的基础上,重点介绍了M2M在3GPP在SA2的研究和标准化进展情况。

  6. File list: ALL.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 All antigens Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19...3596,SRX193611,SRX201281,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  7. File list: DNS.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 DNase-seq Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19359...6,SRX201281,SRX193611,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  8. File list: ALL.Myo.05.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.05.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 All antigens Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19...3596,SRX201281,SRX193611,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Myo.05.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  9. File list: DNS.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 DNase-seq Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19359...6,SRX193611,SRX201281,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Myo.50.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  10. File list: ALL.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 All antigens Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19...3596,SRX201281,SRX193611,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Myo.10.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  11. File list: ALL.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 All antigens Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19...3596,SRX201281,SRX193611,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  12. File list: DNS.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2 hg19 DNase-seq Muscle LHCN-M2 SRX201296,SRX201297,SRX19359...6,SRX201281,SRX193611,SRX201282 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Myo.20.AllAg.LHCN-M2.bed ...

  13. PPARγ ligands switched high fat diet-induced macrophage M2b polarization toward M2a thereby improving intestinal Candida elimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lise Lefèvre

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammation that predisposes to insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes. In this metabolic context, gastrointestinal (GI candidiasis is common. We recently demonstrated that the PPARγ ligand rosiglitazone promotes the clearance of Candida albicans through the activation of alternative M2 macrophage polarization. Here, we evaluated the impact of high fat diet (HFD-induced obesity and the effect of rosiglitazone (PPARγ ligand or WY14643 (PPARα ligand both on the phenotypic M1/M2 polarization of peritoneal and cecal tissue macrophages and on the outcome of GI candidiasis. We demonstrated that the peritoneal macrophages and the cell types present in the cecal tissue from HF fed mice present a M2b polarization (TNF-α(high, IL-10(high, MR, Dectin-1. Interestingly, rosiglitazone induces a phenotypic M2b-to-M2a (TNF-α(low, IL-10(low, MR(high, Dectin-1(high switch of peritoneal macrophages and of the cells present in the cecal tissue. The incapacity of WY14643 to switch this polarization toward M2a state, strongly suggests the specific involvement of PPARγ in this mechanism. We showed that in insulin resistant mice, M2b polarization of macrophages present on the site of infection is associated with an increased susceptibility to GI candidiasis, whereas M2a polarization after rosiglitazone treatment favours the GI fungal elimination independently of reduced blood glucose. In conclusion, our data demonstrate a dual benefit of PPARγ ligands because they promote mucosal defence mechanisms against GI candidiasis through M2a macrophage polarization while regulating blood glucose level.

  14. Uso de sal durante o transporte de juvenis (1kg de pirarucu (Arapaima gigas Use of salt during the transportation of pirarucu juveniles (1kg (Arapaima gigas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franmir Rodrigues Brandão

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O pirarucu é um peixe nativo da bacia Amazônica cuja criaçãovem sendo estudada em algumas partes do Brasil. O objetivo desse trabalho foi testar o sal de cozinha como mitigador de estresse durante o transporte de juvenis de pirarucu (1 kg. Para isso, os peixes foram transportados em dois diferentes sistemas: caixas sem adição de oxigênio (transporte aberto e sacos plásticos com injeção de oxigênio e lacrado (transporte fechado. Nos dois sistemas os peixes foram transportados em três diferentes tratamentos: controle e duas concentrações de sal na água (3 e 6 g.L-1. Após o transporte os peixes foram colocados em viveiros para avaliação da recuperação. Foram analisados parâmetros do metabolismo energético (cortisol, glicose e lactato e de hematologia (hematócrito. O sal de cozinha não foi eficiente em mitigar as respostas de estresse no transporte em nenhum dos dois sistemas de transporte estudados.Pirarucu is a native fish of the Amazon basin, widely used in culture systems in some parts of Brazil. The objective of this work was to test table salt as a stress mitigator during transportation of pirarucu juveniles (1kg. Fish were transported by two different systems: boxes without addition of oxygen (open system and closed oxygen filled plastic bags (closed system. To both systems fish were transported at three different treatments: control and two table salt concentration (3 and 6 gL-1. After transportation, fish were stocked in ponds to monitor recovery. Metabolic (cortisol, glucose and lactate and hematological (hematocrit parameters were analyzed. The table salt was not efficient in mitigating stress response during the both tested transport system.

  15. Randomized single-blinded non-inferiority trial of 7 mg/kg pentamidine isethionate versus 4 mg/kg pentamidine isethionate for cutaneous leishmaniaisis in Suriname.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo V P F Hu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Standard treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL in Suriname entails three injections of pentamidine isethionate (PI 4 mg/kg per injection in 7 days (7 day regimen. Compliance to treatment is low and may contribute to increasing therapy failure. A 3 day regimen, including 2 injections of 7 mg/kg in 3 days may increase compliance.In a randomized, single-blinded non-inferiority trial conducted in Suriname, 84 CL patients received the 7 day regimen and 79 CL patients received the 3 day regimen. Primary objective was the proportion of patients clinically cured at 6 weeks follow-up. Secondary objectives were clinical cure at 12 weeks follow-up; parasitological cure at 6 and 12 weeks; adverse and drug related toxicity events recorded one week after the end of treatment and health related quality of life. The non-inferiority margin was set at 15%, 1 sided test, α = 0.1.At 6 weeks follow-up 31 (39% patients in the 3 day regimen and 41 (49% patients in the 7 day regimen were clinically cured. Intention to treat (ITT analyses showed that the difference in proportion clinically cured was -9.6% (90% Confidence Interval (CI: -22.3% to 3.2%. Per protocol (PP analysis showed that the difference in proportion clinically cured was 0.2% (90% CI: -14.6% to 15.2%. ITT analysis showed that the difference in proportion parasitological cured at 6 weeks was -15.2% (90% CI:-28.0% to -2.5%. PP analyses showed similar results. Non-inferiority could not be concluded for all adverse and toxicological events.We cannot conclude that the 3 day regimen is non-inferior to the 7 day regimen regarding proportion clinically and parasitological cured. Therefore there is no evidence to change the current standard practice of the 7 day regimen for the treatment of CL in Suriname.

  16. Definition and measurement of the beam propagation factor M2 for chromatic laser beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Fang; Xin Ye; Jinfu Niu; Jianqiu Xu

    2006-01-01

    The concept of the beam propagation factor M2 is extended for chromatic laser beams. The definition of the beam propagation factor can be generalized with the weighted effective wavelength. Using the new definition of factor M2, the propagation of chromatic beams can be analyzed by the beam propagation factor M2 as same as that of monochromatic beams. A simple method to measure the chromatic beam factor M2 is demonstrated. The chromatic factor M2 is found invariable while the laser beam propagates through the dispersion-free ABCD system.

  17. Meat quality and cut yield of pigs slaughtered over 100kg live weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Bertol

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Meat quality and cut yield of pigs slaughtered between 100 and 150kg live weight were evaluated. Pigs (417 Agroceres PIC barrows and gilts were fed a daily allowance of 2.8kg per head from 80kg until 100.71±0.85, 118.58±0.99, 134.07±1.18 or 143.90±1.24kg live weight. Seventy-one pigs were used for the evaluation of primal and subprimal cuts. There was no interaction between sex and slaughter weight for any of the evaluated parameters. Ham, shoulder, and loin weights linearly increased (P<0.01; R2: 84.3-93.2% with increasing slaughter weight, which, however, had little effect on primal cuts meat yield. Increasing slaughter weight promoted a linear (P<0.05 and a quadratic (P<0.01 increase of red/green coordinate (a* value of the loin and ham, respectively. Shear force showed a quadratic response (P<0.05, with minimum value estimated at 122kg slaughter weight. It was concluded that, under the applied management, increasing slaughter weight increased the volume of meat, but had little effect on meat yield. The meat of pigs slaughtered at heavier weights showed more intense red color and the same intramuscular fat content as lighter pigs, while tenderness was slightly affected.

  18. Ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg: long-term suppression of microfilariae in Bancroftian filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Plichart, R; Beylier, I; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-01-01

    Forty-three Wuchereria bancrofti carriers were given 4 successive semi-annual single doses of ivermectin 100 micrograms/kg (IVER 100). The geometric mean microfilaremia (mf) recurrence percentages, compared to the pre-initial treatment mf level, were 35%, 21%, 17% and 17% at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months respectively. However, the recurrence of mf 6 months after the fourth treatment remained high in 15 individuals, considered as 'bad responders'. At month 24, the subjects were randomly allocated into 2 groups: the first group was treated with a fifth dose of IVER 100 and the second with a first, single dose of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin (IVER 400). At month 30, the mf recurrence percentage was significantly higher in patients treated with IVER 100 than in those receiving IVER 400 (61% vs. 8%, P < 0.05). In the IVER 100 group, 6 of the 8 'bad responders' remained 'bad responders', whereas only 2 of 7 did so in the IVER 400 group. Only 3 additional patients in the IVER 100 group became consistently amicrofilaraemic, whereas 9 did so in the IVER 400 group. Two 'good responders' in the IVER 100 group became 'bad responders'. A single dose of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin has been demonstrated to be efficient for the treatment of carriers refractory to repeated doses of 100 micrograms/kg and to result in better long-term mf suppression. These results suggest a possible effect of 400 micrograms/kg of ivermectin on macrofilaria.

  19. Turbulent Fluxes of Sensible Heat Measured by Research UAV 'M2AV Carolo'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S.; Bange, J.

    2009-09-01

    Research aircraft equipped for turbulence measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are suitable platforms to measure area-representative mean values and statistical moments of second order - like variance, spectral distribution and turbulent fluxes - in situ i.e. without the use of any theoretical assumptions. Since manned research aircraft are expensive the use of small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) or mini aerial vehicles (MAV) is attractive. Such research UAV are able to measure vertical profiles of the lower troposphere, for instance. The next, more challenging league is the measurement of the turbulent fluctuations of the wind vector and simultaneously at least one scalar quantity in order to calculate turbulent fluxes using eddy covariance. To do this, fast and accurate sensors are required, with small weight, small dimensions and small power consumption, in order to be operated on a small research UAV. Beside absolute and relative measurement accuracy, the response time of the sensors has to be short (in the order of several 10 Hz) to resolve turbulent eddies also in stable stratification (i.e. sub-metre range). Since light, small and fast sensors for air humidity and trace gases are not available currently, the first step is to measure the vertical flux of sensible heat H. Beside a slow (about 1 Hz) water vapour sensor, the automatically operating meteorological mini aerial vehicles (M2AV) are equipped with two temperature sensors and a wind measurement unit. One of the temperature sensors is slow but offers a high absolute accuracy, while the fast sensor (up to 100 Hz) has a high relative accuracy but is unstable in time. The two signals are blended using a complementary filter. The wind vector can be calculated using the inertial velocity (aircraft speed relative to the earth) and the true airspeed (aircraft speed relative to the airflow). The true airspeed of M2AV is computed from five-hole-probe pressure measurements whereas the aircraft

  20. Effects of bimetallic doping on small cyclic and tubular boron clusters: B7M2 and B14M2 structures with M = Fe, Co.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hung Tan; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2015-07-14

    Using density functional theory with the TPSSh functional and the 6-311+G(d) basis set, we extensively searched for the global minima of two metallic atoms doped boron clusters B6M2, B7M2, B12M2 and B14M2 with transition metal element M being Co and Fe. Structural identifications reveal that B7Co2, B7Fe2 and B7CoFe clusters have global minima in a B-cyclic motif, in which a perfectly planar B7 is coordinated with two metallic atoms placed along the C7 axis. The B6 cluster is too small to form a cycle with the presence of two metals. Similarly, the B12 cluster is not large enough to stabilize the metallic dimer within a double ring 2 × B6 tube. The doped B14M2 clusters including B14Co2, B14Fe2 and B14CoFe have a double ring 2 × B7 tubular shape in which one metal atom is encapsulated by the B14 tube and the other is located at an exposed position. Dissociation energies demonstrate that while bimetallic cyclic cluster B7M2 prefers a fragmentation channel that generates the B7 global minimum plus metallic dimer, the tubular structure B14M2 tends to dissociate giving a bimetallic cyclic structure B7M2 and a B@B6 cluster. The enhanced stability of the bimetallic doped boron clusters considered can be understood from the stabilizing interactions between the anti-bonding MOs of metal-metal dimers and the levels of a disk aromatic configuration (for bimetallic cyclic structures), or the eigenstates of the B14 tubular form (in case of bimetallic tubular structure).

  1. Sublingual immunization with M2-based vaccine induces broad protective immunity against influenza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Shik Shim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ectodomain of matrix protein 2 (M2e of influenza A virus is a rationale target antigen candidate for the development of a universal vaccine against influenza as M2e undergoes little sequence variation amongst human influenza A strains. Vaccine-induced M2e-specific antibodies (Abs have been shown to display significant cross-protective activity in animal models. M2e-based vaccine constructs have been shown to be more protective when administered by the intranasal (i.n. route than after parenteral injection. However, i.n. administration of vaccines poses rare but serious safety issues associated with retrograde passage of inhaled antigens and adjuvants through the olfactory epithelium. In this study, we examined whether the sublingual (s.l. route could serve as a safe and effective alternative mucosal delivery route for administering a prototype M2e-based vaccine. The mechanism whereby s.l. immunization with M2e vaccine candidate induces broad protection against infection with different influenza virus subtypes was explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: A recombinant M2 protein with three tandem copies of the M2e (3M2eC was expressed in Escherichia coli. Parenteral immunizations of mice with 3M2eC induced high levels of M2e-specific serum Abs but failed to provide complete protection against lethal challenge with influenza virus. In contrast, s.l. immunization with 3M2eC was superior for inducing protection in mice. In the latter animals, protection was associated with specific Ab responses in the lungs. CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate that s.l. immunization with 3M2eC vaccine induced airway mucosal immune responses along with broad cross-protective immunity to influenza. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the M2-based vaccine approach to control epidemic and pandemic influenza infections.

  2. Caregiving for Older Adults with Obesity in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankuda, Claire K; Harris, John; Ornstein, Katherine; Levine, Deborah A; Langa, Kenneth M; Kelley, Amy S

    2017-09-01

    To determine the difference in receipt of activity of daily living (ADL) assistance between obese and normal-weight older adults. Retrospective cohort study. National Health and Aging Trends Study, 2011-2015. U.S. adults aged 65 and older with ADL disability and a body mass index (BMI) of 18.5 kg/m(2) or greater (N = 5,612) MEASUREMENTS: BMI was classified as normal weight (18.5-24.9 kg/m(2) ), overweight (25.0-29.9 kg/m(2) ), or obese (≥30.0 kg/m(2) ). Primary outcome was self-reported receipt of help with specific ADLs. Models were adjusted for demographic characteristics (age, sex, race), degree of need (self-reported general health, severity of disability), household resources (income, marriage, people in household, number of children), and cognitive status (dementia, proxy respondent). Obese with disabilities had lower rates of receiving assistance with walking inside (odds ratio (OR) = 0.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.50-0.81), walking outside (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.59-0.97), toileting (OR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.52-0.89), and getting in and out of bed (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50-0.87) than normal-weight older adults after adjustment for respondent demographic characteristics. Level of need and cognitive status partially explained the associations. In fully adjusted models, older adults with obesity still had significantly lower odds of receiving assistance in getting in and out of bed than normal weight adults (OR = 0.69, 95% CI = 0.49-0.98). Older adults with obesity are less likely to receive assistance for ADL disabilities than their normal-weight counterparts-an important concern because of ongoing demographic changes in the United States. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. Dopamine induces growth inhibition and vascular normalization through reprogramming M2-polarized macrophages in rat C6 glioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Tian; Wang, Chenlong; Chen, Xuewei; Duan, Chenfan; Zhang, Xiaoyan [Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Jing [Animal Experimental Center of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tang, Tian [Department of Oncology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Chen, Honglei [Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yue, Jiang [Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Li, Ying, E-mail: lyying0@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu2013@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2015-07-15

    Dopamine (DA), a monoamine catecholamine neurotransmitter with antiangiogenic activity, stabilizes tumor vessels in colon, prostate and ovarian cancers, thus increases chemotherapeutic efficacy. Here, in the rat C6 glioma models, we investigated the vascular normalization effects of DA and its mechanisms of action. DA (25, 50 mg/kg) inhibited tumor growth, while a precursor of DA (levodopa) prolonged the survival time of rats bearing orthotopic C6 glioma. DA improved tumor perfusion, with significant effects from day 3, and a higher level at days 5 to 7. In addition, DA decreased microvessel density and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression in tumor tissues, while increasing the coverage of pericyte. Conversely, an antagonist of dopamine receptor 2 (DR2) (eticlopride) but not DR1 (butaclamol) abrogated DA-induced tumor regression and vascular normalization. Furthermore, DA improved the delivery and efficacy of temozolomide therapy. Importantly, DA increased representative M1 markers (iNOS, CXCL9, etc.), while decreasing M2 markers (CD206, arginase-1, etc.). Depletion of macrophages by clodronate or zoledronic acid attenuated the effects of DA. Notably, DA treatment induced M2-to-M1 polarization in RAW264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages, and enhanced the migration of pericyte-like cells (10T1/2), which was reversed by eticlopride or DR2-siRNA. Such changes were accompanied by the downregulation of VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling. In summary, DA induces growth inhibition and vascular normalization through reprogramming M2-polarized macrophages. Thus, targeting the tumor microvasculature by DA represents a promising strategy for human glioma therapy. - Highlights: • Dopamine induces tumor growth inhibition and vascular normalization in rat C6 glioma. • Dopamine switches macrophage phenotype from M2 to M1. • Dopamine-induced vascular normalization is mediated by macrophage polarization. • Dopamine is a promising agent targeting the microvasculature in tumor

  4. Unified Propulsion System to Explore Near-Earth Asteroids by a 50 kg Spacecraft

    OpenAIRE

    Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Tadashi; Kasagi, Yusuke; Naoi, Taro; Hayashi, Tomoyuki; Funase, Ryu; Komurasaki, Kimiya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the micropropulsion system I-COUPS (Ion Thruster and COld-gas Thruster Unified Propulsion System) is proposed for 50-kg-class spacecraft to explore the deep space. The I-COUPS is a unified propulsion system of ion thrusters and cold-gas thrusters by sharing the same xenon gas system. It provides the spacecraft with high ΔV maneuver, high thrust, short time maneuver, and reaction control by eight thrusters. The total wet mass of the propulsion system is expected to 9.5 kg with 2...

  5. 10kg TNT当量爆炸容器的冲击振动监测%Shock Induced Vibration Monitoring of the 10kg TNT Equivalent Explosion Vessel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡八一; 刘宇; 燕乐伟; 黄淑萍

    2001-01-01

    采用电压加速度计及精密电荷放大器,对10kg TNT 当量爆炸容器系统在五种TNT当量加载下的冲击振动进行了四点比较测试.试验结果表明容器壳体在爆炸加载时的冲击加速度可高达7.75×104g,通过容器支座和柱形空心钢管支撑结构衰减后,振动加速度下降到57g,再经过实验工房地基的进一步衰减,工房墙体附近地面的垂直振动仅0.43g,这说明实验工房所承受的爆破地震烈度不超过Ⅱ级.

  6. INTRAVENOUS 2 μG/KG CLONIDINE IN COMPARISON TO INTRAVENOUS 2 μG/KG FENTANYL FOR ATTENUATION OF HAEMODYNAMIC RESPONSE TO LARYNGOSCOPY AND OROTRACHEAL INTUBATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordeiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laryngoscopy and intubation cause discernible haemodynamic changes following sympathetic stimulation. These responses are endured by healthy individuals, however, can produce calamitous changes in compromised individuals. Hence, attenuation is prudent and favourable. AIM To compare the effectiveness and safety of Clonidine and Fentanyl in attenuation of pressor response to direct laryngoscopy and endotracheal intubation. SETTING Tertiary care hospital. DESIGN Randomized, prospective, double blind study. METHODS 100 patients, aged 18-60 years who presented for elective, non-cardiovascular surgeries were divided into 2 groups; group-C to receive IV Clonidine; and group-F IV Fentanyl respectively, administered 5 min. prior to intubation. Each group had 50 patients of ASA-1 or II. We monitored the heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS ANOVA (Analysis of Variance method for intragroup comparison. The ANOVA method calculated Greenhouse-Geisser value, degree of freedom and p value. A p value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS At 10 min. of intubation, decrease in heart rate was maximum with Clonidine than Fentanyl with mean values 61.84/min and 84.64/min respectively, statistically significant (p<0.001. The systolic and diastolic blood pressure also showed a significant suppression (P<.001 with Clonidine showing better results. CONCLUSION Sympathetic response is better attenuated with Clonidine, which is statistically highly significant. Administration of intravenous Clonidine 2 μg/kg, 5 minutes before the laryngoscopy can be recommended to attenuate the sympathetic response to laryngoscopy and intubation.

  7. Increased immunogenicity and protective efficacy of influenza M2e fused to a tetramerizing protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie Carola Andersson

    Full Text Available The ectodomain of the matrix 2 protein (M2e of influenza A virus represents an attractive target for developing a universal influenza A vaccine, with its sequence being highly conserved amongst human variants of this virus. With the aim of targeting conformational epitopes presumably shared by diverse influenza A viruses, a vaccine (M2e-NSP4 was constructed linking M2e (in its consensus sequence to the rotavirus fragment NSP4(98-135; due to its coiled-coil region this fragment is known to form tetramers in aqueous solution and in this manner we hoped to mimick the natural configuration of M2e as presented in membranes. M2e-NSP4 was then evaluated side-by-side with synthetic M2e peptide for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine influenza challenge model. Here we demonstrate that M2e fused to the tetramerizing protein induces an accelerated, augmented and more broadly reactive antibody response than does M2e peptide as measured in two different assays. Most importantly, vaccination with M2e-NSP4 caused a significant decrease in lung virus load early after challenge with influenza A virus and maintained its efficacy against a lethal challenge even at very low vaccine doses. Based on the results presented in this study M2e-NSP4 merits further investigation as a candidate for or as a component of a universal influenza A vaccine.

  8. 77 FR 71487 - Airworthiness Directives; Stemme GmbH & Co. KG Powered Sailplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... GmbH & Co. KG Models S10, S10-V, and S10-VT powered sailplanes. This AD results from mandatory... specified products. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2012 (77 FR 57531... occurrence has been reported of an engine fire during ground run of a S10-VT powered sailplane....

  9. Chronic hemodialysis in children weighing less than 10 kg.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) in infants is usually used when peritoneal dialysis (PD) has failed. We describe our experience with HD, outlining the morbidity, complications, and outcomes for infants weighing less than 10 kg managed with HD for more than 6 months over a 10-year period.

  10. Impact properties of 500-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Nowicki, L.; Gazda, J. [Argonne National Lab., Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Following previous reports of excellent properties of a laboratory heat of V-4Cr-4Ti, the alloy identified as the primary vanadium-based candidate for application as fusion reactor structural components, a large industrial-scale (500-kg) heat of the alloy was fabricated successfully. The objective of this work is to determine the impact properties of the industrial-scale heat.

  11. 77 FR 66534 - Airworthiness Directives; BRP-Powertrain GmbH & Co KG Rotax Reciprocating Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... S2; 912 S3; and 912 S4 reciprocating engines. The word ``not'' was improperly omitted from the... & Co KG Rotax 912 F2; 912 F3; 912 F4; 912 S2; 912 S3; and 912 S4 reciprocating engines. As published...-13 (77 FR 51462, August 24, 2012) remains September 10, 2012. ADDRESSES: You may examine the...

  12. 78 FR 70198 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... & Co KG (RRD) model Tay 620-15, 650-15, and 651-54 turbofan engines. This AD requires a one-time... review of the service history of Tay engines discovered that the High Pressure (HP) air bleed valve...''. Request To Change Applicability RRD requested that we change the scope of the AD to include Tay 650-15 and...

  13. 77 FR 16917 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... ] Rolls-Royce Deutschland (RRD) Models Tay 611-8 and Tay 611-8C turbofan engines. This AD requires... Bulletin No. TAY-72-A1769, dated March 9, 2012. The actions described in this service information are...-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) turbofan engines: (1) TAY 611-8 engines, serial numbers (S/Ns) 16870...

  14. Evaluation of absorption/stripping for second phase expansion of KG gas cracker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report addresses technology evaluation for a second phase expansion of BP Chemical Ltd.`s (BPCL) KG cracker. Its primary objective was to determine if the absorption/stripping technology being developed by BPCL is competitive with cryogenic demethanization technology. The expansion basis for this evaluation is a 150,000 MTA ethylene increment. This increment represents an increase in KG`s capacity from 450,000 MTA after the current expansion to an ultimate capacity of 600,000 MTA. Two recovery systems for a 150,000 MTA expansion are compared: (1) Case A - Absorption/Stripping Expansion; and (2) Case B - ARS Expansion. Another objective of this report was to confirm the magnitude of the economic advantages of the absorption/stripping technology for grass roots applications. For that evaluation, absorption/stripping was compared with the original 350,000 MTA KG recovery system. The two additional 350,000 MTA grass roots cases evaluated are: (1) Case C - Absorption/Stripping - Grass Roots Design; (2) Case D - Conventional Cryogenic Recovery (Original KG 350,000 MTA design).

  15. Alkaline manganese--zinc battery. [2000 Ah, 100 Wh/kg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naumenko, V.A.; Lyapuntsova, T.G.; Lidorenko, N.S.; Lebedeva, E.S.; Penkova, L.F.; Aleshin, V.N.

    1975-02-12

    The battery described consisted of flat electrodes assembled in a pack. Cathodes were enclosed in perforated metal frames, while the anodes were metal plates coated with zinc. The batteries had capacities of about 2000 Ah and power--weight ratios of 100 Wh/kg and were resistant to shock and vibration. (RWR)

  16. Complete braided adsorbent for marine testing to demonstrate 3g-U/kg-adsorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Chris [ORNL; Yatsandra, Oyola [ORNL; Mayes, Richard [ORNL; none,; Gill, Gary [PNNL; Li-Jung, Kuo [PNNL; Wood, Jordana [PNNL; Sadananda, Das [ORNL

    2014-04-30

    ORNL has manufactured four braided adsorbents that successfully demonstrated uranium adsorption capacities ranging from 3.0-3.6 g-U/kg-adsorbent in marine testing at PNNL. Four new braided and leno woven fabric adsorbents have also been prepared by ORNL and are currently undergoing marine testing at PNNL.

  17. Palatabilizantes em dietas para leitões de 6 a 18 kg Flavours in the diets for piglets from 6 to 18 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Laudares Costa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar o efeito da adição de palatabilizantes em dietas simples e complexas sobre o desempenho, os parâmetros sangüíneos e o peso de órgãos, foram utilizados 192 leitões mestiços Landrace x Large White desmamados, com peso médio de 6,9 kg e 23 dias de idade. Foi usado delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3, sendo duas dietas (simples e complexa e a adição, ou não, de dois palatabilizantes (P1 e P2. Observou-se que a adição de palatabilizante não influenciou o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração e a conversão alimentar. A dieta complexa apresentou melhor conversão alimentar que a dieta simples. A concentração de glicose foi mais elevada no período pós-prandial. A dieta simples elevou mais a glicemia dos animais que a complexa. Os palatabilizantes não afetaram a concentração de glicose no sangue. A insulina apresentou níveis mais elevados no período pós-prandial, ainda que não influenciada pelos palatabilizantes ou pelas dietas. O peso do fígado, pâncreas e rins não foi influenciado pelos palatabilizantes, mas sim pelas dietas, sendo que a dieta simples apresentou maior peso para estes órgãos. Concluiu-se que o uso de palatabilizantes não melhorou desempenho e não influenciou os parâmetros sangüíneos e o peso dos órgãos.A total of 192 weaning crossbred Landrace x Large White piglets weighing 6.9 kg and 23 days old was used to determine the effect of addition of flavours in simple or complex diet on the performance, blood parameters and the organs weight of piglets. A randomized block design, in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme, with two diets (simple or complex and addition or not of two flavours (F1 and F2, was used. It was observed that the flavour addition did not affect weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion. The complex diet showed better feed conversion than the simple diet. The blood glucose concentration was higher in the pos-prandial period. The simple diet showed higher

  18. Distributed Access Control Based on Proxy Signature in M2M Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyu Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the distributed access control based on proxy signature in M2M sensor networks M2M sensor networks. As M2M sensor networks are usually deployed in hostile environment, the global communication security of M2M sensor networks is and will continue to be a major concern. Although there are many related works on access control in WSNs (Wireless Sensor Networks, Ad-hoc networks, MANETs (Mobile Ad-hoc Networks and etc., they cannot be applied to M2M sensor networks directly. Motivated by this consideration, we develop a secure and distributed access control scheme based on proxy signature for M2M sensor networks, which provides strong authentication and achieves efficiency. Moreover, security of the proposed technique does not rely on availability of a secure channel.

  19. Increased immunogenicity and protective efficacy of influenza M2e fused to a tetramerizing protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne-Marie Carola; Håkansson, Kjell Ove; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech

    2012-01-01

    by diverse influenza A viruses, a vaccine (M2e-NSP4) was constructed linking M2e (in its consensus sequence) to the rotavirus fragment NSP4(98-135); due to its coiled-coil region this fragment is known to form tetramers in aqueous solution and in this manner we hoped to mimick the natural configuration of M2......The ectodomain of the matrix 2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus represents an attractive target for developing a universal influenza A vaccine, with its sequence being highly conserved amongst human variants of this virus. With the aim of targeting conformational epitopes presumably shared...... reactive antibody response than does M2e peptide as measured in two different assays. Most importantly, vaccination with M2e-NSP4 caused a significant decrease in lung virus load early after challenge with influenza A virus and maintained its efficacy against a lethal challenge even at very low vaccine...

  20. Solidification microstructure of M2 high speed steel by different casting technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Xuefeng; Fang Feng; Jiang Jianjing

    2011-01-01

    The present work investigated the solidification microstructure of AISI M2 high speed steel manufactured by different casting technologies, namely iron mould casting and continuous casting. The results revealed that the as-cast structure of the steel was composed of the iron matrix and the M2C eutectic carbide networks, which were greatly refined in the ingot made by continuous casting process, compared with that by the iron mould casting process. M2C eutectic carbides presented variation in ...

  1. M2M Communications for E-Health and Smart Grid: An Industry and Standard Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Zhong; Haines, Russell J.; Kulkarni, Parag

    2013-01-01

    An overview of several standardization activities for machine-to-machine (M2M) communications is presented, analyzing some of the enabling technologies and applications of M2M in industry sectors such as Smart Grid and e-Health. This summary and overview of the ongoing work in M2M from the industrial and standardization perspective complements the prevalent academic perspective of such publications to date in this field.

  2. Increased immunogenicity and protective efficacy of influenza M2e fused to a tetramerizing protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Anne-Marie Carola; Håkansson, Kjell Ove; Jensen, Benjamin Anderschou Holbech;

    2012-01-01

    The ectodomain of the matrix 2 protein (M2e) of influenza A virus represents an attractive target for developing a universal influenza A vaccine, with its sequence being highly conserved amongst human variants of this virus. With the aim of targeting conformational epitopes presumably shared......e as presented in membranes. M2e-NSP4 was then evaluated side-by-side with synthetic M2e peptide for its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine influenza challenge model. Here we demonstrate that M2e fused to the tetramerizing protein induces an accelerated, augmented and more broadly...

  3. Structural and spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on vacuum-evaporated Sn{sub 2m−4}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 2m+2} (m = 2.5, 3 and 4) thin films deposited on glass and Si substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelkader, D., E-mail: dhaferabdelkader@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque et Matériaux Semi-conducteurs-ENIT, Université Tunis ElManar, BP37, Lebelvédère, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Akkari, F. Chaffar; Khemiri, N. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque et Matériaux Semi-conducteurs-ENIT, Université Tunis ElManar, BP37, Lebelvédère, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Gallas, B. [Institut des NanoSciences de Paris-CNRS-Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Antoni, F. [ICube-Laboratoire des sciences de l’Ingénieur, de l' Informatique et de l’Imagerie, Université de Strasbourg-CNRS, 23, rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex (France); Kanzari, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaïque et Matériaux Semi-conducteurs-ENIT, Université Tunis ElManar, BP37, Lebelvédère, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Institut Préparatoire aux Etudes d' Ingénieurs de Tunis-IPEIT, Université de Tunis, 2, Rue Jawaher Lel Nehru, 1089 Montfleury (Tunisia)

    2015-10-15

    Sn{sub 2m−4}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 2m+2} (m = 2.5, 3 and 4) thin films were deposited on glass and Si substrates using vacuum evaporation technique. The structural properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The XRD patterns revealed the polycrystalline nature of the films on substrates even when they are not heated during evaporation process. Raman spectra revealed four main peaks. The main structural units of Sn–Sb–S thin films are tetrahedral [SnS{sub 4}] and pyramidal [SbS{sub 3}]. The cross-section morphology was obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements (ψ and Δ) were carried out to study the optical properties of the films. SE measured data were analyzed by considering double layer optical model for all the samples, with the two oscillators Tauc-Lorentz and Gaussian dispersion relations. Surface roughness was taken into consideration as shown in SEM micrographs. From the ellipsometric study, we determined the thicknesses of the modeled layers and their optical parameters (refractive index, absorption coefficient …). All the films exhibit high absorption coefficient α in the visible range (>10{sup 5} cm{sup −1}). The values of the band gap energy E{sub g} of Sn{sub 2m−4}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 2m+2} thin films deposited on glass were 1.52, 1.29 and 1.28 eV, respectively for m = 2.5, 3 and 4. For the samples deposited on silicon, E{sub g}(SnSb{sub 4}S{sub 7}) = 1.29 eV, E{sub g}(SnSb{sub 2}S{sub 4}) = 1.13 eV and E{sub g}(Sn{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}S{sub 5}) = 1.48 eV. - Highlights: • Sn{sub 2m−4}Sb{sub 4}S{sub 2m+2} films were thermally evaporated on glass and Si substrates. • The films have polycrystalline nature without any heat treatment. • [SnS{sub 4}] tetrahedral and [SbS{sub 3}] pyramidal are the main structural units. • Thicknesses and optical parameters were determined by ellipsometric study. • The films exhibit high absorption coefficient α in the visible

  4. Characteristics of Hebei Xinyue 280m2 sinter project%河北鑫跃280m2烧结机的工艺特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宾蓉晖

    2012-01-01

    The process characteristics of bar screen, dust pneumatic conveying, and first mixing de-dusting system were introduced, and the influence on environment protection and energy saving of Hebei Xinyue 280m2 sinter projects were introduced.%介绍了河北鑫跃280m2烧结机工程棒条筛、除尘灰气力输送、一混除尘的工艺特点,以及产生的环保、节能影响.

  5. Opto-chemical response of Makrofol-KG to swift heavy ion irradiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ambika Negi; R V Hariwal; Anju Semwal; R G Sonkawede; D Kanjilal; J M S Rana; R C Ramola

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, the effects of swift heavy ion beam irradiation on the structural, chemical and optical properties of Makrofol solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD) were investigated. Makrofol-KG films of 40 m thickness were irradiated with oxygen beam (8+) with fluences ranging between 1010 ion/cm2 and 1012 ion/cm2. Structural, chemical and optical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy and UV–visible spectroscopy methods. It is observed that the direct and indirect band gaps of Makrofol-KG decrease after the irradiation. The XRD study shows that the crystalline size in the films decreases at higher fluences. The intensity plots of FTIR measurements indicate the degradation of Makrofol at higher fluences. Roughness of the surface increases at higher fluence.

  6. Experimental investigation of 150-KG-scale corium melt jet quenching in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magallon, D.; Hohmann, H.

    1995-09-01

    This paper compares and discusses the results of two large scale FARO quenching tests known as L-11 and L-14, which involved, respectively, 151 kg of W% 76.7 UO{sub 2} + 19.2 ZrO{sub 2} + 4.1 Zr and 125 kg of W% 80 UO{sub 2} + 20 ZrO{sub 2} melts poured into 600-kg, 2-m-depth water at saturation at 5.0 MPa. The results are further compared with those of two previous tests performed using a pure oxidic melt, respectively 18 and 44 kg of W% 80 UO{sub 2} + 20 ZrO{sub 2} melt quenched in 1-m-depth water at saturation at 5.0 MPa. In all the tests, significant breakup and quenching took place during the melt fall through the water. No steam explosion occurred. In the tests performed with a pure oxide UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} melt, part of the corium (from 1/6 to 1/3) did not breakup and reached the bottom plate still molten whatever the water depth was. Test L-11 data suggest that full oxidation and complete breakup of the melt occurred during the melt fall through the water. A proportion of 64% of the total energy content of the melt was released to the water during this phase ({approximately}1.5 s), against 44% for L-14. The maximum temperature increase of the bottom plate was 330 K (L-14). The mean particle size of the debris ranged between 2.5 and 4.8mm.

  7. 77 FR 57531 - Airworthiness Directives; Stemme GmbH & Co. KG Powered Sailplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... directive (AD) for all Stemme GmbH & Co. KG Models S10, S10-V, and S10-VT powered sailplanes. This proposed... of an engine fire during ground run of a S10-VT powered sailplane. The investigation results... require parts costing $1,957, for a cost of $2,637 per product for Models S10 and S10-V. We also...

  8. 78 FR 17079 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Ltd & Co KG (RRD) models Tay 620-15 and Tay 650-15 turbofan engines. This AD was prompted by RRD... Mandatory Continuing Airworthiness Information states: The Tay 650-15 and Tay 650-15/10 engine Time Limits... installed in Tay 650-15 and Tay 650-15/10 engines as well as in Tay 620-15 and Tay 620-15/20 engines...

  9. 77 FR 74123 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & Co KG (RRD) models Tay 620-15 and Tay 650-15 turbofan engines. This... correct an unsafe condition for the specified products. The MCAI states: The Tay 650-15 and Tay 650-15/10... assemblies installed in Tay 650-15 and Tay 650-15/10 engines as well as in Tay 620-15 and Tay 620-15/20...

  10. Pharmacokinetics of sugammadex 16 mg/kg in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kam, Pieter-Jan; Hou, Jie; Wang, Zaiqi; Lin, Wen Hong; van den Heuvel, Michiel

    2015-06-01

    Elimination of sugammadex occurs predominantly via the kidneys, with the majority of the drug excreted unchanged in the urine. To date, most studies with sugammadex have been performed in non-Asian populations. The objectives of this open-label study were to determine the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of single-dose sugammadex (16 mg/kg) in healthy Chinese adult volunteers. 12 Chinese subjects (6 male; 6 female) received intravenous sugammadex (16 mg/kg) as a 10-second bolus infusion. Blood samples were collected pre-sugammadex and at regular intervals up to 24 hours post-sugammadex for PK assessment. Safety was assessed via AEs, vital signs, electrocardiogram, and laboratory parameters. Following sugammadex 16 mg/kg infusion, peak sugammadex concentration was 197 μg/mL, clearance was 99.7 mL/min, and apparent volume of distribution at equilibrium was 10.5 L. Plasma sugammadex concentrations showed a polyexponential decline over time, with an overall geometric mean (CV%) terminal half-life of 145 minutes (17.9%) (139 minutes (17.7%) for males; 152 minutes (18.6%) for females). No influence of gender on the PK of sugammadex was observed. Three subjects experienced an adverse events (AE) (dysgeusia of mild intensity), which was considered possibly or probably related to sugammadex. There were no clinically significant changes in vital signs, electrocardiography or laboratory parameters. PK of sugammadex (16 mg/kg) was characterized in healthy Chinese subjects. Overall between-subject variability on clearance and apparent volume of distribution was ~ 10%. Sugammadex was generally well tolerated.

  11. Kinetics of Proton Transport into Influenza Virions by the Viral M2 Channel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanovic, Tijana; Rozendaal, Rutger; Floyd, Daniel L.; Popovic, Milos; Oijen, Antoine M. van; Harrison, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    M2 protein of influenza A viruses is a tetrameric transmembrane proton channel, which has essential functions both early and late in the virus infectious cycle. Previous studies of proton transport by M2 have been limited to measurements outside the context of the virus particle. We have developed a

  12. Pilot Milt Thompson and the M2-F2 Lifting Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-01-01

    Jay L. King, Joseph D. Huxman and Orion D. Billeter assist NASA research pilot Milt Thompson (on the ladder) into the cockpit of the M2-F2 lifting body research aircraft at the NASA Flight Research Center (now the Dryden Flight Research Center). The M2-F2 is attached to a wing pylon under the wing of NASA's B-52 mothership.

  13. Wound administration of M2-polarized macrophages does not improve murine cutaneous healing responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, Nadine; Roumans, Nadia; Gijbels, Marion J; Romano, Andrea; Post, Mark J; de Winther, Menno P J; van der Hulst, Rene R W J; Xanthoulea, Sofia

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in all stages of cutaneous wound healing responses and dysregulation of macrophage function can result in derailed wound repair. The phenotype of macrophages is influenced by the wound microenvironment and evolves during healing from a more pro-inflammatory (M1) profile in early stages, to a less inflammatory pro-healing (M2) phenotype in later stages of repair. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of exogenous administration of M2 macrophages to promote wound healing in an experimental mouse model of cutaneous injury. Bone marrow derived macrophages were stimulated in-vitro with IL-4 or IL-10 to obtain two different subsets of M2-polarized cells, M2a or M2c respectively. Polarized macrophages were injected into full-thickness excisional skin wounds of either C57BL/6 or diabetic db/db mice. Control groups were injected with non-polarized (M0) macrophages or saline. Our data indicate that despite M2 macrophages exhibit an anti-inflammatory phenotype in-vitro, they do not improve wound closure in wild type mice while they delay healing in diabetic mice. Examination of wounds on day 15 post-injury indicated delayed re-epithelialization and persistence of neutrophils in M2 macrophage treated diabetic wounds. Therefore, topical application of ex-vivo generated M2 macrophages is not beneficial and contraindicated for cell therapy of skin wounds.

  14. Phonological Substitution Errors in L2 ASL Sentence Processing by Hearing M2L2 Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua; Newman, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we aimed to investigate phonological substitution errors made by hearing second language (M2L2) learners of American Sign Language (ASL) during a sentence translation task. Learners saw sentences in ASL that were signed by either a native signer or a M2L2 learner. Learners were to simply translate the sentence from ASL to…

  15. De novo formal synthesis of (-)-virginiamycin M2 via the asymmetric hydration of dienoates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Matthew S; Osbourn, Joshua M; O'Doherty, George A

    2007-08-02

    A de novo approach to the formal total synthesis of the macrolide natural product (-)-virginiamycin M2 has been achieved via a convergent approach. The absolute and relative stereochemistry of the nonpeptide portion of (-)-virginiamycin M2 was introduced by two Sharpless asymmetric dihydroxylation reactions.

  16. Solid State NMR Observation of Phenylalanine Residues in M2 Protein from Influenza a Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ The M2 protein from influenza A functions as a proton channel. It has been cloned and over-expressed in Escherchia coli. Large quantities of recombinant protein are purified by Ni2 affinity chromatography. The residues in M2 have been selectively labeled with 15N in an aromatic amino acid autotroph CT19.

  17. Almost optimal distributed M2M multicasting in wireless mesh networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Qin; Manne, Fredrik; Zhang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    nodes. It is known that the computation of an optimal M2M multicasting schedule isNP-hard. We present a fully distributed deterministic algorithm for such an M2M multicasting problem and analyze its time complexity. We show that if the maximum hop distance between any two out of the k participants is d...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix M2 to Part 226 - Actual Repayment Disclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Actual Repayment Disclosures M2 Appendix M2 to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... nearest whole year if the estimate contains a fractional year less than 0.5, and rounded up to the...

  19. Metabolizable energy requirement for starting barrow pigs (15 to 30 kg fed on the ideal protein concept based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Cristina de Oliveira

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the metabolizable energy (ME requirement for starting barrow pigs. Forty-three animals, selected for their high lean gain, were allotted in a completely randomized block design, divided in four treatments with five blocks and two animals in each experimental unit. The diet in Treatment 1 consisted of 3,264 kcal of ME/kg containing 0.96% of digestible lysine, 0.55% of digestible methionine+cystine, 0.60% of digestible threonine, and 0.188% of digestible tryptophan reaching the ideal protein pattern. The diets in Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were similar to the diet in Treatment 1; nevertheless, the levels of ME in Treatments 2, 3, and 4 were 2, 4, and 6% higher than those in Treatment 1. The lysine:ME ratio, was mantained the same (2.82 g in all treatments. The daily feed intake (DFI and the feed:gain ratio (F:G were not affected by the levels of ME. There was a linear increase of daily weight gain (DWG and of daily energy intake (DEI. Later, a linear reduction in carcass protein percentage (CPP and a linear increase of fat content and daily fat accretion (DFA occurred. Results suggested that the required ME was of 3,264 kcal/kg or less for improved barrows (15 to 30 kg, of the dam line, fed with diets containing 0.96% of digestible lysine, formulated according to the ideal protein concept.A exigência de energia metabolizável (EM para suínos machos castrados foi determinada no presente experimento. Foram utilizados 43 suínos geneticamente melhorados, distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos inteiramente casualizados, com quatro tratamentos, cinco blocos e dois animais por unidade experimental. Tratamento 1 constituiu-se de uma dieta contendo 3.264 kcal de EM/kg contendo 0,96% de lisina digestível, 0,55% de metionina + cistina digestíveis, 0,60% de treonina digestível e 0,188% de triptofano digestível, atendendo ao conceito de proteína ideal. Tratamentos 2, 3 e 4 foram semelhantes à do

  20. Cardioprotective Action of Ginkgo biloba Extract against Sustained β-Adrenergic Stimulation Occurs via Activation of M2/NO Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thássio R. R. Mesquita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ginkgo biloba is the most popular phytotherapic agent used worldwide for treatment of several human disorders. However, the mechanisms involved in the protective actions of Ginkgo biloba on cardiovascular diseases remain poorly elucidated. Taking into account recent studies showing beneficial actions of cholinergic signaling in the heart and the cholinergic hypothesis of Ginkgo biloba-mediated neuroprotection, we aimed to investigate whether Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE promotes cardioprotection via activation of cholinergic signaling in a model of isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we show that GBE treatment (100 mg/kg/day for 8 days, v.o. reestablished the autonomic imbalance and baroreflex dysfunction caused by chronic β-adrenergic receptor stimulation (β-AR, 4.5 mg/kg/day for 8 days, i.p.. Moreover, GBE prevented the upregulation of muscarinic receptors (M2 and downregulation of β1-AR in isoproterenol treated-hearts. Additionally, we demonstrated that GBE prevents the impaired endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in the heart. GBE also prevented the pathological cardiac remodeling, electrocardiographic changes and impaired left ventricular contractility that are typical of cardiac hypertrophy. To further investigate the mechanisms involved in GBE cardioprotection in vivo, we performed in vitro studies. By using neonatal cardiomyocyte culture we demonstrated that the antihypertrophic action of GBE was fully abolished by muscarinic receptor antagonist or NOS inhibition. Altogether, our data support the notion that antihypertrophic effect of GBE occurs via activation of M2/NO pathway uncovering a new mechanism involved in the cardioprotective action of Ginkgo biloba.

  1. Regional distribution of M1, M2 and non-M1, non-M2 subtypes of muscarinic binding sites in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlert, F.J.; Tran, L.P. (Univ. of California, Irvine (USA))

    1990-12-01

    The distribution of subtypes of the muscarinic receptor in homogenates of the rat brain was investigated by measuring the competitive inhibition of the binding (3H)N-methylscopolamine by pirenzepine and AF-DX 116 (11((2-((diethylamino)methyl)-1-piperidinyl)acetyl)-5, 11-dihydro-6H-pyrido(2,3-b)(1,4)benzodiazepine-6-one). In most brain regions, the competitive binding curves for AF-DX 116 and pirenzepine were consistent with a two-site model. The dissociation constant of pirenzepine for its high-affinity site (M1 receptor) was approximately 10(-8) M, whereas the dissociation constant of AF-DX 116 for its high affinity site (M2 receptor) was approximately 10(-7) M. In many regions, particularly those in the forebrain, the sum of the densities of the M1 and M2 binding sites was substantially less than 100% of the total sites, indicating the existence of a third population of sites lacking high affinity for both pirenzepine and AF-DX 116. We have designated these latter sites as non-M1, non-M2 muscarinic receptors. In general, the densities of the M1 and non-M1, non-M2 binding sites were highest in cerebral cortex, corpus striatum and hippocampus, intermediate in thalamus and hypothalamus, and lowest in midbrain, medulla-pons and cerebellum, whereas the M2 binding site had a relatively low, uniform density throughout the brain. The binding capacity of (3H)N-methylquinuclidinyl benzilate was estimated to be 20 to 30% lower than that of (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in various regions of the forebrain, but not in more caudal regions of the brain where the two radioligands had approximately the same binding capacities.

  2. EFFECT OF GAMMA RADIATION OF MACRO MUTATIONS, EFFECTIVENESS AND EFFICIENCY UNDER M2 GENERATION IN PEA (Pisum sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind KUMAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to study the spectrum of macro mutants, effectiveness and efficiency of different doses of gamma rays in pea variety (Arkel. The seeds were treated with gamma rays viz., 00kR (dry control, 05kR, 10kR, 15kR, 20kR, 25kR, 30kR, 35kR, 40kR (dry seeds and presoaked seeds of the same was exposed to 00kR (wet control, 05kR, 10kR, 15kR, 20kR (kilo Roentgen biological damage was calculated in M1 and M2 generation based on lethality (L and pollen sterility. The irradiated seeds were sown in the M1 field their respective controls and harvested in bulk to raise the M2 generation in Randomized Block Design (RBD with three replications. The spectrum of macro mutants i.e., plant stature (tall, dwarf, small dwarf, maturity (early, late, pod shape (bold, long, short, seed colour (brown, light white, light green and seed shape (small, bold, wrinkled were observed in M2 generation. The usefulness of any mutagen in plant breeding depends not only on its effectiveness but also upon if efficiency. Mutagenic effectiveness is a measure of the frequency of mutations induced by unit mutagen dose, whereas mutagenic efficiency is measure of proportion of mutations in relation of undesirable changes like lethality and sterility are used for gamma rays. A result of the indicated positive relationship in M2 generation with macro mutation, effectiveness and efficiency was found to be highest at lowest doses.

  3. Anxiolytic activity of pyridoindole derivatives SMe1EC2 and SMe1M2: behavioral analysis using rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedláčková, Natália; Ponechalová, Veronika; Ujházy, Eduard; Dubovický, Michal; Mach, Mojmír

    2011-12-01

    Anxiety and mood disorders have become very significant affections in the last decades. According to WHO at least one mental disease occurred per year in 27% of EU inhabitants (more than 82 mil. people). It is estimated that by 2020, depression will be the main cause of morbidity in the developed countries. These circumstances call for research for new prospective drugs with anxiolytic and antidepressive properties exhibiting no toxicity and withdrawal effect and possessing beneficial properties, like antioxidant and/or neuroprotective effects. The aim of this study was to obtain information about psychopharmacological properties of pyridoindole derivatives SMe1EC2 and SMe1M2, using non-invasive behavioral methods in rats.The battery of ethological tests (open field, elevated plus-maze, light/dark box exploration, forced swim test) was used to obtain information about anxiolytic and antidepressant activity of the pyridoindole derivatives. The substances were administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the tests at doses of 1, 10 and 25 mg/kg.In the behavioral tests, SMe1EC2 was found to exert anxiolytic activity in elevated plus maze with no affection of locomotor activity. The highest dose of SMe1M2 increased the time spent in the lit part of the Light/Dark box, however this result was influenced by inhibition of motor activity of the rats. Similar findings were observed also in elevated plus-maze, although these results were not statistically significant.In conclusion, from the results of our study it is evident that both pyridoindoles acted on the CNS. In the highest dose, SMe1M2 was found to possess rather sedative than anxiolytic or antidepressant activity.

  4. Possible detection of singly ionized oxygen in the Type Ia SN 2010kg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barna, B.; Vinko, J.; Silverman, J. M.; Marion, G. H.; Wheeler, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    We present direct spectroscopic modelling of 11 high signal-to-noise ratio observed spectra of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2010kg, taken between -10 and +5 d with respect to B-maximum. The synthetic spectra, calculated with the SYN++ code, span the range between 4100 and 8500 Å. Our results are in good agreement with previous findings for other Type Ia SNe. Most of the spectral features are formed at or close to the photosphere, but some ions, like Fe II and Mg II, also form features at ˜2000-5000 km s-1 above the photosphere. The well-known high-velocity features of the Ca II IR-triplet as well as Si II λ6355 are also detected. The single absorption feature at ˜4400 Å, which usually has been identified as due to Si III, is poorly fit with Si III in SN 2010kg. We find that the fit can be improved by assuming that this feature is due to either C III or O II, located in the outermost part of the ejecta, ˜4000-5000 km s-1 above the photosphere. Since the presence of C III is unlikely, because of the lack of the necessary excitation/ionization conditions in the outer ejecta, we identify this feature as due to O II. The simultaneous presence of O I and O II is in good agreement with the optical depth calculations and the temperature distribution in the ejecta of SN 2010kg. This could be the first identification of singly ionized oxygen in a Type Ia SN atmosphere.

  5. The potential of quartz rock at Kg. Padang Biawas, Negeri Sembilan for solar silicon application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakri, Haniza binti; Hussin, Azimah binti

    2013-11-01

    The study area is located between 2°40.7'N-2°41.7'N and 102°9.3'E-102°9.8'E, at Kg. Padang Biawas, Kuala Pilah, Negeri Sembilan, covering about 2.14 km2 of area. It is a private land surrounded by rubber and bushes. The study area is underlain by granite, which is part of the Main Range Granite. The quartz rock in Kg. Padang Biawas occurs as a prominent ridge and can be easily identified from aerial photo. The quartz ridge is about 1 km long with average width of 0.5 km. In this study, the quartz raw material is functioning as the initial feedstock for the solar application. Therefore, the characterisation of its chemical purity will be the main subject to be analysed whether it is suitable or not suitable for the application in the solar industry. Based on the XRF and ICP results, the average content of SiO2 is about 98.7% compared with the required 99.8%. Some minor treatment is undertaken for the purpose to increase the SiO2 content, yet the result is still below the requirements. The quartz deposit is also high in other impurities such as Al, B, Ca, K, Li, Mg, Mg, Na, Ni and Ti. Therefore, the quartz deposit in Kg. Padang Biawas, Negeri Sembilan does not meet the solar silicon requirement and is categorised as medium quality. It is recommended for other usage such as in the cement, ceramic and glass industry, rather than the high-tech applications.

  6. Involvement of Proteasome and Macrophages M2 in the Protection Afforded by Telmisartan against the Acute Myocardial Infarction in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Di Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the involvement of proteasome and macrophages M2 in the protection afforded by telmisartan against the acute myocardial infarction in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats with metabolic syndrome. ZDF rats were treated for three weeks with telmisartan at doses of 7 and 12 mg/kg/day. After treatment, rats were subjected to a 25 min occlusion of the left descending coronary artery followed by 2 h reperfusion (I/R. At the end of the I/R period, biochemical, immunohistochemical, and echocardiographic evaluations were done. Telmisartan treatment (7 mg/kg and 12 mg/kg reduced the myocardial infarct size, the expression of proteasome subunits 20S and 26S, and the protein ubiquitin within the heart. The compound has led to an increased M2 macrophage phenotype within the cardiac specimens and a modification of the cardiac cytokine and chemokine profile. This was functionally translated in improved cardiac performance as evidenced by echography after 2 h reperfusion. 7 mg/kg/day telmisartan was sufficient to improve the left ventricular ejection fraction LVEF of the rat heart recorded after I/R (e.g., vehicle 38 ± 2.2%; telmisartan 54 ± 2.7% and was sufficient to improve the diastolic function and the myocardial performance index up to values of 0.6 ± 0.01 measured after I/R.

  7. Involvement of Proteasome and Macrophages M2 in the Protection Afforded by Telmisartan against the Acute Myocardial Infarction in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats with Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Filippo, C.; Rossi, C.; Ferraro, B.; Maisto, R.; De Angelis, A.; Ferraraccio, F.; Rotondo, A.; D'Amico, M.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the involvement of proteasome and macrophages M2 in the protection afforded by telmisartan against the acute myocardial infarction in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats with metabolic syndrome. ZDF rats were treated for three weeks with telmisartan at doses of 7 and 12 mg/kg/day. After treatment, rats were subjected to a 25 min occlusion of the left descending coronary artery followed by 2 h reperfusion (I/R). At the end of the I/R period, biochemical, immunohistochemical, and echocardiographic evaluations were done. Telmisartan treatment (7 mg/kg and 12 mg/kg) reduced the myocardial infarct size, the expression of proteasome subunits 20S and 26S, and the protein ubiquitin within the heart. The compound has led to an increased M2 macrophage phenotype within the cardiac specimens and a modification of the cardiac cytokine and chemokine profile. This was functionally translated in improved cardiac performance as evidenced by echography after 2 h reperfusion. 7 mg/kg/day telmisartan was sufficient to improve the left ventricular ejection fraction LVEF of the rat heart recorded after I/R (e.g., vehicle 38 ± 2.2%; telmisartan 54 ± 2.7%) and was sufficient to improve the diastolic function and the myocardial performance index up to values of 0.6 ± 0.01 measured after I/R. PMID:25110402

  8. Requirement of standardized ileal digestible valine to lysine ratio for 8- to 14-kg pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumeh, E A; van Milgen, J; Sloth, N M; Corrent, E; Poulsen, H D; Nørgaard, J V

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to define the Val requirement for weaned piglets in the context of reducing the dietary protein content. A dose-response experiment was conducted to estimate the standardized ileal digestible (SID) Val to Lys ratio required to support the optimum growth of post-weaned piglets. In this study, 96 pigs weighing 8 kg were allotted to one of six dietary treatments (16 pigs for each dietary treatment) and were housed individually. Diets were formulated to provide 0.58, 0.62, 0.66, 0.70, 0.74 and 0.78 SID Val : Lys by adding graded levels of crystalline l-Val to the 0.58 SID Val : Lys diet. Lysine was sub-limiting and supplied 90% of the recommendation (10.95 g SID Lys/kg equal to 11.8 g/kg total Lys). Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG) and gain to feed ratio (G : F) were determined during a 14-day period of ad libitum feeding. Blood and urine samples were taken at the end of each week (day 7 and 14 of the experiment) 3 h after feeding the experimental diets. The maximum ADFI and ADG were obtained in pigs fed the 0.78 SID Val : Lys diet; it was not different from the results of pigs fed 0.70 SID Val : Lys diet. The highest G : F was obtained in pigs fed 0.70 SID Val : Lys. The plasma concentration of Val increased linearly (P<0.001) as the dietary SID Val : Lys increased. The increasing dietary Val : Lys also resulted in a linear increase in Cys (P<0.001) and a quadratic increase in Arg (P=0.003), Lys (P=0.05) and Phe (P=0.009). The plasma Gly showed a quadratic decrease (P=0.05) as the dietary Val : Lys increased. Neither plasma nor urinary urea to creatinine ratio was affected by treatment. The minimum SID Val : Lys required to maximize ADFI, ADG and G : F was estimated at 0.67 SID Val : Lys by a broken-line model, and at 0.71 SID Val : Lys by a curvilinear plateau model. The Val deficiency caused a reduction in ADFI, and Val supplementation above the requirement did not impair animal performance. In conclusion, 0.70 SID Val

  9. Fabrication of 500-kg heat of V-4Cr-4Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M.; Tsai, H.C.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., Chicago, IL (United States)] [and others

    1995-04-01

    On the basis of excellent properties that were determined for a laboratory-scale heat, V-4Cr-4Ti has been identified previously as the primary vanadium-based candidate alloy for application in fusion reactor structural components. The objective of this work is to produce a large-scale (500-kg) ingot and fabricate various plates and sheets from the ingot, thereby demonstrating a reliable method of fabricating an industrial-scale heat of V-4Cr-4Ti that exhibits excellent properties.

  10. 78 FR 22166 - Airworthiness Directives; BRP-Powertrain GmbH & Co KG Rotax Reciprocating Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ...-Powertrain GmbH & Co KG Rotax 912 F2; 912 F3; 912 F4; 912 S2; 912 S3; 912 S4; 914 F2; 914 F3; and 914 F4... to S/N 4,413,017 inclusive. (2) Rotax 912 S2; 912 S3; and 912 S4, from S/N 4,924,468 up to S/N 4,924... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Authority for This Rulemaking Title 49 of the...

  11. Corn types with different nutritional profiles, extruded or not, on piglets (6 to 15 kg) feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Gisele Cristina de Oliveira; Ivan Moreira; Antonio Claudio Furlan; Liliane Maria Piano; Juliana Beatriz Toledo; Lina Maria Peñuela Sierra

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional value and verify piglets' performance in the nursery phase fed with diets containing common corn (CC), extruded common corn (ECC), high-lysine corn (HLC), extruded high-lysine corn (EHLC), high-oil corn (HOC) and extruded high-oil corn (EHOC). In the total digestibility trial 14 barrows averaging 6.49 ± 0.16 kg initial body weight were allotted in metabolism cages, distributed in a randomized design with seven diets, six replicates...

  12. Maternal super obesity and risk for intensive care unit admission in the MFMU Cesarean Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Dotters-Katz, Sarah K; Vaught, Arthur J; Vladutiu, Catherine J; Boggess, Kim A; Stamilio, David M

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for intensive care unit (ICU) admission in nonpregnant populations. Less is known about maternal obesity and ICU admission risk. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between maternal obesity and ICU admission among women who delivered via cesarean section or vaginal birth after cesarean section (VBAC). This is a retrospective cohort analysis of women who delivered via VBAC or cesarean section in the Maternal-Fetal Medicine Unit (MFMU) Cesarean Registry. We defined exposure as body mass index (BMI) at delivery stratified as non-obese (BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m(2) ), class I or II obese (BMI 30-39.9 kg/m(2) ), morbidly obese (BMI 40-49.9 kg/m(2) ), and super obese (BMI ≥ 50 kg/m(2) ). The primary outcome was ICU admission. Modified Poisson regression models estimated relative risk (RR) of ICU admission by obesity strata, after adjusting for confounders. Mediation analysis was used to estimate the proportion of ICU admission risk attributable specifically to obesity. We included 68 455 women; 40% non-obese, 46% class I or II obese, 12% morbidly obese, and 2% super obese. Super obese women were at higher risk for ICU admission compared with non-obese women (0.7 vs. 1.3%, adjusted RR 1.61; 95% CI 1.01-2.65), after adjusting for confounders. Among super obese women, medical comorbidities mediated 58% of ICU admission risk, suggesting that a significant proportion of ICU admission is driven by maternal obesity. Super obese women who deliver by cesarean section or VBAC are at increased risk of peripartum ICU admission. Obstetricians and critical care specialists should consider possible ICU admission during delivery planning. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. M2受体的细胞表征及其运动与心脏、血管M2受体研究进展%Cell Characterization of M2 Receptor and Research Advancement of Exercise Training and Cardiovascular M2 Receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田振军; 杜蕾

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨M2受体的细胞表征及其运动与心脏、血管M2受体的基础与应用前景.方法:采用文献回顾与前瞻性分析及逻辑推理相结合的方法,跟踪M2受体表征研究进展及其运动与心脏、血管M2受体表征在体育科学领域中的应用.结果与结论:M2受体在心肌、血管平滑肌等细胞上广泛分布,具有重要的生物学功能.不同运动强度和心肌细胞M2受体表征、运动后心率恢复与M2受体基因多态性、心脏运动康复与M2受体表征等的关系密切.积极开展M2受体基因变异与运动前预测心源性死亡风险,运动性心律失常与M2受体表征,运动性心肌损伤引起的心功能紊乱与M2受体表征,基于M2受体靶点的心脏、血管运动康复及其中药有效成份筛选等方面的研究,具有重要的基础研究价值和应用前景.对有效筛选心脏、血管运动康复方案和与M2受体相关药物有效成份具有重大意义.

  14. Isoliquiritigenin, a flavonoid from licorice, blocks M2 macrophage polarization in colitis-associated tumorigenesis through downregulating PGE{sub 2} and IL-6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Haixia [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Zhang, Xinhua [Department of Liver, Biliary And Pancreatic Tumors, Hubei Cancer Hospital, Wuhan 430079 (China); Chen, Xuewei; Li, Ying; Ke, Zunqiong [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tang, Tian [Department of Oncology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060 (China); Chai, Hongyan [Center for Gene Diagnosis, Zhongnan Hospital, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Guo, Austin M. [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Department of Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595 (United States); Chen, Honglei, E-mail: hl-chen@whu.edu.cn [Department of Pathology and Pathophysiology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China); Yang, Jing, E-mail: yangjingliu2013@163.com [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2014-09-15

    M2 macrophage polarization is implicated in colorectal cancer development. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a flavonoid from licorice, has been reported to prevent azoxymethane (AOM) induced colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Here, in a mouse model of colitis-associated tumorigenesis induced by AOM/dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), we investigated the chemopreventive effects of ISL and its mechanisms of action. Mice were treated with AOM/DSS and randomized to receive either vehicle or ISL (3, 15 and 75 mg/kg). Tumor load, histology, immunohistochemistry, and gene and protein expressions were determined. Intragastric administration of ISL for 12 weeks significantly decreased colon cancer incidence, multiplicity and tumor size by 60%, 55.4% and 42.6%, respectively. Moreover, ISL inhibited M2 macrophage polarization. Such changes were accompanied by downregulation of PGE{sub 2} and IL-6 signaling. Importantly, depletion of macrophages by clodronate (Clod) or zoledronic acid (ZA) reversed the effects of ISL. In parallel, in vitro studies also demonstrated that ISL limited the M2 polarization of RAW264.7 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages with concomitant inactivation of PGE{sub 2}/PPARδ and IL-6/STAT3 signaling. Conversely, exogenous addition of PGE{sub 2} or IL-6, or overexpression of constitutively active STAT3 reversed ISL-mediated inhibition of M2 macrophage polarization. In summary, dietary flavonoid ISL effectively inhibits colitis-associated tumorigenesis through hampering M2 macrophage polarization mediated by the interplay between PGE{sub 2} and IL-6. Thus, inhibition of M2 macrophage polarization is likely to represent a promising strategy for chemoprevention of colorectal cancer. - Highlights: • Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) prevents colitis-associated tumorigenesis. • ISL inhibits M2 macrophage polarization in vivo and in vitro. • ISL inhibits PGE{sub 2} and IL-6 signaling in colitis-associated tumorigenesis. • ISL may be an attractive candidate agent for

  15. Characterization of BG28 and KG3 filter glass for Drive Diagnostic Attenuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, R H; Weiland, T; Folta, J

    2007-11-30

    BG28 and KG3 filter glasses were tested for use as attenuators in the NIF drive diagnostic (DrD) systems. Tests were performed in the Optical Sciences Laser facility with a 351 nm, 2-step, 3-nsec pulse at fluences ranging up to {approx} 1 J/cm{sup 2}. Single-shot measurements showed no solarization when the samples were allowed to relax for a week after exposure. KG3 filters exhibited no luminescence and no transient pulse distortion. BG28 filters luminesced appreciably and imposed a 'droop' (similar to 'square-pulse distortion') on the signals. The droop parameter is estimated at 0.50 {+-} 0.11 cm{sup 2}/J. Droop is explained in terms of known copper-doped-glass spectroscopy and kinetics (buildup of triplet-state populations, with excited-state absorption). Simulation of the distortion ({approx}1.6%) expected on a 1.8 MJ Haan pulse led to a minor redesign of the Drive Diagnostic with reduced fluence on the BG28 filters to reduce the droop distortion to 0.5%.

  16. Low-dose (1 microg/kg) clonidine premedication and hypotension after carotid artery surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandazi, Ageliki; Karamanis, Periandros; Sidiropoulou, Tatiana; Matsota, Paraskevi; Papasideris, Christos; Niokou, Dimitra; Kostopanagiotou, Georgia

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the role of low-dose clonidine intravenous (IV) premedication in arterial pressure variation during and after carotid endarterectomy (CEA). A total of 84 patients, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) II-III, scheduled for elective CEA under general anesthesia participated in this study. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group P (n = 42) and group C (n = 42) and received N/S 0.9% (placebo) or clonidine 1 μg/kg IV, respectively, 15 minutes before induction of anesthesia. Recovery times, number of patients needed to be treated for circulatory events (hypertension, hypotension, and bradycardia), number of circulatory events per patient, and consumption of vasoactive drugs (nitroglycerine, phenylphrine, and atropine) intraoperatively and the first 6 hours postoperatively were recorded. Significantly less hypertensive episodes were observed intraoperatively, but more hypotensive episodes were observed postoperatively in patients receiving clonidine. Intravenous premedication with low-dose clonidine (1 μg/kg) seems to be effective in preventing hypertensive episodes during CEA under general anesthesia but seems to increase the incidence of hypotension postoperatively.

  17. CDEX-1 1 kg point-contact germanium detector for low mass dark matter searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ke-Jun; Yue, Qian; Wu, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Li, Yuan-Jing; Bai, Yang; Bi, Yong; Chang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Nan; Chen, Ning; Chen, Qing-Hao; Chen, Yun-Hua; Chuang, Yo-Chun; Deng, Zhi; Du, Qiang; Gong, Hui; Hao, Xi-Qing; He, Qing-Ju; Hu, Xin-Hui; Huang, Han-Xiong; Huang, Teng-Rui; Jiang, Hao; Li, Hau-Bin; Li, Jian-Min; Li, Jin; Li, Jun; Li, Xia; Li, Xin-Ying; Li, Xue-Qian; Li, Yu-Lan; Liao, Heng-Yi; Lin, Fong-Kay; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, Shu-Kui; Lü, Lan-Chun; Ma, Hao; Mao, Shao-Ji; Qin, Jian-Qiang; Ren, Jie; Ren, Jing; Ruan, Xi-Chao; Shen, Man-Bin; Lakhwinder, Singh; Manoj, Kumar Singh; Arun, Kumar Soma; Su, Jian; Tang, Chang-Jian; Tseng, Chao-Hsiung; Wang, Ji-Min; Wang, Li; Wang, Qing; Wong Tsz-King, Henry; Wu, Shi-Yong; Wu, Wei; Wu, Yu-Cheng; Xing, Hao-Yang; Xu, Yin; Xue, Tao; Yang, Li-Tao; Yang, Song-Wei; Yi, Nan; Yu, Chun-Xu; Yu, Hao; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Zeng, Xiong-Hui; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Yun-Hua; Zhao, Ming-Gang; Zhao, Wei; Zhong, Su-Ning; Zhou, Zu-Ying; Zhu, Jing-Jun; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Zhu, Xue-Zhou; Zhu, Zhong-Hua

    2013-12-01

    The CDEX collaboration has been established for direct detection of light dark matter particles, using ultra-low energy threshold point-contact p-type germanium detectors, in China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL). The first 1 kg point-contact germanium detector with a sub-keV energy threshold has been tested in a passive shielding system located in CJPL. The outputs from both the point-contact P+ electrode and the outside N+ electrode make it possible to scan the lower energy range of less than 1 keV and at the same time to detect the higher energy range up to 3 MeV. The outputs from both P+ and N+ electrode may also provide a more powerful method for signal discrimination for dark matter experiment. Some key parameters, including energy resolution, dead time, decay times of internal X-rays, and system stability, have been tested and measured. The results show that the 1 kg point-contact germanium detector, together with its shielding system and electronics, can run smoothly with good performances. This detector system will be deployed for dark matter search experiments.

  18. The CDEX-1 1 kg Point-Contact Germanium Detector for Low Mass Dark Matter Searches

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Ke-Jun; Wu, Yu-Cheng; Cheng, Jian-Ping; Li, Yuan-Jing; Bai, Yang; Bi, Yong; Chang, Jian-Ping; Chen, Nan; Chen, Ning; Chen, Qing-Hao; Chen, Yun-Hua; Chuang, You-Chun; Dend, Zhi; Du, Qiang; Gong, Hui; Hao, Xi-Qing; He, Qing-Ju; Hu, Xin-Hui; Huang, Han-Xiong; Huang, Teng-Rui; Jiang, Hao; Li, Hau-Bin; Li, Jian-Min; Li, Jin; Li, Jun; Li, Xia; Li, Xin-Ying; Li, Xue-Qian; Li, Yu-Lan; Liao, Heng-Ye; Lin, Fong-Kay; Lin, Shin-Ted; Liu, Shu-Kui; Lv, Lan-Chun; Ma, Hao; Mao, Shao-Ji; Qin, Jian-Qiang; Ren, Jie; Ren, Jing; Ruan, Xi-Chao; Shen, Man-Bin; Singh, Lakhwinder; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Soma, Arun Kumar; Su, Jian; Tang, Chang-Jian; Tseng, Chao-Hsiung; Wang, Ji-Min; Wang, Li; Wang, Qing; Wong, Tsz-King Henry; Wu, Shi-Yong; Wu, Wei; Xing, Hao-Yang; Xu, Yin; Xue, Tao; Yang, Li-Tao; Yang, Song-Wei; Yi, Nan; Yu, Chun-Xu; Yu, Hao; Yu, Xun-Zhen; Zeng, Xiong-Hui; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Lan; Zhang, Yun-Hua; Zhao, Ming-Gang; Zhao, Wei; Zhong, Su-Ning; Zhou, Zu-Ying; Zhu, Jing-Jun; Zhu, Wei-Bin; Zhu, Xue-Zhou; Zhu, Zhong-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The CDEX Collaboration has been established for direct detection of light dark matter particles, using ultra-low energy threshold p-type point-contact germanium detectors, in China JinPing underground Laboratory (CJPL). The first 1 kg point-contact germanium detector with a sub-keV energy threshold has been tested in a passive shielding system located in CJPL. The outputs from both the point-contact p+ electrode and the outside n+ electrode make it possible to scan the lower energy range of less than 1 keV and at the same time to detect the higher energy range up to 3 MeV. The outputs from both p+ and n+ electrode may also provide a more powerful method for signal discrimination for dark matter experiment. Some key parameters, including energy resolution, dead time, decay times of internal X-rays, and system stability, have been tested and measured. The results show that the 1 kg point-contact germanium detector, together with its shielding system and electronics, can run smoothly with good performances. This...

  19. Glyphosate acetylation as a specific trait of Achromobacter sp. Kg 16 physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shushkova, Tatyana V; Vinokurova, Natalya G; Baskunov, Boris P; Zelenkova, Nina F; Sviridov, Alexey V; Ermakova, Inna T; Leontievsky, Alexey A

    2016-01-01

    The growth parameters of Achromobacter sp. Kg 16 (VKM B-2534 D), such as biomass and maximum specific growth rate, depended only on the source of phosphorus in the medium, but not on the carbon source or the presence of growth factors. With glyphosate as a sole phosphorus source, they were still 40-50 % lower than in media supplemented with orthophosphate or other organophosphonate-methylphosphonic acid. At the first time process of glyphosate acetylation and accumulation of acetylglyphosate in culture medium were revealed in this strain. Acetylglyphosate isolated from cultural liquid was identified by mass spectroscopy; its mass spectrum fully corresponded with that of chemically synthesized acetylglyphosate. Even poorer growth was observed in media with acetylglyphosate: although the strain was able to utilize this compound as a sole source of phosphorus, the maximum biomass was still 58-70 % lower than with glyphosate. The presence of acetylglyphosate in culture medium could also hinder the utilization of glyphosate as a phosphorus source. Therefore, the acetylation of glyphosate may be a specific feature of Achromobacter sp. Kg 16 responsible for its poor growth on this compound.

  20. Single doses of ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg-1: the most effective dosage in bancroftian filariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Nguyen, L N; Cartel, J L

    1995-03-01

    Forty-three Wuchereria bancrofti carriers were given four successive semi-annual single doses of ivermectin 100 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 100). The geometric mean microfilaremia (mf) recurrence percentage as compared to the pre-initial treatment mf level was 35%, 21%, 17% and 17% at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months, respectively. However, the recurrence of mf 6 months after the fourth treatment remained high in several individuals: 15 have been considered as 'bad responders' and 28 as 'good responders' individuals. At month 24 (M 24), they were randomly allocated into 2 groups. A first group was treated with a fifty and a sixth dose of IVER 100, at M24 and M30, respectively; the second one was treated, at the same time, with single doses of IVER 400 micrograms.kg-1 (IVER 400). At M 36, the mf recurrence percentage (mf M36/mf M0) was significantly higher in patients treated with IVER 100 than IVER 400 (11% vs 1%, p < 10(-4). From the group IVER 100, 6 out of the 8 'bad responders' remained 'bad responders' whereas there were none of the 7 in the group IVER 400. Moreover, there were only 2 more patients in the group IVER 100 showing sustained complete zero mf, whereas they were 13 in the group IVER 400. Single doses of IVER 400 were effective on 'bad responders'; IVER 400 must be recommended for semi-annual mass treatment in bancroftian filariasis.

  1. Empirical validation of the conceptual design of the LLNL 60-kg contained-firing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrnak, J.W.; Baker, C.F.; Simmons, L.F.

    1995-02-24

    In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is proposing to modify an existing facility to add a 60-kg firing chamber and related support areas. This modification will provide blast-effects containment for most of its open-air, high-explosive, firing operations. Even though these operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will further drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the hazardous waste generated. The major design consideration of such a chamber is its overall structural dynamic response in terms of its long-term ability to contain all blast effects from repeated internal detonations of high explosives. Another concern is how much other portions of the facility outside the firing chamber must be hardened to ensure personnel protection in the event of an accidental detonation while the chamber door is open. To assess these concerns, a 1/4-scale replica model of the planned contained firing chamber was engineered, constructed, and tested with scaled explosive charges ranging from 25 to 125% of the operational explosives limit of 60 kg. From 16 detonations of high explosives, 880 resulting strains, blast pressures, and temperatures within the model were measured to provide information for the final design.

  2. FTO Biology and Obesity: Why do a billion of us weigh 3 kg more?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Ka Marcella Cheung

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Few would dispute that the current obesity epidemic has been driven by lifestyle and environmental changes. However, it is clear that individuals respond differently to these ‘obesigenic’ changes and this variation in response has a strong genetic element. Genome-wide association studies have revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in Fat mass and obesity associated transcript (FTO are robustly associated with body mass index and obesity. Although the effect of these risk alleles are modest, with heterozygous and homozygous carriers weighing approximately 1.5kg and 3kg more respectively, there are an estimated one billion homozygous carriers in the world, spanning multiple different ethnicities and populations. Yet despite its broad impact, the biological function of FTO, particularly its role in controlling energy balance, remains unknown. Although the study of severe mendelian obesity has been invaluable in illuminating critical pathways controlling food intake, the major burden of disease is carried by those of us with ‘common obesity’, which to date has resisted yielding meaningful biological insights. FTO has at last given us a handle on a huge, worldwide, common problem. In this review, we focus on the available genetic and in vivo evidence to date that implicates FTO in the control of energy balance.

  3. Methods for analysis of trace levels (. mu. g/kg) of hydrocarbons in the marine environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chesler, S.N.; Gump, B.H.; Hertz, H.S.; May, W.E.; Wise, S.A.

    1977-01-01

    The use of dynamic headspace sampling and coupled-column LC either alone or in combination offers a number of advantages over most of the current sample preparation techniques for ..mu..g/kg hydrocarbon analysis of marine sediment and water samples. These techniques require minimal sample handling, thereby reducing the risks of loss of sample components and of possible contamination. Volatile components of the sample are efficiently separated from the matrix in a closed system and collected in a concentrated form that is free from large amounts of solvents and ready for GC/GC-MS analysis. A significant advantage derives from the fact that water is the only solvent needed for the preparation of water and sediment samples. The use of hydrocarbon-free water reduces opportunities for contamination of the sample by fossil hydrocarbons. Tissue samples must be stripped of biogenic nonhydrocarbon constituents prior to GC/GC-MS analysis. However, low blanks (< 20 ..mu..g/kg) can be obtained if special care is used in distillation of solvents and preparation of columns used in the LC clean-up.

  4. Effects of the combination of decitabine and homoharringtonine in SKM-1 and Kg-1a cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Suxia; Yao, Han; Weng, Jianyu; Tong, Jiaqi; Huang, Xin; Wu, Ping; Deng, Chengxin; Li, Minming; Lu, Zesheng; Du, Xin

    2016-05-01

    The methylation inhibitor decitabine (DAC) has great therapeutic value for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, DAC monotherapy is associated with relatively low rates of overall response and complete remission. Previous studies have shown promising results for combination treatment regimens including DAC. Homoharringtonine (HHT), an alkaloid from Chinese natural plants and Cephalotaxus, has demonstrated potential for leukemia treatment. Our studies have suggested that the combination of DAC and HHT has synergistic effects for inhibiting the viability of SKM-1 and Kg-1a cells. This combination leads to enhanced inhibition of colony formation and apoptosis induction compared with DAC alone in SKM-1 but not Kg-1a cells. Only high-dose DAC and HHT significantly up-regulate caspase-3 and caspase-9 and inhibit BCL-XL in the SKM-1 cell line. The combined effects of DAC plus HHT on apoptosis may not only depend on regulation of the apoptosis-related genes we examined but others as well. HHT had no demethylation effects, and HHT in combination with DAC had no enhanced effects on hypomethylation and DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B mRNA expression in SKM-1 cells. Overall, these results suggest that DAC used in combination with HHT may have clinical potential for MDS treatment.

  5. Status of balloon production for KamLAND-Zen 800 kg phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, S.

    2017-02-01

    KamLAND-Zen is an experiment for neutrinoless double beta decay (0 ν 2 β) search with 136Xe, based on the large liquid scintillator detector KamLAND. KamLAND-Zen includes 16.5 m3 xenon loaded liquid scintillator in a 3.16 m diameter nylon balloon (inner-balloon) with 25 μm wall thickness. KamLAND-Zen 400 (383 kg 136Xe used) released a lower limit on the 0 ν 2 β half-life of 136Xe. However, the sensitivity is limited by the contamination of radioactive backgrounds from the inner-balloon. Then, we planned KamLAND-Zen 800, upgrading the detector with a new inner-balloon of 3.84 m diameter with 800 kg 136Xe and 31.4 m3 liquid scintillator. We present the current status of KamLAND-Zen, the new mini-balloon construction and methods to avoid background contaminations. In addition, the development of a scintillating balloon for future upgrades in order to remove the radioactive decay chain daughter nuclei bismuth is also introduced.

  6. Kinked structures of isolated nicotinic receptor M2 helices: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararamakrishnan, R; Samsom, M S

    1994-12-01

    The pore-lining M2 helix of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor exhibits a pronounced kink when the corresponding ion channel is in a closed conformation [N. Unwin (1993) Journal of Molecular Biology, Vol. 229, pp. 1101-1124]. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of isolated 22-residue M2 helices in order to identify a possible molecular origin of this kink. In order to sample a wide range of conformational space, a simulated annealing protocol was used to generate five initial M2 helix structures, each of which was subsequently used as the basis of 300 ps MD simulations. Two helix sequences (M2 alpha and M2 delta) were studied in this manner, resulting in a total of ten 300 ps trajectories. Kinked helices present in the trajectories were identified and energy minimized to yield a total of five different stable kinked structures. For comparison, a similar molecular dynamics simulation of a Leu23 helix yielded no stable kinked structures. In four of the five kinked helices, the kink was stabilized by H bonds between the helix backbone and polar side-chain atoms. Comparison with data from the literature on site-directed mutagenesis of M2 residues suggests that such polar side-chain to main-chain H bonds may also contribute to kinking of M2 helices in the intact channel protein.

  7. Designing inhibitors of M2 proton channel against H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Shi Du

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: M2 proton channel of H1N1 influenza A virus is the target protein of anti-flu drugs amantadine and rimantadine. However, the two once powerful adamantane-based drugs lost their 90% bioactivity because of mutations of virus in recent twenty years. The NMR structure of the M2 channel protein determined by Schnell and Chou (Nature, 2008, 451, 591-595 may help people to solve the drug-resistant problem and develop more powerful new drugs against H1N1 influenza virus. METHODOLOGY: Docking calculation is performed to build the complex structure between receptor M2 proton channel and ligands, including existing drugs amantadine and rimantadine, and two newly designed inhibitors. The computer-aided drug design methods are used to calculate the binding free energies, with the computational biology techniques to analyze the interactions between M2 proton channel and adamantine-based inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS: 1 The NMR structure of M2 proton channel provides a reliable structural basis for rational drug design against influenza virus. 2 The channel gating mechanism and the inhibiting mechanism of M2 proton channel, revealed by the NMR structure of M2 proton channel, provides the new ideas for channel inhibitor design. 3 The newly designed adamantane-based inhibitors based on the modeled structure of H1N1-M2 proton channel have two pharmacophore groups, which act like a "barrel hoop", holding two adjacent helices of the H1N1-M2 tetramer through the two pharmacophore groups outside the channel. 4 The inhibitors with such binding mechanism may overcome the drug resistance problem of influenza A virus to the adamantane-based drugs.

  8. Evaluation of secure capability-based access control in the M2M local cloud platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anggorojati, Bayu; Prasad, Neeli R.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2016-01-01

    of multiple distributed M2M gateways, creating new challenges in the access control. Some existing access control systems lack in scalability and flexibility to manage access from users or entity that belong to different authorization domains, or fails to provide fine grained and flexible access right...... delegation. Recently, the capability based access control has been considered as method to manage access in the Internet of Things (IoT) or M2M domain. In this paper, the implementation and evaluation of a proposed secure capability based access control in the M2M local cloud platform is presented...

  9. A humanized anti-M2 scFv shows protective in vitro activity against influenza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Andrew M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Velappan, Nileena [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schmidt, Jurgen G [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    M2 is one of the most conserved influenza proteins, and has been widely prospected as a potential universal vaccine target, with protection predominantly mediated by antibodies. In this paper we describe the creation of a humanized single chain Fv from 14C2, a potent monoclonal antibody against M2. We show that the humanized scFv demonstrates similar activity to the parental mAb: it is able to recognize M2 in its native context on cell surfaces and is able to show protective in vitro activity against influenza, and so represents a potential lead antibody candidate for universal prophylactic or therapeutic intervention in influenza.

  10. Aggregation and Trunking of M2M Traffic via D2D Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigazzi, Giovanni; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications is one of the key enablers of the Internet of Things (IoT). Billions of devices are expected to be deployed in the near future for novel M2M applications demanding ubiquitous access and global connectivity. In order to cope with the massive number of machines......, there is a need for new techniques to coordinate the access and allocate the resources. Although the majority of the proposed solutions are focused on the adaptation of the traditional cellular networks to the M2M traffic patterns, novel approaches based on the direct communication among nearby devices may...

  11. From a 32 m2 system with 90 CPV modules to a 105 m2 system with 12 CPV modules - Soitec's new CPV system CX-S530

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombert, Andreas; Wanka, Sven; Gerster, Eckart; van Riesen, Sascha; Neubauer, Martin; Lange, Gerrit; Hamidi, Amir; Burke, Thomas; Stör, Jakob; Aipperspach, Wolfgang; Taliercio, Cecile; Mader, Lucas; Valli, Alessandro; Ziegler, Martin; Hepp, Stefan; Heile, Inka; Gerstmaier, Tobias; Haarburger, Karl-Friedrich

    2012-10-01

    In 2008, Soitec started to launch a 32m2 CPV system which included 90 modules per tracker. In order to realize the fast installation of multi-MW power plants the CPV module CX-M500 with an aperture area of 7,84 m2 was developed together with the new tracker CX-T030 which is optimized for carrying 12 of the new modules. This paper gives an overview over the evolution of this CPV system. The module is based on components of the field proven earlier Concentrix module generations. The tracker is a classical pylon type with two AC motor powered slewing ring drives. A new control device was developed which uses the power-optimized sun tracking algorithm. The major development steps and their results are presented.

  12. New Fiber Materials with Sorption Capacity at 5.0 g-U/kg Adsorbent under Marine Testing Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Tomonori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brown, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Das, Sadananda [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strivens, Jonathan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schlafer, Nicholas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, G. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Flicker Byers, M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Schneider, Eric [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-03-30

    The Fuel Resources program of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) has focused on assuring that nuclear fuel resources are available in the United States for a long term. An immense source of uranium is seawater, which contains an estimated amount of 4.5 billion tonnes of dissolved uranium. Extraction of the uranium resource in seawater can provide a price cap and ensure centuries of uranium supply for future nuclear energy production. NE initiated a multidisciplinary program with participants from national laboratories, universities, and research institutes to enable technical breakthroughs related to uranium recovery from seawater. The goal is to develop advanced adsorbents to make the seawater uranium recovery technology a cost competitive, viable technology. Under this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed several novel adsorbents, which enhanced the uranium capacity 4-5 times from the state-of-the art Japanese adsorbents. Uranium exists uniformly at a concentration of ~3.3 ppb in seawater. Because of the vast volume of the oceans, the total estimated amount of uranium in seawater is approximately 1000 times larger than its amount in terrestrial resources. However, due to the low concentration, a significant challenge remains for making the extraction of uranium from seawater a commercially viable alternative technology. The biggest challenge for this technology to overcome to efficiently reduce the extraction cost is to develop adsorbents with increased uranium adsorption capacity. Two major approaches were investigated for synthesizing novel adsorbents with enhanced uranium adsorption capacity. One method utilized conventional radiation induced graft polymerization (RIGP) to synthesize adsorbents on high-surface area trunk fibers and the other method utilized a chemical grafting technique, atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Both approaches have shown promising uranium extraction

  13. Production, purification and characterisation of thermostable metallo-protease from newly isolated Bacillus sp. KG5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazenin Ahmetoglu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the importance of microbial proteases in biotechnological applications, a number of microorganisms are being explored. The production, purification and characterisation of extracellular metallo-proteases by producing Bacillus sp. KG5 was studied. Material and Methods: Bacterial strain KG5 was isolated from Kos (Bingol hot spring. The strain KG5 was identified by morphological, physiological, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The effects of various parameters on protease production, such as time, temperature, pH, carbon and nitrogen sources and CaCl2 were studied. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and Sephadex G-75 gel permeation chromatography. Molecular weight was calculated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and zymographic analysis. The effects of some metal ions, chelators and inhibitors on enzyme activity were determined. Results: The optimum temperature, pH and incubation period for protease production were 40-45°C, 7.0 and 24 h, respectively. It was determined that the best nitrogen sources were yeast extract and urea, while the best carbon sources were lactose and galactose. However, glucose as a source of carbon was found to inhibit the production of the enzyme. The maximum enzyme production was increased in the presence of CaCl2. The molecular weight of purified enzyme was found to be approximately 48 kDa. It was found that the enzyme was fully stable in the presence of 2 mM CaCl2 at 50°C after 120 min. Purified protease was significantly activated by Ca2+ and Mg2+, while it was greatly inhibited by Cu2+, Zn2+, Hg2+ and SDS as well as by the metal ion chelators ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline. Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF had a little effect on the enzyme. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the potential of this isolate for protease production and that this enzyme may be suitable for biotechnological applications.

  14. Resolving the KgA1c paradox in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jaime; Kalra, Sanjay; Singh, Vikram; Fegade, Mayuresh; Singh, Gursimran; Mane, Amey

    2016-12-13

    Excess body weight is a leading cause of metabolic complications such as hypertension and dyslipidemia in T2DM patients. Available antihyperglycemic agents have minimal or no impact on these complications and a majority are known to trigger weight gain, thereby exerting a paradoxical effect on overall metabolic status. This review introduces the concept of 'KgA1c paradox' and underscores the significance of resolving this paradox for comprehensive T2DM management. It provides a therapeutic rationale for inclusion of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors in the T2DM treatment algorithm as these agents have demonstrated favorable glycemic effects along with reduction in body weight. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurements of a 1/4-scale model of a 60-kg explosives firing chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrnak, J.W.; Baker, C.F.; Simmons, L.F.

    1995-01-27

    In anticipation of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) proposes to construct a 60-kg firing chamber to provide blast-effects containment for, most of its open-air, high-explosive, firing operations. Even though these operations are within current environmental limits, containment of the blast effects and hazardous debris will further drastically reduce emissions to the environment and minimize the generated hazardous waste. The major design consideration of such a chamber is its overall structural dynamic response in terms of long-term containment of all blast effects from repeated internal detonations of high explosives. Another concern is how much other portions of the facility must be hardened to ensure personnel protection in the event of an accidental detonation. To assess these concerns, a 1/4-scale replica model of the planned contained firing chamber was designed, constructed, and tested with scaled explosive charges ranging from 25 to 125% of the operational explosives limit of 60 kg. From 16 detonations of high explosives, 880 resulting strains, blast pressures, and temperatures within the model were measured. Factors of safety for dynamic yield of the firing chamber structure were calculated and compared to the design criterion of totally elastic response. The rectangular, reinforced-concrete chamber model exhibited a lightly damped vibrational response that placed the structure in alternating cycles of tension and compression. During compression, both the reinforcing steel and the concrete remained elastic. During tension, the reinforcing steel remained elastic, but the concrete elastic limit was exceeded in two areas, the center spans of the ceiling and the north wall, where elastic safety factors as low as 0.66 were obtained, thus indicating that the concrete would be expected to crack in those areas. Indeed, visual post-test inspection of those areas revealed tight cracks in the concrete.

  16. Philosophy and key features of 'Hodoyoshi' concept for optical remote sensing using 50kg class satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enokuchi, A.; Takeyama, N.; Nakamura, Y.; Nojiri, Y.; Miyamura, N.; Iwasaki, A.; Nakasuka, S.

    2010-10-01

    Remote sensing missions have been conventionally performed by using satellite-onboard optical sensors with extraordinarily high reliability, on huge satellites. On the other hand, small satellites for remote-sensing missions have recently been developed intensely and operated all over the world. This paper gives a Japanese concept of the development of nano-satellites(10kg to 50kg) based on "Hodoyoshi" (Japanese word for "reasonable") reliability engineering aiming at cost-effective design of optical sensors, buses and satellites. The concept is named as "Hodoyoshi" concept. We focus on the philosophy and the key features of the concept. These are conveniently applicable to the development of optical sensors on nano-satellites. As major advantages, the optical sensors based on the "Hodoyoshi" concept are "flexible" in terms of selectability of wavelength bands, adaptability to the required ground sample distance, and optimal performance under a wide range of environmental temperatures. The first and second features mentioned above can be realized by dividing the functions of the optical sensor into modularized functional groups reasonably. The third feature becomes possible by adopting the athermal and apochromatic optics design. By utilizing these features, the development of the optical sensors become possible without exact information on the launcher or the orbit. Furthermore, this philosophy leads to truly quick delivery of nano-satellites for remote-sensing missions. On the basis of the concept, we are now developing nano-satellite technologies and five nano-satellites to realize the concept in a four-year-long governmentally funded project. In this paper, the specification of the optical sensor on the first satellite is also reported.

  17. Trypsin, Tryptase, and Thrombin Polarize Macrophages towards a Pro-Fibrotic M2a Phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J V White

    Full Text Available For both wound healing and the formation of a fibrotic lesion, circulating monocytes enter the tissue and differentiate into fibroblast-like cells called fibrocytes and pro-fibrotic M2a macrophages, which together with fibroblasts form scar tissue. Monocytes can also differentiate into classically activated M1 macrophages and alternatively activated M2 macrophages. The proteases thrombin, which is activated during blood clotting, and tryptase, which is released by activated mast cells, potentiate fibroblast proliferation and fibrocyte differentiation, but their effect on macrophages is unknown. Here we report that thrombin, tryptase, and the protease trypsin bias human macrophage differentiation towards a pro-fibrotic M2a phenotype expressing high levels of galectin-3 from unpolarized monocytes, or from M1 and M2 macrophages, and that these effects appear to operate through protease-activated receptors. These results suggest that proteases can initiate scar tissue formation by affecting fibroblasts, fibrocytes, and macrophages.

  18. Vanishing Str M2 in the presence of anomalous U A(1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jorge L.; Nanopoulos, D. V.

    1996-02-01

    We show that the presence of an anomalous U A(1) factor in the gauge group of string-derived models may have the new and important phenomenological consequence of allowing the vanishing of Str M2 in the “shifted” vacuum that results in the process of cancelling the anomalous U A(1). The feasibility of this effect seems to be enhanced by a vanishing vacuum energy, and by a “small” value of Str M2 in the original vacuum. In the class of free-fermionic models with vanishing vacuum energy that we focus on, a necessary condition for this mechanism to be effective is that Str M2 > 0 in the original vacuum. A vanishing Str M2 ameliorates the cosmological constant problem and is a necessary element in the stability of the no-scale mechanism.

  19. Reliable Radio Access for Massive Machine-to-Machine (M2M) Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication is a term that identifies the emerging paradigm of interconnected systems, machines, and things that communicate and collaborate without human intervention. The characteristics of M2M Communications are small payloads and sporadic transmissions, while...... the service requirements can range from massive number of devices to ultra-reliable. This PhD thesis focuses on novel mechanisms to meet these requirements in a variety of wireless systems, from well-established technologies such as cellular networks, to emerging technologies like IEEE 802.11ah. Today...... an overwhelming 89% of the deployed M2M modules are GPRS-based. This motivates us to investigate the potential of GPRS as a dedicated M2M network. We show that by introducing minimal modifications to GPRS operation, a large number of devices can be reliably supported. Surprisingly, even though LTE is seen...

  20. Porous Photocatalytic Membrane Microreactor (P2M2): A new reactor concept for photochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aran, H.C.; Salamon, D.; Rijnaarts, T.; Mul, G.; Wessling, M.; Lammertink, R.G.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a new membrane microreactor concept for multiphase photocatalytic reactions is demonstrated. Microfabrication, photocatalyst immobilization and surface modification steps were performed to develop a Porous Photocatalytic Membrane Microreactor (P2M2). This concept benefits from a stabl

  1. Direct observation of the M2 phase with its Mott transition in a VO2 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon; Slusar, Tetiana V.; Wulferding, Dirk; Yang, Ilkyu; Cho, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Minkyung; Choi, Hee Cheul; Jeong, Yoon Hee; Kim, Hyun-Tak; Kim, Jeehoon

    2016-12-01

    In VO2, the explicit origin of the insulator-to-metal transition is still disputable between Peierls and Mott insulators. Along with the controversy, its second monoclinic (M2) phase has received considerable attention due to the presence of electron correlation in undimerized vanadium ions. However, the origin of the M2 phase is still obscure. Here, we study a granular VO2 film using conductive atomic force microscopy and Raman scattering. Upon the structural transition from monoclinic to rutile, we observe directly an intermediate state showing the coexistence of monoclinic M1 and M2 phases. The conductivity near the grain boundary in this regime is six times larger than that of the grain core, producing a donut-like landscape. Our results reveal an intra-grain percolation process, indicating that VO2 with the M2 phase is a Mott insulator.

  2. Porous Photocatalytic Membrane Microreactor (P2M2): A new reactor concept for photochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aran, H.C.; Salamon, David; Rijnaarts, Timon; Rijnaarts, T.; Mul, Guido; Wessling, Matthias; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a new membrane microreactor concept for multiphase photocatalytic reactions is demonstrated. Microfabrication, photocatalyst immobilization and surface modification steps were performed to develop a Porous Photocatalytic Membrane Microreactor (P2M2). This concept benefits from a

  3. The challenges of M2M massive access in wireless cellular networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biral, Andrea; Centenaro, Marco; Zanella, Andrea; Vangelista, Lorenzo; Zorzi, Michele

    2015-01-01

    .... Nonetheless, general consensus has been reached upon some specific challenges, such as the need for 5G wireless access networks to support massive access by MTDs, as a consequence of the proliferation of M2M services...

  4. M2 Polarization of Human Macrophages Favors Survival of the Intracellular Pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Buchacher

    Full Text Available Intracellular pathogens have developed various strategies to escape immunity to enable their survival in host cells, and many bacterial pathogens preferentially reside inside macrophages, using diverse mechanisms to penetrate their defenses and to exploit their high degree of metabolic diversity and plasticity. Here, we characterized the interactions of the intracellular pathogen Chlamydia pneumoniae with polarized human macrophages. Primary human monocytes were pre-differentiated with granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor or macrophage colony-stimulating factor for 7 days to yield M1-like and M2-like macrophages, which were further treated with interferon-γ and lipopolysaccharide or with interleukin-4 for 48 h to obtain fully polarized M1 and M2 macrophages. M1 and M2 cells exhibited distinct morphology with round or spindle-shaped appearance for M1 and M2, respectively, distinct surface marker profiles, as well as different cytokine and chemokine secretion. Macrophage polarization did not influence uptake of C. pneumoniae, since comparable copy numbers of chlamydial DNA were detected in M1 and M2 at 6 h post infection, but an increase in chlamydial DNA over time indicating proliferation was only observed in M2. Accordingly, 72±5% of M2 vs. 48±7% of M1 stained positive for chlamydial lipopolysaccharide, with large perinuclear inclusions in M2 and less clearly bordered inclusions for M1. Viable C. pneumoniae was present in lysates from M2, but not from M1 macrophages. The ability of M1 to restrict chlamydial replication was not observed in M1-like macrophages, since chlamydial load showed an equal increase over time for M1-like and M2-like macrophages. Our findings support the importance of macrophage polarization for the control of intracellular infection, and show that M2 are the preferred survival niche for C. pneumoniae. M1 did not allow for chlamydial proliferation, but failed to completely eliminate chlamydial infection

  5. Níveis dietéticos de lisina para suínos da raça Landrace dos 15 aos 30 kg Dietary lysine levels for Landrace pigs from 15 to 30 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Moretto

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de determinar a exigência nutricional de lisina total para suínos da raça Landrace, machos inteiros e fêmeas, de 15 a 30 kg de peso, foram conduzidos dois experimentos. Utilizaram-se 50 fêmeas no experimento I e 50 machos inteiros no experimento II, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos, cinco repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental, em cada experimento. Os tratamentos consistiram de uma ração basal suplementada com cinco níveis de L-lisina.HCl, resultando em rações com 0,85; 0,95; 1,05; 1,15; e 1,25% de lisina, em ambos os experimentos. No experimento I, o consumo de ração médio diário não foi influenciado pelo nível de lisina das rações. Ganho de peso médio diário, consumo de lisina médio diário e taxa de deposição de proteína na carcaça aumentaram de forma linear com o nível de lisina da ração. Os tratamentos influenciaram de forma quadrática a conversão alimentar, que melhorou até o nível de 1,08% de lisina. No experimento II, os tratamentos não influenciaram o consumo de ração médio diário e a conversão alimentar. Constatou-se efeito quadrático dos níveis de lisina sobre ganho de peso médio diário, consumo de lisina médio diário e taxa de deposição de proteína na carcaça. Os melhores resultados de ganho de peso foram observados no nível de 1,08% de lisina. A exigência de lisina total na ração, para a fase inicial de desenvolvimento (15 a 30 kg, foi de 1,08%, para ambos os sexos.Two experiments were carried out to determine the total lysine requirement of purebred Landrace swine, males and females, from 15 to 30 kg live weights. Fifty females and fifty males were used in a randomized complete block design, with five treatments, five replications and two animals per experimental unit, in the experiments I and II, respectively. The treatments consisted of a basal diet, supplemented with five levels of L-lysine.HCL, resulting in diets with

  6. Segal-Bargmann Transform and Paley-Wiener Theorems on $M(2)$

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E K Narayanan; Suparna Sen

    2010-04-01

    We study the Segal–Bargmann transform on $M(2)$. The range of this transform is characterized as a weighted Bergman space. In a similar fashion Poisson integrals are investigated. Using a Gutzmer’s type formula we characterize the range as a class of functions extending holomorphically to an appropriate domain in the complexification of $M(2)$. We also prove a Paley–Wiener theorem for the inverse Fourier transform.

  7. Wound Administration of M2-Polarized Macrophages Does Not Improve Murine Cutaneous Healing Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Jetten; Nadia Roumans; Marion J. Gijbels; Andrea Romano; Post, Mark J.; de Winther, Menno P.J.; Van der Hulst, Rene R. W. J.; Sofia Xanthoulea

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in all stages of cutaneous wound healing responses and dysregulation of macrophage function can result in derailed wound repair. The phenotype of macrophages is influenced by the wound microenvironment and evolves during healing from a more pro-inflammatory (M1) profile in early stages, to a less inflammatory pro-healing (M2) phenotype in later stages of repair. The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of exogenous administration of M2 macr...

  8. 10D massive type IIA supergravities as the uplift of parabolic M2-brane torus bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia del Moral, Maria Pilar [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Restuccia, Alvaro [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Fisica; Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Dept. de Fisica

    2016-04-15

    We remark that the two 10D massive deformations of the N = 2 maximal type IIA supergravity (Romans and HLW supergravity) are associated to the low energy limit of the uplift to 10D of M2-brane torus bundles with parabolic monodromy linearly and non-linearly realized respectively. Romans supergravity corresponds to M2-brane compactified on a twice-punctured torus bundle. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. A novel M2e based flu vaccine formulation for dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Leclerc

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The USA 2004 influenza virus outbreak H3N8 in dogs heralded the emergence of a new disease in this species. A new inactivated H3N8 vaccine was developed to control the spread of the disease but, as in humans and swine, it is anticipated that the virus will mutate shift and drift in the dog population. Therefore, there is a need for a vaccine that can trigger a broad protection to prevent the spread of the virus and the emergence of new strains. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The universal M2e peptide is identical in almost all the H3N8 influenza strains sequenced to date and known to infect dogs. This epitope is therefore a good choice for development of a vaccine to provide broad protection. Malva mosaic virus (MaMV nanoparticles were chosen as a vaccine platform to improve the stability of the M2e peptide and increase its immunogenicity in animals. The addition of an adjuvant (OmpC purified from Salmonella typhi membrane in the vaccine formulation increased the immune response directed to the M2e peptide significantly and enlarged the protection to include the heterosubtypic strain of influenza in a mouse model. An optimal vaccine formulation was also shown to be immunogenic in dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The MaMV vaccine platform triggered an improved immune response directed towards the universal M2e peptide. The adjuvant OmpC increased the immune response to the M2e peptide and protection to a heterosubtypic influenza strain that harbors a different M2e peptide in a mouse model. Antibodies generated by the vaccine formulation showed cross-reactivity with M2e peptides derived from influenza strains H9N2, H5N1 and H1N1. The vaccine formulation shows a potential for commercialization of a new M2e based vaccine in dogs.

  10. M2 pyruvate kinase provides a mechanism for nutrient sensing and regulation of cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Hugh P; O'Reilly, Francis J; Wear, Martin A; O'Neill, J Robert; Fothergill-Gilmore, Linda A; Hupp, Ted; Walkinshaw, Malcolm D

    2013-04-09

    We show that the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (M2PYK) exists in equilibrium between monomers and tetramers regulated by allosteric binding of naturally occurring small-molecule metabolites. Phenylalanine stabilizes an inactive T-state tetrameric conformer and inhibits M2PYK with an IC50 value of 0.24 mM, whereas thyroid hormone (triiodo-L-thyronine, T3) stabilizes an inactive monomeric form of M2PYK with an IC50 of 78 nM. The allosteric activator fructose-1,6-bisphosphate [F16BP, AC50 (concentration that gives 50% activation) of 7 μM] shifts the equilibrium to the tetrameric active R-state, which has a similar activity to that of the constitutively fully active isoform M1PYK. Proliferation assays using HCT-116 cells showed that addition of inhibitors phenylalanine and T3 both increased cell proliferation, whereas addition of the activator F16BP reduced proliferation. F16BP abrogates the inhibitory effect of both phenylalanine and T3, highlighting a dominant role of M2PYK allosteric activation in the regulation of cancer proliferation. X-ray structures show constitutively fully active M1PYK and F16BP-bound M2PYK in an R-state conformation with a lysine at the dimer-interface acting as a peg in a hole, locking the active tetramer conformation. Binding of phenylalanine in an allosteric pocket induces a 13° rotation of the protomers, destroying the peg-in-hole R-state interface. This distinct T-state tetramer is stabilized by flipped out Trp/Arg side chains that stack across the dimer interface. X-ray structures and biophysical binding data of M2PYK complexes explain how, at a molecular level, fluctuations in concentrations of amino acids, thyroid hormone, and glucose metabolites switch M2PYK on and off to provide the cell with a nutrient sensing and growth signaling mechanism.

  11. Organophosphorus pesticides decrease M2 muscarinic receptor function in guinea pig airway nerves via indirect mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky J Proskocil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies link organophosphorus pesticide (OP exposures to asthma, and we have shown that the OPs chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion cause airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs 24 hr after a single subcutaneous injection. OP-induced airway hyperreactivity involves M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction on airway nerves independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, but how OPs inhibit neuronal M2 receptors in airways is not known. In the central nervous system, OPs interact directly with neurons to alter muscarinic receptor function or expression; therefore, in this study we tested whether the OP parathion or its oxon metabolite, paraoxon, might decrease M2 receptor function on peripheral neurons via similar direct mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Intravenous administration of paraoxon, but not parathion, caused acute frequency-dependent potentiation of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction and increased electrical field stimulation (EFS-induced contractions in isolated trachea independent of AChE inhibition. However, paraoxon had no effect on vagally-induced bradycardia in intact guinea pigs or EFS-induced contractions in isolated ileum, suggesting mechanisms other than pharmacologic antagonism of M2 receptors. Paraoxon did not alter M2 receptor expression in cultured cells at the mRNA or protein level as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and radio-ligand binding assays, respectively. Additionally, a biotin-labeled fluorophosphonate, which was used as a probe to identify molecular targets phosphorylated by OPs, did not phosphorylate proteins in guinea pig cardiac membranes that were recognized by M2 receptor antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that neither direct pharmacologic antagonism nor downregulated expression of M2 receptors contributes to OP inhibition of M2 function in airway nerves, adding to the growing evidence of non-cholinergic mechanisms of OP neurotoxicity.

  12. Enhanced M1/M2 macrophage ratio promotes orthodontic root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D; Kou, X; Luo, Q; Yang, R; Liu, D; Wang, X; Song, Y; Cao, H; Zeng, M; Gan, Y; Zhou, Y

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical force-induced orthodontic root resorption is a major clinical challenge in orthodontic treatment. Macrophages play an important role in orthodontic root resorption, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mechanism by which the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophage polarization affects root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. Root resorption occurred when nickel-titanium coil springs were applied on the upper first molars of rats for 3 to 14 d. Positively stained odontoclasts or osteoclasts with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase were found in resorption areas. Meanwhile, M1-like macrophages positive for CD68 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) persistently accumulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. In addition, the expressions of the M1 activator interferon-γ and the M1-associated pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were upregulated on the compression side of periodontal tissues. When the coil springs were removed at the 14th day after orthodontic force application, root resorption was partially rescued. The number of CD68(+)CD163(+) M2-like macrophages gradually increased on the compression side of periodontal tissues. The levels of M2 activator interleukin (IL)-4 and the M2-associated anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also increased. Systemic injection of the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept or IL-4 attenuated the severity of root resorption and decreased the ratio of M1 to M2 macrophages. These data imply that the balance between M1 and M2 macrophages affects orthodontic root resorption. Root resorption was aggravated by an enhanced M1/M2 ratio but was partially rescued by a reduced M1/M2 ratio.

  13. M2C Precipitate in Isothermal Tempering of High Co-Ni Alloy Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The ultra-strength alloy steel with high content of Co and Ni is typical tempering martensite steel, and the secondary hardening is accomplished by the precipitation of fine scale alloy carbides with black-white contrast until peak-hardening. The crystal structure of precipitates was well determined as M2C with hexagonal by micro-beam diffraction. Observing in HREM, M2C carbides were shown coherent with the ferrite matrix completely and have their own structure.

  14. Influence of cladding layer field of slab waveguide on M2 factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin Lin(林斌); Xuejin Wen(文学金); Fuyuan Guo(郭福源)

    2003-01-01

    Based on the theory of semiconductor laser pattern and the non-paraxial vectorial moment theory of lightbeam propagation, the beam quality factor M2 of TE0 propagating mode is analyzed and calculated.The result shows that when both core layer and cladding layer are considered, M2 > 1 is always obtained.Moreover, by analyzing the characteristic of real beams, this result is generalized to the multilayer isotropiclinear slab waveguides.

  15. Effect of organophosphorus insecticides on phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyin Li; Liming Zou; Carry Pope

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus insecticides may promote the accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses and the neuromuscular junction by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity to cause disturbance of neural signal conduction and induce a toxic reaction. Organophosphorus insecticides may act on M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, whose combination with G proteins is regulated by phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of organophosphorus insecticides on the phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2-mediated M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and to reveal other possible actions of organophosphorus insecticides.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An observational study, which was performed in the Central Laboratory of Shenyang Medical College, and Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University from June 2002 to December 2004.METHODS: The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor was extracted and purified from pig brain using affinity chromatography. Subsequently, the purified M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2, and [OP32] ATP were incubated with different concentrations of paraoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon together. The mixture then underwent polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the gel film was dried and radioactively autographed to detect phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Finally, the radio-labeled phosphorylated M2 receptor protein band was excised for counting with an isotope liquid scintillation counter.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effects of chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon, chlorpyrifos, and parathion in different concentrations on the phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor; effects of chlorpyrifos oxon on the phosphorylation of the adrenergic receptor.CONCLUSION: Different kinds of organophosphorus insecticides have different effects on the phosphorylation of the G protein

  16. Abundance, distribution, mobility and oligomeric state of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in live cardiac muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Nenasheva, Tatiana A.; Neary, Marianne; Gregory I. Mashanov; Birdsall, Nigel J.M.; Breckenridge, Ross A.; Molloy, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors modulate cardiac rhythm via regulation of the inward potassium current. To increase our understanding of M2 receptor physiology we used Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy to visualize individual receptors at the plasma membrane of transformed CHOM2 cells, a cardiac cell line (HL-1), primary cardiomyocytes and tissue slices from pre- and post-natal mice. Receptor expression levels between individual cells in dissociated cardiomyocytes and he...

  17. Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase: a tumor marker and its clinical application in gastrointestinal malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Philip D; Ewald, Nils

    2008-09-01

    Proliferating cells, in particular tumor cells, express a dimeric isoenzyme of pyruvate kinase, termed Tumor M2 pyruvate kinase. In the last few years, much attention has been paid to this novel tumor marker that can be determined in EDTA-plasma and in the feces. It has been used in diagnosis and surveillance of a variety of malignant diseases. As compared with the established tumor markers, Tumor M2-PK in EDTA-plasma proves to have at least equal sensitivity in pancreatic, gastric, esophageal, colorectal and cholangiocellular cancer. In combination with established tumor markers, EDTA-plasma M2-PK is a useful tool in diagnosis and surveillance of gastrointestinal tumors. In colorectal cancer, M2-PK in EDTA-plasma even proves superiority as compared with CEA. Fecal Tumor M2-PK testing resembles a good noninvasive screening parameter for colorectal cancer with a reported sensitivity of 68.8-91.0% and a specificity of 71.9-100%. It is superior to fecal occult blood testing in colorectal cancer screening. Since it is effective, easy to handle and bears rather low costs, fecal Tumor M2-PK testing is recommended for large-scale CRC screening.

  18. Monocyte Differentiation towards Protumor Activity Does Not Correlate with M1 or M2 Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Karina Chimal-Ramírez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages facilitate breast cancer progression. Macrophages were initially classified as M1 or M2 based on their distinct metabolic programs and then expanded to include antitumoral (M1 and protumoral (M2 activities. However, it is still uncertain what markers define the pro- and antitumoral phenotypes and what conditions lead to their formation. In this study, monocytic cell lines and primary monocytes were subjected to commonly reported protocols of M1/M2 polarization and conditions known to engage monocytes into protumoral functions. The results showed that only IDO enzyme and CD86 M1 markers were upregulated correlating with M1 polarization. TNF-α, CCR7, IL-10, arginase I, CD36, and CD163 were expressed indistinguishably from M1 or M2 polarization. Similarly, protumoral engaging resulted in upregulation of both M1 and M2 markers, with conditioned media from the most aggressive breast cancer cell line promoting the greatest changes. In spite of the mixed phenotype, M1-polarized macrophages exhibited the highest expression/secretion of inflammatory mediators, many of which have previously been associated with breast cancer aggressiveness. These data argue that although the existence of protumoral macrophages is unquestionable, their associated phenotypes and the precise conditions driving their formation are still unclear, and those conditions may need both M1 and M2 stimuli.

  19. Reliable Reporting for Massive M2M Communications with Periodic Resource Pooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    This letter considers a wireless M2M communication scenario with a massive number of M2M devices. Each device needs to send its reports within a given deadline and with certain reliability, e.g., 99.99%. A pool of resources available to all M2M devices is periodically available for transmission....... The number of transmissions required by an M2M device within the pool is random due to two reasons - random number of arrived reports since the last reporting opportunity and requests for retransmission due to random channel errors. We show how to dimension the pool of M2M-dedicated resources in order...... to guarantee the desired reliability of the report delivery within the deadline. The fact that the pool of resources is used by a massive number of devices allows to base the dimensioning on the central limit theorem. The results are interpreted in the context of LTE, but they are applicable to any M2M...

  20. Study into the Applicability of Laser Beam Quality Factor M2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; TIAN Xiao-hong; XIN Jian-guo

    2006-01-01

    The applicable condition of single-frequency laser beam quality factor M2 is studied. Any real single-frequency laser beam can be classified as Gaussian mode and non-Gaussian mode according to the transverse field distribution. Non-Gaussian transverse field distribution can be analytically expressed as the sum of Hermite-Gaussian functions. The propagation function and M2 factor expression for non-Gaussian mode can be obtained by the second moment definition of laser beam spot. The analytical results show, the same as that of Gaussian mode, that the propagation function follows the hyperbolic law and the value of M2 factor is a constant for non-Gaussian mode. But, different non-Gaussian field distributions may have the same M2 value. That means M2 factor cannot reflect the quality of non-Gaussian laser beams correctly. We conclude that the M2 factor is applicable only to ideal Gaussian laser beam generated by stable resonators.

  1. Muscarinic cholinergic receptor (M2 plays a crucial role in the development of myopia in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veluchamy A. Barathi

    2013-09-01

    Myopia is a huge public health problem worldwide, reaching the highest incidence in Asia. Identification of susceptible genes is crucial for understanding the biological basis of myopia. In this paper, we have identified and characterized a functional myopia-associated gene using a specific mouse-knockout model. Mice lacking the muscarinic cholinergic receptor gene (M2; also known as Chrm2 were less susceptible to lens-induced myopia compared with wild-type mice, which showed significantly increased axial length and vitreous chamber depth when undergoing experimental induction of myopia. The key findings of this present study are that the sclera of M2 mutant mice has higher expression of collagen type I and lower expression of collagen type V than do wild-type mice and mice that are mutant for other muscarinic subtypes, and, therefore, M2 mutant mice were resistant to the development of experimental myopia. Pharmacological blockade of M2 muscarinic receptor proteins retarded myopia progression in the mouse. These results suggest for the first time a role of M2 in growth-related changes in extracellular matrix genes during myopia development in a mammalian model. M2 receptor antagonists might thus provide a targeted therapeutic approach to the management of this refractive error.

  2. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition blocks M2 macrophage differentiation and suppresses metastasis in murine breast cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Rang Na

    Full Text Available Tumor cells are often associated with abundant macrophages that resemble the alternatively activated M2 subset. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs inhibit anti-tumor immune responses and promote metastasis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibition is known to prevent breast cancer metastasis. This study hypothesized that COX-2 inhibition affects TAM characteristics potentially relevant to tumor cell metastasis. We found that the specific COX-2 inhibitor, etodolac, inhibited human M2 macrophage differentiation, as determined by decreased CD14 and CD163 expressions and increased TNFα production. Several key metastasis-related mediators, such as vascular endothelial growth factor-A, vascular endothelial growth factor-C, and matrix metalloproteinase-9, were inhibited in the presence of etodolac as compared to untreated M2 macrophages. Murine bone marrow derived M2 macrophages also showed enhanced surface MHCII IA/IE and CD80, CD86 expressions together with enhanced TNFα expressions with etodolac treatment during differentiation. Using a BALB/c breast cancer model, we found that etodolac significantly reduced lung metastasis, possibly due to macrophages expressing increased IA/IE and TNFα, but decreased M2 macrophage-related genes expressions (Ym1, TGFβ. In conclusion, COX-2 inhibition caused loss of the M2 macrophage characteristics of TAMs and may assist prevention of breast cancer metastasis.

  3. Monocyte Differentiation towards Protumor Activity Does Not Correlate with M1 or M2 Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimal-Ramírez, G. Karina; Espinoza-Sánchez, Nancy Adriana; Chávez-Sánchez, Luis; Arriaga-Pizano, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages facilitate breast cancer progression. Macrophages were initially classified as M1 or M2 based on their distinct metabolic programs and then expanded to include antitumoral (M1) and protumoral (M2) activities. However, it is still uncertain what markers define the pro- and antitumoral phenotypes and what conditions lead to their formation. In this study, monocytic cell lines and primary monocytes were subjected to commonly reported protocols of M1/M2 polarization and conditions known to engage monocytes into protumoral functions. The results showed that only IDO enzyme and CD86 M1 markers were upregulated correlating with M1 polarization. TNF-α, CCR7, IL-10, arginase I, CD36, and CD163 were expressed indistinguishably from M1 or M2 polarization. Similarly, protumoral engaging resulted in upregulation of both M1 and M2 markers, with conditioned media from the most aggressive breast cancer cell line promoting the greatest changes. In spite of the mixed phenotype, M1-polarized macrophages exhibited the highest expression/secretion of inflammatory mediators, many of which have previously been associated with breast cancer aggressiveness. These data argue that although the existence of protumoral macrophages is unquestionable, their associated phenotypes and the precise conditions driving their formation are still unclear, and those conditions may need both M1 and M2 stimuli. PMID:27376091

  4. Endogenous-Exogenous Money Supply and Trend-Stationary Process of M2——Dynamic growth path analysis of M2%货币供给内生性、外生性与M2退势平稳——M2动态增长路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟康

    2010-01-01

    本文发现M2是一个退势平稳过程,而非单位根过程.尽管M2具有较强的内生性,但同时也受外生货币政策因素冲击或影响.内生因素和外生因素共同作用使M2围绕一条稳态增长路径上下波动;并且M2偏离稳态增长路径会造成产出波动.于是本文利用2000年至2007年的M2月度数据,分别建立SARMA模型和含月度虚拟变量的组合模型,对这条动态增长路径进行拟合.利用2008年的最新数据评价模型的预测能力时,我们发现M2仍然处在这条动态增长路径上.

  5. Nitrogen and energy partitioning in two genetic groups of pigs fed low-protein diets at 130 kg body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Galassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the effect of low-protein (LP or low-amino acid diets on digestibility, energy and nitrogen (N utilisation in 2 genetic groups (GG of pigs (129±11 kg BW. Duroc×Large White (A pigs were chosen to represent a traditional GG for ham production, and Danbred Duroc (D pigs to represent a GG with fast growing rate and high carcass lean yield. Dietary treatments: a conventional diet (CONV containing 13.2% CP, and two LP diets, one with LP (10.4% and low essential AA (LP1, the second with LP (9.7% and high essential AA (LP2. Compared to CONV, LP2 had the same essential AA content per unit feed, while LP1 the same essential AA content per unit CP. Feed was restricted (DMI=6.8% BW0.75. Four consecutive digestibility/balances periods were conducted with 24 barrows, 12 A and 12 D. Metabolic cages and respiration chambers were used. No significant difference between diets was registered for digestibility. Nitrogen excreted: 41.3, 33.4 and 29.0 g/d (P=0.009, for CONV, LP1 and LP2 diets, respectively. Nitrogen retention was similar between the diets. Heat production (HP was the lowest for LP diets. There was a tendency (P=0.079 for a lower energy digestibility in D group. The D pigs also had a higher HP and hence a lower retained energy in comparison with the A pigs. In conclusion: it is possible to reduce N excretion using very LP diets and LP-low AA diets; Danbred GG have a higher heat production and a lower energy retention than A pigs.

  6. NOAA Point Shapefile - 100m2 Fish Density for Tortugas Ecological Reserve, United States, 2009, WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The research mission was conducted in the Dry Tortugas, FL by National Ocean Service scientists from the Center for Coastal Habitat and Fisheries Research (CCFHR)...

  7. The MHV68 M2 protein drives IL-10 dependent B cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Andrea M; Herskowitz, Jeremy H; Speck, Samuel H

    2008-04-01

    Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) establishes long-term latency in memory B cells similar to the human gammaherpesvirus Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). EBV encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10) homolog and modulates cellular IL-10 expression; however, the role of IL-10 in the establishment and/or maintenance of chronic EBV infection remains unclear. Notably, MHV68 does not encode an IL-10 homolog, but virus infection has been shown to result in elevated serum IL-10 levels in wild-type mice, and IL-10 deficiency results in decreased establishment of virus latency. Here we show that a unique MHV68 latency-associated gene product, the M2 protein, is required for the elevated serum IL-10 levels observed at 2 weeks post-infection. Furthermore, M2 protein expression in primary murine B cells drives high level IL-10 expression along with increased secretion of IL-2, IL-6, and MIP-1alpha. M2 expression was also shown to significantly augment LPS driven survival and proliferation of primary murine B cells. The latter was dependent on IL-10 expression as demonstrated by the failure of IL10-/- B cells to proliferate in response to M2 protein expression and rescue of M2-associated proliferation by addition of recombinant murine IL-10. M2 protein expression in primary B cells also led to upregulated surface expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptor (CD25) and the activation marker GL7, along with down-regulated surface expression of B220, MHC II, and sIgD. The cells retained CD19 and sIgG expression, suggesting differentiation to a pre-plasma memory B cell phenotype. These observations are consistent with previous analyses of M2-null MHV68 mutants that have suggested a role for the M2 protein in expansion and differentiation of MHV68 latently infected B cells-perhaps facilitating the establishment of virus latency in memory B cells. Thus, while the M2 protein is unique to MHV68, analysis of M2 function has revealed an important role for IL-10 in MHV68 pathogenesis-identifying a

  8. The MHV68 M2 protein drives IL-10 dependent B cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Siegel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68 establishes long-term latency in memory B cells similar to the human gammaherpesvirus Epstein Barr Virus (EBV. EBV encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10 homolog and modulates cellular IL-10 expression; however, the role of IL-10 in the establishment and/or maintenance of chronic EBV infection remains unclear. Notably, MHV68 does not encode an IL-10 homolog, but virus infection has been shown to result in elevated serum IL-10 levels in wild-type mice, and IL-10 deficiency results in decreased establishment of virus latency. Here we show that a unique MHV68 latency-associated gene product, the M2 protein, is required for the elevated serum IL-10 levels observed at 2 weeks post-infection. Furthermore, M2 protein expression in primary murine B cells drives high level IL-10 expression along with increased secretion of IL-2, IL-6, and MIP-1alpha. M2 expression was also shown to significantly augment LPS driven survival and proliferation of primary murine B cells. The latter was dependent on IL-10 expression as demonstrated by the failure of IL10-/- B cells to proliferate in response to M2 protein expression and rescue of M2-associated proliferation by addition of recombinant murine IL-10. M2 protein expression in primary B cells also led to upregulated surface expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptor (CD25 and the activation marker GL7, along with down-regulated surface expression of B220, MHC II, and sIgD. The cells retained CD19 and sIgG expression, suggesting differentiation to a pre-plasma memory B cell phenotype. These observations are consistent with previous analyses of M2-null MHV68 mutants that have suggested a role for the M2 protein in expansion and differentiation of MHV68 latently infected B cells-perhaps facilitating the establishment of virus latency in memory B cells. Thus, while the M2 protein is unique to MHV68, analysis of M2 function has revealed an important role for IL-10 in MHV68 pathogenesis

  9. Internalization and down-regulation of human muscarinic acetylcholine receptor m2 subtypes. Role of third intracellular m2 loop and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuga, H; Kameyama, K; Haga, T; Honma, T; Lameh, J; Sadée, W

    1998-02-27

    Internalization and down-regulation of human muscarinic acetylcholine m2 receptors (hm2 receptors) and a hm2 receptor mutant lacking a central part of the third intracellular loop (I3-del m2 receptor) were examined in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells stably expressing these receptors and G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2). Agonist-induced internalization of up to 80-90% of hm2 receptors was demonstrated by measuring loss of [3H]N-methylscopolamine binding sites from the cell surface, and transfer of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites from the plasma membrane into the light-vesicle fractions separated by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Additionally, translocation of hm2 receptors with endocytic vesicles were visualized by immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Agonist-induced down-regulation of up to 60-70% of hm2 receptors was demonstrated by determining the loss of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding sites in the cells. The half-time (t1/2) of internalization and down-regulation in the presence of 10(-4) M carbamylcholine was estimated to be 9.5 min and 2.3 h, respectively. The rates of both internalization and down-regulation of hm2 receptors in the presence of 10(-6) M or lower concentrations of carbamylcholine were markedly increased by coexpression of GRK2. Agonist-induced internalization of I3-del m2 receptors was barely detectable upon incubation of cells for 1 h, but agonist-induced down-regulation of up to 40-50% of I3-del m2 receptors occurred upon incubation with 10(-4) M carbamylcholine for 16 h. However, the rate of down-regulation was lower compared with wild type receptors (t1/2 = 9.9 versus 2.3 h). These results indicate that rapid internalization of hm2 receptors is facilitated by their phosphorylation with GRK2 and does not occur in the absence of the third intracellular loop, but down-regulation of hm2 receptors may occur through both GRK2-facilitating pathway and third intracellular loop-independent pathways.

  10. M2 macrophages induce EMT through the TGF-β/Smad2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liangying; Fu, Xiao; Chen, Xiang; Han, Xiaodong; Dong, Ping

    2017-09-01

    IPF is characterized by fibroblast accumulation, collagen deposition, and ECM remodeling, with myofibroblasts believed to be the effector cell type. Myofibroblasts develop due to EMT of lung alveolar epithelial cells, which can be induced by TGF-β. M2 macrophages, a macrophage subpopulation, secrete large amounts of TGF-β. To clarify the relationship between IPF, EMT, TGF-β, and M2 macrophages, a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis mouse model was used. Seventeen days after mice were treated with bleomycin, the successful establishment of a pulmonary fibrosis model was confirmed by HE stain and Masson's trichrome stain. We found evidence in support of EMT, such as elevated protein levels of α-SMA in lung tissue and decreased levels of E-cadherin and CK-18. Additionally, increased TGF-β levels and TGF-β/Smad2 signaling activation was observed. Macrophages were recruited to pulmonary alveoli. Alveolar macrophages were phenotyped and identified as M2 macrophages, with up-regulated CD206 on the cell surfaces. For in vitro studies, we treated RAW 264.7 cells with IL-4 for 24 h, and the cells were then utilized as M2 macrophages. TGF-β levels increased significantly in the culture supernatant. Forty-eight hours after lung epithelial cells (MLE-12) were co-cultured with the M2 macrophages, the expression of α-SMA increased, and E-cadherin and CK-18 decreased. When a TGF-β receptor inhibitor, LY2109761 was used, the EMT induced by M2 macrophages was blocked. In conclusion, we demonstrated that M2 macrophages induce EMT through the TGF-β/Smad2 signaling pathway. © 2017 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  11. Experimental Study of Ultralight (<300 kg/m3 Foamed Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjun Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of ultralight (<300 kg/m3 foamed concrete (FC, which can be used as a new energy-conservation and environmental-protection building material and is particularly suitable for the thermal-insulation engineering of building external walls, was produced. The influences of different mixing amounts of fly ash, fly ash activator, WC (WC ratio, and foaming agent (FA on the compressive strength of FC were reported. The experimental study indicated that (1 the addition of fly ash reduced the strength of the FC and that the appropriate mixing amount of fly ash in this ultralight FC system should not exceed 45%; (2 with the increasing of fly ash activator, the strength of the FC sample is notably enhanced and the appropriate mixing amount of fly ash activator is 2.5%; (3 the optimized proportion of WC ratio is 0.45, and the FC that was produced according to this proportion has relatively high compressive strength; (4 by increasing the mixing amount of FA, the compressive strength of the FC notably decreases, and the optimal mixing amount of FA in this experiment is 3.5%.

  12. 200-kg large explosive detonation facing 50-km thick crust beneath west Qinling, northeastern Tibetan plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiusheng Li; Rui Gao; Haiyan Wang; Jisheng Zhang; Zhanwu Lu; Pengwu Li; Ye Guan; Rizheng He

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to acquire deep seismic reflection profiles on land using the standard oil-industry acquisition pa-rameters. This is especially true over much of Tibetan plateau not only because of severe topography and rapid variation of both velocity and thickness of near-surface layer, but also strong attenuation of seismic wave through the thickest crust of the Earth. Large explosive sources had been successfully detonated in US, but its application in Tibetan plateau rarely has an example of good quality. Presented herein is the data of a 200-kg single shot we recorded in west Qinling, northeastern Ti-betan plateau. The shot gather data with phenomenal signal-to-noise ratios illustrate the energy of the ProP phase. Although the observations are only limited to the northeastern Tibetan plateau and thus cannot comprise an exhaustive study, they nev-ertheless suggest that large explosions may be a useful exploration tool in Tibetan Plateau where standard seismic sources and profiling methods fail to produce adequate data of low crust.

  13. Possible Detection of Doubly-Ionized Carbon in the Spectra of Type Ia SN 2010kg

    CERN Document Server

    Barna, Barnabas; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Marion, G Howie; Wheeler, J Craig

    2015-01-01

    We present synthetic spectra, calculated with SYN++, that fit high S/N spectra of the Type Ia SN 2010kg at eleven epochs between -10 and +5 days with respect to B-maximum. The minimum velocities of the line-forming regions for most of the ions agree well with previous findings. The well-known high-velocity features of the Ca IR triplet and Si {\\lambda}6355 are detected. Some other ions, like Fe II and Mg II, also form features at $\\sim$2000 - 5000 km/s above the photosphere. We identify a single absorption feature at $\\sim$4400 {\\AA} as probably due to C III. This feature usually has been identified in the literature as a Si III line. However, we show that the assumption of Si III results in an inferior fit not only to this feature but also to the whole spectrum range. On the other hand, neither C I nor C II can be identified in the spectra, which may not support the real presence of carbon. If the C III at $\\sim$5000 km/s above the photosphere is verified, it may have interesting implications about the physi...

  14. Results from 730 kg days of the CRESST-II Dark Matter Search

    CERN Document Server

    Angloher, G; Bavykina, I; Bento, A; Bucci, C; Ciemniak, C; Deuter, G; von Feilitzsch, F; Hauff, D; Huff, P; Isaila, C; Jochum, J; Kiefer, M; Kimmerle, M; Lanfranchi, J -C; Petricca, F; Pfister, S; Potzel, W; Pröbst, F; Reindl, F; Roth, S; Rottler, K; Sailer, C; Schäffner, K; Schmaler, J; Scholl, S; Seidel, W; von Sivers, M; Stodolsky, L; Strandhagen, C; Strauß, R; Tanzke, A; Usherov, I; Wawoczny, S; Willers, M; Zöller, A

    2011-01-01

    The CRESST-II cryogenic Dark Matter search, aiming at detection of WIMPs via elastic scattering off nuclei in CaWO$_4$ crystals, completed 730 kg days of data taking in 2011. We present the data collected with eight detector modules, each with a two-channel readout; one for a phonon signal and the other for coincidently produced scintillation light. The former provides a precise measure of the energy deposited by an interaction, and the ratio of scintillation light to deposited energy can be used to discriminate different types of interacting particles and thus to distinguish possible signal events from the dominant backgrounds. Sixty-seven events are found in the acceptance region where a WIMP signal in the form of low energy nuclear recoils would be expected. We estimate background contributions to this observation from four sources: 1) "leakage" from the e/\\gamma-band 2) "leakage" from the \\alpha-particle band 3) neutrons and 4) Pb-206 recoils from Po-210 decay. Using a maximum likelihood analysis, we find...

  15. Níveis de fósforo disponível para suínos machos castrados dos 60 aos 95 kg Available phosphorus levels in diets for barrows at 60 to 95 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Luiz Corrêa Arouca

    2010-12-01

    were assigned to a randomized block experimental design, with five diets (0.097; 0.190; 0.280; 0.370 and 0.460% aP, six replicates and two animals per experimental unit. Experimental diets and water were supplied ad libitum until the end of the experimental period, when animals reached 96.64 ± 3.68 kg. Weight gain and feed conversion improved in a quadratic way until the estimate levels 0.35 and 0.33% aP in the diets, respectively. There was no effect of the diets on daily feed intake. Consumption of available phosphorus linearly increased as levels of this mineral increased in the diet. The diets did not change activity of alkaline phosphatase enzym. However, values of serum inorganic phosphorus at 21 days of age and in the end of the experimental period increased in a quadratic way until the estimate level 0.35 and 0.38% in the diet, respectively. Levels of available phosphorus affected in a quadratic way loin depth, daily fat-free lean deposition rate, and the amount of fat-free lean which improved until the estimated level of 0.35; 0.31 and 0.33% of aP in the diet, respectively. In the phase from 60 to 95 kg, the level of 0.33% of aP in the diet, which corresponds to a 9.38 aP/day intake provided better feed conversion and a greater amount of fat-free lean meat in hybrid commercial barrows genetically selected for meat deposition on the carcass.

  16. Tumor type M2 pyruvate kinase expression in gastric cancer,colorectal cancer and controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhang; Jian-Ying Chen; Dao-Da Chen; Guo-Bin Wang; Ping Shen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Tumor formation is generally linked to an expansion of glycolytic phosphometabolite pools and aerobic glycolytic flux rates. To achieve this, tumor cells generally overexpress a special glycolytic isoenzyme, termed pyruvate kinase type M2. The present study was designed to evaluate the use of a new tumor marker, tumor M2-PK, in discriminating gastrointestinal cancer patients from healthy controls, and to compare with the reference tumor markers CEA and CA72-4.METHODS: The concentration of tumor M2-PK in body fluids could be quantitatively determined by a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-kit (ScheBo(R) Tech, Giessen, Germany). By using this kit, the tumor M2-PK concentration was measured in EDTA-plasma of 108 patients. For the healthy blood donors a cut-off value of 15 U/mL was evaluated, which corresponded to 90% specificity. Overall 108 patients were included in this study, 54 patients had a histological confirmed gastric cancer, 54 patients colorectal cancer, and 20 healthy volunteers served as controls.RESULTS: The cut-off value to discriminate patients from controls was established at 15 U/mL for tumor M2-PK. The mean tumor M2-PK concentration of gastric cancer was 26.937 U/mL. According to the TNM stage system, the mean tumor M2-PK concentration of stage Ⅰ was 16.324 U/mL, of stage Ⅱ 15.290 U/mL, of stage Ⅲ 30.289 U/mL, of stage Ⅳ127.31 U/mL, of non-metastasis 12.854 U/mL and of metastasis 35.711 U/mL. The mean Tumor M2-PK concentration of colorectal cancer was 30.588 U/mL. According to the Dukes stage system, the mean tumor M2-PK concentration of Dukes A was 16.638 U/mL, of Dukes B 22.070 U/mL, and of Dukes C 48.024 U/mL, of non-metastasis 19.501 U/mL, of metastasis 49.437 U/mL. The mean tumor M2-PK concentration allowed a significant discrimination of colorectal cancers (30.588 U/mL) from controls (10.965 U/mL) (P<0.01), and gastric cancer (26.937 U/mL) from controls (10.965 U/mL)(P<0.05). The overall

  17. Technological Transformation Practice of 105 m2 Sintering Machine%105 m2烧结机技术改造实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玮

    2015-01-01

    山钢股份莱芜分公司炼铁厂对3台105 m2烧结机进行了一系列技术改造,包括烧结熔剂破碎工艺优化,配料自动化控制系统改造,混合料温度提升,混合机筒体衬板及安装改造,烧结机漏风治理,单辊篦板保护帽改造等。改造后,烧结机作业率98.02%,烧结矿合格率98.19%,产量355.9万t。%A series of technological transformation for three 105 m2 sintering machines in Laiwu branch iron works has been made. That include to optimize sintering flux crushing process and transform automatic batching control, increase the temperature of mixture, reform of mixing machine barrel lining board and installation, control the air leakage of sinter, transform the single and grate plate protective cap. The sintering machine operating rate reached 98.02%, sinter and the qualified rate can reach 98.19%, sinter yield reached 355.9 million tons.

  18. 羊八井50m2 RPC地毯性能研究%Study on the Performance of YBJ 50m2 RPC Carpet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    利用羊八井50m2 RPC地毯(YBJ-ARGO实验原型)的测试数据对其性能进行了分析研究,包括原初粒子方位角分布、天顶角分布、地毯的角分辨、探测时间系统误差对方位角分布的正弦调制、探测时间系统误差的离线修正、几何不对称的小型地毯探测器上原初粒子到达方向重建误差造成的方位角分布的不均匀性等.%The characteristics of a 50m2 RPC carpet(prototype of YBJ-ARGO experiment)was analyzed using its test run data.A correction method of the systematic time error is suggested,and non-uniform azimuthal angle distribution possibly due to direction reconstruction error on an asymmetric carpet is reported.

  19. Dynamic Changes of Microglia/Macrophage M1 and M2 Polarization in Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Vanessa; Iskandar, Cut Dahlia; Kegler, Kristel; Hansmann, Florian; Elmarabet, Suliman Ahmed; Khan, Muhammad Akram; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner; Beineke, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Microglia and macrophages play a central role for demyelination in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) virus infection, a commonly used infectious model for chronic-progressive multiple sclerosis. In order to determine the dynamic changes of microglia/macrophage polarization in TME, the spinal cord of Swiss Jim Lambert (SJL) mice was investigated by gene expression profiling and immunofluorescence. Virus persistence and demyelinating leukomyelitis were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and histology. Electron microscopy revealed continuous myelin loss together with abortive myelin repair during the late chronic infection phase indicative of incomplete remyelination. A total of 59 genes out of 151 M1- and M2-related genes were differentially expressed in TME virus-infected mice over the study period. The onset of virus-induced demyelination was associated with a dominating M1 polarization, while mounting M2 polarization of macrophages/microglia together with sustained prominent M1-related gene expression was present during the chronic-progressive phase. Molecular results were confirmed by immunofluorescence, showing an increased spinal cord accumulation of CD16/32(+) M1-, arginase-1(+) M2- and Ym1(+) M2-type cells associated with progressive demyelination. The present study provides a comprehensive database of M1-/M2-related gene expression involved in the initiation and progression of demyelination supporting the hypothesis that perpetuating interaction between virus and macrophages/microglia induces a vicious circle with persistent inflammation and impaired myelin repair in TME.

  20. Beam quality M 2 factor matrix for non-circular symmetric laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yongzhao; Fu, Yuqing; Zheng, Chaoying

    2017-02-01

    It is standard to use Mx2 and My2 to characterize the beam quality of a non-circular symmetrical beam on its x-axis and y-axis orientation. However, we knew that the values of Mx2 and My2 are inconsistent if one selects a different coordinate system or measures beam quality with different experimental conditionals, even when analyzing the same beam. To overcome this, a new beam quality characterization method, the M 2 factor matrix, is developed. It not only contains the beam quality terms, Mx2 and My2 , to characterize the beam quality along x-axis and y-axis orientation for the non-symmetric beam, but also introduces two additional cross terms, M xy and M yx , which are used to characterize the location relationship between the principal axis of the test beam and coordinate system in experiment. Moreover, M 2 factor matrix can be measured with a similar procedure to the traditional M 2 factor whose measurement instructions are described in ISO11146 by adding some additional image and signal processing procedure. The measurement principle and method is present and the experiment system for beam quality M 2 factor matrix is built to demonstrate the performance of M 2 factor matrix with real experiments.

  1. Differential Roles of M1 and M2 Microglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu; Le, Weidong

    2016-03-01

    One of the most striking hallmarks shared by various neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Increasing evidence indicates that microglial activation in the central nervous system is heterogeneous, which can be categorized into two opposite types: M1 phenotype and M2 phenotype. Depending on the phenotypes activated, microglia can produce either cytotoxic or neuroprotective effects. In this review, we focus on the potential role of M1 and M2 microglia and the dynamic changes of M1/M2 phenotypes that are critically associated with the neurodegenerative diseases. Generally, M1 microglia predominate at the injury site at the end stage of disease, when the immunoresolution and repair process of M2 microglia are dampened. This phenotype transformation is very complicated in AD due to the phagocytosis of regionally distributed β-amyloid (Aβ) plaque and tangles that are released into the extracellular space. The endogenous stimuli including aggregated α-synuclein, mutated superoxide dismutase, Aβ, and tau oligomers exist in the milieu that may persistently activate M1 pro-inflammatory responses and finally lead to irreversible neuron loss. The changes of microglial phenotypes depend on the disease stages and severity; mastering the stage-specific switching of M1/M2 phenotypes within appropriate time windows may provide better therapeutic benefit.

  2. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of M2 internal tides in the Luzon Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bingtian; CAO Anzhou; LV Xianqing

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional isopycnic-coordinate internal tidal model is employed to investigate the generation, propagation, vertical structure and energy conversion of M2 internal tides in the Luzon Strait (LS) with mooring observations. Simulated results, especially the tidal current amplitudes, agree well with observations, demonstrating the reasonability and accuracy of the model. Results indicate that M2 internal tides mainly propagate into three directions horizontally, i.e., eastward towards the western Pacific Ocean, westward towards the Dongsha Island and southwestward towards the South China Sea Basin. In the horizontal direction, tidal current amplitudes decrease as distance increases away from the LS; in the vertical direction, they show an obvious decreasing tendency with depth. Between the double ridges of the LS, a clockwise gyre of M2 baroclinic energy flux appears, which is caused by reflections of M2 internal tides at supercritical topographies, and resonance of M2 internal tides happens along 19.5° and 21.5°N due to the heights and separation distance of the double ridges. The total energy conversion in the LS is about 14.20 GW.

  3. Estimates of global M2 internal tide energy fluxes using TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yanwei; LIANG Xinfeng; TIAN Jiwei; YANG Lifen

    2009-01-01

    TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data from October 1992 to June 2002 are used to calculate the global barotropic M2 tidal currents using long-term tidal harmonic analysis. The tides calculated agree well with ADCP data obtained from the South China Sea (SCS). The maximum tide velocities along the semi-major axis and semi-minor axis can be computed from the tidal ellipse. The global distribution of M2 internal tide vertical energy flux from the sea bottom is calculated based on a linear internal wave generation model. The global vertical energy flux of M2 internal tide is 0.96 TW, with 0.36 TW in the Pacific, 0.31 TW in the Atlantic and 0.29 TW in the Indian Ocean, obtained in this study. The total horizontal energy flux of M2 internal tide radiating into the open ocean from the lateral boundaries is 0.13 TW, with 0.06 TW in the Pacific, 0.04TW in the Atlantic, and 0.03 TW in the Indian Ocean. The result shows that the principal lunar semi-diurnal tide M2 provides enough energy to maintain the large-scale thermohaline circulation of the ocean.

  4. Dynamic Environmental/Economic Scheduling for Microgrid Using Improved MOEA/D-M2M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The environmental/economic dynamic scheduling for microgrids (MGs is a complex multiobjective optimization problem, which usually has dynamic system parameters and constraints. In this paper, a biobjective optimization model of MG scheduling is established. And various types of microsources (like the conventional sources, various types of renewable sources, etc., electricity markets, and dynamic constraints are considered. A recently proposed MOEA/D-M2M framework is improved (I-MOEA/D-M2M to solve the real-world MG scheduling problems. In order to deal with the constraints, the processes of solutions sorting and selecting in the original MOEA/D-M2M are revised. In addition, a self-adaptive decomposition strategy and a modified allocation method of individuals are introduced to enhance the capability of dealing with uncertainties, as well as reduce unnecessary computational work in practice and meet the time requirements for the dynamic optimization tasks. Thereafter, the proposed I-MOEA/D-M2M is applied to the independent MG scheduling problems, taking into account the load demand variation and the electricity price changes. The simulation results by MATLAB show that the proposed method can achieve better distributed fronts in much less running time than the typical multiobjective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs like the improved strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2 and the nondominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII. Finally, I-MOEA/D-M2M is used to solve a 24-hour MG dynamic operation scheduling problem and obtains satisfactory results.

  5. Structural environment built by AKAP12+ colon mesenchymal cells drives M2 macrophages during inflammation recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Mo; Lee, Hye Shin; Seo, Ji Hae; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Gelman, Irwin H.; Lo, Eng H.; Kim, Kyu-Won

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages exhibit phenotypic plasticity, as they have the ability to switch their functional phenotypes during inflammation and recovery. Simultaneously, the mechanical environment actively changes. However, how these dynamic alterations affect the macrophage phenotype is unknown. Here, we observed that the extracellular matrix (ECM) constructed by AKAP12+ colon mesenchymal cells (CMCs) generated M2 macrophages by regulating their shape during recovery. Notably, rounded macrophages were present in the linear and loose ECM of inflamed colons and polarized to the M1 phenotype. In contrast, ramified macrophages emerged in the contracted ECM of recovering colons and mainly expressed M2 macrophage markers. These contracted structures were not observed in the inflamed colons of AKAP12 knockout (KO) mice. Consequently, the proportion of M2 macrophages in inflamed colons was lower in AKAP12 KO mice than in WT mice. In addition, clinical symptoms and histological damage were more severe in AKAP12 KO mice than in WT mice. In experimentally remodeled collagen gels, WT CMCs drove the formation of a more compacted structure than AKAP12 KO CMCs, which promoted the polarization of macrophages toward an M2 phenotype. These results demonstrated that tissue contraction during recovery provides macrophages with the physical cues that drive M2 polarization. PMID:28205544

  6. Modelling packing interactions in parallel helix bundles: pentameric bundles of nicotinic receptor M2 helices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararamakrishnan, R; Sansom, M S

    1995-11-01

    The transbilayer pore of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is formed by a pentameric bundle of M2 helices. Models of pentameric bundles of M2 helices have been generated using simulated annealing via restrained molecular dynamics. The influence of: (a) the initial C alpha template; and (b) screening of sidechain electrostatic interactions on the geometry of the resultant M2 helix bundles is explored. Parallel M2 helices, in the absence of sidechain electrostatic interactions, pack in accordance with simple ridges-in-grooves considerations. This results in a helix crossing angle of ca. +12 degrees, corresponding to a left-handed coiled coil structure for the bundle as a whole. Tilting of M2 helices away from the central pore axis at their C-termini and/or inclusion of sidechain electrostatic interactions may perturb such ridges-in-grooves packing. In the most extreme cases right-handed coiled coils are formed. An interplay between inter-helix H-bonding and helix bundle geometry is revealed. The effects of changes in electrostatic screening on the dimensions of the pore mouth are described and the significance of these changes in the context of models for the nAChR pore domain is discussed.

  7. The challenges of M2M massive access in wireless cellular networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Biral

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The next generation of communication systems, which is commonly referred to as 5G, is expected to support, besides the traditional voice and data services, new communication paradigms, such as Internet of Things (IoT and Machine-to-Machine (M2M services, which involve communication between Machine-Type Devices (MTDs in a fully automated fashion, thus, without or with minimal human intervention. Although the general requirements of 5G systems are progressively taking shape, the technological issues raised by such a vision are still partially unclear. Nonetheless, general consensus has been reached upon some specific challenges, such as the need for 5G wireless access networks to support massive access by MTDs, as a consequence of the proliferation of M2M services. In this paper, we describe the main challenges raised by the M2M vision, focusing in particular on the problems related to the support of massive MTD access in current cellular communication systems. Then we analyze the most common approaches proposed in the literature to enable the coexistence of conventional and M2M services in the current and next generation of cellular wireless systems. We finally conclude by pointing out the research challenges that require further investigation in order to provide full support to the M2M paradigm.

  8. Prophylactic and therapeutic activity of fully human monoclonal antibodies directed against Influenza A M2 protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwerder Myriam

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Influenza virus infection is a prevalent disease in humans. Antibodies against hemagglutinin have been shown to prevent infection and hence hemagglutinin is the major constituent of current vaccines. Antibodies directed against the highly conserved extracellular domain of M2 have also been shown to mediate protection against Influenza A infection in various animal models. Active vaccination is generally considered the best approach to combat viral diseases. However, passive immunization is an attractive alternative, particularly in acutely exposed or immune compromized individuals, young children and the elderly. We recently described a novel method for the rapid isolation of natural human antibodies by mammalian cell display. Here we used this approach to isolate human monoclonal antibodies directed against the highly conserved extracellular domain of the Influenza A M2 protein. The identified antibodies bound M2 peptide with high affinities, recognized native cell-surface expressed M2 and protected mice from a lethal influenza virus challenge. Moreover, therapeutic treatment up to 2 days after infection was effective, suggesting that M2-specific monoclonals have a great potential as immunotherapeutic agents against Influenza infection.

  9. Evidence That Ly6C(hi) Monocytes are Protective in Acute Ischemic Stroke by Promoting M2 Macrophage Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hannah X; Broughton, Brad R S; Kim, Hyun Ah; Lee, Seyoung; Drummond, Grant R; Sobey, Christopher G

    2015-07-01

    Ly6C(hi) monocytes are generally thought to exert a proinflammatory role in acute tissue injury, although their impact after injuries to the central nervous system is poorly defined. CC chemokine receptor 2 is expressed on Ly6C(hi) monocytes and plays an essential role in their extravasation and transmigration into the brain after cerebral ischemia. We used a selective CC chemokine receptor 2 antagonist, INCB3344, to assess the effect of Ly6C(hi) monocytes recruited into the brain early after ischemic stroke. Male C57Bl/6J mice underwent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 1 hour followed by 23 hours of reperfusion. Mice were administered either vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide/carboxymethylcellulose) or INCB3344 (10, 30 or 100 mg/kg IP) 1 hour before ischemia and at 2 and 6 hours after ischemia. At 24 hours, we assessed functional outcomes, infarct volume, and quantified the immune cells in blood and brain by flow cytometry or immunofluorescence. Gene expression of selected inflammatory markers was assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Ly6C(hi) monocytes were increased 3-fold in the blood and 10-fold in the brain after stroke, and these increases were selectively prevented by INCB3344 in a dose-dependent manner. Mice treated with INCB3344 exhibited markedly worse functional outcomes and larger infarct volumes, in association with reduced M2 polarization and increased peroxynitrite production in macrophages, compared with vehicle-treated mice. Our data suggest that Ly6C(hi) monocytes exert an acute protective effect after ischemic stroke to limit brain injury and functional deficit that involves promotion of M2 macrophage polarization. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. 白藜芦醇增强TRAIL对人髓系白血病KG-1a细胞的细胞毒作用%Resveratrol enhances cytotoxicity of TRAIL to human promyloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亮杉; 孙茂本; 曾雅丽; 李玉华; 邓兰; 郭坤元

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察白藜芦醇作用前后TRAIL对人髓系白血病KG-1a细胞的细胞毒作用的变化.方法:流式细胞仪检测KG-1a细胞表面CD34 和CD38的表达,二甲氧唑黄(XTT)细胞增殖及细胞毒性检测试剂盒检测白藜芦醇作用前后TRAIL对KG-1a细胞增殖的影响,AnnexinV-FITC/PI染色流式细胞仪检测细胞凋亡变化.流式细胞仪检测白藜芦醇作用前后KG-1a细胞表面TRAIL死亡受体表达变化.结果:人髓系白血病KG-1a细胞 CD34+CD38-占(58.67±2.87)%,10~1 000 ng/ml 的TRAIL对KG-1a细胞增殖无明显影响,但对白藜芦醇作用后的KG-1a细胞的增殖有明显抑制作用,白藜芦醇能促进TRAIL诱导KG-1a细胞凋亡,并能上调KG-1a细胞表面TRAIL死亡受体DR5的表达.结论:白藜芦醇能增强TRAIL对人髓系白血病KG-1a细胞的细胞毒作用,其机制可能与白藜芦醇上调KG-1a细胞表面TRAIL死亡受体DR5的表达有关.%Objective :To explore the cytotoxicity of TRAIL to human acute promyeloblastic leukemia KG-1a cells treated with resvera trol .Methods :The expression of CD34 and CD38 on the Surface of KG-1 cells was detected by flow cytometry ;The effects of various concentration TRAIL on proliferation of KG-1a cells treated with or without resveratrol were analyzed by XTT cell proliferation and cytotoxicity assay kit ;The changes of apoptosis in KG-1a cells treated with or without resveratrol induced by TRAIL were detected by flow cytometry through the staining of AnnexinV-FITC /PI ;The effects of resveratrol on the expression of DR4/5 on the surface of KG-1a cells were detected by flow cytometry .Results :The CD34+ CD38- percent age of KG-1a cells was (58 .67±2 .87 )% ;10-1 000 ng/ml of TRAIL had no effects on the proliferation of KG-1a cells ,while could inhibit the proliferation of KG-1a cells treated with resveratrol ;Moreover ,resveratrol could enhance the apoptosis of KG-1a cells induced by TRAIL and up-regulate the expression of TIRAIL death receptors DR5

  11. M2-KK6 System in ABJM Theory : Fuzzy $S^3$ and Wrapped KK6

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Wung-Hong

    2011-01-01

    We study the properties of M2-KK6 solution in ABJM membrane theory. First, we find a new kind of BPS solution which has six coordinates, contrasts to our previous solutions which have four coordinates. Next, we argue that, after wrapping 2 sphere the new solution may correspond to the previous solution of four coordinates. We analyze the properties therein and conclude that M2-branes described in ABJM theory could expand into fuzzy three sphere plus a wrapped 2 sphere near the KK6 core. Especially, we show in detail how the fuzzy 3-sphere could arise in these solutions and discuss the property of wrapped KK6 and its relation to M5-brane. We also analyze the fluctuation of the M2-KK6 solution and see that it is U(1) field theory.

  12. Holographic cosmology from a system of M2–M5 branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza, E-mail: alireza.sepehri@uk.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Setare, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: rezakord@ipm.ir [Department of Science, Campus of Bijar, University of Kurdistan, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: afali@fsu.edu [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt)

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, we analyze the holographic cosmology using a M2–M5 brane configuration. In this configuration, a M2-brane will be placed in between a M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane. The M2-brane will act as a channel for energy to flow from an anti-M5-brane to a M5-brane, and this will increase the degrees of freedom on the M5-brane causing inflation. The inflation will end when the M5-brane and anti-M5-brane get separated. However, at a later stage the distance between the M5-brane and the anti-M5-bran can reduce and this will cause the formation of tachyonic states. These tachyonic states will again open a bridge between the M5-branes and the anti-M5-branes, which will cause further acceleration of the universe.

  13. A Novel Voltage Sensor in the Orthosteric Binding Site of the M2 Muscarinic Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchad-Avitzur, Ofra; Priest, Michael F; Dekel, Noa; Bezanilla, Francisco; Parnas, Hanna; Ben-Chaim, Yair

    2016-10-04

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) mediate many signal transduction processes in the body. The discovery that these receptors are voltage-sensitive has changed our understanding of their behavior. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2R) was found to exhibit depolarization-induced charge movement-associated currents, implying that this prototypical GPCR possesses a voltage sensor. However, the typical domain that serves as a voltage sensor in voltage-gated channels is not present in GPCRs, making the search for the voltage sensor in the latter challenging. Here, we examine the M2R and describe a voltage sensor that is comprised of tyrosine residues. This voltage sensor is crucial for the voltage dependence of agonist binding to the receptor. The tyrosine-based voltage sensor discovered here constitutes a noncanonical by which membrane proteins may sense voltage.

  14. Aggregation and Trunking of M2M Traffic via D2D Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigazzi, Giovanni; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Popovski, Petar

    2015-01-01

    , there is a need for new techniques to coordinate the access and allocate the resources. Although the majority of the proposed solutions are focused on the adaptation of the traditional cellular networks to the M2M traffic patterns, novel approaches based on the direct communication among nearby devices may......Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications is one of the key enablers of the Internet of Things (IoT). Billions of devices are expected to be deployed in the near future for novel M2M applications demanding ubiquitous access and global connectivity. In order to cope with the massive number of machines...... generated packets is performed by a user device, which aggregates the machine-type data, supplements it with its own data and transmits all of them to the Base Station. We observe a fundamental trade-off between latency and the transmit power needed to deliver the aggregate traffic, in a sense that lower...

  15. Holographic cosmology from a system of M2-M5 branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Faizal, Mir; Setare, Mohammad Reza; Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the holographic cosmology using a M2-M5 brane configuration. In this configuration, a M2-brane will be placed in between a M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane. The M2-brane will act as a channel for energy to flow from an anti-M5-brane to a M5-brane, and this will increase the degrees of freedom on the M5-brane causing inflation. The inflation will end when the M5-brane and anti-M5-brane get separated. However, at a later stage the distance between the M5-brane and the anti-M5-bran can reduce and this will cause the formation of tachyonic states. These tachyonic states will again open a bridge between the M5-branes and the anti-M5-branes, which will cause further acceleration of the universe.

  16. Structure of the atypical bacteriocin pectocin M2 implies a novel mechanism of protein uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinter, Rhys; Josts, Inokentijs; Zeth, Kornelius; Roszak, Aleksander W; McCaughey, Laura C; Cogdell, Richard J; Milner, Joel J; Kelly, Sharon M; Byron, Olwyn; Walker, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    The colicin-like bacteriocins are potent protein antibiotics that have evolved to efficiently cross the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria by parasitizing nutrient uptake systems. We have structurally characterized the colicin M-like bacteriocin, pectocin M2, which is active against strains of Pectobacterium spp. This unusual bacteriocin lacks the intrinsically unstructured translocation domain that usually mediates translocation of these bacteriocins across the outer membrane, containing only a single globular ferredoxin domain connected to its cytotoxic domain by a flexible α-helix, which allows it to adopt two distinct conformations in solution. The ferredoxin domain of pectocin M2 is homologous to plant ferredoxins and allows pectocin M2 to parasitize a system utilized by Pectobacterium to obtain iron during infection of plants. Furthermore, we identify a novel ferredoxin-containing bacteriocin pectocin P, which possesses a cytotoxic domain homologous to lysozyme, illustrating that the ferredoxin domain acts as a generic delivery module for cytotoxic domains in Pectobacterium.

  17. Water-mediated conformational transitions in nicotinic receptor M2 helix bundles: a molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararamakrishnan, R; Sansom, M S

    1995-12-27

    The ion channel of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is a water-filled pore formed by five M2 helix segments, one from each subunit. Molecular dynamics simulations on bundles of five M2 alpha 7 helices surrounding a central column of water and with caps of water molecules at either end of the pore have been used to explore the effects of intrapore water on helix packing. Interactions of water molecules with the N-terminal polar sidechains lead to a conformational transition from right- to left-handed supercoils during these stimulations. These studies reveal that the pore formed by the bundle of M2 helices is flexible. A structural role is proposed for water molecules in determining the geometry of bundles of isolated pore-forming helices.

  18. Quantification and localization of M2 macrophages in human kidneys with acute tubular injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer MB

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Matthew B Palmer,1 Alfred A Vichot,2 Lloyd G Cantley,2 Gilbert W Moeckel1 1Department of Pathology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Abstract: This study addresses for the first time the question whether there is significant macrophage population in human kidney sections from patients with acute tubular injury (ATI. We examined therefore the interstitial macrophage population in human kidney tissue with biopsy-proven diagnosis of ATI, minimal change disease (MCD, and MCD with ATI. Kidney biopsies from patients with the above diagnoses were stained with antibodies directed against CD68 (general macrophage marker, CD163 (M2 marker, and HLA-DR (M1 marker and their respective electron microscopy samples were evaluated for the presence of interstitial macrophages. Our study shows that patients with ATI have significantly increased numbers of interstitial CD68+ macrophages, with an increase in both HLA-DR+ M1 macrophages and CD163+ M2 macrophages as compared to patients with MCD alone. Approximately 75% of macrophages were M2 (CD163+ whereas only 25% were M1 (HLA-DR+. M2 macrophages, which are believed to be critical for wound healing, were found to localize close to the tubular basement membrane of injured proximal tubule cells. Ultra structural examination showed close adherence of macrophages to the basement membrane of injured tubular epithelial cells. We conclude that macrophages accumulate around injured tubules following ATI and exhibit predominantly an M2 phenotype. We further speculate that macrophage-mediated repair may involve physical contact between the M2 macrophage and the injured tubular epithelial cell. Keywords: macrophages, acute kidney injury, CD163, HLA-DR, CD68, electron microscopy

  19. Solvothermal synthesis and characterization of a novel selenidoantimonate: [M1(C4H13N3)2]n [M2Sb2Se5]n(M1- Mn、 Co, M2 = Zn、 Cd)%溶剂热法合成新型锑硒化合物[M1(C4H13N3)2]n[M2Sb2Se5]n(M1=Mn、Co,M2=Zn、Cd)及结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜浩; 王欣; 盛天录; 胡胜民; 傅瑞标; 温跃红; 沈超君; 袁宁; 吴新涛

    2011-01-01

    以二乙烯三胺为模板剂,通过溶剂热法制备了一种新型有机无机杂化锑硒化合物:[M1(C4H13N3)2]n[M2Sb2Se5]n(M1=Mn、Co,M2=Zn、Cd).相比传统的有机无机杂化锑硒化合物,过渡金属Zn和Cd参与了这种化合物主框架的构建,使化合物的主框架由传统的SbSex单元转变为Zn(Cd)SbSe5的配位单元.据我们所知,这是第一次合成出Zn和Cd参与SbSex骨架配位的有机无机杂化锑硒化合物.同时,由于结构中CdSe4和ZnSe4单元的存在,使得该化合物表现出荧光性质.这种化合物的出现,使得我们有可能通过相同的途径合成出一系列具有该类型结构特征,在发光领域有潜在应用前景的新型锑硒化合物.%A novel inorganic-organic hybrid selenidoantimonate material, [M1(C4Hi3N3)2]n[M2Sb2Se5]n (M1= Mn,Co M2= Zn, Cd), was synthesized by solvothermal reaction. Dien(diethylenetriamine) was used as a templatedirected reagent. Until now, this compound, to the best of our knowledge, is the first selenidoantimonate, in which zinc and cadmium incorporated into the SbSe3 framework, leading to the formation of ZnSbSe5 and CdSbSe5.Furthermore, because of the ZnSe4 and CdSe4 units in the framework, all the compounds exhibit emission of fluorescence. By the same way, it is possible to synthesize series of compounds with similar novel structure and potential application value in luminescence area.

  20. Interaction of Tacrine at M1 and M2 Cholinoceptors in Guinea Pig Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    using the selective M, and M2 antagonists [3H]- pirenzepine ([3H]PZ) and [3H]AF-DX 384. The dissocia- tion constants were 0.36 nmol/I for the M...nmol/I) at 25*C with 200 ml homogenate made nist [3H]- pirenzepine ([3HJPZ) [4, 5] and the up to 2 ml with buffer. The incubation period was 2 h...tion constant; nH = Hill coefficient; n = number of experiments. pirenzepine indicate that its affinity for the T"M. 2. Dissociation constants for [3H

  1. CEMS-investigations of AISI M2 steel after nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uglov, V.V. E-mail: info@research.bsu.unibel.by; Kholmetskii, A.L.; Kuleshov, A.K.; Fedotova, J.A.; Rusalsky, D.P.; Khodasevich, V.V.; Ruebenbauer, K.; Richter, E.; Guenzel, R.; Parascandola, S

    1999-01-02

    Plasma-immersion ion implantation (PIII) and high-current ion implantation (HCII) of nitrogen into M2 steel were carried out. The formation of a multilayer system consisting of a surface layer of austenite on top of {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N nitride precipitates was manifested in M2 steel after PIII. HCII forms a thick (more than 14 {mu}m) layer with {epsilon}-Fe{sub 3}N precipitates. Apparently, the formation of the austenite layer after PIII is connected with a local tempering of the steel surface by the pulsed nitrogen ion beam.

  2. Spontaneous thermal motion of the GABA(A) receptor M2 channel-lining segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Amal K; Akabas, Myles H

    2005-10-21

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor channel opening involves translational and rotational motions of the five channel-lining, M2 transmembrane segments. The M2 segment's extracellular half is loosely packed and undergoes significant thermal motion. To characterize the extent of the M2 segment's motion, we used disulfide trapping experiments between pairs of engineered cysteines. In alpha1beta1 gamma2S receptors the single gamma subunit is flanked by an alpha and beta subunit. The gamma2 M2-14' position is located in the alpha-gamma subunit interface. Gamma2 13' faces the channel lumen. We expressed either the gamma2 14' or the gamma2 13' cysteine substitution mutants with alpha1 cysteine substitution mutants between 12' and 16' and wild-type beta1. Disulfide bonds formed spontaneously between gamma2 14'C and both alpha1 15'C and alpha1 16'C and also between gamma2 13'C and alpha1 13'C. Oxidation by copper phenanthroline induced disulfide bond formation between gamma2 14'C and alpha1 13'C. Disulfide bond formation rates with gamma2 14'C were similar in the presence and absence of GABA, although the rate with alpha1 13'C was slower than with the other two positions. In a homology model based on the acetylcholine receptor structure, alphaM2 would need to rotate in opposite directions by approximately 80 degrees to bring alpha1 13' and alpha1 15' into close proximity with gamma2 14'. Alternatively, translational motion of alphaM2 would reduce the extent of rotational motion necessary to bring these two alpha subunit residues into close proximity with the gamma2 14' position. These experiments demonstrate that in the closed state the M2 segments undergo continuous spontaneous motion in the region near the extracellular end of the channel gate. Opening the gate may involve similar but concerted motions of the M2 segments.

  3. Spontaneous mobility of GABAA receptor M2 extracellular half relative to noncompetitive antagonist action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ligong; Durkin, Kathleen A; Casida, John E

    2006-12-15

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor beta(3) homopentamer is spontaneously open and highly sensitive to many noncompetitive antagonists(NCAs) and Zn(2+). Our earlier study of the M2 cytoplasmic half (-1' to 10') established a model in which NCAs bind at pore-lining residues Ala(2)', Thr(6)', and Leu(9)'. To further define transmembrane 2 (M2) structure relative to NCA action, we extended the Cys scanning to the extra cellular half of the beta(3) homopentamer (11' to 20'). Spontaneous disulfides formed with T13'C, L18'C, and E20'C from M2/M2 cross-linking and with I14'C (weak), H17'C, and R19'Con bridging M2/M3 intersubunits, based on single (M2 Cys only) and dual (M2 Cys plus M3 C289S) mutations. Induced disulfides also formed with T16'C, but there were few or none with M11'C, T12'C, and N15'C. These findings show conformational flexibility/mobility in the M2 extracellular half 17' to 20' region interpreted as a deformed beta-like conformation in the open channel. The NCA radioligands used were [(3)H]1-(4-ethynylphenyl)-4-n-propyl-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane ([(3)H]EBOB) and [(3)H]3,3-bis-trifluoromethylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptane-2,2-dicarbonitrile with essentially the same results. NCA binding was disrupted by individual Cys substitutions at 13',14',16',17', and 19'. The inactivity of T13'C/T13'S may have been due to disturbance of the channel gate; I14'S and T16'S showed much better binding activity than their Cys counterparts, and the low activities of H17'C and R19'C were reversed by dithiothreitol. Zn(2+) potency for inhibition of [(3)H]EBOB binding was lowered 346-fold by the mutation H17'A. We propose that NCAs enter their binding site both directly, through the channel pore, and indirectly, through the water cavity of adjacent subunits.

  4. 广雅SUNDAY三期7500元/m2起发售

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷

    2008-01-01

    本报讯 6月22日,SUNDAY三期发售,此前已有近300名买家进行购买登记,而发展商把300多套货量一并推出,以最低价格7000元/m2,最高也不超过1万元/m2的诱人价格,且发售当天买家可享受95折优惠。

  5. Carbon Sequestration in Tidal Salt Marshes of the Northeast United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Katherine; Halifax, Holly; Adamowicz, Susan C; Craft, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    Tidal salt marshes provide important ecological services, habitat, disturbance regulation, water quality improvement, and biodiversity, as well as accumulation and sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in vegetation and soil organic matter. Different management practices may alter their capacity to provide these ecosystem services. We examined soil properties (bulk density, percent organic C, percent N), C and N pools, C sequestration and N accumulation at four marshes managed with open marsh water management (OMWM) and four marshes that were not at U.S. Fish and Wildlife National Wildlife Refuges (NWRs) on the East Coast of the United States. Soil properties (bulk density, percent organic C, percent N) exhibited no consistent differences among managed and non-OMWM marshes. Soil organic carbon pools (0-60-cm depth) also did not differ. Managed marshes contained 15.9 kg C/m(2) compared to 16.2 kg C/m(2) in non-OMWM marshes. Proportionately, more C (per unit volume) was stored in surface than in subsurface soils. The rate of C sequestration, based on (137)Cs and (210)Pb dating of soil cores, ranged from 41 to 152 g/m(2)/year. Because of the low emissions of CH4 from salt marshes relative to freshwater wetlands and the ability to sequester C in soil, protection and restoration of salt marshes can be a vital tool for delivering key ecosystem services, while at the same time, reducing the C footprint associated with managing these wetlands.

  6. Estimating spatial distribution of soil organic carbon for the Midwestern United States using historical database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep

    2015-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the most important parameter influencing soil health, global climate change, crop productivity, and various ecosystem services. Therefore, estimating SOC at larger scales is important. The present study was conducted to estimate the SOC pool at regional scale using the historical database gathered by the National Soil Survey Staff. Specific objectives of the study were to upscale the SOC density (kg C m(-2)) and total SOC pool (PgC) across the Midwestern United States using the geographically weighted regression kriging (GWRK), and compare the results with those obtained from the geographically weighted regression (GWR) using the data for 3485 georeferenced profiles. Results from this study support the conclusion that the GWRK produced satisfactory predictions with lower root mean square error (5.60 kg m(-2)), mean estimation error (0.01 kg m(-2)) and mean absolute estimation error (4.30 kg m(-2)), and higher R(2) (0.58) and goodness-of-prediction statistic (G=0.59) values. The superiority of this approach is evident through a substantial increase in R(2) (0.45) compared to that for the global regression (R(2)=0.28). Croplands of the region store 16.8 Pg SOC followed by shrubs (5.85 Pg) and forests (4.45 Pg). Total SOC pool for the Midwestern region ranges from 31.5 to 31.6 Pg. This study illustrates that the GWRK approach explicitly addresses the spatial dependency and spatial non-stationarity issues for interpolating SOC density across the regional scale.

  7. M2M monitoring terminal based on Cortex-M3%基于Cortex-M3的M2M监控终端

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鑫; 丁志刚; 郑树泉

    2011-01-01

    在对物联网在工业监控领域的应用研究后,针对目前工业监控终端体积大、容量小、功能简单等问题,设计并实现了一种微型化、大容量、强实时、多参数的M2M监控终端.该终端设计了基本的监控模块,且针对不同的应用环境预设了可配和选择模块,使适用范围更广.实现了网络动态配置接口,提高了终端的通用性.并借鉴传统数据采集模式,设计一种数据采集和数据传输优化方案,并对优化算法进行探讨,经应用结果分析,对系统开销、数据传输等指标有显著的改进.%After research of the application of Internet of Things (IOT) in industrial control field, according to the monitoring terminal problems that large volume, low-capacity and simple function, a miniaturized, high-capacity, strong realtime, multi-parameter M2M monitoring terminal was designed and implemented. The terminal designed a basic control module, and the default for different applications and options that could be equipped with modules and applied more broadly. It achieved dynamic configuration of network interfaces and improved the versatility of the terminal. Learning from the traditional mode of data acquisition, the paper devised a prioritization scheme of data acquisition and data transmission, and discussed optimization algorithm. The results of applications show that it is a noticeable improvement in the index of system overhead and data transmission.

  8. M2-F1 in flight over lakebed on tow line

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    Following the first M2-F1 airtow flight on 16 August 1963, the Flight Research Center used the vehicle for both research flights and to check out new lifting-body pilots. These included Bruce Peterson, Don Mallick, Fred Haise, and Bill Dana from NASA. Air Force pilots who flew the M2-F1 included Chuck Yeager, Jerry Gentry, Joe Engle, Jim Wood, and Don Sorlie, although Wood, Haise, and Engle only flew on car tows. In the three years between the first and last flights of the M2-F1, it made about 400 car tows and 77 air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and

  9. Acaricidal effects of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) and a combination of fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg), administered at different routes, against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus parasitizing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Lucas Vinicius Costa; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio; Felippelli, Gustavo; Maciel, Willian G; Bichuette, Murilo Abud; Ruivo, Maycon A; Alcantara Colli, Marcos Henrique; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Martinez, Antonio Campanha; Soares, Vando Edésio; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2015-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the acaricidal efficacy of fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg), administered as a pour-on, in comparison to an injectable formulation containing fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg), against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in naturally and experimentally infested cattle. Two studies were conducted with different tick strains, one with artificial infestations (Stall Test, using leight animals per group) and one with natural infestations (utilizing ten animals per group). In both studies, the animals were randomized, according to average tick counts performed on days -3, -2 and -1, into four groups: T01, negative control (saline solution); T02, pour-on fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg); T03: subcutaneous fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg); and T04 subcutaneous ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg). Based on obtained results, and considering the utilized tick strains, it was possible to conclude that the pour-on fluazuron (2.5 mg/kg) formulation demonstrated high acaricidal efficacy, with protection periods ranging from 49 to 77 days against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. On the other hand, for the injectable fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg) formulation, it was not possible to observe elevated anti-R. (B.) microplus effect on both artificial and experimental infestation studies. Results observed for this combination were similar or inferior to those obtained by subcutaneous ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg). Future studies with this formulation containing fluazuron (1.6 mg/kg) + ivermectin (0.63 mg/kg), regarding pharmacokinetic and/or bioavailability profiles, or even studies analyzing both this active principles separately, are needed, seeking to better understand the effects of such combination against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus parasitizing cattle.

  10. Body Composition and Mortality after Adult Lung Transplantation in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jonathan P.; Peterson, Eric R.; Snyder, Mark E.; Katz, Patricia P.; Golden, Jeffrey A.; D’Ovidio, Frank; Bacchetta, Matthew; Sonett, Joshua R.; Kukreja, Jasleen; Shah, Lori; Robbins, Hilary; Van Horn, Kristin; Shah, Rupal J.; Diamond, Joshua M.; Wickersham, Nancy; Sun, Li; Hays, Steven; Arcasoy, Selim M.; Palmer, Scott M.; Ware, Lorraine B.; Christie, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Obesity and underweight are contraindications to lung transplantation based on their associations with mortality in studies performed before implementation of the lung allocation score (LAS)–based organ allocation system in the United States Objectives: To determine the associations of body mass index (BMI) and plasma leptin levels with survival after lung transplantation. Methods: We used multivariable-adjusted regression models to examine associations between BMI and 1-year mortality in 9,073 adults who underwent lung transplantation in the United States between May 2005 and June 2011, and plasma leptin and mortality in 599 Lung Transplant Outcomes Group study participants. We measured body fat and skeletal muscle mass using whole-body dual X-ray absorptiometry in 142 adult lung transplant candidates. Measurements and Main Results: Adjusted mortality rates were similar among normal weight (BMI 18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9), and class I obese (BMI 30–34.9) transplant recipients. Underweight (BMI < 18.5) was associated with a 35% increased rate of death (95% confidence interval, 10–66%). Class II–III obesity (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2) was associated with a nearly twofold increase in mortality (hazard ratio, 1.9; 95% confidence interval, 1.3–2.8). Higher leptin levels were associated with increased mortality after transplant surgery performed without cardiopulmonary bypass (P for interaction = 0.03). A BMI greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2 was 26% sensitive and 97% specific for total body fat–defined obesity. Conclusions: A BMI of 30.0–34.9 kg/m2 is not associated with 1-year mortality after lung transplantation in the LAS era, perhaps because of its low sensitivity for obesity. The association between leptin and mortality suggests the need to validate alternative methods to measure obesity in candidates for lung transplantation. A BMI greater than or equal to 30 kg/m2 may no longer contraindicate lung transplantation. PMID

  11. Recent Development of QCD Factorization for B-> M1 M2

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Deshan

    2010-01-01

    After briefly introducing the framework of QCD factorization for B-> M1 M2 in the language of the Soft-Collinear Effective Theory, we firstly address the recent efforts on higher-order radiative corrections in QCD factorization. Then we discuss some phenomenologies in B-> V V within the framework of QCD factorization.

  12. Kinetics of proton transport into influenza virions by the viral M2 channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Ivanovic

    Full Text Available M2 protein of influenza A viruses is a tetrameric transmembrane proton channel, which has essential functions both early and late in the virus infectious cycle. Previous studies of proton transport by M2 have been limited to measurements outside the context of the virus particle. We have developed an in vitro fluorescence-based assay to monitor internal acidification of individual virions triggered to undergo membrane fusion. We show that rimantadine, an inhibitor of M2 proton conductance, blocks the acidification-dependent dissipation of fluorescence from a pH-sensitive virus-content probe. Fusion-pore formation usually follows internal acidification but does not require it. The rate of internal virion acidification increases with external proton concentration and saturates with a pK(m of ∼4.7. The rate of proton transport through a single, fully protonated M2 channel is approximately 100 to 400 protons per second. The saturating proton-concentration dependence and the low rate of internal virion acidification derived from authentic virions support a transporter model for the mechanism of proton transfer.

  13. Tramadol differentially regulates M1 and M2 macrophages from human umbilical cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Chen, Liang; Sun, Yunyun; Li, Yuanhai

    2017-03-17

    Tramadol is an analgesic drug and relieves pain through activating μ-opioid receptors and inhibiting serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake. Emerging evidence shows that it also stimulates immune cells, including NK cells, splenocytes, and lymphocytes, and elevates IL-2 production. However, it remains unknown whether and how tramadol directly affects macrophages. To answer these questions, we collected human umbilical cord blood, isolated macrophages, and examined their responses to tramadol. Although tramadol did not alter resting macrophages and the antigen-presenting function in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages, it regulated M1 and M2 macrophages, which are, respectively, transformed by IFN-γ and IL-4. Interestingly, tramadol inhibits production and secretion of cytokines in M1 macrophages, but facilitates the production of inflammation-responding molecules, synthesized in M2 macrophages. We also found that STAT6 cascade pathway in M2 macrophages was significantly enhanced by tramadol. Therefore, this study reveals that tramadol regulates inflammation by inhibiting M1 macrophages (killing process), but promoting the function of M2 macrophages (healing process).

  14. Embryonic stem cell-derived M2-like macrophages delay cutaneous wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreymueller, Daniela; Denecke, Bernd; Ludwig, Andreas; Jahnen-Dechent, Willi

    2013-01-01

    In adults, repair of deeply injured skin wounds results in the formation of scar tissue, whereas in embryos wounds heal almost scar-free. Macrophages are important mediators of wound healing and secrete cytokines and tissue remodeling enzymes. In contrast to host defense mediated by inflammatory M1 macrophages, wound healing and tissue repair involve regulatory M2/M2-like macrophages. Embryonic/fetal macrophages are M2-like, and this may promote scar-free wound healing. In the present study, we asked whether atopical application of ex vivo generated, embryonic stem cell-derived macrophages (ESDM) improve wound healing in mice. ESDM were tested side by side with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM). Compared to BMDM, ESDM resembled a less inflammatory and more M2-like macrophage subtype as indicated by their reduced responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide, reduced expression of Toll-like receptors, and reduced bacterial phagocytosis. Despite this anti-inflammatory phenotype in cell culture, ESDM prolonged the healing of deep skin wounds even more than BMDM. Healed wounds had more scar formation compared to wounds receiving BMDM or cell-free treatment. Our data indicate that atopical application of ex vivo generated macrophages is not a suitable cell therapy of dermal wounds.

  15. NO EVIDENCE FOR A ROLE OF MUSCARINIC M(2) RECEPTORS IN FUNCTIONAL ANTAGONISM IN BOVINE TRACHEA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROFFEL, AF; MEURS, H; ELZINGA, CRS; ZAAGSMA, J

    1 The functional antagonism between methacholine- or histamine-induced contraction and beta-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation was evaluated in bovine tracheal smooth muscle in vitro. In addition, the putative contribution of muscarinic M(2) receptors mediating inhibition of beta-adrenoceptor-induced

  16. Solidification microstructure of M2 high speed steel by different casting technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xuefeng

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigated the solidification microstructure of AISI M2 high speed steel manufactured by different casting technologies, namely iron mould casting and continuous casting. The results revealed that the as-cast structure of the steel was composed of the iron matrix and the M2C eutectic carbide networks, which were greatly refined in the ingot made by continuous casting process, compared with that by the iron mould casting process. M2C eutectic carbides presented variation in their morphologies and growth characteristics in the ingots by both casting methods. In the ingot by iron mould casting, they have a plate-like morphology and grow anisotropically. However, in the ingot made by continuous casting, the carbides evolved into the fiber-like shape that exhibited little characteristics of anisotropic growth. It was noticed that the fiber-like M2C was much easier to decompose and spheroidize after heated, as a result, the carbides refined remarkably, compared with the case of plate-like carbides in the iron mould casting ingot.

  17. Modifications to 25m2 target-aligned research Heliostat mirror panels

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roos, TH

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Several heliostat mirror panels of the CSIR 25m2 target-aligned heliostat suffered corrosion-related failure, prompting a panel redesign. Two test samples of the new design were subjected to mechanical and thermal cycling tests in an attempt...

  18. Molecular mechanisms that regulate the macrophage M1/M2 polarization balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan eWang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As an essential component of innate immunity, macrophages have multiple functions in both inhibiting or promoting cell proliferation and tissue repair. Diversity and plasticity are hallmarks of macrophages. Classical M1 and alternative M2 activation of macrophages, mirroring the Th1–Th2 polarization of T cells, represent two extremes of a dynamic changing state of macrophage activation. M1-type macrophages release cytokines that inhibit the proliferation of surrounding cells and damage contiguous tissue, and M2-type macrophages release cytokines that promote the proliferation of contiguous cells and tissue repair. M1-M2 polarization of macrophage is a tightly controlled process entailing a set of signaling pathways, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulatory networks. An imbalance of macrophage M1-M2 polarization is often associated with various diseases or inflammatory conditions. Therefore identification of the molecules associated with the dynamic changes of macrophage polarization and understanding their interactions is crucial for elucidating the molecular basis of disease progression and designing novel macrophage-mediated therapeutic strategies.

  19. LTE-advanced random access mechanism for M2M communication: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Rashid; Sarowa, Sandeep; Jaglan, Reena Rathee; Khan, Mohammad Junaid; Agrawal, Sunil

    2016-03-01

    Machine Type Communications (MTC) enables one or more self-sufficient machines to communicate directly with one another without human interference. MTC applications include smart grid, security, e-Health and intelligent automation system. To support huge numbers of MTC devices, one of the challenging issues is to provide a competent way for numerous access in the network and to minimize network overload. In this article, the different control mechanisms for overload random access are reviewed to avoid congestion caused by random access channel (RACH) of MTC devices. However, past and present wireless technologies have been engineered for Human-to-Human (H2H) communications, in particular, for transmission of voice. Consequently the Long Term Evolution (LTE) -Advanced is expected to play a central role in communicating Machine to Machine (M2M) and are very optimistic about H2H communications. Distinct and unique characteristics of M2M communications create new challenges from those in H2H communications. In this article, we investigate the impact of massive M2M terminals attempting random access to LTE-Advanced all at once. We discuss and review the solutions to alleviate the overload problem by Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). As a result, we evaluate and compare these solutions that can effectively eliminate the congestion on the random access channel for M2M communications without affecting H2H communications.

  20. Chlorogenic acid inhibits glioblastoma growth through repolarizating macrophage from M2 to M1 phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Nina; Zhou, Qin; Ji, Ming; Jin, Jing; Lai, Fangfang; Chen, Ju; Zhang, Mengtian; Jia, Jing; Yang, Huarong; Zhang, Jie; Li, Wenbin; Jiang, Jiandong; Chen, Xiaoguang

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is an aggressive tumor that is associated with distinctive infiltrating microglia/macrophages populations. Previous studies demonstrated that chlorogenic acid (5-caffeoylquinic acid, CHA), a phenolic compound with low molecular weight, has an anti-tumor effect in multiple malignant tumors. In the present study, we focused on the macrophage polarization to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind the anti-glioma response of CHA in vitro and in vivo. We found that CHA treatment increased the expression of M1 markers induced by LPS/IFNγ, including iNOS, MHC II (I-A/I-E subregions) and CD11c, and reduced the expression of M2 markers Arg and CD206 induced by IL-4, resulting in promoting the production of apoptotic-like cancer cells and inhibiting the growth of tumor cells by co-culture experiments. The activations of STAT1 and STAT6, which are two crucial signaling events in M1 and M2-polarization, were significantly promoted and suppressed by CHA in macrophages, respectively. Furthermore, In G422 xenograft mice, CHA increased the proportion of CD11c-positive M1 macrophages and decreased the distribution of CD206-positive M2 macrophages in tumor tissue, consistent with the reduction of tumor weight observed in CHA-treated mice. Overall these findings indicated CHA as a potential therapeutic approach to reduce glioma growth through promoting M1-polarized macrophage and inhibiting M2 phenotypic macrophage. PMID:28045028

  1. Comparison of Plasma Tu-M2-PK and CA19-9 in Pancreatic Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Maiken Thyregod; Heegaard, Niels H H; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2009-01-01

    because of suspicion of pancreatic cancer. Of these, 51 patients had their conditions diagnosed as PDAC, whereas this diagnosis was ruled out in 52 after 12 months of follow-up. The performance of Tu-M2-PK was compared with that of CA19-9 using cutoff values 15 and 37 U/mL, respectively. RESULTS...

  2. Structure of the human M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor bound to an antagonist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haga, Kazuko; Kruse, Andrew C.; Asada, Hidetsugu; Yurugi-Kobayashi, Takami; Shiroishi, Mitsunori; Zhang, Cheng; Weis, William I.; Okada, Tetsuji; Kobilka, Brian K.; Haga, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Takuya (Stanford-MED); (Kyoto); (Gakushuin); (Kyushu)

    2012-03-15

    The parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system regulates the activity of multiple organ systems. Muscarinic receptors are G-protein-coupled receptors that mediate the response to acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. Their role in the unconscious regulation of organ and central nervous system function makes them potential therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor) is essential for the physiological control of cardiovascular function through activation of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and is of particular interest because of its extensive pharmacological characterization with both orthosteric and allosteric ligands. Here we report the structure of the antagonist-bound human M2 receptor, the first human acetylcholine receptor to be characterized structurally, to our knowledge. The antagonist 3-quinuclidinyl-benzilate binds in the middle of a long aqueous channel extending approximately two-thirds through the membrane. The orthosteric binding pocket is formed by amino acids that are identical in all five muscarinic receptor subtypes, and shares structural homology with other functionally unrelated acetylcholine binding proteins from different species. A layer of tyrosine residues forms an aromatic cap restricting dissociation of the bound ligand. A binding site for allosteric ligands has been mapped to residues at the entrance to the binding pocket near this aromatic cap. The structure of the M2 receptor provides insights into the challenges of developing subtype-selective ligands for muscarinic receptors and their propensity for allosteric regulation.

  3. Experimental Conditions: SE37_S16_M2_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available opes SE37_S16 Blank (80% methanol) SE37_S16_M2 0mg [MassBase ID] MDLC1_43485 SE37_MS1 Metabolites extraction... with 80% methanol and analysis by LC-Orbitrap-MS SE37_DS1 Peak extraction for unlabeled data ...

  4. Serine is a natural ligand and allosteric activator of pyruvate kinase M2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaneton, Barbara; Hillmann, Petra; Zheng, Liang; Martin, Agnes C. L.; Maddocks, Oliver D. K.; Chokkathukalam, Achuthanunni; Coyle, Joseph E.; Jankevics, Andris; Holding, Finn P.; Vousden, Karen H.; Frezza, Christian; O'Reilly, Marc; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cells exhibit several unique metabolic phenotypes that are critical for cell growth and proliferation(1). Specifically, they overexpress the M2 isoform of the tightly regulated enzyme pyruvate kinase (PKM2), which controls glycolytic flux, and are highly dependent on de novo biosynthesis of s

  5. Massive M2M Access with Reliability Guarantees in LTE Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madueño, Germán Corrales; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2015-01-01

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications are one of the major drivers of the cellular network evolution towards 5G systems. One of the key challenges is on how to provide reliability guarantees to each accessing device in a situation in which there is a massive number of almost-simultaneous arrivals...

  6. Medroxyprogesterone acetate drives M2 macrophage differentiation toward a phenotype of decidual macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yung-Chieh; Tseng, Joseph T; Wang, Chia-Yih; Su, Mei-Tsz; Huang, Jyun-Yuan; Kuo, Pao-Lin

    2017-09-05

    M1 macrophage differentiation plays a crucial role in enhanced inflammation during pregnancy, which may lead to pregnancy complications. Therefore, modulation of macrophage differentiation toward the M2 phenotype is desirable to ensure a successful pregnancy. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) is a potent progestin with an anti-inflammatory property, but its effect on macrophage differentiation is unknown. This study aimed to examine whether MPA can induce an M2 macrophage differentiation by using the human monocytes cell line THP-1 or primary monocytes. THP-1 cells were primed with phorbol-12-myristate-13 acetate (PMA) to initiate macrophage differentiation. By incubating with MPA, the cells (denoted as MPA-pTHP-1) underwent M2 macrophage differentiation with downregulations of CD11c, IL-1β and TNF-α, and upregulations of CD163 and IL-10; while cells incubated with progesterone (P4) did not show the M2 phenotype. Primary monocytes treated with MPA also had the same M2 phenotype. Moreover, M1 macrophages derived from IFN-γ/LPS-treated THP-1 cells, which had high levels of IL-1b and iNOS, and low levels of IL-10 and IDO, were reversed to the M2 phenotype by the MPA treatment. We also found that the MPA-pTHP-1 promoted the decidualization of endometrial stromal cells and the invasion of trophoblast cells. To mimic conditions of exposure to various pathogens, MPA-pTHP-1 cells were stimulated by different types of TLR ligands. We found they produced lower levels of IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as a higher level of IL-10, compared to untreated cells. Finally, we found the level of phosphorylated ERK in the MPA-pTHP-1 cells was increased, but its IL-10 production was suppressed by either the progesterone/glucocorticoid antagonist (Mifepristone) or MEK inhibitor (U0126). Taken together, MPA could drive monocyte differentiation toward an M2 phenotype that mimics decidual macrophages. This finding holds great potential to combat chronic endometrial inflammation

  7. Modular to Monoblock: Difficulties of Detaching the M(2)a-Magnum(TM) Head Are Common in Metal-on-metal Revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntymäki, Heikki; Mäkelä, Keijo T; Vahlberg, Tero; Hirviniemi, Joni; Niinimäki, Tuukka

    2016-09-01

    Modern hip implants typically feature modular heads, which allow for easy exchange and removal from the femoral stem at the time of revision. However, owing to fretting, corrosion, or cold welding, the modular head may be difficult or impossible to separate from the underlying trunnion, especially if the implant has titanium interfaces between the head and the stem. We have repeatedly encountered difficulty removing the titanium sleeve adapter in the M(2)a-Magnum(TM) implant. Although the manufacturer warns about this complication and cases with these difficulties have been reported to the United States FDA, we believed this topic is important to study, because the frequency of difficulties in head removal is unknown and the complications related to this event have not been characterized. We asked: (1) Do revisions of M(2)a-Magnum(TM) implants differ from those of M(2)a-38(TM) implants in terms of ease of removal of the femoral head? (2) In cases where difficulty with M(2)a-Magnum(TM) head removal occurred, was the operative time, bleeding, risk of periprosthetic fracture, or joint infection increased compared with cases where the M(2)a-Magnum(TM) head was removed without difficulties? Between 2004 and 2014, we revised 296 THAs with metal-on-metal implants that involved M(2)a-Magnum(TM) (123) or M(2)a-38(TM) heads (88); of those, 84 were planned to include a femoral stem revision and insufficient data were available for three operations, so they were excluded from this analysis, leaving 124 THAs in the current retrospective study (70 THAs with M(2)a-Magnum(TM) and 54 THAs with M(2)a-38(TM) heads).The method of modular head removal, any difficulties removing the femoral head from the trunnion, operation time, and complications were recorded based on chart review. All the observed problems of detaching the head or taper adapter were among M(2)a-Magnum(TM) heads; there were no problems detaching the head in revisions of the M(2)a-38(TM) implant. In 29% (20 of 70) of

  8. Presynaptic muscarinic M(2) receptors modulate glutamatergic transmission in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ji-Dong; Hazra, Rimi; Dabrowska, Joanna; Muly, E Chris; Wess, Jürgen; Rainnie, Donald G

    2012-03-01

    The anterolateral cell group of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST(ALG)) serves as an important relay station in stress circuitry. Limbic inputs to the BNST(ALG) are primarily glutamatergic and activity-dependent changes in this input have been implicated in abnormal behaviors associated with chronic stress and addiction. Significantly, local infusion of acetylcholine (ACh) receptor agonists into the BNST trigger stress-like cardiovascular responses, however, little is known about the effects of these agents on glutamatergic transmission in the BNST(ALG). Here, we show that glutamate- and ACh-containing fibers are found in close association in the BNST(ALG). Moreover, in the presence of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, eserine, endogenous ACh release evoked a long-lasting reduction of the amplitude of stimulus-evoked EPSCs. This effect was mimicked by exogenous application of the ACh analog, carbachol, which caused a reversible, dose-dependent, reduction of the evoked EPSC amplitude, and an increase in both the paired-pulse ratio and coefficient of variation, suggesting a presynaptic site of action. Uncoupling of postsynaptic G-proteins with intracellular GDP-β-S, or application of the nicotinic receptor antagonist, tubocurarine, failed to block the carbachol effect. In contrast, the carbachol effect was blocked by prior application of atropine or M(2) receptor-preferring antagonists, and was absent in M(2)/M(4) receptor knockout mice, suggesting that presynaptic M(2) receptors mediate the effect of ACh. Immunoelectron microscopy studies further revealed the presence of M(2) receptors on axon terminals that formed asymmetric synapses with BNST neurons. Our findings suggest that presynaptic M(2) receptors might be an important modulator of the stress circuit and hence a novel target for drug development.

  9. Chemotherapy toxicity in gynecologic cancer patients with a body surface area (BSA)>2 m2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Joanna; Toste, Beth; Dizon, Don S

    2009-07-01

    Although many clinicians practice empiric dose reduction to prevent toxicity, it is unknown whether obese patients given chemotherapy dosed according to actual body weight (ABW) experience excess toxicity. At our institution, cancer patients receive chemotherapy dosed by ABW unless on a protocol capping doses at a maximum body surface area (BSA). We compared toxicities and dose modifications between women with a BSA>2 m(2) on uncapped versus capped paclitaxel as part of adjuvant paclitaxel/carboplatin for gynecologic malignancy. In this retrospective study, women with a BSA>2 m(2) treated with paclitaxel (P) and carboplatin (C) for endometrial and ovarian cancer between January 1999 and July 2007 were identified using the chemotherapy database. Records were reviewed for patient age, BSA, diagnosis, stage, standardized and actual doses for each cycle, adverse drug reactions, and dosing modifications. Statistical comparisons were made using Fisher's exact test. We identified 59 women with BSA>2 m(2) on adjuvant P/C for endometrial and ovarian cancers. 50 received paclitaxel dosed by ABW and 9 received paclitaxel capped at a BSA of 2 m(2). There were no statistically significant differences in rates of toxicity or dose modification. Obese women with a BSA>2 m(2) on paclitaxel dosed by ABW do not experience excess toxicity in comparison to women on paclitaxel capped at a maximum BSA or women in published trials of adjuvant P/C. Empiric dose reduction is unnecessary and may result in suboptimal treatment of obese patients. However, as this was a retrospective review, more research is needed to make definitive recommendations on this topic.

  10. Viral M2 ion channel protein: a promising target for anti-influenza drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, N S Hari Narayana; Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan; Pratheepa, V

    2014-01-01

    Influenza virus is an important RNA virus causing pandemics (Spanish Flu (1918), Asian Flu (1957), Hong Kong Flu (1968) and Swine Flu (2009)) over the last decades. Due to the spontaneous mutations of these viral proteins, currently available antiviral and anti-influenza drugs quickly develop resistance. To account this, only limited antiinfluenza drugs have been approved for the therapeutic use. These include amantadine and rimantadine (M2 proton channel blockers), zanamivir, oseltamivir and peramivir (neuraminidase inhibitors), favipravir (polymerase inhibitor) and laninamivir. This review provides an outline on the strategies to develop novel, potent chemotherapeutic agents against M2 proton channel. Primarily, the M2 proton channel blockers elicit pharmacological activity through destabilizing the helices by blocking the proton transport across the transmembrane. The biologically important compounds discovered using the scaffolds such as bisnoradmantane, noradamantane, triazine, spiroadamantane, isoxazole, amino alcohol, azaspiro, spirene, pinanamine, etc are reported to exhibit anti-influenza activity against wild or mutant type (S31N and V27A) of M2 proton channel protein. The reported studies explained that the adamantane based compounds (amantadine and rimantadine) strongly interact with His37 (through hydrogen bonding) and Ala30, Ile33 and Gly34 residues (hydrophobic interactions). The adamantane and the non-adamantane scaffolds fit perfectly in the active site pocket present in the wild type and the charged amino groups (ammonium) create positive electrostatic potential, which blocks the transport of protons across the pore. In the mutated proteins, larger or smaller binding pocket are created by small or large mutant residues, which do not allow the molecules fit in the active site. This causes the channel to be unblocked and the protons are allowed to transfer inside the pore. The structural analysis of the M2 proton channel blockers illustrated that

  11. Study on phylogenetic relationships, variability, and correlated mutations in M2 proteins of influenza virus A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ly Le

    Full Text Available M2 channel, an influenza virus transmembrane protein, serves as an important target for antiviral drug design. There are still discordances concerning the role of some residues involved in proton transfer as well as the mechanism of inhibition by commercial drugs. The viral M2 proteins show high conservativity; about 3/4 of the positions are occupied by one residue in over 95%. Nine M2 proteins from the H3N2 strain and possibly two proteins from H2N2 strains make a phylogenic cluster closely related to 2RLF. The variability range is limited to 4 residues/position with one exception. The 2RLF protein stands out by the presence of 2 serines at the positions 19 and 50, which are in most other M2 proteins occupied by cysteines. The study of correlated mutations shows that there are several positions with significant mutational correlation that have not been described so far as functionally important. That there are 5 more residues potentially involved in the M2 mechanism of action. The original software used in this work (Consensus Constructor, SSSSg, Corm, Talana is freely accessible as stand-alone offline applications upon request to the authors. The other software used in this work is freely available online for noncommercial purposes at public services on bioinformatics such as ExPASy or NCBI. The study on mutational variability, evolutionary relationship, and correlated mutation presented in this paper is a potential way to explain more completely the role of significant factors in proton channel action and to clarify the inhibition mechanism by specific drugs.

  12. Dietary oleic acid increases m2 macrophages in the mesenteric adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Camell

    Full Text Available Several studies have implicated fatty-acids as inflammatory regulators, suggesting that there may be a direct role for common dietary fatty-acids in regulating innate immune cells. In humans, a single high-fat meal increases systemic cytokines and leukocytes. In mice, short term high-fat feeding increases adipose tissue (AT leukocytes and alters the inflammatory profile of AT macrophages. We have seen that short term high fat feeding to C57BL/6J male mice increases palmitic and oleic acid within AT depots, but oleic acid increase is highest in the mesenteric AT (MAT. In vitro, oleic acid increases M2 macrophage markers (CD206, MGL1, and ARG1 in a murine macrophage cell line, while addition of palmitic acid is able to inhibit that increase. Three day supplementation of a chow diet, with oleic acid, induced an increase in M2 macrophage markers in the MAT, but not in the epididymal AT. We tested whether increases in M2 macrophages occur during short term ad lib feeding of a high fat diet, containing oleic acid. Experiments revealed two distinct populations of macrophages were altered by a three day high milk-fat diet. One population, phenotypically intermediate for F4/80, showed diet-induced increases in CD206, an anti-inflammatory marker characteristic of M2 macrophages intrinsic to the AT. Evidence for a second population, phenotypically F4/80(HICD11b(HI macrophages, showed increased association with the MAT following short term feeding that is dependent on the adhesion molecule, ICAM-1. Collectively, we have shown that short term feeding of a high-fat diet changes two population of macrophages, and that dietary oleic acid is responsible for increases in M2 macrophage polarization.

  13. Dendrosomal curcumin suppresses metastatic breast cancer in mice by changing m1/m2 macrophage balance in the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Sadaf; Alizadeh, Ali Mohammad; Baradaran, Behzad; Farhanghi, Baharak; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Khodayari, Saeed; Khodayari, Hamid; Tavassoli, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, a lipid-soluble compound extracted from the plant Curcuma Longa, has been found to exert immunomodulatory effects via macrophages. However, most studies focus on the low bioavailability issue of curcumin by nano and microparticles, and thus the role of macrophages in the anticancer mechanism of curcumin has received little attention so far. We have previously shown the potential biocompatibility, biodegradability and anti-cancer effects of dendrosomal curcumin (DNC). In this study, twenty-seven BALB/c mice were equally divided into control as well as 40 and 80 mg/kg groups of DNC to investigate the involvement of macrophages in the antitumor effects of curcumin in a typical animal model of metastatic breast cancer. At the end of intervention, the tumor volume and weight were significantly reduced in DNC groups compared to control (PDNC increased the expression of STAT4 and IL-12 genes in tumor and spleen tissues in comparison with control (PDNC decreased STAT3, IL-10 and arginase I gene expression (P<0.05), indicating low levels of M2 macrophage. The results confirm the role of macrophages in the protective effects of dendrosomal curcumin against metastatic breast cancer in mice.

  14. M2-F1 in flight during low-speed car tow

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    The M2-F1 shown in flight during a low-speed car tow runs across the lakebed. Such tests allowed about two minutes to test the vehicle's handling in flight. NASA Flight Research Center (later redesignated the Dryden Flight Research Center) personnel conducted as many as 8 to 14 ground-tow flights in a single day either to test the vehicle in preparation for air tows or to train pilots to fly the vehicle before they undertook air tows. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially concieved as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30

  15. Perbandingan Pengaruh Premedikasi per Rektal antara Klonidin 5 μg/ kgBB dan Ketamin 10 mg/kgBB pada Anak Usia 2–5 Tahun pada Skala Pemisahan Prabedah dan Skala Kemudahan Induksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Rellytania Sabirin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Premedication in children is used to reduce pre operative anxiety and to facilitate induction. This study was designed to investigate the efficacy of rectal clonidine 5 µg/kgBW in comparison with rectal ketamine 10 mg/kgBW as a premedication in children. The study was conducted at Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung during the period November 2011–February 2012 with a double-blind randomized clinical controlled trials on 32 paediatric patients aged 2–5 years undergoing elective surgery and received either clonidine 5 µg/kgBW or ketamine 10 mg/kgBW rectally 45 min before induction of anesthesia. The quality of separation scale from the parent and the acceptance of mask for induction scale application during inhalation isoflurane were analyzed using Mann Whitney Test with 95% confidence interval, p value <0.05 is considered as statistically significant. Clonidine 5 µg/kgBW provide effective and good qualities of separation and acceptance of mask for induction compared to ketamine 10 mg/kgBW. These data indicate that rectal clonidine 5 µg/kgBW is effective and safe as an alternative drug for premedication in paediatric patients.

  16. A multicentre randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of single-dose praziquantel at 40 mg/kg vs. 60 mg/kg for treating intestinal schistosomiasis in the Philippines, Mauritania, Tanzania and Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero L Olliaro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose is the WHO recommended treatment for all forms of schistosomiasis, but 60 mg/kg is also deployed nationally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Four trial sites in the Philippines, Mauritania, Tanzania and Brazil enrolled 856 patients using a common protocol, who were randomised to receive praziquantel 40 mg/kg (n  =  428 or 60 mg/kg (n  =  428. While the sites differed for transmission and infection intensities (highest in Tanzania and lowest in Mauritania, no bias or heterogeneity across sites was detected for the main efficacy outcomes. The primary efficacy analysis was the comparison of cure rates on Day 21 in the intent-to-treat population for the pooled data using a logistic model to calculate Odd Ratios allowing for baseline characteristics and study site. Both doses were highly effective: the Day 21 cure rates were 91.7% (86.6%-98% at individual sites with 40 mg/kg and 92.8% (88%-97% with 60 mg/kg. Secondary parameters were eggs reduction rates (ERR, change in intensity of infection and reinfection rates at 6 and 12 months. On Day 21 the pooled estimate of the ERR was 91% in both arms. The Hazard Ratio for reinfections was only significant in Brazil, and in favour of 60 mg/kg on the pooled estimate (40 mg/kg: 34.3%, 60 mg/kg: 23.9%, HR  =  0.78, 95% CI  = [0.63;0.96]. Analysis of safety could not distinguish between disease- and drug-related events. 666 patients (78% reported 1327 adverse events (AE 4 h post-dosing. The risk of having at least one AE was higher in the 60 than in the 40 mg/kg group (83% vs. 73%, p<0.001. At 24 h post-dosing, 456 patients (54% had 918 AEs with no difference between arms. The most frequent AE was abdominal pain at both 4 h and 24 h (40% and 24%. CONCLUSION: A higher dose of 60 mg/kg of praziquantel offers no significant efficacy advantage over standard 40 mg/kg for treating intestinal schistosomiasis caused by either S. mansoni or S

  17. A multicentre randomized controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of single-dose praziquantel at 40 mg/kg vs. 60 mg/kg for treating intestinal schistosomiasis in the Philippines, Mauritania, Tanzania and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olliaro, Piero L; Vaillant, Michel T; Belizario, Vincente J; Lwambo, Nicholas J S; Ouldabdallahi, Mohamed; Pieri, Otavio S; Amarillo, Maria L; Kaatano, Godfrey M; Diaw, Mamadou; Domingues, Analucia C; Favre, Tereza C; Lapujade, Olivier; Alves, Fabiana; Chitsulo, Lester

    2011-06-01

    Praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose is the WHO recommended treatment for all forms of schistosomiasis, but 60 mg/kg is also deployed nationally. Four trial sites in the Philippines, Mauritania, Tanzania and Brazil enrolled 856 patients using a common protocol, who were randomised to receive praziquantel 40 mg/kg (n  =  428) or 60 mg/kg (n  =  428). While the sites differed for transmission and infection intensities (highest in Tanzania and lowest in Mauritania), no bias or heterogeneity across sites was detected for the main efficacy outcomes. The primary efficacy analysis was the comparison of cure rates on Day 21 in the intent-to-treat population for the pooled data using a logistic model to calculate Odd Ratios allowing for baseline characteristics and study site. Both doses were highly effective: the Day 21 cure rates were 91.7% (86.6%-98% at individual sites) with 40 mg/kg and 92.8% (88%-97%) with 60 mg/kg. Secondary parameters were eggs reduction rates (ERR), change in intensity of infection and reinfection rates at 6 and 12 months. On Day 21 the pooled estimate of the ERR was 91% in both arms. The Hazard Ratio for reinfections was only significant in Brazil, and in favour of 60 mg/kg on the pooled estimate (40 mg/kg: 34.3%, 60 mg/kg: 23.9%, HR  =  0.78, 95% CI  = [0.63;0.96]). Analysis of safety could not distinguish between disease- and drug-related events. 666 patients (78%) reported 1327 adverse events (AE) 4 h post-dosing. The risk of having at least one AE was higher in the 60 than in the 40 mg/kg group (83% vs. 73%, p<0.001). At 24 h post-dosing, 456 patients (54%) had 918 AEs with no difference between arms. The most frequent AE was abdominal pain at both 4 h and 24 h (40% and 24%). A higher dose of 60 mg/kg of praziquantel offers no significant efficacy advantage over standard 40 mg/kg for treating intestinal schistosomiasis caused by either S. mansoni or S. japonicum. The results of this study support WHO recommendation and

  18. A Multicentre Randomized Controlled Trial of the Efficacy and Safety of Single-Dose Praziquantel at 40 mg/kg vs. 60 mg/kg for Treating Intestinal Schistosomiasis in the Philippines, Mauritania, Tanzania and Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olliaro, Piero L.; Vaillant, Michel T.; Belizario, Vincente J.; Ouldabdallahi, Mohamed; Pieri, Otavio S.; Amarillo, Maria L.; Kaatano, Godfrey M.; Diaw, Mamadou; Domingues, AnaLucia C.; Favre, Tereza C.; Lapujade, Olivier; Alves, Fabiana; Chitsulo, Lester

    2011-01-01

    Background Praziquantel at 40 mg/kg in a single dose is the WHO recommended treatment for all forms of schistosomiasis, but 60 mg/kg is also deployed nationally. Methodology/Principal Findings Four trial sites in the Philippines, Mauritania, Tanzania and Brazil enrolled 856 patients using a common protocol, who were randomised to receive praziquantel 40 mg/kg (n = 428) or 60 mg/kg (n = 428). While the sites differed for transmission and infection intensities (highest in Tanzania and lowest in Mauritania), no bias or heterogeneity across sites was detected for the main efficacy outcomes. The primary efficacy analysis was the comparison of cure rates on Day 21 in the intent-to-treat population for the pooled data using a logistic model to calculate Odd Ratios allowing for baseline characteristics and study site. Both doses were highly effective: the Day 21 cure rates were 91.7% (86.6%–98% at individual sites) with 40 mg/kg and 92.8% (88%–97%) with 60 mg/kg. Secondary parameters were eggs reduction rates (ERR), change in intensity of infection and reinfection rates at 6 and 12 months. On Day 21 the pooled estimate of the ERR was 91% in both arms. The Hazard Ratio for reinfections was only significant in Brazil, and in favour of 60 mg/kg on the pooled estimate (40 mg/kg: 34.3%, 60 mg/kg: 23.9%, HR = 0.78, 95%CI = [0.63;0.96]). Analysis of safety could not distinguish between disease- and drug-related events. 666 patients (78%) reported 1327 adverse events (AE) 4 h post-dosing. The risk of having at least one AE was higher in the 60 than in the 40 mg/kg group (83% vs. 73%, p<0.001). At 24 h post-dosing, 456 patients (54%) had 918 AEs with no difference between arms. The most frequent AE was abdominal pain at both 4 h and 24 h (40% and 24%). Conclusion A higher dose of 60 mg/kg of praziquantel offers no significant efficacy advantage over standard 40 mg/kg for treating intestinal schistosomiasis caused by either S. mansoni or S. japonicum. The results

  19. Application of Hot Air Ignition Technology in Jinan Steel’s 400 m2 Sintering Machine%热风点火技术在济钢400 m2烧结机的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏世元; 申爱民; 潘玉斌; 凌子愚

    2013-01-01

    Combining with actual condition at the field, the reforming of hot air ignition project of Jinan Steel’s 400 m2 sintering machine was actualized. The seam was opened in the fume hood between No.2 and No.3 chimneys of annular cooler for installing the pipeline. A series of new equipment were increased, such as high-temperature precipitator, high performance high temperature combustion-supporting fan, regulating valves, steel structure support, electrical installation and instrumentation. After the commissioning of the system, the hot air temperature stabilized in 240-300℃, the ignition temperature increased to 1 100℃above, the unit consumption of mixed gas decreased by 20.09%and the annual benefits reached 3.703 3 million Yuan RBM.%  结合现场实际情况,对济钢400 m2烧结机实施了热风点火工程改造.在环冷机2#和3#烟囱之间的烟罩上开口,安装管道,新增高温除尘器、高效耐高温助燃风机、调节阀门、钢结构支架、电气及仪表设备等.热风点火系统投用后,热风温度稳定在240~300℃,点火温度提高到了1100℃以上,混合煤气单耗降低了20.09%,年效益达370.33万元.

  20. Pregnancy as a Window to Future Cardiovascular Health: Design and Implementation of the nuMoM2b Heart Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, David M; Ehrenthal, Deborah B; Koch, Matthew A; Catov, Janet M; Barnes, Shannon E; Facco, Francesca; Parker, Corette B; Mercer, Brian M; Bairey-Merz, C Noel; Silver, Robert M; Wapner, Ronald J; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Hoffman, Matthew K; Grobman, William A; Greenland, Philip; Wing, Deborah A; Saade, George R; Parry, Samuel; Zee, Phyllis C; Reddy, Uma M; Pemberton, Victoria L; Burwen, Dale R

    2016-03-15

    The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Nulliparous Pregnancy Outcomes Study-Monitoring Mothers-to-Be (nuMoM2b) Heart Health Study (HHS) was designed to investigate the relationships between adverse pregnancy outcomes and modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The ongoing nuMoM2b-HHS, which started in 2013, is a prospective follow-up of the nuMoM2b cohort, which included 10,038 women recruited between 2010 and 2013 from 8 centers across the United States who were initially observed over the course of their first pregnancies. In this report, we detail the design and study procedures of the nuMoM2b-HHS. Women in the pregnancy cohort who consented to be contacted for participation in future studies were approached at 6-month intervals to ascertain health information and to maintain ongoing contact. Two to 5 years after completion of the pregnancy documented in the nuMoM2b, women in the nuMoM2b-HHS were invited to an in-person study visit. During this visit, they completed psychosocial and medical history questionnaires and had clinical measurements and biological specimens obtained. A subcohort of participants who had objective assessments of sleep-disordered breathing during pregnancy were asked to repeat this investigation. This unique prospective observational study includes a large, geographically and ethnically diverse cohort, rich depth of phenotypic information about adverse pregnancy outcomes, and clinical data and biospecimens from early in the index pregnancy onward. Data obtained from this cohort will provide mechanistic and clinical insights into how data on a first pregnancy can provide information about the potential development of subsequent risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

  1. Macrophage polarisation: an immunohistochemical approach for identifying M1 and M2 macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Henrique M Barros

    Full Text Available Macrophage polarization is increasingly recognised as an important pathogenetic factor in inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Proinflammatory M1 macrophages promote T helper (Th 1 responses and show tumoricidal activity. M2 macrophages contribute to tissue repair and promote Th2 responses. CD68 and CD163 are used to identify macrophages in tissue sections. However, characterisation of polarised macrophages in situ has remained difficult. Macrophage polarisation is regulated by transcription factors, pSTAT1 and RBP-J for M1, and CMAF for M2. We reasoned that double-labelling immunohistochemistry for the detection of macrophage markers together with transcription factors may be suitable to characterise macrophage polarisation in situ. To test this hypothesis, we have studied conditions associated with Th1- and Th2-predominant immune responses: infectious mononucleosis and Crohn's disease for Th1 and allergic nasal polyps, oxyuriasis, wound healing and foreign body granulomas for predominant Th2 response. In all situations, CD163+ cells usually outnumbered CD68+ cells. Moreover, CD163+ cells, usually considered as M2 macrophages, co-expressing pSTAT1 and RBP-J were found in all conditions examined. The numbers of putative M1 macrophages were higher in Th1- than in Th2-associated diseases, while more M2 macrophages were seen in Th2- than in Th1 related disorders. In most Th1-related diseases, the balance of M1 over M2 cells was shifted towards M1 cells, while the reverse was observed for Th2-related conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed two distinct clusters: cluster I included Th1 diseases together with cases with high numbers of CD163+pSTAT1+, CD68+pSTAT1+, CD163+RBP-J+ and CD68+RBP-J+ macrophages; cluster II comprised Th2 conditions together with cases displaying high numbers of CD163+CMAF+ and CD68+CMAF+ macrophages. These results suggest that the detection of pSTAT1, RBP-J, and CMAF in the context of CD68 or CD163 expression is a

  2. Potent neutralization of influenza A virus by a single-domain antibody blocking M2 ion channel protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowei Wei

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus poses serious health threat to humans. Neutralizing antibodies against the highly conserved M2 ion channel is thought to offer broad protection against influenza A viruses. Here, we screened synthetic Camel single-domain antibody (VHH libraries against native M2 ion channel protein. One of the isolated VHHs, M2-7A, specifically bound to M2-expressed cell membrane as well as influenza A virion, inhibited replication of both amantadine-sensitive and resistant influenza A viruses in vitro, and protected mice from a lethal influenza virus challenge. Moreover, M2-7A showed blocking activity for proton influx through M2 ion channel. These pieces of evidence collectively demonstrate for the first time that a neutralizing antibody against M2 with broad specificity is achievable, and M2-7A may have potential for cross protection against a number of variants and subtypes of influenza A viruses.

  3. Retinoic acid prevents virus-induced airway hyperreactivity and M2 receptor dysfunction via anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Verbout, Norah G.; Fryer, Allison D.; Jacoby, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitory M2 muscarinic receptors on airway parasympathetic nerves normally limit acetylcholine release. Viral infections decrease M2 receptor function, increasing vagally mediated bronchoconstriction. Since retinoic acid deficiency causes M2 receptor dysfunction, we tested whether retinoic acid would prevent virus-induced airway hyperreactivity and prevent M2 receptor dysfunction. Guinea pigs infected with parainfluenza virus were hyperreactive to electrical stimulation of the vagus nerves,...

  4. ORAL CLONIDENE IN CHILDREN: EFFICACY AS PREMEDICANT AND EFFECT ON POSTOPERATIVE RECOVERY. (COMPARISON OF T WO DIFFERENT DOSES 3μg/kg AND 4μg/kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devyani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to see the efficacy of tw o different doses of oral clonidine as a premedication in pediatric pati ents. MATERIAL AND METHOD: In a prospective randomized study of 60 cases of 4-12 year old children receiving oral clonidine either 3μg/kg (group C 3 or 4μg/kg (group C 4 as a premedication 90 minutes prior to surgeries. Preoperatively, the level of sedation, response to pa rental separation, mask acceptance, intravenous cannulation and response to intubation a s well as hemodynamic were noted. Postoperative recovery was assessed using Alderate r ecovery room score. RESULTS: Clonidine 4μg/kg group had higher sedation score compared to cl onidine 3μg/kg. At 90 minutes, almost 90% children in C 4 group were asleep but arousable on calling and in C 3 group 33% were asleep, 60% were drowsy and rest 7% children were ca lm. Parental separation and mask acceptance scores were also higher with clonidine 4μ g/kg group. The response to intubation was better attenuated in clonidine 4μg/kg group. The re was no respiratory depression or oxygen desaturation at any point of time in our stud y perioperatively and no delay in postoperative recovery as well as no significant diff erence in the incidence of post operative nausea and vomiting in both the groups. CONCLUSION: Oral clonidine 4 μg/kg provided better sedation than clonidine 3μg/kg without prolonging th e postoperative recovery

  5. A Novel MLC Scheme with M2-QAM Constellations over AWGN and Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUANDongfeng; ZHANGPeng; WayneE.Stark

    2003-01-01

    Optimal multilevel codes (MLC) with M2-QAM constellations are considered with focus on both AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels. With the proposition of three new set partitioning rules for M2-QAM constellations, a novel simplified MLC scheme with a very simple MSD (Multistage decoding) structure comes into being, which is operated on the capacity rule. Compared with traditional MLC/MSD scheme the new MLC/MSD structure greatly reduces the calculation of the individual capacities in MLC system because the new set partitioning rules ensure the independency of two dimensions symbols. Furthermore the new MLC/MSD system cannot enhance any performance loss and the time delay is just 1/2 of that with traditional partitioning rules. As an example 64-QAM constellation with three new set partitioning rules are provided. Their performance is simulated over AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels by choosing BCH codes as the component codes.

  6. Characterization of M2X formed during 5 MeV Fe2+ irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getto, E.; Sun, K.; Was, G. S.

    2017-03-01

    The growth of M2X phase in HT9 irradiated to high dpa was explored using self-ion irradiation. HT9 was pre-implanted with 10 appm He and irradiated with a raster-scanned Fe2+ beam with a damage rate of ∼1 × 10-3 dpa/s at 460 °C. The precipitation of M2X was observed and a combination of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) and diffraction analysis was used to characterize the Cr-rich carbide observed at 250 dpa and above. Cr2C was determined to be semi-coherent with the matrix such that [ 100 ] Cr2 C / /[100]α and [ 001 ] Cr2 C / /[ 10 1 bar ] α .with a = 2.71 Å and c = 2.82 Å.

  7. Foton-M2 Russian/US Biology Experiments - Development, Implementation, and Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, Eugene A.; Tairbekov, Murad G.; Vasques, Marilyn F.; Skidmore, Michael G.

    2006-01-01

    The Russian Foton-M2 unmanned research satellite launched from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on May 31, 2005. The satellite was recovered 16 days later in northern Kazakhstan near Kustanay. Prior to this mission, the long history of joint NASA/IMBP research using Russian unmanned spacecraft was in danger of withering due to inactivity. This cooperative history included 9 Bion Russian spaceflights in the period from 1975 to 1997 where NASA had participated first as a guest and finally as a contractual partner. In an effort to reinvigorate this long-standing collaboration, the Institute for Biomedical Problems (IMBP) invited NASA participation in Russian experiments that had been manifested to fly on the Foton-M2 mission.

  8. The Mont Blanc mystery solved? A $m^2=-0.28 keV^2$ neutrino

    CERN Document Server

    Ehrlich, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is presented in support of a hypothesis made in 2013 predicting the existence of a tachyonic neutrino mass eigenstate doublet having $m^2\\approx -0.2 keV^2$ with $\\Delta m^2=1 eV^2.$ The evidence is based primarily on the puzzling LSD (Mont Blanc) neutrino burst observed on February 23, 1987, which the hypothesis thoroughly explains, with additional support from the Kamiokande-II events recorded on the same day. The probability of the null hypothesis, i.e., that background fluctuations can explain the noted features of the two data sets is estimated to be $4.2\\sigma$ (Mont Blanc), and $3.7\\sigma$ (K-II). Such a controversial hypothesis as a tachyonic neutrino requires absolutely definitive proof, and there may exist a test based on observing the neutrino spectrum from diffuse supernovae that could supply it.

  9. Unveiling the structure of the planetary nebula M 2-48 Kinematics and physical conditions

    CERN Document Server

    López-Martin, L; Esteban, C; Vázquez, R; Raga, A C; Torrelles, J M; Miranda, L F; Meaburn, J; Olguin, L

    2002-01-01

    The kinematics and physical conditions of the bipolar planetary nebula M 2-48 are analysed from high and low dispersion long-slit spectra. Previous CCD narrow-band optical observations have suggested that this nebula is mainly formed by a pair of symmetric bow-shocks, an off-center semi-circular shell, and an internal bipolar structure. The bipolar outflow has a complex structure, characterised by a series of shocked regions located between the bright core and the polar tips. There is an apparent kinematic discontinuity between the bright bipolar core and the outer regions. The fragmented ring around the bright bipolar region presents a low expansion velocity and could be associated to ejection in the AGB-PN transition phase, although its nature remains unclear. The chemical abundances of the central region are derived, showing that M 2-48 is a Type I planetary nebula (PN).

  10. Zebrafish M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor: cloning, pharmacological characterization, expression patterns and roles in embryonic bradycardia

    OpenAIRE

    Hsieh, Dennis Jine-Yuan; Liao, Ching-Fong

    2002-01-01

    A zebrafish M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) gene was cloned. It encodes 495 amino acids in a single exon. The derived amino acid sequence is 73.5% identical to its human homologue.Competitive binding studies of the zebrafish M2 receptor and [3H]-NMS gave negative log dissociation constants (pKi) for each antagonist as follows: atropine (9.16)>himbacine (8.05)⩾4-DAMP (7.83)>AF-DX 116 (7.26)⩾pirenzepine (7.18)⩾tropicamide (6.97)⩾methoctramine (6.82)⩾p-F-HHSiD (6.67)>carbachol (5.20...

  11. M2 to D2 and vice versa by 3-Lie and Lie bialgebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aali-Javanangrouh, M.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A. [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Using the concept of a 3-Lie bialgebra, which has recently been defined in arXiv:1604.04475, we construct a Bagger-Lambert-Gustavson (BLG) model for the M2-brane on a Manin triple of a special 3-Lie bialgebra. Then by using the correspondence and the relation between those 3-Lie bialgebra with Lie bialgebra, we reduce this model to an N = (4,4) WZW model (D2-brane), such that its algebraic structure is a Lie bialgebra with one 2-cocycle. In this manner by using the correspondence of the 3-Lie bialgebra and Lie bialgebra (for this special 3-Lie algebra) one can construct the M2-brane from a D2-brane and vice versa. (orig.)

  12. Soft X-Ray Magneto-optical Faraday Effect around Ni M2,3 Edges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kai; CUI Ming-Qi; YAN Fen; ZHAO Jia; SUN Li-Juan; ZHENG Lei; MA Chen-Yan; XI Shi-So; ZHAO Yi-Dong

    2008-01-01

    @@ We present magneto-optical (MO) Faraday spectra measured around the M2,3 edges (60-70eV) of Ni films at the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF).A polarization analysis of the final state of the transmitted radiation from the Ni film is employed to determine the Faraday rotation at the edges.The MO effect becomes resonantly enhanced at the M2,3 edges,and accordingly large values for the rotation angle β of 1.85 ± 0.19°for this ferromagnetic Ni film with thickness of 31 nm are measured. Without the magnetic field,the azimuthal angles do not shift; with parallel and antiparallel magnetic field the rotation angles shift in the opposite way and they are symmetrical.The uncertainty of Faraday rotation angles mainly comes from the data fitting and the state change of the beamline when the angles are measured.

  13. Epitope Mapping of Avian Influenza M2e Protein: Different Species Recognise Various Epitopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Haliza Hasan

    Full Text Available A common approach for developing diagnostic tests for influenza virus detection is the use of mouse or rabbit monoclonal and/or polyclonal antibodies against a target antigen of the virus. However, comparative mapping of the target antigen using antibodies from different animal sources has not been evaluated before. This is important because identification of antigenic determinants of the target antigen in different species plays a central role to ensure the efficiency of a diagnostic test, such as competitive ELISA or immunohistochemistry-based tests. Interest in the matrix 2 ectodomain (M2e protein of avian influenza virus (AIV as a candidate for a universal vaccine and also as a marker for detection of virus infection in vaccinated animals (DIVA is the rationale for the selection of this protein for comparative mapping evaluation. This study aimed to map the epitopes of the M2e protein of avian influenza virus H5N1 using chicken, mouse and rabbit monoclonal or monospecific antibodies. Our findings revealed that rabbit antibodies (rAbs recognized epitope 6EVETPTRN13 of the M2e, located at the N-terminal of the protein, while mouse (mAb and chicken antibodies (cAbs recognized epitope 10PTRNEWECK18, located at the centre region of the protein. The findings highlighted the difference between the M2e antigenic determinants recognized by different species that emphasized the importance of comparative mapping of antibody reactivity from different animals to the same antigen, especially in the case of multi-host infectious agents such as influenza. The findings are of importance for antigenic mapping, as well as diagnostic test and vaccine development.

  14. Seamless communication in supply chains based on M2M technology

    OpenAIRE

    Walid Moneimne; Marcin Hajdul; Szymon Mikołajczak

    2016-01-01

    Background: Access to information is the key element in the successful and efficient organization of transport & logistic processes. The importance of real-time access to information is confirmed by a panel workshop carried out with support of design thinking methodology. There are two ways of gaining access to the right information - manual, where human agency is needed and fully automatic, where new M2M technology is implemented. Implementation of such technology improves seamless commu...

  15. Industry 4.0, M2m, Iot&S - All Equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrin, Carmen

    2014-11-01

    Similarity between Industry 4.0, M2M, IOT&S. Advantages and disadvantages obtained using this three important methods. Decreasing costs while components are getting smaller and smaller in a world with better networking. Influence of business management applications integrated in smart factory logistic. The most important impacts in merging virtual and real production world, with the improvement of best processes having the same goal: creating value by open innovation

  16. Power Aware Mobility Management of M2M for IoT Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awais Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine-to-Machine (M2M communications framework is evolving to sustain faster networks with the potential to connect millions of devices in the following years. M2M is one of the essential competences for implementing Internet of Things (IoT. Therefore, various organizations are now focusing on enhancing improvements into their standards to support M2M communications. Thus, Heterogeneous Mobile Ad Hoc Network (HetMANET can normally be considered appropriate for M2M challenges. These challenges incorporated when a mobile node (MN selects a target network in an energy efficient scanning for efficient handover. Therefore, to cope with these constraints, we proposed a vertical handover scheme for handover triggering and selection of an appropriate network. The proposed scheme is composed of two phases. Firstly, the MNs perform handover triggering based on the optimization of the Receive Signal Strength (RSS from an access point/base station (AP/BS. Secondly, the network selection process is performed by considering the cost and energy consumption of a particular application during handover. Moreover, if there are more networks available, then the MN selects the one provided with the highest quality of service (QoS. The decision regarding the selection of available networks is made on three metrics, that is, cost, energy, and data rate. Furthermore, the selection of an AP/BS of the selected network is made on five parameters: delay, jitter, Bit Error Rate (BER, communication cost, and response time. The numerical and experimental results are compared in the context of energy consumption by an MN, traffic management on an AP/BS, and QoS of the available networks. The proposed scheme efficiently optimizes the handoff related parameters, and it shows significant improvement in the existing models used for similar purpose.

  17. Description of $^{178}$Hf$^{m2}$ in the constrained relativistic mean field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Zhang; Shuang-Quan, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The properties of the ground state of $^{178}$Hf and the isomeric state $^{178}$Hf$^{m2}$ are studied within the adiabatic and diabatic constrained relativistic mean field (RMF) approaches. The RMF calculations reproduce well the binding energy and the deformation for the ground state of $^{178}$Hf. Using the ground state single-particle eigenvalues obtained in the present calculation, the lowest excitation configuration with $K^\\pi=16^+$ is found to be $\

  18. Relativistic electrons high doses at International Space Station and Foton M2/M3 satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, T. P.; Tomov, B.; Matviichuk, Yu.; Dimitrov, Pl.; Bankov, N.

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents observation of relativistic electrons. Data are collected by the Radiation Risk Radiometer-Dosimeters (R3D) B2/B3 modifications during the flights of Foton M2/M3 satellites in 2005 and 2007 as well as by the R3DE instrument at the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) on the Columbus External Payload Adaptor at the International Space Station (ISS) in the period February 20 - April 28, 2008. On the Foton M2/M3 satellites relativistic electrons are observed more frequently than on the ISS because of higher (62.8°) inclination of the orbit. At both Foton satellites the usual duration of the observations are a few minutes long. On the ISS the duration usually is about 1 min or less. The places of observations of high doses due to relativistic electrons are distributed mainly at latitudes above 50° geographic latitude in both hemispheres on Foton M2/M3 satellites. A very high maximum is found in the southern hemisphere at longitudinal range 0°-60°E. At the ISS the maximums are observed between 45° and 52° geographic latitude in both hemispheres mainly at longitudes equatorward from the magnetic poles. The measured absolute maximums of dose rates generated by relativistic electrons are found to be as follows: 304 μGy h -1 behind 1.75 g cm -2 shielding at Foton M2, 2314 μGy h -1 behind 0.71 g cm -2 shielding at Foton M3 and 19,195 μGy h -1 (Flux is 8363 cm -2 s -1) behind les than 0.4 g cm -2 shielding at ISS.

  19. M2Align: parallel multiple sequence alignment with a multi-objective metaheuristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano-Vega, Cristian; Nebro, Antonio J; García-Nieto, José; Aldana Montes, José F

    2017-05-24

    Multiple Sequence Alignment (MSA) is an NP-complete optimization problem found in computational biology, where the time complexity of finding an optimal alignment raises exponentially along with the number of sequences and their lengths. Additionally, to assess the quality of a MSA, a number of objectives can be taken into account, such as maximizing the sum-of-pairs, maximizing the totally conserved columns, minimizing the number of gaps, or maximizing structural information based scores such as STRIKE. An approach to deal with MSA problems is to use multi-objective metaheuristics, which are non-exact stochastic optimization methods that can produce high quality solutions to complex problems having two or more objectives to be optimized at the same time. Our motivation is to provide a multi-objective metaheuristic for MSA that can run in parallel taking advantage of multi-core based computers. The software tool we propose, called M2Align (Multi-objective Multiple Sequence Alignment), is a parallel and more efficient version of the three-objective optimizer for sequence alignments MO-SAStrE, able of reducing the algorithm computing time by exploiting the computing capabilities of common multicore CPU clusters. Our performance evaluation over datasets of the benchmark BAliBASE (v3.0) shows that significant time reductions can be achieved by using up to 20 cores. Even in sequential executions, M2Align is faster than MO-SAStrE, thanks to the encoding method used for the alignments. M2Align is an open source project hosted in GitHub, where the source code and sample datasets can be freely obtained: https://github.com/KhaosResearch/M2Align. antonio@lcc.uma.es. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  20. Granulin exacerbates lupus nephritis via enhancing macrophage M2b polarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lupus nephritis (LN, with considerable morbidity and mortality, is one of the most severe manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Yet, the pathogenic mechanisms of LN have not been clearly elucidated, and efficient therapies are still in great need. Granulin (GRN, a multifunctional protein linked to inflammatory diseases, has recently been reported to correlate with the disease activity of autoimmune diseases. However, the role of GRN in the pathogenic process of LN still remains obscure. In this study, we explored its potential role and underlying mechanism in the pathogenesis of LN. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We found that serum GRN levels were significantly up-regulated and were positively correlated with the severity of LN. Overexpression of GRN in vivo by transgenic injection remarkably exacerbated LN, whereas down-regulation of GRN with shRNA ameliorated LN, firmly demonstrating the critical role of GRN in the pathogenesis of LN. Notably, macrophage phenotype analysis revealed that overexpression of GRN could enhance macrophage polarization to M2b, a key mediator of the initiation and progression of LN. On the contrary, down-regulation of GRN resulted in impaired M2b differentiation, thus ameliorating LN. Moreover, we found that MAPK signals were necessary for the effect of GRN on macrophage M2b polarization. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We first demonstrated that GRN could aggravate lupus nephritis (LN via promoting macrophage M2b polarization, which might provide insights into the pathogenesis of LN as well as potential therapeutic strategies against LN.

  1. Regional outbreak of CTX-M-2 β-lactamase-producing Proteus mirabilis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ryuichi; Nakano, Akiyo; Abe, Michiko; Inoue, Matsuhisa; Okamoto, Ryoichi

    2012-12-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common cause of urinary tract infection. Wild-type P. mirabilis strains are usually susceptible to penicillins and cephalosporins, but occurrences of P. mirabilis producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been recently reported. Here, we surveyed the prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis strains at seven different hospitals in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, and investigated their molecular epidemiology to explain the mechanism of their spread. The prevalence of cefotaxime resistance among P. mirabilis increased annually, from 10.1 % in 1998 to 23.1 % in 2003, and increased drastically in 2004, exceeding 40 %. We collected 105 consecutive and non-duplicate cefotaxime-resistant P. mirabilis isolates (MIC 16 to >256 µg ml(-1)) from these hospitals from June 2004 to May 2005 and characterized their profile. PCR and sequence analysis revealed that all resistant strains produced exclusively CTX-M-2 β-lactamase. PFGE analysis identified 47 banding patterns with 83 % or greater similarity. These results indicated that a regional outbreak of P. mirabilis producing CTX-M-2 β-lactamase has occurred in Japan and suggest that the epidemic spread occurred within and across hospitals and communities by extended clonal strains. Plasmid analysis revealed that 44.8 % of plasmids harboured by bla(CTX-M-2) isolates had common profiles, encoding ISEcp1, IS26 and Int1, and belonged to incompatibility group T. Spread of the resistant isolates in Japan resulted from dissemination of narrow-host-range plasmids of the IncT group encoding bla(CTX-M-2). These findings indicate the rapidly developing problem of treating the species to prevent dissemination of ESBL producers.

  2. Performance Analysis of SNR-Based HDAF M2M Cooperative Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingwei Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower bound on outage probability (OP of mobile-to-mobile (M2M cooperative networks over N-Nakagami fading channels is derived for SNR-based hybrid decode-amplify-forward (HDAF relaying. The OP performance under different conditions is evaluated through numerical simulation to verify the accuracy of the analysis. These results show that the fading coefficient, number of cascaded components, relative geometric gain, and power-allocation are important parameters that influence this performance.

  3. M2 Proton Channel: Toward a Model of a Primitive Proton Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chenyu; Pohorille, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Transmembrane proton transfer was essential to early cellular systems in order to transduce energy for metabolic functions. The reliable, efficient and controlled generation of proton gradients became possible only with the emergence of active proton pumps. On the basis of features shared by most modern proton pumps we identify the essential mechanistic steps in active proton transport. Further, we discuss the mechanism of action of a small, transmembrane M2 proton channel from influenza A virus as a model for proton transport in protocells. The M2 channel is a 94-residue long, α-helical tetramer that is activated at low pH and exhibits high selectivity and directionality. A shorter construct, built of transmembrane fragments that are only 24 amino acids in length, exhibits very similar proton transport properties. Molecular dynamics simulations on the microsecond time-scale carried out for the M2 channel provided atomic level details on the activation of the channel in response to protonation of the histidine residue, His37. The pathway of proton conduction is mediated by His37, which accepts and donates protons at different interconverting conformation states when pH is lower than 6.5. The Val27 and Trp41 gates and the salt bridge between Asp44 and Arg45 further enhance the directionality of proton transport. It is argued that the architecture and the mechanism of action similar to that found in the M2 channel might have been the perfect starting point for evolution towards the earliest proton pumps, indicating that active proton transport could have readily emerged from simple, passive proton channels.

  4. Chemerin aggravates DSS-induced colitis by suppressing M2 macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yuli; Yang, Xuguang; Yue, Wenjie; Xu, Xiaofei; Li, Bingji; Zou, Linlin; He, Rui

    2014-07-01

    Chemerin is present in various inflammatory sites and is closely involved in tissue inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that chemerin treatment can cause either anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory effects according to the disease model being investigated. Elevated circulating chemerin was recently found in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); however, the role of chemerin in intestinal inflammation remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that the administration of exogenous chemerin (aa17-156) aggravated the severity of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, which was characterized by higher clinical scores, extensive mucosal damage and significantly increased local and systemic production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-6, TNF-α and interferon (IFN-γ). Interestingly, chemerin did not appear to influence the magnitudes of inflammatory infiltrates in the colons, but did result in significantly decreased colonic expression of M2 macrophage-associated genes, including Arginase 1 (Arg-1), Ym1, FIZZ1 and IL-10, following DSS exposure, suggesting an impaired M2 macrophage skewing in vivo. Furthermore, an in vitro experiment showed that the addition of chemerin directly suppressed M2 macrophage-associated gene expression and STAT6 phosphorylation in IL-4-stimulated macrophages. Significantly elevated chemerin levels were found in colons from DSS-exposed mice and from ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and appeared to positively correlate with disease severity. Moreover, the in vivo administration of neutralizing anti-chemerin antibody significantly improved intestinal inflammation following DSS exposure. Taken together, our findings reveal a pro-inflammatory role for chemerin in DSS-induced colitis and the ability of chemerin to suppress the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage response. Our study also suggests that upregulated chemerin in inflamed colons may contribute to the pathogenesis of IBD.

  5. A picrotoxin-specific conformational change in the glycine receptor M2-M3 loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Rebecca; Lynch, Joseph W

    2005-10-28

    The external loop linking the M2 and M3 transmembrane domains is crucial for coupling agonist binding to channel gating in the glycine receptor chloride channel (GlyR). A substituted cysteine accessibility scan previously showed that glycine activation increased the surface accessibility of 6 contiguous residues (Arg271-Lys276) toward the N-terminal end of the homomeric alpha1 GlyR M2-M3 loop. In the present study we used a similar approach to determine whether the allosteric antagonist, picrotoxin, could impose conformational changes to this domain that cannot be induced by varying agonist concentrations alone. Picrotoxin slowed the reaction rate of a sulfhydryl-containing compound (MTSET) with A272C, S273C, and L274C. Before interpreting this as a picrotoxin-specific conformational change, it was necessary to eliminate the possibility of steric competition between picrotoxin and MTSET. Accordingly, we showed that picrotoxin and the structurally unrelated blocker, bilobalide, were both trapped in the R271C GlyR in the closed state and that a point mutation to the pore-lining Thr6' residue abolished inhibition by both compounds. We also demonstrated that the picrotoxin dissociation rate was linearly related to the channel open probability. These observations constitute a strong case for picrotoxin binding in the pore. We thus conclude that the picrotoxin-specific effects on the M2-M3 loop are mediated allosterically. This suggests that the M2-M3 loop responds differently to the occupation of different binding sites.

  6. Study of the solidification of M2 high speed steel Laser Cladding coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candel, J. J.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available High speed steel laser cladding coatings are complex because cracks appear and the hardness is lower than expected. In this paper AISI M2 tool steel coatings on medium carbon AISI 1045 steel substrate have been manufactured and after Laser Cladding (LC processing it has been applied a tempering heat treatment to reduce the amount of retained austenite and to precipitate secondary carbides. The study of metallurgical transformations by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD shows that the microstructure is extremely fine and complex, with eutectic transformations and MC, M2C and M6C precipitation. Therefore, after the laser coating is necessary to use post-weld heat treatments.Los recubrimientos de acero rápido por Laser Cladding (LC son complejos porque aparecen fisuras y la dureza es menor a la esperada. En este trabajo se han fabricado recubrimientos de acero AISI M2 sobre acero al carbono AISI 1045 y tras el procesado por láser, se han revenido para reducir la cantidad de austenita retenida y precipitar carburos secundarios. El estudio de las transformaciones metalúrgicas con Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido (MEB y Difracción de Electrones Retrodispersados (EBSD muestra que la microestructura es extremadamente fina y compleja, presenta transformaciones eutécticas y precipitación de carburos MC, M2C y M6C. Por tanto, tras el recubrimiento por láser es necesario recurrir a tratamientos térmicos post-soldeo.

  7. Study of the solidification of M2 high speed steel Laser Cladding coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Candel Bou, Juan Jose; Franconetti Rodríguez, Patricia; Amigó Borrás, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    [EN] High speed steel laser cladding coatings are complex because cracks appear and the hardness is lower than expected. In this paper AISI M2 tool steel coatings on medium carbon AISI 1045 steel substrate have been manufactured and after laser cladding (LC) processing it has been applied a tempering heat treatment to reduce the amount of retained austenite and to precipitate secondary carbides. The study of metallurgical transformations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and backscattered...

  8. TPL-2 Regulates Macrophage Lipid Metabolism and M2 Differentiation to Control TH2-Mediated Immunopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, Lewis J.; Khoury, Hania; Papoutsopoulou, Stamatia; Mahmood, Radma; Mansour, Nuha R.; Ching-Cheng Huang, Stanley; Pearce, Edward J.; Pedro S. de Carvalho, Luiz; Ley, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent TH2 cytokine responses following chronic helminth infections can often lead to the development of tissue pathology and fibrotic scarring. Despite a good understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in fibrogenesis, there are very few therapeutic options available, highlighting a significant medical need and gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TH2-mediated immunopathology. In this study, we found that the Map3 kinase, TPL-2 (Map3k8; Cot) regulated TH2-mediated intestinal, hepatic and pulmonary immunopathology following Schistosoma mansoni infection or S. mansoni egg injection. Elevated inflammation, TH2 cell responses and exacerbated fibrosis in Map3k8–/–mice was observed in mice with myeloid cell-specific (LysM) deletion of Map3k8, but not CD4 cell-specific deletion of Map3k8, indicating that TPL-2 regulated myeloid cell function to limit TH2-mediated immunopathology. Transcriptional and metabolic assays of Map3k8–/–M2 macrophages identified that TPL-2 was required for lipolysis, M2 macrophage activation and the expression of a variety of genes involved in immuno-regulatory and pro-fibrotic pathways. Taken together this study identified that TPL-2 regulated TH2-mediated inflammation by supporting lipolysis and M2 macrophage activation, preventing TH2 cell expansion and downstream immunopathology and fibrosis. PMID:27487182

  9. Parthenolide Relieves Pain and Promotes M2 Microglia/Macrophage Polarization in Rat Model of Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Popiolek-Barczyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain treatment remains a challenge because pathomechanism is not fully understood. It is believed that glial activation and increased spinal nociceptive factors are crucial for neuropathy. We investigated the effect of parthenolide (PTL on the chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI-induced neuropathy in rat. We analyzed spinal changes in glial markers and M1 and M2 polarization factors, as well as intracellular signaling pathways. PTL (5 µg; i.t. was preemptively and then daily administered for 7 days after CCI. PTL attenuated the allodynia and hyperalgesia and increased the protein level of IBA1 (a microglial/macrophage marker but did not change GFAP (an astrocyte marker on day 7 after CCI. PTL reduced the protein level of M1 (IL-1β, IL-18, and iNOS and enhanced M2 (IL-10, TIMP1 factors. In addition, it downregulated the phosphorylated form of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 protein level and upregulated STAT3. In primary microglial cell culture we have shown that IL-1β, IL-18, iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, and TIMP1 are of microglial origin. Summing up, PTL directly or indirectly attenuates neuropathy symptoms and promotes M2 microglia/macrophages polarization. We suggest that neuropathic pain therapies should be shifted from blanketed microglia/macrophage suppression toward maintenance of the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic microglia/macrophage phenotypes.

  10. Parthenolide Relieves Pain and Promotes M2 Microglia/Macrophage Polarization in Rat Model of Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Kolosowska, Natalia; Piotrowska, Anna; Makuch, Wioletta; Rojewska, Ewelina; Jurga, Agnieszka M; Pilat, Dominika; Mika, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain treatment remains a challenge because pathomechanism is not fully understood. It is believed that glial activation and increased spinal nociceptive factors are crucial for neuropathy. We investigated the effect of parthenolide (PTL) on the chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI)-induced neuropathy in rat. We analyzed spinal changes in glial markers and M1 and M2 polarization factors, as well as intracellular signaling pathways. PTL (5 µg; i.t.) was preemptively and then daily administered for 7 days after CCI. PTL attenuated the allodynia and hyperalgesia and increased the protein level of IBA1 (a microglial/macrophage marker) but did not change GFAP (an astrocyte marker) on day 7 after CCI. PTL reduced the protein level of M1 (IL-1β, IL-18, and iNOS) and enhanced M2 (IL-10, TIMP1) factors. In addition, it downregulated the phosphorylated form of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 protein level and upregulated STAT3. In primary microglial cell culture we have shown that IL-1β, IL-18, iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, and TIMP1 are of microglial origin. Summing up, PTL directly or indirectly attenuates neuropathy symptoms and promotes M2 microglia/macrophages polarization. We suggest that neuropathic pain therapies should be shifted from blanketed microglia/macrophage suppression toward maintenance of the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic microglia/macrophage phenotypes.

  11. Parthenolide Relieves Pain and Promotes M2 Microglia/Macrophage Polarization in Rat Model of Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiolek-Barczyk, Katarzyna; Kolosowska, Natalia; Makuch, Wioletta; Rojewska, Ewelina; Jurga, Agnieszka M.; Pilat, Dominika

    2015-01-01

    Neuropathic pain treatment remains a challenge because pathomechanism is not fully understood. It is believed that glial activation and increased spinal nociceptive factors are crucial for neuropathy. We investigated the effect of parthenolide (PTL) on the chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (CCI)-induced neuropathy in rat. We analyzed spinal changes in glial markers and M1 and M2 polarization factors, as well as intracellular signaling pathways. PTL (5 µg; i.t.) was preemptively and then daily administered for 7 days after CCI. PTL attenuated the allodynia and hyperalgesia and increased the protein level of IBA1 (a microglial/macrophage marker) but did not change GFAP (an astrocyte marker) on day 7 after CCI. PTL reduced the protein level of M1 (IL-1β, IL-18, and iNOS) and enhanced M2 (IL-10, TIMP1) factors. In addition, it downregulated the phosphorylated form of NF-κB, p38MAPK, and ERK1/2 protein level and upregulated STAT3. In primary microglial cell culture we have shown that IL-1β, IL-18, iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, and TIMP1 are of microglial origin. Summing up, PTL directly or indirectly attenuates neuropathy symptoms and promotes M2 microglia/macrophages polarization. We suggest that neuropathic pain therapies should be shifted from blanketed microglia/macrophage suppression toward maintenance of the balance between neuroprotective and neurotoxic microglia/macrophage phenotypes. PMID:26090236

  12. Access Control in IoT/M2M - Cloud Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anggorojati, Bayu

    and quality of life. This paradigm, which is often called Internet of Things (IoT) or Machine-to-Machine (M2M), will provide an unprecedented opportunity to create applications and services that go far beyond the mere purpose of each participant. Many studies on the both technical and social aspects of IoT...... of a system can be accessed by other parties by means of a set of access policies. For an IoT system such as Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) that collects huge amounts of RFID events data and may store it in the cloud storage for tracking purpose, access control to such data becomes a critical point...... management in RFID system is of paramount importance. A distributed cloud platform approach for the IoT/M2M, which consists of a set of IoT/M2M gateways, is introduced to cope with some inherent issues of IoT network which is highly heterogeneous and distributed in nature. As aresult, access control becomes...

  13. Determination of Foton M-2 satellite attitude motion by the data of microacceleration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuselinck, T.; van Bavinchove, C.; Sazonov, V. V.; Chebukov, S. Yu.

    2009-12-01

    The results of reconstruction of uncontrolled attitude motion of the Foton M-2 satellite using measurements with the accelerometer TAS-3 are presented. The attitude motion of this satellite has been previously determined by the measurement data of the Earth’s magnetic field and the angular velocity. The TAS-3 data for this purpose are used for the first time. These data contain a well-pronounced additional component which made impossible their direct employment for the reconstruction of the attitude motion and whose origin was unknown several years ago. Later it has become known that the additional component is caused by the influence of the Earth’s magnetic field. The disclosure of this fact allowed us to take into account a necessary correction in processing of TAS-3 data and to use them for the reconstruction of the attitude motion of Foton M-2. Here, a modified method of processing TAS-3 data is described, as well as results of its testing and employing. The testing consisted in the direct comparison of the motion reconstructed by the new method with the motion constructed by the magnetic measurements. The new method allowed us to find the actual motion of Foton M-2 in the period June 9, 2005-June 14, 2005, when no magnetic measurements were carried out.

  14. TPL-2 Regulates Macrophage Lipid Metabolism and M2 Differentiation to Control TH2-Mediated Immunopathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashaswini Kannan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Persistent TH2 cytokine responses following chronic helminth infections can often lead to the development of tissue pathology and fibrotic scarring. Despite a good understanding of the cellular mechanisms involved in fibrogenesis, there are very few therapeutic options available, highlighting a significant medical need and gap in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of TH2-mediated immunopathology. In this study, we found that the Map3 kinase, TPL-2 (Map3k8; Cot regulated TH2-mediated intestinal, hepatic and pulmonary immunopathology following Schistosoma mansoni infection or S. mansoni egg injection. Elevated inflammation, TH2 cell responses and exacerbated fibrosis in Map3k8-/-mice was observed in mice with myeloid cell-specific (LysM deletion of Map3k8, but not CD4 cell-specific deletion of Map3k8, indicating that TPL-2 regulated myeloid cell function to limit TH2-mediated immunopathology. Transcriptional and metabolic assays of Map3k8-/-M2 macrophages identified that TPL-2 was required for lipolysis, M2 macrophage activation and the expression of a variety of genes involved in immuno-regulatory and pro-fibrotic pathways. Taken together this study identified that TPL-2 regulated TH2-mediated inflammation by supporting lipolysis and M2 macrophage activation, preventing TH2 cell expansion and downstream immunopathology and fibrosis.

  15. Fasciola hepatica tegumental antigens indirectly induce an M2 macrophage-like phenotype in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P N; Aldridge, A; Vukman, K V; Donnelly, S; O'Neill, S M

    2014-10-01

    The M2 subset of macrophages has a critical role to play in host tissue repair, tissue fibrosis and modulation of adaptive immunity during helminth infection. Infection with the helminth, Fasciola hepatica, is associated with M2 macrophages in its mammalian host, and this response is mimicked by its excretory-secretory products (FhES). The tegumental coat of F. hepatica (FhTeg) is another major source of immune-modulatory molecules; we have previously shown that FhTeg can modulate the activity of both dendritic cells and mast cells inhibiting their ability to prime a Th1 immune response. Here, we report that FhTeg does not induce Th2 immune responses but can induce M2-like phenotype in vivo that modulates cytokine production from CD4(+) cells in response to anti-CD3 stimulation. FhTeg induces a RELMα expressing macrophage population in vitro, while in vivo, the expression of Arg1 and Ym-1/2 but not RELMα in FhTeg-stimulated macrophages was STAT6 dependent. To support this finding, FhTeg induces RELMα expression in vivo prior to the induction of IL-13. FhTeg can induce IL-13-producing peritoneal macrophages following intraperitoneal injection This study highlights the important role of FhTeg as an immune-modulatory source during F. hepatica infection and sheds further light on helminth-macrophage interactions.

  16. Characterization of the hrpZ gene from Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicolaM2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Mejía, César; Rodríguez-Ríos, Dalia; Hernández-Guzmán, Gustavo; López-Ramírez, Varinia; Valenzuela-Soto, Humberto; Marsch, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola is a natural pathogen of members of the Brassicaceae plant family. Using a transposon-based mutagenesis strategy in Pseudomonas syringaepv. maculicola M2 (PsmM2), we conducted a genetic screen to identify mutants that were capable of growing in M9 medium supplemented with a crude extract from the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. A mutant containing a transposon insertion in the hrpZ gene (PsmMut8) was unable to infect adult plants from Arabidopsis thaliana or Brassica oleracea, suggesting a loss of pathogenicity. The promotorless cat reporter present in the gene trap was expressed if PsmMut8 was grown in minimal medium (M9) supplemented with the leaf extract but not if grown in normal rich medium (KB). We conducted phylogenetic analysis using hrpAZB genes, showing the classical 5-clade distribution, and nucleotide diversity analysis, showing the putative position for selective pressure in this operon. Our results indicate that the hrpAZB operon from Pseudomonas syringaepv. maculicola M2 is necessary for its pathogenicity and that its diversity would be under host-mediated diversifying selection. PMID:26413080

  17. RESTful M2M Gateway for Remote Wireless Monitoring for District Central Heating Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Cheng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the increased interest in energy conservation and environmental protection, combined with the development of modern communication and computer technology, has resulted in the replacement of distributed heating by central heating in urban areas. This paper proposes a Representational State Transfer (REST Machine-to-Machine (M2M gateway for wireless remote monitoring for a district central heating network. In particular, we focus on the resource-oriented RESTful M2M gateway architecture, and present an uniform devices abstraction approach based on Open Service Gateway Initiative (OSGi technology, and implement the resource mapping mechanism between resource address mapping mechanism between RESTful resources and the physical sensor devices, and present the buffer queue combined with polling method to implement the data scheduling and Quality of Service (QoS guarantee, and also give the RESTful M2M gateway open service Application Programming Interface (API set. The performance has been measured and analyzed. Finally, the conclusions and future work are presented.

  18. β-elemene inhibits tumor-promoting effect of M2 macrophages in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaomu; Xu, Maoyi; Li, Na; Li, Zongjuan; Li, Hongye; Shao, Shujuan; Zou, Kun; Zou, Lijuan

    2017-08-19

    Macrophages in tumor are mostly M2-polarized and have been reported to promote tumorigenesis, which are also defined as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). β-elemene has therapeutic effects against several cancers, however, it remains unknown whether β-elemene could inhibit cancer by targeting TAMs. Herein, we examined the effect of β-elemene on macrophages to elucidate a novel mechanism of β-elemene in tumor therapy. We showed that the conditioned medium of M2 macrophages promoted lung cancer cells to migration, invasion and epithelial mesenchymal transition, which could be inhibited by β-elemene. Moreover, β-elemene regulated the polarization of macrophages from M2 to M1. β-elemene also inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion of lung cancer cells and enhanced its radiosensitivity. These results indicate β-elemene suppresses lung cancer by regulating both macrophages and lung cancer cells, it is a promising drug for combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Tumor-derived interleukin-1 promotes lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis through M2-type macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Watari

    Full Text Available Tumors formed by a highly metastatic human lung cancer cell line are characterized by activated signaling via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-C through its receptor (VEGFR-3 and aggressive lymph node metastasis. In this study, we examined how these highly metastatic cancers acquired aggressive lymph node metastasis. Compared with their lower metastatic counterparts, the highly metastatic tumors formed by this cell line expressed higher amounts of interleukin (IL-1α, with similarly augmented expression of IL-1α and IL-1β by tumor stromal cells and of VEGF-A and VEGF-C by tumor-associated macrophages. These tumor-associated macrophages were mainly of the M2 type. Administration of a macrophage-targeting drug suppressed the production of these potent angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors, resulting in decreased tumor growth, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and lymph node metastasis. In Matrigel plug assays, the highly metastatic cells formed tumors that were extensively infiltrated by M2-type macrophages and exhibited enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. All of these responses were suppressed by the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R antagonist anakinra. Thus, the IL-1α-driven inflammatory activation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis seems to provide a highly metastatic tumor microenvironment favorable for lymph node metastasis through cross-talk with macrophages. Accordingly, the IL-1R/M2-type macrophage axis may be a good therapeutic target for patients with this form of lung cancer.

  20. Tumor-derived interleukin-1 promotes lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis through M2-type macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watari, Kosuke; Shibata, Tomohiro; Kawahara, Akihiko; Sata, Ken-ichi; Nabeshima, Hiroshi; Shinoda, Ai; Abe, Hideyuki; Azuma, Koichi; Murakami, Yuichi; Izumi, Hiroto; Takahashi, Takashi; Kage, Masayoshi; Kuwano, Michihiko; Ono, Mayumi

    2014-01-01

    Tumors formed by a highly metastatic human lung cancer cell line are characterized by activated signaling via vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C through its receptor (VEGFR-3) and aggressive lymph node metastasis. In this study, we examined how these highly metastatic cancers acquired aggressive lymph node metastasis. Compared with their lower metastatic counterparts, the highly metastatic tumors formed by this cell line expressed higher amounts of interleukin (IL)-1α, with similarly augmented expression of IL-1α and IL-1β by tumor stromal cells and of VEGF-A and VEGF-C by tumor-associated macrophages. These tumor-associated macrophages were mainly of the M2 type. Administration of a macrophage-targeting drug suppressed the production of these potent angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors, resulting in decreased tumor growth, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and lymph node metastasis. In Matrigel plug assays, the highly metastatic cells formed tumors that were extensively infiltrated by M2-type macrophages and exhibited enhanced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. All of these responses were suppressed by the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) antagonist anakinra. Thus, the IL-1α-driven inflammatory activation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis seems to provide a highly metastatic tumor microenvironment favorable for lymph node metastasis through cross-talk with macrophages. Accordingly, the IL-1R/M2-type macrophage axis may be a good therapeutic target for patients with this form of lung cancer.

  1. Extracellular mycobacterial DnaK polarizes macrophages to the M2-like phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael L Lopes

    Full Text Available Macrophages are myeloid cells that play an essential role in inflammation and host defense, regulating immune responses and maintaining tissue homeostasis. Depending on the microenvironment, macrophages can polarize to two distinct phenotypes. The M1 phenotype is activated by IFN-γ and bacterial products, and displays an inflammatory profile, while M2 macrophages are activated by IL-4 and tend to be anti-inflammatory or immunosupressive. It was observed that DnaK from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has immunosuppressive properties, inducing a tolerogenic phenotype in dendritic cells and MDSCs, contributing to graft acceptance and tumor growth. However, its role in macrophage polarization remains to be elucidated. We asked whether DnaK was able to modulate macrophage phenotype. Murine macrophages, derived from bone marrow, or from the peritoneum, were incubated with DnaK and their phenotype compared to M1 or M2 polarized macrophages. Treatment with DnaK leads macrophages to present higher arginase I activity, IL-10 production and FIZZ1 and Ym1 expression. Furthermore, DnaK increased surface levels of CD206. Importantly, DnaK-treated macrophages were able to promote tumor growth in an allogeneic melanoma model. Our results suggest that DnaK polarizes macrophages to the M2-like phenotype and could constitute a virulence factor and is an important immunomodulator of macrophage responses.

  2. The outer envelopes of globular clusters - I. NGC 7089 (M2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzma, P. B.; Da Costa, G. S.; Mackey, A. D.; Roderick, T. A.

    2016-10-01

    We present the results of a wide-field imaging survey of the periphery of the Milky Way globular cluster NGC 7089 (M2). Data were obtained with MegaCam on the Magellan Clay Telescope and the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco Telescope. We find that M2 is embedded in a diffuse stellar envelope extending to a radial distance of at least ˜60 arcmin (˜210 pc) - five times the nominal tidal radius of the cluster. The envelope appears nearly circular in shape, has a radial density decline well described by a power law of index γ = -2.2 ± 0.2, and contains approximately 1.6 per cent of the luminosity of the entire system. While the origin of the envelope cannot be robustly identified using the presently available data, the fact that M2 also hosts stellar populations exhibiting a broad dispersion in the abundances of both iron and a variety of neutron capture elements suggests that this object might plausibly constitute the stripped nucleus of a dwarf galaxy that was long ago accreted and destroyed by the Milky Way.

  3. The Outer Envelopes of Globular Clusters. I. NGC 7089 (M2)

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzma, P B; Mackey, A D; Roderick, T A

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a wide-field imaging survey of the periphery of the Milky Way globular cluster NGC 7089 (M2). Data were obtained with MegaCam on the Magellan Clay Telescope, and the Dark Energy Camera on the Blanco Telescope. We find that M2 is embedded in a diffuse stellar envelope extending to a radial distance of at least $\\sim 60^{\\prime}$ ($\\sim 210$ pc) -- five times the nominal tidal radius of the cluster. The envelope appears nearly circular in shape, has a radial density decline well described by a power law of index $\\gamma = -2.2 \\pm 0.2$, and contains approximately $1.6\\%$ of the luminosity of the entire system. While the origin of the envelope cannot be robustly identified using the presently available data, the fact that M2 also hosts stellar populations exhibiting a broad dispersion in the abundances of both iron and a variety of neutron capture elements suggests that this object might plausibly constitute the stripped nucleus of a dwarf Galaxy that was long ago accreted and destroyed...

  4. Moldeo por inyección del acero rápido M2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Román, J. M.

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study the feasibility of Powder Injection Molding in order to obtain M2 High Speed Steels with higher performances than those obtained by conventional P/M. With this object trials have been carried out in order to optimize all the process steps (mixing, injection, debinding and sintering, and to evaluate the mechanical properties (hardness and transverse tensile strengh of the manufactured M2 HSS sample.

    Se estudia la viabilidad de la tecnología de Moldeo por Inyección de Polvos (MIM en la fabricación con acero rápido M2 a fin de obtener componentes de este material de prestaciones superiores a las que se consiguen mediante métodos convencionales pulvimetalúrgicos. Los ensayos realizados se han dirigido a optimizar los parámetros de la eliminación del ligante y de la sinterización, con objeto de controlar el contenido de carbono y la densidad final de las piezas, así como evitar la aparición de los defectos típicos de esta tecnología.

  5. Measurement of M2-Curve for Asymmetric Beams by Self-Referencing Interferometer Wavefront Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhao Du

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available For asymmetric laser beams, the values of beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 are inconsistent if one selects a different coordinate system or measures beam quality with different experimental conditionals, even when analyzing the same beam. To overcome this non-uniqueness, a new beam quality characterization method named as M2-curve is developed. The M2-curve not only contains the beam quality factor M x 2 and M y 2 in the x-direction and y-direction, respectively; but also introduces a curve of M x α 2 versus rotation angle α of coordinate axis. Moreover, we also present a real-time measurement method to demonstrate beam propagation factor M2-curve with a modified self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer based-wavefront sensor (henceforth SRI-WFS. The feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated with the theoretical analysis and experiment in multimode beams. The experimental results showed that the proposed measurement method is simple, fast, and a single-shot measurement procedure without movable parts.

  6. Conformational variability of the glycine receptor M2 domain in response to activation by different agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pless, Stephan A; Dibas, Mohammed I; Lester, Henry A; Lynch, Joseph W

    2007-12-07

    Models describing the structural changes mediating Cys loop receptor activation generally give little attention to the possibility that different agonists may promote activation via distinct M2 pore-lining domain structural rearrangements. We investigated this question by comparing the effects of different ligands on the conformation of the external portion of the homomeric alpha1 glycine receptor M2 domain. Conformational flexibility was assessed by tethering a rhodamine fluorophore to cysteines introduced at the 19' or 22' positions and monitoring fluorescence and current changes during channel activation. During glycine activation, fluorescence of the label attached to R19'C increased by approximately 20%, and the emission peak shifted to lower wavelengths, consistent with a more hydrophobic fluorophore environment. In contrast, ivermectin activated the receptors without producing a fluorescence change. Although taurine and beta-alanine were weak partial agonists at the alpha1R19'C glycine receptor, they induced large fluorescence changes. Propofol, which drastically enhanced these currents, did not induce a glycine-like blue shift in the spectral emission peak. The inhibitors strychnine and picrotoxin elicited fluorescence and current changes as expected for a competitive antagonist and an open channel blocker, respectively. Glycine and taurine (or beta-alanine) also produced an increase and a decrease, respectively, in the fluorescence of a label attached to the nearby L22'C residue. Thus, results from two separate labeled residues support the conclusion that the glycine receptor M2 domain responds with distinct conformational changes to activation by different agonists.

  7. Clinical significance of blood and fecal tumor M2-pyruvate kinase expression in patients with colorectal cancer%结直肠癌患者血清、粪便中M2-PK表达的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 王俊江

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨结直肠癌患者血清和粪便中肿瘤M2型丙酮酸激酶(M2-PK)表达的临床意义.方法 收集44例结直肠癌患者和22名健康人血液和粪便标本,采用ELISA方法检测tumor M2-PK表达水平.结果 血清M2-PK和粪便M2-PK对结直肠癌的诊断的敏感性分别为59.1%、63.6%,特异性分别为86.4%、81.8%.血清M2 -PK和粪便M2-PK的吻合度有统计学意义.结论 血清和粪便tumor M2-PK的检测对结直肠癌的诊断有重要价值,值得进一步研究.%Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of blood and fecal expression of tumor M2-pyruvate kinase (Tumor M2-PK) in patients with colorectal cancer. Methods With 22 healthy subjects as controls, 44 patients with CRC were examined for tumor M2-PK in serum and fecal samples using a sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Results The sensitivity of serum and fecal tumor M2-PK for detecting CRC was 59.1% and 63.6% with a specificity of 86.4% and 81.8%, respectively. The serum and fecal levels of tumor M2-PK showed a significant correlation in CRC patients. Conclusions Tumor M2-PK has good sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of CRC.

  8. Thermal testing results of an electroformed nickel secondary (M2) mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Gale, David M.; Cabrera Cuevas, Lizeth; Lucero Álvarez, Maribel; Castro Santos, David; Olmos Tapia, Arak

    2016-07-01

    To support higher-frequency operation, the Large Millimeter Telescope/Gran Telescopio Milimetrico (or LMT/GTM) is replacing its existing monolithic aluminum secondary mirror (M2). The new mirror is a segmented design based on the same electroformed nickel reflector panel technology that is already in use for the primary reflector segments. While the new M2 is lighter and has better surface accuracy than the original mirror, the electroformed panels are more sensitive to high temperatures. During the design phase, concerns were raised over the level of temperature increase that could occur at M2 during daytime observations. Although the panel surface is designed to scatter visible light, the LMT primary mirror is large enough to cause substantial solar heating, even at significant angular separation from the Sun. To address these concerns, the project conducted a series of field tests, within the constraint of having minimum impact on night time observations. The supplier sent two coupon samples of a reflector panel prepared identically to their proposed M2 surface. Temperature sensors were mounted on the samples and they were temporarily secured to the existing M2 mirror at different distances from the center. The goal was to obtain direct monitoring of the surface temperature under site thermal conditions and the concentration effects from the primary reflector. With the sensors installed, the telescope was then commanded to track the Sun with an elevation offset. Initially, elevation offsets from as far as 40 degrees to as close as 6 degrees were tested. The 6 degree separation test quickly passed the target maximum temperature and the telescope was returned to a safer separation. Based on these initial results, a second set of tests was performed using elevation separations from 30 degrees to 8 degrees. To account for the variability of site conditions, the temperature data were analyzed using multiple metrics. These metrics included maximum temperature, final

  9. Glass mirrors by cold slumping to cover 100 m2 of the MAGIC II Cherenkov telescope reflecting surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, G.; Giro, E.; Banham, R.; Basso, S.; Bastieri, D.; Canestrari, R.; Ceppatelli, G.; Citterio, O.; Doro, M.; Ghigo, M.; Marioni, F.; Mariotti, M.; Salvati, M.; Sanvito, F.; Vernani, D.

    2008-07-01

    We report on the production and implementation of 100 square panels 1 m x 1 m, based on the innovative approach of cold slumping of thin glass sheets. The more than 100 segments will cover around one half of the 240 m-square reflecting surface of the MAGIC II, a clone of the atmospheric Cherenkov telescope MAGIC I (with a single-dish 17 m diameter mirror) which is already operating since late 2003 at La Palma. The MAGIC II telescope will be completed by the end of 2008 and will operate in stereoscopic mode with MAGIC I. While the central part of the of the reflector is composed of by diamond milled Aluminum of 1m2 area panels (following a design similar to that already used for MAGIC I), the outer coronas will be made of sandwiched glass segments. The glass panel production foresees the following steps: a) a thin glass sheet (1-2mm) is elastically deformed so as to retain the shape imparted by a master with convex profile - the radius of curvature is large, the sheet can be pressed against the master using vacuum suction -; b) on the deformed glass sheet a honeycomb structure that provides the needed rigidity is glued ; c) then a second glass sheet is glued on the top in order to obtain a sandwich; d) after on the concave side a reflecting coating (Aluminum) and a thin protective coating (Quartz) are deposited. The typical weight of each panel is about 12 kg and its resolution is better than 1 mrad at a level of diameter that contains the 90% of the energy reflected by the mirror; the areal cost of glass panels is ~2 k per 1m2. The technology based on cold slumping is a good candidate for the production of the primary mirrors of the telescopes forming the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA), the future large TeV observatory currently being studied in Europe. Details on the realization of MAGIC II new mirrors based on cold slumping glass will be presented.

  10. First Global Climate Model Simulations of the M2 Pliocene Glacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, A.; Haywood, A.; Hunter, S. J.; Tindall, J.; Valdes, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Pliocene Epoch (5.2 to 2.6 Ma) and specifically the PRISM interval (3.0 to 3.3 Ma) have frequently been targeted to investigate warm intervals in Earth history (e.g. Haywood et al., 2013). However, climate variability within the Pliocene is often overlooked. Although not as dramatic as the glacial and interglacial cycles that typified the Pleistocene, the Pliocene also exhibited climate variability and periods which were apparently cooler than modern (Lisiecki and Raymo, 2005). Of particular interest is the major cooling event that occurred around 3.3 Ma during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) M2. This 'Pliocene glacial' punctuates an otherwise relatively warm background climate and has been referred to as a failed attempt of the climate to reach a full glacial state (De Schepper et al., 2009; Haug and Tiedemann, 1998). The onset of full Northern Hemisphere (NH) glaciation finally occurred at the end of the Pliocene (~ 2.75 Ma). Although numerous temperature reconstructions from around the world's oceans tend to capture the MIS M2 cooling event, the exact nature of M2 remains enigmatic. Sea level records vary but suggest a maximum sea level drop of ~65 m compared to modern, which in itself is significant enough to necessitate the growth of a NH ice sheet (Dwyer and Chandler, 2009). Previous ice sheet modelling suggests that ~8 m sea level equivalent (SLE) ice could be stored on Antarctica (Pollard and DeConto, 2009) and this larger ice sheet (compared to modern) is potentially supported by the increase in ice-rafted debris (IRD) found offshore of East Antarctica during this time (Passchier, 2011). IRD in the North Atlantic would suggest the presence of an ice sheet on Greenland (e.g. Kleiven et al., 2002), but the locations of other ice caps in the NH are not determined due to the destructive nature of subsequent Pleistocene ice sheet advances. Moreover, recent evidence questions whether the climate in the NH was favourable at all for the initiation of ice sheets

  11. Safety and pharmacokinetics of 120 mg/kg versus 60 mg/kg weekly intravenous infusions of alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, crossover study (SPARK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Michael A; Kueppers, Friedrich; Stocks, James M; Strange, Charlie; Chen, Junliang; Griffin, Rhonda; Wang-Smith, Laurene; Brantly, Mark L

    2013-12-01

    Augmentation therapy with the approved dose of 60 mg/kg weekly intravenous (IV) alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (alpha1-PI), achieves a trough serum level of 11 μM in individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), yet this is still below the level observed in healthy individuals. This study assessed the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of weekly infusions of a 120 mg/kg dose of alpha1-PI in 30 adults with AATD. Subjects with symptomatic, genetically determined (genotypes PI*ZZ, PI*Z(null), PI*(null)(null) or PI*(Z)Mmalton) AATD were randomly assigned to weekly infusions of 60 or 120 mg/kg alpha1-PI (Prolastin-C®) for 8 weeks before crossing over to the alternate dose for 8 weeks. Adverse events (AEs) (including exacerbations), vital signs, pulmonary function tests, and laboratory assessments were recorded. Pharmacokinetic measurements included AUC0-7days, Cmax, trough, tmax, and t1/2, based on serum alpha1-PI concentrations. In total for both treatments, 112 AEs were reported, with exacerbation of COPD being the most frequent, consistent with the subjects' diagnoses. Mean steady-state serum alpha1-PI concentrations following 120 mg/kg weekly IV alpha1-PI were higher than with the 60 mg/kg dose and mean trough concentrations were 27.7 versus 17.3 μM, respectively. Dose proportionality was demonstrated for AUC0-7days and Cmax, with low inter-subject variability. The 120 mg/kg alpha1-PI weekly dose was considered to be safe and well tolerated, and provided more favorable physiologic alpha1-PI serum levels than the currently recommended 60 mg/kg dose. The effect of this dosing regimen on slowing and/or preventing emphysema progression in subjects with AATD warrants further investigation.

  12. Dale Reed with model in front of M2-F1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1967-01-01

    Dale Reed with a model of the M2-F1 in front of the actual lifting body. Reed used the model to show the potential of the lifting bodies. He first flew it into tall grass to test stability and trim, then hand-launched it from buildings for longer flights. Finally, he towed the lifting-body model aloft using a powered model airplane known as the 'Mothership.' A timer released the model and it glided to a landing. Dale's wife Donna used a 9 mm. camera to film the flights of the model. Its stability as it glided--despite its lack of wings--convinced Milt Thompson and some Flight Research Center engineers including the center director, Paul Bikle, that a piloted lifting body was possible. The lifting body concept evolved in the mid-1950s as researchers considered alternatives to ballistic reentries of piloted space capsules. The designs for hypersonic, wingless vehicles were on the boards at NASA Ames and NASA Langley facilities, while the US Air Force was gearing up for its Dyna-Soar program, which defined the need for a spacecraft that would land like an airplane. Despite favorable research on lifting bodies, there was little support for a flight program. Dryden engineer R. Dale Reed was intrigued with the lifting body concept, and reasoned that some sort of flight demonstration was needed before wingless aircraft could be taken seriously. In February 1962, he built a model lifting body based upon the Ames M2 design, and air-launched it from a radio controlled 'mothership.' Home movies of these flights, plus the support of research pilot Milt Thompson, helped pursuade the facilities director, Paul Bikle, to give the go-ahead for the construction of a full-scale version, to be used as a wind-tunnel model and possibly flown as a glider. Comparing lifting bodies to space capsules, an unofficial motto of the project was, 'Don't be Rescued from Outer Space--Fly Back in Style.' The construction of the M2-F1 was a joint effort by Dryden and a local glider manufacturer, the

  13. Ototoxicity of 12 mg/kg cisplatin in the Fischer 344/NHsd rat using multiple dosing strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Ryan T; Seiler, Brittany M; Bielefeld, Eric C

    2016-09-01

    Ototoxicity continues to be a major dose-limiting side effect of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin). With an ongoing need to develop pharmaceutical protection strategies for cisplatin's ototoxicity, there is also a need to develop stable in-vivo mammalian models of cisplatin ototoxicity. The current study examined the difference in ototoxicity of a cumulative 12 mg/kg dose of cisplatin in the Fischer 344/NHsd rat when administered over four different dosing protocols. Hearing sensitivity was measured using free-field auditory brainstem response thresholds under anesthesia. Rats were divided into four groups. The first group was administered 12 mg/kg of cisplatin in a single bolus infusion. The second group was administered two 6 mg/kg infusions separated by 7 days. The third group was administered 3 mg/kg injections once per day for 4 consecutive days. The fourth group was administered 3 mg/kg injections in four injections separated by 3 days each. Hearing thresholds and body weights were measured at 3 and 7 days after the final cisplatin exposure. Postmortem sensory cell counts were used to confirm injury to the auditory system. The 4 consecutive days of 3 mg/kg induced a greater mortality rate and greater hearing loss at day 3 than the other experimental protocols. The 3 mg/kg administered every 3 days induced less sensory cell loss than the other conditions. The findings indicate that 4 consecutive days of 3 mg/kg cisplatin is not a viable ototoxicity model in the Fischer 344/NHsd rat, but that the other models are all effective in inducing comparable cochlear injuries.

  14. Carboxyl- and amino-functionalized polystyrene nanoparticles differentially affect the polarization profile of M1 and M2 macrophage subsets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Ann-Kathrin; Syrovets, Tatiana; Haas, Karina A; Loos, Cornelia; Musyanovych, Anna; Mailänder, Volker; Landfester, Katharina; Simmet, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Macrophages are key regulators of innate and adaptive immune responses. Exposure to microenvironmental stimuli determines their polarization into proinflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. M1 exhibit high expression of proinflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β, and M2 promote tissue repair, but likewise support tumor growth and cause immune suppression by expressing IL-10. Thus, the M1/M2 balance critically determines tissue homeostasis. By using carboxyl- (PS-COOH) and amino-functionalized (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles, the effects of surface decoration on the polarization of human macrophages were investigated. The nanoparticles did not compromise macrophage viability nor did they affect the expression of the M1 markers CD86, NOS2, TNF-α, and IL-1β. By contrast, in M2, both nanoparticles impaired expression of scavenger receptor CD163 and CD200R, and the release of IL-10. PS-NH2 also inhibited phagocytosis of Escherichia coli by both, M1 and M2. PS-COOH did not impair phagocytosis by M2, but increased protein mass in M1 and M2, TGF-β1 release by M1, and ATP levels in M2. Thus, nanoparticles skew the M2 macrophage polarization without affecting M1 markers. Given the critical role of the M1 and M2 polarization for the immunological balance in patients with cancer or chronic inflammation, functionalized nanoparticles might serve as tools for reprogramming the M1/M2 polarization.

  15. A 1 MW, 100 kV, less than 100 kg space based dc-dc power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J. R.; White, C. W.

    1991-01-01

    A 1 MW dc-dc power converter has been designed which has an input voltage of 5 kV +/-3 percent, an output voltage of 100 kV +/- 0.25 percent, and a run time of 1000 s at full power. The estimated system mass is 83.8 kg, giving a power density of 11.9 kW/kg. The system exceeded the weight goal of 10 kW/kg through the use of innovative components and system concepts. The system volume is approximately 0.1 cu m, and the overall system efficiency is estimated to be 87 percent. Some of the unique system features include a 50-kHz H-bridge inverter using MOS-controlled thyristors as the switching devices, a resonance transformer to step up the voltage, open-cycle cryogenic hydrogen gas cooling, and a nonrigid, inflatable housing which provides on-demand pressurization of the power converter local environment. This system scales very well to higher output powers. The weight of the 10-MW system with the same input and output voltage requirements and overall system configuration is estimated to be 575.3 kg. This gives a power density of 17.4 kW/kg, significantly higher than the 11.9 kW/kg estimated at 1 MW.

  16. M2-F3 In-flight Launch from B-52

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    This photo shows the M2-F3 Lifting Body being launched from NASA's B-52 mothership at the NASA Flight Research Center (FRC--now the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California. A fleet of lifting bodies flown at the FRC from 1963 to l975 demonstrated the ability of pilots to maneuver and safely land a wingless vehicle designed to fly back to Earth from space and be landed like an aircraft at a pre-determined site. Early flight testing of the M2-F1 and M2-F2 lifting body reentry configurations had validated the concept of piloted lifting body reentry from space. When the M2-F2 crashed on May 10, 1967, valuable information had already been obtained and was contributing to new designs. NASA pilots said the M2-F2 had lateral control problems, so when the M2-F2 was rebuilt at Northrop and redesignated the M2-F3, it was modified with an additional third vertical fin -- centered between the tip fins -- to improve control characteristics. First flight of the M2-F3, with NASA pilot Bill Dana at the controls, was June 2, 1970. The modified vehicle exhibited much better lateral stability and control characteristics than before, and only three glide flights were necessary before the first powered flight on Nov. 25, 1970. Over the next 26 missions, the M2-F3 reached a top speed of l,064 mph (Mach 1.6). Highest altitude reached by vehicle was 7l,500 feet on Dec. 20, 1972, the date of its last flight, with NASA pilot John Manke at the controls. NASA donated The M2-F3 vehicle to the Smithsonian Institute in December 1973. It is currently hanging in the Air and Space Museum along with the X-15 aircraft number 1, which was its hangar partner from 1965 to 1969. NASA B-52, Tail Number 008, is an air launch carrier aircraft, 'mothership,' as well as a research aircraft platform that has been used on a variety of research projects. The aircraft, a 'B' model built in 1952 and first flown on June 11, 1955, is the oldest B-52 in flying status and has been used on some of the most

  17. The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The consumption of dietary protein is important for resistance-trained individuals. It has been posited that intakes of 1.4 to 2.0 g/kg/day are needed for physically active individuals. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a very high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained men and women. Methods Thirty healthy resistance-trained individuals participated in this study (mean ± SD; age: 24.1 ± 5.6 yr; height: 171.4 ± 8.8 cm; weight: 73.3 ± 11.5 kg). Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: Control (CON) or high protein (HP). The CON group was instructed to maintain the same training and dietary habits over the course of the 8 week study. The HP group was instructed to consume 4.4 grams of protein per kg body weight daily. They were also instructed to maintain the same training and dietary habits (e.g. maintain the same fat and carbohydrate intake). Body composition (Bod Pod®), training volume (i.e. volume load), and food intake were determined at baseline and over the 8 week treatment period. Results The HP group consumed significantly more protein and calories pre vs post (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the HP group consumed significantly more protein and calories than the CON (p < 0.05). The HP group consumed on average 307 ± 69 grams of protein compared to 138 ± 42 in the CON. When expressed per unit body weight, the HP group consumed 4.4 ± 0.8 g/kg/d of protein versus 1.8 ± 0.4 g/kg/d in the CON. There were no changes in training volume for either group. Moreover, there were no significant changes over time or between groups for body weight, fat mass, fat free mass, or percent body fat. Conclusions Consuming 5.5 times the recommended daily allowance of protein has no effect on body composition in resistance-trained individuals who otherwise maintain the same training regimen. This is the first interventional study to demonstrate that consuming a hypercaloric high

  18. Pharmacological effects of mitraphylline from Uncaria tomentosa in primary human monocytes: Skew toward M2 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat-de la Paz, S; de la Puerta, R; Fernandez-Arche, A; Quilez, A M; Muriana, F J G; Garcia-Gimenez, M D; Bermudez, B

    2015-07-21

    Uncaria tomentosa (Willdenow ex Roemer & Schultes) DC. (Rubiaceae) is a Peruvian thorny liana, commonly known as "cat׳s claw", and traditionally used in folk medicine to deal with several inflammatory diseases. Mitraphylline (MTP) is the most abundant pentacyclic oxindolic alkaloid (POA) from U. Tomentosa and has been reported to modify the inflammatory response. Herein, we have sought to identify the mechanisms underlying this modulatory effect of MTP on primary human monocytes and its ability to regulate differentiation processes on human primary monocyte and monocyte-derived macrophages. In vitro studies with human primary monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages were performed. Monocytes and M0 macrophages were exposed to MTP (25μM) and LPS (100ng/mL). M0 macrophages were polarized to M1 and M2 phenotypes in the absence or presence of MTP. The activation state of monocytes/macrophages was assessed by flow cytometry, gene expression and protein analysis of different specific markers. In human primary monocytes, the incubation of MTP for 24h reduced the number of classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)) and intermediate (CD14(++)CD16(+)) subsets when compared to untreated or LPS-treated cells. MTP also reduced the chemotactic capacity of human primary monocytes. In addition, MTP promoted the polarization of M0 macrophages toward an anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, the abrogation of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNFα, IL-6 or IL-1β, as well as the restoration of markers for M2 macrophages in LPS-treated M1 macrophages. Our results suggest that MTP may be a key modulator for regulating the plasticity of monocytes/macrophages and the attenuation of the inflammatory response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bile acid-induced arrhythmia is mediated by muscarinic M2 receptors in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti H Sheikh Abdul Kadir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP is a common disease affecting up to 5% of pregnancies and which can cause fetal arrhythmia and sudden intrauterine death. We previously demonstrated that bile acid taurocholate (TC, which is raised in the bloodstream of ICP, can acutely alter the rate and rhythm of contraction and induce abnormal calcium destabilization in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM. Apart from their hepatic functions bile acids are ubiquitous signalling molecules with diverse systemic effects mediated by either the nuclear receptor FXR or by a recently discovered G-protein coupled receptor TGR5. We aim to investigate the mechanism of bile-acid induced arrhythmogenic effects in an in-vitro model of the fetal heart. METHODS AND RESULTS: Levels of bile acid transporters and nuclear receptor FXR were studied by quantitative real time PCR, western blot and immunostaining, which showed low levels of expression. We did not observe functional involvement of the canonical receptors FXR and TGR5. Instead, we found that TC binds to the muscarinic M(2 receptor in NRCM and serves as a partial agonist of this receptor in terms of inhibitory effect on intracellular cAMP and negative chronotropic response. Pharmacological inhibition and siRNA-knockdown of the M(2 receptor completely abolished the negative effect of TC on contraction, calcium transient amplitude and synchronisation in NRCM clusters. CONCLUSION: We conclude that in NRCM the TC-induced arrhythmia is mediated by the partial agonism at the M(2 receptor. This mechanism might serve as a promising new therapeutic target for fetal arrhythmia.

  20. Interleukin-17 induces an atypical M2-like macrophage subpopulation that regulates intestinal inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Nishikawa

    Full Text Available Interleukin 17 (IL-17 is a pleiotropic cytokine that acts on both immune and non-immune cells and is generally implicated in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Although IL-17 as well as their source, mainly but not limited to Th17 cells, is also abundant in the inflamed intestine, the role of IL-17 in inflammatory bowel disease remains controversial. In the present study, by using IL-17 knockout (KO mice, we investigated the role of IL-17 in colitis, with special focus on the macrophage subpopulations. Here we show that IL-17KO mice had increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis which was associated with decrease in expression of mRNAs implicated in M2 and/or wound healing macrophages, such as IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist, arginase 1, cyclooxygenase 2, and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Lamina propria leukocytes from inflamed colon of IL-17KO mice contained fewer CD11b+Ly6C+MHC Class II+ macrophages, which were derived, at least partly, from blood monocytes, as compared to those of WT mice. FACS-purified CD11b+ cells from WT mice, which were more abundant in Ly6C+MHC Class II+ cells, expressed increased levels of genes associated M2/wound healing macrophages and also M1/proinflammatory macrophages. Depletion of this population by topical administration of clodronate-liposome in the colon of WT mice resulted in the exacerbation of colitis. These results demonstrate that IL-17 confers protection against the development of severe colitis through the induction of an atypical M2-like macrophage subpopulation. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated mechanism by which IL-17 exerts a protective function in colitis.

  1. Towards Efficient Mobile M2M Communications: Survey and Open Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos; Aguiar, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications enable networked devices and services to exchange information and perform actions seamlessly without the need for human intervention. They are viewed as a key enabler of the Internet of Things (IoT) and ubiquitous applications, like mobile healthcare, telemetry, or intelligent transport systems. We survey existing work on mobile M2M communications, we identify open challenges that have a direct impact on performance and resource usage efficiency, especially the impact on energy efficiency, and we review techniques to improve communications. We review the ETSI standard and application protocols, and draw considerations on the impact of their use in constrained mobile devices. Nowadays, smartphones are equipped with a wide range of embedded sensors, with varied local and wide area connectivity capabilities, and thus they offer a unique opportunity to serve as mobile gateways for other more constrained devices with local connectivity. At the same time, they can gather context data about users and environment from the embedded sensors. These capabilities may be crucial for mobile M2M applications. Finally, in this paper, we consider a scenario where smartphones are used as gateways that collect and aggregate data from sensors in a cellular network. We conclude that, in order for their use to the feasible in terms of a normal depletion time of a smartphone's battery, it is a good advice to maximize the collection of data necessary to be transmitted from nearby sensors, and maximize the intervals between transmissions. More research is required to devise energy efficient transmission methods that enable the use of smartphones as mobile gateways. PMID:25333291

  2. Towards Efficient Mobile M2M Communications: Survey and Open Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pereira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Machine-to-Machine (M2M communications enable networked devices and services to exchange information and perform actions seamlessly without the need for human intervention. They are viewed as a key enabler of the Internet of Things (IoT and ubiquitous applications, like mobile healthcare, telemetry, or intelligent transport systems. We survey existing work on mobile M2M communications, we identify open challenges that have a direct impact on performance and resource usage efficiency, especially the impact on energy efficiency, and we review techniques to improve communications. We review the ETSI standard and application protocols, and draw considerations on the impact of their use in constrained mobile devices. Nowadays, smartphones are equipped with a wide range of embedded sensors, with varied local and wide area connectivity capabilities, and thus they offer a unique opportunity to serve as mobile gateways for other more constrained devices with local connectivity. At the same time, they can gather context data about users and environment from the embedded sensors. These capabilities may be crucial for mobile M2M applications. Finally, in this paper, we consider a scenario where smartphones are used as gateways that collect and aggregate data from sensors in a cellular network. We conclude that, in order for their use to the feasible in terms of a normal depletion time of a smartphone’s battery, it is a good advice to maximize the collection of data necessary to be transmitted from nearby sensors, and maximize the intervals between transmissions. More research is required to devise energy efficient transmission methods that enable the use of smartphones as mobile gateways.

  3. Structural basis for tumor pyruvate kinase M2 allosteric regulation and catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrauckas, Jill D; Santarsiero, Bernard D; Mesecar, Andrew D

    2005-07-12

    Four isozymes of pyruvate kinase are differentially expressed in human tissue. Human pyruvate kinase isozyme M2 (hPKM2) is expressed in early fetal tissues and is progressively replaced by the other three isozymes, M1, R, and L, immediately after birth. In most cancer cells, hPKM2 is once again expressed to promote tumor cell proliferation. Because of its almost ubiquitous presence in cancer cells, hPKM2 has been designated as tumor specific PK-M2, and its presence in human plasma is currently being used as a molecular marker for the diagnosis of various cancers. The X-ray structure of human hPKM2 complexed with Mg(2+), K(+), the inhibitor oxalate, and the allosteric activator fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) has been determined to a resolution of 2.82 A. The active site of hPKM2 is in a partially closed conformation most likely resulting from a ligand-induced domain closure promoted by the binding of FBP. In all four subunits of the enzyme tetramer, a conserved water molecule is observed on the 2-si face of the prospective enolate and supports the hypothesis that a proton-relay system is acting as the proton donor of the reaction (1). Significant structural differences among the human M2, rabbit muscle M1, and the human R isozymes are observed, especially in the orientation of the FBP-activating loop, which is in a closed conformation when FBP is bound. The structural differences observed between the PK isozymes could potentially be exploited as unique structural templates for the design of allosteric drugs against the disease states associated with the various PK isozymes, especially cancer and nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia.

  4. Towards efficient mobile M2M communications: survey and open challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carlos; Aguiar, Ana

    2014-10-20

    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communications enable networked devices and services to exchange information and perform actions seamlessly without the need for human intervention. They are viewed as a key enabler of the Internet of Things (IoT) and ubiquitous applications, like mobile healthcare, telemetry, or intelligent transport systems. We survey existing work on mobile M2M communications, we identify open challenges that have a direct impact on performance and resource usage efficiency, especially the impact on energy efficiency, and we review techniques to improve communications. We review the ETSI standard and application protocols, and draw considerations on the impact of their use in constrained mobile devices. Nowadays, smartphones are equipped with a wide range of embedded sensors, with varied local and wide area connectivity capabilities, and thus they offer a unique opportunity to serve as mobile gateways for other more constrained devices with local connectivity. At the same time, they can gather context data about users and environment from the embedded sensors. These capabilities may be crucial for mobile M2M applications. Finally, in this paper, we consider a scenario where smartphones are used as gateways that collect and aggregate data from sensors in a cellular network. We conclude that, in order for their use to the feasible in terms of a normal depletion time of a smartphone's battery, it is a good advice to maximize the collection of data necessary to be transmitted from nearby sensors, and maximize the intervals between transmissions. More research is required to devise energy efficient transmission methods that enable the use of smartphones as mobile gateways.

  5. Sistemas de gestión de sensores mediante tecnologías M2M

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Heredero, Miguel de

    2014-01-01

    En el proyecto se lleva a cabo un estudio práctico sobre dos escenarios donde intervienen dispositivos relacionados con el Internet de las cosas. También se puede situar como una solución de comunicación M2M. Comunicación máquina a máquina implica un sistema central que es capaz de conectarse con otros sistemas en varios lugares. La conexión permite que el sistema central recoja o envíe datos a cada lugar remoto para su procesamiento. El primer escenario consta de la configuración y montaj...

  6. Resonant Photoemission and M_{2,3}-Absorption Spectra in Nickel Dichloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, J.

    Ni 3p-resonant photoemission and Ni M_{2,3}-absorption spectra are calculated in detail on a cluster of (NiCl_6)^{4-} with the use of the transition matrix elements evaluated on the Herman-Skillman potential in Ni atom. Overall spectral shape agrees well with experiment, allowing a determination of the parameters which characterize Ni 3d and Cl 3p states. Resonance behavior is discussed near the Ni 3p-core level photothreshold. The resonant enhancement is found to be larger for the peak with higher binding energy in the d^7-multiplets.

  7. Putative M2 muscarinic receptors of rat heart have high affinity for organophosphorus anticholinesterases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silveira, C.L.; Eldefrawi, A.T.; Eldefrawi, M.E. (Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The M2 subtype of muscarinic receptor is predominant in heart, and such receptors were reported to be located in muscles as well as in presynaptic cholinergic and adrenergic nerve terminals. Muscarinic receptors of rat heart were identified by the high affinity binding of the agonist (+)-(3H)cis-methyldioxolane ((3H)CD), which has been used to label a high affinity population of M2 receptors. A single population of sites was detected and (3H)CD binding was sensitive to the M2 antagonist himbacine but much less so to pirenzepine, the M1 antagonist. These cardiac receptors had different sensitivities to NiCl2 and N-ethylmaleimide from brain muscarinic receptors, that were also labeled with (3H)CD and considered to be of the M2 subtype. Up to 70% of the (3H)CD-labeled cardiac receptors had high affinities for several organophosphate (OP) anticholinesterases. (3H)CD binding was inhibited by the nerve agents soman, VX, sarin, and tabun, with K0.5 values of 0.8, 2, 20, and 50 nM, respectively. It was also inhibited by echothiophate and paraoxon with K0.5 values of 100 and 300 nM, respectively. The apparent competitive nature of inhibition of (3H)CD binding by both sarin and paraoxon suggests that the OPs bind to the acetylcholine binding site of the muscarinic receptor. Other OP insecticides had lower potencies, inhibiting less than 50% of 5 nM (3H)CD binding by 1 microM of EPN, coumaphos, dioxathion, dichlorvos, or chlorpyriphos. There was poor correlation between the potencies of the OPs in reversibly inhibiting (3H)CD binding, and their anticholinesterase activities and toxicities. Acetylcholinesterases are the primary targets for these OP compounds because of the irreversible nature of their inhibition, which results in building of acetylcholine concentrations that activate muscarinic and nicotinic receptors and desensitize them, thereby inhibiting respiration.

  8. $SU(N)$ BPS Monopoles in $\\mathcal{M}^2\\times S^2$

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    We extend the investigation of BPS saturated t'Hooft-Polyakov monopoles in $\\mathcal{M}^{2}\\times S^{2}$ to the general case of $SU(N)$ gauge symmetry. This geometry causes the resulting $N-1$ coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations for the $N-1$ monopole profiles to become autonomous. One can also define a flat limit in which the curvature of the background metric is arbitrarily small but the simplifications brought in by the geometry remain. We prove analytically that non-trivial...

  9. An M/M/2 Queueing System with Heterogeneous Servers Including One with Working Vacation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Krishnamoorthy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes an M/M/2 queueing system with two heterogeneous servers, one of which is always available but the other goes on vacation in the absence of customers waiting for service. The vacationing server, however, returns to serve at a low rate as an arrival finds the other server busy. The system is analyzed in the steady state using matrix geometric method. Busy period of the system is analyzed and mean waiting time in the stationary regime computed. Conditional stochastic decomposition of stationary queue length is obtained. An illustrative example is also provided.

  10. Joint TAS and Power Allocation for SDF Relaying M2M Cooperative Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingwei Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The outage probability (OP performance of multiple-relay-based selective decode-and-forward (SDF relaying mobile-to-mobile (M2M networks with transmit antenna selection (TAS over N-Nakagami fading channels is investigated. The exact closed-form expressions for OP of the optimal and suboptimal TAS schemes are derived. The power allocation problem is formulated for performance optimization. Then, the OP performance under different conditions is evaluated through numerical simulations to verify the analysis. The simulation results showed that optimal TAS scheme has a better OP performance than suboptimal TAS scheme. Further, the power allocation parameter has an important influence on the OP performance.

  11. EcoM2 web portal: Collecting empirical data and supporting companies' ecodesign implementation and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; McAloone, Tim C.; Rozenfeld, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    of strengths and limitations; and the establishment of strategic roadmaps for improved ecodesign implementation. This paper describes the development of the EcoM2 web portal, which will allow for the framework to be tested on greater numbers of companies and at the same time to provide a quick diagnosis...... of their current ecodesign maturity profile. Analyses of the collected data will allow the establishment of patterns on ecodesign implementation in regards to criteria such as sector and size of companies and the improvement of empirical knowledge on ecodesign implementation and best practices....

  12. Strategic Thinking of the Internet of Things and M2M Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi Qingzhong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Editor' s Desk: The Internet of Things is an important part of the emerging high-tech industry and has been recognized as one of the important technologies for addressing global financial crisis and revitalizing the economy. Therefore, at the beginning of the new year, we are honored to have invited Mr. Samuel Qi (Qi Qingzhong), a famous Chinese communication technology expert and GM of Shanghai Symphony Telecommunications Co., Ltd., to give his views on the development strategy of the Internet of Things and Machine to Machine (M2M) Communications.

  13. M2型巨噬细胞的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗冲; 杨锡强

    2010-01-01

    @@ 目前根据巨噬细胞活化状态及功能不同大致分为2种,即M1和M2型巨噬细胞[1-2].M1细胞即为经典活化巨噬细胞(classically activated macrophages,CAM),具有吞噬杀菌,释放炎症介质,提呈抗原和启动适应性免疫应答的功能,是机体抵御外物的重要防线[3].

  14. Distinct interneuron types express m2 muscarinic receptor immunoreactivity on their dendrites or axon terminals in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájos, N; Papp, E C; Acsády, L; Levey, A I; Freund, T F

    1998-01-01

    In previous studies m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-immunoreactive interneurons and various types of m2-positive axon terminals have been described in the hippocampal formation. The aim of the present study was to identify the types of interneurons expressing m2 receptor and to examine whether the somadendritic and axonal m2 immunostaining labels the same or distinct cell populations. In the CA1 subfield, neurons immunoreactive for m2 have horizontal dendrites, they are located at the stratum oriens/alveus border and have an axon that project to the dendritic region of pyramidal cells. In the CA3 subfield and the hilus, m2-positive neurons are multipolar and are scattered in all layers except stratum lacunosum-moleculare. In stratum pyramidale of the CA1 and CA3 regions, striking axon terminal staining for m2 was observed, surrounding the somata and axon initial segments of pyramidal cells in a basket-like manner. The co-localization of m2 with neurochemical markers and GABA was studied using the "mirror" technique and fluorescent double-immunostaining at the light microscopic level and with double-labelling using colloidal gold-conjugated antisera and immunoperoxidase reaction (diaminobenzidine) at the electron microscopic level. GABA was shown to be present in the somata of most m2-immunoreactive interneurons, as well as in the majority of m2-positive terminals in all layers. The calcium-binding protein parvalbumin was absent from practically all m2-immunoreactive cell bodies and dendrites. In contrast, many of the terminals synapsing on pyramidal cell somata and axon initial segments co-localized parvalbumin and m2, suggesting a differential distribution of m2 receptor immunoreactivity on the axonal and somadendritic membrane of parvalbumin-containing basket and axo-axonic cells. The co-existence of m2 receptors with the calcium-binding protein calbindin and the neuropeptides cholecystokinin and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide was rare throughout the

  15. On the crystal chemistry of olivine-type germanate compounds, Ca1 + xM1 - xGeO4 (M2+ = Ca, Mg, Co, Mn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhammer, Günther J; Roth, Georg; Amthauer, Georg; Lottermoser, Werner

    2008-06-01

    Germanate compounds, CaMGeO(4) with M(2+) = Ca, Mg, Co and Mn, were synthesized as single crystals by slow cooling from the melt or by flux growth techniques. All the compositions investigated exhibit Pnma symmetry at 298 K and adopt the olivine structure. The M2 site is exclusively occupied by Ca(2+), while on M1 both Ca(2+) and M(2+) cations are found. The amount of Ca(2+) on M1 increases with the size of the M1 cation, with the smallest amount in the Mg compound (0.1 atoms per formula unit) and the largest in the Mn compound (0.20 atoms per formula unit), while in Ca(2)GeO(4), also with olivine structure, both sites are completely filled with Ca(2+). When compared with those of Ca silicate olivine, the lattice parameters a and c are distinctly larger in the analogous germanate compounds, while b has essentially the same values, regardless of the tetrahedral cation, meaning that b is independent of the tetrahedral cation. Structural variations on the octahedrally coordinated M1 site are largely determined by the size of the M1 cation, the average M1-O bond lengths being identical in Ca silicate and Ca germanate olivine. Increasing the size of the M1 cation induces an increasing polyhedral distortion, expressed by the parameters bond-length distortion, octahedral angle variance and octahedral quadratic elongation. However, the Ca germanate olivine compounds generally have more regular octahedra than the analogous silicates. The octahedrally coordinated M2 site does not exhibit large variations in structural parameters as a consequence of the constant chemical composition; the same is valid for the tetrahedral site.

  16. M2 macrophages or IL-33 treatment attenuate ongoing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeros, A. R.; Campos, L. W.; Fonseca, D. M.; Bertolini, T. B.; Gembre, A. F.; Prado, R. Q.; Alves-Filho, J. C.; Ramos, S. G.; Russo, M.; Bonato, V. L. D.

    2017-01-01

    The protective effects of mycobacterial infections on lung allergy are well documented. However, the inverse relationship between tuberculosis and type 2 immunity is still elusive. Although type 1 immunity is essential to protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis it might be also detrimental to the host due to the induction of extensive tissue damage. Here, we determined whether lung type 2 immunity induced by allergen sensitization and challenge could affect the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection. We used two different protocols in which sensitization and allergen challenge were performed before or after M. tuberculosis infection. We found an increased resistance to M. tuberculosis only when allergen exposure was given after, but not before infection. Infected mice exposed to allergen exhibited lower bacterial load and cellular infiltrates in the lungs. Enhanced resistance to infection after allergen challenge was associated with increased gene expression of alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) and IL-33 levels. Accordingly, either adoptive transfer of M2 macrophages or systemic IL-33 treatment was effective in attenuating M. tuberculosis infection. Notably, the enhanced resistance induced by allergen exposure was dependent on IL-33 receptor ST2. Our work indicates that IL-33 might be an alternative therapeutic treatment for severe tuberculosis. PMID:28128217

  17. Some results on 4~m2~n designs with clear two-factor interaction components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Clear effects criterion is one of the important rules for selecting optimal fractional factorial designs,and it has become an active research issue in recent years.Tang et al.derived upper and lower bounds on the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions(2fi’s) in 2n-(n-k) fractional factorial designs of resolutions III and IV by constructing a 2n-(n-k) design for given k,which are only restricted for the symmetrical case.This paper proposes and studies the clear effects problem for the asymmetrical case.It improves the construction method of Tang et al.for 2n-(n-k) designs with resolution III and derives the upper and lower bounds on the maximum number of clear two-factor interaction components(2fic’s) in 4m2n designs with resolutions III and IV.The lower bounds are achieved by constructing specific designs.Comparisons show that the number of clear 2fic’s in the resulting design attains its maximum number in many cases,which reveals that the construction methods are satisfactory when they are used to construct 4m2n designs under the clear effects criterion.

  18. Feedback mechanisms between M2 macrophages and Th17 cells in colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hui; Pan, Fei; Guo, Hongxia; Bu, Fangfang; Xin, Tong; Chen, Shukun; Guo, Yajun

    2016-09-01

    IL-17 and IL-22 are linked to the development of intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the maintenance of IL-17 and IL-22 production, as well as the cell type (Th17) that mediates these cytokines in CRC patients, remains unknown. To examine this, untreated CRC patients and healthy controls were recruited in this study. We first observed that CRC patients contained significantly elevated levels of IL-17- and IL-22-producing CD4(+) T cells. The vast majority of IL-22-expressing CD4(+) T cells also expressed IL-17. We then found that the production of both IL-17 and IL-22 required support from autologous monocytes, since the depletion of monocytes significantly downregulated IL-17 and IL-22 secretion. Naive T cells from CRC patients did not secrete IL-17 or IL-22 initially, but long-term coculture with autologous monocytes significantly upregulated IL-17 and IL-22 production in an IL-6-dependent manner. Blockade of IL-6 significantly reduced the levels of both IL-17 and IL-22. We then observed that CD163(+) M2 macrophages were the main contributor of IL-6. Interestingly, incubation of monocytes with CCR4(+)CCR6(+) Th17 cells resulted in significantly higher levels of CD163(+) macrophages as well as higher IL-6 secretion, than incubation with non-Th17 CD4(+) T cells. Together, our study discovered a positive feedback mechanism between Th17 and M2 macrophages in CRC patients.

  19. An improved radiosynthesis of the muscarinic M2 radiopharmaceutical, [{sup 18}F]FP-TZTP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosten, Erik M. van [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H6 (Canada); PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Wilson, Alan A.; Stephenson, Karin A. [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Mamo, David C. [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Geriatric Mental Health Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 1001 Queen Street West, Toronto, Ontario, M6J 1H4 (Canada); Pollock, Bruce G.; Mulsant, Benoit H. [Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Geriatric Mental Health Program, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 1001 Queen Street West, Toronto, Ontario, M6J 1H4 (Canada); Yudin, Andrei K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H6 (Canada); Houle, Sylvain [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Vasdev, Neil [PET Centre, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada); Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 250 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5T 1R8 (Canada)], E-mail: neil.vasdev@camhpet.ca

    2009-04-15

    The radioligand 3-(4-(3-[{sup 18}F]fluoropropylthio)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-yl)-1-methyl-1,2,5, 6-tetrahydropyridine ([{sup 18}F]FP-TZTP) is an agonist with specificity towards subtype 2 of muscarinic acetylcholine (M2) receptors. It is currently the only radiotracer available for imaging M2 receptors in human subjects with positron emission tomography. The present study reports on an improved method for the synthesis of [{sup 18}F]FP-TZTP, automated using a GE TRACERlab{sup TM} FX{sub FN} radiosynthesis module. A key facet was the use of a new precursor, 3-(4-(1-methyl-1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-3-yl)-1,2,5-thiadiazol-3-ylthio) propyl 4-methylbenzenesulfonate. The precursor was fluorinated via nucleophilic displacement of the tosyloxy group by potassium cryptand [{sup 18}F]fluoride (K[{sup 18}F]/K{sub 222}) in CH{sub 3}CN at 80 deg. C for 5 min, and purified by HPLC. Formulated [{sup 18}F]FP-TZTP was prepared in an uncorrected radiochemical yield of 29{+-}4%, with a specific activity of 138{+-}41 GBq/{mu}mol (3732{+-}1109 mCi/{mu}mol) at the end of synthesis (35 min; n=3). This methodology offers higher yields, faster synthesis times, an optimized precursor, and simpler automation than previously reported.

  20. ISOMP: An Instant Service-Orchestration Mobile M2M Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholhong Im

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones have greater computing power than ever before, providing convenient applications to improve our lives. In general, people find it difficult to locate suitable applications and implementing new applications often requires professional skills. In this paper, we propose a new service platform that facilitates the implementation of new applications by composing prebuilt components that provide the context information of mobile devices such as location and contacts. Our platform introduces an innovative concept named context collaboration, in which smartphones exchange context information with each other, which in turn is used to deduct useful inferences. The concept is realized by instant orchestration, which assembles some components and implements a composite component. The interactive communication interface helps a mobile device to communicate with other devices using open APIs, such as SOAP and HTTP (REST. The platform also works in heterogeneous environments, for example, between Android and iOS operating systems. Throughout the platform, mobile devices can act as smart M2M machines with context awareness, enabling intelligent tasks on behalf of users. Our platform will open up a new and innovative pathway for both enhanced mobile context awareness and M2M, which is expected to be a fundamental feature of the next generation of mobile devices.

  1. Some results on 4m2n designs with clear two-factor interaction components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO ShengLi; ZHANG RunChu; LIU MinQian

    2008-01-01

    Clear effects criterion is one of the important rules for selecting optimal fractional factorial designs, and it has become an active research issue in recent years.Tang et al. derived upper and lower bounds on the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions (2fi's) in 2n-(n-k)fractional factorial designs of resolutions Ⅲ and Ⅳ by constructing a 2n-(n-k) design for given k, which are only restricted for the symmetrical case. This paper proposes and studies the clear effects problem for the asymmetrical case. It improves the construction method of Tang et al. for 2n-(n-k)designs with resolution Ⅲ and derives the upper and lower bounds on the maximum number of clear two-factor interaction components(2fic's) in 4m2n designs with resolutions Ⅲ and Ⅳ. The lower bounds are achieved by constructing specific designs. Comparisons show that the number of clear 2fic's in the resulting design attains its maximum number in many cases, which reveals that the construction methods are satisfactory when they are used to construct 4m2n designs under the clear effects criterion.

  2. Machine to machine (M2M) technology in demand responsive commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David S.; Piette, Mary Ann; Sezgen, Osman; Motegi, Naoya; ten Hope, Laurie

    2004-08-01

    Machine to Machine (M2M) is a term used to describe the technologies that enable computers, embedded processors, smart sensors, actuators and mobile devices to communicate with one another, take measurements and make decisions--often without human intervention. M2M technology was applied to five commercial buildings in a test. The goal was to reduce electric demand when a remote price signal rose above a predetermine price. In this system, a variable price signal was generated from a single source on the Internet and distributed using the meta-language, XML (Extensible Markup Language). Each of five commercial building sites monitored the common price signal and automatically shed site-specific electric loads when the price increased above predetermined thresholds. Other than price signal scheduling, which was set up in advance by the project researchers, the system was designed to operate without human intervention during the two-week test period. Although the buildings responded to the same price signal, the communication infrastructures used at each building were substantially different. This study provides an overview of the technologies used at each building site, the price generator/server, and each link in between. Network architecture, security, data visualization and site-specific system features are characterized. The results of the test are discussed, including: functionality at each site, measurement and verification techniques, and feedback from energy managers and building operators. Lessons learned from the test and potential implications for widespread rollout are provided.

  3. Mid-infrared imaging of the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 from SOFIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, M. W.; Sahai, R.; Davis, J.; Livingston, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91107 (United States); Lykou, F. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Turkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180, Vienna (Austria); DE Buizer, J. [USRA SOFIA Science Center, M/S 211-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Division of Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Keller, L. [Department of Physics, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Adams, J.; Gull, G.; Henderson, C.; Herter, T.; Schoenwald, J., E-mail: Michael.W.Werner@jpl.nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 μm. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's ∼4''-5'' beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 μm and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 μm is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al. and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small (<0.1 μm) and large (>1 μm) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that collisional processing within the bipolar outflow plays an important role in establishing the particle size distribution.

  4. DAMPAK KETIDAKSTABILAN NILAI TUKAR RUPIAH TERHADAP PERMINTAAN UANG M2 DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etty Puji Lestari

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to estimate demand for M2 money in Indonesia using time series non-stationary technique in 1997.1 - 2006.4. There are four methods are used in research, first, VAR estimation used to forecast model which have interaction of data time series. Second, function impulse response to see response from every variable to structural innovation of the other variables at the same time. Third, variance decomposition to know dissociating variation change of shock from each variable to other variables in model. Fourth method, ADL ECM to see long-range adjustment in variable, before and after addition of variable. The result, there are non-stationary condition in the time series data in the research. Result of VAR estimation show that there is no causality relation two ways among fifth of variable. From impulse, response known that response of M2 variable to other variable very fluctuative but finally the condition will return to stabilize.

  5. Mid-Infrared Imaging of the Bipolar Planetary Nebula M2-9 from SOFIA

    CERN Document Server

    Werner, M W; Davis, J; Livingston, J; Lykou, F; de Buizer, J; Morris, M R; Keller, L; Adams, J; Gull, G; Henderson, C; Herter, T; Schoenwald, J

    2013-01-01

    We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 $\\mu m$. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's $\\sim$ 4${''}$-to-5${''}$ beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 $\\mu m$ and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 $\\mu m$ is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small ($$ 1 $\\mu m$) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that co...

  6. A Rare Cytogenetic Presentation of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML-M2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanumanthappa Vijay Raghavendra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML with t(8;21(q22;q22 generating the AML1/ETO fusion gene on 8q22 is a distinct type of AML t(8;21 category (WHO/AML-M2 (FAB, generally associated with a favourable prognosis. Variant additional chromosomal abnormalities are frequently reported. We report three adult cases of this category with unusual karyotype. Bone marrow cytogenetics of case no. 1: 45,X,-Y, t(8;21(q13;q22 with a novel breakpoint of chromosome 8 at (q13. Case no. 2: 46,X,t(X;2(q22;q37,t(3;7(q21;q36,t(5;14(p15;q11,del(8(q22 a complex rearrangement without the involvement of chromosome 21. Case no. 3: 49,XX,+5, t(8;21(q22;q22, +16, +der(21t(8;21(q22;q22 with additional der(21. Endometrial in this case which was positive for myeloperoxidase (MPO and CD117 conforming the AML infiltration. All are morphologically AML with t(8;21. Relevant literature in cytogenetic of AML-M2 is reviewed. The molecular mechanism involved in unusual rearrangements and clinical significance of them are subjected for further studies

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Strategy for M2 Microglial Polarization Using Retinoic Acid-Loaded Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Machado-Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory mechanisms triggered by microglial cells are involved in the pathophysiology of several brain disorders, hindering repair. Herein, we propose the use of retinoic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (RA-NP as a means to modulate microglia response towards an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective phenotype (M2. RA-NP were first confirmed to be internalized by N9 microglial cells; nanoparticles did not affect cell survival at concentrations below 100 μg/mL. Then, immunocytochemical studies were performed to assess the expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. Our results show that RA-NP inhibited LPS-induced release of nitric oxide and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and promoted arginase-1 and interleukin-4 production. Additionally, RA-NP induced a ramified microglia morphology (indicative of M2 state, promoting tissue viability, particularly neuronal survival, and restored the expression of postsynaptic protein-95 in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures exposed to an inflammatory challenge. RA-NP also proved to be more efficient than the free equivalent RA concentration. Altogether, our data indicate that RA-NP may be envisioned as a promising therapeutic agent for brain inflammatory diseases.

  8. Allosteric regulation of pyruvate kinase M2 isozyme involves a cysteine residue in the intersubunit contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Y; Noguchi, T

    1998-05-15

    Pyruvate kinase M2 isozyme mutants with amino acid substitutions in the subunit interface were prepared and characterized. The substitutions were made in the allosteric M2 isozyme by the corresponding residues of the nonallosteric M1 isozyme to identify the residue involved in the allosteric effects. The replacement of Cys-423 by Leu led to substantial loss of both homotropic and heterotropic allosteric effects while the substitutions at Phe-389, Arg-398, Ala-401, Pro-402, Thr-408, and Ile-427 did not. The altered kinetic properties of the Cys-423-substituted mutant resulted from the shift of the allosteric transition toward the active R-state since the mutant exhibits the allosteric properties in the presence of an allosteric inhibitor, L-phenylalanine. The inverse correlation between the hydrophobicity of residue 423 and the extent of stabilization of the R-state was found by analysis of mutants with un-ionizable amino acids at position 423. Furthermore, the modification of Cys-423 with methyl methanethiosulfonate led to a shift of the allosteric transition toward the R-state, probably the result of increased hydrophobicity of the residue. These results suggest that Cys-423 is involved in the allosteric regulation of the enzyme through hydrophobic interactions.

  9. Supersymmetric M2-branes with Englert fluxes, and the simple group PSL(2, 7)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fre, Pietro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Torino (Italy); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    A new class is introduced of M2-branes solutions of d=11 supergravity that include internal fluxes obeying Englert equation in 7-dimensions. A simple criterion for the existence of Killing spinors in such backgrounds is established. Englert equation is viewed as the generalization to d=7 of Beltrami equation defined in d=3 and it is treated accordingly. All 2-brane solutions of minimal d=7 supergravity can be uplifted to d=11 and have N≥4 supersymmetry. It is shown that the simple group PSL(2,7) is crystallographic in d=7 having an integral action on the A7 root lattice. By means of this point-group and of the T{sup 7} torus obtained quotiening R{sup 7} with the A7 root lattice we were able to construct new M2 branes with Englert fluxes and N≤4. In particular we exhibit here an N=1 solution depending on 4-parameters and admitting a large non abelian discrete symmetry, namely G{sub 21}≡

  10. Exact relations between M2-brane theories with and without Orientifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Honda, Masazumi

    2015-01-01

    We study partition functions of low-energy effective theories of M2-branes, whose type IIB brane constructions include orientifolds. We mainly focus on circular quiver superconformal Chern-Simons theory on S^3, whose gauge group is O(2N+1)x USp(2N)x ... x O(2N+1)x USp(2N). This theory is a natural generalization of N=5 ABJM theory with the gauge group O(2N+1)_{2k}x USp(2N)_{-k}. We find that the partition function of this type of theory has a simple relation to the one of the M2-brane theories without the orientifolds, whose gauge group is U(N)x ... x U(N). By using this relation, we determine an exact form of the grand partition function of the O(2N+1)_2 x USp(2N)_{-1} ABJM theory, where its supersymmetry is expected to enhance to N=6. As another interesting application, we discuss that our result gives a natural physical interpretation of a relation between grand partition functions of the U(N+1)_4 x U(N)_{-4} ABJ theory and U(N)_2 x U(N)_{-2} ABJM theory, recently conjectured by Grassi-Hatsuda-Marino. We a...

  11. Decisive disappearance search at high Δ m2 with monoenergetic muon neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axani, S.; Collin, G.; Conrad, J. M.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Spitz, J.; Wongjirad, T.

    2015-11-01

    "KPipe" is a proposed experiment which will study muon neutrino disappearance for a sensitive test of the Δ m2˜1 eV2 anomalies, possibly indicative of one or more sterile neutrinos. The experiment is to be located at the J-PARC Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility's spallation neutron source, which represents the world's most intense source of charged kaon decay-at-rest monoenergetic (236 MeV) muon neutrinos. The detector vessel, designed to measure the charged-current interactions of these neutrinos, will be 3 m in diameter and 120 m long, extending radially at a distance of 32 to 152 m from the source. This design allows a sensitive search for νμ disappearance associated with currently favored light sterile neutrino models and features the ability to reconstruct the neutrino oscillation wave within a single, extended detector. The required detector design, technology, and costs are modest. The KPipe measurements will be robust since they depend on a known energy neutrino source with low expected backgrounds. Further, since the measurements rely only on the measured rate of detected events as a function of distance, with no required knowledge of the initial flux and neutrino interaction cross section, the results will be largely free of systematic errors. The experimental sensitivity to oscillations, based on a shape-only analysis of the L /E distribution, will extend an order of magnitude beyond present experimental limits in the relevant high-Δ m2 parameter space.

  12. Meteorological profiling of the lower troposphere using the research UAV "M2AV Carolo"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Beyrich

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of temperature, humidity and wind up to a height of 1500 m a.g.l. (above ground level were measured with the automatically operating small unmanned research aircraft M2AV (Meteorological Mini Aerial Vehicle during the LITFASS-2009 (LIndenberg-To-Falkenberg: Aircraft, Scintillometer and large-eddy Simulation experiment. The campaign took place in July 2009 over the heterogeneous landscape around the Meteorologcial Observatory Lindenberg – Richard-Aßmann-Observatory in the eastern part of Germany. Due to a high vertical resolution of about 10 cm the M2AV data show details of the turbulent structure of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL. One profile takes about 10–15 min allowing for a continuous monitoring of certain phases of ABL development by successive ascents and descents during one flight (50–60 min duration. Two case studies of measurements performed during the morning and evening ABL transition periods are discussed in detail. Comparison of the aircraft-based temperature, humidity and wind profiles with tower, sodar/RASS, wind profiler/RASS, radiosoundings and microwave radiometer profiler measurements show good agreement taking into account the different sampling strategies of these measurement systems.

  13. Myeloid PTEN deficiency protects livers from ischemia reperfusion injury by facilitating M2 macrophage differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Shi; Rao, Jianhua; Zhu, Jianjun; Busuttil, Ronald W; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W; Lu, Ling; Wang, Xuehao; Zhai, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Although the role of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) in regulating cell proliferation is well established, its function in immune responses remains to be fully appreciated. In the current study, we analyzed myeloid-specific PTEN function in regulating tissue inflammatory immune response in a murine liver partial warm ischemia model. Myeloid-specific PTEN knockout (KO) resulted in liver protection from ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) by deviating the local innate immune response against ischemia reperfusion toward the regulatory type: expression of proinflammatory genes was selectively decreased and anti-inflammatory IL-10 was simultaneously increased in ischemia reperfusion livers of PTEN KO mice compared with those of wild-type (WT) mice. PI3K inhibitor and IL-10-neutralizing Abs, but not exogenous LPS, recreated liver IRI in these KO mice. At the cellular level, Kupffer cells and peritoneal macrophages isolated from KO mice expressed higher levels of M2 markers and produced lower TNF-α and higher IL-10 in response to TLR ligands than did their WT counterparts. They had enhanced Stat3- and Stat6-signaling pathway activation, but diminished Stat1-signaling pathway activation, in response to TLR4 stimulation. Inactivation of Kupffer cells by gadolinium chloride enhanced proinflammatory immune activation and increased IRI in livers of myeloid PTEN KO mice. Thus, myeloid PTEN deficiency protects livers from IRI by facilitating M2 macrophage differentiation.

  14. Oxysterol mixture and, in particular, 27-hydroxycholesterol drive M2 polarization of human macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Barbara; Bellora, Francesca; Ricciarelli, Roberta; De Ciucis, Chiara; Furfaro, AnnaLisa; Leardi, Riccardo; Colla, Renata; Pacini, Davide; Traverso, Nicola; Moretta, Alessandro; Pronzato, Maria Adelaide; Bottino, Cristina; Domenicotti, Cinzia

    2016-01-01

    Macrophages play a crucial role in atherosclerosis progression. Classically activated M1 macrophages have been found in rupture-prone atherosclerotic plaques whereas alternatively activated macrophages, M2, localize in stable plaque. Macrophage accumulation of cholesterol and of its oxidized derivatives (oxysterols) leads to the formation of foam cells, a hallmark of atherosclerotic lesions. In this study, the effects of oxysterols in determining the functional polarization of human macrophages were investigated. Monocytes, purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors, were differentiated into macrophages (M0) and treated with an oxysterol mixture, cholesterol, or ethanol, every 4 H for a total of 4, 8, and 12 H. The administration of the compounds was repeated in order to maintain the levels of oxysterols constant throughout the treatment. Compared with ethanol treatment, the oxysterol mixture decreased the surface expression of CD36 and CD204 scavenger receptors and reduced the amount of reactive oxygen species whereas it did not affect either cell viability or matrix metalloprotease-9 activity. Moreover, the oxysterol mixture increased the expression of both liver X receptor α and ATP-binding cassette transporter 1. An enhanced secretion of the immunoregulatory cytokine IL-10 accompanied these events. The results supported the hypothesis that the constant levels of oxysterols and, in particular, of 27-hydroxycholesterol stimulate macrophage polarization toward the M2 immunomodulatory functional phenotype, contributing to the stabilization of atherosclerotic plaques.

  15. Commercial Optimization of a 100 kg/day PEM based Hydrogen Generator For Energy and Industrial Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulthrop, L.; Anderson, E.; Chow, O.; Friedland, R.; Maloney, T.; Schiller, M. [Hydrogen Technology Group of Proton Energy, a Distributed Energy Systems Company Wallingford, CT USA 06492 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Commercial hydrogen generators using PEM water electrolysis are well proven, serving industrial applications worldwide in over 50 countries. Now, market and environmental requirements are converging to demand larger on-site hydrogen generators. North American liquid H{sub 2} shortages, increasing trucking costs, developing economies with no liquid infrastructure, utilities, and forklift fuel cell fueling applications are all working to increase market demand for commercial on-site H{sub 2} generation. These commercial applications may be satisfied by a 100 kg H{sub 2}/day module; this platform can be the pathway towards a 500 kg H{sub 2}/day generator desired for small fore-court hydrogen vehicle fueling stations. This paper discusses the steps necessary and activities already underway to develop a 100 to 500 kg H{sub 2}/day PEM hydrogen generator platform to meet commercial market cost targets and approach US DoE transportation fueling cost targets. (authors)

  16. Double-blind controlled trial of a single dose of the combination ivermectin 400 micrograms/kg plus diethylcarbamazine 6 mg/kg for the treatment of bancroftian filariasis: results at six months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaziou, P; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Nguyen, L N; Chanteau, S; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1994-01-01

    In 1993, a three-arm double-blind controlled trial was implemented in French Polynesia to compare the tolerance and efficacy of a single dose of the combination ivermectin (IVR) 400 micrograms/kg plus diethylcarbamazine (DEC) 6 mg/kg vs. IVR 400 micrograms/kg alone vs. DEC 6 mg/kg alone, for treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti carriers. Of the 57 treated male patients in whom microfilaria (mf) densities ranged from 22 to 4709 mg/mL, 3 groups of 19 were randomly selected and allocated to one of the 3 treatments. Side effects were experienced by 34 patients (60%), but none suffered a severe reaction. Grade of reaction did not differ between treatment group, but was significantly correlated with the pretreatment mf density. Six months after treatment, 26%, 32% and 53% of patients were amicrofilaraemic in the DEC, IVR and IVR+DEC groups, respectively. Mf levels were 6.3%, and 3.1% and 1.0% of the pretreatment level, respectively, significantly lower in the IVR+DEC group than in both the IVR and DEC comparison groups. The combination IVR+DEC showed promise in term of sustained mf decrease, and could be an effective alternative for lymphatic filariasis control programmes.

  17. Thermal Decomposition of Anhydrous Alkali Metal Dodecaborates M2B12H12 (M = Li, Na, K

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqing He

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal dodecaborates M2/nB12H12 are regarded as the dehydrogenation intermediates of metal borohydrides M(BH4n that are expected to be high density hydrogen storage materials. In this work, thermal decomposition processes of anhydrous alkali metal dodecaborates M2B12H12 (M = Li, Na, K synthesized by sintering of MBH4 (M = Li, Na, K and B10H14 have been systematically investigated in order to understand its role in the dehydrogenation of M(BH4n. Thermal decomposition of M2B12H12 indicates multistep pathways accompanying the formation of H-deficient monomers M2B12H12−x containing the icosahedral B12 skeletons and is followed by the formation of (M2B12Hzn polymers. The decomposition behaviors are different with the in situ formed M2B12H12 during the dehydrogenation of metal borohydrides.

  18. Asscessment of the clinical value of CK-M2 and oligosaccharide protein inserum from patients with gastric carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui Lan Zhao; Jie Lin; Shu You Peng; Qi Yun Li; Fan Zhou; Xian Sheng Chen; Xin You Xie; Yi Xiong Zheng

    2000-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the clinical value of creatine kinase macroisoenzyme type 2 (CK-M2) and oligosaccharideprotein (OP) in serum from patients with gastric carcinoma (GC).METHODS Serum level of CK-M2 was detected by agar gel electrophoresis. OP concentration was measuredby an enzyme immunoassay.RESULTS Serum levels of CK-M2 and OP in 57 cases of GC were significantly higher than those in 51 caseswith gastric precancerous lesion and 28 controls. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for GC with CK-M2 was 56.10% and 98.63% respectively. CK-M2 and OP were not associated with histologic type and degreeof differentiation.CONCLUSION These results suggest that CK-M2 may serve as a marker to diagnose GC, and the specificityis higher, whereas OP is not more significant for GC diagnosis, but it could be a useful indicator forevaluation the status of body immune.

  19. Subcellular redistribution of m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in striatal interneurons in vivo after acute cholinergic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, V; Laribi, O; Levey, A I; Bloch, B

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of our work was to investigate how the cholinergic environment influences the targeting and the intracellular trafficking of the muscarinic receptor m2 (m2R) in vivo. To address this question, we have used immunohistochemical approaches at light and electron microscopic levels to detect the m2R in control rats and rats treated with muscarinic receptor agonists. In control animals, m2Rs were located mostly at postsynaptic sites at the plasma membrane of perikarya and dendrites of cholinergic and NPY-somatostatin interneurons as autoreceptors and heteroreceptors, respectively. Presynaptic receptors were also detected in boutons. The m2Rs were usually detected at extrasynaptic sites, but they could be found rarely in association with symmetrical synapses, suggesting that the cholinergic transmission mediated by m2R occurs via synaptic and nonsynaptic mechanisms. The stimulation of muscarinic receptors with oxotremorine provoked a dramatic alteration of m2R compartmentalization, including endocytosis with a decrease of the density of m2R at the membrane (-63%) and an increase of those associated with endosomes (+86%) in perikarya. The very strong increase of m2R associated with multivesicular bodies (+732%) suggests that oxotremorine activated degradation. The slight increase in the Golgi apparatus (+26%) suggests that the m2R stimulation had an effect on the maturation of m2R. The substance P receptor located at the membrane of the same neurons was unaffected by oxotremorine. Our data demonstrate that cholinergic stimulation dramatically influences the subcellular distribution of m2R in striatal interneurons in vivo. These events may have key roles in controlling abundance and availability of muscarinic receptors via regulation of receptor endocytosis, degradation, and/or neosynthesis. Further, the control of muscarinic receptor trafficking may influence the activity of striatal interneurons, including neurotransmitter release and/or electric activity.

  20. TGF-β1对白血病KG-1细胞株Gli1表达的影响%Effect of TGF-β1 on Gli1 expression in KG-1 cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李哲; 潘静

    2012-01-01

    Objective To prove that there was cross talk between Hh signaling pathway and TGF-β signaling pathway in KG-1 cells line. Methods (1) KG-1 cells were treated with 0. 1 ng/mL,l ng/mL,and 10 ng/mL TGF-β1 for 6 h,12 h,and 24 h respectively. Cells were collected after stimulation. Total mRNA was extracted. Glil expression was detected by real-time PCR. (2) KG-1 cells were treated with 5 ng/mL TGFβ1 and 5 ng/mL TGF-β1 +5 μmol SIS3 respectively for 24h. Cells were collected after stimulation. Total mRNA was extracted. Glil expression was detected. Results (1) When 1- 10 ng/mL TGF-β1 acted on the KG-1 cells respectively for 6 h, 12 h and 24 h, significant reduction of Glil mRNA in response to TGF-β1 was observed in KG-1 cells, emerging at 12 h and lasting at least 24 h,lower than that of the control group. (2) When 5 ng/mL TGF-β1 and 5 ng/mL TGF-β1 +5 μmol SIS3 acted on the KG-1 cells respectively for 24 h respectively,Glil expression of mRNA of control group was higher than that of TGF-β1 group, while much lower than that of TGF-β1 +SIS3 group. Conclusion TGF-β1significantly decreased Glil expression in KG-1 cells. Glil induction in KG-1 cells by TGF-β1 was a Smad3-dependent manner. This effect was independent from the Ptch/Smo axis.%目的 证明在白血病KG-1细胞株中存在TGF-β信号通路对Gli的调控作用.方法 (1)用0.1、1、10 ng/mL TGF-β1分别作用于KG-1细胞,时间分别为6、12、24 h.处理结束后收集细胞,提取mRNA,检测Gli1的表达.(2)5 ng/mL TGF-β1、5 ng/mL TGF-β1联合5 μmol SIS3分别作用于KG-1细胞24 h.处理结束后收集细胞,提取mRNA,检测Gli1的表达.结果 (1)1~10 ng/mL TGF-β1分别作用于KG-1细胞6、12、24 h,从12 h起并至少持续至24 h,其Gli1的mRNA表达较对照组明显减少;(2)5 ng/mL TGF-β1、5ng/mL TGF-β1联合5 μmol SIS3分别作用于KG-1细胞24 h,其Gli1的mRNA表达与对照组比较:5 ng/mL TGF-β1组较对照组降低,而5 ng/mL TGF-β1联合5 μmol SIS3组较

  1. The Creation and Destruction of Hf-178m2 Isomer by Neutron Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsiao-Hua [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); TechSource, Inc. Los Alamos, NM (United States); Talbert, Willard L. [TechSource, Inc. Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ward, Tom [TechSource, Inc. Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-06

    The property of the isomer state in 178m2Hf was an interesting topic in nuclear structure studies during the time period 1970 to 1980. The state at 2.446 MeV with spin and parity Kπ = 16+, has a half-life of 31 years. The isomer is described as a four-quasi-particle state. The K forbidden deexcitatiion by gamma emission is the reason for long half-life. During 1980, the isomer became a troublesome issue for radiation safety workers, because this isomer can also be produced in the first wall of a fussion reactor containing tungsten and also in a tungsten beam stop of a high-energy accelerator.

  2. Spaceflight Effects on Hemopoiesis of Lower Vertebrates Flown on Foton-M2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaratskaya, E. I.; Payushina, O. V.; Butorina, M. N.; Nikonova, T. M.; Grigorian, E. N.; Mitashov, V. I.; Tairbekov, M. G.; Almeida, E.; Khrushchov, N. G.

    2006-01-01

    Intact and operated newts Pleumdeles waltl flown on Foton-M2 for 16 days were used to study the effects of spaceflight as well as tail amputation and lensectomy on their hemopoiesis. The flight did not produce noticeable changes in the peripheral blood of nonoperated newts. However, in operated animals, the number of lymphocytes increased whereas that of neutrophils decreased. There were no morphological differences in hemopoietic organs (liver and spleen) between flown non-operated and operated animals or their controls. However, in both non-operated and operated newts the liver weight and the number of hemopoietic cells in it increased. In contrast to nonoperated newts, space-flown mammals typically showed significant changes in blood cell counts. Experiments with BrdU incorporation revealed labeled cells in the hemopoietic area of the liver as well as in blood and spleen. This observation gives evidence that the BrdU label can be used to study proliferation of hemopoietic cells.

  3. Neutron detection on the Foton-M2 satellite by a track etch detector stack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálfalvi, J K; Szabó, J; Dudás, B

    2007-01-01

    In the frame of a European Space Agency (ESA) project called 'Biology and Physics in Space', a returning satellite, Foton-M2, was orbiting a container, the BIOPAN-5, loaded with biological experiments and facilities for radiation dosimetry (RADO) in the open space. One of the RADO experiments was dedicated to the detection of the primary cosmic rays and secondary neutrons by a track etch detector stack. The system was calibrated at high-energy particle accelerators and neutron generators. The developed detectors were investigated by an image analyser, and from the track parameters the linear energy transfer spectra and the absorbed dose were determined (26 microGy/d). Also, the neutron flux was estimated below 5 MeV and found to be 2.4 cm(-2) s(-1) directly from the space. The construction of the stack allowed to investigate the neutrons also from the direction of the carrying satellite, where the flux was found somewhat higher.

  4. Energies and E1, M2 transition rates for Mo XXX

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Feng; Mei, Maofei; Yang, Jiamin

    2016-01-01

    Based on relativistic wavefunctions from multiconfigurational Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) and configuration interaction calculations, energy levels, radiative rates, and wavelengths are evaluated for all levels of 3s$^2$3p, 3s3p$^2$, 3s$^2$3d, 3p$^3$, 3s3p3d, 3p$^2$3d and 3s3d$^2$ configurations of Al-like Molybdenum ion (Mo XXX). Transition probabilities are reported for E1 and M2 transitions from the ground level. The valence-valence and core-valence correlation effects are accounted for in a systematic way. Breit interactions and quantum electrodynamics effects are estimated in subsequent relativistic configuration interaction calculations. Comparisons are made with the available data in the literature and good agreement has been found which confirms the reliability of our results.

  5. Dy$^{3+}$-activated M$_2$SiO$_4$ (M $=$ Ba, Mg, Sr)-type phosphors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ESRA ÖZTÜRK; ERKUL KARACAOGLU

    2017-02-01

    The alkaline orthosilicates of M$_2$SiO$_4$ (M $=$ Ba, Mg, Sr) activated with Dy$^{3+}$ and co-doped with Ho$^{3+}$ are prepared through conventional solid-state method, i.e., mixing and grinding of solid form precursors followedby high-temperature heat treatments of several hours in furnaces, generally under open atmosphere and investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to get phase properties and photoluminescence (PL) analysis to get luminescenceproperties. The thermal behaviours of well-mixed samples were determined by differential thermal analysis (DTA)/thermogravimetry (TG). The PL spectra show that the 478 and 572nm maximum emission bands are attributed, respectively, to ${}^{4}$F$_{9/2}$ $\\to$ ${}^{6}$H$_{15/2}$ and ${}^{4}$F$_{9/2}$ $\\to$ ${}^{6}$H$_{13/2}$ transitions of Dy$^{3+}$ ions.

  6. Thermoelectric Performance of the MXenes M2CO2 (M = Ti, Zr, or Hf)

    KAUST Repository

    Gandi, Appala

    2016-02-21

    We present the first report in which the thermoelectric properties of two-dimensional MXenes are calculated by considering both the electron and phonon transport. Specifically, we solve the transport equations of the electrons and phonons for three MXenes, M2CO2, where M = Ti, Zr, or Hf, in order to evaluate the effect of the metal M on the thermoelectric performance. The lattice contribution to the thermal conductivity, obtained from the phonon life times, is found to be lowest in Ti2CO2 and highest in Hf2CO2 in the temperature range from 300 K to 700 K. The highest figure of merit is predicted for Ti2CO2 . The heavy mass of the electrons due to flat conduction bands results in a larger thermopower in the case of n-doping in these compounds.

  7. M2-F1 lifting body and Paresev 1B on ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-01-01

    In this photo of the M2-F1 lifting body and the Paresev 1B on the ramp, the viewer sees two vehicles representing different approaches to building a research craft to simulate a spacecraft able to land on the ground instead of splashing down in the ocean as the Mercury capsules did. The M2-F1 was a lifting body, a shape able to re-enter from orbit and land. The Paresev (Paraglider Research Vehicle) used a Rogallo wing that could be (but never was) used to replace a conventional parachute for landing a capsule-type spacecraft, allowing it to make a controlled landing on the ground. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop

  8. Spaceflight Effects on Hemopoiesis of Lower Vertebrates Flown on Foton-M2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaratskaya, E. I.; Payushina, O. V.; Butorina, M. N.; Nikonova, T. M.; Grigorian, E. N.; Mitashov, V. I.; Tairbekov, M. G.; Almeida, E.; Khrushchov, N. G.

    2006-01-01

    Intact and operated newts Pleumdeles waltl flown on Foton-M2 for 16 days were used to study the effects of spaceflight as well as tail amputation and lensectomy on their hemopoiesis. The flight did not produce noticeable changes in the peripheral blood of nonoperated newts. However, in operated animals, the number of lymphocytes increased whereas that of neutrophils decreased. There were no morphological differences in hemopoietic organs (liver and spleen) between flown non-operated and operated animals or their controls. However, in both non-operated and operated newts the liver weight and the number of hemopoietic cells in it increased. In contrast to nonoperated newts, space-flown mammals typically showed significant changes in blood cell counts. Experiments with BrdU incorporation revealed labeled cells in the hemopoietic area of the liver as well as in blood and spleen. This observation gives evidence that the BrdU label can be used to study proliferation of hemopoietic cells.

  9. Carrier Current Line Systems Technologies in M2M Architecture for Wireless Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Ching Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the Carrier Current Line Systems (CCLS technologies of Machine to Machine (M2M architecture which applied for mobile station coverage working with metro, high speed railway, and subway such as analysis for public transport of an indoor transition system. It is based on the theory and practical engineering principle which provide guidelines and formulas for link budget design to help designers fully control and analyze the single output power of uplink and downlink between Fiber Repeaters (FR and mobile station as well as base station. Finally, the results of this leakage cable system are successfully applied to indoor coverage design for metro rapid transit system which are easily installed cellular over fiber solutions for WCDMA/LTE access is becoming Ubiquitous Network to Internet of Thing (IOT real case hierarchy of telecommunication.

  10. Large-scale, realistic laboratory modeling of M2 internal tide generation at the Luzon Strait

    CERN Document Server

    Mercier, Matthieu J; Helfrich, Karl; Sommeria, Joël; Viboud, Samuel; Didelle, Henri; Saidi, Sasan; Dauxois, Thierry; Peacock, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The complex double-ridge system in the Luzon Strait in the South China Sea (SCS) is one of the strongest sources of internal tides in the oceans, associated with which are some of the largest amplitude internal solitary waves on record. An issue of debate, however, has been the specific nature of their generation mechanism. To provide insight, we present the results of a large-scale laboratory experiment performed at the Coriolis platform. The experiment was carefully designed so that the relevant dimensionless parameters, which include the excursion parameter, criticality, Rossby, and Froude numbers, closely matched the ocean scenario. The results advocate that a broad and coherent weakly nonlinear, three-dimensional, M2 internal tide that is shaped by the overall geometry of the double-ridge system is radiated into the South China Sea and subsequently steepens, as opposed to being generated by a particular feature or localized region within the ridge system.

  11. Nonmetabolic functions of pyruvate kinase isoform M2 in controlling cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhimin Lu

    2012-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase catalyzes the rate-limiting final step of glycolysis,generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and pyruvate.The M2 tumor-specific isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) promotes glucose uptake and lactate production in the presence of oxygen,known as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect.As recently reported in Nature,PKM2,besides its metabolic function,has a nonmetabolic function in the direct control of cell cycle progression by activating β-catenin and inducing expression of the β-catenin downstream gene CCND1 (encoding for cyclin D1).This nonmetabolic function of PKM2 is essential for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation-induced tumorigenesis.

  12. Integrated memristor-MOS (M2) sensor for basic pattern matching applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavehei, Omid; Cho, Kyoung-Rok; Lee, Sang-Jin; Al-Sarawi, Said; Eshraghian, Kamran; Abbott, Derek

    2013-05-01

    This paper introduces an integrated sensor circuit based on an analog Memristor-MOS (M2) pattern matching building block that calculates the similarity/dissimilarity between two analog values. A new approach for a pulse-width modulation pixel image sensor compatible with the memristive-MOS matching structure is introduced allowing direct comparison between incoming and stored images. The pulsed-width encoded information from the pixels is forwarded to a matching circuitry that provides an anti-Gaussian-like comparison between the states of memristors. The non-volatile and multi-state memory characteristics of memristor, together with the related ability to be programmed at any one of the intermediate states between logic '1' and logic '0' brings us closer to the implementation of bio-machines that can eventually emulate human-like sensory functions.

  13. Multi-wavelength view of an M2.2 Solar Flare on 26 November 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, R; Rani, S; Maurya, R A

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a study of an M2.2 class solar flare of 26 November 2000 from NOAA AR 9236. The flare was well observed by various ground based observatories (ARIES, Learmonths Solar Observatory) and space borne instruments (SOHO, HXRS, GOES) in time interval between 02:30 UT to 04:00 UT. The flare started with long arc-shape outer flare ribbon. Afterwards the main flare starts with two main ribbons. Initially the outer ribbons start to expand with an average speed ($\\sim$ 20 km s$^{-1}$) and later it shows contraction. The flare was associated with partial halo coronal mass ejection (CMEs) which has average speed of 495 km s$^{-1}$. The SOHO/MDI observations show that the active region was in quadrupolar magnetic configuration. The flux cancellation was observed before the flare onset close to flare site. Our analysis indicate the flare was initiated by the magnetic breakout mechanism.

  14. A Decisive Disappearance Search at High-$\\Delta m^2$ with Monoenergetic Muon Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Axani, S; Conrad, JM; Shaevitz, MH; Spitz, J; Wongjirad, T

    2015-01-01

    "KPipe" is a proposed experiment which will study muon neutrino disappearance for a sensitive test of the $\\Delta m^2\\sim1 \\mathrm{eV}^2$ anomalies, possibly indicative of one or more sterile neutrinos. The experiment is to be located at the J-PARC Materials and Life Science Facility's spallation neutron source, which represents the world's most intense source of charged kaon decay-at-rest monoenergetic (236 MeV) muon neutrinos. The detector vessel, designed to measure the charged current interactions of these neutrinos, will be 3 m in diameter and 120 m long, extending radially at a distance of 32 m to 152 m from the source. This design allows a sensitive search for $\

  15. Multi-wavelength view of an M2.2 solar flare on 26 november 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, R.; Verma, V. K.; Rani, S.; Maurya, R. A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we present a study of an M2.2 class solar flare of 26 November 2000 from NOAA AR 9236. The flare was well observed by various ground based observatories (ARIES, Learmonths Solar Observatory) and space borne instruments (SOHO, HXRS, GOES) in time interval between 02:30 UT to 04:00 UT. The flare started with long arc-shape outer flare ribbon. Afterwards the main flare starts with two main ribbons. Initially the outer ribbons start to expand with an average speed (∼20 km s-1) and later it shows contraction. The flare was associated with partial halo coronal mass ejection (CMEs) which has average speed of 495 km s-1. The SOHO/MDI observations show that the active region was in quadrupolar magnetic configuration. The flux cancellation was observed before the flare onset close to flare site. Our analysis indicate the flare was initiated by the magnetic breakout mechanism.

  16. Structure and Abrasive Wear of Composite HSS M2/WC Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Gnyusov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Features of phase-structure formation and abrasive wear resistance of composite coatings “WC-M2 steel” worn against tungsten monocarbide have been investigated. It was established that adding 20 wt.% WC to the deposited powder mixture leads to the increase in M6C carbide content. These carbides show a multimodal size distribution consisting of ~5.9 μm eutectic carbides along the grain boundaries, ~0.25 μm carbides dispersed inside the grains. Also a greater amount of metastable austenite (~88 vol.% is found. The high abrasive wear resistance of these coatings is provided by γ→α′-martensitic transformation and multimodal size distribution of reinforcing particles.

  17. 一种面向物联网的M2M通信解决方案%A M2M Communication Solution for the Internet of Things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 钱焕延

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of analysis of the M2M system architecture and working principle,using the advantages of NAT traversal technology for IoT,this paper proposed a M2M communication solution with user authentication function based on STUN and STUNT agreement.The experiments showed that communication and management between M2M nodes in the IoT could be achieved simply by embedding the STUN Client and the STUNT Client module into M2M devices without changing the original network structure.%在分析了M2M系统体系结构和工作原理的基础上,利用NAT穿越技术在物联网中的应用优势,提出了一种基于STUN和STUNT协议的、具有用户身份认证功能的M2M通信方案.经过实验测试,该方案不需要改变原有网络结构,只需要在M2M设备中嵌入STUN Client和STUNT Client模块,就能够实现物联网中不同M2M节点之间的通信与管理.

  18. Multiple Intelligences and ESL Teaching and Learning: An Investigation in KG II Classrooms in One Private School in Beirut, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamrawi, Norma

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teachers' use of the Multiple Intelligences Theory on vocabulary acquisition by preschoolers during English as a second language (ESL) classes in a K-12 school in Lebanon. Eighty kindergartners (KG II, aged 5 years) and eight teachers constituted the sample. The study used mixed methods, including observations of…

  19. Women with a BMI ≥ 30kg/m² and their experience of maternity care: A meta ethnographic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catriona; Jomeen, Julie

    2017-10-01

    this paper is a report of a systematic review and meta-ethnography of the experiences of women with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30kg/m² and their experience of maternity care. systematic review methods identified 12 qualitative studies about women's experiences of maternity care when their BMI ≥ 30kg/m². Findings from the identified studies were synthesised into themes, using metaethnography. SYNTHESIS AND FINDINGS: the meta-ethnography produced four key concepts; Initial encounters, Negotiating risk, Missing out and The positive intervention, which represent the experiences of maternity care for women with BMI ≥ 30kg/m² KEY CONCLUSION: many women with BMI ≥ 30kg/m² appear to be dissatisfied with the approaches taken to discuss weight status during maternity encounters. When weight is not addressed during these encounters women appear to be equally dissatisfied. The absence of open and honest discussions about weight, the feeling of being denied of a normal experience, and an over emphasis on the risks imposed upon pregnancy and childbirth by obesity, leave women feeling dissatisfied and disenfranchised. Sensitive care and practical advice about diet and exercise can help women move towards feeling more in control of their weight management. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Quasi monolithic silicon load cell for loads up to 1000 kg with insensitivity to non-homogeneous load distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerink, Remco; Zwijze, Robert; Krijnen, Gijs; Lammerink, Theo; Elwenspoek, Miko

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a micromachined silicon load cell (force sensor) is presented for measuring loads up to 1000 kg. The sensitive surface of 1 cm2 contains a matrix of capacitive sensing elements to make the load cell insensitive to non-homogeneous load distributions. The load cell has been realized and

  1. 75 FR 30280 - Airworthiness Directives; Stemme GmbH & Co. KG Model S10-VT Powered Sailplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    ... & Co. KG Model S10-VT Powered Sailplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of... leakage has been reported on a S10-VT which had implemented the STEMME Service Bulletin (SB) A31-10-082 as... June 23, 2008 (73 FR 31355, June 2, 2008), the Director of the Federal Register approved...

  2. Multiple Intelligences and ESL Teaching and Learning: An Investigation in KG II Classrooms in One Private School in Beirut, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamrawi, Norma

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teachers' use of the Multiple Intelligences Theory on vocabulary acquisition by preschoolers during English as a second language (ESL) classes in a K-12 school in Lebanon. Eighty kindergartners (KG II, aged 5 years) and eight teachers constituted the sample. The study used mixed methods, including observations of videotaped…

  3. 75 FR 51651 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd. & Co. KG. (RRD) Models Tay 650-15 and Tay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ...-12] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd. & Co. KG. (RRD) Models Tay 650-15 and Tay 651-54 Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... realized that the same unsafe condition could potentially occur on more serial numbers for the Tay 650-15...

  4. The Type IIn Supernova 2002kg: The Outburst of a Luminous Blue Variable Star in NGC 2403

    CERN Document Server

    Van Dyk, S D; Chornock, R; Filippenko, A V; Foley, R; Humphreys, R M; Li, W; Challis, Peter M.; Chornock, Ryan; Dyk, Schuyler D. Van; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foley, Ryan; Humphreys, Roberta M.; Li, Weidong

    2006-01-01

    We show that Supernova (SN) 2002kg in NGC 2403, initially classified as Type II-narrow (IIn), has photometric and spectroscopic properties unlike those of normal SNe. Its behavior, instead, is more typical of highly massive stars which experience the short-lived luminous blue variable (LBV) phase toward the end of their lives. The star, in fact, most resembles the LBV S Doradus in outburst. The precursor of SN 2002kg is the irregular, bright blue variable star 37 (V37), catalogued by Tammann & Sandage in 1968. Using high-quality ground-based, multi-band images we can constrain the initial mass of V37 to be M_ini >~ 40 M_sun. We find that, although the spectra indicate a nitrogen enhancement, possibly revealing the products of CNO processing by V37 in the ejecta, the star lacks a substantial LBV nebula. The outburst from SN 2002kg/V37 is not nearly as energetic as the giant eruptions of the eta Carinae-like variables, such as SN 1954J/V12, also in NGC 2403. SN 2002kg/V37, however, is among a growing number...

  5. Multiple Intelligences and ESL Teaching and Learning: An Investigation in KG II Classrooms in One Private School in Beirut, Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamrawi, Norma

    2014-01-01

    This study examined teachers' use of the Multiple Intelligences Theory on vocabulary acquisition by preschoolers during English as a second language (ESL) classes in a K-12 school in Lebanon. Eighty kindergartners (KG II, aged 5 years) and eight teachers constituted the sample. The study used mixed methods, including observations of videotaped…

  6. The navigational experiments on microgravitational space platform “FOTON-M2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokonov, Igor V.; Semkin, Nikolay D.

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents the review of results of the navigating experiments which have been carried out during flight of microgravitational space platform (MSP) Foton-M2 in May-June 2005. The brief characteristic of the created MIRAGE-M equipment consisting from magnitometric system and satellite radionavigation receiver is given. The measurements have allowed to restore unguided MSP movement and to estimate a level of microaccelerations (microgravitations) onboard during flight, and have provided precision time-position binding of the research experiments. The data from the equipments transmitted on the telemetering channel have allowed testing the information technologies of virtual support of experiments in space. Flight testing of the equipment has allowed make a conclusion on usefulness of accommodation onboard the small-sized auxiliary navigating system focused for work with users of research experiments. The experiments on MSP Foton-M2 are the development of experiments with MIRAGE equipment carried out in 1999 during flight time of MSP Foton-12 [N.D. Semkin, V.V. Ivanov, V.I. Abrushkin, V.L. Balakin, I.V. Belokonov, K.E. Voronov, The experiments with magnetic fields formed by technical equipment inside Foton-12 spacecraft: the results of the MIRAGE experiments, in: Proceedings of International Conference "Scientific and Technological Experiments on Russian Foton/Bion Recoverable Satellites: Results, Problems and Outlooks", 25-30 June 2000, pp. 116-122; V.L. Balakin, I.V. Belokonov, V.V. Ivanov, "Determination of motion of spacecraft Foton-12 as a result of magnetic fields measurement in MIRAGE experiment", pp. 231-238 (published in the same place)]. Paper is executed within the framework of the grant of the Russian Fund of Fundamental Researches 06-08-00244.

  7. Inverse agonist activity of pirenzepine at M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daeffler, L; Schmidlin, F; Gies, J P; Landry, Y

    1999-03-01

    1. The intrinsic properties of muscarinic ligands were studied through their binding properties and their abilities to modulate the GTPase activity of G proteins coupled to muscarinic M2 receptors in pig atrial sarcolemma. 2. Competition binding experiments were performed with [3H]-oxotremorine-M to assess the affinity of receptors coupled to G proteins (R*), with [3H]-N-methylscopolamine ([3H]-NMS) to estimate the affinities of coupled and uncoupled receptors (R*+R) and with [3H]-NMS in the presence of GppNHp to assess the affinity of uncoupled receptors (R). 3. The ranking of Ki values for the agonist carbachol was R*pirenzepine was R*>R*+R>R (174, 155, 115 nM), suggesting inverse agonism. 4. The Vmax of the basal high affinity GTPase activity of pig atrial sarcolemma was increased by mastoparan and decreased by GPAnt-2 indicating the relevance of this activity to G proteins coupled to receptors (R*). The K(M) value (0.26-0.33 microM) was not modified by mastoparan or GPAnt-2. 5. Carbachol increased the Vmax of GTP hydrolysis (EC50 8.1+/-0.3 microM), whereas atropine and AF-DX 116, up to 1 mM, did not modify it. Pirenzepine decreased the Vmax of GTP hydrolysis (EC50 77.5+/-10.3 microM). This effect was enhanced when KCI was substituted for NaCl (EC50 11.0+/-0.8 microM) and was antagonized by atropine and AF-DX 116 (IC50 0.91+/-0.71 and 197+/-85 nM). 6. Pirenzepine is proposed as an inverse agonist and atropine and AF-DX 116 as neutral antagonists at the muscarinic M2 receptor.

  8. M2Di: Concise and efficient MATLAB 2-D Stokes solvers using the Finite Difference Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räss, Ludovic; Duretz, Thibault; Podladchikov, Yury Y.; Schmalholz, Stefan M.

    2017-02-01

    Recent development of many multiphysics modeling tools reflects the currently growing interest for studying coupled processes in Earth Sciences. The core of such tools should rely on fast and robust mechanical solvers. Here we provide M2Di, a set of routines for 2-D linear and power law incompressible viscous flow based on Finite Difference discretizations. The 2-D codes are written in a concise vectorized MATLAB fashion and can achieve a time to solution of 22 s for linear viscous flow on 10002 grid points using a standard personal computer. We provide application examples spanning from finely resolved crystal-melt dynamics, deformation of heterogeneous power law viscous fluids to instantaneous models of mantle flow in cylindrical coordinates. The routines are validated against analytical solution for linear viscous flow with highly variable viscosity and compared against analytical and numerical solutions of power law viscous folding and necking. In the power law case, both Picard and Newton iterations schemes are implemented. For linear Stokes flow and Picard linearization, the discretization results in symmetric positive-definite matrix operators on Cartesian grids with either regular or variable grid spacing allowing for an optimized solving procedure. For Newton linearization, the matrix operator is no longer symmetric and an adequate solving procedure is provided. The reported performance of linear and power law Stokes flow is finally analyzed in terms of wall time. All MATLAB codes are provided and can readily be used for educational as well as research purposes. The M2Di routines are available from Bitbucket and the University of Lausanne Scientific Computing Group website, and are also supplementary material to this article.

  9. [Prognostic impact of loss of sex chromosomes in children with acute myeloid leukemia subtype M2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yue-Ping; Zuo, Ying-Xi; Lu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Le-Ping; Liu, Gui-Lan

    2015-02-01

    To study the relationship between loss of sex chromosomes and prognosis in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M2 subtype. According to cytogenetic characteristics, 106 children with AML were divided into three groups: patients with normal karyotype (Group A, n=26), patients with abnormal karyotype who had no loss of sex chromosomes (Group B, n=52), and patients with abnormal karyotype who had loss of sex chromosomes (Group C, n=28). Prognosis was compared between the three groups. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rates of Groups A, B, and C were (38.9±11.2)%, (59.3±7.3)%, and (66.5±10.5)%, respectively; the EFS of Group C was significantly higher than that of Group A (P=0.035). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of Groups A, B, and C were (54.3±13.5)%, (68.1±7.7)%, and (77.9±9.8)%, respectively (P>0.05). The 5-year EFS of 58 patients with t(8;21) was (63.3±7.3)%, significantly higher than that of patients with normal karyotype (P=0.015). All the 28 cases in Group C had t(8;21), and their 5-year EFS was not significantly different from that of patients with t(8;21) in Group B (P>0.05). Loss of sex chromosomes is a favorable karyotype in children with AML M2 subtype and the patients in this group mostly have t(8;21). Why loss of sex chromosomes indicates a favorable prognosis is probably because it is accompanied by t(8;21) in the patients.

  10. 基于文献研究的M2与房价关系分析%Studying in the relationship between M2 and the real estate price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭捷剑; 王振营

    2013-01-01

      In the literature studying the relationship between M2 and the real estate price, most of them using the intermediate target of M2 included the supply of credit and rate of interest to analyze the intermediate target’s effect on the real estate price . Also, the real estate price indexes have much different connotation. Most of the documents can prove the contribution of M2 to the real estate price rising, but others show the opposite conclusion or week correlation . This article based on collecting the relevant documents applies direct channel and indirect channel to analyze the effect of M2 on the real estate price. M2 affecting the real estate price is the direct channel ,while M2 affecting the variables such as real estate price rate of interest the supply of credit ,literature review which cause the real estate price changing is the indirect channel .%  在M2与房价关系研究的文献中,多数体现为M2的信贷量、利率等中介指标对房价的影响;并且所采用的房价指标内涵有着较大不同,多数文献研究的结论是M2将会推高房价,但也有一部分研究得出房价会影响M2或者是两者之间相关性不大的结论。本文基于对M2与房价关系研究的文献的梳理,通过直接和间接两种途径分析M2对房地产价格的影响:直接途径是M2直接作用于房价;间接途径是M2通过影响利率、信贷量、基础货币量、市场预期等变量进而影响房价。

  11. The Effect of Chinese Herbal Medicine Formula mKG on Allergic Asthma by Regulating Lung and Plasma Metabolic Alternations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Yu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airway and is characterized by airway remodeling, hyperresponsiveness, and shortness of breath. Modified Kushen Gancao Formula (mKG, derived from traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCM, has been demonstrated to have good therapeutic effects on experimental allergic asthma. However, its anti-asthma mechanism remains currently unknown. In the present work, metabolomics studies of biochemical changes in the lung tissue and plasma of ovalbumin (OVA-induced allergic asthma mice with mKG treatment were performed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS. Partial least squares–discriminate analysis (PLS−DA indicated that the metabolic perturbation induced by OVA was reduced after mKG treatment. A total of twenty-four metabolites involved in seven metabolic pathways were identified as potential biomarkers in the development of allergic asthma. Among them, myristic acid (L3 or P2, sphinganine (L6 or P4, and lysoPC(15:0 (L12 or P16 were detected both in lung tissue and plasma. Additionally, l-acetylcarnitine (L1, thromboxane B2 (L2, 10-HDoHE (L10, and 5-HETE (L11 were first reported to be potential biomarkers associated with allergic asthma. The treatment of mKG mediated all of those potential biomarkers except lysoPC(15:0 (P16. The anti-asthma mechanism of mKG can be achieved through the comprehensive regulation of multiple perturbed biomarkers and metabolic pathways.

  12. Arterial occlusion sites on magnetic resonance angiography influence the efficacy of intravenous low-dose (0.6 mg/kg) alteplase therapy for ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, T; Toyoda, K; Koga, M; Matsuoka, H; Nagatsuka, K; Takada, T; Naritomi, H; Minematsu, K

    2009-12-01

    To determine the predictors of efficacy, including magnetic resonance imaging information, for low-dose intravenous alteplase therapy for stroke patients. Seventy-eight patients were prospectively enrolled in a single Stroke Unit (SU) receiving alteplase at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg during the initial 27 months after its approval in Japan. Ischaemic changes and vascular lesions were identified using computed tomography, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance angiography. Early ischaemic signs were assessed using the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score. The median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 78 patients was 12. In 19 patients (24%), the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score improved by >or=8 points at 24 h. After multivariate adjustment, occlusion at the internal carotid artery (odds ratio 11.82, 95% confidence interval 1.73-142.74), Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score on diffusion-weighted imaging Stroke Scale score (1.24, 1.08-1.47, per 1-point decrease) were inversely correlated with early improvement. Four patients (5%) had symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage. At 3 months, 76 patients (98%) survived, and 36 of 78 patients (46%) overall, but only two of 19 patients (11%) with internal carotid artery occlusion, had a favourable functional outcome, corresponding to a modified Rankin scale score Stroke Program Early CT Score on diffusion-weighted imaging kg resulted in a relatively good overall outcome when compared with outcomes reported by western studies using an alteplase dose of 0.9 mg/kg. However, patients with occlusion at the internal carotid artery did not respond to this low-dose alteplase therapy.

  13. Carbon storage and sequestration by trees in urban and community areas of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, David J; Greenfield, Eric J; Hoehn, Robert E; Lapoint, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    Carbon storage and sequestration by urban trees in the United States was quantified to assess the magnitude and role of urban forests in relation to climate change. Urban tree field data from 28 cities and 6 states were used to determine the average carbon density per unit of tree cover. These data were applied to statewide urban tree cover measurements to determine total urban forest carbon storage and annual sequestration by state and nationally. Urban whole tree carbon storage densities average 7.69 kg C m(-2) of tree cover and sequestration densities average 0.28 kg C m(-2) of tree cover per year. Total tree carbon storage in U.S. urban areas (c. 2005) is estimated at 643 million tonnes ($50.5 billion value; 95% CI = 597 million and 690 million tonnes) and annual sequestration is estimated at 25.6 million tonnes ($2.0 billion value; 95% CI = 23.7 million to 27.4 million tonnes).

  14. Chemoprophylaxis of leprosy with a single dose of 25 mg per kg rifampin in the southern Marquesas; results after four years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartel, J L; Chanteau, S; Moulia-Pelat, J P; Plichart, R; Glaziou, P; Boutin, J P; Roux, J F; Grosset, J H

    1992-09-01

    In January-February 1988, a program of chemoprophylaxis for leprosy, using a single 25 mg/kg dose of rifampin, was conducted among 2786 (98.7%) inhabitants of the Southern Marquesas and 3144 South Marquesan "emigrants" and their families. Among the treated population, during the 4 years which followed the implementation of the program, two leprosy patients were detected, one of whom can be considered as a failure of chemoprophylaxis because she was not known by the leprosy control unit. During the same period (1988-1991), a decrease in detection rates for leprosy in the entire French Polynesian population has been observed, an event which makes the interpretation of these findings very difficult. Nevertheless, according to presently available data, the effectiveness of chemoprophylaxis with a single dose of 25 mg/kg rifampin is estimated to be about 40% to 50%. When considering not only the results of the present study but also the financial and logistic constraints raised by such a program, one is led to the conclusion that chemoprophylaxis, even with a single dose of rifampin, is not likely to become an effective component of leprosy control programs.

  15. Semipurified glycerins on starting piglets feeding‏ (15-30 kg - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.17264

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clodoaldo de Lima Costa Filho

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional value and the performance of piglets fed on diets with semipurified glycerin (SPGV and mixed (SPGM vegetable oil was determined and evaluated. Thirty-two crossbred piglets, allotted in a completely randomized block design, were used in the digestibility trial. Two types of glycerin (SPGV and SPGM and three levels of diet (4, 8 and 12% were studied. The experimental unit consisted of one piglet. Glycerins’ metabolizable energy (ME was estimated by regression of ME (kcal kg-1 intake associated with glycerin vs. glycerin intake (kg. ME as-feed-basis rates were 3,373 for SPGV and 2,932 for SPGM, or rather, the glycerins are highly available energy source for piglets. In the performance trial, 90 piglets were allotted in a completely randomized blocks design in a 2 x 4 + 1 factorial scheme, two glycerins, four levels (3, 6, 9 and 12%, five replicates (pens and two piglets per pen. A control diet with no glycerin (0% was additionally formulated. Since no effect of glycerin inclusion on pig performance occurred, it was feasible to use up to 12% of both types of glycerin on piglets feeding.    

  16. Dysfunctional muscarinic M(2) autoreceptors in vagally induced bronchoconstriction of conscious guinea pigs after the early allergic reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TenBerge, REJ; Krikke, M; Teisman, ACH; Roffel, AF; Zaagsma, J

    1996-01-01

    We studied the function of autoinhibitory muscarinic M(2) receptors on vagal nerve endings in the airways of conscious, unrestrained, ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs after the early and late allergic reaction. For this purpose, the effects of the selective muscarinic M(2) receptor antagonist gallam

  17. Pharmacokinetics and buccal mucosal concentrations of a 15 milligram per kilogram of body weight total dose of liposomal amphotericin B administered as a single dose (15 mg/kg), weekly dose (7.5 mg/kg), or daily dose (1 mg/kg) in peripheral stem cell transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, Paul O; Amsden, Jarrett R; McConnell, Scott A; Anaissie, Elias J

    2009-09-01

    The pharmacokinetics and safety of extended-interval dosing of prophylactic liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) in peripheral stem cell transplant recipients were evaluated. The patients received L-AMB daily at 1 mg/kg of body weight or weekly at 7.5 mg/kg or received L-AMB as a single dose (15 mg/kg). The buccal mucosal tissue concentrations of L-AMB were measured. Of the 24 patients enrolled, 5 withdrew after the initial dose due to an infusion-related reaction (n = 2) or significant increases in the serum creatinine (Scr) levels (n = 3). Weekly L-AMB dosing (7.5 mg/kg) produced mean plasma concentrations of >0.300 microg/ml for the first 7 days and >0.220 microg/ml for 7 days after the second dose. A single L-AMB dose (15 mg/kg) produced mean plasma concentrations of >0.491 microg/ml for at least 7 seven days. These concentrations are within the range of the MICs reported in the literature for susceptible strains of Candida and are at the lower limits of the MICs for Aspergillus spp. Extended-interval dosing produced buccal mucosal tissue concentrations well in excess of the MICs reported in the literature for susceptible strains of Candida and Aspergillus spp. Infusion-related reactions occurred in 24% of the patients. Baseline and end-of-study Scr, electrolyte (K+, Mg2+, PO4), and serum transaminase levels were similar across the dosage groups. Five (31%) patients met the nephrotoxicity definition prior to completion of the study. Patients in the weekly or single-dose groups experienced nephrotoxicity significantly faster than the patients in the daily dosing cohort. A weekly L-AMB dose (7.5 mg/kg) or a single L-AMB dose (15 mg/kg) produced sufficient concentrations in plasma and highly vascular tissue to warrant further studies of the safety, efficacy, and practicality of the weekly prophylactic administration of L-AMB.

  18. Fusion to chicken C3d enhances the immunogenicity of the M2 protein of avian influenza virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Li

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current vaccines to avian influenzae virus (AIV, a highly contagious disease of birds, need to be constantly updated due to the high level of variation in the target antigens. Therefore, a vaccine that could induce broad cross protection against AIV is required. The M2 membrane protein is structurally conserved amongst AIV subtypes but tends in induce a poor immune response, whereas C3d has been shown in many species to enhance immunogenicity. In this study, we investigated the potential of M2-avian C3d fusion proteins to provide effective immunity. Results We fused chicken complement C3d to sM2 (M2 protein with the transmembrane region deleted of AIV and expressed four fusion proteins, GST (Glutathione S-transferase tagged proteins in pGEX expression vector -C3d-sM2, GST-C3d-L2-sM2, GST-C3d-L1-C3d-sM2 and GST-C3d-L1-C3d-L2-sM2 were used to immunize mice. In addition, Specific pathogen free (SPF chickens were inoculated with the plasmids pcDNA-sM2, pcDNA-C3d-L1-C3d-L2-sM2, GST-sM2 and GST-C3d-L1-C3d-L2-sM2. The immune response was monitored by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for sM2 antibody, and all the test animals were challenged with A/chicken/Bei Jing/WD9/98 (H9N2 virus. Results revealed that the anti-sM2 antibody in mice and chickens vaccinated with these proteins was higher than the nonfused forms of sM2, the GST-C3d-L1-C3d-L2-sM2 groups have conferred the highest 30% and 20% protection ratio in mice and chickens respectively. In addition, the pcDNA-C3d-L1-C3d-L2-sM2 also enhances the antibody responses to sM2 compared to pcDNA-sM2 in chickens, and acquired 13.3% protection ratio. Conclusion These results indicated that chicken C3d enhanced the humoral immunity against AIV M2 protein either fused proteins expressed by the prokaryotic system or with the DNA vaccine. Nevertheless, in view of the poor protection ratio for these animals, we speculated that this is not a worthy developing of vaccine in these

  19. Opuntia ficus-indica seed attenuates hepatic steatosis and promotes M2 macrophage polarization in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Shin, Jun-Kyu; Koh, Eun-Ji; Ryu, Hyojeong; Kim, Hyoung Ja; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2016-04-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) is a popular edible plant that possesses considerable nutritional value and exhibits diverse biological actions including anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic activities. In this study, we hypothesized that DWJ504, an extract of O ficus-indica seed, would ameliorate hepatic steatosis and inflammation by regulating hepatic de novo lipogenesis and macrophage polarization against experimental nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Mice were fed a normal diet or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks. DWJ504 (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose) were orally administered for the last 4 weeks of the 10-week HFD feeding period. DWJ504 treatment remarkably attenuated HFD-induced increases in hepatic lipid content and hepatocellular damage. DWJ504 attenuated increases in sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein expression and a decrease in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A. Although DWJ504 augmented peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α protein expression, it attenuated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression. Moreover, DWJ504 promoted hepatic M2 macrophage polarization as indicated by attenuation of the M1 marker genes and enhancement of M2 marker genes. Finally, DWJ504 attenuated expression of toll-like receptor 4, nuclear factor κB, tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon β, and interferon β levels. Our results demonstrate that DWJ504 prevented intrahepatic lipid accumulation, induced M2 macrophage polarization, and suppressed the toll-like receptor 4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway. Thus, DWJ504 has therapeutic potential in the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

  20. Magnetic gold nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization and its application in the delivery of FITC into KG-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yuzhi; Song, Steven; Yang, Xiaoyan; Xing, James; Chen, Jie

    2012-10-01

    In this article, we report a new method-a sonication method to disperse iron oxide nanoparticles into smaller nanoparticles and make gold ions absorb onto the surface or trapped in the micropores of the iron oxide nanoparticles using sonication action. By using quick reduction of ascorbic acid and post-HCI solution treatment, gold covered magnetic nanoparticles (mGNPs) with spherical morphology and uniform size were synthesized in a water solution. The size of the mGNPs was found to be 20-30 nm. Some ideal mGNPs possessed a core-shell structure. The mGNPs were non-cytotoxic and mGNP-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) can enter KG-1 cells when driven by an external magnetic force, which was confirmed by confocal imaging. The confocal image also showed the FITC inside the KG-1 cells was near the nucleus. The fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) delivery efficiency is about 100% according to the flow cytometry results.

  1. Susceptibility of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus to ivermectin (200, 500 and 630 μg/kg) in field studies in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Felippelli, Gustavo; Fávero, Flávia Carolina; Teixeira, Weslen Fabrício Pires; Carvalho, Rafael Silveira; Ruivo, Maycon Araújo; Colli, Marcos Henrique Alcantara; Sakamoto, Cláudio Alessandro Massamitsu; da Costa, Alvimar José; De Oliveira, Gilson Pereira

    2015-01-30

    The present study aimed to determine the susceptibility of 17 Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations, originating in the Southeast and Southern regions of Brazil, to different ivermectin concentrations (200, 500 and 630 μg/kg), administered through subcutaneous or topical (pour-on) routes. R. (B.) microplus populations from the states of Minas Gerais (seven populations), São Paulo (seven populations) and Paraná (three populations) were chosen for the tests. The selected cattle were allocated to treatment groups on day 0, and block formation was based on the arithmetic mean of female ticks (4.5-8.0 mm long) counted on three consecutive days (-3, -2 and -1). To evaluate the therapeutic and residual efficacies of these formulations, tick counts (females ranging from 4.5 to 8.0 mm long) were performed on days 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, and continued on a weekly basis thereafter until the end of each experiment. The results obtained throughout this study, utilizing field efficacy studies, allowed us to conclude that the resistance of R. (B.) microplus against 200 and 500 μg/kg ivermectin is widely disseminated because all tick populations that had contact with these specific concentrations were diagnosed as resistant. However, it is possible to infer that R. (B.) microplus resistance against 630 μg/kg ivermectin was also widespread, diagnosed at six of ten analyzed properties. Resistance of these ectoparasites to 630 μg/kg ivermectin is most likely emerging in three other populations of R. (B.) microplus. Strategies of resistance management need to be quickly determined to keep the selection pressure at a minimum level in Brazil.

  2. 75 FR 67611 - Airworthiness Directives; Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd. & Co. KG. (RRD) Models Tay 650-15 and Tay...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Deutschland Ltd. & Co. KG. (RRD) Models Tay 650-15 and Tay 651-54 Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation... numbers for the Tay 650-15 engines and on the Tay 651-54 engines. This AD, superseding EASA AD 2008-0122... numbers for the Tay 650-15 engines and in adding the Tay 651-54 engines. We are issuing this AD to...

  3. Digestibility and bioavailability of phosphorus from spray-dried yeasts in the diet of starting pigs (15-30 kg)

    OpenAIRE

    Peñuela Sierra,Lina Maria; Moreira,Ivan; Furlan,Antonio Claudio; Carvalho,Paulo Levi de Oliveira; Poveda Parra,Ângela Rocio; Oliveira,Gisele Cristina de

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to determine the bioavailability of phosphorus in two spray-dried yeasts - sugarcane yeast (SCY), and sugarcane yeast + brewer's yeast (SCBY) - in starting pigs, by comparing different methods (Apparent Digestibility Coefficient of Phosphorus - ADCP; True Digestibility Coefficient of Phosphorus - TDCP; slope ratio; and standard curve). In experiment I, a digestibility assay were carried out using 30 cross breed pig with initial weigh of 22.69 ± 4.24kg, allotte...

  4. First Dark Matter Search Results from a 4-kg CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber Operated in a Deep Underground Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behnke, E.; /Indiana U., South Bend; Behnke, J.; /Indiana U., South Bend; Brice, S.J.; /Fermilab; Broemmelsiek, D.; /Fermilab; Collar, J.I.; /Chicago U., EFI; Conner, A.; /Indiana U., South Bend; Cooper, P.S.; /Fermilab; Crisler, M.; /Fermilab; Dahl, C.E.; /Chicago U., EFI; Fustin, D.; /Chicago U., EFI; Grace, E.; /Indiana U., South Bend /Fermilab

    2012-04-01

    New data are reported from the operation of a 4.0 kg CF{sub 3}I bubble chamber in the 6800 foot deep SNOLAB underground laboratory. The effectiveness of ultrasound analysis in discriminating alpha decay background events from single nuclear recoils has been confirmed, with a lower bound of >99.3% rejection of alpha decay events. Twenty single nuclear recoil event candidates and three multiple bubble events were observed during a total exposure of 553 kg-days distributed over three different bubble nucleation thresholds. The effective exposure for single bubble recoil-like events was 437.4 kg-days. A neutron background internal to the apparatus, of known origin, is estimated to account for five single nuclear recoil events and is consistent with the observed rate of multiple bubble events. This observation provides world best direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses >20 GeV/c{sup 2} and demonstrates significant sensitivity for spin-independent interactions.

  5. First Dark Matter Search Results from a 4-kg CF$_3$I Bubble Chamber Operated in a Deep Underground Site

    CERN Document Server

    Behnke, E; Brice, S J; Broemmelsiek, D; Collar, J I; Conner, A; Cooper, P S; Crisler, M; Dahl, C E; Fustin, D; Grace, E; Hall, J; Hu, M; Levine, I; Lippincott, W H; Moan, T; Nania, T; Ramberg, E; Robinson, A E; Sonnenschein, A; Szydagis, M; Vázquez-Jáuregui, E

    2012-01-01

    New data are reported from the operation of a 4.0 kg CF$_{3}$I bubble chamber in the 6800 foot deep SNOLAB underground laboratory. The effectiveness of ultrasound analysis in discriminating alpha decay background events from single nuclear recoils has been confirmed, with a lower bound of $>$99.3% rejection of alpha decay events. Twenty single nuclear recoil event candidates and three multiple bubble events were observed during a total exposure of 553 kg-days distributed over three different bubble nucleation thresholds. The effective exposure for single bubble recoil-like events was 437.4 kg-days. A neutron background internal to the apparatus, of known origin, is estimated to account for five single nuclear recoil events and is consistent with the observed rate of multiple bubble events. This observation provides world best direct detection constraints on WIMP-proton spin-dependent scattering for WIMP masses $>$20 GeV/c$^{2}$ and demonstrates significant sensitivity for spin-independent interactions.

  6. MUC1-C oncoprotein regulates glycolysis and pyruvate kinase M2 activity in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michio Kosugi

    Full Text Available Aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells is regulated by multiple effectors that include Akt and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2. Mucin 1 (MUC1 is a heterodimeric glycoprotein that is aberrantly overexpressed by human breast and other carcinomas. Here we show that transformation of rat fibroblasts by the oncogenic MUC1-C subunit is associated with Akt-mediated increases in glucose uptake and lactate production, consistent with the stimulation of glycolysis. The results also demonstrate that the MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain binds directly to PKM2 at the B- and C-domains. Interaction between the MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain Cys-3 and the PKM2 C-domain Cys-474 was found to stimulate PKM2 activity. Conversely, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-mediated phosphorylation of the MUC1-C cytoplasmic domain on Tyr-46 conferred binding to PKM2 Lys-433 and inhibited PKM2 activity. In human breast cancer cells, silencing MUC1-C was associated with decreases in glucose uptake and lactate production, confirming involvement of MUC1-C in the regulation of glycolysis. In addition, EGFR-mediated phosphorylation of MUC1-C in breast cancer cells was associated with decreases in PKM2 activity. These findings indicate that the MUC1-C subunit regulates glycolysis and that this response is conferred in part by PKM2. Thus, the overexpression of MUC1-C oncoprotein in diverse human carcinomas could be of importance to the Warburg effect of aerobic glycolysis.

  7. FAST, LOW-IONIZATION EMISSION REGIONS OF THE PLANETARY NEBULA M2-42

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danehkar, A.; Parker, Q. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Steffen, W., E-mail: ashkbiz.danehkar@cfa.harvard.edu [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, C.P.22860, Ensenada (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    Spatially resolved observations of the planetary nebula M2-42 (PN G008.2−04.8) obtained with the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3 m telescope have revealed the remarkable features of bipolar collimated jets emerging from its main structure. Velocity-resolved channel maps derived from the [N ii] λ6584 emission line disentangle different morphological components of the nebula. This information is used to develop a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model, which consists of an equatorial dense torus and a pair of asymmetric bipolar outflows. The expansion velocity of about 20 km s{sup −1} is measured from the spectrum integrated over the main shell. However, the deprojected velocities of the jets are found to be in the range of 80–160 km s{sup −1} with respect to the nebular center. It is found that the mean density of the collimated outflows, 595 ± 125 cm{sup −3}, is five times lower than that of the main shell, 3150 cm{sup −3}, whereas their singly ionized nitrogen and sulfur abundances are about three times higher than those determined from the dense shell. The results indicate that the features of the collimated jets are typical of fast, low-ionization emission regions.

  8. Experiment "Regeneration" Performed Aboard the Russian Spacecraft Foton-M2 in 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Elonora; Almeida, Eduardo; Domaratskaya, Elena; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Aleinikova, Karina; Tairbekov, Murad; Mitashov, Victor

    2006-01-01

    The experiments on the newts performed earlier aboard Russian biosate llites showed that the rate of lens and tail regeneration in space wa s greater than on the ground. In parallel it was found that the numbe r of cells in S-phase was greater in space-flown animals than in the ground controls. However, it was unclear whether cell proliferation stimulation was induced by micro-g per se. Molecular mechanisms under lying the change also remained obscure. These issues were addressed b y the joint Russian-American experiment "Regeneration" flown on Foton -M2 in 2005. The method for in-flight delivering DNA precursor BrdU was developed. The experiment showed that during the flight the numbe r of S-phase cells in the regenerating eyes and tails increased. Thes e data together with those obtained earlier suggest that cell prolife ration increases in response to the effects of both micro-g and 1-g a fter return to Earth. The expression of bFGF in regenerating tissues of "flown" newts and ground controls was examined using immuno-histo chemistry. Obtained results suggest that this growth factor is a part icipant of the promotional effect of space flight upon cell prolifera tion in lens and tail regenerates.

  9. Analysis of Cell Proliferation in Newt (Pleurodeles waltl) Tissue Regeneration during Spaceflight in Foton M-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, E. A. C.; Roden, C.; Phillips, J. A.; Yusuf, R.; Globus, R. K.; Searby, N.; Vercoutere, W.; Morey-Holton, E.; Tairbekov, M.; Grigoryan, N.; hide

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial organisms exposed to microgravity during spaceflight expe rience musculoskeletal degeneration. It is still not understood if lo nger-term exposures to microgravity induce degeneration in other tiss ues, and if these effects are also observed in neutrally buoyant aqu atic organisms that may be pre-adapted to mechanical unloading. The " Regeneration" experiment conducted collaboratively between Russian an d US scientists for 16 days in the Russian Foton M-2 spaceflight soug ht to test the hypothesis that microgravity alters the proliferation of cells in regenerating tail tissue of the newt Pleurodeles waltl. Our initial results indicate that we successfUlly delivered the proli feration marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxy Uridine (BrdU) during spaceflight, and that it was incorporated in the nuclei of cells in regenerating tis sues. Cells in spaceflight tail regenerates proliferated at a slight ly slower rate and were more undifferentiated than those in ground sy nchronous controls. In addition, the size of regenerating tails from spaceflight was smaller than synchronous controls. However, onboard temperature recordings show that the temperature in spaceflight was a bout 2 C lower than ground synchronous controls, possibly explaining the observed differences. Additional post-facto ground controls at ma tched temperatures will correctly determine the effects of spaceflig ht on regenerative cell proliferation in the newt.

  10. Nuclear pyruvate kinase M2 complex serves as a transcriptional coactivator of arylhydrocarbon receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Shun; Adachi, Jun; Ihara, Masaru; Tanuma, Nobuhiro; Shima, Hiroshi; Kakizuka, Akira; Ikura, Masae; Ikura, Tsuyoshi; Matsuda, Tomonari

    2016-01-29

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) regulate production of acetyl-CoA, which functions as an acetyl donor in diverse enzymatic reactions, including histone acetylation. However, the mechanism by which the acetyl-CoA required for histone acetylation is ensured in a gene context-dependent manner is not clear. Here we show that PKM2, the E2 subunit of PDC and histone acetyltransferase p300 constitute a complex on chromatin with arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a transcription factor associated with xenobiotic metabolism. All of these factors are recruited to the enhancer of AhR-target genes, in an AhR-dependent manner. PKM2 contributes to enhancement of transcription of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1), an AhR-target gene, acetylation at lysine 9 of histone H3 at the CYP1A1 enhancer. Site-directed mutagenesis of PKM2 indicates that this enhancement of histone acetylation requires the pyruvate kinase activity of the enzyme. Furthermore, we reveal that PDC activity is present in nuclei. Based on these findings, we propose a local acetyl-CoA production system in which PKM2 and PDC locally supply acetyl-CoA to p300 from abundant PEP for histone acetylation at the gene enhancer, and our data suggest that PKM2 sensitizes AhR-mediated detoxification in actively proliferating cells such as cancer and fetal cells.

  11. Switching of pyruvate kinase isoform L to M2 promotes metabolic reprogramming in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Chak-Lui Wong

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is an aggressive tumor, with a high mortality rate due to late symptom presentation and frequent tumor recurrences and metastasis. It is also a rapidly growing tumor supported by different metabolic mechanisms; nevertheless, the biological and molecular mechanisms involved in the metabolic reprogramming in HCC are unclear. In this study, we found that pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2 was frequently over-expressed in human HCCs and its over-expression was associated with aggressive clinicopathological features and poor prognosis of HCC patients. Furthermore, knockdown of PKM2 suppressed aerobic glycolysis and cell proliferation in HCC cell lines in vitro. Importantly, knockdown of PKM2 hampered HCC growth in both subcutaneous injection and orthotopic liver implantation models, and reduced lung metastasis in vivo. Of significance, PKM2 over-expression in human HCCs was associated with a down-regulation of a liver-specific microRNA, miR-122. We further showed that miR-122 interacted with the 3UTR of the PKM2 gene. Re-expression of miR-122 in HCC cell lines reduced PKM2 expression, decreased glucose uptake in vitro, and suppressed HCC tumor growth in vivo. Our clinical data and functional studies have revealed a novel biological mechanism involved in HCC metabolic reprogramming.

  12. On the spectral properties of multi-branes, M2 and M5 branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia del Moral, M.P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, Calvo Sotelo 18, 33007, Oviedo (Spain); Restuccia, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Antofagasta, Aptdo 02800 (Chile); Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela)

    2011-07-01

    In this note we summarize some of the properties found in [1-3]. We characterize spectral properties of the quantum mechanical hamiltonian of theories with fermionic degrees of freedom beyond semiclassical approximation. We obtain a general class of bosonic polynomial potentials for which the Schroeedinger operator has a discrete spectrum. This class includes all the scalar potentials in membrane, 5-brane, p-branes, multiple M2 branes, BLG and ABJM theories. We also give a sufficient condition for discreteness of the spectrum for supersymmmetric and non supersymmetric theories with a fermionic contribution. We characterize then the spectral properties of different theories: the BMN matrix model, the supermembrane with central charges and a bound state of N D2 with m D0. We show that, while the first two models have a purely discrete spectrum with finite multiplicity, the latter has a continuous spectrum starting from a constant given in terms of the monopole charge. (Copyri