WorldWideScience

Sample records for units firing high-sulfur

  1. Demonstration of SCR technology for the control of NOx emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired utility boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, W.S. [W.S. Hinton and Associates, Cantonment, FL (United States); Maxwell, J.D.; Healy, E.C.; Hardman, R.R. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the completed Innovative Clean Coal Technology project which demonstrated SCR technology for reduction of flue gas NO{sub x} emissions from a utility boiler burning US high-sulfur coal. The project was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, managed and co-funded by Southern Company Services, Inc. on behalf of the Southern Company, and also co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute and Ontario Hydro. The project was located at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit 5 (a 75 MW tangentially-fired boiler burning US coals that had a sulfur content ranging from 2.5--2.9%), near Pensacola, Florida. The test program was conducted for approximately two years to evaluate catalyst deactivation and other SCR operational effects. The SCR test facility had nine reactors: three 2.5 MW (5,000 scfm), and operated on low-dust flue gas. The reactors operated in parallel with commercially available SCR catalysts obtained from suppliers throughout the world. Long-term performance testing began in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. A brief test facility description and the results of the project are presented in this paper.

  2. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): Demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, third and fourth quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese, and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. Coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and European gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small- scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The demonstration is being performed at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Crist Unit No. 5 (75 MW capacity) near Pensacola, Florida. The project is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Southern Company Services, Inc. (SCS on behalf of the entire Southern electric system), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Ontario Hydro. SCS is the participant responsible for managing al aspects of this project. 1 ref., 69 figs., 45 tabs.

  3. Innovative clean coal technology (ICCT): demonstration of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission from high-sulfur, coal-fired boilers - economic evaluation of commercial-scale SCR applications for utility boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, E.C.; Maxwell, J.D.; Hinton, W.S.

    1996-09-01

    This report presents the results of an economic evaluation produced as part of the Innovative Clean Coal Technology project, which demonstrated selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for reduction of NO x emissions from utility boilers burning U.S. high-sulfur coal. The document includes a commercial-scale capital and O ampersand M cost evaluation of SCR technology applied to a new facility, coal-fired boiler utilizing high-sulfur U.S. coal. The base case presented herein determines the total capital requirement, fixed and variable operating costs, and levelized costs for a new 250-MW pulverized coal utility boiler operating with a 60-percent NO x removal. Sensitivity evaluations are included to demonstrate the variation in cost due to changes in process variables and assumptions. This report also presents the results of a study completed by SCS to determine the cost and technical feasibility of retrofitting SCR technology to selected coal-fired generating units within the Southern electric system

  4. Special emission measurements on Riley Stoker's advanced CFB pilot facility co-firing non-recyclable de-inking paper fiber and high sulfur eastern bituminous coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.; Reicker, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    Riley Stoker has developed advanced industrial CFB designs that utilize eastern bituminous coals as fuel, and have the potential to use coal in combination with other fuels. Various fiber waste streams in paper recycling processes have sufficient carbonaceous content to be considered as possible sources of such fuels that could fire FBC combustors. The American Paper Institute estimates that by the mid-1990's more than 40% of the waste paper will be recycled, reaching much higher numbers by the year 2000. To evaluate the effectiveness of co-firing such fuels, a test program was conducted on Riley's pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed test facility. A de-inked newsprint derived fiber waste was successfully co-fired with high sulfur coal. The waste fiber material containing approximately 50% moisture had a heating value of 3500 Btu/lb. The coal was strip-mined and contained a lot of clay and excessive quantities of fines making it difficult to burn in conventional boilers. Tests were also conducted with a combination fuel consisting of coal, fiber waste and a high carbon fly ash. In addition to obtaining performance data on combustion efficiency, sulfur capture, and NO x emissions, special emission measurements were also made to quantify the organics, trace metals and hydrochloric acid levels in the flue gas. The co-firing tests achieved a maximum combustion efficiency of 98% and sulfur capture of 90%. The effect of Ca/S mole ratio and temperature is discussed. Although there are no formal regulations in place for FBC systems regarding special emissions, the levels measured were far below the allowable limits for waste incinerators. Materials handling experience on the pilot facility relating to co-firing is also discussed. This is done to identify special considerations for designing commercial facilities. A brief overview of the de-inking waste fiber combustion market is also presented

  5. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction Technology to Control Nitrogen Oxide Emissions From High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers: A DOE Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federal Energy Technology Center

    1999-01-01

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment of a project selected in CCT Round 2. The project is described in the report ''Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Technology for the Control of Nitrogen Oxide (NO(sub x)) Emissions from High-Sulfur, Coal-Fired Boilers'' (Southern Company Services 1990). In June 1990, Southern Company Services (Southern) entered into a cooperative agreement to conduct the study. Southern was a cofunder and served as the host at Gulf Power Company's Plant Crist. Other participants and cofunders were EPRI (formerly the Electric Power Research Institute) and Ontario Hydro. DOE provided 40 percent of the total project cost of$23 million. The long-term operation phase of the demonstration was started in July 1993 and was completed in July 1995. This independent evaluation is based primarily on information from Southern's Final Report (Southern Company Services 1996). The SCR process consists of injecting ammonia (NH(sub 3)) into boiler flue gas and passing the 3 flue gas through a catalyst bed where the NO(sub x) and NH(sub 3) react to form nitrogen and water vapor. The objectives of the demonstration project were to investigate: Performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries, and manufacturing methods at typical U.S. high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions; Catalyst resistance to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals but not present, or present at much lower concentrations, in fuels from other countries; and Effects on the balance-of-plant equipment

  6. Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers. Technical progress report, first and second quarters 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) control technology that involve injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in a boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO{sub x} to form nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal-fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: (1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels; (2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of-plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}; and (3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacture under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties are being explored by operating a series of small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. The project is being conducted in the following three phases: permitting, environmental monitoring plan and preliminary engineering; detailed design engineering and construction; and operation, testing, disposition and final report. The project was in the operation and testing phase during this reporting period. Accomplishments for this period are described.

  7. Using the Large Fire Simulator System to map wildland fire potential for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen Hollingsworth; James Menakis

    2010-01-01

    This project mapped wildland fire potential (WFP) for the conterminous United States by using the large fire simulation system developed for Fire Program Analysis (FPA) System. The large fire simulation system, referred to here as LFSim, consists of modules for weather generation, fire occurrence, fire suppression, and fire growth modeling. Weather was generated with...

  8. Mapping severe fire potential across the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett H. Davis

    2016-01-01

    The Fire Severity Mapping System (FIRESEV) project is an effort to provide critical information and tools to fire managers that enhance their ability to assess potential ecological effects of wildland fire. A major component of FIRESEV is the development of a Severe Fire Potential Map (SFPM), a geographic dataset covering the contiguous United States (CONUS) that...

  9. No more coal-fired units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    According to Minister of the Environment Pekka Haavisto natural gas, bioenergy and renewables are the ways of responding to future base load power need. Greenhouse gas emissions using natural gas are around 60 % of those with coal. Increasing the share of generation accounted for by natural gas in the Nordic region is just as feasible in principle as elsewhere in Europe. A good proportion of new power stations elsewhere in the community are natural gas-fired. Vattenfall is planning a combined cycle station in the 700 - 900 MW range for Imatra, and Imatran Voima a 600 MW gas-fired unit for Inkoo. Replacing coal with natural gas is an essential part of efforts to stabile CO 2 emissions

  10. Fires Across the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Days of record heat made the western United States tinder dry in early July 2007. Numerous wildfires raced across the dry terrain during the weekend of July 7. From Washington to Arizona, firefighters were battling fast-moving wildfires that threatened residences, businesses, gas wells, coal mines, communications equipment, and municipal watersheds. This image of the West was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite on Sunday, July 8. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are marked in red. Some of the largest blazes are labeled. Utah's Milford Flat was the largest; according to the July 9 morning report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the blaze was more than 280,000 acres, having grown more than 124,000 acres in the previous 24 hours. The fires have destroyed homes, forced evacuations, shut down trains and highways, and killed several people. Weather conditions were not expected to improve significantly across much of the area for several days, with hot temperatures and dry thunderstorms (lightning and winds, but little rain) likely in many places. Nearly the entire western United States was experiencing some level of drought as of July 3, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor. The drought had reached the 'extreme' category in southern California and western Arizona, and ranged from moderate to severe across most of the rest of the Southwest and Great Basin. The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 500 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions and formats, including an infrared-enhanced version that makes burned terrain appear brick red. NASA image courtesy the MODIS Rapid Response Team, Goddard Space Flight Center

  11. Utilizing Multi-Sensor Fire Detections to Map Fires in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, S. M.; Picotte, J. J.; Coan, M. J.

    2014-11-01

    In 2006, the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project began a cooperative effort between the US Forest Service (USFS) and the U.S.Geological Survey (USGS) to map and assess burn severity all large fires that have occurred in the United States since 1984. Using Landsat imagery, MTBS is mandated to map wildfire and prescribed fire that meet specific size criteria: greater than 1000 acres in the west and 500 acres in the east, regardless of ownership. Relying mostly on federal and state fire occurrence records, over 15,300 individual fires have been mapped. While mapping recorded fires, an additional 2,700 "unknown" or undocumented fires were discovered and assessed. It has become apparent that there are perhaps thousands of undocumented fires in the US that are yet to be mapped. Fire occurrence records alone are inadequate if MTBS is to provide a comprehensive accounting of fire across the US. Additionally, the sheer number of fires to assess has overwhelmed current manual procedures. To address these problems, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Applied Sciences Program is helping to fund the efforts of the USGS and its MTBS partners (USFS, National Park Service) to develop, and implement a system to automatically identify fires using satellite data. In near real time, USGS will combine active fire satellite detections from MODIS, AVHRR and GOES satellites with Landsat acquisitions. Newly acquired Landsat imagery will be routinely scanned to identify freshly burned area pixels, derive an initial perimeter and tag the burned area with the satellite date and time of detection. Landsat imagery from the early archive will be scanned to identify undocumented fires. Additional automated fire assessment processes will be developed. The USGS will develop these processes using open source software packages in order to provide freely available tools to local land managers providing them with the capability to assess fires at the local level.

  12. Advancing dendrochronological studies of fire in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Grant L.; Baisan, Christopher H.; Brown, Peter M.; Falk, Donald A.; Flatley, William T.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.; Hessl, Amy; Heyerdahl, Emily K.; Kaye, Margot W.; Lafon, Charles W.; Margolis, Ellis; Maxwell, R. Stockton; Naito, Adam T.; Platt, William J.; Rother, Monica T.; Saladyga, Thomas; Sherriff, Rosemary L.; Stachowiak, Lauren A.; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Sutherland, Elaine Kennedy; Taylor, Alan H.

    2018-01-01

    Dendroecology is the science that dates tree rings to their exact calendar year of formation to study processes that influence forest ecology (e.g., Speer 2010, Amoroso et al., 2017). Reconstruction of past fire regimes is a core application of dendroecology, linking fire history to population dynamics and climate effects on tree growth and survivorship. Since the early 20th century when dendrochronologists recognized that tree rings retained fire scars (e.g., Figure 1), and hence a record of past fires, they have conducted studies worldwide to reconstruct the historical range and variability of fire regimes (e.g., frequency, severity, seasonality, spatial extent), the influence of fire regimes on forest structure and ecosystem dynamics, and the top-down (e.g., climate) and bottom-up (e.g., fuels, topography) drivers of fire that operate at a range of temporal and spatial scales. As in other scientific fields, continued application of dendrochronological techniques to study fires has shaped new trajectories for the science. Here we highlight some important current directions in the United States (US) and call on our international colleagues to continue the conversation with perspectives from other countries.

  13. Internal fire protection analysis for the United Kingdom EPR design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laid, Abdallah [Nuclear New Build Generation Company Ltd. (NNB GenCo), Barnwood (United Kingdom). EDF Energy Plc.; Cesbron, Mickael [Service Etudes et Project Thermiques et Nucleaires (SEPTEN), Lyon (France). EDF-SA

    2015-12-15

    In the deterministic design basis analysis of the United Kingdom (UK) EPR based nuclear power plants all postulated initiating events are grouped into two different types, internal faults and internal/external hazards. ''Internal Fires'' is one of the internal hazards analysed at the design stage of the UK EPR. In effect, the main safety objective for fire protection is to ensure that all the required safety functions are performed in the event of an internal fire. To achieve this safety objective, provisions for protection against fire risks are taken to: (i) limit the spread of a fire, protect the safety functions of the facility; (ii) limit the propagation of smoke and dispersion of toxic, radioactive, inflammable, corrosive or explosive materials, and (iii) ensure the achievement of a safe shutdown state, personnel evacuation and all other necessary emergency actions. This paper presents the UK EPR approach on how the above provisions are applied. Such provisions involve implementing means of fire prevention, surveillance, firefighting and limiting fire consequences, appropriate to the risks inherent to the facility. Overall, the design of the UK EPR fire protection systems is based on three types of measures: prevention, containment and control.

  14. Operating room fire prevention: creating an electrosurgical unit fire safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J

    2014-08-01

    To reduce the incidence of surgical fires. Operating room fires represent a potentially life-threatening hazard and are triggered by the electrosurgical unit (ESU) pencil. Carbon dioxide is a fire suppressant and is a routinely used medical gas. We hypothesize that a shroud of protective carbon dioxide covering the tip of the ESU pencil displaces oxygen, thereby preventing fire ignition. Using 3-dimensional modeling techniques, a polymer sleeve was created and attached to an ESU pencil. This sleeve was connected to a carbon dioxide source and directed the gas through multiple precisely angled ports, generating a cone of fire-suppressive carbon dioxide surrounding the active pencil tip. This device was evaluated in a flammability test chamber containing 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen with sustained ESU activation. The sleeve was tested with and without carbon dioxide (control) until a fuel was ignited or 30 seconds elapsed. Time to ignition was measured by high-speed videography. Fires were ignited with each control trial (15/15 trials). The control group median ± SD ignition time in 21% oxygen was 3.0 ± 2.4 seconds, in 50% oxygen was 0.1 ± 1.8 seconds, and in 100% oxygen was 0.03 ± 0.1 seconds. No fire was observed when the fire safety device was used in all concentrations of oxygen (0/15 trials; P fire ignition was 76% to 100%. A sleeve creating a cone of protective carbon dioxide gas enshrouding the sparks from an ESU pencil effectively prevents fire in a high-flammability model. Clinical application of this device may reduce the incidence of operating room fires.

  15. 46 CFR 161.002-10 - Automatic fire detecting system control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic fire detecting system control unit. 161.002-10...-10 Automatic fire detecting system control unit. (a) General. The fire detecting system control unit... and the battery to be charged. (h) Automatic fire detecting system, battery charging and control—(1...

  16. The radiation protection units of the Austrian fire brigades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspek, W.; Schoenhacker, S.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1960s, Austrian fire brigades have been involved in radiation protection. With the preparations for the NPP Zwentendorf and the building of the research reactor in Seibersdorf, the first radiation protection units of the fire brigade were founded. 45 years later: The NPP Zwentendorf never saw its start-up, the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity is prohibited by a constitutional law, and the research reactor is being decommissioned. What's left are the radiation protection units of the fire brigades. The contribution gives an overview of similarities and differences of the radiation protection units in the nine federal states of Austria, with a special focus on equipment, training and organisation. Nation-wide guidelines and regulations for the tactics of first responders at radiological emergencies are presented and a couple of incidents will be analysed. (orig.)

  17. United States position paper on sodium fires, design and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Johnson, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    The first Specialists' Meeting on sodium fire technology sponsored by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) was held in Richland, Washington in 1972. The group concluded that the state-of-technology at that time was inadequate to support the growing LMFBR industry. During the second IWGFR Specialists' Meeting on sodium fires, held in Cadarache, France in 1978, a large quantity of technical information was exchanged and areas were identified where additional work was needed. Advances in several important areas of sodium fire technology have been made in the United States since that time, including improved computer codes, design of a sodium fire protection system for the CRBRP, measurement of water release from heated concrete, and testing and modeling of the sodium-concrete reaction. Research in the U.S. related to sodium fire technology is performed chiefly at the Energy Systems Group of Rockwell International (including Atomics International), the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), and the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The work at the first two laboratories is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, while that at the latter is sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Various aspects of sodium fire related work is also performed at several other laboratories. The current status of sodium fire technology in the U.S. is summarized in this report

  18. Synchronization of motor unit firings: an epiphenomenon of firing rate characteristics not common inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Joshua C; De Luca, Carlo J

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous motor unit firing instances have been attributed to anatomical inputs shared by motoneurons. Yet, there is a lack of empirical evidence confirming the notion that common inputs elicit synchronization under voluntary conditions. We tested this notion by measuring synchronization between motor unit action potential trains (MUAPTs) as their firing rates progressed within a contraction from a relatively low force level to a higher one. On average, the degree of synchronization decreased as the force increased. The common input notion provides no empirically supported explanation for the observed synchronization behavior. Therefore, we investigated a more probable explanation for synchronization. Our data set of 17,546 paired MUAPTs revealed that the degree of synchronization varies as a function of two characteristics of the motor unit firing rate: the similarity and the slope as a function of force. Both are measures of the excitation of the motoneurons. As the force generated by the muscle increases, the firing rate slope decreases, and the synchronization correspondingly decreases. Different muscles have motor units with different firing rate characteristics and display different amounts of synchronization. Although this association is not proof of causality, it consistently explains our observations and strongly suggests further investigation. So viewed, synchronization is likely an epiphenomenon, subject to countless unknown neural interactions. As such, synchronous firing instances may not be the product of a specific design and may not serve a specific physiological purpose. Our explanation for synchronization has the advantage of being supported by empirical evidence, whereas the common input does not. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konidaris, Dimitrios N

    2010-10-01

    This paper analyzes the natural desulfurization process taking place in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. The dry scrubbing capability of Greek lignite appears to be extremely high under special conditions, which can make it possible for the units to operate within the legislative limits of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. According to this study on several lignite-fired power stations in northern Greece, it was found that sulfur oxide emissions depend on coal rank, sulfur content, and calorific value. On the other hand, SO2 emission is inversely proportional to the parameter gammaCO2(max), which is equal to the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) content by volume of dry flue gas under stoichiometric combustion. The desulfurization efficiency is positively correlated to the molar ratio of decomposed calcium carbonate to sulfur and negatively correlated to the free calcium oxide content of fly ash.

  20. Potential to cofire high-sulfur coal and MSW/RDF in Illinois utility boilers: A survey and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The disposal of refuse is of ever-increasing concern for municipalities and other organizations and agencies throughout the United States. Disposal in landfills is becoming more costly, and new landfills are more difficult to site because of stricter environmental regulations. Mass burning incinerators for municipal solid wastes (MSW) have also met with increased public resistance due to excessive emissions. Nevertheless, increased awareness of the need for alternative disposal techniques has led to a new interest in cofiring MSW with coal. In addition to solid waste concerns, the requirements to reduce SO 2 and NO x emissions from coal-fired utility boilers in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, present an opportunity to cofire MSW/RDF with coal as an emission control measure. These issues were the impetus for a 1992 study (conducted by ANL for the Illinois Clean Coal Institute) to examine the potential to cofire coal with MSW/RDF in Illinois utility boilers. This paper will provide a synopsis of the ANL/ICCI report. It will summarize (1) the combustibility and emission characteristics of high-sulfur coal and MSW/RDF; (2) the facilities firing RDF and/or producing/selling RDF, together with their combustion and emissions experience; (3) the applicable emissions regulations in Illinois; and (4) the analysis of candidate utility boilers in Illinois capable of cofiring, together with the effect on coal consumption and SO 2 and NO x emissions that would result from 20% cofiring with RDF/MSW

  1. The relationship of motor unit size, firing rate and force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conwit, R A; Stashuk, D; Tracy, B; McHugh, M; Brown, W F; Metter, E J

    1999-07-01

    Using a clinical electromyographic (EMG) protocol, motor units were sampled from the quadriceps femoris during isometric contractions at fixed force levels to examine how average motor unit size and firing rate relate to force generation. Mean firing rates (mFRs) and sizes (mean surface-detected motor unit action potential (mS-MUAP) area) of samples of active motor units were assessed at various force levels in 79 subjects. MS-MUAP size increased linearly with increased force generation, while mFR remained relatively constant up to 30% of a maximal force and increased appreciably only at higher force levels. A relationship was found between muscle force and mS-MUAP area (r2 = 0.67), mFR (r2 = 0.38), and the product of mS-MUAP area and mFR (mS-MUAP x mFR) (r2 = 0.70). The results support the hypothesis that motor units are recruited in an orderly manner during forceful contractions, and that in large muscles only at higher levels of contraction ( > 30% MVC) do mFRs increase appreciably. MS-MUAP and mFR can be assessed using clinical EMG techniques and they may provide a physiological basis for analyzing the role of motor units during muscle force generation.

  2. Effects of accelerated wildfire on future fire regimes and implications for the United States federal fire policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan A. Ager

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wildland fire suppression practices in the western United States are being widely scrutinized by policymakers and scientists as costs escalate and large fires increasingly affect social and ecological values. One potential solution is to change current fire suppression tactics to intentionally increase the area burned under conditions when risks are acceptable to managers and fires can be used to achieve long-term restoration goals in fire adapted forests. We conducted experiments with the Envision landscape model to simulate increased levels of wildfire over a 50-year period on a 1.2 million ha landscape in the eastern Cascades of Oregon, USA. We hypothesized that at some level of burned area fuels would limit the growth of new fires, and fire effects on the composition and structure of forests would eventually reduce future fire intensity and severity. We found that doubling current rates of wildfire resulted in detectable feedbacks in area burned and fire intensity. Area burned in a given simulation year was reduced about 18% per unit area burned in the prior five years averaged across all scenarios. The reduction in area burned was accompanied by substantially lower fire severity, and vegetation shifted to open forest and grass-shrub conditions at the expense of old growth habitat. Negative fire feedbacks were slightly moderated by longer-term positive feedbacks, in which the effect of prior area burned diminished during the simulation. We discuss trade-offs between managing fuels with wildfire versus prescribed fire and mechanical fuel treatments from a social and policy standpoint. The study provides a useful modeling framework to consider the potential value of fire feedbacks as part of overall land management strategies to build fire resilient landscapes and reduce wildfire risk to communities in the western U.S. The results are also relevant to prior climate-wildfire studies that did not consider fire feedbacks in projections of future

  3. Mid-21st-century climate changes increase predicted fire occurrence and fire season length, Northern Rocky Mountains, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Karin L.; Loehman, Rachel A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes are expected to increase fire frequency, fire season length, and cumulative area burned in the western United States. We focus on the potential impact of mid-21st-century climate changes on annual burn probability, fire season length, and large fire characteristics including number and size for a study area in the Northern Rocky Mountains. Although large fires are rare they account for most of the area burned in western North America, burn under extreme weather conditions, and exhibit behaviors that preclude methods of direct control. Allocation of resources, development of management plans, and assessment of fire effects on ecosystems all require an understanding of when and where fires are likely to burn, particularly under altered climate regimes that may increase large fire occurrence. We used the large fire simulation model FSim to model ignition, growth, and containment of wildfires under two climate scenarios: contemporary (based on instrumental weather) and mid-century (based on an ensemble average of global climate models driven by the A1B SRES emissions scenario). Modeled changes in fire patterns include increased annual burn probability, particularly in areas of the study region with relatively short contemporary fire return intervals; increased individual fire size and annual area burned; and fewer years without large fires. High fire danger days, represented by threshold values of Energy Release Component (ERC), are projected to increase in number, especially in spring and fall, lengthening the climatic fire season. For fire managers, ERC is an indicator of fire intensity potential and fire economics, with higher ERC thresholds often associated with larger, more expensive fires. Longer periods of elevated ERC may significantly increase the cost and complexity of fire management activities, requiring new strategies to maintain desired ecological conditions and limit fire risk. Increased fire activity (within the historical range of

  4. Probabilistic fire risk assessment for Koeberg Nuclear Power Station Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobbelaar, J.F.; Foster, N.A.S.; Luesse, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    A probabilistic fire risk assessment was done for Koeberg Nuclear Power Station Unit 1. Areas where fires are likely to start were identified. Equipment important to safety, as well as their power and/or control cable routes were identified in each fire confinement sector. Fire confinement sectors where internal initiating events could be caused by fire were identified. Detection failure and suppression failure fault trees and event trees were constructed. The core damage frequency associated with each fire confinement sector was calculated, and important fire confinement sectors were identified. (author)

  5. Chemistry experiences from a containment fire at Ringhals unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvidsson, Bengt; Svanberg, Pernilla; Bengtsson, Bernt

    2012-09-01

    At the refuelling outage in Ringhals unit 2, during an ongoing Containment Air Test (CAT), a fire event occurred at the refuelling deck/entrance floor. Due to the ongoing CAT with high pressure, all attempts to enter the containment to extinguish the fire were impossible. The fire started as a short circuit (spark) in a vacuum cleaner that was left in the containment by mistake and then set fire to nearby material. Approximate, 5 kg of rubber material and 30 kg of plastic material were estimated to have been burned out. The complete inside of the containment from the level of fire (+115) up to the ceiling/dome (+156) was colored black by soot. Soot or smoke was also spread throughout the whole containment building and the cavity/reactor vessel was contaminated by a minor part of soot due to some unsuccessful covering of the area during CAT. All fuel assemblies were stored in the fuel pool building and not affected by the fire. During the pressure reduction of containment, high air humidity with moisture precipitation occurred and caused a rapid general corrosion on steel surfaces due to high levels of chloride in the soot together with some pitting on stainless steel piping. Immediate action was to install portable dryers to lower the humidity, followed by the start of an extensive cleaning program with objectives to prevent plant degradation/recontamination of soot and bring the unit back in operation. More than 1300 people including >150 cleaners has been appointed to this project. All piping, insulation, cables, >4.500 components, 6.340 m 2 of concrete wall surface and 5.100 m 2 of concrete floor surface have been cleaned during 7 months to an estimated cost of 20 million Euro. Chemistry staff has been deeply involved in sampling and chemical analysis of contaminated surfaces/objects as well as establishing criteria's for cleaning equipment, procedures and specifications. Approximately 12000 measurements have been performed using portable salt meters in

  6. Water Supply. Fire Service Certification Series. Unit FSCS-FF-9-80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    This training unit on water supply is part of a 17-unit course package written to aid instructors in the development, teaching, and evaluation of fire fighters in the Wisconsin Fire Service Certification Series. The purpose stated for the 4-hour unit is to assist the firefighter in the proper use of water supplies and the understanding of the…

  7. Modeling very large-fire occurrences over the continental United States from weather and climate forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Barbero; J T Abatzoglou; E A Steel

    2014-01-01

    Very large-fires (VLFs) have widespread impacts on ecosystems, air quality, fire suppression resources, and in many regions account for a majority of total area burned. Empirical generalized linear models of the largest fires (>5000 ha) across the contiguous United States (US) were developed at ¡­60 km spatial and weekly temporal resolutions using solely atmospheric...

  8. Firing patterns of spontaneously active motor units in spinal cord-injured subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, Christine K

    2012-04-01

    Involuntary motor unit activity at low rates is common in hand muscles paralysed by spinal cord injury. Our aim was to describe these patterns of motor unit behaviour in relation to motoneurone and motor unit properties. Intramuscular electromyographic activity (EMG), surface EMG and force were recorded for 30 min from thenar muscles of nine men with chronic cervical SCI. Motor units fired for sustained periods (>10 min) at regular (coefficient of variation ≤ 0.15, CV, n =19 units) or irregular intervals (CV>0.15, n =14). Regularly firing units started and stopped firing independently suggesting that intrinsic motoneurone properties were important for recruitment and derecruitment. Recruitment (3.6 Hz, SD 1.2), maximal (10.2 Hz, SD 2.3, range: 7.5-15.4 Hz) and derecruitment frequencies were low (3.3 Hz, SD 1.6), as were firing rate increases after recruitment (~20 intervals in 3 s). Once active, firing often covaried, promoting the idea that units received common inputs.Half of the regularly firing units showed a very slow decline (>40 s) in discharge before derecruitment and had interspike intervals longer than their estimated after hyperpolarisation potential (AHP) duration (estimated by death rate and breakpoint analyses). The other units were derecruited more abruptly and had shorter estimated AHP durations. Overall, regularly firing units had longer estimated AHP durations and were weaker than irregularly firing units, suggesting they were lower threshold units. Sustained firing of units at regular rates may reflect activation of persistent inward currents, visible here in the absence of voluntary drive, whereas irregularly firing units may only respond to synaptic noise.

  9. Bistable firing properties of soleus motor units in unrestrained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EKEN, T.; KIEHN, O.

    1989-01-01

    of the motoneuron pool by stimulation of la afferents, or inhibition by stimulation of skin afferents. The shifts were not related to gross limb movements. This phenomenon is referred to as a bistable firing pattern. Bistable firing also occurred spontaneously during quiet standing. Typically the firing frequency...... was unchanged or only phasically influenced. These results demonstrate for the first time a bistable firing pattern during postural activity in the intact animal. The firing pattern closely resembles the bistable behaviour described in spinal motoneurons in reduced preparations, where it is due to the presence...... of a plateau potential. This suggests that the bistable firing is unexplained by plateau potentials also in the intact animal....

  10. Continental-scale simulation of burn probabilities, flame lengths, and fire size distribution for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Charles W. McHugh; Isaac Grenfell; Karin L. Riley

    2010-01-01

    Components of a quantitative risk assessment were produced by simulation of burn probabilities and fire behavior variation for 134 fire planning units (FPUs) across the continental U.S. The system uses fire growth simulation of ignitions modeled from relationships between large fire occurrence and the fire danger index Energy Release Component (ERC). Simulations of 10,...

  11. Developing standardized strategic response categories for fire management units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Crystal S. Stonesifer; Robert C. Seli; Marlena Hovorka

    2013-01-01

    Federal wildland fire policy requires that publicly owned lands with burnable vegetation have a fire management plan (FMP); this applies to the five primary Federal fire agencies (Bureau of Indian Affairs, Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Forest Service). FMPs are based on land and resource management plans and are...

  12. Do Additional Inputs Change Maximal Voluntary Motor Unit Firing Rates After Spinal Cord Injury?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Gant, Katie; Bakels, Rob; Thomas, Christine K.

    Background. Motor unit firing frequencies are low during maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of human thenar muscles impaired by cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Objective. This study aimed to examine whether thenar motor unit firing frequencies increase when driven by both maximal voluntary

  13. Motor unit firing intervals and other parameters of electrical activity in normal and pathological muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Smith, T; Høgenhaven, H

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of the firing intervals of motor units has been suggested as a diagnostic tool in patients with neuromuscular disorders. Part of the increase in number of turns seen in patients with myopathy could be secondary to the decrease in motor unit firing intervals at threshold force...

  14. Oil fired boiler/solar tank- and natural gas burner/solar tank-units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Frederiksen, Karsten Vinkler

    1999-01-01

    During the last few years new units consisting of a solar tank and either an oil fired boiler or a natural gas burner have been introduced on the Danish market. Three different marketed units - two based on a natural gas burner and one based on an oil fired boiler - have been tested in a heat...

  15. Demand outlook for sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshkarov, V.Ya.; Danil' yan, P.G.; Feotov, V.E.; Gimaev, R.N.; Koshkarova, M.E.; Sadykova, S.R.; Vodovichenko, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke fines in pyrometallurgical processes and also in the chemical and coal-tar chemical industry is examined. Results of industrial tests on briquetting fines of petroleum coke with a petroleum binder are presented. The feasibility of using the obtained briquets in shaft furnace smelting of oxidized nickel ores, production of anode stock, and also in the chemical industry are demonstrated.

  16. Control Of Motor Unit Firing During Step-Like Increases In Voluntary Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang eHu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In most skeletal muscles, force is generated by a combination of motor unit (MU recruitment and increases in the firing rate of previously active MUs. Two contrasting patterns of firing rate organization have been reported. In the first pattern, the earliest recruited MUs reach the highest firing rates as force is increased, and later recruited MUs fire at lower rates. When firing rate of multiple MUs are superimposed, these rate trajectories form a concentric layered profile termed ‘onion skin’. In the second pattern, called ‘reverse onion skin’, later recruited MUs reach higher firing rates, and crossing of firing rate trajectories for recorded MUs is common (although such trajectories are assembled routinely from different trials. Our present study examined the firing rate organization of concurrently active MUs of the first dorsal interosseous muscle during serial, step-like increases in isometric abduction forces. We used a surface sensor array coupled with MU discrimination algorithms to characterize MU firing patterns. Our objective was to determine whether ‘onion skin’ profiles are contingent upon the force trajectory of the motor task, examined here using step-like increases of force output, and also whether they are manifested at different force levels.Our results revealed that the overall ‘onion skin’ firing rate profile was retained as the force level increased with each force step up to 15% MVC. However, the distribution of firing rates across MUs was compressed with increasing force, and overlapping firing rate of units were observed. This rate compression was largely due to rate saturation of the relatively high frequency discharging MUs.Our results reflect flexible firing patterns across MUs at different levels of excitation drive. It is also evident that many units did not follow all the step increases consistently. This failure to track firing rate increases at higher forces could be due to an intrinsically

  17. A review of the relationships between drought and forest fire in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Jeremy; Peterson, David L.; Riley, Karin L.; Yongquiang Liu,; Luce, Charles H.

    2016-01-01

    The historical and pre-settlement relationships between drought and wildfire are well documented in North America, with forest fire occurrence and area clearly increasing in response to drought. There is also evidence that drought interacts with other controls (forest productivity, topography, fire weather, management activities) to affect fire intensity, severity, extent, and frequency. Fire regime characteristics arise across many individual fires at a variety of spatial and temporal scales, so both weather and climate—including short- and long-term droughts—are important and influence several, but not all, aspects of fire regimes. We review relationships between drought and fire regimes in United States forests, fire-related drought metrics and expected changes in fire risk, and implications for fire management under climate change. Collectively, this points to a conceptual model of fire on real landscapes: fire regimes, and how they change through time, are products of fuels and how other factors affect their availability (abundance, arrangement, continuity) and flammability (moisture, chemical composition). Climate, management, and land use all affect availability, flammability, and probability of ignition differently in different parts of North America. From a fire ecology perspective, the concept of drought varies with scale, application, scientific or management objective, and ecosystem.

  18. A review of the relationships between drought and forest fire in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Jeremy S; Peterson, David L; Riley, Karin L; Liu, Yongquiang; Luce, Charles H

    2016-07-01

    The historical and presettlement relationships between drought and wildfire are well documented in North America, with forest fire occurrence and area clearly increasing in response to drought. There is also evidence that drought interacts with other controls (forest productivity, topography, fire weather, management activities) to affect fire intensity, severity, extent, and frequency. Fire regime characteristics arise across many individual fires at a variety of spatial and temporal scales, so both weather and climate - including short- and long-term droughts - are important and influence several, but not all, aspects of fire regimes. We review relationships between drought and fire regimes in United States forests, fire-related drought metrics and expected changes in fire risk, and implications for fire management under climate change. Collectively, this points to a conceptual model of fire on real landscapes: fire regimes, and how they change through time, are products of fuels and how other factors affect their availability (abundance, arrangement, continuity) and flammability (moisture, chemical composition). Climate, management, and land use all affect availability, flammability, and probability of ignition differently in different parts of North America. From a fire ecology perspective, the concept of drought varies with scale, application, scientific or management objective, and ecosystem. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Risk Quantitative Determination of Fire and Explosion in a Process Unit By Dow’s Fire and Explosion Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Varmazyar

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Fire and explosion hazards are the first and second of major hazards in process industries, respectively. This study has been done to determine fire and explosion risk severity,radius of exposure and estimating of most probable loss.   Methods   In this quantitative study process unit has been selected with affecting parameters on  fire and explosion risk. Then, it was analyzed by DOW's fire and explosion index (F&EI. Technical data were obtained from process documents and reports, fire and explosion guideline.After calculating of DOW's index, radius of exposure determined and finally most  probable loss was estimated.   Results   The results showed an F&EI value of 226 for this process unit.The F&EI was extremely  high and unacceptable.Risk severity was categorized in sever class.Radius of exposure and damage factor were calculated 57 meters and 83%,respectively. As well as most probable loss was  estimated about 6.7 million dollars.   Conclusion   F&EI is a proper technique for risk assessment and loss estimation of fire and  explosion in process industries.Also,It is an important index for detecting high risk and low risk   areas in an industry. At this technique, all of factors affecting on fire and explosion risk was  showed as index that is a base for judgement risk class. Finally, estimated losses could be used as  a base of fire and explosion insurance.

  20. Climate-Driven Risk of Large Fire Occurrence in the Western United States, 1500 to 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, J.; Westerling, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    Spatially comprehensive fire climatology has provided managers with tools to understand thecauses and consequences of large forest wildfires, but a paleoclimate context is necessary foranticipating the trajectory of future climate-fire relationships. Although accumulated charcoalrecords and tree scars have been utilized in high resolution, regional fire reconstructions, there isuncertainty as to how current climate-fire relationships of the western United States (WUS) fitwithin the natural long-term variability. While contemporary PDSI falls within the naturalvariability of the past, contemporary temperatures skew higher. Here, we develop a WUSfire reconstruction by applying climate-fire-topography model built on the 1972 to 2003 periodto the past 500 years, validated by recently updated fire-scar histories from WUS forests. Theresultant narrative provides insight into changing climate-fire relationships during extendedperiods of high aridity and temperature, providing land managers with historical precedent toeffectively anticipate disturbances during future climate change.

  1. Fire and climate suitability for woody vegetation communities in the south central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroh, Esther; Struckhoff, Matthew; Stambaugh, Michael C.; Guyette, Richard P.

    2018-01-01

    Climate and fire are primary drivers of plant species distributions. Long-term management of south central United States woody vegetation communities can benefit from information on potential changes in climate and fire frequencies, and how these changes might affect plant communities. We used historical (1900 to 1929) and future (2040 to 2069 and 2070 to 2099) projected climate data for the conterminous US to estimate reference and future fire probabilities

  2. Fire and birds in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl E. Bock; William M. Block

    2005-01-01

    Fire is an important ecological force in many southwestern ecosystems, but frequencies, sizes, and intensities of fire have been altered historically by grazing, logging, exotic vegetation, and suppression. Prescribed burning should be applied widely, but under experimental conditions that facilitate studying its impacts on birds and other components of biodiversity....

  3. Advancing dendrochronological studies of fire in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant L. Harley; Christopher H. Baisan; Peter M. Brown; Donald A. Falk; William T. Flatley; Henri D. Grissino-Mayer; Amy Hessl; Emily K. Heyerdahl; Margot W. Kaye; Charles W. Lafon; Ellis Q. Margolis; R. Stockton Maxwell; Adam T. Naito; William J. Platt; Monica T. Rother; Thomas Saladyga; Rosemary L. Sherriff; Lauren A. Stachowiak; Michael C. Stambaugh; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland; Alan H. Taylor

    2018-01-01

    Dendroecology is the science that dates tree rings to their exact calendar year of formation to study processes that influence forest ecology (e.g., Speer 2010 [1], Amoroso et al., 2017 [2]). Reconstruction of past fire regimes is a core application of dendroecology, linking fire history to population dynamics and climate effects on tree growth and survivorship. Since...

  4. Evaluating potential changes in fire risk from Eucalyptus plantings in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Goodrick; John A. Stanturf

    2012-01-01

    Renewed interest in short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy and bioproducts has prompted a reevaluation of the Eucalyptus species for the southern United States. One question that arises about the potential effects of introducing a nonnative species is what effect will there be on fire behavior. Our approximate answer based on modeling fire behavior...

  5. Firefighters United for Safety, Ethics, and Ecology (FUSEE): Torchbearers for a new fire management paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Ingalsbee; Joseph Fox; Patrick Withen

    2007-01-01

    Firefighters United for Safety, Ethics, and Ecology (FUSEE) is a nonprofit organization promoting safe, ethical, ecological wildland fire management. FUSEE believes firefighter and community safety are ultimately interdependent with ethical public service, wildlands protection, and ecological restoration of fire-adapted ecosystems. Our members include current, former,...

  6. The compensatory interaction between motor unit firing behavior and muscle force during fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contessa, Paola; De Luca, Carlo J; Kline, Joshua C

    2016-10-01

    Throughout the literature, different observations of motor unit firing behavior during muscle fatigue have been reported and explained with varieties of conjectures. The disagreement amongst previous studies has resulted, in part, from the limited number of available motor units and from the misleading practice of grouping motor unit data across different subjects, contractions, and force levels. To establish a more clear understanding of motor unit control during fatigue, we investigated the firing behavior of motor units from the vastus lateralis muscle of individual subjects during a fatigue protocol of repeated voluntary constant force isometric contractions. Surface electromyographic decomposition technology provided the firings of 1,890 motor unit firing trains. These data revealed that to sustain the contraction force as the muscle fatigued, the following occurred: 1) motor unit firing rates increased; 2) new motor units were recruited; and 3) motor unit recruitment thresholds decreased. Although the degree of these adaptations was subject specific, the behavior was consistent in all subjects. When we compared our empirical observations with those obtained from simulation, we found that the fatigue-induced changes in motor unit firing behavior can be explained by increasing excitation to the motoneuron pool that compensates for the fatigue-induced decrease in muscle force twitch reported in empirical studies. Yet, the fundamental motor unit control scheme remains invariant throughout the development of fatigue. These findings indicate that the central nervous system regulates motor unit firing behavior by adjusting the operating point of the excitation to the motoneuron pool to sustain the contraction force as the muscle fatigues. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Sleep/wake firing patterns of human genioglossus motor units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, E Fiona; Fridel, Keith W; Rice, Amber D

    2007-12-01

    Although studies of the principal tongue protrudor muscle genioglossus (GG) suggest that whole muscle GG electromyographic (EMG) activities are preserved in nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, it is unclear what influence sleep exerts on individual GG motor unit (MU) activities. We characterized the firing patterns of human GG MUs in wakefulness and NREM sleep with the aim of determining 1) whether the range of MU discharge patterns evident in wakefulness is preserved in sleep and 2) what effect the removal of the "wakefulness" input has on the magnitude of the respiratory modulation of MU activities. Microelectrodes inserted into the extrinsic tongue protrudor muscle, the genioglossus, were used to follow the discharge of single MUs. We categorized MU activities on the basis of the temporal relationship between the spike train and the respiration cycle and quantified the magnitude of the respiratory modulation of each MU using the eta (eta(2)) index, in wakefulness and sleep. The majority of MUs exhibited subtle increases or decreases in respiratory modulation but were otherwise unaffected by NREM sleep. In contrast, 30% of MUs exhibited marked sleep-associated changes in discharge frequency and respiratory modulation. We suggest that GG MUs should not be considered exclusively tonic or phasic; rather, the discharge pattern appears to be a flexible feature of GG activities in healthy young adults. Whether such flexibility is important in the response to changes in the chemical and/or mechanical environment and whether it is preserved as a function of aging or in individuals with obstructive sleep apnea are critical questions for future research.

  8. Status of wildland fire prevention evaluation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry Doolittle; Linda R. Donoghue

    1991-01-01

    Presents findings of an assessment of the evaluation of wildland prevention efforts by all U.S. Wildland fire management agencies, and offers recommendations for improvements in prevention valuation techniques and procedures.

  9. FIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtis, J.S.; Hausheer, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    FIRE, a microcomputer based program to assist engineers in reviewing and documenting the fire protection impact of design changes has been developed. Acting as an electronic consultant, FIRE is designed to work with an experienced nuclear system engineer, who may not have any detailed fire protection expertise. FIRE helps the engineer to decide if a modification might adversely affect the fire protection design of the station. Since its first development, FIRE has been customized to reflect the fire protection philosophy of the Commonwealth Edison Company. That program is in early production use. This paper discusses the FIRE program in light of its being a useful application of expert system technologies in the power industry

  10. Human presence diminishes the importance of climate in driving fire activity across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Pfaff, Anne Hopkins; Ferschweiler, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Growing human and ecological costs due to increasing wildfire are an urgent concern in policy and management, particularly given projections of worsening fire conditions under climate change. Thus, understanding the relationship between climatic variation and fire activity is a critically important scientific question. Different factors limit fire behavior in different places and times, but most fire-climate analyses are conducted across broad spatial extents that mask geographical variation. This could result in overly broad or inappropriate management and policy decisions that neglect to account for regionally specific or other important factors driving fire activity. We developed statistical models relating seasonal temperature and precipitation variables to historical annual fire activity for 37 different regions across the continental United States and asked whether and how fire-climate relationships vary geographically, and why climate is more important in some regions than in others. Climatic variation played a significant role in explaining annual fire activity in some regions, but the relative importance of seasonal temperature or precipitation, in addition to the overall importance of climate, varied substantially depending on geographical context. Human presence was the primary reason that climate explained less fire activity in some regions than in others. That is, where human presence was more prominent, climate was less important. This means that humans may not only influence fire regimes but their presence can actually override, or swamp out, the effect of climate. Thus, geographical context as well as human influence should be considered alongside climate in national wildfire policy and management.

  11. Heat Release Rate of an Open Kitchen Fire of Small Residential Units in Tall Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, W.K.

    2014-01-01

    Many small units of area less than 30 m2 in residential buildings over 200 m tall are equipped with open kitchens in Asia, including Hong Kong. Fire safety provisions of these kitchens are determined by performance-based design (PBD). In most PBD projects, only the spread of smoke from the kitchen on fire to the outside was commonly studied. However, a fire load survey in Hong Kong indicated large quantities of combustibles are stored in residential units. Cooking oil was found to be ignited ...

  12. Evaluating Fire Risk in the Northeastern United States in the Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D.; Bradley, R. S.

    2017-12-01

    One poorly understood consequence of climate change is its effects on extreme events such as wildfires. Robust associations between wildfire frequency and climatic variability have been shown to exist, indicating that future climate change may continue to have a significant effect on wildfire activity. The Northeastern United States (NEUS) has seen some of the most infamous and largest historic fires in North America, such as the Miramichi Fire of 1825 and the fires of 1947. Although return intervals for large fires in the NEUS are long (hundreds of years), wildfires have played a critical role in ecosystem development and forest structure in the region. Understanding and predicting fire occurrence and vulnerability in the NEUS, especially in a changing climate, is economically and culturally important yet remains difficult due to human impacts (i.e. fire suppression activities and human disturbance). Thus, an alternative method for investigating fire risk in the NEUS is needed. Here, we present a compilation of meteorological data collected from Automated Surface Observing Systems (ASOS) from the NEUS throughout the 20th century through present day. We use these data to compute fifteen common "fire danger indices" employed in the USA and Canada to investigate changes in the region's fire risk over time, as well as the skill of each of these indices at predicting wildfire activity relative to the historical record of fires in the NEUS. We use dynamically-downscaled regional climate model output for the 21st century to project future wildfire activity based on the fire danger indices capable of capturing historical fire activity in the NEUS. These projections will aid in predicting how fire risk in the NEUS will evolve with anticipated climate change.

  13. Qualitative Analysis Results for Applications of a New Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment Method to Ulchin Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Daeil; Kim, Kilyoo; Jang, Seungcheol

    2013-01-01

    The fire PRA Implementation Guide has been used for performing a fire PSA for NPPs in Korea. Recently, US NRC and EPRI developed a new fire PSA method, NUREG/CR-6850, to provide state-of-the-art methods, tools, and data for the conduct of a fire PSA for a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP). Due to the limited budget and man powers for the development of KSRP, hybrid PSA approaches, using NUREG/CR-6850 and Fire PRA Implementation Guide, will be employed for conducting a fire PSA of Ulchin Unit 3. In this paper, the qualitative analysis results for applications of a new fire PSA method to Ulchin Unit 3 are presented. This paper introduces the qualitative analysis results for applications of a new fire PSA method to Ulchin Unit 3. Compared with the previous industry, the number of fire areas for quantification identified and the number of equipment selected has increased

  14. Climate drives inter-annual variability in probability of high severity fire occurrence in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Alisa; Westerling, Anthony LeRoy

    2017-05-01

    A long history of fire suppression in the western United States has significantly changed forest structure and ecological function, leading to increasingly uncharacteristic fires in terms of size and severity. Prior analyses of fire severity in California forests showed that time since last fire and fire weather conditions predicted fire severity very well, while a larger regional analysis showed that topography and climate were important predictors of high severity fire. There has not yet been a large-scale study that incorporates topography, vegetation and fire-year climate to determine regional scale high severity fire occurrence. We developed models to predict the probability of high severity fire occurrence for the western US. We predict high severity fire occurrence with some accuracy, and identify the relative importance of predictor classes in determining the probability of high severity fire. The inclusion of both vegetation and fire-year climate predictors was critical for model skill in identifying fires with high fractional fire severity. The inclusion of fire-year climate variables allows this model to forecast inter-annual variability in areas at future risk of high severity fire, beyond what slower-changing fuel conditions alone can accomplish. This allows for more targeted land management, including resource allocation for fuels reduction treatments to decrease the risk of high severity fire.

  15. Aerosols from fires: an examination of the effects on ozone photochemistry in the Western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyan; Wiedinmyer, Christine; Carlton, Annmarie G

    2012-11-06

    This study presents a first attempt to investigate the roles of fire aerosols in ozone (O(3)) photochemistry using an online coupled meteorology-chemistry model, the Weather Research and Foresting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). Four 1-month WRF-Chem simulations for August 2007, with and without fire emissions, were carried out to assess the sensitivity of O(3) predictions to the emissions and subsequent radiative feedbacks associated with large-scale fires in the Western United States (U.S.). Results show that decreases in planetary boundary layer height (PBLH) resulting from the radiative effects of fire aerosols and increases in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the fires tend to increase modeled O(3) concentrations near the source. Reductions in downward shortwave radiation reaching the surface and surface temperature due to fire aerosols cause decreases in biogenic isoprene emissions and J(NO(2)) photolysis rates, resulting in reductions in O(3) concentrations by as much as 15%. Thus, the results presented in this study imply that considering the radiative effects of fire aerosols may reduce O(3) overestimation by traditional photochemical models that do not consider fire-induced changes in meteorology; implementation of coupled meteorology-chemistry models are required to simulate the atmospheric chemistry impacted by large-scale fires.

  16. Ia Afferent input alters the recruitment thresholds and firing rates of single human motor units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, G; Cafarelli, E

    2003-06-01

    Vibration of the patellar tendon recruits motor units in the knee extensors via excitation of muscle spindles and subsequent Ia afferent input to the alpha-motoneuron pool. Our first purpose was to determine if the recruitment threshold and firing rate of the same motor unit differed when recruited involuntarily via reflex or voluntarily via descending spinal pathways. Although Ia input is excitatory to the alpha-motoneuron pool, it has also been shown paradoxically to inhibit itself. Our second purpose was to determine if vibration of the patellar tendon during a voluntary knee extension causes a change in the firing rate of already recruited motor units. In the first protocol, 10 subjects voluntarily reproduced the same isometric force profile of the knee extensors that was elicited by vibration of the patellar tendon. Single motor unit recordings from the vastus lateralis (VL) were obtained with tungsten microelectrodes and unitary behaviour was examined during both reflex and voluntary knee extensions. Recordings from 135 single motor units showed that both recruitment thresholds and firing rates were lower during reflex contractions. In the second protocol, 7 subjects maintained a voluntary knee extension at 30 N for approximately 40-45 s. Three bursts of patellar tendon vibration were superimposed at regular intervals throughout the contraction and changes in the firing rate of already recruited motor units were examined. A total of 35 motor units were recorded and each burst of superimposed vibration caused a momentary reduction in the firing rates and recruitment of additional units. Our data provide evidence that Ia input modulates the recruitment thresholds and firing rates of motor units providing more flexibility within the neuromuscular system to grade force at low levels of force production.

  17. Motor unit firing behaviour of soleus muscle in isometric and dynamic contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, Jouni; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, Janne

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the detailed control of human locomotion and balance can be improved, when individual motor units can be isolated and their firing rates followed in natural movement of large, fuctionally important muscles. For this reason the present study investigated the motor unit discharge rate...

  18. "Fire Moss" Cover and Function in Severely Burned Forests of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, H.; Doherty, K.; Sieg, C.; Robichaud, P. R.; Fulé, P. Z.; Bowker, M.

    2017-12-01

    With wildfires increasing in severity and extent throughout the Western United States, land managers need new tools to stabilize recently burned ecosystems. "Fire moss" consists of three species, Ceratodon purpureus, Funaria hygrometrica, and Bryum argentum. These mosses colonize burned landscapes quickly, aggregate soils, have extremely high water holding capacity, and can be grown rapidly ex-situ. In this talk, I will focus on our efforts to understand how Fire Moss naturally interacts with severely burned landscapes. We examined 14 fires in Arizona, New Mexico, Washington, and Idaho selecting a range of times since fire, and stratified plots within each wildfire by winter insolation and elevation. At 75+ plots we measured understory plant cover, ground cover, Fire Moss cover, and Fire Moss reproductive effort. On plots in the Southwest, we measured a suite of soil characteristics on moss covered and adjacent bare soil including aggregate stability, shear strength, compressional strength, and infiltration rates. Moss cover ranged from 0-75% with a mean of 16% across all plots and was inversely related to insolation (R2 = .32, p = stability and infiltration rates as adjacent bare ground. These results will allow us to model locations where Fire Moss will naturally increase postfire hillslope soil stability, locations for targeting moss restoration efforts, and suggest that Fire Moss could be a valuable tool to mitigate post wildfire erosion.

  19. Motor unit firing rate patterns during voluntary muscle force generation: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Rymer, William Z.; Suresh, Nina L.

    2014-04-01

    Objective. Muscle force is generated by a combination of motor unit (MU) recruitment and changes in the discharge rate of active MUs. There have been two basic MU recruitment and firing rate paradigms reported in the literature, which describe the control of the MUs during force generation. The first (termed the reverse ‘onion skin’ profile), exhibits lower firing rates for lower threshold units, with higher firing rates occurring in higher threshold units. The second (termed the ‘onion skin’ profile), exhibits an inverse arrangement, with lower threshold units reaching higher firing rates. Approach. Using a simulation of the MU activity in a hand muscle, this study examined the force generation capacity and the variability of the muscle force magnitude at different excitation levels of the MU pool under these two different MU control paradigms. We sought to determine which rate/recruitment scheme was more efficient for force generation, and which scheme gave rise to the lowest force variability. Main results. We found that the force output of both firing patterns leads to graded force output at low excitation levels, and that the force generation capacity of the two different paradigms diverged around 50% excitation. In the reverse ‘onion skin’ pattern, at 100% excitation, the force output reached up to 88% of maximum force, whereas for the ‘onion skin’ pattern, the force output only reached up to 54% of maximum force at 100% excitation. The force variability was lower at the low to moderate force levels under the ‘onion skin’ paradigm than with the reverse ‘onion skin’ firing patterns, but this effect was reversed at high force levels. Significance. This study captures the influence of MU recruitment and firing rate organization on muscle force properties, and our results suggest that the different firing organizations can be beneficial at different levels of voluntary muscle force generation and perhaps for different tasks.

  20. A genetic electrophoretic variant of high-sulfur hair proteins for forensic hair comparisons. I. Characterization of variant high-sulfur proteins of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, B

    1989-02-01

    In a survey of the proteins from human hair, a genetic electrophoretic variant has been observed in the high-sulfur protein region. S-carboxymethylated proteins were examined by 15% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 8.9. Out of 150 unrelated samples of Japanese head hairs analyzed, 107 showed 6 major high-sulfur protein bands (normal) and the remaining 43 samples showed an additional high-sulfur protein band (variant). Of 21 Caucasian samples analyzed only one variant sample was found. Characterization of the proteins by two-dimensional electrophoresis evidenced a variant protein spot which showed an apparent molecular weight of 30 k Da. Isoelectric points of the high-sulfur proteins ranged from 3.25-3.55 and that of variant protein band from 3.3-3.4. Family studies of 21 matings resulting in 49 children indicated that this variant was inherited in an autosomal fashion.

  1. High-threshold motor unit firing reflects force recovery following a bout of damaging eccentric exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, Lewis J.

    2018-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with impaired muscle function and reduced neuromuscular recruitment. However, motor unit firing behaviour throughout the recovery period is unclear. EIMD impairment of maximal voluntary force (MVC) will, in part, be caused by reduced high-threshold motor unit firing, which will subsequently increase to recover MVC. Fourteen healthy active males completed a bout of eccentric exercise on the knee extensors, with measurements of MVC, rate of torque development and surface electromyography performed pre-exercise and 2, 3, 7 and 14 days post-exercise, on both damaged and control limb. EIMD was associated with decreased MVC (235.2 ± 49.3 Nm vs. 161.3 ± 52.5 Nm; p motor unit firing rate was reduced (16.4 ± 2.2 Hz vs. 12.6 ± 1.7 Hz; p motor units only, 48h post-exercise, and common drive was elevated (0.36 ± 0.027 vs. 0.56 ± 0.032; pmotor units was reduced in parallel with impaired muscle function, whilst early recruited motor units remained unaltered. Common drive of motor units increased in offset to the firing rate impairment. These alterations correlated with the recovery of force decrement, but not of pain elevation. This study provides fresh insight into the central mechanisms associated with EIMD recovery, relative to muscle function. These findings may in turn lead to development of novel management and preventative procedures. PMID:29630622

  2. Vastus Lateralis Motor Unit Firing Rate Is Higher in Women With Patellofemoral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Alessio; Hunt, Michael A; Hodges, Paul W; Garland, S Jayne

    2018-05-01

    To compare neural drive, determined from motor unit firing rate, in the vastus medialis and lateralis in women with and without patellofemoral pain. Cross-sectional study. University research laboratory. Women (N=56) 19 to 35 years of age, including 36 with patellofemoral pain and 20 controls. Not applicable. Participants sustained an isometric knee extension contraction at 10% of their maximal voluntary effort for 70 seconds. Motor units (N=414) were identified using high-density surface electromyography. Average firing rate was calculated between 5 and 35 seconds after recruitment for each motor unit. Initial firing rate was the inverse of the first 3 motor unit interspike intervals. In control participants, vastus medialis motor units discharged at higher rates than vastus lateralis motor units (P=.001). This was not observed in women with patellofemoral pain (P=.78) because of a higher discharge rate of vastus lateralis compared with control participants (P=.002). No between-group differences were observed for vastus medialis (P=.93). Similar results were obtained for the initial motor unit firing rate. These findings suggest that women with patellofemoral pain have a higher neural drive to vastus lateralis but not vastus medialis, which may be a contributor of the altered patellar kinematics observed in some studies. The different neural drive may be an adaptation to patellofemoral pain, possibly to compensate for decreased quadriceps force production, or a precursor of patellofemoral pain. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Wildfire risk reduction in the United States: Leadership staff perceptions of local fire department roles and responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel S. Madsen; Hylton J. G. Haynes; Sarah M. McCaffrey

    2018-01-01

    As wildland fires have had increasing negative impacts on a range of human values, in many parts of the United States (U.S.) and around the world, collaborative risk reduction efforts among agencies, homeowners, and fire departments are needed to improve wildfire safety and mitigate risk. Using interview data from 46 senior officers from local fire departments around...

  4. Effects of fatigue on motor unit firing rate versus recruitment threshold relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Beck, Travis W; Defreitas, Jason M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fatigue on the average firing rate versus recruitment threshold relationships for the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis. Nineteen subjects performed ten maximum voluntary contractions of the dominant leg extensors. Before and after this fatiguing protocol, the subjects performed a trapezoid isometric muscle action of the leg extensors, and bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from both muscles. These signals were then decomposed into individual motor unit action potential trains. For each subject and muscle, the relationship between average firing rate and recruitment threshold was examined using linear regression analyses. For the VL, the linear slope coefficients and y-intercepts for these relationships increased and decreased, respectively, after fatigue. For both muscles, many of the motor units decreased their firing rates. With fatigue, recruitment of higher threshold motor units resulted in an increase in slope for the VL. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 76 - Phase I Affected Coal-Fired Utility Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Units With Group 1 or Cell Burner Boilers A Appendix A to Part 76 Protection of Environment... 1 or Cell Burner Boilers Table 1—Phase I Tangentially Fired Units State Plant Unit Operator ALABAMA... Vertically fired boiler. 2 Arch-fired boiler. Table 3—Phase I Cell Burner Technology Units State Plant Unit...

  6. Development of a fire incident database for the United States nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilks, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Industry in the United States has identified a need to develop and maintain a comprehensive fire events database to support anticipated performance-based or risk-based fire protection programs and regulations. These new programs will require accurate information on the frequency, severity and consequences of fire events. Previous attempts to collect fire incident data had been made over the years for other purposes, but it was recognized that the detail and form of the data collected would be insufficient to support the new initiatives. Weaknesses in the earlier efforts included the inability in some cases to obtain fire incidents reports, inconsistent of incomplete information reported, and the inability to easily retrieve, sort, analyze and trend the data. The critical elements identified for the new data collection efforts included a standardized fire incident report from to assure consistent and accurate information, some mechanism to assure that all fire events are reported, and the ability to easily access the data for trending and analysis. In addition, the database would need to be unbiased and viewed as such by outside agencies. A new database is currently being developed that should meet all of these identified need. (author)

  7. Commerical electric power cost studies. Capital cost addendum multi-unit coal and nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    This report is the culmination of a study performed to develop designs and associated capital cost estimates for multi-unit nuclear and coal commercial electric power stations, and to determine the distribution of these costs among the individual units. This report addresses six different types of 2400 MWe (nominal) multi-unit stations as follows: Two Unit PWR Station-1139 MWe Each, Two Unit BWR Station-1190 MWe Each, Two Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1232 MWe Each, Two Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1243 MWe Each, Three Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-794 MWe Each, Three Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-801 MWe Each. Recent capital cost studies performed for ERDA/NRC of single unit nuclear and coal stations are used as the basis for developing the designs and costs of the multi-unit stations. This report includes the major study groundrules, a summary of single and multi-unit stations total base cost estimates, details of cost estimates at the three digit account level and plot plan drawings for each multi-unit station identified

  8. Innovative coupling of cogeneration units with fire tube boilers: thermo-fluid dynamics of the fire tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioccolanti, L.; Arteconi, A.; Bartolini, C. M.; Polonara, F.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays the thermal energy demand in the industrial sector is usually satisfied by means of fire tube boilers while electricity is supplied from the grid. Alternatively cogeneration units could be adopted for thermal and electrical energy self-production, whilst installing boilers only as back-up units. However, even when cogeneration is profitable, it is not widespread because industries are usually unwilling to accept cogeneration plants for reliability and high investment costs issues. In this work a system aimed at overcoming the above mentioned market difficulties is proposed. It consists of an innovative coupling of a combined heat and power unit with a modified fire tube boiler. In particular, a CFD analysis was carried out by the authors in order to address the most critical aspects related with the coupling of the two systems. More precisely, the following aspects were evaluated in detail: (i) pressure losses of the exhausts going from the prime mover to the boiler due to the sudden cross-section area variations; (ii) thermal power recoverable from the exhausts in the tubes of the boiler; (iii) dependence of the system on the final users’ specification.

  9. Prefrontal single-unit firing associated with deficient extinction in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul J; Whittle, Nigel; Flynn, Shaun M; Graybeal, Carolyn; Pinard, Courtney; Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Kravitz, Alexxai; Singewald, Nicolas; Holmes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The neural circuitry mediating fear extinction has been increasingly well studied and delineated. The rodent infralimbic subregion (IL) of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been found to promote extinction, whereas the prelimbic cortex (PL) demonstrates an opposing, pro-fear, function. Studies employing in vivo electrophysiological recordings have observed that while increased IL single-unit firing and bursting predicts robust extinction retrieval, increased PL firing can correlate with sustained fear and poor extinction. These relationships between single-unit firing and extinction do not hold under all experimental conditions, however. In the current study, we further investigated the relationship between vmPFC and PL single-unit firing and extinction using inbred mouse models of intact (C57BL/6J, B6) and deficient (129S1/SvImJ, S1) extinction strains. Simultaneous single-unit recordings were made in the PL and vmPFC (encompassing IL) as B6 and S1 mice performed extinction training and retrieval. Impaired extinction retrieval in S1 mice was associated with elevated PL single-unit firing, as compared to firing in extinguishing B6 mice, consistent with the hypothesized pro-fear contribution of PL. Analysis of local field potentials also revealed significantly higher gamma power in the PL of Sthan B6 mice during extinction training and retrieval. In the vmPFC, impaired extinction in S1 mice was also associated with exaggerated single-unit firing, relative to B6 mice. This is in apparent contradiction to evidence that IL activity promotes extinction, but could reflect a (failed) compensatory effort by the vmPFC to mitigate fear-promoting activity in other regions, such as the PL or amygdala. In support of this hypothesis, augmenting IL activity via direct infusion of the GABAA receptor antagonist picrotoxin rescued impaired extinction retrieval in S1 mice. Chronic fluoxetine treatment produced modest reductions in fear during extinction retrieval and

  10. High-threshold motor unit firing reflects force recovery following a bout of damaging eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, Lewis J; Hunter, Angus M

    2018-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is associated with impaired muscle function and reduced neuromuscular recruitment. However, motor unit firing behaviour throughout the recovery period is unclear. EIMD impairment of maximal voluntary force (MVC) will, in part, be caused by reduced high-threshold motor unit firing, which will subsequently increase to recover MVC. Fourteen healthy active males completed a bout of eccentric exercise on the knee extensors, with measurements of MVC, rate of torque development and surface electromyography performed pre-exercise and 2, 3, 7 and 14 days post-exercise, on both damaged and control limb. EIMD was associated with decreased MVC (235.2 ± 49.3 Nm vs. 161.3 ± 52.5 Nm; p exercise. Mean motor unit firing rate was reduced (16.4 ± 2.2 Hz vs. 12.6 ± 1.7 Hz; p motor units only, 48h post-exercise, and common drive was elevated (0.36 ± 0.027 vs. 0.56 ± 0.032; pexercise. The firing rate of high-threshold motor units was reduced in parallel with impaired muscle function, whilst early recruited motor units remained unaltered. Common drive of motor units increased in offset to the firing rate impairment. These alterations correlated with the recovery of force decrement, but not of pain elevation. This study provides fresh insight into the central mechanisms associated with EIMD recovery, relative to muscle function. These findings may in turn lead to development of novel management and preventative procedures.

  11. MOTOR UNIT FIRING RATES DURING SPASMS IN THENAR MUSCLES OF SPINAL CORD INJURED SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge eZijdewind

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Involuntary contractions of paralyzed muscles (spasms commonly disrupt daily activities and rehabilitation after human spinal cord injury. Our aim was to examine the recruitment, firing rate modulation, and derecruitment of motor units that underlie spasms of thenar muscles after cervical spinal cord injury. Intramuscular electromyographic activity (EMG, surface EMG, and force were recorded during thenar muscle spasms that occurred spontaneously or that were triggered by movement of a shoulder or leg. Most spasms were submaximal (mean: 39%, SD: 33 of the force evoked by median nerve stimulation at 50 Hz with strong relationships between EMG and force (R2>0.69. Unit recruitment occurred over a wide force range (0.2-103% of 50 Hz force. Significant unit rate modulation occurred during spasms (frequency at 25% maximal force: 8.8 Hz, 3.3 SD; at maximal force: 16.1 Hz, 4.1 SD. Mean recruitment frequency (7.1 Hz, 3.2 SD was significantly higher than derecruitment frequency (5.4 Hz, 2.4 SD. Coactive unit pairs that fired for more than 4 s showed high (R2>0.7, n=4 or low (R2:0.3-0.7, n=12 rate-rate correlations, and derecruitment reversals (21 pairs, 29%. Later recruited units had higher or lower maximal firing rates than lower threshold units. These discrepant data show that coactive motoneurons are driven by both common inputs and by synaptic inputs from different sources during muscle spasms. Further, thenar motoneurons can still fire at high rates in response to various peripheral inputs after spinal cord injury, supporting the idea that low maximal voluntary firing rates and forces in thenar muscles result from reduced descending drive.

  12. Motor unit firing rates during spasms in thenar muscles of spinal cord injured subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Bakels, Robert; Thomas, Christine K.

    2014-01-01

    Involuntary contractions of paralyzed muscles (spasms) commonly disrupt daily activities and rehabilitation after human spinal cord injury (SCI). Our aim was to examine the recruitment, firing rate modulation, and derecruitment of motor units that underlie spasms of thenar muscles after cervical

  13. Sky of ash, earth of ash: A brief history of fire in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyne, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter, the author describes the history of fire practices in the United States from early man to the present. The effects of these practices on climates, natural resources, on ecological succession, and the establishment of environmental policy are discussed

  14. Human Health Impacts of Forest Fires in the Southern United States: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia T. Fowler

    2003-01-01

    Forestry management practices can shape patterns of health, illness, and disease. A primary goal for owners federal, state, andprivate forests is to crap ecosystem management plans that simultaneously optimize forest health and human health. Fire-a major forest management issue in the United States-complicates these goals. Wildfires are natural phenomena with...

  15. Using NASA Satellite Observations to Map Wildfire Risk in the United States for Allocation of Fire Management Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, A.; Reager, J. T., II; Behrangi, A.; Stavros, E. N.; Randerson, J. T.

    2017-12-01

    Fires are a key disturbance globally acting as a catalyst for terrestrial ecosystem change and contributing significantly to both carbon emissions and changes in surface albedo. The socioeconomic impacts of wildfire activities are also significant with wildfire activity results in billions of dollars of losses every year. Fire size, area burned and frequency are increasing, thus the likelihood of fire danger, defined by United States National Interagency Fire Center (NFIC) as the demand of fire management resources as a function of how flammable fuels (a function of ignitability, consumability and availability) are from normal, is an important step toward reducing costs associated with wildfires. Numerous studies have aimed to predict the likelihood of fire danger, but few studies use remote sensing data to map fire danger at scales commensurate with regional management decisions (e.g., deployment of resources nationally throughout fire season with seasonal and monthly prediction). Here, we use NASA Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) assimilated surface soil moisture, NASA Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) vapor pressure deficit, NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) enhanced vegetation index products and landcover products, along with US Forest Service historical fire activity data to generate probabilistic monthly fire potential maps in the United States. These maps can be useful in not only government operational allocation of fire management resources, but also improving understanding of the Earth System and how it is changing in order to refine predictions of fire extremes.

  16. Modeling very large-fire occurrences over the continental United States from weather and climate forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, R; Abatzoglou, J T; Steel, E A; K Larkin, Narasimhan

    2014-01-01

    Very large-fires (VLFs) have widespread impacts on ecosystems, air quality, fire suppression resources, and in many regions account for a majority of total area burned. Empirical generalized linear models of the largest fires (>5000 ha) across the contiguous United States (US) were developed at ∼60 km spatial and weekly temporal resolutions using solely atmospheric predictors. Climate−fire relationships on interannual timescales were evident, with wetter conditions than normal in the previous growing season enhancing VLFs probability in rangeland systems and with concurrent long-term drought enhancing VLFs probability in forested systems. Information at sub-seasonal timescales further refined these relationships, with short-term fire weather being a significant predictor in rangelands and fire danger indices linked to dead fuel moisture being a significant predictor in forested lands. Models demonstrated agreement in capturing the observed spatial and temporal variability including the interannual variability of VLF occurrences within most ecoregions. Furthermore the model captured the observed increase in VLF occurrences across parts of the southwestern and southeastern US from 1984 to 2010 suggesting that, irrespective of changes in fuels and land management, climatic factors have become more favorable for VLF occurrence over the past three decades in some regions. Our modeling framework provides a basis for simulations of future VLF occurrences from climate projections. (letter)

  17. Evaluating Potential Changes in Fire Risk from Eucalyptus Plantings in the Southern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Goodrick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewed interest in short-rotation woody crops for bioenergy and bioproducts has prompted a reevaluation of the Eucalyptus species for the southern United States. One question that arises about the potential effects of introducing a nonnative species is what effect will there be on fire behavior. Our approximate answer based on modeling fire behavior using the Fuel Characteristic Classification System is that surface fire behavior in young stands differs little from surface fires common to pine plantations in the southern Coastal Plain. By the age of 9, the absence of a shrub layer, along with an increased height to live crown, reduced initiation potential despite increased bark shedding. When a shrub layer was introduced in the model, the initiation potential became equivalent to common Pinus fuelbeds. If a crown is ignited, however, the potentials for transmissivity and spread are very high, and the potential for crown fire behavior is more severe. Our modeling effort suggests that fire behavior at the stand level differs little from current conditions and points to the importance of avoiding the development of a shrub layer. Stands managed on short rotation (less than 10 years will likely be harvested before bark shedding presents a significant spotting problem.

  18. A comparison of geospatially modeled fire behavior and fire management utility of three data sources in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaWen T. Hollingsworth; Laurie L. Kurth; Bernard R. Parresol; Roger D. Ottmar; Susan J. Prichard

    2012-01-01

    Landscape-scale fire behavior analyses are important to inform decisions on resource management projects that meet land management objectives and protect values from adverse consequences of fire. Deterministic and probabilistic geospatial fire behavior analyses are conducted with various modeling systems including FARSITE, FlamMap, FSPro, and Large Fire Simulation...

  19. Subsequent flue gas desulfurization of coal-fired power plant units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willibal, U.; Braun, Gy.

    1998-01-01

    The presently operating coal-fired power plant in Hungary do not satisfy the pollution criteria prescribed by the European Union norms. The main polluting agent is the sulfur dioxide emitted by some of the power plants in Hungary in quantities over the limit standards. The power plant units that are in good operating state could be made competitive by using subsequent desulfurization measures. Various flue gas desulfurization technologies are presented through examples that can be applied to existing coal-fired power plants. (R.P.)

  20. Reduced firing rates of high threshold motor units in response to eccentric overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balshaw, Tom G; Pahar, Madhu; Chesham, Ross; Macgregor, Lewis J; Hunter, Angus M

    2017-01-01

    Acute responses of motor units were investigated during submaximal voluntary isometric tasks following eccentric overload (EO) and constant load (CL) knee extension resistance exercise. Ten healthy resistance-trained participants performed four experimental test sessions separated by 5 days over a 20 day period. Two sessions involved constant load and the other two used eccentric overload. EO and CL used both sessions for different target knee eccentric extension phases; one at 2 sec and the other at 4 sec. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and isometric trapezoid efforts for 10 sec at 70% MVC were completed before and after each intervention and decomposed electromyography was used to measure motor unit firing rate. The firing rate of later recruited, high-threshold motor units declined following the 2-sec EO but was maintained following 2sec CL (P motor units were maintained for both loading types following 4-sec extension phases. MVC and rate of force development where maintained following both EO and CL and 2 and 4 sec phases. This study demonstrates a slower firing rate of high-threshold motor units following fast eccentric overload while MVC was maintained. This suggests that there was a neuromuscular stimulus without cost to the force-generating capacity of the knee extensors. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  1. Dioxin and furan emissions from landfill gas-fired combustion units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caponi, F.R.; Wheless, E.; Frediani, D.

    1998-01-01

    The 1990 Federal Clean Air Act Amendments require the development of maximum achievable control technology standards (MACT) for sources of hazardous air pollutants, including landfill gas-fired combustion sources. The Industrial Combustion Coordinated Rulemaking (ICCR) Federal Advisory Committee is a group of stakeholders from the public and private sector whose charge is to develop recommendations for a unified set of federal toxic air emissions regulations. Specifically, the group will establish MACT standards for industrial-commercial-institutional combustion sources. The ICCR proceedings have given rise to considerable interest in potential dioxin and furan emissions from landfill gas-fired combustion units. In order to establish the potential of dioxin and furan emissions from this group of combustion sources, a world-wide literature search was conducted. A total of 22 references were evaluated. The references covered a wide range of test programs, testing methodologies and combustion equipment type. The most abundant data were for landfill gas-fired flares (shrouded and afterburners) and I.C. engines. Because of limitations in obtaining actual test reports with complete lab data and QA/QC results, and a lack of knowledge as to the exact types of waste received at the European landfills, the test data from these sources, for the purposes of this paper, are considered qualitative. The conclusion reached from review of the test data is that there is a potential for dioxin and furan emissions from landfill gas-fired combustion units, but at very low levels for well operated systems

  2. An application of the gas-fired chilling and heating units to domestic houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.H.; Yang, Y.M.; Chae, J.M.; Bang, H.S.; Kwon, O.B.; Yoo, S.I.; Kim, T.H. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Co. (Korea); Lee, T.W.; Kim, T.H.; Kim, B.H.; Hwang, I.J.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, C.D.; Park, S.J. [Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    Following researches and considerations were performed in this study for an efficient application of gas-fired chilling and heating units to the residential buildings. (1) Status of domestic cooling and heating for residential building. (2) Various introduction schemes of outdoor unit. (3) Design exclusive area for the gas appliance and installation of it. (4) Ventilation of exhaust gas and heat. (5) Prepare the installation specifications or standards for gas-fired chilling and heating units. (6) Design technique of plumbing for cooling and heating. (7) Evaluation of unit's capacity considering the thermal load of domestic buildings. (8) Cooling and heating system with the unit. (9) Fundamental test for evaluation of applicability. (10) Actual design and construction of experimental house for an application and a demonstration of the developed gas units. (11) Field test for cooling and heating. (12) Evaluation of economic efficiency. (13) Establish a business potential. (14) Establishment of legal and systematic support, energy rate. (15) Troubleshooting in the course of development and application of the new gas appliance. 41 refs., 214 figs., 52 tabs.

  3. The development of landscape-scale ecological units and their application to the greater Huachuca Mountains fire planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry E. Laing; David Gori; James T. Jones

    2005-01-01

    The multi-partner Greater Huachuca Mountains fire planning effort involves over 500,000 acres of public and private lands. This large area supports distinct landscapes that have evolved with fire. Utilizing GIS as a tool, the United States Forest Service (USFS), General Ecosystem Survey (GES), and Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) State Soil Geographic...

  4. An improved algorithm for small and cool fire detection using MODIS data: A preliminary study in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanting Wang; John J. Qu; Xianjun Hao; Yongqiang Liu; William T. Sommers

    2006-01-01

    Traditional fire detection algorithms mainly rely on hot spot detection using thermal infrared (TIR) channels with fixed or contextual thresholds. Three solar reflectance channels (0.65 μm, 0.86 μm, and 2.1 μm) were recently adopted into the MODIS version 4 contextual algorithm to improve the active fire detection. In the southeastern United...

  5. Backstepping-based nonlinear adaptive control for coal-fired utility boiler-turbine units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Fang; Wei, Le

    2011-01-01

    The control system of boiler-turbine unit plays an important role in improving efficiency and reducing emissions of power generation unit. The nonlinear, coupling and uncertainty of the unit caused by varying working conditions should be fully considered during the control system design. This paper presents an efficient control scheme based on backstepping theory for improving load adaptability of boiler-turbines in wide operation range. The design process of the scheme includes model preprocessing, control Lyapunov functions selection, interlaced computation of adaptive control laws, etc. For simplification and accuracy, differential of steam pipe inlet pressure and integral terms of target errors are adopted. Also, to enhance practicality, implementation steps of the scheme are proposed. A practical nonlinear model of a 500 MW coal-fired boiler-turbine unit is used to test the efficiency of the proposed scheme in different conditions.

  6. Status of native fishes in the western United States and issues for fire and fuels management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieman, B.; Lee, D.; Burns, D.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Young, M.; Stowell, R.; Rinne, J.; Howell, P.

    2003-01-01

    Conservation of native fishes and changing patterns in wildfire and fuels are defining challenges for managers of forested landscapes in the western United States. Many species and populations of native fishes have declined in recorded history and some now occur as isolated remnants of what once were larger more complex systems. Land management activities have been viewed as one cause of this problem. Fires also can have substantial effects on streams and riparian systems and may threaten the persistence of some populations of fish, particularly those that are small and isolated. Despite that, major new efforts to actively manage fires and fuels in forests throughout the region may be perceived as a threat rather than a benefit to conservation of native fishes and their habitats. The management of terrestrial and aquatic resources has often been contentious, divided among a variety of agencies with different goals and mandates. Management of forests, for example, has generally been viewed as an impact on aquatic systems. Implementation of the management-regulatory process has reinforced a uniform approach to mitigate the threats to aquatic species and habitats that may be influenced by management activities. The problems and opportunities, however, are not the same across the landscapes of interest. Attempts to streamline the regulatory process often search for generalized solutions that may oversimplify the complexity of natural systems. Significant questions regarding the influence of fire on aquatic ecosystems, changing fire regimes, and the effects of fire-related management remain unresolved and contribute to the uncertainty. We argue that management of forests and fishes can be viewed as part of the same problem, that of conservation and restoration of the natural processes that create diverse and productive ecosystems. We suggest that progress toward more integrated management of forests and native fishes will require at least three steps: (1) better

  7. Overview of internal fire hazards aspects of ABWR design for United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kawai, Hiroki [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    The ABWR (Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) is a generation III+ reactor, the most modern operational generation of nuclear power plants. The UK ABWR design is proposed for development and construction in the United Kingdom (UK), and under review by the Office for Nuclear Regulation (ONR) through Generic Design Assessment (GDA). The UK ABWR design has mainly two types of the safety system: ''preventing'' and ''mitigating'' a fault and their consequences. The prevention of internal hazards starts with design processes and procedures. These processes lead to limiting the sources of potential hazards. The mitigative safety systems are required to ensure the fundamental safety functions (FSFs): control of reactivity, Fuel cooling, long term heat removal, confinement/containment of radioactive materials, and others. Implementation of the safety philosophy is based upon redundant and diverse safety systems that deliver the FSFs. Three mechanical divisions are provided, each of which contains redundant systems, structures, and components (SSCs) capable of carrying out all the FSFs. The safety divisions are separated by robust barriers which act to contain a hazard in an affected division and prevent the spread of the hazard to a different division. The deterministic assessments and the hazard schedule argue that the rooms containing SSCs providing the FSFs are located in different fire safety divisions. The approach to maintaining the FSFs during and after internal fires is to ensure fires do not spread beyond that division to affect redundant equipment in other divisions. During the GDA process, it is demonstrated that generally barrier compartmentation (the divisional barrier walls, ceilings and floors) is sufficient to contain the postulated fires. The UK ABWR design has sufficient capability of withstanding the postulated internal fire hazard to achieve the FSFs. Further development is being undertaken with feedback in the GDA

  8. Assessment of exposure to carbon monoxide group of firefighters from fire fighting and rescue units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Lembas-Bogaczyk

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Firemen threat during fire burning of chemical substances indicated presence of carbon monoxide (CO in all cases. Carbon monoxide causes death of fire. Inhaled through respiratory system, links with hemoglobin, thus blocking transport and distribution of oxygen in the body. This leads to tissue anoxia, which is a direct threat to firefighters’ life. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure to carbon monoxide of participating firefighters extinguishing fire. Estimation of carbon monoxide quantity absorbed by firefighters was isolated in a group of 40 firefighters from Fire Extinguishing and Rescue Unit of State Fire in Nysa. The study was conducted by measuring carbon monoxide in exhaled air. For measurement of carbon monoxide concentration in exhaled air Micro CO meter was used. Results were demonstrated separately for nonsmokers (n425 and smokers (n415. Mean COHb[%] levels in nonsmokers, measured prior the rescue action was 0,3950,3% and increased statistically significant after the action to 0,6150,34%, while in the group smokers, this level was 2,1750,64% before the action and increased insignificantly after the action to 2,3350,63%. The average COHb level in the same groups before and after exercise, was respectively: for nonsmokers prior to exercise was 0,4850,28% and after exercise decreased statistically significant to 0,3050,27%. In the group of smokers before exercise was 2,2350,61% and decreased statistically significant up to 1,5450,71%. It was no difference between the group of age and time of employment.

  9. Past, Present, and Future Old Growth in Frequent-fire Conifer Forests of the Western United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R. Abella

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Old growth in the frequent-fire conifer forests of the western United States, such as those containing ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa, Jeffrey pine (P. jeffreyi, giant sequoia (Sequioa giganteum and other species, has undergone major changes since Euro-American settlement. Understanding past changes and anticipating future changes under different potential management scenarios are fundamental to developing ecologically based fuel reduction or ecological restoration treatments. Some of the many changes that have occurred in these forests include shifts from historically frequent surface fire to no fire or to stand-replacing fire regimes, increases in tree density, increased abundance of fire-intolerant trees, decreases in understory productivity, hydrological alterations, and accelerated mortality of old trees. Although these changes are widespread, the magnitude and causes of changes may vary within and among landscapes. Agents of change, such as fire exclusion or livestock grazing, likely interacted and had multiple effects. For example, historical ranching operations may have altered both fire regimes and understory vegetation, and facilitated institutional fire exclusion through fragmentation and settlement. Evidence exists for large variation in presettlement characteristics and current condition of old growth across this broad forest region, although there are many examples of striking similarities on widely distant landscapes. Exotic species, climate change, unnatural stand-replacing wildfires, and other factors will likely continue to degrade or eradicate old growth in many areas. As a policy of fire exclusion is proving to be unsustainable, mechanical tree thinning, prescribed fire, or wildland fire use will likely be key options for forestalling continued eradication of old growth by severe crown fires. For many practical and societal reasons, the wildland-urban interface may afford some of the most immediate opportunities for re

  10. Physiological consequences of doublet discharges on motoneuronal firing and motor unit force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz eMrówczyński

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The double discharges are observed at the onset of contractions of mammalian motor units (MUs, especially during their recruitment to strong or fast movements. Doublets lead to MU force increase and improve ability of muscles to maintain high force during prolonged contractions. In this review we discuss an ability to produce doublets by fast and slow motoneurons (MNs, their influence on the course of action potential afterhyperpolarization as well as its role in modulation of the initial stage of the firing pattern of MNs. In conclusion, a generation of doublets is an important strategy of motor control, responsible for fitting the motoneuronal firing rate to the optimal for MUs at the start of their contraction, necessary for increment of muscle force.

  11. Comparative funding consequences of large versus small gas-fired power generation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.G.

    1995-01-01

    Gas producers are increasingly looking to privately-owned gas-fired power generation as a major growth market to support the development of new fields being discovered across Australia. Gas-fired generating technology is more environmentally friendly than coal-fired power stations, has lower unit capital costs and has higher efficiency levels. With the recent downward trends in gas prices for power generation (especially in Western Australia) it is likely that gas will indeed be the consistently preferred fuel for generation in Australia. Gas producers should be sensitive to the different financial and risk characteristics of the potential market represented by large versus small gas-fired private power stations. These differences are exaggerated by the much sharper focus given by the private sector to quantify risk and to its allocation to the parties best able to manage it. The significant commercial differences between classes of generation projects result in gas producers themselves being exposed to diverging risk profiles through their gas supply contracts with generating companies. Selling gas to larger generation units results in gas suppliers accepting proportionately (i.e. not just prorata to the larger installed capacity) higher levels of financial risk. Risk arises from the higher probability of a project not being completed, from the increased size of penalty payments associated with non-delivery of gas and from the rising level of competition between gas suppliers. Gas producers must fully understand the economics and risks of their potential electricity customers and full financial analysis will materially help the gas supplier in subsequent commercial gas contract negotiations. (author). 1 photo

  12. The Research of Utilization Hours of Coal-Fired Power Generation Units Based on Electric Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhui; Yang, Jianlian; Wang, Jiangbo; Yang, Meng; Tian, Chunzheng; He, Xinhui

    2018-01-01

    With grid-connected scale of clean energy such as wind power and photovoltaic power expanding rapidly and cross-province transmission scale being bigger, utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units become lower and lower in the context of the current slowdown in electricity demand. This paper analyzes the influencing factors from the three aspects of demand, supply and supply and demand balance, and the mathematical model has been constructed based on the electric energy balance. The utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units have been solved considering the relationship among proportion of various types of power installed capacity, the output rate and utilization hours. By carrying out empirical research in Henan Province, the utilization hours of coal-fired units of Henan Province in 2020 has been achieved. The example validates the practicability and the rationality of the model, which can provide a basis for the decision-making for coal-fired power generation enterprises.

  13. Fighting fire in the heat of the day: An analysis of operational and environmental conditions of use for large airtankers in United States fire suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal S. Stonesifer; Dave Calkin; Matthew P. Thompson; Keith D. Stockmann

    2016-01-01

    Large airtanker use is widespread in wildfire suppression in the United States. The current approach to nationally dispatching the fleet of federal contract airtankers relies on filling requests for airtankers to achieve suppression objectives identified by fire managers at the incident level. In general, demand is met if resources are available, and the...

  14. Land surveys show regional variability of historical fire regimes and dry forest structure of the western United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William L; Williams, Mark A

    2018-03-01

    An understanding of how historical fire and structure in dry forests (ponderosa pine, dry mixed conifer) varied across the western United States remains incomplete. Yet, fire strongly affects ecosystem services, and forest restoration programs are underway. We used General Land Office survey reconstructions from the late 1800s across 11 landscapes covering ~1.9 million ha in four states to analyze spatial variation in fire regimes and forest structure. We first synthesized the state of validation of our methods using 20 modern validations, 53 historical cross-validations, and corroborating evidence. These show our method creates accurate reconstructions with low errors. One independent modern test reported high error, but did not replicate our method and made many calculation errors. Using reconstructed parameters of historical fire regimes and forest structure from our validated methods, forests were found to be non-uniform across the 11 landscapes, but grouped together in three geographical areas. Each had a mixture of fire severities, but dominated by low-severity fire and low median tree density in Arizona, mixed-severity fire and intermediate to high median tree density in Oregon-California, and high-severity fire and intermediate median tree density in Colorado. Programs to restore fire and forest structure could benefit from regional frameworks, rather than one size fits all. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. High-sulfur coal: tonnage and money at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahan, R.L.; Knutson, K.S.

    1991-01-01

    More than 286 million tons of coal exceeds the Phase I standard i.e. 2.5 lb SO 2 per mmBtu, of the US Clean Air Act (1990). 85 mmtpy goes to currently scrubbed or unaffected (i.e. small) units. This leaves 201 mmtpy of high-sulphur coal at risk. 129 mmtpy of this is moving on a spot basis or is shipped under contracts that expire by 1995. This leaves about 72 mmtpy of captive and longterm contracts which many utility fuel buyers assume will be cancelled or renegotiated at a lower price. The legal position remains uncertain. However, the massive cancellation and/or renegotiation of existing contracts will have a tremendous economic impact on the coal industry. The resultant price change will in turn influence decisions to scrub or switch to low sulphur coals. 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Native American depopulation, reforestation, and fire regimes in the Southwest United States, 1492-1900 CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Matthew J; Farella, Joshua; Roos, Christopher I; Stack, Adam; Martini, Sarah; Swetnam, Thomas W

    2016-02-09

    Native American populations declined between 1492 and 1900 CE, instigated by the European colonization of the Americas. However, the magnitude, tempo, and ecological effects of this depopulation remain the source of enduring debates. Recently, scholars have linked indigenous demographic decline, Neotropical reforestation, and shifting fire regimes to global changes in climate, atmosphere, and the Early Anthropocene hypothesis. In light of these studies, we assess these processes in conifer-dominated forests of the Southwest United States. We compare light detection and ranging data, archaeology, dendrochronology, and historical records from the Jemez Province of New Mexico to quantify population losses, establish dates of depopulation events, and determine the extent and timing of forest regrowth and fire regimes between 1492 and 1900. We present a new formula for the estimation of Pueblo population based on architectural remains and apply this formula to 18 archaeological sites in the Jemez Province. A dendrochronological study of remnant wood establishes dates of terminal occupation at these sites. By combining our results with historical records, we report a model of pre- and post-Columbian population dynamics in the Jemez Province. Our results indicate that the indigenous population of the Jemez Province declined by 87% following European colonization but that this reduction occurred nearly a century after initial contact. Depopulation also triggered an increase in the frequency of extensive surface fires between 1640 and 1900. Ultimately, this study illustrates the quality of integrated archaeological and paleoecological data needed to assess the links between Native American population decline and ecological change after European contact.

  17. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  18. Climatic stress increases forest fire severity across the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mantgem, Philip J.; Nesmith, Jonathan C. B.; Keifer, MaryBeth; Knapp, Eric E.; Flint, Alan; Flint, Lorriane

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive warming can lead to chronic stress on forest trees, which may contribute to mortality resulting from fire-caused injuries. Longitudinal analyses of forest plots from across the western US show that high pre-fire climatic water deficit was related to increased post-fire tree mortality probabilities. This relationship between climate and fire was present after accounting for fire defences and injuries, and appeared to influence the effects of crown and stem injuries. Climate and fire interactions did not vary substantially across geographical regions, major genera and tree sizes. Our findings support recent physiological evidence showing that both drought and heating from fire can impair xylem conductivity. Warming trends have been linked to increasing probabilities of severe fire weather and fire spread; our results suggest that warming may also increase forest fire severity (the number of trees killed) independent of fire intensity (the amount of heat released during a fire).

  19. Influence of the contractile properties of muscle on motor unit firing rates during a moderate-intensity contraction in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Michael A; Herda, Trent J; Fry, Andrew C; Gallagher, Philip M; Vardiman, John P; Mosier, Eric M; Miller, Jonathan D

    2016-08-01

    It is suggested that firing rate characteristics of motor units (MUs) are influenced by the physical properties of the muscle. However, no study has correlated MU firing rates at recruitment, targeted force, or derecruitment with the contractile properties of the muscle in vivo. Twelve participants (age = 20.67 ± 2.35 yr) performed a 40% isometric maximal voluntary contraction of the leg extensors that included linearly increasing, steady force, and decreasing segments. Muscle biopsies were collected with myosin heavy chain (MHC) content quantified, and surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from the vastus lateralis. The EMG signal was decomposed into the firing events of single MUs. Slopes and y-intercepts were calculated for 1) firing rates at recruitment vs. recruitment threshold, 2) mean firing rates at steady force vs. recruitment threshold, and 3) firing rates at derecruitment vs. derecruitment threshold relationships for each subject. Correlations among type I %MHC isoform content and the slopes and y-intercepts from the three relationships were examined. Type I %MHC isoform content was correlated with MU firing rates at recruitment (y-intercepts: r = -0.577; slopes: r = 0.741) and targeted force (slopes: r = 0.853) vs. recruitment threshold and MU firing rates at derecruitment (y-intercept: r = -0.597; slopes: r = 0.701) vs. derecruitment threshold relationships. However, the majority of the individual MU firing rates vs. recruitment and derecruitment relationships were not significant (P > 0.05) and, thus, revealed no systematic pattern. In contrast, MU firing rates during the steady force demonstrated a systematic pattern with higher firing rates for the lower- than higher-threshold MUs and were correlated with the physical properties of MUs in vivo. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  1. FOREST FIRES AROUND UNITS OF CONSERVATION – A CASE STUDY IN ÁGUAS EMENDADAS ECOLOGICAL STATION, DISTRITO FEDERAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugênio P. Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze aspects of fire use on urban areas around Águas Emendadas Ecological Station (ESECAE, in Distrito Federal, and to evaluate the foremost fire occurrences, equipment availability and tools for combatants and beyond decreasing forest fire incidences. The local population in town region around it (considering three kilometers as ray from the station, fire crew members units of conservation and the garrison body of firemen were interviewed in a representative form. Results had shown that most inclined areas to forest fire occurrence (33.4% highways edges and secondary roads had their localization related to urban environment, in which 34% of residents used fire as land cleanness. Machines availability, tools and equipment for execution of the activities on prevention and combat exist; however, there is not any equipment for individual protection for all fire crew members. As a solution, educative campaigns to emphasize the negative consequences of using fire (as a tool land and also to alert people for the risks caused by it should be done.

  2. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  3. Climatic stress increases forest fire severity across the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip J. van Mantgem; Jonathan C.B. Nesmith; MaryBeth Keifer; Eric E. Knapp; Alan Flint; Lorriane Flint

    2013-01-01

    Pervasive warming can lead to chronic stress on forest trees, which may contribute to mortality resulting from fire-caused injuries. Longitudinal analyses of forest plots from across the western US show that high pre-fire climatic water deficit was related to increased post-fire tree mortality probabilities. This relationship between climate and fire was present after...

  4. Contractile function and motor unit firing rates of the human hamstrings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Eric A; Rice, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular properties of the lower limb in health, aging, and disease are well described for major lower limb muscles comprising the quadriceps, triceps surae, and dorsiflexors, with the notable exception of the posterior thigh (hamstrings). The purpose of this study was to further characterize major muscles of the lower limb by comprehensively exploring contractile properties in relation to spinal motor neuron output expressed as motor unit firing rates (MUFRs) in the hamstrings of 11 (26.5 ± 3.8) young men. Maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation, stimulated contractile properties including a force-frequency relationship, and MUFRs from submaximal to maximal voluntary contractile intensities were assessed in the hamstrings. Strength and MUFRs were assessed at two presumably different muscle lengths by varying the knee joint angles (90° and 160°). Knee flexion MVCs were 60-70% greater in the extended position (160°). The frequency required to elicit 50% of maximum tetanic torque was 16-17 Hz. Mean MUFRs at 25-50% MVC were 9-31% less in the biceps femoris compared with the semimembranosus-semitendinosus group. Knee joint angle (muscle length) influenced MUFRs such that mean MUFRs were greater in the shortened (90°) position at 50% and 100% MVC. Compared with previous reports, mean maximal MUFRs in the hamstrings are greater than those in the quadriceps and triceps surae and somewhat less than those in the tibialis anterior. Mean maximal MUFRs in the hamstrings are influenced by changes in knee joint angle, with lower firing rates in the biceps femoris compared with the semimembranosus-semitendinosus muscle group. We studied motor unit firing rates (MUFRs) at various voluntary contraction intensities in the hamstrings, one of the only major lower limb muscles to have MUFRs affected by muscle length changes. Within the hamstrings muscle-specific differences have greater impact on MUFRs than length changes, with the biceps femoris

  5. Fire and EMS Districts, Fire District boundaries within Sedgwick County. Cover is programmatically derived from taxing unit districts. Used for Public Safety map rolls. Primary attribute is fire district name. Published to scfiredia.shp., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Fire and EMS Districts dataset current as of 2008. Fire District boundaries within Sedgwick County. Cover is programmatically derived from taxing unit districts....

  6. Effects of Barbell Deadlift Training on Submaximal Motor Unit Firing Rates for the Vastus Lateralis and Rectus Femoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S.; Thompson, Brennan J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years) were randomly assigned to training (n = 15) or control (n = 9) groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC) and y-intercepts (pps) of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70), but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units. PMID:25531294

  7. Effects of barbell deadlift training on submaximal motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt S Stock

    Full Text Available Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years were randomly assigned to training (n = 15 or control (n = 9 groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC and y-intercepts (pps of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70, but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units.

  8. Effects of barbell deadlift training on submaximal motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Matt S; Thompson, Brennan J

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years) were randomly assigned to training (n = 15) or control (n = 9) groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC) and y-intercepts (pps) of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70), but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units.

  9. Firing rate modulation of human motor units in different muscles during isometric contraction with various forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, K; Narusawa, M

    1996-05-06

    To examine the factors affecting the control of human motor units, rate coding strategies of the motor units were investigated in upper limb and intrinsic hand muscles during voluntary isometric contraction of steady force levels up to 80% of maximal voluntary contraction. Numerous spike trains from single motor units were recorded from the m. first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and the m. biceps brachii (BB) of eight human subjects by means of tungsten micro-electrodes, and the mean firing rate (MFR) was calculated for each subject and inter-individual comparisons made. The MFRs of the FDI were larger than that of the BB at the higher force level, and substantial differences were not found between these muscles at the lower force level. The slope of the linear regression line of MFRs vs. exerted forces for the FDI was more than twice that for the BB. Therefore, isometric force control of the FDI depends more on the rate coding strategy. The difference in rate coding between the FDI and BB motor units may be determined by factors other than muscle fiber composition, because both muscles are known to possess a similar composition of fiber types. Possible mechanisms underlying these characteristics of rate coding strategy are considered in this report.

  10. Native American depopulation, reforestation, and fire regimes in the Southwest United States, 1492–1900 CE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Matthew J.; Farella, Joshua; Roos, Christopher I.; Stack, Adam; Martini, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Native American populations declined between 1492 and 1900 CE, instigated by the European colonization of the Americas. However, the magnitude, tempo, and ecological effects of this depopulation remain the source of enduring debates. Recently, scholars have linked indigenous demographic decline, Neotropical reforestation, and shifting fire regimes to global changes in climate, atmosphere, and the Early Anthropocene hypothesis. In light of these studies, we assess these processes in conifer-dominated forests of the Southwest United States. We compare light detection and ranging data, archaeology, dendrochronology, and historical records from the Jemez Province of New Mexico to quantify population losses, establish dates of depopulation events, and determine the extent and timing of forest regrowth and fire regimes between 1492 and 1900. We present a new formula for the estimation of Pueblo population based on architectural remains and apply this formula to 18 archaeological sites in the Jemez Province. A dendrochronological study of remnant wood establishes dates of terminal occupation at these sites. By combining our results with historical records, we report a model of pre- and post-Columbian population dynamics in the Jemez Province. Our results indicate that the indigenous population of the Jemez Province declined by 87% following European colonization but that this reduction occurred nearly a century after initial contact. Depopulation also triggered an increase in the frequency of extensive surface fires between 1640 and 1900. Ultimately, this study illustrates the quality of integrated archaeological and paleoecological data needed to assess the links between Native American population decline and ecological change after European contact. PMID:26811459

  11. Inhibition linearizes firing rate responses in human motor units: implications for the role of persistent inward currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revill, Ann L; Fuglevand, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Motor neurons are the output neurons of the central nervous system and are responsible for controlling muscle contraction. When initially activated during voluntary contraction, firing rates of motor neurons increase steeply but then level out at modest rates. Activation of an intrinsic source of excitatory current at recruitment onset may underlie the initial steep increase in firing rate in motor neurons. We attempted to disable this intrinsic excitatory current by artificially activating an inhibitory reflex. When motor neuron activity was recorded while the inhibitory reflex was engaged, firing rates no longer increased steeply, suggesting that the intrinsic excitatory current was probably responsible for the initial sharp rise in motor neuron firing rate. During graded isometric contractions, motor unit (MU) firing rates increase steeply upon recruitment but then level off at modest rates even though muscle force continues to increase. The mechanisms underlying such firing behaviour are not known although activation of persistent inward currents (PICs) might be involved. PICs are intrinsic, voltage-dependent currents that activate strongly when motor neurons (MNs) are first recruited. Such activation might cause a sharp escalation in depolarizing current and underlie the steep initial rise in MU firing rate. Because PICs can be disabled with synaptic inhibition, we hypothesized that artificial activation of an inhibitory pathway might curb this initial steep rise in firing rate. To test this, human subjects performed slow triangular ramp contractions of the ankle dorsiflexors in the absence and presence of tonic synaptic inhibition delivered to tibialis anterior (TA) MNs by sural nerve stimulation. Firing rate profiles (expressed as a function of contraction force) of TA MUs recorded during these tasks were compared for control and stimulation conditions. Under control conditions, during the ascending phase of the triangular contractions, 93% of the firing

  12. SO3 tinges stack gas from scrubbed coal-fired units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.; Ellison, W.

    1998-01-01

    The small amount of SO 3 in flue gas creates enough problems inside the plant. New US EPA regulations on so-called air toxics are making SO 3 discharge an emission problem as well - and a visible one at that. Units that have installed wet scrubbers to control SO 2 emissions may be most affected. The article explains that SO 3 levels in coal-fired power plants are mainly increased by catalytic oxidation of SO 2 by iron oxide on the fireside surfaces of the superheater tubes. Dependence on air-heater temperature is discussed. Wet FGD systems are responsible for the formation of 'blue eye' where SO 3 causes a blue hue in the plume. Ammonia injection has been effective in reducing SO 3 vapour, as has injecting water ahead of the electrostatic precipitator. Replacement of a wet ESP with a dry ESP is also a solution. 2 figs

  13. Status of the tangentially fired LIMB Demonstration Program at Yorktown Unit No. 2: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, J.P.; Gogineni, M.R.; Koucky, R.W.; Gootzait, E.; Lachapelle, D.G.

    1992-01-01

    Combustion Engineering, Inc., under EPA sponsorship, is conducting a program to demonstrate furnace sorbent injection on a tangentially fired, coal-burning utility boiler, Virginia Power's 180 MW(e) Yorktown Unit No. 2. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate significant reductions in sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) while minimizing any negative impacts on boiler performance. Engineering and procurement activities and baseline testing have been completed. Construction and installation of the sorbent injection and low-NO x equipment is nearly complete. An 8-month demonstration of furnace sorbent injection plus flue gas humidification will be conducted in 1992. Details of the sorbent injection concept to be tested at Yorktown, results of baseline testing, overall demonstration program organization and schedule, and preliminary plans for the 8-month demonstration test are discussed in the paper

  14. Study Improving Performance of Centrifugal Compressor In Paiton Coal Fired Power Plant Unit 1 And 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Yuriadi; Permana, Dadang S.

    2018-03-01

    The compressed air system becomes part of a very important utility system in a Plant, including the Steam Power Plant. In PLN’S coal fired power plant, Paiton units 1 and 2, there are four Centrifugal air compressor types, which produce compressed air as much as 5.652 cfm and with electric power capacity of 1200 kW. Electricity consumption to operate centrifugal compressor is 7.104.117 kWh per year. This study aims to measure the performance of Centrifugal Compressors operating in Paiton’s coal fired power plant units 1 and 2. Performance Compressor is expressed by Specific Power Consumption (SPC) in kW/100 cfm. For this purpose, we measure the compressed air flow rate generated by each compressor and the power consumed by each compressor. The result is as follows Air Compressor SAC 2B : 15.1 kW/100 cfm, Air Compressor SAC 1B : 15.31 kW/100 cfm,Air Compressor SAC 1A : 16.3 kW/100 cfm and air Compressor SAC 2C : 18.19 kW/100 cfm. From the measurement result, air compressor SAC 2B has the best performance that is 15.1 kW / 100 cfm. In this study we analyze efforts to improve the performance of other compressors to at least match the performance of the SAC 2B air compressor. By increasing the Specific Power Consumption from others Compressor, it will get energy saving up to 284,165 kWh per year.

  15. Experimental study of desulfurization of Zhong Liang Shau high sulfur coal by flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Z.; Huang, B.; Cao, J. [China University of Mining and Technology (China). Beijing Graduate School

    1994-12-01

    Emission of large amount of SO{sub 2} from combustion of high sulfur coal causes serious environmental pollution. Pre-combustion desulfurization of high sulfur coal has become a necessity. This paper reports test results of fine coal desulfurization with different flotation technology and the effect of pyrite depressant. Test work showed that when the coal sample from Zhong Liang Shau was processed with a Free Jet Flotation Column its pyritic sulfur content was reduced from 3.08% to 0.84%, with 72.22% recovery of combustible matter in clean coal. The concept of Desulfurization Efficiency Index E{sub ds} for comprehensive evaluation of desulfurization process is proposed, which is defined as the product of the ratio of sulfur content reduction of clean coal and the recovery of combustible matters. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Multiple-heteroatom-containing sulfur compounds in a high sulfur coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, R.E.; Neill, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis of a high sulfur coal has been combined with high resolution mass spectrometry yielding information on aromatic sulfur compounds containing an additional heteroatom. Sulfur emission from coal utilization is a critical problem and in order to devise efficient methods for removing organic sulfur, it is important to know what types of molecules contain sulfur. A high sulfur Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal (Argonne Premium Coal Sample No. 3) was pyrolyzed on a platinum grid using a quartz probe inserted into a modified all glass heated inlet system and the products characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). A significant number of products were observed which contained both sulfur and an additional heteroatom. In some cases two additional heteroatoms were observed. These results are compared to those found in coal extracts and liquefaction products

  17. Characterization of desulfurization, denitrogenation and process sulfur transfer during hydropyrolysis of Chinese high sulfur coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Chenggong; Li Baoqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Conversion; Snape, C.E. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    The process desulphurization and denitrogenation of Chinese high sulfur coals and the characteristics of sulfur transformation during non-catalytic hydropyrolysis were investigated by a 10 g fixed-bed reactor and a small-scaled reactor with online spectrometry respectively. It was indicated that more than 70% of the total sulfur of the two high sulfur coals and almost all pyritic sulfur are removed as H{sub 2}S, leaving the char and tar products with much less sulfur distribution. The liability of sulfur transformation to tar products is closely related to the thiophenic structure forms rather than sulfidic forms. At the same time, the formation of trace amount of sulfur dioxide indicates the presence of inherent sulfur oxidation reactions inside coal frame structures even under H{sub 2} pressure. (orig.)

  18. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [High sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 Volume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  19. Post-fire bedload sediment delivery across spatial scales in the interior western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph W. Wagenbrenner; Peter R. Robichaud

    2014-01-01

    Post-fire sediment yields can be up to three orders of magnitude greater than sediment yields in unburned forests. Much of the research on post-fire erosion rates has been at small scales (100m2 or less), and post-fire sediment delivery rates across spatial scales have not been quantified in detail. We developed relationships for post-fire bedload sediment delivery...

  20. Marked by Fire: Anishinaabe Articulations of Nationhood in Treaty Making with the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Heidi Kiiwetinepinesiik

    2012-01-01

    The story, known as "The Theft of Fire," illustrates numerous meanings and teachings crucial to understanding Anishinaabe nationhood. This story contains two discernible points. First, it reveals how the Anishinaabe obtained fire. The second discernible feature within this story is the marking of the hare by his theft of fire. Stories…

  1. Risk of commercial truck fires in the United States : an exploratory data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    Large trucks are involved in only 8 percent of fatal crashes per year, but 17 percent of fatal fires. The scope of the current body of research is limited. Studies have treated truck fires generally as a subset of vehicle fires or in their own right ...

  2. Relation between location of a motor unit in the human biceps brachii and its critical firing levels for different tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, C.C.A.M.; Haar Romeny, B.M. ter; Gon, J.J.D. van der

    1984-01-01

    Critical firing levels (CFLs) of single motor units (MUs) in the long head of the human biceps brachii muscle were determined in combinations of two isometric tasks: flexion of the elbow, supination of the lower arm, and exorotation of the humerus, as well as the corresponding antagonistic tasks.

  3. Quantifying the multi-scale response of avifauna to prescribed fire experiments in the southwest United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett G. Dickson; Barry R. Noon; Curtis H. Flather; Stephanie Jentsch; William M. Block

    2009-01-01

    Landscape-scale disturbance events, including ecological restoration and fuel reduction activities, can modify habitat and affect relationships between species and their environment. To reduce the risk of uncharacteristic stand-replacing fires in the southwestern United States, land managers are implementing restoration and fuels treatments (e.g., mechanical thinning,...

  4. Multi-scalar influence of weather and climate on very large-fires in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    John T. Abatzoglou; Renaud Barbero; Crystal A. Kolden; Katherine C. Hegewisch; Narasimhan K. Larkin; Harry Podschwit

    2014-01-01

    A majority of area burned in the Eastern United States (EUS) results from a limited number of exceptionally large wildfires. Relationships between climatic conditions and the occurrence of very large-fires (VLF) in the EUS were examined using composite and climate-niche analyses that consider atmospheric factors across inter-annual, sub-seasonal and synoptic temporal...

  5. Particulate matter and black carbon optical properties and emission factors from prescribed fires in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aerosol emissions from prescribed fires in the Southeastern United States were measured and compared to emissions from laboratory burns with fuels collected from the site. Fine particulate matter (PM2.5), black carbon, and aerosol light scattering and absorption were characte...

  6. Upgrading of fire protection arrangements at Magnox power stations in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, L.H.

    1998-01-01

    The methodology used in conducting fire hazard assessments at Magnox Reactor power stations operated by Magnox Electric plc is described. The assessments use a deterministic approach. This includes the identification of essential plant and the associated supporting systems required for the safe trip, shutdown and post-trip cooling of the reactor, assessment of the location of the essential plant and the vulnerability of these plant in the presence of a fire, assessment of essential functions against the effects of a fire and identification of improvements to the fire protection arrangements. Practical aspects of fire protection engineering on operating power stations are discussed and examples of improvements in protection described. (author)

  7. Fire protection upgrading of four Russian 440/230 VVER units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corsini, G.; Yelfimov, S.

    1995-01-01

    The main goal of TACIS 3.6 a project funded by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC), was the front-end engineering for upgrading the Fire Protection System (FPS) of the safety-related equipment of Novovoronezh, Units 3 and 4, and Kola, Units 1 and 2, VVER 440/230 nuclear power plants. As a first step, all the safety-related equipment had to be identified, evaluation criteria had to be established and the existing FPS reviewed against the criteria. In the second step, the selection of the upgrading measures, depending on feasibility and cost estimate, has been accomplished, room by room. The third step, carried out on schedule and completed end July 95, has been essentially the preparation of the Technical Specifications for procurement of the needed equipment including remaining detail engineering. The Russian sub-contactor Atom Energo Project (AEP), who have been the designers of these older NPP s, have done the work with the Italian Ansaldo as the consultants of their Russian colleagues. Practical aspects of the engineering work are discussed and examples of improvements selected for retrofitting described. (author)

  8. Motor unit recruitment and firing rate in medial gastrocnemius muscles during external perturbations in standing in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, C L; Ivanova, T D; Hunt, M A; Garland, S J

    2014-10-01

    There is limited investigation of the interaction between motor unit recruitment and rate coding for modulating force during standing or responding to external perturbations. Fifty-seven motor units were recorded from the medial gastrocnemius muscle with intramuscular electrodes in response to external perturbations in standing. Anteriorly directed perturbations were generated by applying loads in 0.45-kg increments at the pelvis every 25-40 s until 2.25 kg was maintained. Motor unit firing rate was calculated for the initial recruitment load and all subsequent loads during two epochs: 1) dynamic response to perturbation directly following each load drop and 2) maintenance of steady state between perturbations. Joint kinematics and surface electromyography (EMG) from lower extremities and force platform measurements were assessed. Application of the external loads resulted in a significant forward progression of the anterior-posterior center of pressure (AP COP) that was accompanied by modest changes in joint angles (recruitment, motor unit firing rate immediately after the load drop was significantly lower than during subsequent load drops or during the steady state at the same load. There was a modest increase in motor unit firing rate immediately after the load drop on subsequent load drops associated with regaining balance. There was no effect of maintaining balance with increased load and forward progression of the AP COP on steady-state motor unit firing rate. The medial gastrocnemius utilized primarily motor unit recruitment to achieve the increased levels of activation necessary to maintain standing in the presence of external loads. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  9. A Fire Severity Mapping System (FSMS) for real-time management applications and long term planning: Developing a map of the landscape potential for severe fire in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory K. Dillon; Zachary A. Holden; Penny Morgan; Bob Keane

    2009-01-01

    The Fire Severity Mapping System project is geared toward providing fire managers across the western United States with critical information for dealing with and planning for the ecological effects of wildfire at multiple levels of thematic, spatial, and temporal detail. For this project, we are developing a comprehensive, west-wide map of the landscape potential for...

  10. Fire Ant Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Favorite Name: Category: Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fire Ant Bites Share | Fire ants are aggressive, venomous insects that have pinching ... across the United States, even into Puerto Rico. Fire ant stings usually occur on the feet or ...

  11. Coal quality influence on availability and reliability of two 620 MW lignite fired units after 100 000 operating hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovic, Dragomir

    1997-01-01

    General statistics data on operation of two 620 MW low calorific value coal fired units are foundation for analysis of influence of variable coal characteristics on availability and reliability. Changeable mineralogical structure, ash contents and heating value cause the following problems: increased abrasive wear and unstable firing. Almost 23 % of plant shutting down are caused by the mentioned reasons, which have multiplied in the last years. Analysis will show how it is possible to plan terms of overhaul of boilers with respect to quality of used coal and reliability of pipe system and maintenance of high level of availability and reliability in spite of periodical low heating value of coal. Described experiences are also important for planning, design, construction and operation of new power plants firing with same coal. (Author)

  12. Nonfatal, unintentional, non--fire-related carbon monoxide exposures--United States, 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-22

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, nonirritating gas that is produced through the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Sources of CO include combustion devices (e.g., boilers and furnaces), motor-vehicle exhaust, generators and other gasoline or diesel-powered engines, gas space heaters, woodstoves, gas stoves, fireplaces, tobacco smoke, and various occupational sources. CO poisoning is a leading cause of unintentional poisoning deaths in the United States; it was responsible for approximately 450 deaths each year during 1999-2004 and an estimated 15,200 emergency department (ED) visits each year during 2001-2003. Health effects of CO exposure can range from viral-like symptoms (e.g., fatigue, dizziness, headache, confusion, and nausea) to more severe conditions (e.g., disorientation, unconsciousness, long-term neurologic disabilities, coma, cardiorespiratory failure, and death). CO poisoning often is misdiagnosed and underdetected because of the nonspecific nature of symptoms. To update a previously published report and provide national estimates of CO-related ED visits during 2004-2006, CDC analyzed data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System--All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) database. During 2004-2006, an estimated average of 20,636 ED visits for nonfatal, unintentional, non-fire-related CO exposures occurred each year. Approximately 73% of these exposures occurred in homes, and 41% occurred during winter months (December-February). Prevention efforts targeting residential and seasonal CO exposures can substantially reduce CO-related morbidity.

  13. Operation of Browns Ferry, Units 1 and 2 following the March 22, 1975 fire. Safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    The Safety Evaluation Report issued February 23, 1976, presents the NRC evaluation regarding the acceptability of the restoration and modifications at the Browns Ferry Plant Units 1 and 2, following the March 22, 1975 fire, to establish that the facility may be operated in the restored and modified condition without endangering the health and safety of the public. The modifications involved enhancing separation of redundant safeguards equipment by some rerouting of cable and by the application of a fire-retardant coating to the cable; enhancing fire extinguishing capability by the addition of fixed spray and sprinkler systems and expanded smoke and heat detection systems; and enhancing the overall fire protection program by changes in procedures, training, and organization. The NRC staff indicated some items that remained to be resolved prior to operation and concluded that subject to their satisfactory resolution the restoration of Browns Ferry Nuclear Plants Units 1 and 2 including the modifications is acceptable and that there is reasonable assurance that the health and safety of the public will not be endangered by operation of the facility as restored and modified

  14. A data envelopment analysis for energy efficiency of coal-fired power units in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chenxi; Li, Mingjia; Zhang, Fan; He, Ya-Ling; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two kinds of energy efficiency (EE) indices are analyzed and compared. • The influence degrees of different uncontrollable factors on EE are compared. • The influence of load factor on special EE is 82.6% larger than capacity factor. • The influence of cooling method on special EE is 90.32% larger than steam pressure. • The generalized EE indicator is more recommended by the authors. - Abstract: In this article, the non-parametric data envelopment analysis method (DEA) is employed to evaluate energy efficiency (EE) of 34 coal-fired power units in China. Input-oriented CCR (Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes) model is used for EE analysis. Two efficiency indices, generalized EE and special EE are defined and analyzed. The generalized EE is calculated based on four input parameters: coal consumption, oil consumption, water consumption and auxiliary power consumption by power units. The special EE is only based on two input parameters: coal consumption and auxiliary power consumption. Relations between these two EE indices and non-comparable factors including quality of coal, load factor, capacity factor, parameters of main steam and cooling method are studied. Comparison between EE evaluation results of the two indices is conducted. Results show that these two kinds of EE are more sensitive to the load factor than the capacity factor. The influence of the cooling method on EE is larger than that of main steam parameter. The influence of non-comparable factors on the special EE is stronger than that on the generalized EE

  15. Fire patterns in piñon and juniper land cover types in the Semiarid Western United States from 1984 through 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    David I. Board; Jeanne C. Chambers; Richard F. Miller; Peter J. Weisberg

    2018-01-01

    Increases in area burned and fire size have been reported across a wide range of forest and shrubland types in the Western United States in recent decades, but little is known about potential changes in fire regimes of piñon and juniper land cover types. We evaluated spatio-temporal patterns of fire in piñon and juniper land cover types from the National Gap Analysis...

  16. Defining old growth for fire-adapted forests of the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill R. Kaufmann; Daniel Binkley; Peter Z. Fule; Johnson Marlin; Scott L. Stephens; Thomas W. Swetnam

    2007-01-01

    There are varying definitions of old-growth forests because of differences in environment and differing fire influence across the Intermountain West. Two general types of forests reflect the role of fire: 1) forests shaped by natural changes in structure and species makeup-plant succession-that are driven by competitive differences among species and individual trees...

  17. Aerosol emissions from prescribed fires in the United States: A synthesis of laboratory and aircraft measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. A. May; G. R. McMeeking; T. Lee; J. W. Taylor; J. S. Craven; I. Burling; A. P. Sullivan; S. Akagi; J. L. Collett; M. Flynn; H. Coe; S. P. Urbanski; J. H. Seinfeld; R. J. Yokelson; S. M. Kreidenweis

    2014-01-01

    Aerosol emissions from prescribed fires can affect air quality on regional scales. Accurate representation of these emissions in models requires information regarding the amount and composition of the emitted species. We measured a suite of submicron particulate matter species in young plumes emitted from prescribed fires (chaparral and montane ecosystems in California...

  18. How can prescribed burning and harvesting restore shortleaf pine-oak woodland at the landscape scale in central United States? Modeling joint effects of harvest and fire regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenchi Jin; Hong S. He; Stephen R. Shifley; Wen J. Wang; John M. Kabrick; Brian K. Davidson

    2018-01-01

    Historical fire regimes in the central United States maintained open-canopy shortleaf pine-oak woodlands on xeric sites. Following large-scale harvest and fire suppression, those woodlands grew denser with more continuous canopy cover, and they gained mesic species at the expense of shortleaf pine. There is high interest in restoring shortleaf pine-oak woodlands; most...

  19. Summary of fire protection programs of the United States Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This edition of the Annual Summary of DOE Fire Protection Programs continues the series started in 1972. Since May 1950, an annual report has been required from each field organization. The content has varied through the years and most of the accident data reporting requirements have been superseded by the Computerized Accident/Incident Reporting System administered by EG ampersand G, Idaho. However, this report is the sole source of information relating to fire protection programs, and to the actions of the field offices and to headquarters that are of general fire protection interest

  20. Compressed Air Quality, A Case Study In Paiton Coal Fired Power Plant Unit 1 And 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indah, Nur; Kusuma, Yuriadi; Mardani

    2018-03-01

    The compressed air system becomes part of a very important utility system in a Plant, including the Steam Power Plant. In PLN’S coal fired power plant, Paiton units 1 and 2, there are four Centrifugal air compressor types, which produce compressed air as much as 5.652 cfm and with electric power capacity of 1200 kW. Electricity consumption to operate centrifugal compressor is 7.104.117 kWh per year. Compressed air generation is not only sufficient in quantity (flow rate) but also meets the required air quality standards. compressed air at Steam Power Plant is used for; service air, Instrument air, and for fly Ash. This study aims to measure some important parameters related to air quality, followed by potential disturbance analysis, equipment breakdown or reduction of energy consumption from existing compressed air conditions. These measurements include counting the number of dust particles, moisture content, relative humidity, and also compressed air pressure. From the measurements, the compressed air pressure generated by the compressor is about 8.4 barg and decreased to 7.7 barg at the furthest point, so the pressure drop is 0.63 barg, this number satisfies the needs in the end user. The measurement of the number of particles contained in compressed air, for particle of 0.3 micron reaches 170,752 particles, while for the particle size 0.5 micron reaches 45,245 particles. Measurements of particles conducted at several points of measurement. For some point measurements the number of dust particle exceeds the standard set by ISO 8573.1-2010 and also NACE Code, so it needs to be improved on the air treatment process. To see the amount of moisture content in compressed air, it is done by measuring pressure dew point temperature (PDP). Measurements were made at several points with results ranging from -28.4 to 30.9 °C. The recommendation of improving compressed air quality in steam power plant, Paiton unit 1 and 2 has the potential to extend the life of

  1. Liquid metal fires. A review of work status in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Hargreaves, K.

    1983-01-01

    Liquid metal coolants (Na and NaK) are used for the transfer of heat in LMFBR circuits. Their high chemical reactivity and the high circuit operating temperatures mean that any leakage of coolant to the atmosphere can result in spontaneous combustion. Additionally spilled coolant may contact and react with structural materials such as concrete. These sodium fires and reactions with concrete are exothermic, and the fires in particular are characterised by significant evolution of heat and release of combustion product aerosols in high concentrations. A major sodium fire places special demands on the integrity of reactor secondary containment structures and may require special measures to control the release of chemically toxic (and possibly radioactive) aerosols to the environment. Precautions must also be taken to minimise damage to equipment, especially safety-related items. Work under way in laboratories in a number of countries is aimed at resolving these issues. These studies comprise investigations of the combustion mechanisms of sodium in both liquid and vapour states, and of the reactions of sodium with structural materials at high temperature. Extensive studies are also under way on the chemical and physical nature and on the behaviour of airborne reaction products released from fires. Data from these studies are used as an input to codes developed to model conditions resulting from sodium fires and thus to provide a basis for the design of containment structures and air clean-up equipment requirements. A knowledge of liquid metal combustion mechanisms is also a necessary adjunct to the development of fire prevention and fire-fighting systems. In the UK fire studies are conducted by CEGB (Berkeley Laboratories), NNC and the UKAEA, and this paper reviews the status of work carried out

  2. Fire hazard analysis at the first unit of the Ignalina nuclear power plant: 1. Analysis of fire prevention and ventilation systems and secondary effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poskas, P.; Simonis, V.; Zujus, R. and others

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of the fire prevention and ventilation systems and the secondary effects on safety at the Ignalina NPP from the point of view of fire hazard using computerized system is presented. Simplified screening algorithms for fire prevention, ventilation and the evaluation of secondary effects are developed, which allow accelerating fire hazard analysis at the Ignalina NPP. The analysis indicated that the fire prevention systems practically meet the national requirements and international recommendations for fire prevention. But it is necessary to introduce in separate rooms the measures improving fire prevention to guarantee the effective functioning of the ventilation systems and the reduction of the influence of secondary effects on safety. Computerized system of fire prevention and ventilation systems and evaluation of secondary effects on safety can be easily applied for fire hazard analysis at different big plants. (author)

  3. Statistically rigorous calculations do not support common input and long-term synchronization of motor-unit firings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Joshua C.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past four decades, various methods have been implemented to measure synchronization of motor-unit firings. In this work, we provide evidence that prior reports of the existence of universal common inputs to all motoneurons and the presence of long-term synchronization are misleading, because they did not use sufficiently rigorous statistical tests to detect synchronization. We developed a statistically based method (SigMax) for computing synchronization and tested it with data from 17,736 motor-unit pairs containing 1,035,225 firing instances from the first dorsal interosseous and vastus lateralis muscles—a data set one order of magnitude greater than that reported in previous studies. Only firing data, obtained from surface electromyographic signal decomposition with >95% accuracy, were used in the study. The data were not subjectively selected in any manner. Because of the size of our data set and the statistical rigor inherent to SigMax, we have confidence that the synchronization values that we calculated provide an improved estimate of physiologically driven synchronization. Compared with three other commonly used techniques, ours revealed three types of discrepancies that result from failing to use sufficient statistical tests necessary to detect synchronization. 1) On average, the z-score method falsely detected synchronization at 16 separate latencies in each motor-unit pair. 2) The cumulative sum method missed one out of every four synchronization identifications found by SigMax. 3) The common input assumption method identified synchronization from 100% of motor-unit pairs studied. SigMax revealed that only 50% of motor-unit pairs actually manifested synchronization. PMID:25210152

  4. Updated logistic regression equations for the calculation of post-fire debris-flow likelihood in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Dennis M.; Negri, Jacquelyn A.; Kean, Jason W.; Laber, Jayme L.; Tillery, Anne C.; Youberg, Ann M.

    2016-06-30

    Wildfire can significantly alter the hydrologic response of a watershed to the extent that even modest rainstorms can generate dangerous flash floods and debris flows. To reduce public exposure to hazard, the U.S. Geological Survey produces post-fire debris-flow hazard assessments for select fires in the western United States. We use publicly available geospatial data describing basin morphology, burn severity, soil properties, and rainfall characteristics to estimate the statistical likelihood that debris flows will occur in response to a storm of a given rainfall intensity. Using an empirical database and refined geospatial analysis methods, we defined new equations for the prediction of debris-flow likelihood using logistic regression methods. We showed that the new logistic regression model outperformed previous models used to predict debris-flow likelihood.

  5. Acute effects of dynamic exercises on the relationship between the motor unit firing rate and the recruitment threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Beck, Travis W; DeFreitas, Jason M; Wages, Nathan P

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of concentric versus eccentric exercise on motor control strategies. Fifteen men performed six sets of 10 repetitions of maximal concentric exercises or eccentric isokinetic exercises with their dominant elbow flexors on separate experimental visits. Before and after the exercise, maximal strength testing and submaximal trapezoid isometric contractions (40% of the maximal force) were performed. Both exercise conditions caused significant strength loss in the elbow flexors, but the loss was greater following the eccentric exercise (t=2.401, P=.031). The surface electromyographic signals obtained from the submaximal trapezoid isometric contractions were decomposed into individual motor unit action potential trains. For each submaximal trapezoid isometric contraction, the relationship between the average motor unit firing rate and the recruitment threshold was examined using linear regression analysis. In contrast to the concentric exercise, which did not cause significant changes in the mean linear slope coefficient and y-intercept of the linear regression line, the eccentric exercise resulted in a lower mean linear slope and an increased mean y-intercept, thereby indicating that increasing the firing rates of low-threshold motor units may be more important than recruiting high-threshold motor units to compensate for eccentric exercise-induced strength loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Post-fire debris flow prediction in Western United States: Advancements based on a nonparametric statistical technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulos, E. I.; Destro, E.; Bhuiyan, M. A. E.; Borga, M., Sr.; Anagnostou, E. N.

    2017-12-01

    Fire disasters affect modern societies at global scale inducing significant economic losses and human casualties. In addition to their direct impacts they have various adverse effects on hydrologic and geomorphologic processes of a region due to the tremendous alteration of the landscape characteristics (vegetation, soil properties etc). As a consequence, wildfires often initiate a cascade of hazards such as flash floods and debris flows that usually follow the occurrence of a wildfire thus magnifying the overall impact in a region. Post-fire debris flows (PFDF) is one such type of hazards frequently occurring in Western United States where wildfires are a common natural disaster. Prediction of PDFD is therefore of high importance in this region and over the last years a number of efforts from United States Geological Survey (USGS) and National Weather Service (NWS) have been focused on the development of early warning systems that will help mitigate PFDF risk. This work proposes a prediction framework that is based on a nonparametric statistical technique (random forests) that allows predicting the occurrence of PFDF at regional scale with a higher degree of accuracy than the commonly used approaches that are based on power-law thresholds and logistic regression procedures. The work presented is based on a recently released database from USGS that reports a total of 1500 storms that triggered and did not trigger PFDF in a number of fire affected catchments in Western United States. The database includes information on storm characteristics (duration, accumulation, max intensity etc) and other auxiliary information of land surface properties (soil erodibility index, local slope etc). Results show that the proposed model is able to achieve a satisfactory prediction accuracy (threat score > 0.6) superior of previously published prediction frameworks highlighting the potential of nonparametric statistical techniques for development of PFDF prediction systems.

  7. Recommended terms, definitions and units to be used in fire ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa there is no well developed nomenclature available for describing the various aspects of burning that are pertinent to the field of fire ecology. A set of terms and definitions, based on a review of the world literature and adapted where necessary, has been proposed in an effort to overcome this problem.

  8. Improving Fire Emission Estimates in the eastern United States Using Satellite-Based Fuel Loading Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Liu; John J. Qu; Xianjun Hao; Wanting Wang

    2005-01-01

    Wildfires can lead to severe environmental consequences by releasing large amounts of particulate matter (PM) and precursors of ozone (Sandberg et al., 1999; Riebau and Fox, 2001). The Southeast has the most burned area among various U.S. regions (Stanturf et al., 2002) and has regionally some of the highest levels of PM and ozone in the nation. Fires have been found...

  9. Barriers to implementation of risk management for federal wildland fire management agencies in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Calkin; Matthew P. Thompson; Alan A. Ager; Mark Finney

    2010-01-01

    In this presentation we review progress towards the implementation of a risk-based management framework for U.S. Federal wildland fire policy and operations. We first describe new developments in wildfire simulation technology that catalyzed the development of risk-based decision support systems for strategic wildfire management. These systems include new analytical...

  10. Effects of climate oscillations on wildland fire potential in the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby A. Mason; Peter E. Hamlington; Benjamin D. Hamlington; W. Matt Jolly; Chad M. Hoffman

    2017-01-01

    The effects of climate oscillations on spatial and temporal variations in wildland fire potential in the continental U.S. are examined from 1979 to 2015 using cyclostationary empirical orthogonal functions (CSEOFs). The CSEOF analysis isolates effects associated with the modulated annual cycle and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The results show that, in early...

  11. Risk management of emergency service vehicle crashes in the United States fire service: process, outputs, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, David P; Pollack Porter, Keshia; Griffin, Stephanie; French, Dustin D; Jung, Alesia M; Crothers, Stephen; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2017-11-17

    Emergency service vehicle crashes (ESVCs) are a leading cause of death in the United States fire service. Risk management (RM) is a proactive process for identifying occupational risks and reducing hazards and unwanted events through an iterative process of scoping hazards, risk assessment, and implementing controls. We describe the process, outputs, and lessons learned from the application of a proactive RM process to reduce ESVCs in US fire departments. Three fire departments representative of urban, suburban, and rural geographies, participated in a facilitated RM process delivered through focus groups and stakeholder discussion. Crash reports from department databases were reviewed to characterize the context, circumstances, hazards and risks of ESVCs. Identified risks were ranked using a risk matrix that considered risk likelihood and severity. Department-specific control measures were selected based on group consensus. Interviews, and focus groups were used to assess acceptability and utility of the RM process and perceived facilitators and barriers of implementation. Three to six RM meetings were conducted at each fire department. There were 7.4 crashes per 100 personnel in the urban department and 10.5 per 100 personnel in the suburban department; the rural department experienced zero crashes. All departments identified emergency response, backing, on scene struck by, driver distraction, vehicle/road visibility, and driver training as high or medium concerns. Additional high priority risks varied by department; the urban department prioritized turning and rear ending crashes; the suburban firefighters prioritized inclement weather/road environment and low visibility related crashes; and the rural volunteer fire department prioritized exiting station, vehicle failure, and inclement weather/road environment related incidents. Selected controls included new policies and standard operating procedures to reduce emergency response, cameras to enhance driver

  12. Single motor unit firing behaviour in the right trapezius muscle during rapid movement of right or left index finger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eSøgaard

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Computer work is associated with low level sustained activity in the trapezius muscle that may cause myalgia. The activity may be attention related or part of a general multijoint motor program providing stabilization of the shoulder girdle for precise finger manipulation. This study examines single motor unit (MU firing pattern in the right trapezius muscle during fast movements of ipsi or contralateral index finger. Modulated firing rate would support a general multi joint motor program, while a generally increased and continuous firing rate would support attention related activation. 12 healthy female subjects were seated at a computer work place with elbows and forearms supported. Ten double clicks (DC were performed with right and left index finger on a computer mouse instrumented with a trigger.Surface EMG was recorded from right and left trapezius muscle. Intramuscular EMG was recorded with a quadripolar wire electrode in the right trapezius.Surface EMG was analysed as %MVE. The intramuscular EMG was decomposed into individual MU action potential trains. Instantaneous firing rate (IFR was calculated from inter-spike interval with ISI shorter than 20 ms defined as doublets. IFR was averaged across 10 DC to show IFR modulation.Surface EMG in both right and left trapezius was 1.8-2.5%MVE. During right hand DC a total of 32 MUs were identified. Four subjects showed no activity. Four showed MU activity with weak or no variations related to the timing of DC. Four subjects showed large modulation in IFR with temporal relation to DC. During left hand DC 15 MUs were identified in 4 subjects, for two of the subjects with IFR modulations related to DC. Doublets was found as an integrated part of MU activation in the trapezius muscle and for one subject temporarily related to DC. In conclusion, DC with ipsi- and contralateral fast movements of the index finger was found to evoke biomechanically as well as attention related activity pattern in the

  13. Report of the international fire safety mission to Temelin, unit 1 nuclear power plant Czech Republic 4 to 14 February 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of an IAEA Fire Safety Mission conducted within the scope of Technical Co-operation Project CZR/9/005 to assess the licensing process, design, analysis and operational management of the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant with regards to fire safety of the plant. The Temelin Nuclear Power Plant currently has two units under construction. Each unit is equipped with a pressurized water reactor of the WWER design with a net electrical output of about MWe. The plant has already made significant upgrading in fire protection from the original design. The Team's evaluation is based on the IAEA Safety Series No. 50-SG-D2 (Rev.1), Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants, and other fire protection guidelines currently produced by the IAEA. The evaluation, conclusions and recommendations presented in this report reflect the views of the Fire Safety Mission experts. The recommendations are provided for consideration by the responsible authorities in the Czech Republic towards enhancing fire safety at the Temelin plant

  14. Estimating canopy bulk density and canopy base height for conifer stands in the interior Western United States using the Forest Vegetation Simulator Fire and Fuels Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth Ex; Frederick Smith; Tara Keyser; Stephanie Rebain

    2017-01-01

    The Forest Vegetation Simulator Fire and Fuels Extension (FFE-FVS) is often used to estimate canopy bulk density (CBD) and canopy base height (CBH), which are key indicators of crown fire hazard for conifer stands in the Western United States. Estimated CBD from FFE-FVS is calculated as the maximum 4 m running mean bulk density of predefined 0.3 m thick canopy layers (...

  15. Application of Mensuration Technology to Improve the Accuracy of Field Artillery Firing Unit Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    8 U.S. Army Field Artillery Operations ............................................................................ 8 Geodesy ...Experts in this field of study have a full working knowledge of geodesy and the theory that allows mensuration to surpass the level of accuracy achieved...desired. (2) Fire that is intended to achieve the desired result on target.”6 Geodesy : “that branch of applied mathematics which determines by observation

  16. Braving the Swarm: Lowering Anticipated Group Bias in Integrated Fire/Police Units Facing Paramilitary Terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    application on an iPhone, transferred to a laptop, and transcribed from iTunes to a Microsoft Word document, and eventually collated on an Excel...of fire-bomb attacks on churches in Malaysia , Pakistan, and Iraq. During the Mumbai attacks, the police source said that the terrorists deliberately...storm in 1990 that threatened its national route hub in Louisville, Kentucky (Larsen, 2007, p. 205). Local employees could not make it to work after

  17. Unites States position paper on sodium fires. Design basis and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancet, R.T.; Johnson, R.P.; Matlin, E.; Vaughan, E.U.; Fields, D.E.; Glueckler, E.; McCormack, J.D.; Miller, C.W.; Pedersen, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper focuses on designs, analyses, and tests performed since the last Sodium Fires Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors in May 1982. Since the U.S. Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) program is focused on the two advanced LMRs, SAFR and PRISM, the paper relates this work to these designs. First, the design philosophy and approach taken by these advanced pool reactors are described. This includes methods of leak detection, the design basis leaks, and passive accommodation of sodium fires. Then the small- and large-scale sodium fire tests performed in support of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) program, including post-accident cleanup, are presented and related to the advanced LMR designs. Next, the assessment and behavior of the aerosols generated are discussed including generation rate, behavior within structures, release and dispersal, and deposition on safety-grade equipment. Finally, the impact of these aerosols on the performance of safety-grade decay heat removal heat exchange surfaces is discussed including some test results as well as planned tests. (author)

  18. Research on structural integration of thermodynamic system for double reheat coal-fired unit with CO2 capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanjing; Shao, Wenjing; Wang, Zhiyue; Fu, Wenfeng; Zhao, Wensheng

    2018-02-01

    Taking the MEA chemical absorption carbon capture system with 85% of the carbon capture rate of a 660MW ultra-super critical unit as an example,this paper puts forward a new type of turbine which dedicated to supply steam to carbon capture system. The comparison of the thermal systems of the power plant under different steam supply schemes by using the EBSILON indicated optimal extraction scheme for Steam Extraction System in Carbon Capture System. The results show that the cycle heat efficiency of the unit introduced carbon capture turbine system is higher than that of the usual scheme without it. With the introduction of the carbon capture turbine, the scheme which extracted steam from high pressure cylinder’ s steam input point shows the highest cycle thermal efficiency. Its indexes are superior to other scheme, and more suitable for existing coal-fired power plant integrated post combustion carbon dioxide capture system.

  19. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 342, the Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit (FTP), which is located in Area 23 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 88 km (55 mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 342 is comprised of CAS 23-56-01. The FTP is an area approximately 100 m by 140 m (350 ft by 450 ft) located west of the town of Mercury, Nevada, which was used between approximately 1965 and 1990 to train fire-fighting personnel (REECo, 1991; Jacobson, 1991). The surface and subsurface soils in the FTP have likely been impacted by hydrocarbons and other contaminants of potential concern (COPC) associated with burn activities and training exercises in the area.

  20. Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment: Coordination of a study to improve smoke modeling for fire operations within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, N. H. F.; Ottmar, R. D.; Brown, T. J.; Larkin, N. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Fire and Smoke Model Evaluation Experiment (FASMEE) is an integrative research effort to identify and collect critical measurements to improve operational wildland fire and smoke prediction systems. FASMEE has two active phases and one suggested phase. Phase 1 is the analysis and planning process to assess the current state of fire-plume-smoke modeling and to determine the critical measurements required to evaluate and improve these operational fire and smoke models. As the major deliverable for Phase 1, a study plan has been completed that describes the measurement needs, field campaigns, and command, safety and air space de-confliction plans necessary to complete the FASMEE project. Phase 2 is a set of field campaigns to collect data during 2019-2022. Future Improvements would be a set of analyses and model improvements based on the data collected within Phase 2 that is dependent on identifying future funding sources. In this presentation, we will review the FASMEE Study Plan and detailed measurements and conditions expected for the four to five proposed research burns. The recommended measurements during Phase 2 span the four interrelated disciplines of FASMEE: fuels and consumption, fire behavior and energy, plume dynamics and meteorology, and smoke emissions, chemistry, and transport. Fuel type, condition, and consumption during wildland fire relates to several fire impacts including radiative heating, which provides the energy that drives fire dynamics. Local-scale meteorology is an important factor which relates to atmospheric chemistry, dispersion, and transport. Plume dynamics provide the connection between fire behavior and far-field smoke dispersion, because it determines the vertical distribution of the emissions. Guided by the data needs and science questions generated during Phase 1, three wildland fire campaigns were selected. These included the western wildfire campaign (rapid deployment aimed at western wildfires supporting NOAA, NASA, and NSF

  1. Firing patterns of spontaneously active motor units in spinal cord-injured subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, Christine K.

    Involuntary motor unit activity at low rates is common in hand muscles paralysed by spinal cord injury. Our aim was to describe these patterns of motor unit behaviour in relation to motoneurone and motor unit properties. Intramuscular electromyographic activity (EMG), surface EMG and force were

  2. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; forest structure and fire hazard fact sheet 06: Guide to fuel treatments in dry forests of the Western United States: assessing forest structure and fire hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2005-01-01

    The Guide to Fuel Treatments analyzes a range of potential silvicultural thinnings and surface fuel treatments for 25 representative dry-forest stands in the Western United States. The guide provides quantitative guidelines and visualization for treatment based on scientific principles identified for reducing potential crown fires. This fact sheet identifies the...

  3. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  4. Washability and Distribution Behaviors of Trace Elements of a High-Sulfur Coal, SW Guizhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The float-sink test is a commonly used technology for the study of coal washability, which determines optimal separation density for coal washing based on the desired sulfur and ash yield of the cleaned coal. In this study, the float-sink test is adopted for a high-sulfur Late Permian coal from Hongfa coalmine (No.26, southwestern Guizhou, China, to investigate its washability, and to analyze the organic affinities and distribution behaviors of some toxic and valuable trace elements. Results show that the coal is difficult to separate in terms of desulfurization. A cleaned coal could theoretically be obtained with a yield of 75.50%, sulfur 2.50%, and ash yield 11.33% when the separation density is 1.57 g/cm3. Trace elements’ distribution behaviors during the gravity separation were evaluated by correlation analysis and calculation. It was found that Cs, Ga, Ta, Th, Rb, Sb, Nb, Hf, Ba, Pb, In, Cu, and Zr are of significant inorganic affinity; while Sn, Co, Re, U, Mo, V, Cr, Ni, and Be are of relatively strong organic affinity. LREE (Light rare earth elements, however, seem to have weaker organic affinity than HREE (Heavy rare earth elements, which can probably be attributed to lanthanide contraction. When the separation density is 1.60 g/cm3, a large proportion of Sn, Be, Cr, U, V, Mo, Ni, Cd, Pb, and Cu migrate to the cleaned coal, but most of Mn, Sb and Th stay in the gangue. Coal preparation provides alternativity for either toxic elements removal or valuable elements preconcentration in addition to desulfurization and deashing. The enrichment of trace elements in the cleaned coal depends on the predetermined separation density which will influence the yields and ash yields of the cleaned coal.

  5. Near-term implications of a ban on new coal-fired power plants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Adam; Apt, Jay

    2009-06-01

    Large numbers of proposed new coal power generators in the United States have been canceled, and some states have prohibited new coal power generators. We examine the effects on the U.S. electric power system of banning the construction of coal-fired electricity generators, which has been proposed as a means to reduce U.S. CO2 emissions. The model simulates load growth, resource planning, and economic dispatch of the Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator (ISO), Inc., Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and PJM under a ban on new coal generation and uses an economic dispatch model to calculate the resulting changes in dispatch order, CO2 emissions, and fuel use under three near-term (until 2030) future electric power sector scenarios. A national ban on new coal-fired power plants does not lead to CO2 reductions of the scale required under proposed federal legislation such as Lieberman-Warner but would greatly increase the fraction of time when natural gas sets the price of electricity, even with aggressive wind and demand response policies.

  6. Proposition of primary methods for nitrogen oxides emissions reduction at coal-fired 200 MW power unit (Yugoslavia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repic, B.; Mladenovic, R.; Crnomarkovic, N.

    1997-01-01

    The combustion of coal is followed by increased pollution of the environment with toxic products. Together with the generation of other pollutants, the emission of nitrogen oxides (NO x ) represents, due to its high toxicity, a great environmental risk. Appropriate measures must be taken for lowering NO x emission, both on new facilities and those already in operation. Basic technologies (primary reduction methods) of several generations, developed until now and used in practice, are presented in the paper. The technologies applicable on domestic facilities and adjusted to domestic coals have been given particular consideration. Proposition of primary methods for NO x emission reduction at coal-fired 200 MW power unit at TPS 'Nikola Tesla' is analyzed. The following methods have been considered in detail: flue gases recirculation, multi-stage combustion, low-NO x burners, additional over-fire air, multi-stage air intake into the furnace, staged fuel injection, grinding fineness increase, etc. Considerations were performed according to existing constructive characteristics of the furnace and the burners, and characteristics of used fuels, i. e. lignites from Kolubara pit. (Author)

  7. Extractive de-sulfurization and de-ashing of high sulfur coals by oxidation with ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, Binoy K.; Khound, Kakoli; Baruah, Bimala P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Extractive de-sulfurization and de-ashing process for cleaning high sulfur coals. • The process removes inorganic as well as organic sulfur components from high sulfur coals. • The process has less risk to chemists and other surroundings. - Abstract: The environmental consequences of energy production from coals are well known, and are driving the development of desulfurization technologies. In this investigation, ionic liquids were examined for extractive desulfurization and de-ashing in industrially important high sulfur sub-bituminous Indian coals. The ionic liquids, namely, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IL1) and 1-n-butyl 3-methylimidazolium chloride (IL2) were employed for desulfurization of a few Indian coal samples in presence of HCOOH/H 2 O 2 and V 2 O 5 . Results show the maximum removal of 50.20% of the total sulfur, 48.00% of the organic sulfur, and 70.37 wt% of the ash in this process. The ionic liquids were recovered and subsequently used for further desulfurization. FT-IR spectra reveal the transformation of organic sulfur functionalities into the sulfoxides (S=O) and sulfones (-SO 2 ) due to the oxidative reactions. The sulfate, pyrite and sulfides (aryls) signals in the near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of the oxidized coal samples showed sulfur transformation during the desulfurization process. The study demonstrates the removal of significant amount of inorganic as well as organic sulfur (aryls) components from the original high sulfur coal samples to make them cleaner

  8. Grassland and forest understory biomass emissions from prescribed fires in the southeastern United States – RxCADRE 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoke measurements were made during grass and forest understory prescribed fires as part of a comprehensive program to understand fire and smoke behaviour. Instruments deployed on the ground, airplane and tethered aerostat platforms characterized the smoke plumes through measure...

  9. Wildland fire risk and social vulnerability in the Southeastern United States: An exploratory spatial data analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Johnson Gaither; Neelam C. Poudyal; Scott Goodrick; J. M. Bowker; Sparkle L Malone; Jianbang. Gan

    2011-01-01

    The southeastern U.S. is one of the more wildland fire prone areas of the country and also contains some of the poorest or most socially vulnerable rural communities. Our project addresses wildland fire risk in this part of the U.S and its intersection with social vulnerability. We examine spatial association between high wildland fire prone areas which also rank high...

  10. Simulating fuel treatment effects in dry forests of the western United States: testing the principles of a fire-safe forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris C. Johnson; Maureen C Kennedy; David L. Peterson

    2011-01-01

    We used the Fire and Fuels Extension to the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FFE-FVS) to simulate fuel treatment effects on stands in low- to midelevation dry forests (e.g., ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex. P. & C. Laws.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) of the western United States. We...

  11. Voluntary drive-dependent changes in vastus lateralis motor unit firing rates during a sustained isometric contraction at 50% of maximum knee extension force.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Elzinga, M.J.; Verdijk, PW; van Mechelen, W.; de Haan, A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to relate the expected inter-subject variability in voluntary drive of the knee extensor muscles during a sustained isometric contraction to the changes in firing rates of single motor units. Voluntary activation, as established with super-imposed electrical

  12. Unsupported inferences of high-severity fire in historical dry forests of the western United States: Response to Williams and Baker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulé, Peter Z.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Brown, Peter M.; Falk, Donald A.; Peterson, David L.; Allen, Craig D.; Aplet, Gregory H.; Battaglia, Mike A.; Binkley, Dan; Farris, Calvin; Keane, Robert E.; Margolis, Ellis Q.; Grissino-Mayer, Henri; Miller, Carol; Sieg, Carolyn Hull; Skinner, Carl; Stephens, Scott L.; Taylor, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Reconstructions of dry western US forests in the late 19th century in Arizona, Colorado and Oregon based on General Land Office records were used by Williams & Baker (2012; Global Ecology and Biogeography, 21, 1042–1052; hereafter W&B) to infer past fire regimes with substantial moderate and high-severity burning. The authors concluded that present-day large, high-severity fires are not distinguishable from historical patterns. We present evidence of important errors in their study. First, the use of tree size distributions to reconstruct past fire severity and extent is not supported by empirical age–size relationships nor by studies that directly quantified disturbance history in these forests. Second, the fire severity classification of W&B is qualitatively different from most modern classification schemes, and is based on different types of data, leading to an inappropriate comparison. Third, we note that while W&B asserted ‘surprising’ heterogeneity in their reconstructions of stand density and species composition, their data are not substantially different from many previous studies which reached very different conclusions about subsequent forest and fire behaviour changes. Contrary to the conclusions of W&B, the preponderance of scientific evidence indicates that conservation of dry forest ecosystems in the western United States and their ecological, social and economic value is not consistent with a present-day disturbance regime of large, high-severity fires, especially under changing climate

  13. Mathematical model of optimizing the arrival of fire units with the use of information systems for monitoring transport logistics of Voronezh city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kochegarov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the strong pace of construction is increasing in big cities. With their growth becomes a question of the deployment of firefighters and the number of fire stations. The most effective solution is the problem of finding the optimum route of fire departments, taking into account the information transport logistics systems within the city that will allow us to arrive at the scene at any time, regardless of the degree of congestion of city roads. Prompt arrival of fire units provides the most successful fire fighting. The main objective of the study is to develop a preliminary route and the route in case of unforeseen factors affecting the time fire engine arrived. To construct the routes used to develop actively in the current methods of machine learning artificial neural networks. To construct the optimal route requires a correct prediction of the future behavior of a complex system of urban traffic based on its past behavior. Within the framework of statistical machine learning theory considered the problem of classification and regression. The learning process is to select a classification or a regression function of a predetermined broad class of such functions. After determining the prediction scheme, it is necessary to evaluate the quality of its forecasts, which are measured not on the basis of observations, and on the basis of an improved stochastic process, the result of the construction of the prediction rules. The model is verified on the basis of data collected in real departures real fire brigades, which made it possible to obtain a minimum time of arrival of fire units.

  14. Cooling tower performance improvements for a cycling PC-fired unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keckritz, M.; Thelen, A.

    1997-01-01

    The inevitable deregulation of the electric utility industry has caused many electric utility companies to look closely at their existing assets and predict what role these units will play in the future. Reducing a unit's production cost is the best way to prepare for the deregulated market but this benefit often comes with an associated capital expenditure. Spending capital dollars today can pose a quandary for an investor-owned utility committed to maintaining low consumer rates. The dilemma is: How does a utility improve its competitiveness position today while ensuring that the shareholders are getting a fair return on their investment when any fuel savings are passed through to the consumer? Illinois Power (IP) has been aggressively looking to improve their current competitive position while facing the current regulatory challenges. Studies have been commissioned to identify the most attractive cost reduction opportunities available. One study identified that improving the performance of the Unit 6 cooling tower at the Havana Station would be a very economically attractive option. This paper addresses the economics of refurbishing a cooling tower for a cycling pulverized-coal (PC) unit to provide a competitive advantage leading into the deregulated electricity market

  15. Geographic considerations for fire management in the Eastern United States: geomorphology and topography, soils, and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton; James M. Vose; Erika C. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Across the Eastern United States, there is on average an estimated 36 MT ha–1 (16 tons ac–1) of dead woody fuel (Chojnacky and others 2004). Variations in fuel type, size, and flammability make the selection of treatment options critical for effective fuels management. The region is a complex landscape characterized by...

  16. Autonomous Forest Fire Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breejen, E. den; Breuers, M.; Cremer, F.; Kemp, R.A.W.; Roos, M.; Schutte, K.; Vries, J.S. de

    1998-01-01

    Forest fire detection is a very important issue in the pre-suppression process. Timely detection allows the suppression units to reach the fire in its initial stages and this will reduce the suppression costs considerably. The autonomous forest fire detection principle is based on temporal contrast

  17. Performance of double source boiler with coal-fired and solar power tower heat for supercritical power generating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Maolong; Du, Xiaoze; Pang, Liping; Xu, Chao; Yang, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    An approach of high-efficiency utilization of solar energy was proposed, by which the high concentrated heat received by the solar tower was integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. Two schemes that solar energy was used to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water were presented. The thermodynamic and heat transfer models were established. For a practical 660 MW supercritical power generating unit, the standard coal consumption of power generation could be decreased by more than 17 g/kWh by such double source boiler. The drawbacks of both schemes were found and then were amended by adding a flue gas bypass to the boiler. It also can be concluded that the maximum solar contribution of two schemes for the gross power generation are 6.11% and 4.90%, respectively. The solar power efficiency of the re-modified designs were demonstrated be superior to that of PS10. In terms of turbine efficiency, the comparisons with Solar Two plant having similar initial temperature found that the efficiency of Scheme I was 5.25% higher than that of Solar Two while the advantage of Scheme II was existing either. Additionally, in two schemes with flue bypass when the medium was extracted, the thermal efficiency of boiler could be improved as well. - Highlights: • High concentrated solar tower heat is integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. • The double source boiler can use solar energy to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water. • Power generating coal consumption can be reduced by more than 17 g/kWh by the double source boiler. • The solar contribution of double source boiler for the gross power generation can be as high as 6.11%.

  18. Nuclear power plant performance statistics. Comparison with fossil-fired units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabet, C.; Laue, H.J.; Qureshi, A.; Skjoeldebrand, R.; White, D.

    1983-01-01

    The joint UNIPEDE/World Energy Conference Committee on Availability of Thermal Generating Plants has a mandate to study the availability of thermal plants and the different factors that influence it. This has led to the collection and publication at the Congress of the World Energy Conference (WEC) every third year of availability and unavailability factors to be used in systems reliability studies and operations and maintenance planning. For nuclear power plants the joint UNIPEDE/WEC Committee relies on the IAEA to provide availability and unavailability data. The IAEA has published an annual report with operating data from nuclear plants in its Member States since 1971, covering in addition back data from the early 1960s. These reports have developed over the years and in the early 1970s the format was brought into close conformity with that used by UNIPEDE and WEC to report performance of fossil-fired generating plants. Since 1974 an annual analytical summary report has been prepared. In 1981 all information on operating experience with nuclear power plants was placed in a computer file for easier reference. The computerized Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) ensures that data are easily retrievable and at its present level it remains compatible with various national systems. The objectives for the IAEA data collection and evaluation have developed significantly since 1970. At first, the IAEA primarily wanted to enable the individual power plant operator to compare the performance of his own plant with that of others of the same type; when enough data had been collected, they provided the basis for assessment of the fundamental performance parameters used in economic project studies; now, the data base merits being used in setting availability objectives for power plant operations. (author)

  19. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Unburned Areas within Fire Perimeters in the Northwestern United States from 1984 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddens, A. J.; Kolden, C.; Lutz, J. A.; Abatzoglou, J. T.; Hudak, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    Recently, there has been concern about increasing extent and severity of wildfires across the globe given rapid climate change. Areas that do not burn within fire perimeters can act as fire refugia, providing (1) protection from the detrimental effects of the fire, (2) seed sources, and (3) post-fire habitat on the landscape. However, recent studies have mainly focused on the higher end of the burn severity spectrum whereas the lower end of the burn severity spectrum has been largely ignored. We developed a spatially explicit database for 2,200 fires across the inland northwestern USA, delineating unburned areas within fire perimeters from 1984 to 2014. We used 1,600 Landsat scenes with one or two scenes before and one or two scenes after the fires to capture the unburned proportion of the fire. Subsequently, we characterized the spatial and temporal patterns of unburned areas and related the unburned proportion to interannual climate variability. The overall classification accuracy detecting unburned locations was 89.2% using a 10-fold cross-validation classification tree approach in combination with 719 randomly located field plots. The unburned proportion ranged from 2% to 58% with an average of 19% for a select number of fires. We find that using both an immediate post-fire image and a one-year post fire image improves classification accuracy of unburned islands over using just a single post-fire image. The spatial characteristics of the unburned islands differ between forested and non-forested regions with a larger amount of unburned area within non-forest. In addition, we show trends of unburned proportion related primarily to concurrent climatic drought conditions across the entire region. This database is important for subsequent analyses of fire refugia prioritization, vegetation recovery studies, ecosystem resilience, and forest management to facilitate unburned islands through fuels breaks, prescribed burning, and fire suppression strategies.

  20. Oxy-fired boiler unit and method of operating the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xinsheng; Zhang, Jundong; Joshi, Abhinaya; McCombe, James A.; Levasseur, Armand A.

    2016-12-06

    An oxy-combustion boiler unit is disclosed which includes a furnace for combusting fuel and for emitting flue gas resulting from combustion. The furnace has first, second and third combustion zones, and an air separation unit for separating oxygen gas from air and providing a first portion of the separated oxygen to a first oxidant flow, a second portion to a second oxidant flow, and a third portion of the separated oxygen gas to the first, second, and third zones of the furnace. A controller can cause the separated oxygen gas to be distributed so that the first and second oxygen flows have a desired oxygen content, and so that the first, second, and third zones of the furnace receive a desired amount of oxygen based on a combustion zone stoichiometry control.

  1. Special requirements for the fluid mechanical design of hard coal-fired SCR retrofit units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The system design of high-dust SCR units for retrofits is a challenge that is to be mastered in order to meet the fluid mechanical requirements. Retrofitting power plants with NOx control technologies is a cost-intensive adventure that many utilities are undertaking. Except for a few recent new boiler installations, SCR installations must be considered as retrofit projects. In most cases the limitation of space on site entails unfavorable conditions that do not allow appropriate upstream conditions for SCR catalysts. To comply with the requirements of high performance DeNOx systems and to lower the investment costs for retrofit units, several technical solutions and concepts for the reactor layout, for NOx and dust distribution, for flow stabilization in diffusers, and advanced ammonia injection systems are explained in this paper. Balcke-Duerr offers customer-tailored solutions for flow optimization, which are evaluated by model studies. Physical flow and dust model tests in an appropriate scale provide flexibility to test various engineering concepts. The experience of Balcke-Duerr is based on continuous research and development activities over the last 25 years and more than 350 executed projects for gas flow optimization applications. The success of these installations is a direct result of the key decisions based on the improved fluid mechanical design and proper system integration. This paper also identifies the sensible design particularities and solutions that have two be considered in the fluid mechanical design of high-dust SCR retrofit units. This article demonstrates that the layout of SCR units must be carefully reviewed in order to meet the performance requirements and to avoid problems, i.e. wear, catalyst plugging and ammonia slip. 9 refs., 18 figs.

  2. The enhancement of natural radiation dosage by coal-fired power generation in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.O.

    1980-02-01

    The total fuel cycle of electricity generation from coal is assessed as a source of enhanced exposure to natural radiation. The various routes by which such exposure can arise are discussed and the consequent individual and collective radiation doses in the United Kingdom are estimated on the basis of a critical review of published data augmented by the results of recent, hitherto unpublished work within the CEGB. Further work is in progress to clarify particular areas of uncertainty that have been identified. (author)

  3. Demonstration of natural gas reburn for NO{sub x} emissions reduction at Ohio Edison Company`s cyclone-fired Niles Plant Unit Number 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borio, R.W.; Lewis, R.D.; Koucky, R.W. [ABB Power Plant Labs., Windsor, CT (United States); Lookman, A.A. [Energy Systems Associates, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Manos, M.G.; Corfman, D.W.; Waddingham, A.L. [Ohio Edison, Akron, OH (United States); Johnson, S.A. [Quinapoxet Engineering Solutions, Inc., Windham, NH (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Electric utility power plants account for about one-third of the NO{sub x} and two-thirds of the SO{sub 2} emissions in the US cyclone-fired boilers, while representing about 9% of the US coal-fired generating capacity, emit about 14% of the NO{sub x} produced by coal-fired utility boilers. Given this background, the Environmental Protection Agency, the Gas Research Institute, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, and the Ohio Coal Development Office sponsored a program led by ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB-CE) to demonstrate reburning on a cyclone-fired boiler. Ohio Edison provided Unit No. 1 at their Niles Station for the reburn demonstration along with financial assistance. The Niles Unit No. 1 reburn system was started up in September 1990. This reburn program was the first full-scale reburn system demonstration in the US. This report describes work performed during the program. The work included a review of reburn technology, aerodynamic flow model testing of reburn system design concepts, design and construction of the reburn system, parametric performance testing, long-term load dispatch testing, and boiler tube wall thickness monitoring. The report also contains a description of the Niles No. 1 host unit, a discussion of conclusions and recommendations derived from the program, tabulation of data from parametric and long-term tests, and appendices which contain additional tabulated test results.

  4. Flue gas emissions from gas-fired cogeneration units <25 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.; Wit, J. de

    1997-01-01

    A total of 900 MW e gas driven combined heat and power (CHP) has now been established in Denmark based on gas engines and gas turbine units less than 25 MW e each. Of the 900 MW e approx. 750 MW e are based on gas engines. Biogas is used as fuel for some 32 MW e of these. Emission limits for NO x and CO are 650 mg/nm 3 (ref. 5% O 2 and electrical efficiency 30% LCV). There is at present no limit for unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) for gas engines or gas turbines. The average emission of unburned hydrocarbons for the Danish gas engine driven CHP units is equal to approx. 3,5% of the fuel used. It is the target of this report to provide the basis for evaluating the planned UHC limit and possible adjustments of the present limit for NO x emission. The average NO x emission from gas turbines slightly exceeds the NO x emission from gas engines. This is due to a number of older gas turbines. Modern gas turbines can achieve significantly lower NO x emission compared to engines. The NO x emission from biogas driven engines is significantly higher than that of natural gas driven units. This is mainly due to NO x -unfavourable engine settings and the use of older units, as there are no legislation concerning NO x emission for the majority of these biogas driven units. The emission of CO and UHC is lower from gas turbines than from gas engines. The NO x emission can be reduced by SCR Catalyst systems. In Denmark 3 gas engine installations use this commercially available technology. Oxidation catalyst for UHC reduction at modern gas engine installations has proven relatively unsuccesful in Denmark until now. Only limited reductions are achieved and many catalysts are toxificated in less than 100 hours of operation. However, long-term field testing of promising UHC reducing catalysts is now being made. UHC reduction by incineration is at the prototype stage. No such plant has yet been set up in Denmark. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Use of multi-sensor active fire detections to map fires in the United States: the future of monitoring trends in burn severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picotte, Joshua J.; Coan, Michael; Howard, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    The effort to utilize satellite-based MODIS, AVHRR, and GOES fire detections from the Hazard Monitoring System (HMS) to identify undocumented fires in Florida and improve the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) mapping process has yielded promising results. This method was augmented using regression tree models to identify burned/not-burned pixels (BnB) in every Landsat scene (1984–2012) in Worldwide Referencing System 2 Path/Rows 16/40, 17/39, and 1839. The burned area delineations were combined with the HMS detections to create burned area polygons attributed with their date of fire detection. Within our study area, we processed 88,000 HMS points (2003–2012) and 1,800 Landsat scenes to identify approximately 300,000 burned area polygons. Six percent of these burned area polygons were larger than the 500-acre MTBS minimum size threshold. From this study, we conclude that the process can significantly improve understanding of fire occurrence and improve the efficiency and timeliness of assessing its impacts upon the landscape.

  6. Motor units in vastus lateralis and in different vastus medialis regions show different firing properties during low-level, isometric knee extension contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Leonardo Mendes Leal; Cabral, Hélio Veiga; de Oliveira, Liliam Fernandes; Vieira, Taian Martins

    2018-04-01

    Architectural differences along vastus medialis (VM) and between VM and vastus lateralis (VL) are considered functionally important for the patellar tracking, knee joint stability and knee joint extension. Whether these functional differences are associated with a differential activity of motor units between VM and VL is however unknown. In the present study, we, therefore, investigate neuroanatomical differences in the activity of motor units detected proximo-distally from VM and from the VL muscle. Nine healthy volunteers performed low-level isometric knee extension contractions (20% of their maximum voluntary contraction) following a trapezoidal trajectory. Surface electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from VM proximal and distal regions and from VL using three linear adhesive arrays of eight electrodes. The firing rate and recruitment threshold of motor units decomposed from EMGs were then compared among muscle regions. Results show that VL motor units reached lower mean firing rates in comparison with VM motor units, regardless of their position within VM (P motor units (P = .997). Furthermore, no significant differences in the recruitment threshold were observed for all motor units analysed (P = .108). Our findings possibly suggest the greater potential of VL to generate force, due to its fibres arrangement, may account for the lower discharge rate observed for VL then either proximally or distally detected motor units in VM. Additionally, the present study opens new perspectives on the importance of considering muscle architecture in investigations of the neural aspects of motor behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving disaster risk reduction capacity of District Civil Protection Units in managing veld fires: A case of Mangwe District in Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Dube

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analysed disaster risk reduction capacity of District Civil Protection Units (DCPUs in managing veld fires in Mangwe District of Matabeleland South Province, Zimbabwe. Veld fires have resulted in unnecessary material, environmental and economic losses. Communities’ livelihoods and property have been destroyed, and the natural environment depleted. The research sought to improve disaster risk reduction capacity of DCPUs in managing veld fires, through new intervention strategies and a new model. The objectives of the study were to investigate the main causes of veld fires; to analyse their impacts; to examine the effectiveness of the current intervention strategies; and to identify challenges in implementing these interventions. Furthermore, the study sought to recommend new possible intervention strategies. This mainly qualitative study employed self-administered questionnaires, interviews and focus-group discussions. Questionnaires were used to investigate members of the DCPU’s ideas, views and experiences, interviews solicited perceptions of community leaders and their subjects, whilst focus-group discussions assisted with information from members of the District Civil Protection Planning Committee. Veld fires in the district are mainly caused by human activities, and they are prevalent during the months of September and October. They affect livelihoods and the natural environment the most. This study found that DCPUs are not prepared to manage veld fires and therefore recommended new strategies and adoption of the community-based disaster risk reduction model. The new strategies include involving community leaders and members of the communities in DCPUs; regular training and workshops to members of DCPUs on veld fire management; creation of fire protection associations; regular campaigns and rehearsal of emergency drills by the DCPU personnel; the introduction of competitions and incentives in veld fire management; vigorous

  8. Motor unit firing frequency of lower limb muscles during an incremental slide board skating test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piucco, Tatiane; Bini, Rodrigo; Sakaguchi, Masanori; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; Stefanyshyn, Darren

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated how the combination of workload and fatigue affected the frequency components of muscle activation and possible recruitment priority of motor units during skating to exhaustion. Ten male competitive speed skaters performed an incremental maximal test on a slide board. Activation of six muscles from the right leg was recorded throughout the test. A time-frequency analysis was performed to compute overall, high, and low frequency bands from the whole signal at 10, 40, 70, and 90% of total test time. Overall activation increased for all muscles throughout the test (p  0.80). There was an increase in low frequency (90 vs. 10%, p = 0.035, ES = 1.06) and a decrease in high frequency (90 vs. 10%, p = 0.009, ES = 1.38, and 90 vs. 40%, p = 0.025, ES = 1.12) components of gluteus maximus. Strong correlations were found between the maximal cadence and vastus lateralis, gluteus maximus and gluteus medius activation at the end of the test. In conclusion, the incremental skating test lead to an increase in activation of lower limb muscles, but only gluteus maximus was sensitive to changes in frequency components, probably caused by a pronounced fatigue.

  9. A Nacre-Like Carbon Nanotube Sheet for High Performance Li-Polysulfide Batteries with High Sulfur Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Zheng-Ze; Lv, Wei; He, Yan-Bing; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Guangmin; Dong, Liubing; Niu, Shuzhang; Zhang, Chen; Lyu, Ruiyang; Wang, Cong; Shi, Huifa; Zhang, Wenjie; Kang, Feiyu; Nishihara, Hirotomo; Yang, Quan-Hong

    2018-06-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are considered as one of the most promising energy storage systems for next-generation electric vehicles because of their high-energy density. However, the poor cyclic stability, especially at a high sulfur loading, is the major obstacles retarding their practical use. Inspired by the nacre structure of an abalone, a similar configuration consisting of layered carbon nanotube (CNT) matrix and compactly embedded sulfur is designed as the cathode for Li-S batteries, which are realized by a well-designed unidirectional freeze-drying approach. The compact and lamellar configuration with closely contacted neighboring CNT layers and the strong interaction between the highly conductive network and polysulfides have realized a high sulfur loading with significantly restrained polysulfide shuttling, resulting in a superior cyclic stability and an excellent rate performance for the produced Li-S batteries. Typically, with a sulfur loading of 5 mg cm -2 , the assembled batteries demonstrate discharge capacities of 1236 mAh g -1 at 0.1 C, 498 mAh g -1 at 2 C and moreover, when the sulfur loading is further increased to 10 mg cm -2 coupling with a carbon-coated separator, a superhigh areal capacity of 11.0 mAh cm -2 is achieved.

  10. Post-fire burn severity and vegetation response following eight large wildfires across the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh B. Lentile; Penelope Morgan; Andrew T. Hudak; Michael J. Bobbitt; Sarah A. Lewis; Alistair M. S. Smith; Peter R. Robichaud

    2007-01-01

    Vegetation response and burn severity were examined following eight large wildfires that burned in 2003 and 2004: two wildfires in California chaparral, two each in dry and moist mixed-conifer forests in Montana, and two in boreal forests in interior Alaska. Our research objectives were: 1) to characterize one year post-fire vegetation recovery relative to initial fire...

  11. 46 CFR 108.419 - Fire main capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fire Main System § 108.419 Fire main capacity. The diameter of the fire... pumps operating simultaneously. ...

  12. Hip position and sex differences in motor unit firing patterns of the vastus medialis and vastus medialis oblique in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yi-Ling; Tenan, Matthew S; Griffin, Lisa

    2018-06-01

    Weakness of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) has been proposed to explain the high prevalence of knee pain in female subjects. Clinicians commonly use exercises in an attempt to preferentially activate the VMO. Recently, our group found evidence to support clinical theory that the VMO is neurologically distinct from the vastus medialis (VM). However, the ability to voluntarily activate these muscle subsections is still disputed. The aim of this study was to determine if VM and VMO activation varies between sexes and if control of the two muscles is different between rehabilitation exercises. Thirteen men and 13 women performed isometric straight leg raises in two hip positions, neutral hip rotation and 30 degrees lateral hip rotation. Bipolar intramuscular fine-wire electrodes were inserted into the VM and VMO to obtain motor unit recruitment thresholds and initial firing rates at recruitment. Linear mixed models and Tukey post hoc tests were used to assess significant differences in 654 motor units. Women demonstrated faster motor unit firing rate at recruitment, 1.18 ± 0.56 Hz higher than men. Motor units fired 0.47 ± 0.19 Hz faster during neutral hip rotation compared with lateral hip rotation. The VMO motor units were recruited 2.92 ± 1.28% earlier than the VM. All motor units were recruited 3.74 ± 1.27% earlier during neutral hip rotation than lateral hip rotation. Thus the VM and the VMO can be activated differentially, and their motor unit recruitment properties are affected by sex and hip position. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This is the first study to reveal differential activation of the vastus medialis oblique from the vastus medialis in clinical exercise protocols. Our research group used fine-wire electrodes to examine EMG signals of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus medialis to avoid possible cross talk. We also consider the effect of sex on motor unit firing patterns because of higher prevalence of knee pain in women, and yet few

  13. Tree mortality from fires, bark beetles, and timber harvest during a hot and dry decade in the western United States (2003-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Logan T.; Law, Beverly E.; Meddens, Arjan J. H.; Hicke, Jeffrey A.

    2017-06-01

    High temperatures and severe drought contributed to extensive tree mortality from fires and bark beetles during the 2000s in parts of the western continental United States. Several states in this region have greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets and would benefit from information on the amount of carbon stored in tree biomass killed by disturbance. We quantified mean annual tree mortality from fires, bark beetles, and timber harvest from 2003-2012 for each state in this region. We estimated tree mortality from fires and beetles using tree aboveground carbon (AGC) stock and disturbance data sets derived largely from remote sensing. We quantified tree mortality from harvest using data from US Forest Service reports. In both cases, we used Monte Carlo analyses to track uncertainty associated with parameter error and temporal variability. Regional tree mortality from harvest, beetles, and fires (MORTH+B+F) together averaged 45.8 ± 16.0 Tg AGC yr-1 (±95% confidence interval), indicating a mortality rate of 1.10 ± 0.38% yr-1. Harvest accounted for the largest percentage of MORTH+B+F (˜50%), followed by beetles (˜32%), and fires (˜18%). Tree mortality from harvest was concentrated in Washington and Oregon, where harvest accounted for ˜80% of MORTH+B+F in each state. Tree mortality from beetles occurred widely at low levels across the region, yet beetles had pronounced impacts in Colorado and Montana, where they accounted for ˜80% of MORTH+B+F. Tree mortality from fires was highest in California, though fires accounted for the largest percentage of MORTH+B+F in Arizona and New Mexico (˜50%). Drought and human activities shaped regional variation in tree mortality, highlighting opportunities and challenges to managing GHG emissions from forests. Rising temperatures and greater risk of drought will likely increase tree mortality from fires and bark beetles during coming decades in this region. Thus, sustained monitoring and mapping of tree mortality is necessary to

  14. A Chronosequence Feasibility Assessment of Emergency Fire Rehabilitation Records within the Intermountain Western United States - Final Report to the Joint Fire Science Program - Project 08-S-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Kevin C.; Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy A.; Pilliod, David S.; Brooks, Matthew L.; Chambers, Jeanne C.

    2009-01-01

    Department of the Interior (DOI) bureaus have invested heavily (for example, the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) spent more than $60 million in fiscal year 2007) in seeding vegetation for emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation of non-forested arid lands over the past 10 years. The primary objectives of these seedings commonly are to (1) reduce the post-fire dominance of non-native annual grasses, such as cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) and red brome (Bromus rubens); (2) minimize the probability of recurrent fire; and (3) ultimately produce desirable vegetation characteristics (for example, ability to recover following disturbance [resilience], resistance to invasive species, and a capacity to support a diverse flora and fauna). Although these projects historically have been monitored to varying extents, land managers currently lack scientific evidence to verify whether seeding arid and semiarid lands achieves desired objectives. Given the amount of resources dedicated to post-fire seeding projects, a synthesis of information determining the factors that result in successful treatments is critically needed. Although results of recently established experiments and monitoring projects eventually will provide useful insights for the future direction of emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation programs, a chronosequence approach evaluating emergency stabilization and burned area rehabilitation treatments (both referenced hereafter as ESR treatments) over the past 30 years could provide a comprehensive assessment of treatment success across a range of regional environmental gradients. By randomly selecting a statistically robust sample from the population of historic ESR treatments in the Intermountain West, this chronosequence approach would have inference for most ecological sites in this region. The goal of this feasibility study was to compile and examine historic ESR records from BLM field offices across the Intermountain West to

  15. Wildfire and Spatial Patterns in Forests in Northwestern Mexico: The United States Wishes It Had Similar Fire Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott L. Stephens

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the ecological effect of wildfire is important to resource managers, especially from forests in which past anthropogenic influences, e.g., fire suppression and timber harvesting, have been limited. Changes to forest structure and regeneration patterns were documented in a relatively unique old-growth Jeffrey pine-mixed conifer forest in northwestern Mexico after a July 2003 wildfire. This forested area has never been harvested and fire suppression did not begin until the 1970s. Fire effects were moderate especially considering that the wildfire occurred at the end of a severe, multi-year (1999-2003 drought. Shrub consumption was an important factor in tree mortality and the dominance of Jeffrey pine increased after fire. The Baja California wildfire enhanced or maintained a patchy forest structure; similar spatial heterogeneity should be included in US forest restoration plans. Most US forest restoration plans include thinning from below to separate tree crowns and attain a narrow range for residual basal area/ha. This essentially produces uniform forest conditions over broad areas that are in strong contrast to the resilient forests in northern Baja California. In addition to producing more spatial heterogeneity in restoration plans of forests that once experienced frequent, low-moderate intensity fire regimes, increased use of US wildfire management options such as wildland fire use as well as appropriate management responses to non-natural ignitions could also be implemented at broader spatial scales to increase the amount of burning in western US forests.

  16. Co-combustion characteristics and blending optimization of tobacco stem and high-sulfur bituminous coal based on thermogravimetric and mass spectrometry analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Zhang, Kai; Cao, Yan; Pan, Wei-ping

    2013-03-01

    Despite much research on co-combustion of tobacco stem and high-sulfur coal, their blending optimization has not been effectively found. This study investigated the combustion profiles of tobacco stem, high-sulfur bituminous coal and their blends by thermogravimetric analysis. Ignition and burnout performances, heat release performances, and gaseous pollutant emissions were also studied by thermogravimetric and mass spectrometry analyses. The results indicated that combustion of tobacco stem was more complicated than that of high-sulfur bituminous coal, mainly shown as fixed carbon in it was divided into two portions with one early burning and the other delay burning. Ignition and burnout performances, heat release performances, and gaseous pollutant emissions of the blends present variable trends with the increase of tobacco stem content. Taking into account the above three factors, a blending ratio of 0–20% tobacco stem content is conservatively proposed as optimum amount for blending. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  18. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  19. Catalytic processing of high-sulfur fuels for distributed hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, Nazim; Ramasamy, Karthik; Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [Central Florida Univ., FL (United States)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, the development of a new on-demand hydrogen production technology is reported. In this process, a liquid hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., high-S diesel) is first catalytically pre-reformed to shorter chain gaseous hydrocarbons (predominantly, C{sub 1}-C{sub 3}) before being directed to the steam reformer, where it is converted to syngas and then to high-purity hydrogen. In the pre-reformer, most sulfurous species present in the fuel are catalytically converted to H{sub 2}S. In the desulfurization unit, H{sub 2}S is scrubbed and converted to H{sub 2} and elemental sulfur. Desulfurization of the pre-reformate gas is carried out in a special regenerative redox system, which includes Fe(II)/Fe(III)-containing aqueous phase scrubber coupled with an electrolyzer. The integrated pre-reformer/scrubber/electrolyzer unit operated successfully on high-S diesel fuel for more than 100 hours meeting the required desulfurization target of >95 % sulfur removal. (orig.)

  20. Analysis of the use of waste heat obtained from coal-fired units in Organic Rankine Cycles and for brown coal drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Łukowicz, Henryk; Kochaniewicz, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The ever-increasing restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions have created a need for new energy technologies. One way to meet these new requirements is to optimise the efficiency of power units. This paper presents two energy technologies that, if used, will increase the efficiency of electricity generation. One of the most effective ways to improve the efficiency of brown coal-fired units is by drying the coal that is fed into the boiler. Here, we describe a technology that uses the waste heat obtained from exhaust gases. This paper also presents an analysis of the feasibility of and potential for using waste heat obtained from exhaust gases to feed Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs). Several low-temperature working fluids were considered, which were selected based on properties that were best suited for these types of cycles. The impact of these working fluids on the efficiency and capacity of the ORC was also examined. The calculations for ORCs fed with waste heat obtained from exhaust gases from hard coal- and brown coal-fired boilers were compared. -- Highlights: ► We describe a technology that uses the waste heat obtained from exhaust gases. ► The impact of using different working fluids with a low boiling point is examined. ► We describe integrating the ORC with the power unit. ► The use of waste heat from boiler exhaust gases to dry brown coal is proposed. ► We demonstrate a possible increase in power unit efficiency.

  1. Co-firing Bosnian coals with woody biomass: Experimental studies on a laboratory-scale furnace and 110 MWe power unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajevic Izet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of research into cofiring two Bosnian cola types, brown coal and lignite, with woody biomass, in this case spruce sawdust. The aim of the research was to find the optimal blend of coal and sawdust that may be substituted for 100% coal in large coal-fired power stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Two groups of experimental tests were performed in this study: laboratory testing of co-firing and trial runs on a large-scale plant based on the laboratory research results. A laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated and entrained pulverized-fuel flow furnace. Coal-sawdust blends of 93:7% by weight and 80:20% by weight were tested. Co-firing trials were conducted over a range of the following process variables: process temperature, excess air ratio and air distribution. Neither of the two coal-sawdust blends used produced any significant ash-related problems provided the blend volume was 7% by weight sawdust and the process temperature did not exceed 1250ºC. It was observed that in addition to the nitrogen content in the co-fired blend, the volatile content and particle size distribution of the mixture also influenced the level of NOx emissions. The brown coal-sawdust blend generated a further reduction of SO2 due to the higher sulphur capture rate than for coal alone. Based on and following the laboratory research findings, a trial run was carried out in a large-scale utility - the Kakanj power station, Unit 5 (110 MWe, using two mixtures; one in which 5%/wt and one in which 7%/wt of brown coal was replaced with sawdust. Compared to a reference firing process with 100% coal, these co-firing trials produced a more intensive redistribution of the alkaline components in the slag in the melting chamber, with a consequential beneficial effect on the deposition of ash on the superheater surfaces of the boiler. The outcome of the tests confirms the feasibility of using 7%wt of sawdust in combination

  2. An Integrated Multi-Criteria Decision Making Model and AHP Weighting Uncertainty Analysis for Sustainability Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianfa Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of the power generation industry from coal-based to more sustainable energy sources is an irreversible trend. In China, the coal-fired power plant, as the main electric power supply facility at present, needs to know its own sustainability level to face the future competition. A hybrid multi-criteria decision making (MCDM model is proposed in this paper to assess the sustainability levels of the existing Chinese coal-fired power units. The areal grey relational analysis (AGRA method is involved in the hybrid model, and a combined weighting method is used to determine the priorities of the criteria. The combining weight fuses the fuzzy rough set (FRS and entropy objective weighting method together with the analytic hierarchy process (AHP subjective weighting method by game theory. Moreover, an AHP weighting uncertainty analysis using Monte Carlo (MC simulation is introduced to measure the uncertainty of the results, and a 95 percent confidence interval (CI is defined as the uncertainty measurement of the alternatives. A case study about eight coal-fired power units is carried out with a criteria system, which contains five aspects in an operational perspective, such as the flexibility, economic, environmental, reliability and technical criterion. The sustainability assessment is performed at the unit level, and the results give a priority rank of the eight alternatives; additionally, the uncertainty analysis supplies the extra information from a statistical perspective. This work expands a novel hybrid MCDM method to the sustainability assessment of the power generation systems, and it may be a benefit to the energy enterprises in assessing the sustainability at the unit level and enhance its ability in future sustainable development.

  3. Corrective action plan for corrective action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacht, S.

    1999-01-01

    The Mercury Fire Training Pit is a former fire training area located in Area 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The Mercury Fire Training Pit was used from approximately 1965 to the early 1990s to train fire-fighting personnel at the NTS, and encompasses an area approximately 107 meters (m) (350 feet [ft]) by 137 m (450 ft). The Mercury Fire Training Pit formerly included a bermed burn pit with four small burn tanks, four large above ground storage tanks an overturned bus, a telephone pole storage area, and areas for burning sheds, pallets, and cables. Closure activities will include excavation of the impacted soil in the aboveground storage tank and burn pit areas to a depth of 1.5 m (5 ft), and excavation of the impacted surface soil downgradient of the former ASTs and burnpit areas to a depth of 0.3 m (1 ft). Excavated soil will be disposed in the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill at the NTS

  4. Is Tube Artillery a Viable Fire Support Platform for the United States Military on the Battlefields of the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    advantages of utilizing UAVs as a fire support platform are numerous; perhaps none being bigger than the benefit of carrying out offensive strike...radars, manned aircraft, anti-air missiles and anti-aircraft artillery, electronic jamming, hacking , and spoofing. 36 As the UAV platforms stand

  5. Forest worker exposure to airborne herbicide residues in smoke from prescribed fires in the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles K. McMahon; Parshall B. Bush

    1992-01-01

    Occupational safety and health concerns have been raised in a number of southern states by workers conducting prescribed burns on forested lands treated with herbicides. Modeling assessments coupled with laboratory experiments have shown that the risk of airborne herbicide residues to workers is insignificant, even if the fire occurs immediately after herbicide...

  6. How to generate and interpret fire characteristics charts for surface and crown fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Faith Ann Heinsch; Luke Schelvan

    2011-01-01

    A fire characteristics chart is a graph that presents primary related fire behavior characteristics-rate of spread, flame length, fireline intensity, and heat per unit area. It helps communicate and interpret modeled or observed fire behavior. The Fire Characteristics Chart computer program plots either observed fire behavior or values that have been calculated by...

  7. Fire effects on noxious weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin Innes

    2012-01-01

    The Fire Effects Information System (FEIS, www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/) has been providing reviews of scientific knowledge about fire effects since 1986. FEIS is an online collection of literature reviews on more than 1,100 species and their relationships with fire. Reviews cover plants and animals throughout the United States, providing a wealth of information for...

  8. Fire risk in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Seth Howard

    Fire is an integral part of ecosystems in the western United States. Decades of fire suppression have led to (unnaturally) large accumulations of fuel in some forest communities, such as the lower elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada. Urban sprawl into fire prone chaparral vegetation in southern California has put human lives at risk and the decreased fire return intervals have put the vegetation community at risk of type conversion. This research examines the factors affecting fire risk in two of the dominant landscapes in the state of California, chaparral and inland coniferous forests. Live fuel moisture (LFM) is important for fire ignition, spread rate, and intensity in chaparral. LFM maps were generated for Los Angeles County by developing and then inverting robust cross-validated regression equations from time series field data and vegetation indices (VIs) and phenological metrics from MODIS data. Fire fuels, including understory fuels which are not visible to remote sensing instruments, were mapped in Yosemite National Park using the random forests decision tree algorithm and climatic, topographic, remotely sensed, and fire history variables. Combining the disparate data sources served to improve classification accuracies. The models were inverted to produce maps of fuel models and fuel amounts, and these showed that fire fuel amounts are highest in the low elevation forests that have been most affected by fire suppression impacting the natural fire regime. Wildland fires in chaparral commonly burn in late summer or fall when LFM is near its annual low, however, the Jesusita Fire burned in early May of 2009, when LFM was still relatively high. The HFire fire spread model was used to simulate the growth of the Jesusita Fire using LFM maps derived from imagery acquired at the time of the fire and imagery acquired in late August to determine how much different the fire would have been if it had occurred later in the year. Simulated fires were 1.5 times larger

  9. Historical and current fire management practices in two wilderness areas in the southwestern United States: The Saguaro Wilderness Area and the Gila-Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molly E. Hunter; Jose M. Iniguez; Calvin A. Farris

    2014-01-01

    Fire suppression has been the dominant fire management strategy in the West over the last century. However, managers of the Gila and Aldo Leopold Wilderness Complex in New Mexico and the Saguaro Wilderness Area in Arizona have allowed fire to play a more natural role for decades. This report summarizes the effects of these fire management practices on key resources,...

  10. Fire Safety. Managing School Facilities, Guide 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This booklet discusses how United Kingdom schools can manage fire safety and minimize the risk of fire. The guide examines what legislation school buildings must comply with and covers the major risks. It also describes training and evacuation procedures and provides guidance on fire precautions, alarm systems, fire fighting equipment, and escape…

  11. Charts for interpreting wildland fire behavior characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Richard C. Rothermel

    1982-01-01

    The fire characteristics chart is proposed as a graphical method ofpresenting two primary characteristics of fire behavior – spread rate and intensity. Its primary use is communicating and interpreting either site-specific predictions of fire behavior or National Fire-Danger Rating System (NFDRS) indexes and components. Rate of spread, heat per unit area, flame length...

  12. Airborne and ground-based measurements of the trace gases and particles emitted by prescribed fires in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Burling

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have measured emission factors for 19 trace gas species and particulate matter (PM2.5 from 14 prescribed fires in chaparral and oak savanna in the southwestern US, as well as conifer forest understory in the southeastern US and Sierra Nevada mountains of California. These are likely the most extensive emission factor field measurements for temperate biomass burning to date and the only published emission factors for temperate oak savanna fuels. This study helps to close the gap in emissions data available for temperate zone fires relative to tropical biomass burning. We present the first field measurements of the biomass burning emissions of glycolaldehyde, a possible precursor for aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol formation. We also measured the emissions of phenol, another aqueous phase secondary organic aerosol precursor. Our data confirm previous observations that urban deposition can impact the NOx emission factors and thus subsequent plume chemistry. For two fires, we measured both the emissions in the convective smoke plume from our airborne platform and the unlofted residual smoldering combustion emissions with our ground-based platform. The smoke from residual smoldering combustion was characterized by emission factors for hydrocarbon and oxygenated organic species that were up to ten times higher than in the lofted plume, including high 1,3-butadiene and isoprene concentrations which were not observed in the lofted plume. This should be considered in modeling the air quality impacts for smoke that disperses at ground level. We also show that the often ignored unlofted emissions can significantly impact estimates of total emissions. Preliminary evidence suggests large emissions of monoterpenes in the residual smoldering smoke. These data should lead to an improved capacity to model the impacts of biomass burning in similar temperate ecosystems.

  13. Operational experience of a 300-MW lignite-fired utility unit: environmental performance after retrofiitting of a low pressure turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanetsakunvatana, Vicharn; Arkornsakul, P.

    2010-09-15

    The experimental data on major emissions from a 300-MW lignite-fired boiler operating under different fuel LHVs and turbine rotors are discussed. The thermal efficiency was quantified based on the heat loss method. The PM and CO2 emission rates were predicted. Specific emissions were quantified for the boiler of interest. The SO2, PM and NOx emission concentrations in flue gas were found lower than the respective emission standard. The CO2 emissions have also declined 4.65% in 2009, compared to 2008 and before. The clean development mechanism complied with UNFCCC methodology is adopted in this study responding to the global changes.

  14. The development of fire detection robot

    OpenAIRE

    Sucuoğlu, Hilmi Saygın

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to design and manufacture a fire detection robot that especially operates in industrial areas for fire inspection and early detection. Robot is designed and implemented to track prescribed paths with obstacle avoidance function through obstacle avoidance and motion planning units and to scan the environment in order to detect fire source using fire detection unit. Robot is able to track patrolling routes using virtual lines that defined to the motion planning unit. ...

  15. Prevention of formation of acid drainage from high-sulfur coal refuse by inhibition of iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms. 1. Preliminary experiments in controlled shaken flasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugan, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    Changes of pH and sulfate concentration in high-sulfur coal refuse slurries are used as measurements of microbial pyrite oxidation in the laboratory. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), alkylbenzene sulfonate (ABS), benzoic acid (BZ) and combinations of SLS plus BZ and ABS plus BZ effectively inhibited formation of sulfate and acid when added in concentrations greater than 50 mg/l to inoculated 20 or 30% coal refuse slurries. Here 25 mg/l concentrations of SLS, ABS and ABS plus BZ stimulated acid production. Formic, hexanoic, oxalic, propionic, and pyruvic acids at 0.1% concentrations were also effective inhibitors. Four different lignin sulfonates were only slightly effective inhibitors at 0.1% concentrations. It was concluded that acid formation resulting from microbial oxidation in high-sulfur coal refuse can be inhibited. 22 references.

  16. Enhancing fire science exchange: The Joint Fire Science Program's National Network of Knowledge Exchange Consortia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vita Wright; Crystal Kolden; Todd Kipfer; Kristine Lee; Adrian Leighton; Jim Riddering; Leana Schelvan

    2011-01-01

    The Northern Rocky Mountain region is one of the most fire-prone regions in the United States. With a history of large fires that have shaped national policy, including the fires of 1910 and 2000 in Idaho and Montana and the Yellowstone fires of 1988, this region is projected to have many large severe fires in the future. Communication about fire science needs and...

  17. Modeling the spatial distribution of forest crown biomass and effects on fire behavior with FUEL3D and WFDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell A. Parsons; William Mell; Peter McCauley

    2010-01-01

    Crown fire poses challenges to fire managers and can endanger fire fighters. Understanding of how fire interacts with tree crowns is essential to informed decisions about crown fire. Current operational crown fire predictions in the United States assume homogeneous crown fuels. While a new class of research fire models, which model fire behavior with computational...

  18. Single motor unit firing behavior in the right trapezius muscle during rapid movement of right or left index finger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Karen; Olsen, Henrik B; Blangsted, Anne K

    2014-01-01

    were defined as doublets. For all MU IFR was spike triggered averaged across the 10 DC to show the modulation during DC as well as for calculation of the cross correlation coefficient (CCC). RESULTS: All subjects showed surface EMG activity in both right and left trapezius ranging from 1.8 %MVE to 2...... as %MVE. The intramuscular EMG signals were decomposed into individual MU action potential trains using a computer algorithm based on signal shape recognition and manual editing. Instantaneous firing rate (IFR) was calculated as the inverse of each inter-spike interval (ISI). All ISI shorter than 20 ms...... in IFR with a clear temporal relation to the DC. During left hand DC 15 MUs were identified in four subjects, for two of the subjects with IFR modulations clearly related to DC. During both ipsi- and contralateral DC, doublets occurred sporadically as well as related to DC Conclusion: In conclusion, DC...

  19. 46 CFR 108.499 - Fire axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire axes. 108.499 Section 108.499 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Miscellaneous Firefighting Equipment § 108.499 Fire axes. Each unit must have at least two...

  20. Fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzky, E.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and fire prevention measurements have to be treated like the activities developing, planning, construction and erection. Therefore it is necessary that these measurements have to be integrated into the activities mentioned above at an early stage in order to guarantee their effectiveness. With regard to fire accidents the statistics of the insurance companies concerned show that the damage caused increased in the last years mainly due to high concentration of material. Organization of fire prevention and fire fighting, reasons of fire break out, characteristics and behaviour of fire, smoke and fire detection, smoke and heat venting, fire extinguishers (portable and stationary), construction material in presence of fire, respiratory protection etc. will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  1. Restoring surface fire stabilizes forest carbon under extreme fire weather in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Krofcheck; Matthew D. Hurteau; Robert M. Scheller; E. Louise Loudermilk

    2017-01-01

    Climate change in the western United States has increased the frequency of extreme fire weather events and is projected to increase the area burned by wildfire in the coming decades. This changing fire regime, coupled with increased high-severity fire risk from a legacy of fire exclusion, could destabilize forest carbon (C), decrease net ecosystem exchange (...

  2. Characterization of potential fire regimes: applying landscape ecology to fire management in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardel, E.; Alvarado, E.; Perez-Salicrup, D.; Morfín-Rios, J.

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge and understanding of fire regimes is fundamental to design sound fire management practices. The high ecosystem diversity of Mexico offers a great challenge to characterize the fire regime variation at the landscape level. A conceptual model was developed considering the main factors controlling fire regimes: climate and vegetation cover. We classified landscape units combining bioclimatic zones from the Holdridge life-zone system and actual vegetation cover. Since bioclimatic conditions control primary productivity and biomass accumulation (potential fuel), each landscape unit was considered as a fuel bed with a particular fire intensity and behavior potential. Climate is also a determinant factor of post-fire recovery rates of fuel beds, and climate seasonality (length of the dry and wet seasons) influences fire probability (available fuel and ignition efficiency). These two factors influence potential fire frequency. Potential fire severity can be inferred from fire frequency, fire intensity and behavior, and vegetation composition and structure. Based in the conceptual model, an exhaustive literature review and expert opinion, we developed rules to assign a potential fire regime (PFR) defined by frequency, intensity and severity (i.e. fire regime) to each bioclimatic-vegetation landscape unit. Three groups and eight types of potential fire regimes were identified. In Group A are fire-prone ecosystems with frequent low severity surface fires in grasslands (PFR type I) or forests with long dry season (II) and infrequent high-severity fires in chaparral (III), wet temperate forests (IV, fire restricted by humidity), and dry temperate forests (V, fire restricted by fuel recovery rate). Group B includes fire-reluctant ecosystems with very infrequent or occasional mixed severity surface fires limited by moisture in tropical rain forests (VI) or fuel availability in seasonally dry tropical forests (VII). Group C and PFR VIII include fire-free environments

  3. Effectiveness of Fire and Fire Surrogate Treatments For Controlling Wildfire Behavior in Piedmont Forests: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helen H. Mohr; Thomas A. Waldrop; Sandra Rideout; Ross J. Phillips; Charles T. Flint

    2004-01-01

    The need for fuel reduction has increased in United States forests due to decades of fire exclusion. Excessive fuel buildup has led to uncharacteristically severe fires in areas with historically short-interval, low-to-moderate-intensity fire regimes. The National Fire and Fire Surrogate (NFFS) Study compared the impacts of three fuel-reduction treatments on numerous...

  4. Motor unit firing during and after voluntary contractions of human thenar muscles weakened by spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijdewind, Inge; Thomas, CK

    Spinal cord injury may change both the distribution and the strength of the synaptic input within a motoneuron pool and therefore alter force gradation. Here, we have studied the relative contributions of motor unit recruitment and rate modulation to force gradation during voluntary contractions of

  5. Risk assessment of main control board fire using fire dynamics simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il, E-mail: dikang@kaeri.re.kr [KAERI, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kilyoo; Jang, Seung-Cheol [KAERI, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seong Yeon [Chungnam National University, 79, Daehagro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • A decision tree for evaluating the risk of a main control board (MCB) fire was proposed to systematically determine the MCB fire scenarios. • Fire simulations using fire dynamics simulator (FDS) were performed to estimate the time to MCR abandonment. • Non-propagating and propagating fire scenarios were considered for fire simulations. • The current study indicates that the quantification of the MCB fire risk should address the propagating fire and non-propagating fire scenarios if the MCB has no internal barriers between the panels. - Abstract: This paper presents the process and results of a risk assessment for a main control board (MCB) fire using fire dynamics simulator (FDS). A decision tree for evaluating the risk of a MCB fire was proposed to systematically determine the MCB fire scenarios, and fire simulations using FDS were performed to estimate the time to MCR abandonment. As a reference NPP for this study, Hanul unit 3 in Korea was selected and its core damage frequency (CDF) owing to the MCB fire was quantified. Two types of fire scenarios were considered for fire simulations: non-propagating fire scenarios occurring within a single MCB panel and propagating fire scenarios spreading from one control panel to the adjacent panels. Further, the fire scenarios were classified into fires with and without a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system (HVACS). The fire simulation results showed that the major factor causing the MCR evacuation was the optical density irrelevant to the availability of the HVACS. The risk assessment results showed that the abandonment fire scenario risk was less than the non-abandonment fire scenario risk and the propagating fire scenario risk was greater than the non-propagating fire scenario risk.

  6. Risk assessment of main control board fire using fire dynamics simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kilyoo; Jang, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Seong Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A decision tree for evaluating the risk of a main control board (MCB) fire was proposed to systematically determine the MCB fire scenarios. • Fire simulations using fire dynamics simulator (FDS) were performed to estimate the time to MCR abandonment. • Non-propagating and propagating fire scenarios were considered for fire simulations. • The current study indicates that the quantification of the MCB fire risk should address the propagating fire and non-propagating fire scenarios if the MCB has no internal barriers between the panels. - Abstract: This paper presents the process and results of a risk assessment for a main control board (MCB) fire using fire dynamics simulator (FDS). A decision tree for evaluating the risk of a MCB fire was proposed to systematically determine the MCB fire scenarios, and fire simulations using FDS were performed to estimate the time to MCR abandonment. As a reference NPP for this study, Hanul unit 3 in Korea was selected and its core damage frequency (CDF) owing to the MCB fire was quantified. Two types of fire scenarios were considered for fire simulations: non-propagating fire scenarios occurring within a single MCB panel and propagating fire scenarios spreading from one control panel to the adjacent panels. Further, the fire scenarios were classified into fires with and without a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system (HVACS). The fire simulation results showed that the major factor causing the MCR evacuation was the optical density irrelevant to the availability of the HVACS. The risk assessment results showed that the abandonment fire scenario risk was less than the non-abandonment fire scenario risk and the propagating fire scenario risk was greater than the non-propagating fire scenario risk

  7. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 342: Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2006-01-01

    This report provides a summary and analysis of visual site inspections and soil gas sampling results for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 342, Area 23 Mercury Fire Training Pit. CAU 342 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 and consists of Corrective Action Site 23-56-01, Former Mercury Fire Training Pit. This report covers calendar years 2004 and 2005. Visual site inspections were conducted on May 20 and November 14, 2004, and May 17 and November 15, 2005. No significant findings were observed during these inspections. The site was in good condition, and no repair activities were required. Soil gas samples were collected on November 29, 2005, for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and samples were collected on December 1, 2005, for analysis of base gases. Base gas concentrations in the monitoring well show a high concentration of carbon dioxide and a low concentration of oxygen, which is an indication of biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil. Results for VOCs and SVOCs are unchanged, with VOCs below or near laboratory method detection limits and no SVOCs detected above laboratory method detection limits. Post-closure monitoring was required for six years after closure of the site. Therefore, since 2005 was the sixth year of monitoring, the effectiveness of natural attenuation of the TPH-impacted soil by biodegradation was evaluated. The base gas concentrations indicate that biodegradation of TPH in the soil is occurring; therefore, it is recommended that monitoring be discontinued. Visual site inspections should continue to be performed biannually to ensure that the signs are in place and readable and that the use restriction has been maintained. The results of the site inspections will be documented in a letter report and submitted annually

  8. Adsorber fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, W.

    1987-01-01

    The following conclusions are offered with respect to activated charcoal filter systems in nuclear power plants: (1) The use of activated charcoal in nuclear facilities presents a potential for deep-seated fires. (2) The defense-in-depth approach to nuclear fire safety requires that if an ignition should occur, fires must be detected quickly and subsequently suppressed. (3) Deep-seated fires in charcoal beds are difficult to extinguish. (4) Automatic water sprays can be used to extinguish fires rapidly and reliably when properly introduced into the burning medium. The second part of the conclusions offered are more like challenges: (1) The problem associated with inadvertent actuations of fire protection systems is not a major one, and it can be reduced further by proper design review, installation, testing, and maintenance. Eliminating automatic fire extinguishing systems for the protection of charcoal adsorbers is not justified. (2) Removal of automatic fire protection systems due to fear of inadvertent fire protection system operation is a case of treating the effect rather than the cause. On the other hand, properly maintaining automatic fire protection systems will preserve the risk of fire loss at acceptable levels while at the same time reducing the risk of damage presented by inadvertent operation of fire protection systems

  9. A dynamic model used for controller design of a coal fired once-through boiler-turbine unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ji-Zhen; Yan, Shu; Zeng, De-Liang; Hu, Yong; Lv, You

    2015-01-01

    Supercritical OTB (once-through boiler) units with high steam temperature and pressure have been widely used in modern power plants due to their high cycle efficiency and less emissions. To ensure the effective operation of such power generation systems, it is necessary to build a model for the design of the overall control system. There are already detailed models of once-through boilers; however, their complexity prevents them from being applied in the controller design. This study describes a lumped parameter dynamic model that has a relatively low complexity while faithfully capturing the essential overall plant dynamics. The model structure was derived by fundamental physical laws utilizing reasonable simplifications and data analysis to avoid the phase transition position problem. Parameter identification for the model structure was completed using operational data from a 1000 MW ultra-supercritical OTB. The model was determined to be reasonable by comparison tests between computed data and measured data for both steady and dynamic states. The simplified model is verified to have appropriate fidelity in control system design to achieve effective and economic operation of the unit. - Highlights: • A simplified dynamic model of once-through boiler-turbine unit is given. • The essential dynamics of active power and throttle pressure is presented. • The change of phase transition position is avoided in modeling process. • The model has appropriate complexity and fidelity for controller design.

  10. Evidence of fuels management and fire weather influencing fire severity in an extreme fire event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Jamie M; Collins, Brandon M; Brooks, Matthew L; Matchett, John R; Shive, Kristen L; Povak, Nicholas A; Kane, Van R; Smith, Douglas F

    2017-10-01

    Following changes in vegetation structure and pattern, along with a changing climate, large wildfire incidence has increased in forests throughout the western United States. Given this increase, there is great interest in whether fuels treatments and previous wildfire can alter fire severity patterns in large wildfires. We assessed the relative influence of previous fuels treatments (including wildfire), fire weather, vegetation, and water balance on fire-severity in the Rim Fire of 2013. We did this at three different spatial scales to investigate whether the influences on fire severity changed across scales. Both fuels treatments and previous low to moderate-severity wildfire reduced the prevalence of high-severity fire. In general, areas without recent fuels treatments and areas that previously burned at high severity tended to have a greater proportion of high-severity fire in the Rim Fire. Areas treated with prescribed fire, especially when combined with thinning, had the lowest proportions of high severity. The proportion of the landscape burned at high severity was most strongly influenced by fire weather and proportional area previously treated for fuels or burned by low to moderate severity wildfire. The proportion treated needed to effectively reduce the amount of high severity fire varied by spatial scale of analysis, with smaller spatial scales requiring a greater proportion treated to see an effect on fire severity. When moderate and high-severity fire encountered a previously treated area, fire severity was significantly reduced in the treated area relative to the adjacent untreated area. Our results show that fuels treatments and low to moderate-severity wildfire can reduce fire severity in a subsequent wildfire, even when burning under fire growth conditions. These results serve as further evidence that both fuels treatments and lower severity wildfire can increase forest resilience. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Modern fire regime resembles historical fire regime in a ponderosa pine forest on Native American land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanda B. Stan; Peter Z. Fule; Kathryn B. Ireland; Jamie S. Sanderlin

    2014-01-01

    Forests on tribal lands in the western United States have seen the return of low-intensity surface fires for several decades longer than forests on non-tribal lands. We examined the surface fire regime in a ponderosa pinedominated (Pinus ponderosa) forest on the Hualapai tribal lands in the south-western United States. Using fire-scarred trees, we inferred temporal (...

  12. Developing fire management mixes for fire program planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armando González-Cabán; Patricia B. Shinkle; Thomas J. Mills

    1986-01-01

    Evaluating economic efficiency of fire management program options requires information on the firefighting inputs, such as vehicles and crews, that would be needed to execute the program option selected. An algorithm was developed to translate automatically dollars allocated to type of firefighting inputs to numbers of units, using a set of weights for a specific fire...

  13. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  14. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  15. Examination of alternatives to upgrade fire safety in operating NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. H.; Jung, I. S.

    2003-01-01

    For the Kori unit 2,3,4, Younggwang 1,2 and Ulchin 1,2 fire protection vulnerabilities and further improvement items are investigated. The most major problem is that those plants do not have plant-specific Fire Hazard Analysis Report. To improve fire safety of those plants, their own Fire Hazard Analysis should be proceed at first. Then, according to results of Fire Hazard Analysis, fire protection improvement program should be implemented. For the assurance of long term fire safety, result of Fire Hazard Analysis should be incorporated in the FSAR and periodically reviewed the impact of design change to fire safety

  16. Sensitivity Analysis on Fire Modeling of Main Control Board Fire Using Fire Dynamics Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, sensitivity analyses for an MCB fire were performed to identify the effects on the MCR forced abandonment time according to the changes of height and number for fire initiation places. Hanul Unit 3 NPP was selected as a reference plant for this study. In this study, sensitivity analyses for an MCB fire were performed to identify the effects on the MCR forced abandonment time according to the changes of height and number of fire initiation places. A main control board (MCB) fire can cause a forced main control room (MCR) abandonment of the operators as well as the function failures or spurious operations of the control and instrumentation-related components. If the MCR cannot be habitable, a safe shutdown from outside the MCR can be achieved and maintained at an alternate shutdown panel independent from the MCR. When the fire modeling for an electrical cabinet such as an MCB was performed, its many input parameters can affect the fire simulation results. This study results showed that the decrease in the height of fire ignition place and the use of single fire ignition place in fire modeling for the propagating fire shortened MCR abandonment time

  17. Sensitivity Analysis on Fire Modeling of Main Control Board Fire Using Fire Dynamics Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, sensitivity analyses for an MCB fire were performed to identify the effects on the MCR forced abandonment time according to the changes of height and number for fire initiation places. Hanul Unit 3 NPP was selected as a reference plant for this study. In this study, sensitivity analyses for an MCB fire were performed to identify the effects on the MCR forced abandonment time according to the changes of height and number of fire initiation places. A main control board (MCB) fire can cause a forced main control room (MCR) abandonment of the operators as well as the function failures or spurious operations of the control and instrumentation-related components. If the MCR cannot be habitable, a safe shutdown from outside the MCR can be achieved and maintained at an alternate shutdown panel independent from the MCR. When the fire modeling for an electrical cabinet such as an MCB was performed, its many input parameters can affect the fire simulation results. This study results showed that the decrease in the height of fire ignition place and the use of single fire ignition place in fire modeling for the propagating fire shortened MCR abandonment time.

  18. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification Task 2: SOx/Nox/Hg Removal for High Sulfur Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Degenstein; Minish Shah; Doughlas Louie

    2012-05-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a near-zero emissions flue gas purification technology for existing PC (pulverized coal) power plants that are retrofitted with oxy-combustion technology. The objective of Task 2 of this project was to evaluate an alternative method of SOx, NOx and Hg removal from flue gas produced by burning high sulfur coal in oxy-combustion power plants. The goal of the program was not only to investigate a new method of flue gas purification but also to produce useful acid byproduct streams as an alternative to using a traditional FGD and SCR for flue gas processing. During the project two main constraints were identified that limit the ability of the process to achieve project goals. 1) Due to boiler island corrosion issues >60% of the sulfur must be removed in the boiler island with the use of an FGD. 2) A suitable method could not be found to remove NOx from the concentrated sulfuric acid product, which limits sale-ability of the acid, as well as the NOx removal efficiency of the process. Given the complexity and safety issues inherent in the cycle it is concluded that the acid product would not be directly saleable and, in this case, other flue gas purification schemes are better suited for SOx/NOx/Hg control when burning high sulfur coal, e.g. this project's Task 3 process or a traditional FGD and SCR.

  19. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  20. Full-scale ash deposition measurements at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 during suspension-firing of wood with and without coal ash addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hao; Shafique Bashir, Muhammad; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    The formation of deposits during suspension-firing of wood at Avedøre Power Plant unit 2 (AVV2) was studied by using an advanced deposit probe system. The tests were conducted both with and without coal ash addition, and at two different locations with flue gas temperatures of 1250-1300 oC and 750...... with a high flue gas temperature of 1250-1300 oC, although the addition of coal fly ash increased the differential deposit formation rate (DDF-rate) and the ash deposition propensity, the deposit removal frequency were considerably increased and the major shedding mechanism was changed from soot...... corrosion. At the location with a low flue gas temperature of 750-800 oC, the addition of coal fly ash reduced the ash deposition propensity and caused the formed deposits being easily removable. Moreover, the KCl and KOH/K2CO3 found in the low-temperature deposits without coal ash addition disappeared when...

  1. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  2. A new North American fire scar network for reconstructing historical pyrogeography, 1600-1900 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Falk; Thomas Swetnam; Thomas Kitzberger; Elaine Sutherland; Peter Brown; Erica Bigio; Matthew Hall

    2013-01-01

    The Fire and Climate Synthesis (FACS) project is a collaboration of about 50 fire ecologists to compile and synthesize fire and climate data for western North America. We have compiled nearly 900 multi-century fire-scar based fire histories from the western United States, Canada, and Mexico. The resulting tree-ring based fire history is the largest and most spatially...

  3. Concepts for Future Large Fire Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. P. Dimitrakopoulos; R. E. Martin

    1987-01-01

    A small number of fires escape initial attack suppression efforts and become large, but their effects are significant and disproportionate. In 1983, of 200,000 wildland fires in the United States, only 4,000 exceeded 100 acres. However, these escaped fires accounted for roughly 95 percent of wildfire-related costs and damages (Pyne, 1984). Thus, future research efforts...

  4. United States Department of Energy's reactor core protection evaluation methodology for fires at RBMK and VVER nuclear power plants. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    This document provides operators of Soviet-designed RBMK (graphite moderated light water boiling water reactor) and VVER (pressurized light water reactor) nuclear power plants with a systematic Methodology to qualitatively evaluate plant response to fires and to identify remedies to protect the reactor core from fire-initiated damage

  5. Directory of fire research specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, T. L.; Mandel, G.; Jason, N. H.

    1979-01-01

    Directory indexes, 1,475 researchers and various organizations in the United States or Canada who have recently participated in or made contributions to fire science research or related areas of concern.

  6. Fire intensity impacts on post-fire temperate coniferous forest net primary productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Aaron M.; Kolden, Crystal A.; Smith, Alistair M. S.; Boschetti, Luigi; Johnson, Daniel M.; Cochrane, Mark A.

    2018-02-01

    Fire is a dynamic ecological process in forests and impacts the carbon (C) cycle through direct combustion emissions, tree mortality, and by impairing the ability of surviving trees to sequester carbon. While studies on young trees have demonstrated that fire intensity is a determinant of post-fire net primary productivity, wildland fires on landscape to regional scales have largely been assumed to either cause tree mortality, or conversely, cause no physiological impact, ignoring the impacted but surviving trees. Our objective was to understand how fire intensity affects post-fire net primary productivity in conifer-dominated forested ecosystems on the spatial scale of large wildland fires. We examined the relationships between fire radiative power (FRP), its temporal integral (fire radiative energy - FRE), and net primary productivity (NPP) using 16 years of data from the MOderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) for 15 large fires in western United States coniferous forests. The greatest NPP post-fire loss occurred 1 year post-fire and ranged from -67 to -312 g C m-2 yr-1 (-13 to -54 %) across all fires. Forests dominated by fire-resistant species (species that typically survive low-intensity fires) experienced the lowest relative NPP reductions compared to forests with less resistant species. Post-fire NPP in forests that were dominated by fire-susceptible species were not as sensitive to FRP or FRE, indicating that NPP in these forests may be reduced to similar levels regardless of fire intensity. Conversely, post-fire NPP in forests dominated by fire-resistant and mixed species decreased with increasing FRP or FRE. In some cases, this dose-response relationship persisted for more than a decade post-fire, highlighting a legacy effect of fire intensity on post-fire C dynamics in these forests.

  7. Risk Assessment of the Main Control Room Fire Using Fire Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kilyoo; Jang, Seung Cheol

    2013-01-01

    KAERI is performing a fire PSA for a reference plant, Ulchin Unit 3, as part of developing the Korean site risk profile (KSRP). Fire simulations of the MCR fire were conducted using the CFAST (Consolidated Fire Growth and Smoke Transport) model and FDS (fire dynamic simulator) to improve the uncertainty in the MCR fire risk analysis. Using the fire simulation results, the MCR abandonment risk was evaluated. Level 1 PSA (probabilistic safety assessment) results of Ulchin Unit 3 using the EPRI PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) implementation guide showed that the MCR (main control room) fire was the main contributor to the core damage frequency. Recently, U. S. NRC and EPRI developed NUREG/CR-6850 to provide state-of-the-art methods, tools, and data for the conduct of a fire PSA for a commercial NPP

  8. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  9. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  10. Prevalence and Correlates of Fire-Setting in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Fu, Qiang; DeLisi, Matt; Wright, John Paul; Beaver, Kevin M.; Perron, Brian E.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2009-01-01

    Fire-setting is a serious and costly form of antisocial behavior. Our objective in this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of intentional fire-setting behavior in the U. S. Data were derived from a nationally representative sample of U.S. residents 18 years and older. Structured psychiatric interviews (N = 43,093) were completed by trained lay interviewers between 2001-2002. Fire-setting and DSM-IV mood, anxiety, substance use and personality disorders were assessed with the A...

  11. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...

  12. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  13. Forest Fire Occurrence in Southern Counties, 1966-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.L. Doolittle

    1977-01-01

    Forest fire occurrence data for individual protection units generally are unavailable outside particular state organization. Number of fires, area protected and fire occurrence rate (fires per 1,000,000 acres) from 1966 to 1975, are presented in tables for the 993 counties under protection in 13 southern states. These data are compared with data for the preceeding...

  14. A fundamental look at fire spread in California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Weise; Thomas Fletcher; Larry Baxter; Shankar Mahalingam; Xiangyang Zhou; Patrick Pagni; Rod Linn; Bret Butler

    2004-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service National Fire Plan funded a research program to study fire spread in live fuels of the southwestern United States. In the U.S. current operational fire spread models do not distinguish between live and dead fuels in a sophisticated manner because the study of live fuels has been limited. The program is experimentally examining fire spread at 3...

  15. 46 CFR 108.405 - Fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire detection system. 108.405 Section 108.405 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.405 Fire detection system. (a) Each fire detection system and each smoke detection system on a unit must— (1) Be approved by the Commandant; and (2) Have a visual...

  16. 46 CFR 108.413 - Fusible element fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fusible element fire detection system. 108.413 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.413 Fusible element fire detection system. (a) A fusible element fire detection system may be installed. (b) The arrangements for the system...

  17. Fire in Eastern Hardwood Forests through 14,000 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich; Roger W. Perry; Craig A. Harper; Stacy L. Clark

    2011-01-01

    Fire helped shape the structure and species composition of hardwood forests of the eastern United States over the past 14,000 years. Periodic fires were common in much of this area prior to European settlement, and fire-resilient species proliferated. Early European settlers commonly adopted Native American techniques of applying fire to the landscape. As the demand...

  18. A fire management simulation model using stochastic arrival times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric L. Smith

    1987-01-01

    Fire management simulation models are used to predict the impact of changes in the fire management program on fire outcomes. As with all models, the goal is to abstract reality without seriously distorting relationships between variables of interest. One important variable of fire organization performance is the length of time it takes to get suppression units to the...

  19. Fire protection at the Mochovce nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnarova, Zuzana; Zeman, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A succinct account is given of current situation in fire prevention at the Mochovce NPP and of past fire events. The fact is stressed that no fire ever occurred at any technological facility of the plant since the startup of the reactor units. Steps required to improve fire safety at a nuclear power plant are highlighted. (orig.)

  20. Fighting fires... with science

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    CERN firefighters are working with a research centre in the United States to develop more effective firefighting techniques.   One of the UL FSRI’s model houses is set alight... in the interest of science. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) For around ten years, the Underwriters Laboratories Firefighter Safety Research Institute (UL FSRI) has been carrying out scientific research on the various techniques used by firefighters in the United States and around the world. This research has focused on evaluating the effectiveness and safety of current practices worldwide with the aim of developing even better techniques. In many cases the research has shown that a combination of techniques gives the best results. The interiors of the model houses are fully furnished. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) Art Arnalich, who has worked with fire brigades in the United States and Europe and is now a member of CERN’s Fire Brigade, has actively participated in this research since 2013. His knowledge of ...

  1. OECD-FIRE PR02. OECD-FIRE database record structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolar, L.

    2005-12-01

    In the coding guidelines, the scope, format, and details of any record required to input a real fire event at a nuclear reactor unit to the international OECD-FIRE database are described in detail. The database was set up in the OECD-FIRE-PR02 code

  2. Modeling regional-scale wildland fire emissions with the wildland fire emissions information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy H.F. French; Donald McKenzie; Tyler Erickson; Benjamin Koziol; Michael Billmire; K. Endsley; Naomi K.Y. Scheinerman; Liza Jenkins; Mary E. Miller; Roger Ottmar; Susan Prichard

    2014-01-01

    As carbon modeling tools become more comprehensive, spatial data are needed to improve quantitative maps of carbon emissions from fire. The Wildland Fire Emissions Information System (WFEIS) provides mapped estimates of carbon emissions from historical forest fires in the United States through a web browser. WFEIS improves access to data and provides a consistent...

  3. Fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J.; Huhtanen, R.; Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A.

    1998-01-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  4. Windscale fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A graphite fire in the Windscale No. 1 reactor occurred during the period October 8-12, 1957. The Windscale reactors were located on a coastal plain in northwest England and were used to produce plutonium. A great wealth of information was gathered on the causes, handling, decontamination, and environmental effects of reactor accidents. Topics of discussion include: the cause of the fire; handling of the incident; radiation doses to the population; and radiation effects on the population

  5. Review of UCN 5,6 Fire PSA Model based on ANS Fire PRA Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon Eon; Lee, Yoon Hwan

    2006-12-01

    Recently, under the de-regulation environment, nuclear industry has attempted various approaches to improve the economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). This approach uses the fire risk and performance information to manage the resources effectively and efficiently that are used in the operation of NPP. In fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation, fire PSA quality is one of the most important things. The nuclear industry and regulatory body of U.S.A have developed a measure to evaluate the quality of fire PSA. ANS (American Nuclear Society) has developed a guidance called 'ANS Fire PRA Methodology Standard'. However, in Korea, there have been no attempts to evaluate the quality of fire PSA model itself. Therefore, we cannot be sure about the quality of fire PSA whether or not the present fire PSA model can be used for the risk-informed applications such as mentioned above. We can say that the evaluation of fire PSA model quality is the basis for the fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation. In this report, we have evaluated the quality of fire PSA model for Ulchin 5 and 6 units based on the ANS Fire PRA Standard. We, also, have derived what items are to be improved to upgrade the quality of fire PSA model and how it can be improved. This report can be used as the base of the fire risk informed/performance-based decision/operation work in Korea

  6. Wildland fire as a self-regulating mechanism: the role of previous burns and weather in limiting fire progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Sean A; Holsinger, Lisa M; Miller, Carol; Nelson, Cara R

    2015-09-01

    Theory suggests that natural fire regimes can result in landscapes that are both self-regulating and resilient to fire. For example, because fires consume fuel, they may create barriers to the spread of future fires, thereby regulating fire size. Top-down controls such as weather, however, can weaken this effect. While empirical examples demonstrating this pattern-process feedback between vegetation and fire exist, they have been geographically limited or did not consider the influence of time between fires and weather. The availability of remotely sensed data identifying fire activity over the last four decades provides an opportunity to explicitly quantify-the ability of wildland fire to limit the progression of subsequent fire. Furthermore, advances in fire progression mapping now allow an evaluation of how daily weather as a top-down control modifies this effect. In this study, we evaluated the ability of wildland fire to create barriers that limit the spread of subsequent fire along a gradient representing time between fires in four large study areas in the western United States. Using fire progression maps in conjunction with weather station data, we also evaluated the influence of daily weather. Results indicate that wildland fire does limit subsequent fire spread in all four study areas, but this effect decays over time; wildland fire no longer limits subsequent fire spread 6-18 years after fire, depending on the study area. We also found that the ability of fire to regulate, subsequent fire progression was substantially reduced under extreme conditions compared to moderate weather conditions in all four study areas. This study increases understanding of the spatial feedbacks that can lead to self-regulating landscapes as well as the effects of top-down controls, such as weather, on these feedbacks. Our results will be useful to managers who seek to restore natural fire regimes or to exploit recent burns when managing fire.

  7. More an Exception Than the Rule: Fire has Little Effect on the Magnetic Properties of Loessic Soils Along the Prairie - Forest Ecotone in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiss, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    The analysis of a soil profile in western Iowa suggests that forest fires along the prairie-forest ecotone have little effect on the overall magnetic properties of the soil. The studied soil profile is located at Hitchcock Nature Center near Honey Creek, Iowa (41°25'15"N, -95°51'56"W) and developed in a narrow ravine in the Iowa Loess Hills. The surrounding vegetation consists of hardwoods, while the surrounding ridges are vegetated by oak savanna. The area has been subjected to prescribed fires for almost 20 years and is estimated to have burned approximately every 5 years in pre-European times [Stambaugh et al., 2006]. The profile contains several buried soils interspersed by often rapidly deposited loess. Paleosols consist of strongly developed A-horizons but show only weak magnetic enhancement in terms of magnetic susceptibility or ARM/IRM ratios. In a plot of χARM/χFD vs. χARM/χ, all but one sample plot far from the region that is generally associated with past burning [Oldfield and Crowther, 2007]. As shown earlier for prairie environments, fires in oak savanna do not seem to burn hot enough to cause widespread magnetic mineral transformations. Oldfield, F., and J. Crowther (2007), Establishing fire incidence in temperate soils using magnetic measurements, Paleogeogr. Paleoclim. Paleoecol., 249, 362-369. Stambaugh, M. C., R. P. Guyette, E. R. McMurry, and D. C. Dey (2006), Fire history at the eastern Great Plains margin, Missouri River Loess Hills, Great Plains Research, 16, 149-159.

  8. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  9. Fire Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fire Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Fire Safety What's in ... event of a fire emergency in your home. Fire Prevention Of course, the best way to practice ...

  10. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...

  11. New insights into the extraction of invisible gold in a low-grade high-sulfur Carlin-type gold concentrate by bio-pretreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiao-bin; Wen, Jian-kang; Huang, Song-tao; Yang, Hong-ying; Liu, Mei-lin; Wu, Biao

    2017-10-01

    To extract gold from a low-grade (13.43 g/t) and high-sulfur (39.94wt% sulfide sulfur) Carlin-type gold concentrate from the Nibao deposit, Guizhou, a bio-pretreatment followed by carbon-in-pulp (CIP) cyanide leaching process was used. Various methods were used to detect the low-grade gold in the concentrate; however, only time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) was successful. With bio-pretreatment, the gold recovery rate increased by approximately 70.16% compared with that obtained by direct cyanide leaching of the concentrate. Various attempts were made to increase the final gold recovery rate. However, approximately 20wt% of the gold was non-extractable. To determine the nature of this non-extractable gold, mineralogy liberation analysis (MLA), formation of secondary product during the bio-pretreatment, and the preg-robbing capacity of the carbonaceous matter in the ore were investigated. The results indicated that at least four factors affected the gold recovery rate: gold occurrence, tight junctions of gold-bearing pyrite with gangue minerals, jarosite coating of the ore, and the carbonaceous matter content.

  12. Feasibility study on the utilization of high sulfur pet. coke as a by-product at SINOPEC Fujian Petrochemical Company Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of conserving energy and reducing greenhouse effect gas emission, an investigational study was conducted for the project on the effective utilization of high-sulfur petroleum coke at Fujian Petrochemical Co., Fujian Province, China. In the project, IGCC (integrated gasification combined cycle) power generation facilities are introduced to the refinery of Fujian Petrochemical Co. By gasifying the residues produced from the refinery as raw material, the gas clean the same as natural gas is produced and is used as power generation use fuel. As a result of the study, the energy conservation amount was 94,300 toe/y, and was 1,414,500 toe in cumulative amount during 15 years. Further, the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction was 291,600 t-CO2/y, and was 4,374,000 t-CO2 in cumulative amount during 15 years. The construction cost of the project is approximately 29.7 billion yen. The annual profit to be obtained from the project is approximately 8.66 billion yen, which is indicated by difference between before and after the implementation of the project. The calculated years required for return of investment were 3.4. (NEDO)

  13. Differences in the motor unit firing rates and amplitudes in relation to recruitment thresholds during submaximal contractions of the first dorsal interosseous between chronically resistance trained and physically active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterczala, Adam J; Miller, Jonathan D; Trevino, Michael A; Dimmick, Hannah L; Herda, Trent J

    2018-02-26

    Previous investigations report no changes in motor unit (MU) firing rates during submaximal contractions following resistance training. These investigations did not account for MU recruitment or examine firing rates as a function of recruitment threshold (REC).Therefore, MU recruitment and firing rates in chronically resistance trained (RT) and physically active controls (CON) were examined. Surface electromyography signals were collected from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) during isometric muscle actions at 40% and 70% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). For each MU, force at REC, mean firing rate (MFR) during the steady force, and MU action potential amplitude (MUAPAMP) were analyzed. For each individual and contraction, the MFRs were linearly regressed against REC, whereas, exponential models were applied to the MFR vs. MUAPAMP and MUAPAMP vs. REC relationships with the y-intercepts and slopes (linear) and A and B terms (exponential) calculated. For the 40% MVC, the RT group had less negative slopes (p=0.001) and lower y-intercepts (p=0.006) of the MFR vs. REC relationships and lower B terms (p=0.011) of the MUAPAMP vs. REC relationships. There were no differences in either relationship between groups for the 70% MVC. During the 40% MVC, the RT had a smaller range of MFRs and MUAPAMPS in comparison to the CON, likely due to reduced MU recruitment. The RT had lower MFRs and recruitment during the 40% MVC that may indicate a leftward shift in the force-frequency relationship, and thus require less excitation to the motoneuron pool to match the same relative force.

  14. Fuel fired heat sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortlinghaus, U

    1977-09-08

    Fuel fired heat sources with a valve-controlled ignition and main burner, whose flame is monitored and whose control valve is closed or opened by a controller according to the control deviation between actual and reference heat source temperature, previously suffered the disadvantage of high consumption of ignition gas. According to the invention this disadvantage is avoided by closing the ignition valve from the controller via a delay unit and having the delay time of the delay unit controlled either by the temperature measured by the sensor or increasing it with increasing deviation of the actual value of pre-temperature from the reference value of the pre-temperature.

  15. Multi-compartment Fire Modeling for Switchgear Room using CFAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Kiyoon; Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon

    2015-01-01

    In this study, multi-compartment fire modeling for fire propagation scenario from SWGR A to SWGR B is performed using CFAST. New fire PSA method (NUREG/CR-6850) requires that the severity factor is to be calculated by fire modeling. If fire modeling is not performed, the severity factor should be estimated as one conservatively. Also, the possibility of the damages of components and cables located at adjacent compartments should be considered. Detailed fire modeling of multi-compartment fires refers to the evaluation of fire-generated conditions in one compartment that spread to adjacent ones. In general, the severity factor for multi-compartment fire scenario is smaller than that of single compartment scenario. Preliminary quantification of Hanul Unit 3 fire PSA was performed without fire modeling. As a result of quantification, multi-compartment scenario, fire propagation scenario from switchgear room (SWGR) A to SWGR B, is one of significant contributor to the CDF. In this study, fire modeling of multi-compartment was performed by Consolidated Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (CFAST) to identify the possibility of fire propagation. As a result of fire simulation, it is identified that fire propagation has little influences

  16. Multi-compartment Fire Modeling for Switchgear Room using CFAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Kiyoon; Kang, Dae Il; Lim, Ho Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, multi-compartment fire modeling for fire propagation scenario from SWGR A to SWGR B is performed using CFAST. New fire PSA method (NUREG/CR-6850) requires that the severity factor is to be calculated by fire modeling. If fire modeling is not performed, the severity factor should be estimated as one conservatively. Also, the possibility of the damages of components and cables located at adjacent compartments should be considered. Detailed fire modeling of multi-compartment fires refers to the evaluation of fire-generated conditions in one compartment that spread to adjacent ones. In general, the severity factor for multi-compartment fire scenario is smaller than that of single compartment scenario. Preliminary quantification of Hanul Unit 3 fire PSA was performed without fire modeling. As a result of quantification, multi-compartment scenario, fire propagation scenario from switchgear room (SWGR) A to SWGR B, is one of significant contributor to the CDF. In this study, fire modeling of multi-compartment was performed by Consolidated Fire Growth and Smoke Transport (CFAST) to identify the possibility of fire propagation. As a result of fire simulation, it is identified that fire propagation has little influences.

  17. Fire Models and Design Fires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Annemarie

    The aim of this project is to perform an experimental study on the influence of the thermal feedback on the burning behavior of well ventilated pre-flashover fires. For the purpose an experimental method has been developed. Here the same identical objects are tested under free burn conditions...... carried out by Carleton University and NRC-IRC performed on seven different types of fire loads representing commercial premises, comprise the tests used for the study. The results show that for some of the room test the heat release rate increased due to thermal feedback compared to free burn for a pre......-flashover fire. Two phenomena were observed, that relate well to theory was found. In an incipient phase the heat release rate rose with the temperature of the smoke layer/enclosure boundaries. This increase was also found to depend on the flammability properties of the burning object. The results also...

  18. Studies of the fate of sulfur trioxide in coal-fired utility boilers based on modified selected condensation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yan; Zhou, Hongcang; Jiang, Wu; Chen, Chien-Wei; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2010-05-01

    The formation of sulfur trioxide (SO(3)) in coal-fired utility boilers can have negative effects on boiler performance and operation, such as fouling and corrosion of equipment, efficiency loss in the air preheater (APH), increase in stack opacity, and the formation of PM(2.5). Sulfur trioxide can also compete with mercury when bonding with injected activated carbons. Tests in a lab-scale reactor confirmed there are major interferences between fly ash and SO(3) during SO(3) sampling. A modified SO(3) procedure to maximize the elimination of measurement biases, based on the inertial-filter-sampling and the selective-condensation-collecting of SO(3), was applied in SO(3) tests in three full-scale utility boilers. For the two units burning bituminous coal, SO(3) levels starting at 20 to 25 ppmv at the inlet to the selective catalytic reduction (SCR), increased slightly across the SCR, owing to catalytic conversion of SO(2) to SO(3,) and then declined in other air pollutant control device (APCD) modules downstream to approximately 5 ppmv and 15 ppmv at the two sites, respectively. In the unit burning sub-bituminous coal, the much lower initial concentration of SO(3) estimated to be approximately 1.5 ppmv at the inlet to the SCR was reduced to about 0.8 ppmv across the SCR and to about 0.3 ppmv at the exit of the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD). The SO(3) removal efficiency across the WFGD scrubbers at the three sites was generally 35% or less. Reductions in SO(3) across either the APH or the dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) in units burning high-sulfur bituminous coal were attributed to operating temperatures being below the dew point of SO(3).

  19. Fire characteristics associated with firefighter injury on large federal wildland fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Carla; Lynch, Charles F; Torner, James; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2013-02-01

    Wildland fires present many injury hazards to firefighters. We estimate injury rates and identify fire-related factors associated with injury. Data from the National Interagency Fire Center from 2003 to 2007 provided the number of injuries in which the firefighter could not return to his or her job assignment, person-days worked, and fire characteristics (year, region, season, cause, fuel type, resistance to control, and structures destroyed). We assessed fire-level risk factors of having at least one reported injury using logistic regression. Negative binomial regression was used to examine incidence rate ratios associated with fire-level risk factors. Of 867 fires, 9.5% required the most complex management and 24.7% required the next-highest level of management. Fires most often occurred in the western United States (82.8%), during the summer (69.6%), caused by lightening (54.9%). Timber was the most frequent fuel source (40.2%). Peak incident management level, person-days of exposure, and the fire's resistance to control were significantly related to the odds of a fire having at least one reported injury. However, the most complex fires had a lower injury incidence rate than less complex fires. Although fire complexity and the number of firefighters were associated with the risk for at least one reported injury, the more experienced and specialized firefighting teams had lower injury incidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fire modeling of the Heiss Dampf Reaktor containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolette, V.F.; Yang, K.T.

    1995-09-01

    This report summarizes Sandia National Laboratories' participation in the fire modeling activities for the German Heiss Dampf Reaktor (HDR) containment building, under the sponsorship of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The purpose of this report is twofold: (1) to summarize Sandia's participation in the HDR fire modeling efforts and (2) to summarize the results of the international fire modeling community involved in modeling the HDR fire tests. Additional comments, on the state of fire modeling and trends in the international fire modeling community are also included. It is noted that, although the trend internationally in fire modeling is toward the development of the more complex fire field models, each type of fire model has something to contribute to the understanding of fires in nuclear power plants

  1. Fire protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner

    1997-01-01

    The presentation could only show a very brief overview of the analysis results of a wide study of the existing fire protection situation at Mochovce. As far not already done the next steps will be the selection of the final suppliers of the different measures, the detailed design and the implementation of the measures. As part of the further assistance in fire protection EUCOM will perform compliance checks of the DD and implementation and assist EMO for raising problems. Especially during the implementation of the measures the belonging quality checks have a high priority. Assuming that the implementation of measures will be in accordance with with the study results and the relevant basic design requirements it can be stated that safety level concerning fire protection will be in accordance with international requirement like IAEA 50 SG D2. The next step of our work will be the delta analysis for 2 unit and the relevant basic design as far as there are differences to unit 1. (author)

  2. The analysis of fire losses and characteristics of residential fires based on investigation data in Selangor, 2012-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yi Rong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a research in progress where authors seek to investigate the factors of residential fires. As part of the research, this paper aims to analyse the fire problems faced by the community of Malaysia. Data regarding residential fires between 2012 and 2014 was collected from fire investigation reports prepared by the Selangor Fire and Rescue Department. Descriptive analysis is conducted to summarize the data collected and describe the common phenomenon of residential fires. The distributions of the fire characteristics suggested that residential fires are commonly occurred during daytime, confined within the room of fire origin, caused by electrical failure and cooking negligence, started from kitchen, and occurred in multi-units housing. Further analysis will be conducted in order to investigate the relationships between the characteristics and residential fires.

  3. Development of a mathematical model simulating the multiply connected automatic control system of a coal-fired power unit equipped with a direct-injection dust feed system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.A. Shorokhov; A.P. Smol' nikov; D.A. Kurochkin; N.N. Komarova; A.S. Mar' yasov; A.R. Gudovich; S.N. Bartosh [ZAO SibKOTES, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    Matters relating to development and identification of a mathematical model for simulating a power unit and its individual systems are discussed. Results obtained from a large series of the active experiments on an operating power unit are presented.

  4. Directly Formed Alucone on Lithium Metal for High-Performance Li Batteries and Li-S Batteries with High Sulfur Mass Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Huang, Zhennan; Shahbazian-Yassar, Reza; Libera, Joseph A; Klavetter, Kyle C; Zavadil, Kevin R; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2018-02-28

    Lithium metal is considered the "holy grail" of next-generation battery anodes. However, severe parasitic reactions at the lithium-electrolyte interface deplete the liquid electrolyte and the uncontrolled formation of high surface area and dendritic lithium during cycling causes rapid capacity fading and battery failure. Engineering a dendrite-free lithium metal anode is therefore critical for the development of long-life batteries using lithium anodes. In this study, we deposit a conformal, organic/inorganic hybrid coating, for the first time, directly on lithium metal using molecular layer deposition (MLD) to alleviate these problems. This hybrid organic/inorganic film with high cross-linking structure can stabilize lithium against dendrite growth and minimize side reactions, as indicated by scanning electron microscopy. We discovered that the alucone coating yielded several times longer cycle life at high current rates compared to the uncoated lithium and achieved a steady Coulombic efficiency of 99.5%, demonstrating that the highly cross-linking structured material with great mechanical properties and good flexibility can effectively suppress dendrite formation. The protected Li was further evaluated in lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries with a high sulfur mass loading of ∼5 mg/cm 2 . After 140 cycles at a high current rate of ∼1 mA/cm 2 , alucone-coated Li-S batteries delivered a capacity of 657.7 mAh/g, 39.5% better than that of a bare lithium-sulfur battery. These findings suggest that flexible coating with high cross-linking structure by MLD is effective to enable lithium protection and offers a very promising avenue for improved performance in the real applications of Li-S batteries.

  5. Corrosion fatigue crack growth in clad low-alloy steels. Part 2: Water flow rate effects in high-sulfur plate steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, L.A.; Lee, H.B.; Wire, G.L.; Novak, S.R.; Cullen, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion fatigue crack propagation tests were conducted on a high-sulfur ASTM A302-B plate steel overlaid with weld-deposited Alloy EN82H cladding. The specimens featured semi-elliptical surface cracks penetrating approximately 6.3 mm of cladding into the underlying steel. The initial crack sizes were relatively large with surface lengths of 22.8--27.3 mm, and depths of 10.5--14.1 mm. The experiments were initiated in a quasi-stagnant low-oxygen (O 2 < 10 ppb) aqueous environment at 243 C, under loading conditions (ΔK, R, cyclic frequency) conducive to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) under quasi-stagnant conditions. Following fatigue testing under quasi-stagnant conditions where EAC was observed, the specimens were then fatigue tested under conditions where active water flow of either 1.7 m/s or 4.7 m/s was applied parallel to the crack. Earlier experiments on unclad surface-cracked specimens of the same steel exhibited EAC under quasi-stagnant conditions, but water flow rates at 1.7 m/s and 5.0 m/s parallel to the crack mitigated EAC. In the present experiments on clad specimens, water flow at approximately the same as the lower of these velocities did not mitigate EAC, and a free stream velocity approximately the same as the higher of these velocities resulted in sluggish mitigation of EAC. The lack of robust EAC mitigation was attributed to the greater crack surface roughness in the cladding interfering with flow induced within the crack cavity. An analysis employing the computational fluid dynamics code, FIDAP, confirmed that frictional forces associated with the cladding crack surface roughness reduced the interaction between the free stream and the crack cavity

  6. Fire severity classification: Uses and abuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain; Russell T. Graham

    2003-01-01

    Burn severity (also referred to as fire severity) is not a single definition, but rather a concept and its classification is a function of the measured units unique to the system of interest. The systems include: flora and fauna, soil microbiology and hydrologic processes, atmospheric inputs, fire management, and society. Depending on the particular system of interest...

  7. Fire Behavior (FB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fire Behavior (FB) method is used to describe the behavior of the fire and the ambient weather and fuel conditions that influence the fire behavior. Fire behavior methods are not plot based and are collected by fire event and time-date. In general, the fire behavior data are used to interpret the fire effects documented in the plot-level sampling. Unlike the other...

  8. Fire Symfonier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Svend Hvidtfelt

    2009-01-01

    sidste fire symfonier. Den er måske snarere at opfatte som et præludium til disse. At påstå, at symfonierne fra Holmboes side er planlagt til at være beslægtede, ville være at gå for vidt. Alene de 26 år, der skiller den 10. fra den 13., gør påstanden - i bedste fald - dubiøs. Når deres udformning...... udkrystallisering som i de sidste små 30 år af hans virke har afkastet disse fire variationer over en grundlæggende central holmboesk fornemmelse for form, melodi, klang og rytme. Denne oplevelse har fået mig til at udforske symfonierne, for at finde til bunds i dette holmboeske fællestræk, som jeg mener her står...

  9. Enhancing adaptive capacity for restoring fire-dependent ecosystems: the Fire Learning Network's Prescribed Fire Training Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. Spencer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Prescribed fire is a critical tool for promoting restoration and increasing resilience in fire-adapted ecosystems, but there are barriers to its use, including a shortage of personnel with adequate ecological knowledge and operational expertise to implement prescribed fire across multijurisdictional landscapes. In the United States, recognized needs for both professional development and increased use of fire are not being met, often because of institutional limitations. The Fire Learning Network has been characterized as a multiscalar, collaborative network that works to enhance the adaptive capacity of fire management institutions, and this network developed the Prescribed Fire Training Exchanges (TREXs to address persistent challenges in increasing the capacity for prescribed fire implementation. Our research was designed to investigate where fire professionals face professional barriers, how the TREX addresses these, and in what ways the TREX may be contributing to the adaptive capacity of fire management institutions. We evaluated the training model using surveys, interviews, focus groups, and participant observation. We found that, although the training events cannot overcome all institutional barriers, they incorporate the key components of professional development in fire; foster collaboration, learning, and network building; and provide flexible opportunities with an emphasis on local context to train a variety of professionals with disparate needs. The strategy also offers an avenue for overcoming barriers faced by contingent and nonfederal fire professionals in attaining training and operational experience, thereby increasing the variety of actors and resources involved in fire management. Although it is an incremental step, the TREX is contributing to the adaptive capacity of institutions in social-ecological systems in which fire is a critical ecological process.

  10. Fire resistance of wood members with directly applied protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White

    2009-01-01

    Fire-resistive wood construction is achieved either by having the structural elements be part of fire-rated assemblies or by using elements of sufficient size that the elements themselves have the required fire-resistance ratings. For exposed structural wood elements, the ratings in the United States are calculated using either the T.T. Lie method or the National...

  11. Predicting wildfire ignitions, escapes, and large fire activity using Predictive Service’s 7-Day Fire Potential Outlook in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin L. Riley; Crystal Stonesifer; Haiganoush Preisler; Dave Calkin

    2014-01-01

    Can fire potential forecasts assist with pre-positioning of fire suppression resources, which could result in a cost savings to the United States government? Here, we present a preliminary assessment of the 7-Day Fire Potential Outlook forecasts made by the Predictive Services program. We utilized historical fire occurrence data and archived forecasts to assess how...

  12. Results and insights of internal fire and internal flood analyses of the Surry Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant during mid-loop operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Tsong-Lun; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.

    1995-01-01

    During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states (POSs) other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies (CDFs), important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a Level 3 PRA for internal events and a Level 1 PRA for seismically induced and internal fire and flood induced core damage sequences. This paper summarizes the results and highlights of the internal fire and flood analysis documented in Volumes 3 and 4 of NUREG/CR-6144 performed for the Surry plant during mid-loop operation

  13. Browns Ferry fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harkleroad, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A synopsis of the March 22, 1975 fire at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant is discussed. Emphasis is placed on events prior to and during the fire. How the fire started, fire fighting activities, fire and smoke development, and restoration activities are discussed

  14. 30 CFR 36.31 - Fire extinguisher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Construction and Design Requirements § 36.31 Fire extinguisher. Each unit of mobile diesel-powered... an active charge of not less than 4 pounds. Pressurized dry chemical extinguishers shall contain an...

  15. Ecological consequences of alternative fuel reduction treatments in seasonally dry forests: the national fire and fire surrogate study

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. McIver; C.J. Fettig

    2010-01-01

    This special issue of Forest Science features the national Fire and Fire Surrogate study (FFS), a niultisite, multivariate research project that evaluates the ecological consequences of prescribed fire and its mechanical surrogates in seasonally dry forests of the United States. The need for a comprehensive national FFS study stemmed from concern that information on...

  16. Fire fighting precautions at Bohunice Atomic Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Some shortcomings are discussed of the project design of fire protection at the V-1 and V-2 nuclear power plants. The basic shortcoming of the system is insufficient division of the units for fire protection. Fire fighting measures are described for cable areas, switch houses and outside transformers, primary and secondary circuits and auxiliary units. Measures are presented for increasing fire safety in Jaslovske Bohunice proceedi.ng from experience gained with a fire which had occurred at a nuclear power plant in Armenia. (E.S.)

  17. A new forest fire paradigm: The need for high-severity fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monica L. Bond; Rodney B. Siegel; Richard L. Hutto; Victoria A. Saab; Stephen A. Shunk

    2012-01-01

    Bond, Monica L.; Siegel, Rodney B.; Hutto, Richard L.; Saab, Victoria A.; Shunk, Stephen A. 2012. A new forest fire paradigm: The need for high-severity fires. The Wildlife Professional. Winter 2012: 46-49. During the 2012 fire season from June through August, wildfires in the drought-stricken western and central United States burned more than 3.6 million acres of...

  18. Fire safety at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  19. Crown Fire Potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Crown fire potential was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The...

  20. National Fire Protection Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... closed NFPA Journal® NFPA Journal® Update (newsletter) Fire Technology ... die from American home fires, and another 13,000 are injured each year. This is the story of fire that the statistics won't show ...

  1. Operating room fires in periocular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Michael A; Menke, Anne M; Vrcek, Ivan; Shore, John W

    2018-06-01

    A survey of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgeons as well as seven-year data regarding claims made to the Ophthalmic Mutual Insurance Company (OMIC) is used to discuss operating room fires in periocular surgery. A retrospective review of all closed claim operating room fires submitted to OMIC was performed. A survey soliciting personal experiences with operating room fires was distributed to all American Society of Oculoplastic and Reconstructive Surgeons. Over the last 2 decades, OMIC managed 7 lawsuits resulting from an operating room fire during periocular surgery. The mean settlement per lawsuit was $145,285 (range $10,000-474,994). All six patients suffered burns to the face, and three required admission to a burn unit. One hundred and sixty-eight surgeons participated in the online survey. Approximately 44% of survey respondents have experienced at least one operating room fire. Supplemental oxygen was administered in 88% of these cases. Most surgical fires reported occurred in a hospital-based operating room (59%) under monitored anesthesia care (79%). Monopolar cautery (41%) and thermal, high-temperature cautery (41%) were most commonly reported as the inciting agents. Almost half of the patients involved in a surgical fire experienced a complication from the fire (48%). Sixty-nine percent of hospital operating rooms and 66% of ambulatory surgery centers maintain an operating room fire prevention policy. An intraoperative fire can be costly for both the patient and the surgeon. Ophthalmic surgeons operate in an oxygen rich and therefore flammable environment. Proactive measures can be undertaken to reduce the incidence of surgical fires periocular surgery; however, a fire can occur at any time and the entire operating room team must be constantly vigilant to prevent and manage operating room fires.

  2. Integrated approach to fire safety at the Krsko nuclear power plant - fire protection action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Cerjak, J.; Spiler, J.; Ioannidi, J.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (NPP Krsko) is a Westinghouse design, single-unit, 1882 Megawatt thermal (MWt), two-loop, pressurized water nuclear power plant. The fire protection program at NPP Krsko has been reviewed and reports issued recommending changes and modifications to the program, plant systems and structures. Three reports were issued, the NPP Krsko Fire Hazard Analysis (Safe Shout down Separation Analysis Report), the ICISA Analysis of Core Damage Frequency Due to Fire at the NPP Krsko and IPEEE (Individual Plant External Event Examination) related to fire risk. The Fire Hazard Analysis Report utilizes a compliance - based deterministic approach to identification of fire area hazards. This report focuses on strict compliance from the perspective of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), standards, guidelines and acceptance criteria and does not consider variations to comply with the intent of the regulations. The probabilistic analysis methide used in the ICISA and IPEEE report utilizes a risk based nad intent based approach in determining critical at-risk fire areas. NPP Krsko has already completed the following suggestions/recommendations from the above and OSART reports in order to comply with Appendix R: Installation of smoke detectors in the Control Room; Installation of Emergency Lighting in some plant areas and of Remote Shout down panels; Extension of Sound Power Communication System; Installation of Fire Annunciator Panel at the On-site Fire Brigade Station; Installation of Smoke Detection System in the (a) Main Control Room Panels, (b) Essential Service Water Building. (c) Component Cooling Building pump area, chiller area and HVAC area, (d) Auxiliary Building Safety pump rooms, (e) Fuel Handling room, (f) Intermediate Building AFFW area and compressor room, and (g) Tadwaste building; inclusion of Auxiliary operators in the Fire Brigade; training of Fire Brigade Members in Plant Operation (9 week course); Development of Fire Door Inspection and

  3. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    OpenAIRE

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  4. Living with fire: Fire ecology and policy for the twenty-first century [book review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Miller

    2010-01-01

    This is a well-written polemic about the failure of fire policy and management in the United States. The book contains enough ecology and history for nonspecialists to understand the complexities of the policy and management dilemmas that we face today. The authors provide a particularly good treatment of the diversity of roles that fire plays in different ecosystems,...

  5. 46 CFR 108.407 - Detectors for electric fire detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Detectors for electric fire detection system. 108.407... DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.407 Detectors for electric fire detection system. (a) Each detector in an electric fire detection system must be located where— (1) No...

  6. Fire and fire ecology: Concepts and principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Cochrane; Kevin C. Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Fire has been central to terrestrial life ever since early anaerobic microorganisms poisoned the atmosphere with oxygen and multicellular plant life moved onto land. The combination of fuels, oxygen, and heat gave birth to fire on Earth. Fire is not just another evolutionary challenge that life needed to overcome, it is, in fact, a core ecological process across much...

  7. Biomass co-firing opportunities and experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyng, R. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Niagara Falls, ON (Canada). Nanticoke Generating Station

    2006-07-01

    Biomass co-firing and opportunities in the electricity sector were described in this presentation. Biomass co-firing in a conventional coal plant was first illustrated. Opportunities that were presented included the Dutch experience and Ontario Power Generation's (OPG) plant and production mix. The biomass co-firing program at OPG's Nantucket generating station was presented in three phases. The fuel characteristics of co-firing were identified. Several images and charts of the program were provided. Results and current status of tests were presented along with conclusions of the biomass co-firing program. It was concluded that biomass firing is feasible and following the Dutch example. Biomass firing could considerably expand renewable electricity generation in Ontario. In addition, sufficient biomass exists in Ontario and the United States to support large scale biomass co-firing. Several considerations were offered such as electricity market price for biomass co-firing and intensity targets and credit for early adoption and banking. tabs., figs.

  8. Learning fire-fighting lessons after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    Fire protection measures in Soviet nuclear power plants were set out in November 1987, in the Nuclear Power Plant Design Fire Protection Standards (VSN 01-87, USSR Ministry of Atomic Energy). The most important of these measures are. Avoiding as far as possible the use of combustible materials in plant structures and equipment. Dividing buildings and areas into suitable fire-fighting zones. Ensuring reliable fire protection of the control and safety systems. Protecting technical personnel from the dangers of a fire while they are performing essential accident-repair work and facilitating evacuation procedures (providing at least two evacuation routes and exits, anti-smoke protection of evacuation routes and control panel areas etc). Installing automatic fire-extinguishing and fire alarm systems. Providing various stationary facilities and equipment to assist the use of mobile fire-fighting appliances. In addition, a special fire-fighting division is being set up in every nuclear power plant while the first unit is still being constructed. These divisions work in close co-operation with the technical personnel management of the plant and with the bodies responsible for monitoring nuclear safety. (author)

  9. Fires, ecological effects of

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Bond; Robert Keane

    2017-01-01

    Fire is both a natural and anthropogenic disturbance influencing the distribution, structure, and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems around the world. Many plants and animals depend on fire for their continued existence. Others species, such as rainforest plants species, are extremely intolerant of burning and need protection from fire. The properties of a fire...

  10. Evaluation of potential severe accidents during low power and shutdown operations at Grand Gulf, Unit 1: Analysis of core damage frequency from internal fire events for Plant Operational State 5 during a refueling outage. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.; Yakle, J.

    1994-07-01

    This report, Volume 3, presents the details of the analysis of core damage frequency due to fire during shutdown Plant Operational State 5 at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Insights from previous fire analyses (Peach Bottom, Surry, LaSalle) were used to the greatest extent possible in this analysis. The fire analysis was fully integrated utilizing the same event trees and fault trees that were used in the internal events analysis. In assessing shutdown risk due to fire at Grand Gulf, a detailed screening was performed which included the following elements: (a) Computer-aided vital area analysis; (b) Plant inspections; (c) Credit for automatic fire protection systems; (d) Recovery of random failures; (e) Detailed fire propagation modeling. This screening process revealed that all plant areas had a negligible (<1.0E-8 per year) contribution to fire-induced core damage frequency

  11. Probabilistic assessment of fire related events in CWPH (Pilot study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, D.; Maity, S.C.; Guptan, Rajee; Mohan, Nalini; Ghadge, S.G.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    As a part of Fire PSA for KAPS, a pilot study has been taken up identifying CWPH as the important zone vulnerable to fire. As the CWPH houses pumps belonging to all important cooling (APWC, FFW, NAHPPW, NALPW, etc.) of both the units, a single fire leads to failure of multiple safety/safety support system cooling affecting the safety of the plant. The objective of this study is as follows: Familiarising with the various published Fire-PSA study, comparing and finalisation of the computer code amongst various codes available with DAE, identifying and sequencing different activities involved for carrying out Fire PSA, i.e. Zoning and Sub-Zoning of Fire Source Area, Fire vulnerability of System and Component surrounding Fire Source, etc., finalization of report format and documentation. Computer Code FDS is used to carry out Fire Hazard Analysis. FDS is the latest state-of the-art software package extensively used for Fire Hazard Analysis. It develops a 3D scenario for any given fire giving credit to actual physical location of fire load and ventilation. It gives the time dependent of any fire in a specific zone crediting the time required by operator to take necessary preventive action which helps in quantifying the probability of error for any particular operator's for PSA study. To identify the most vulnerable sub-zone in CWPH, a walk down was organized and physical location of each load; their separation, fire barrier, ventilator in the room, arrangement of fire protection/fighting system, localized operator's room were reviewed. Fire in the middle diesel tank with pump is considered as initiating event in the sub-zone of CWPH. The Event Tree for this initiating event for CWPH was developed. Event Tree end states are identified as large fire i.e. fire which is failed to be detected by both means, i.e. early and late and failure in fighting by both means i.e. early and late. (author)

  12. Building 431 fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Ford, H.W.; Magee, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    An extensive discussion of considerations for fire protection in the LLL mirror fusion test facility (MFTF) is presented. Because of the large volume and high bays of the building, sufficient data on fire detection is unavailable. Results of fire detection tests using controlled fire sources in the building are presented. Extensive data concerning the behavior of the building atmosphere are included. Candidate fire detection instrumentation and extinguishing systems for use in the building are briefly reviewed

  13. Fire-Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David

    2010-01-01

    This article gives a brief history of fire-walking and then deals with the physics behind fire-walking. The author has performed approximately 50 fire-walks, took the data for the world's hottest fire-walk and was, at one time, a world record holder for the longest fire-walk (www.dwilley.com/HDATLTW/Record_Making_Firewalks.html). He currently…

  14. Fire, safety and ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-02-01

    Correct ventilation in tunnel environments is vital for the comfort and safety of the people passing through. This article gives details of products from several manufacturers of safety rescue and fire fighting equipment, fire and fume detection equipment, special fire resistant materials, fire resistant hydraulic oils and fire dampers, and ventilation systems. Company addresses and fax numbers are supplied. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 10 photos.

  15. Digitally controlled twelve-pulse firing generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berde, D.; Ferrara, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Control System Studies for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) indicate that accurate thyristor firing in the AC-to-DC conversion system is required in order to achieve good regulation of the various field currents. Rapid update and exact firing angle control are required to avoid instabilities, large eddy currents, or parasitic oscillations. The Prototype Firing Generator was designed to satisfy these requirements. To achieve the required /plus or minus/0.77/degree/firing accuracy, a three-phase-locked loop reference was designed; otherwise, the Firing Generator employs digital circuitry. The unit, housed in a standard CAMAC crate, operates under microcomputer control. Functions are performed under program control, which resides in nonvolatile read-only memory. Communication with CICADA control system is provided via an 11-bit parallel interface

  16. Water quality impacts of forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecle Aregai; Daniel Neary

    2015-01-01

    Forest fires have been serious menace, many times resulting in tremendous economic, cultural and ecological damage to many parts of the United States. One particular area that has been significantly affected is the water quality of streams and lakes in the water thirsty southwestern United States. This is because the surface water coming off burned areas has resulted...

  17. FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System - A program for fire danger rating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia L. Andrews; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1997-01-01

    A computer program, FIRES: Fire Information Retrieval and Evaluation System, provides methods for evaluating the performance of fire danger rating indexes. The relationship between fire danger indexes and historical fire occurrence and size is examined through logistic regression and percentiles. Historical seasonal trends of fire danger and fire occurrence can be...

  18. Trend analysis of fire events at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Hiroki

    2007-01-01

    We performed trend analyses to compare fire events occurring overseas (1995-2005) and in Japan (1966-2006). We decided to do this after extracting data on incidents (storms, heavy rain, tsunamis, fires, etc.) occurring at overseas nuclear power plants from the Events Occurred at Overseas Nuclear Power Plants recorded in the Nuclear Information Database at the Institute of Nuclear Safety System (INSS) and finding that fires were the most common of the incidents. Analyses compared the number of fires occurring domestically and overseas and analyzed their causes and the effect of the fires on the power plants. As a result, we found that electrical fires caused by such things as current overheating and electric arcing, account for over one half of the domestic and overseas incidents of fire, which indicates that maintenance management of electric facilities is the most important aspect of fire prevention. Also, roughly the same number of operational fires occurred at domestic and overseas plants, judging from the figures for annual occurrences per unit. However, the overall number of fires per unit at domestic facilities is one fourth that of overseas facilities. We surmise that, while management of operations that utilizes fire is comparable for overseas and domestic plants, this disparity results from differences in the way maintenance is carried out at facilities. (author)

  19. Principles of effective USA federal fire management plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marc D.; Roberts, Susan L.; Wills, Robin; Brooks, Matthew L.; Winford, Eric M.

    2015-01-01

    Federal fire management plans are essential implementation guides for the management of wildland fire on federal lands. Recent changes in federal fire policy implementation guidance and fire science information suggest the need for substantial changes in federal fire management plans of the United States. Federal land management agencies are also undergoing land management planning efforts that will initiate revision of fire management plans across the country. Using the southern Sierra Nevada as a case study, we briefly describe the underlying framework of fire management plans, assess their consistency with guiding principles based on current science information and federal policy guidance, and provide recommendations for the development of future fire management plans. Based on our review, we recommend that future fire management plans be: (1) consistent and compatible, (2) collaborative, (3) clear and comprehensive, (4) spatially and temporally scalable, (5) informed by the best available science, and (6) flexible and adaptive. In addition, we identify and describe several strategic guides or “tools” that can enhance these core principles and benefit future fire management plans in the following areas: planning and prioritization, science integration, climate change adaptation, partnerships, monitoring, education and communication, and applied fire management. These principles and tools are essential to successfully realize fire management goals and objectives in a rapidly changing world.

  20. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    James K. Brown; Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    VOLUME 2: This state-of-knowledge review about the effects of fire on flora and fuels can assist land managers with ecosystem and fire management planning and in their efforts to inform others about the ecological role of fire. Chapter topics include fire regime classification, autecological effects of fire, fire regime characteristics and postfire plant community...

  1. A review of fire interactions and mass fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Sara S. McAllister

    2011-01-01

    The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire...

  2. Fire risk assessment for hydrogen at EDG/battery room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, Moon Hak; Hong, Sung Yull; Choi, Kwang Hee; Jung, Hyun Jong; Park, Kyung Hyum [Korea electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jin Bae [KHNP, Wolsong (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    At the design stage of Nuclear Power Plant, the fire hazard analysis for the fire zone or compartment is implemented according to the fire protection requirement and the document is required for the licensing approval. On the basis of fire hazard analysis, the evaluation for the safe shutdown capability is preceded for each fire zone that contains safety-important systems and facilities. The primary philosophy for the fire safety is to secure fire defense-in-depth at Nuclear Power Plants that represents fire prevention, fire protection, and mitigation from fire damage. One of the concerning fire zones that need quantitative fire hazard analysis as well as qualitative fire evaluation at Nuclear Power Plants is the battery room at Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) Room. For an example, Emergency Power Supply System called as EPS at Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant generates emergency power and supply the electric power to the safety-related systems and essential facilities during the loss of on-site and off-site AC power. For the start of emergency power generator, it needs DC power from the battery units inside the EPS room. For the emergency supply of DC power, the battery at EPS room should be recharged during the standby period to compensate the reduced chemical energy that was converted to the electric energy or depleted through the natural process. During the recharge process, especially at the time of charging current becoming greater than the nominal floating current or at the time of over-charging period, the hydrogen and the oxygen are generated from the positive plate and cathodic part respectively and escaped through the vent holes or crevices. In this context, the fire hazard assessment should be done for the EPS/battery room with quantitative approach and the fire safety evaluation for the explosion of hydrogen gas must be done under the specific fire protection program at Nuclear Power Plants.

  3. Fire risk assessment for hydrogen at EDG/battery room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, Moon Hak; Hong, Sung Yull; Choi, Kwang Hee; Jung, Hyun Jong; Park, Kyung Hyum; Song, Jin Bae

    2004-01-01

    At the design stage of Nuclear Power Plant, the fire hazard analysis for the fire zone or compartment is implemented according to the fire protection requirement and the document is required for the licensing approval. On the basis of fire hazard analysis, the evaluation for the safe shutdown capability is preceded for each fire zone that contains safety-important systems and facilities. The primary philosophy for the fire safety is to secure fire defense-in-depth at Nuclear Power Plants that represents fire prevention, fire protection, and mitigation from fire damage. One of the concerning fire zones that need quantitative fire hazard analysis as well as qualitative fire evaluation at Nuclear Power Plants is the battery room at Emergency Diesel Generator (EDG) Room. For an example, Emergency Power Supply System called as EPS at Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant generates emergency power and supply the electric power to the safety-related systems and essential facilities during the loss of on-site and off-site AC power. For the start of emergency power generator, it needs DC power from the battery units inside the EPS room. For the emergency supply of DC power, the battery at EPS room should be recharged during the standby period to compensate the reduced chemical energy that was converted to the electric energy or depleted through the natural process. During the recharge process, especially at the time of charging current becoming greater than the nominal floating current or at the time of over-charging period, the hydrogen and the oxygen are generated from the positive plate and cathodic part respectively and escaped through the vent holes or crevices. In this context, the fire hazard assessment should be done for the EPS/battery room with quantitative approach and the fire safety evaluation for the explosion of hydrogen gas must be done under the specific fire protection program at Nuclear Power Plants

  4. Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rorty, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober......Oversættelse af Richard Rortys artikel "Filosofiens historiografi: Fire genrer" Udgivelsesdato: 26 Oktober...

  5. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  6. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  7. Seerley Road Fire Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barn caught fire at on Seerley Road, Indianapolis. Five storage drums believed to contain metallic potassium were involved in the fire. EPA will perform additional sampling as part of removal operations and safe offsite transportation.

  8. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  9. Interagency Wildland Fire Cooperation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    Wildlife Fire Assistance includes training personnel, forms partnerships for prescribed burns, state and regional data for fire management plans, develops agreements for DoD civilians to be reimbursed...

  10. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  11. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  12. The OECD FIRE database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angner, A.; Berg, H.P.; Roewekamp, M.; Werner, W.; Gauvain, J.

    2007-01-01

    Realistic modelling of fire scenarios is still difficult due to the scarcity of reliable data needed for deterministic and probabilistic fire safety analysis. Therefore, it has been recognized as highly important to establish a fire event database on an international level. In consequence, several member countries of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD have decided in 2000 to establish the International Fire Data Exchange Project (OECD FIRE) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data related to fire events at nuclear power plants. This paper presents the OECD FIRE project objectives, work scope and current status of the OECD FIRE database after 3 years of operation as well as first preliminary statistical insights gained from the collected data. (orig.)

  13. FIRE CHARACTERISTICS FOR ADVANCED MODELLING OF FIRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Dvořák

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the material and fire properties of solid flammable/combustible materials /substances /products, which are used as inputs for the computer numerical fire models. At the same time it gives the test standards for their determination.

  14. Analyzing the Risk of Fire in a Hospital Complex by “Fire Risk Assessment Method for Engineering”(FRAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarsangi V.* MSc,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims The occurrence of fire in residential buildings, commercial complexes and large and small industries cause physical, environmental and financial damages to many different communities. Fire safety in hospitals is sensitive and it is believed that the society takes the responsibility to care sick people. The goal of this study was to use Fire Risk Assessment Method for Engineering (FRAME in a hospital complex environment and assess the level of fire risks. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was conducted in Kashan Shahid Beheshti hospital in 2013. The FRAME is designed based on the empirical and scientific knowledge and experiment and have acceptable reliability for assessing the building fire risk. Excel software was used to calculate the risk level and finally fire risk (R was calculated separately for different units. Findings Calculated Rs were less than 1for health, autoclave, office of nursing and infection control units. R1s were greater than 1 for all units. R2s were less than 1 for office of nursing and infection control units. Conclusion FRAME is an acceptable tool for assessing the risk of fire in buildings and the fire risk is high in Shahid Beheshti Hospital Complex of Kashan and damages can be intolerable in the case of fire.

  15. Loft fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, E.R.; Jensen, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    Quantified criteria that was developed and applied to provide in-depth fire protection for the Loss of Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility are presented. The presentation describes the evolution process that elevated the facility's fire protection from minimal to that required for a highly protected risk or improved risk. Explored are some infrequently used fire protection measures that are poorly understood outside the fire protection profession

  16. Regional likelihood of very large wildfires over the 21st century across the western United States: Motivation to study individual events like the Rim Fire, a unique opportunity with unprecedented remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Natasha Stavros; John Abatzoglou; Zachary Tane; Van Kane; Sander Veraverbeke; Bob McGaughey; James A. Lutz; Narasimhan K. Larkin; Donald McKenzie; E. Ashley Steel; Carlos Ramirez; Justin Boland; Dave Schimel

    2015-01-01

    Studies project that a warming climate will likely increase wildfire activity in many areas (Westerling and others 2002; Flannigan and others 2005, 2009; Littell and others 2009). These analyses are often of aggregate statistics like annual area burned, which are insufficient for analyzing changes in seasonality of fire events, the temporal resolution useful for fire...

  17. Fire as Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project that deals with fire production as an aspect of technology. The project challenges students to be survivors in a five-day classroom activity. Students research various materials and methods to produce fire without the use of matches or other modern combustion devices, then must create "fire" to keep…

  18. Fourmile Canyon Fire Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell Graham; Mark Finney; Chuck McHugh; Jack Cohen; Dave Calkin; Rick Stratton; Larry Bradshaw; Ned Nikolov

    2012-01-01

    The Fourmile Canyon Fire burned in the fall of 2010 in the Rocky Mountain Front Range adjacent to Boulder, Colorado. The fire occurred in steep, rugged terrain, primarily on privately owned mixed ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir forests. The fire started on September 6 when the humidity of the air was very dry (¡Ö

  19. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...

  20. Fire Department Emergency Response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services

  1. Equipping tomorrow's fire manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Dicus

    2008-01-01

    Fire managers are challenged with an ever-increasing array of both responsibilities and critics. As in the past, fire managers must master the elements of fire behavior and ecology using the latest technologies. In addition, today’s managers must be equipped with the skills necessary to understand and liaise with a burgeoning group of vocal stakeholders while also...

  2. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  3. Cost of two fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of the protection of nuclear sites in connection with the fires in summer of 2000 near two greatest nuclear sites: the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory located on the site of Hanford Nuclear Center, and Los Alamos National Laboratory is considered. Both fires occur beyond the Laboratories. Undertaken urgent procedures for fire fighting and recovery of the objects are characterized [ru

  4. Wildland fire science and management in the U.S.: Spanning the boundaries through the regional knowledge exchange network (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susie Kocher; Eric Toman; Sarah Trainor; Vita Wright

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the federal Joint Fire Science Program (JFSP) initiated a national network of regional fire science consortia to accelerate awareness, understanding and use of wildland fire science. This presentation synthesizes findings from initial needs assessments conducted by consortia in eight regions of the United States. The assessments evaluated how fire science is...

  5. Analysis of the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer contextual algorithm for small fire detection, Journal of Applied Remote Sensing Vol.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Wang; J.J. Qu; X. Hao; Y. Liu

    2009-01-01

    In the southeastern United States, most wildland fires are of low intensity. A substantial number of these fires cannot be detected by the MODIS contextual algorithm. To improve the accuracy of fire detection for this region, the remote-sensed characteristics of these fires have to be...

  6. Quantitative analysis of forest fire extinction efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel E. Castillo-Soto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Evaluate the economic extinction efficiency of forest fires, based on the study of fire combat undertaken by aerial and terrestrial means. Area of study, materials and methods: Approximately 112,000 hectares in Chile. Records of 5,876 forest fires that occurred between 1998 and 2009 were analyzed. The area further provides a validation sector for results, by incorporating databases for the years 2010 and 2012. The criteria used for measuring extinction efficiency were economic value of forestry resources, Contraction Factor analysis and definition of the extinction costs function. Main results: It is possible to establish a relationship between burnt area, extinction costs and economic losses. The method proposed may be used and adapted to other fire situations, requiring unit costs for aerial and terrestrial operations, economic value of the property to be protected and speed attributes of fire spread in free advance. Research highlights: The determination of extinction efficiency in containment works of forest fires and potential projection of losses, different types of plant fuel and local conditions favoring the spread of fire broaden the admissible ranges of a, φ and Ce considerably.

  7. Forest fires and lightning activity during the outstanding 2003 and 2005 fire seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Ramos, Alexandre; Trigo, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    Wildfires in southern Europe cause frequent extensive economical and ecological losses and, even human casualties. Comparatively to other Mediterranean countries, Portugal is the country with more burnt area and fires per unit area in the last decade, mainly during the summer season (Pereira et al., 2011). According to the fire records available, between 1980 and 2009, wildfires have affected over 3 million hectares in Portugal (JRC, 2011), which corresponds to approximately a third of the Portuguese Continental territory. The main factors that influence fire ignition and propagation are: (1) the presence of fuel (i.e. vegetation); (2) climate and weather; (3) socioeconomic conditions that affect land use/land cover patterns, fire-prevention and fire-fighting capacity and (4) topography. Specifically, weather (e.g. wind, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and lightning occurrence) plays an important role in fire behavior, affecting both ignition and spread of wildfires. Some countries have a relatively large fraction of fires caused by lightning, e.g. northwestern USA, Canada, Russia (). In contrast, Portugal has only a small percentage of fire records caused by lightning. Although significant doubts remain for the majority of fires in the catalog since they were cataloged without a likely cause. The recent years of 2003 and 2005 were particularly outstanding for fire activity in Portugal, registering, respectively, total burned areas of 425 726 ha and 338 262 ha. However, while the 2003 was triggered by an exceptional heatwave that struck the entire western Europe, the 2005 fire season registered was coincident with one of the most severe droughts of the 20th century. In this work we have used mainly two different databases: 1) the Portuguese Rural Fire Database (PRFD) which is representative of rural fires that have occurred in Continental Portugal, 2001-2011, with the original data provided by the Autoridade Florestal Nacional (AFN, 2011); 2) lightning

  8. Fires of sodium installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, L.; Tlalka, R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey is presented of the literature dealing with fires of sodium installations between 1974 and 1981. Also described are three experimental fires of ca 50 kg of sodium in an open area, monitored by UJV Rez. The experimental conditions of the experiments are described and a phenomenological description is presented of the course of the fires. The experiments showed a relationship between wind velocity in the area surrounding the fire and surface temperature of the sodium flame. Systems analysis methods were applied to sodium area, spray and tube fires. (author)

  9. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  10. Fire retardant formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions where a substrate is liable to catch fire such as bituminous products, paints, carpets or the like. The invention relates to a composition comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant such as bituminous material or paint......, carpets which substrate is mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant component. The invention relates to a fire retardant component comprising or being constituted of attapulgite, and a salt being a source of a blowing or expanding agent, where the attapulgite and the salt are electrostatically...... connected by mixing and subjecting the mixture of the two components to agitation. Also, the invention relates to compositions comprising 40-95 weight % of a substrate to be rendered fire resistant mixed with 5-60 weight % of a fire retardant according to claim 1 or 2, which fire retardant component...

  11. Built structure identification in wildland fire decision support

    Science.gov (United States)

    David E. Calkin; Jon D. Rieck; Kevin D. Hyde; Jeffrey D. Kaiden

    2011-01-01

    Recent ex-urban development within the wildland interface has significantly increased the complexity and associated cost of federal wildland fire management in the United States. Rapid identification of built structures relative to probable fire spread can help to reduce that complexity and improve the performance of incident management teams. Approximate structure...

  12. Integrating models to predict regional haze from wildland fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. McKenzie; S.M. O' Neill; N. Larkin; R.A. Norheim

    2006-01-01

    Visibility impairment from regional haze is a significant problem throughout the continental United States. A substantial portion of regional haze is produced by smoke from prescribed and wildland fires. Here we describe the integration of four simulation models, an array of GIS raster layers, and a set of algorithms for fire-danger calculations into a modeling...

  13. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  14. A simulation of probabilistic wildfire risk components for the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Finney; Charles W. McHugh; Isaac C. Grenfell; Karin L. Riley; Karen C. Short

    2011-01-01

    This simulation research was conducted in order to develop a large-fire risk assessment system for the contiguous land area of the United States. The modeling system was applied to each of 134 Fire Planning Units (FPUs) to estimate burn probabilities and fire size distributions. To obtain stable estimates of these quantities, fire ignition and growth was simulated for...

  15. Fire social science research from the Pacific Southwest research station: studies supported by national fire plan funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah J. Chavez; James D. Absher; Patricia L. Winter

    2008-01-01

    Fire events often have a large impact on recreation and tourism, yet these issues had not been addressed from a social science perspective. To address his, the Wildland Recreation and Urban Cultures Research Work Unit (RWU) of the Pacific Southwest Research Station acquired funding through the National Fire Plan within the community assistance topic area. The three...

  16. All fired up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  17. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Wildland Fire Perimeters By Year 2000 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the historical fire perimeters within individual local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on the GeoMAC...

  18. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 Catchments Riparian Buffer (Version 2.1) for the Conterminous United States: Wildland Fire Perimeters By Year 2000 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the historical fire perimeters within individual local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds riparian buffers based on...

  19. Managing wildland fires: integrating weather models into fire projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne M. Rosenthal; Francis Fujioka

    2004-01-01

    Flames from the Old Fire sweep through lands north of San Bernardino during late fall of 2003. Like many Southern California fires, the Old Fire consumed susceptible forests at the urban-wildland interface and spread to nearby city neighborhoods. By incorporating weather models into fire perimeter projections, scientist Francis Fujioka is improving fire modeling as a...

  20. Fire activity increasing as climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie; Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of images from NASA's Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellites shows that more than 2.5 million hectares were burned in 2012 from January through August in the United States. The amount is less than a record 3.2 million hectares in 2011 but greater than the area burned in 12 of 15 years since satellite monitoring began, scientists reported at the AGU Fall Meeting. With satellites "we can detect fires as they're actively burning," said Louis Giglio of the University of Maryland, College Park, at a press conference on 4 December. "We can also map the cumulative area burned on the landscape after the fire's over." He noted that "2012 has been a particularly big fire year" in the United States.

  1. Early forest fire detection using low-energy hydrogen sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nörthemann

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most huge forest fires start in partial combustion. In the beginning of a smouldering fire, emission of hydrogen in low concentration occurs. Therefore, hydrogen can be used to detect forest fires before open flames are visible and high temperatures are generated. We have developed a hydrogen sensor comprising of a metal/solid electrolyte/insulator/semiconductor (MEIS structure which allows an economical production. Due to the low energy consumption, an autarkic working unit in the forest was established. In this contribution, first experiments are shown demonstrating the possibility to detect forest fires at a very early stage using the hydrogen sensor.

  2. Thermodynamic Analysis of Supplementary-Fired Gas Turbine Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities for improving the efficiency of an indirectly biomass-fired gas turbine (IBFGT) by supplementary direct gas-firing. The supplementary firing may be based on natural gas, biogas, or pyrolysis gas. {The interest in this cycle arise from a recent...... demonstration of a two-stage gasification process through construction of several plants.} A preliminary analysis of the ideal recuperated Brayton cycle shows that for this cycle any supplementary firing will have a marginal efficiency of unity per extra unit of fuel. The same result is obtained...

  3. Hydrological response of a small catchment burned by experimental fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Stoof

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fire can considerably change hydrological processes, increasing the risk of extreme flooding and erosion events. Although hydrological processes are largely affected by scale, catchment-scale studies on the hydrological impact of fire in Europe are scarce, and nested approaches are rarely used. We performed a catchment-scale experimental fire to improve insight into the drivers of fire impact on hydrology. In north-central Portugal, rainfall, canopy interception, streamflow and soil moisture were monitored in small shrub-covered paired catchments pre- and post-fire. The shrub cover was medium dense to dense (44 to 84% and pre-fire canopy interception was on average 48.7% of total rainfall. Fire increased streamflow volumes 1.6 times more than predicted, resulting in increased runoff coefficients and changed rainfall-streamflow relationships – although the increase in streamflow per unit rainfall was only significant at the subcatchment-scale. Fire also fastened the response of topsoil moisture to rainfall from 2.7 to 2.1 h (p = 0.058, and caused more rapid drying of topsoils after rain events. Since soil physical changes due to fire were not apparent, we suggest that changes resulting from vegetation removal played an important role in increasing streamflow after fire. Results stress that fire impact on hydrology is largely affected by scale, highlight the hydrological impact of fire on small scales, and emphasize the risk of overestimating fire impact when upscaling plot-scale studies to the catchment-scale. Finally, they increase understanding of the processes contributing to post-fire flooding and erosion events.

  4. Evaluation of NOX emissions from TVA coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.W.; Stamey-Hall, S.

    1991-01-01

    The paper gives results of a preliminary evaluation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from 11 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) coal-fired power plants. Current EPA AP-42 emission factors for NOx from coal-fired utility boilers do not account for variations either in these emissions as a function of generating unit load, or in designs of boilers of the same general type, particularly wall-fired boilers. The TVA has compiled short-term NOx emissions data from 30 units at 11 TVA coal-fired plants. These units include cyclone, cell burner, single wall, opposed wall, single tangential, and twin tangential boiler firing designs. Tests were conducted on 29 of the 30 units at high load; 18 were also tested at reduced load. NOx emissions rates were calculated for each test and compared to the calculated rate for each boiler type using AP-42. Preliminary analysis indicates that: (1) TVA cyclone-fired units emit more NOx than estimated using AP-42; (2) TVA cell burner units emit considerably more NOx than estimated; (3) most TVA single-wall-fired units emit slightly more NOx than estimated; (4) most TVA single-furnace tangentially fired units emit less NOx than estimated at high load, but the same as (or more than) estimated at reduced load; and (5) most TVA twin-furnace tangentially fired units, at high load, emit slightly more NOx than estimated using AP-42

  5. Mitigating old tree mortality in long-unburned, fire-dependent forests: a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon M. Hood

    2010-01-01

    This report synthesizes the literature and current state of knowledge pertaining to reintroducing fire in stands where it has been excluded for long periods and the impact of these introductory fires on overstory tree injury and mortality. Only forested ecosystems in the United States that are adapted to survive frequent fire are included. Treatment options that...

  6. Fire damage data analysis as related to current testing practices for nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevan, J.; MacDougall, E.A.; Hall, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    A review of reports of specific fires which have occurred in nuclear power plants in the United States is presented. A limited comparison of cable and similar fires with results of the IEEE 383 fire test used to evaluate cable insulation is also presented

  7. 76 FR 3517 - Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired, Electric Utility, Industrial-Commercial-Institutional, and... following: Category NAICS \\1\\ Examples of regulated entities Industry 221112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units. Federal Government 22112 Fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam...

  8. First Order Fire Effects Model: FOFEM 4.0, user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; Robert E. Keane; James K. Brown

    1997-01-01

    A First Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM) was developed to predict the direct consequences of prescribed fire and wildfire. FOFEM computes duff and woody fuel consumption, smoke production, and fire-caused tree mortality for most forest and rangeland types in the United States. The model is available as a computer program for PC or Data General computer.

  9. Does fire affect amphibians and reptiles in eastern U.S. oak forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle B. Renken

    2006-01-01

    Current information about the effect of fire on amphibians and reptiles in oak forests of the Eastern and Central United States is reviewed. Current data suggest that fire results in little direct mortality of amphibians and reptiles. Fire has no effect on overall amphibian abundance, diversity, and number of species in comparisons of burned and unburned plots, though...

  10. Fire and invasive exotic plant species in eastern oak communities: an assessment of current knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia D. Huebner

    2006-01-01

    Successful regeneration of oak-dominated communities in the Eastern United States historically requires disturbance such as fire, making them vulnerable to invasion by exotic plants. Little is currently known about the effects of fire on invasive plant species and the effects of invasive plant species on fire regimes of this region. Seventeen common eastern invaders...

  11. Wildfire and drought dynamics destabilize carbon stores of fire-suppressed forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Mason Earles; Malcolm P. North; Matthew D. Hurteau

    2014-01-01

    Widespread fire suppression and thinning have altered the structure and composition of many forests in the western United States, making them more susceptible to the synergy of large-scale drought and fire events. We examine how these changes affect carbon storage and stability compared to historic fire-adapted conditions. We modeled carbon dynamics under possible...

  12. Biomass co-firing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized-bed combus......Co-firing biomass with fossil fuels in existing power plants is an attractive option for significantly increasing renewable energy resource utilization and reducing CO2 emissions. This chapter mainly discusses three direct co-firing technologies: pulverized-fuel (PF) boilers, fluidized......-bed combustion (FBC) systems, and grate-firing systems, which are employed in about 50%, 40% and 10% of all the co-firing plants, respectively. Their basic principles, process technologies, advantages, and limitations are presented, followed by a brief comparison of these technologies when applied to biomass co...

  13. Fire safety analysis: methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarians, M.

    1998-01-01

    From a review of the fires that have occurred in nuclear power plants and the results of fire risk studies that have been completed over the last 17 years, we can conclude that internal fires in nuclear power plants can be an important contributor to plant risk. Methods and data are available to quantify the fire risk. These methods and data have been subjected to a series of reviews and detailed scrutiny and have been applied to a large number of plants. There is no doubt that we do not know everything about fire and its impact on a nuclear power plants. However, this lack of knowledge or uncertainty can be quantified and can be used in the decision making process. In other words, the methods entail uncertainties and limitations that are not insurmountable and there is little or no basis for the results of a fire risk analysis fail to support a decision process

  14. Little Bear Fire Summary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie Stidham; Hannah. Brenkert-Smith

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, immediately after the Little Bear Fire burned outside Ruidoso, New Mexico, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local personnel, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness. The intensity of fire behavior and resulting loss of 242 homes made this a complex fire with a...

  15. Fire management in central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea L. Koonce; Armando González-Cabán

    1992-01-01

    Information on fire management operations in Central America is scant. To evaluate the known level of fire occurrence in seven countries in that area, fire management officers were asked to provide information on their fire control organizations and on any available fire statistics. The seven countries surveyed were Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua,...

  16. The human and fire connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa B. Jain

    2014-01-01

    We refer to fire as a natural disturbance, but unlike other disturbances such as forest insects and diseases, fire has had an intimate relationship with humans. Fire facilitated human evolution over two million years ago when our ancestors began to use fire to cook. Fire empowered our furbearers to adapt to cold climates, allowing humans to disperse and settle into...

  17. Designing fire safe interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belles, D W

    1992-01-01

    Any product that causes a fire to grow large is deficient in fire safety performance. A large fire in any building represents a serious hazard. Multiple-death fires almost always are linked to fires that grow quickly to a large size. Interior finishes have large, continuous surfaces over which fire can spread. They are regulated to slow initial fire growth, and must be qualified for use on the basis of fire tests. To obtain meaningful results, specimens must be representative of actual installation. Variables--such as the substrate, the adhesive, and product thickness and density--can affect product performance. The tunnel test may not adequately evaluate some products, such as foam plastics or textile wall coverings, thermoplastic materials, or materials of minimal mass. Where questions exist, products should be evaluated on a full-scale basis. Curtains and draperies are examples of products that ignite easily and spread flames readily. The present method for testing curtains and draperies evaluates one fabric at a time. Although a fabric tested alone may perform well, fabrics that meet test standards individually sometimes perform poorly when tested in combination. Contents and furnishings constitute the major fuels in many fires. Contents may involve paper products and other lightweight materials that are easily ignited and capable of fast fire growth. Similarly, a small source may ignite many items of furniture that are capable of sustained fire growth. Upholstered furniture can reach peak burning rates in less than 5 minutes. Furnishings have been associated with many multiple-death fires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Wildland Fire Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) is written to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Safety Management Policy; Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; and Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and Implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes resulting from new policies on the national level as well as significant changes to available resources and other emerging issues, and replaces BNL's Wildland FMP dated 2014.

  19. WebFIRE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Factor Information Retrieval (FIRE) Data System is a database management system containing EPA's recommended emission estimation factors for criteria and...

  20. Fire safety engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    The periodic occurrence of large-scale, potentially disastrous industrial accidents involving fire in hazardous environments such as oilwell blowouts, petrochemical explosions and nuclear installations highlights the need for an integrated approach to fire safety engineering. Risk reduction 'by design' and rapid response are of equal importance in the saving of life and property in such situations. This volume of papers covers the subject thoroughly, touching on such topics as hazard analysis, safety design and testing, fire detection and control, and includes studies of fire hazard in the context of environment protection. (author)

  1. Modeling of compartment fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiah, P.; Siccama, A.; Visser, D.; Komen, E.

    2011-01-01

    Fire accident in a containment is a serious threat to nuclear reactors. Fire can cause substantial loss to life and property. The risk posed by fire can also exceed the risk from internal events within a nuclear reactor. Numerous research efforts have been performed to understand and analyze the phenomenon of fire in nuclear reactor and its consequences. Modeling of fire is an important subject in the field of fire safety engineering. Two approaches which are commonly used in fire modeling are zonal modeling and field modeling. The objective of this work is to compare zonal and field modeling approach against a pool fired experiment performed in a well-confined compartment. Numerical simulations were performed against experiments, which were conducted within PRISME program under the framework of OECD. In these experiments, effects of ventilation flow rate on heat release rate in a confined and mechanically ventilated compartment is investigated. Time dependent changes in gas temperature and oxygen mass fraction were measured. The trends obtained by numerical simulation performed using zonal model and field model compares well with experiments. Further validation is needed before this code can be used for fire safety analyses. (author)

  2. Broad-Scale Environmental Conditions Responsible for Post-Fire Vegetation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Casady, Grant M.; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem response to disturbance is influenced by environmental conditions at a number of scales. Changes in climate have altered fire regimes across the western United States, and have also likely altered spatio-temporal patterns of post-fire vegetation regeneration. Fire occurrence data and a vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used to monitor post-fire vegetation from 1989 to 2007. We first investigated differences in post-fi...

  3. Smoking and Home Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Smoking fire safety outreach materials As a member of ... Not reported 7% In transport 1% 195 incidents Smoking fire safety messages to share It is important ...

  4. Development of a risk informed fire protection program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, J.; McDevitt, B.; Sawyer, O.; Volk, M.A.; Drennan, J.; Sweely, C.

    2015-07-01

    Over the past decade, one of the largest challenges for the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Operator in the United States has been the implementation of risk-informed, performance-based (RI-PB) fire protection strategies into their fire protection program. Regardless of whether a utility decides to fully transition their licensing basis from deterministic to risk based, or if they simply complete a fire probabilistic risk assessment (FPRA) in order to augment their current program, it is clear that risk-informed, performance based fire protection strategies and the associated challenges are the growing trend in the United States and are here to stay. The experience of the nuclear industry in the United States with the implementation of RI-PB fire protection strategies can provide a great deal of insight for plants and utilities that follow, either by choice or necessity, a similar path. The similarities in the design of the United States and Spanish nuclear plants make these insights even more significant contributions to the strategy and planning for the Spanish fleet. The experience in United States will provide guidance to avoid similar missteps and better plan for the challenges of the transition process. As the Spanish fleet develops risk-informed and deterministic strategies to improve fire safety, an understanding of the challenges and lessons learned from the United States experience will save time and money. (Author)

  5. Fire resistance in American heavy timber construction history and preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Heitz, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents a history of heavy timber construction (HTC) in the United States, chronicling nearly two centuries of building history, from inception to a detailed evaluation of one of the best surviving examples of the type, with an emphasis on fire resistance. The book does not limit itself in scope to serving only as a common history. Rather, it provides critical analysis of HTC in terms of construction methods, design, technical specifications, and historical performance under fire conditions. As such, this book provides readers with a truly comprehensive understanding and exploration of heavy timber construction in the United States and its performance under fire conditions.

  6. Inertisation and mine fire simulation using computer software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart Gillies; Hsin Wei Wu [Gillies Wu Mining Technology (Australia)

    2007-05-15

    Inertisation is a technique used to enhance the safety of underground coal mine areas either to avoid the potential for a combustion event or to stabilise a situation after an ignition, fire or heating. The primary objective of the study was to review coal mine inertisation in Australia, in particular, to focus on the use of the Polish mine fire simulation software 'VENTGRAPH' to gain better understanding of how inertisation (GAG, Mineshield, Nitrogen Pressure Swing Adsorption (Floxal) and Tomlinson Boiler) units interact with the complex ventilation behaviour underground during a substantial fire. Most emphasis has been given to understanding the behaviour of the GAG unit because of its high capacity output. Critical aspects targeted for examination include location of the unit for high priority fire positions, size of borehole or pipe range required, time required for inertisation output to interact with and extinguish a fire, effects of seam gases on fire behaviour with inertisation present and main fan management. The project aims to increase understanding of behaviour of mine fires in modern mine ventilation networks with the addition of inert gas streams. A second aim of the project has been to take findings from the simulation exercises and develop inertisation related modifications to the program in conjunction with the Polish program authors. Exercises based on Oaky North and Oaky No 1 mines have involved 'evaluation or auditing' of ability to deliver inert gases generated from GAG units to high priority underground fire locations. These exercises have been built around modelling of fire scenarios across the mine layouts. The fire simulation exercises at Oaky North and Oaky No 1 mines demonstrated that it is possible to efficiently evaluate possible inertisation strategies appropriate to a complex mine layout extracting a gassy seam and determine which approach strategy (if any) can be used to stabilise a mine in a timely fashion.

  7. Using simulated historical time series to prioritize fuel treatments on landscapes across the United States: The LANDFIRE prototype project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Matthew Rollins; Zhi-Liang Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Canopy and surface fuels in many fire-prone forests of the United States have increased over the last 70 years as a result of modern fire exclusion policies, grazing, and other land management activities. The Healthy Forest Restoration Act and National Fire Plan establish a national commitment to reduce fire hazard and restore fire-adapted ecosystems across the USA....

  8. Determination of Component Failure Modes for a Fire PSA by Using Decision Trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Han, Sang Hoon; Lim, Jae Won

    2007-01-01

    KAERI developed the method, called a mapping technique, for the quantification of external events PSA models with one top model for an internal events PSA. The mapping technique can be implemented by the construction of mapping tables. The mapping tables include initiating events and transfer events of fire, and internal PSA basic events affected by a fire. This year, KAERI is making mapping tables for the one top model for Ulchin Unit 3 and 4 fire PSA with previously conducted Fire PSA results for Ulchin Unit 3 and 4. A Fire PSA requires a PSA analyst to determine component failure modes affected by a fire. The component failure modes caused by a fire depend on several factors. These several factors are whether components are located at fire initiation and propagation areas or not, fire effects on control and power cables for components, designed failure modes of components, success criteria in a PSA model, etc. Thus, it is not easy to manually determine component failure modes caused by a fire. In this paper, we propose the use of decision trees for the determination of component failure modes affected by a fire and the selection of internal PSA basic events. Section 2 presents the procedure for previously performed the Ulchin Unit 3 and 4 fire PSA and mapping technique. Section 3 presents the process for identification of basic events and decision trees. Section 4 presents the concluding remarks

  9. The fire brigade renovates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  10. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.E.J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  11. Advanced fire information system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Frost, PE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African Advanced Fire Information System (AFIS) is the first near real-time satellite-based fire monitoring system in Africa. It was originally developed for, and funded by, the electrical power utility Eskom, to reduce the impact of wild...

  12. Hot fire, cool soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Fernandes, P.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Fernandes, R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events by removing vegetation and changing soils. Fire damage to soil increases with increasing soil temperature, and, for fires where smoldering combustion is absent, the current understanding is that soil temperatures

  13. Emissions from forest fires near Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Yokelson

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The emissions of NOx (defined as NO (nitric oxide + NO2 (nitrogen dioxide and hydrogen cyanide (HCN, per unit amount of fuel burned, from fires in the pine forests that dominate the mountains surrounding Mexico City (MC are about 2 times higher than normally observed for forest burning. The ammonia (NH3 emissions are about average for forest burning. The upper limit for the mass ratio of NOx to volatile organic compounds (VOC for these MC-area mountain fires was ~0.38, which is similar to the NOx/VOC ratio in the MC urban area emissions inventory of 0.34, but much larger than the NOx/VOC ratio for tropical forest fires in Brazil (~0.068. The nitrogen enrichment in the fire emissions may be due to deposition of nitrogen-containing pollutants in the outflow from the MC urban area. This effect may occur worldwide wherever biomass burning coexists with large urban areas (e.g. the tropics, southeastern US, Los Angeles Basin. The molar emission ratio of HCN to carbon monoxide (CO for the mountain fires was 0.012±0.007, which is 2–9 times higher than widely used literature values for biomass burning. The ambient molar ratio HCN/CO in the MC-area outflow is about 0.003±0.0003. Thus, if only mountain fires emit significant amounts of HCN, these fires may be contributing about 25% of the CO production in the MC-area (~98–100 W and 19–20 N. Comparing the PM10/CO and PM2.5/CO mass ratios in the MC Metropolitan Area emission inventory (0.0115 and 0.0037 to the PM1/CO mass ratio for the mountain fires (0.133 then suggests that these fires could produce as much as ~79–92% of the primary fine particle mass generated in the MC-area. Considering both the uncertainty in the HCN/CO ratios and secondary aerosol formation in the urban and fire emissions implies that about 50±30% of the "aged" fine particle mass in the March 2006 MC-area outflow could be from these fires.

  14. A Review of Fire Interactions and Mass Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Finney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The character of a wildland fire can change dramatically in the presence of another nearby fire. Understanding and predicting the changes in behavior due to fire-fire interactions cannot only be life-saving to those on the ground, but also be used to better control a prescribed fire to meet objectives. In discontinuous fuel types, such interactions may elicit fire spread where none otherwise existed. Fire-fire interactions occur naturally when spot fires start ahead of the main fire and when separate fire events converge in one location. Interactions can be created intentionally during prescribed fires by using spatial ignition patterns. Mass fires are among the most extreme examples of interactive behavior. This paper presents a review of the detailed effects of fire-fire interaction in terms of merging or coalescence criteria, burning rates, flame dimensions, flame temperature, indraft velocity, pulsation, and convection column dynamics. Though relevant in many situations, these changes in fire behavior have yet to be included in any operational-fire models or decision support systems.

  15. Fires in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  16. Sodium fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, C.; Kale, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    Results of experiments carried out with sodium fires to develop extinguishment techniques are presented. Characteristics, ignition temperature, heat evolution and other aspects of sodium fires are described. Out of the powders tested for extinguishment of 10 Kg sodium fires, sodium bi-carbonate based dry chemical powder has been found to be the best extinguisher followed by large sized vermiculite and then calcium carbonate powders distributed by spray nozzles. Powders, however, do not extinguish large fires effectively due to sodium-concrete reaction. To control large scale fires in a LMFBR, collection trays with protective cover have been found to cause oxygen starvation better than flooding with inert gas. This system has an added advantage in that there is no damage to the sodium facilities as has been in the case of powders which often contain chlorine compounds and cause stress corrosion cracking. (M.G.B.)

  17. Fire risk analysis, fire simulation, fire spreading and impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation electronics - State-of-the-Art Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Bertrand, R.; Bonneval, F.; Hamblen, D.; Siu, N.; Aulamo, H.; Martila, J.; Sandberg, J.; Virolainen, R.

    2000-01-01

    Numerous fire PSAs (probabilistic safety assessments) have shown that fire can be a major contributor to nuclear power plant risk. However, there are considerable uncertainties in the results of these assessments, due to significant gaps in current abilities to perform realistic assessments. These gaps involve multiple aspects of fire PSA, including the estimation of the probability of important fire scenarios, the modeling of fire growth and suppression, the prediction of fire-induced damage to equipment (including the effects of smoke), and the treatment of plant and operator responses to the fire. In response to recommendations of /VIR 93/, CSNI/PWG5 established a Task Group to review the present status and maturity of current methods used in fire risk assessments for operating nuclear power plants. The Task Group issued a questionnaire in May 1997 to all nuclear power generating OECD countries. The prime focus of the questionnaire (see Appendix A) was on a number of important issues in fire PSA: Fire PSA methodology and applications; Fire simulation codes; Ignition and damageability data; Modeling of fire spread on cables or other equipment; Modeling of smoke production and spread; Impact of smoke and heat on instrumentation, electronics, or other electrical equipment; Impact of actual cable fires on safety systems. The questionnaire requested specific information on these topics (e.g., computer codes used in fire PSAs, the physical parameters used to model ignition). Responses to the questionnaire were provided by Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the USA. This report summarizes the questionnaire responses and thereby: a) provides a perspective on the current fire PSA state of the art (SOAR) with respect to the issues listed above, and b) provides numerous references for more detailed information regarding these issues. The main responsibility for writing different chapters of this report was divided between some

  18. Mitigating operating room fires: development of a carbon dioxide fire prevention device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J

    2014-04-01

    Operating room fires are sentinel events that present a real danger to surgical patients and occur at least as frequently as wrong-sided surgery. For fire to occur, the 3 points of the fire triad must be present: an oxidizer, an ignition source, and fuel source. The electrosurgical unit (ESU) pencil triggers most operating room fires. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that prevents ignition and suppresses fire by displacing oxygen. We hypothesize that a device can be created to reduce operating room fires by generating a cone of CO2 around the ESU pencil tip. One such device was created by fabricating a divergent nozzle and connecting it to a CO2 source. This device was then placed over the ESU pencil, allowing the tip to be encased in a cone of CO2 gas. The device was then tested in 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen environments. The ESU was activated at 50 W cut mode while placing the ESU pencil tip on a laparotomy sponge resting on an aluminum test plate for up to 30 seconds or until the sponge ignited. High-speed videography was used to identify time of ignition. Each test was performed in each oxygen environment 5 times with the device activated (CO2 flow 8 L/min) and with the device deactivated (no CO2 flow-control). In addition, 3-dimensional spatial mapping of CO2 concentrations was performed with a CO2 sampling device. The median ± SD [range] ignition time of the control group in 21% oxygen was 2.9 s ± 0.44 [2.3-3.0], in 50% oxygen 0.58 s ± 0.12 [0.47-0.73], and in 100% oxygen 0.48 s ± 0.50 [0.03-1.27]. Fires were ignited with each control trial (15/15); no fires ignited when the device was used (0/15, P fire prevention device can be created by using a divergent nozzle design through which CO2 passes, creating a cone of fire suppressant. This device as demonstrated in a flammability model effectively reduced the risk of fire. CO2 3-dimensional spatial mapping suggests effective fire reduction at least 1 cm away from the tip of the ESU pencil at 8 L/min CO2 flow

  19. USFA NFIRS 2005 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2005 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  20. USFA NFIRS 2008 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2008 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  1. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  2. USFA NFIRS 2009 Basic Fire Incident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2009 US Fire Administration Fire (USFA) Fire Incident & Cause Data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration's (USFA) National Fire Data Center's (NFDC's)...

  3. Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative fire risk assessment can serve as an additional tool to assess the safety level of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and to set priorities for fire protection improvement measures. The recommended approach to be applied within periodic safety reviews of NPPs in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis using a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. Results of the first quantitative fire risk studies performed in Germany are reported. (author)

  4. Fire protection for clean rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, D.

    1990-01-01

    The fire protection engineer often must decide what size fire can be tolerated before automatic fire suppression systems actuate. Is it a wastepaper basket fire, a bushel basket fire...? In the case of state-of-the-art clean rooms, the answer clearly is not even an incipient fire. Minor fires in clean rooms can cause major losses. This paper discusses what a clean room is and gives a brief overview of the unique fire protection challenges encountered. The two major causes of fire related to clean rooms in the semiconductor industry are flammable/pyrophoric gas fires in plastic ducts and polypropylene wet bench fires. This paper concentrates on plastic ductwork in clean rooms, sprinkler protection in ductwork, and protection for wet benches

  5. The contribution of natural fire management to wilderness fire science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Miller

    2014-01-01

    When the federal agencies established policies in the late 1960s and early 1970s to allow the use of natural fires in wilderness, they launched a natural fire management experiment in a handful of wilderness areas. As a result, wildland fire has played more of its natural role in wilderness than anywhere else. Much of what we understand about fire ecology comes from...

  6. Changes in fire weather distributions: effects on predicted fire behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucy A. Salazar; Larry S. Bradshaw

    1984-01-01

    Data that represent average worst fire weather for a particular area are used to index daily fire danger; however, they do not account for different locations or diurnal weather changes that significantly affect fire behavior potential. To study the effects that selected changes in weather databases have on computed fire behavior parameters, weather data for the...

  7. Humans, Fires, and Forests - Social science applied to fire management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna J. Cortner; Donald R. Field; Pam Jakes; James D. Buthman

    2003-01-01

    The 2000 and 2002 fire seasons resulted in increased political scrutiny of the nation's wildland fire threats, and given the fact that millions of acres of lands are still at high risk for future catastrophic fire events, the issues highlighted by the recent fire seasons are not likely to go away any time soon. Recognizing the magnitude of the problem, the...

  8. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  9. Fire test database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a project recently completed for EPRI by Impell. The purpose of the project was to develop a reference database of fire tests performed on non-typical fire rated assemblies. The database is designed for use by utility fire protection engineers to locate test reports for power plant fire rated assemblies. As utilities prepare to respond to Information Notice 88-04, the database will identify utilities, vendors or manufacturers who have specific fire test data. The database contains fire test report summaries for 729 tested configurations. For each summary, a contact is identified from whom a copy of the complete fire test report can be obtained. Five types of configurations are included: doors, dampers, seals, wraps and walls. The database is computerized. One version for IBM; one for Mac. Each database is accessed through user-friendly software which allows adding, deleting, browsing, etc. through the database. There are five major database files. One each for the five types of tested configurations. The contents of each provides significant information regarding the test method and the physical attributes of the tested configuration. 3 figs

  10. Electronic firing systems and methods for firing a device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frickey, Steven J [Boise, ID; Svoboda, John M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-04-24

    An electronic firing system comprising a control system, a charging system, an electrical energy storage device, a shock tube firing circuit, a shock tube connector, a blasting cap firing circuit, and a blasting cap connector. The control system controls the charging system, which charges the electrical energy storage device. The control system also controls the shock tube firing circuit and the blasting cap firing circuit. When desired, the control system signals the shock tube firing circuit or blasting cap firing circuit to electrically connect the electrical energy storage device to the shock tube connector or the blasting cap connector respectively.

  11. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Bradley [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davis, Kevin [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Senior, Constance [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Shim, Hong Shim [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Otten, Brydger Van [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Fry, Andrew [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Wendt, Jost [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Eddings, Eric [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Paschedag, Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shaddix, Christopher [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cox, William [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Tree, Dale [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ) Assessment of oxy-combustion impacts in two full-scale coal-fired utility boiler retrofits based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air-fired and oxygen-fired operation. This research determined that it is technically feasible to retrofit the combustion system in an air-fired boiler for oxy-fired operation. The impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) were minimal, with the exception of high sulfur levels resulting from untreated flue gas recycle with medium and high-sulfur coals. This work focused on combustion in the radiant and convective sections of the boiler and did not address boiler system integration issues, plant efficiencies, impacts on downstream air pollution control devices, or CO{sub 2} capture and compression. The experimental data, oxy-firing system principles and oxy-combustion process mechanisms provided by this work can be used by electric utilities, boiler OEMs, equipment suppliers, design firms, software vendors, consultants and government agencies to assess retrofit applications of oxy-combustion technologies to existing boilers and to guide development of new designs.

  12. Cable tray fire tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klamerus, L.J.

    1978-01-01

    Funds were authorized by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to provide data needed for confirmation of the suitability of current design standards and regulatory guides for fire protection and control in water reactor power plants. The activities of this program through August 1978 are summarized. A survey of industry to determine current design practices and a screening test to select two cable constructions which were used in small scale and full scale testing are described. Both small and full scale tests to assess the adequacy of fire retardant coatings and full scale tests on fire shields to determine their effectiveness are outlined

  13. Chemistry fighting against fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffalsky, K.

    1975-01-01

    A detailed report is given on the general principle 'fire' and on fires as fast chemical reactions between consumable material and oxygen of the air (exothermal oxidation) as well as on the classes of fires A to D. Class D includes strongly incadescent burnable metals such as K, Na, Li, Cs, Rb, U, Pu, Ce, Zr, Be, Ca, Sr, Ba etc. The burning process, the extinguishing effects, the development of the extinguisher and its present state are individually dealt with. (HK/LH) [de

  14. Coal-fired generation

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Coal-Fired Generation is a concise, up-to-date and readable guide providing an introduction to this traditional power generation technology. It includes detailed descriptions of coal fired generation systems, demystifies the coal fired technology functions in practice as well as exploring the economic and environmental risk factors. Engineers, managers, policymakers and those involved in planning and delivering energy resources will find this reference a valuable guide, to help establish a reliable power supply address social and economic objectives. Focuses on the evolution of the traditio

  15. Modeling urban fire growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterman, T.E.; Takata, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The IITRI Urban Fire Spread Model as well as others of similar vintage were constrained by computer size and running costs such that many approximations/generalizations were introduced to reduce program complexity and data storage requirements. Simplifications were introduced both in input data and in fire growth and spread calculations. Modern computational capabilities offer the means to introduce greater detail and to examine its practical significance on urban fire predictions. Selected portions of the model are described as presently configured, and potential modifications are discussed. A single tract model is hypothesized which permits the importance of various model details to be assessed, and, other model applications are identified

  16. Laboratory fire behavior measurements of chaparral crown fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Sanpakit; S. Omodan; D. Weise; M Princevac

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, there was an estimated 9,900 wildland fires that claimed more than 577,000 acres of land. That same year, about 542 prescribed fires were used to treat 48,554 acres by several agencies in California. Being able to understand fires using laboratory models can better prepare individuals to combat or use fires. Our research focused on chaparral crown fires....

  17. Cyber Friendly Fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Roberts, Adam D.

    2011-09-01

    Cyber friendly fire (FF) is a new concept that has been brought to the attention of Department of Defense (DoD) stakeholders through two workshops that were planned and conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and research conducted for AFRL by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. With this previous work in mind, we offer a definition of cyber FF as intentional offensive or defensive cyber/electronic actions intended to protect cyber systems against enemy forces or to attack enemy cyber systems, which unintentionally harms the mission effectiveness of friendly or neutral forces. Just as with combat friendly fire, a fundamental need in avoiding cyber FF is to maintain situation awareness (SA). We suggest that cyber SA concerns knowledge of a system's topology (connectedness and relationships of the nodes in a system), and critical knowledge elements such as the characteristics and vulnerabilities of the components that comprise the system (and that populate the nodes), the nature of the activities or work performed, and the available defensive (and offensive) countermeasures that may be applied to thwart network attacks. A training implication is to raise awareness and understanding of these critical knowledge units; an approach to decision aids and/or visualizations is to focus on supporting these critical knowledge units. To study cyber FF, we developed an unclassified security test range comprising a combination of virtual and physical devices that present a closed network for testing, simulation, and evaluation. This network offers services found on a production network without the associated costs of a real production network. Containing enough detail to appear realistic, this virtual and physical environment can be customized to represent different configurations. For our purposes, the test range was configured to appear as an Internet-connected Managed Service Provider (MSP) offering specialized web applications to the general public

  18. The evaluation of meta-analysis techniques for quantifying prescribed fire effects on fuel loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karen E. Kopper; Donald McKenzie; David L. Peterson

    2009-01-01

    Models and effect-size metrics for meta-analysis were compared in four separate meta-analyses quantifying surface fuels after prescribed fires in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) forests of the Western United States. An aggregated data set was compiled from eight published reports that contained data from 65 fire treatment units....

  19. An 800-year fire history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen

    2010-01-01

    "Fire in the woods!" The words are a real heart stopper. Yet in spite of its capacity to destroy, fire plays an essential role in shaping plant communities. Knowledge of the patterns of fire over long time periods is critical for understanding this role. Trees often retain evidence of nonlethal fires in the form of injuries or scars in the annual growth rings...

  20. Fire tests and their relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    Background information is provided about the nature of fire tests in general, not specifically designed for testing nuclear flasks. Headings are: brief history (including various temperature/time fire curves); the current position; types of tests; validation of fire tests; fire safety system. (U.K.)

  1. Fire safety of wood construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2010-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements and related fire performance data are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Because basic data...

  2. Development at the wildland-urban interface and the mitigation of forest-fire risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyratos, Vassilis; Bourgeron, Patrick S; Ghil, Michael

    2007-09-04

    This work addresses the impacts of development at the wildland-urban interface on forest fires that spread to human habitats. Catastrophic fires in the western United States and elsewhere make these impacts a matter of urgency for decision makers, scientists, and the general public. Using a simple fire-spread model, along with housing and vegetation data, we show that fire size probability distributions can be strongly modified by the density and flammability of houses. We highlight a sharp transition zone in the parameter space of vegetation flammability and house density. Many actual fire landscapes in the United States appear to have spreading properties close to this transition. Thus, the density and flammability of buildings should be taken into account when assessing fire risk at the wildland-urban interface. Moreover, our results highlight ways for regulation at this interface to help mitigate fire risk.

  3. Fire safety in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kench, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first of a three-part report on the fire hazards in nuclear power stations and some of the precautions necessary. This part lists the United Kingdom reactors, outlines how they work, the fuels used, the use of moderators and coolants and the control systems. Although the risk of fire is no higher than in fossil-fuel stations the consequences can be more serious. The radioactive materials used mean that there is biological shielding round the core, limitations on waste emissions allowed and limited access to some zones. Reliable shut-down systems are needed. Care in the use of water to fight fires must be exercised -it can act as a moderator and cause an otherwise safe core to go critical. The Wigner effect in graphite moderated reactors is explained. Fires in graphite can be extinguished by carbon dioxide. Argon, chlorine and sodium silicate can also be effective. In sodium cooled reactors fires can be allowed to burn themselves out, or TEC and argon could be used to extinguish the flame. (UK)

  4. Subsurface Fire Hazards Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The results from this report are preliminary and cannot be used as input into documents supporting procurement, fabrication, or construction. This technical report identifies fire hazards and proposes their mitigation for the subsurface repository fire protection system. The proposed mitigation establishes the minimum level of fire protection to meet NRC regulations, DOE fire protection orders, that ensure fire containment, adequate life safety provisions, and minimize property loss. Equipment requiring automatic fire suppression systems is identified. The subsurface fire hazards that are identified can be adequately mitigated

  5. Plutonium fires; Incendies de plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestre, E.

    1959-06-23

    The author reports an information survey on accidents which occurred when handling plutonium. He first addresses accidents reported in documents. He indicates the circumstances and consequences of these accidents (explosion in glove boxes, fires of plutonium chips, plutonium fire followed by filter destruction, explosion during plutonium chip dissolution followed by chip fire). He describes hazards associated with plutonium fires: atmosphere and surface contamination, criticality. The author gives some advices to avoid plutonium fires. These advices concern electric installations, the use of flammable solvents, general cautions associated with plutonium handling, venting and filtration. He finally describes how to fight plutonium fires, and measures to be taken after the fire (staff contamination control, atmosphere control)

  6. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Kuznetsova, R I [eds.

    1989-07-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires.

  7. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  8. Fire in the Earth system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, David M J S; Balch, Jennifer K; Artaxo, Paulo; Bond, William J; Carlson, Jean M; Cochrane, Mark A; D'Antonio, Carla M; Defries, Ruth S; Doyle, John C; Harrison, Sandy P; Johnston, Fay H; Keeley, Jon E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Kull, Christian A; Marston, J Brad; Moritz, Max A; Prentice, I Colin; Roos, Christopher I; Scott, Andrew C; Swetnam, Thomas W; van der Werf, Guido R; Pyne, Stephen J

    2009-04-24

    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always coexisted, our capacity to manage fire remains imperfect and may become more difficult in the future as climate change alters fire regimes. This risk is difficult to assess, however, because fires are still poorly represented in global models. Here, we discuss some of the most important issues involved in developing a better understanding of the role of fire in the Earth system.

  9. The economics of fire protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, Ganapathy

    2003-01-01

    This important new book, the first of its kind in the fire safety field, discusses the economic problems faced by decision-makers in the areas of fire safety and fire precautions. The author considers the theoretical aspects of cost-benefit analysis and other relevant economic problems with practical applications to fire protection systems. Clear examples are included to illustrate these techniques in action. The work covers: * the performance and effectiveness of passive fire protection measures such as structural fire resistance and means of escape facilities, and active systems such as sprinklers and detectors * the importance of educating for better understanding and implementation of fire prevention through publicity campaigns and fire brigade operations * cost-benefit analysis of fire protection measures and their combinations, taking into account trade-offs between these measures. The book is essential reading for consultants and academics in construction management, economics and fire safety, as well ...

  10. Cable fire tests in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, M.

    2000-01-01

    Modifications are being carried out in all French nuclear power plants to improve fire safety. These modifications are based on a three level defense in depth concept: fire preventing, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire containing requires many modifications such as protection of cable races and assessment of fire propagation which both need R and D development. On one hand, cable wraps made with mineral wool were tested in all configurations including effect of aging, overheating and fire and qualified for the use as protection from common failure modes. On the other hand, cables races in scale one were subject to gas burner or solvent pool fire to simulate ignition and fire propagation between trays and flash over situations. These tests have been performed under several typical lay out conditions. The results of the tests can be used as input data in computer modelling for validation of fire protection measures. (orig.) [de

  11. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, R.; Keifer, J.; Goodin, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  12. Aircraft Fire Protection Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Navy Aircraft Protection Laboratory provides complete test support for all Navy air vehicle fire protection systems.The facility allows for the simulation of a...

  13. Fire Resistant Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Fire hazard is greater in atmospheres containing a high percentage of oxygen under pressure. NASA intensified its fire safety research after a 1967 Apollo fire. A chemically treated fabric called Durette developed by Monsanto Company, which will not burn or produce noxious fumes, was selected as a material for Apollo astronaut garments. Monsanto sold production rights for this material to Fire Safe Products (FSP). Durette is now used for a wide range of applications such as: sheets, attendants' uniforms in hyperbaric chambers; crew's clothing, furniture and interior walls of diving chambers operated by the U.S. Navy and other oceanographic companies and research organizations. Pyrotect Safety Equipment, Minneapolis, MN produces Durette suits for auto racers, refuelers and crew chiefs from material supplied by FSP. FSP also manufactures Durette bags for filtering gases and dust from boilers, electric generators and similar systems. Durette bags are an alternative to other felted fiber capable of operating at high temperature that cost twice as much.

  14. Fire and smoke retardants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, M. J.

    Despite a reduction in Federal regulatory activity, research concerned with flame retardancy and smoke suppression in the private sector appears to be increasing. This trend seem related to the increased utilization of plastics for end uses which traditionally have employed metal or wood products. As a result, new markets have appeared for thermally stable and fire resistance thermoplastic materials, and this in turn has spurred research and development activity. In addition, public awareness of the dangers associated with fire has increased as a result of several highly publicized hotel and restaurant fires within the past two years. The consumers recognition of flammability characteristics as important materials property considerations has increased. The current status of fire and smoke retardant chemistry and research are summarized.

  15. Hydrogen Fire Spectroscopy Issues

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The detection of hydrogen fires is important to the aerospace community. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has devoted significant effort to...

  16. Fire Perimeters (2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Group, or GeoMAC, is an internet-based mapping tool originally designed for fire managers to access online maps of current...

  17. RETRO Fires Aggr

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  18. RETRO_FIRES_WCS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — Within the RETRO project, global gridded data sets for anthropogenic and vegetation fire emissions of several trace gases were generated, covering the period from...

  19. Basic Research Firing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Basic Research Firing Facility is an indoor ballistic test facility that has recently transitioned from a customer-based facility to a dedicated basic research...

  20. Findings From Fire Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — The purpose of this study data is to provide a metric with which to assess the effectiveness of improvements to the U.S. NRC's fire protection regulations in support...

  1. Fire History Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past fire occurrence from tree rings, charcoal found in lake sediments, and other proxies. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set....

  2. Fire Safety Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all fire safety deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection...

  3. Future Integrated Fire Control

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Bonnie W

    2005-01-01

    Future advances in fire control for air and missile defense depend largely on a network-enabled foundation that enables the collaborative use of distributed warfare assets for time-critical operations...

  4. Forest Fire Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucca, Carol; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents a model that integrates high school science with the needs of the local scientific community. Describes how a high school ecology class conducted scientific research in fire ecology that benefited the students and a state park forest ecologist. (MKR)

  5. Fire retardant polyisocyanurate foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, S. R.; Parker, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Fire retardant properties of low density polymer foam are increased. Foam has pendant nitrile groups which form thermally-stable heterocyclic structures at temperature below degradation temperature of urethane linkages.

  6. Course in fire protection training for nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, K.L.; Bates, E.F.; Randall, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed Regulatory Guide 1.120, entitled ''Fire Protection Guidelines for Nuclear Power Plants,'' provides detailed requirements for the overall fire protection programs at nuclear power plant sites in the United States. An essential element in such a program in the training of plant fire brigade personnel is the use of proper firefighting techniques and equipment. The Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center (NSC) in conjunction with the Fire Protection Training Division of the Texas Engineering Extension Service has developed a one-week course to meet this training need. The program emphasizes hands-on exercises. The course is designed for up to 18 students with all protective clothing provided. Fire instructors are certified by the State of Texas, and registered nuclear engineers and certified health physicists supervise the radiological safety exercises. The first course was conducted during the week of January 8--12, 1979

  7. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  8. Angora Fire, Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On the weekend of June 23, 2007, a wildfire broke out south of Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California-Nevada border. By June 28, the Angora Fire had burned more than 200 homes and forced some 2,000 residents to evacuate, according to The Seattle Times and the Central Valley Business Times. On June 27, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the burn scar left by the Angora fire. The burn scar is dark gray, or charcoal. Water bodies, including the southern tip of Lake Tahoe and Fallen Leaf Lake, are pale silvery blue, the silver color a result of sunlight reflecting off the surface of the water. Vegetation ranges in color from dark to bright green. Streets are light gray, and the customary pattern of meandering residential streets and cul-de-sacs appears throughout the image, including the area that burned. The burn scar shows where the fire obliterated some of the residential areas just east of Fallen Leaf Lake. According to news reports, the U.S. Forest Service had expressed optimism about containing the fire within a week of the outbreak, but a few days after the fire started, it jumped a defense, forcing the evacuation of hundreds more residents. Strong winds that had been forecast for June 27, however, did not materialize, allowing firefighters to regain ground in controlling the blaze. On June 27, authorities hoped that the fire would be completely contained by July 3. According to estimates provided in the daily report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the fire had burned 3,100 acres (about 12.5 square kilometers) and was about 55 percent contained as of June 28. Some mandatory evacuations remained in effect. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  9. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  10. Fire characteristics charts for fire behavior and U.S. fire danger rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Ann Heinsch; Pat Andrews

    2010-01-01

    The fire characteristics chart is a graphical method of presenting U.S. National Fire Danger Rating indices or primary surface or crown fire behavior characteristics. A desktop computer application has been developed to produce fire characteristics charts in a format suitable for inclusion in reports and presentations. Many options include change of scales, colors,...

  11. Community participation in fire management planning: The Trinity county fire safe council's fire plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yvonne Everett

    2008-01-01

    In 1999, Trinity County CA, initiated a participatory fire management planning effort. Since that time, the Trinity County Fire Safe Council has completed critical portions of a fire safe plan and has begun to implement projects defined in the plan. Completion of a GIS based, landscape scale fuels reduction element in the plan defined by volunteer fire fighters, agency...

  12. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  13. A stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests of the southern Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, E.Q.; Swetnam, T.W.; Allen, Craig D.

    2007-01-01

    Dendroecological techniques were applied to reconstruct stand-replacing fire history in upper montane forests in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado. Fourteen stand-replacing fires were dated to 8 unique fire years (1842–1901) using four lines of evidence at each of 12 sites within the upper Rio Grande Basin. The four lines of evidence were (i) quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) inner-ring dates, (ii) fire-killed conifer bark-ring dates, (iii) tree-ring width changes or other morphological indicators of injury, and (iv) fire scars. The annual precision of dating allowed the identification of synchronous stand-replacing fire years among the sites, and co-occurrence with regional surface fire events previously reconstructed from a network of fire scar collections in lower elevation pine forests across the southwestern United States. Nearly all of the synchronous stand-replacing and surface fire years coincided with severe droughts, because climate variability created regional conditions where stand-replacing fires and surface fires burned across ecosystems. Reconstructed stand-replacing fires that predate substantial Anglo-American settlement in this region provide direct evidence that stand-replacing fires were a feature of high-elevation forests before extensive and intensive land-use practices (e.g., logging, railroad, and mining) began in the late 19th century.

  14. Operating room fires in otolaryngology: risk factors and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lee P; Roy, Soham

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the causes of operating room (OR) fires in otolaryngology. A questionnaire was designed to elicit the characteristics of OR fires experienced by otolaryngologists. The survey was advertised to 8523 members of the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Three hundred forty-nine questionnaires were completed. Eighty-eight surgeons (25.2%) witnessed at least one OR fire in their career, 10 experienced 2 fires each, and 2 reported 5 fires each. Of 106 reported fires, details were available for 100. The most common ignition sources were an electrosurgical unit (59%), a laser (32%), and a light cord (7%). Twenty-seven percent of fires occurred during endoscopic airway surgery, 24% during oropharyngeal surgery, 23% during cutaneous or transcutaneous surgery of the head and neck, and 18% during tracheostomy; 7% were related to a light cord, and 1% was related to an anesthesia machine. Eighty-one percent of fires occurred while supplemental oxygen was in use. Common fuels included an endotracheal tube (31%), OR drapes/towels (18%), and flash fire (where no substrate burned) (11%). Less common fuels included alcohol-based preparation solution, gauze sponges, patient's hair or skin, electrosurgical unit with retrofitted insulation over the tip, tracheostomy tube, tonsil sponge, suction tubing, a cottonoid pledget, and a red rubber catheter. OR fire may occur in a wide variety of clinical settings; endoscopic airway surgery, oropharyngeal surgery, cutaneous surgery, and tracheostomy present the highest risk for otolaryngologists. Electrosurgical devices and lasers are the most likely to produce ignition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. LIFAC Demonstration at Richmond Power and Light Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 Volume II: Project Performance and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1998-04-01

    The C1ean Coal Technology (CCT) Program has been recognized in the National Energy Strategy as a major initiative whereby coal will be able to reach its full potential as a source of energy for the nation and the international marketplace. Attainment of this goal depends upon the development of highly efficient, environmentally sound, competitive coal utilization technologies responsive to diverse energy markets and varied consumer needs. The CCT Program is an effort jointly funded by government and industry whereby the most promising of the advanced coal-based technologies are being moved into the marketplace through demonstration. The CCT Program is being implemented through a total of five competitive solicitations. LIFAC North America, a joint venture partnership of ICF Kaiser Engineers, Inc., and Tampella Power Corporation, is currently demonstrating the LIFAC flue gas desulfurization technology developed by Tampella Power. This technology provides sulfur dioxide emission control for power plants, especially existing facilities with tight space limitations. Sulfur dioxide emissions are expected to be reduced by up to 85% by using limestone as a sorbent. The LIFAC technology is being demonstrated at Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2, a 60-MW coal-fired power plant owned and operated by Richmond Power and Light (RP&L) and located in Richmond, Indiana. The Whitewater plant consumes high-sulfur coals, with sulfur contents ranging from 2.0-2.9 $ZO. The project, co-funded by LIFAC North America and DOE, is being conducted with the participation of Richmond Power and Light, the State of Indiana, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and the Black Beauty Coal Company. The project has a total cost of $21.4 million and a duration of 48 months from the preliminary design phase through the testing program.

  16. Near-term probabilistic forecast of significant wildfire events for the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Karin L. Riley; Crystal S. Stonesifer; Dave E. Calkin; Matt Jolly

    2016-01-01

    Fire danger and potential for large fires in the United States (US) is currently indicated via several forecasted qualitative indices. However, landscape-level quantitative forecasts of the probability of a large fire are currently lacking. In this study, we present a framework for forecasting large fire occurrence - an extreme value event - and evaluating...

  17. Fire protection and fire fighting in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Fires are a threat to all technical installations. While fire protection has long been a well established conventional discipline, its application to nuclear facilities requires special considerations. Nevertheless, for a long time fire engineering has been somewhat neglected in the design and operation of nuclear installations. In the nuclear industry, the Browns Ferry fire in 1975 brought about an essential change in the attention paid to fire problems. Designers and plant operators, as well as insurance companies and regulators, increased their efforts to develop concepts and methods for reducing fire risks, not only to protect the capital investment in nuclear plants but also to consider the potential secondary effects which could lead to nuclear accidents. Although the number of fires in nuclear installations is still relatively large, their overall importance to the safety of nuclear power plants was not considered to be very high. Only more recently have probabilistic analyses changed this picture. The results may well have to be taken into account more carefully. Various aspects of fire fighting and fire protection were discussed during the Symposium, the first of its kind to be organized by the IAEA. It was convened in co-operation with several organizations working in the nuclear or fire protection fields. The intention was to gather experts from nuclear engineering areas and the conventional fire protection field at one meeting with a view to enhancing the exchange of information and experience and to presenting current knowledge on the various disciplines involved. The presentations at the meeting were subdivided into eight sessions: standards and licensing (6 papers); national fire safety practices (7 papers); fire safety by design (11 papers); fire fighting (2 papers); computer fire modeling (7 papers); fire safety in fuel center facilities (7 papers); fire testing of materials (3 papers); fire risk assessment (5 papers). A separate abstract was

  18. Fire propagation equation for the explicit identification of fire scenarios in a fire PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ho Gon; Han, Sang Hoon; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    When performing fire PSA in a nuclear power plant, an event mapping method, using an internal event PSA model, is widely used to reduce the resources used by fire PSA model development. Feasible initiating events and component failure events due to fire are identified to transform the fault tree (FT) for an internal event PSA into one for a fire PSA using the event mapping method. A surrogate event or damage term method is used to condition the FT of the internal PSA. The surrogate event or the damage term plays the role of flagging whether the system/component in a fire compartment is damaged or not, depending on the fire being initiated from a specified compartment. These methods usually require explicit states of all compartments to be modeled in a fire area. Fire event scenarios, when using explicit identification, such as surrogate or damage terms, have two problems: there is no consideration of multiple fire propagation beyond a single propagation to an adjacent compartment, and there is no consideration of simultaneous fire propagations in which an initiating fire event is propagated to multiple paths simultaneously. The present paper suggests a fire propagation equation to identify all possible fire event scenarios for an explicitly treated fire event scenario in the fire PSA. Also, a method for separating fire events was developed to make all fire events a set of mutually exclusive events, which can facilitate arithmetic summation in fire risk quantification. A simple example is given to confirm the applicability of the present method for a 2x3 rectangular fire area. Also, a feasible asymptotic approach is discussed to reduce the computational burden for fire risk quantification

  19. Fire effects on soils in Lake States forests: A compilation of published research to facilitate long-term investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Miesel; P. Goebel; R. Corace; David Hix; Randall Kolka; Brian Palik; David. Mladenoff

    2012-01-01

    Fire-adapted forests of the Lake States region are poorly studied relative to those of the western and southeastern United States and our knowledge base of regional short- and long-term fire effects on soils is limited. We compiled and assessed the body of literature addressing fire effects on soils in Lake States forests to facilitate the re-measurement of previous...

  20. Science delivery is a two-way street – development of the Consortium Of Appalachian Fire Managers and Scientists (CAFMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Waldrop; Helen H. Mohr; Zoe Hoyle

    2012-01-01

    The Appalachian region stretches along the Blue Ridge Mountains from Pennsylvania south into Georgia and Alabama. The region’s lands shelter some of the greatest biological diversity in the United States. The heavily forested public lands are in great need of science-based fire management after decades of fire suppression. Fire-related research is relatively new to the...

  1. Coordinated motility of cyanobacteria favor mat formation, photosynthesis and carbon burial in low-oxygen, high-sulfur shallow sinkholes of Lake Huron; whereas deep-water aphotic sinkholes are analogs of deep-sea seep and vent ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddanda, B. A.; McMillan, A. C.; Long, S. A.; Snider, M. J.; Weinke, A. D.; Dick, G.; Ruberg, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    Microbial life in submerged sinkhole ecosystems of the Laurentian Great Lakes is relatively understudied in comparison to seeps and vents of the deep-sea. We studied the filamentous benthic mat-forming cyanobacteria consisting primarily of Oscillatoria-like cells growing under low-light, low-oxygen and high-sulfur conditions in Lake Huron's submerged sinkholes using in situ observations, in vitro measurements and time-lapse microscopy. Gliding movement of the cyanobacterial trichomes revealed individual as well as group-coordinated motility. When placed in a petri dish and dispersed in ground water from the sinkhole, filaments re-aggregated into defined colonies within minutes. Measured speed of individual filaments ranged from 50 µm minute-1 or 15 body lengths minute-1 to 215 µm minute-1 or 70 body lengths minute-1 - rates that are rapid relative to non-flagellated/ciliated microbes. Filaments exhibited precise and coordinated positive phototaxis towards pinpoints of light and congregated under the light of foil cutouts. Such light-responsive clusters showed an increase in photosynthetic yield - suggesting phototactic motility aids in light acquisition as well as photosynthesis. Pebbles and pieces of broken shells placed upon the mat in intact sediemnt cores were quickly covered by vertically motile filaments within hours and became fully buried in the anoxic sediments over 3-4 diurnal cycles - likely facilitating the preservation of falling plankton debris. Coordinated horizontal and vertical filament motility optimize mat cohesion and dynamics, photosynthetic efficiency and sedimentary carbon burial in modern-day sinkhole habitats where life operates across sharp redox gradients. Analogous cyanobacterial motility in the shallow seas during Earth's early history, may have played a key role in the oxygenation of the planet by optimizing photosynthesis while favoring carbon burial. We are now eagerly mapping and exploring life in deep-water aphotic sinkholes of

  2. Dependence of liquefaction behavior on coal characteristics. Part VI. Relationship of liquefaction behavior of a set of high sulfur coals to chemical structural characteristics. Final technical report, March 1981 to February 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neill, P. H.; Given, P. H.

    1984-09-01

    The initial aim of this research was to use empirical mathematical relationships to formulate a better understanding of the processes involved in the liquefaction of a set of medium rank high sulfur coals. In all, just over 50 structural parameters and yields of product classes were determined. In order to gain a more complete understanding of the empirical relationships between the various properties, a number of relatively complex statistical procedures and tests were applied to the data, mostly selected from the field of multivariate analysis. These can be broken down into two groups. The first group included grouping techniques such as non-linear mapping, hierarchical and tree clustering, and linear discriminant analyses. These techniques were utilized in determining if more than one statistical population was present in the data set; it was concluded that there was not. The second group of techniques included factor analysis and stepwise multivariate linear regressions. Linear discriminant analyses were able to show that five distinct groups of coals were represented in the data set. However only seven of the properties seemed to follow this trend. The chemical property that appeared to follow the trend most closely was the aromaticity, where a series of five parallel straight lines was observed for a plot of f/sub a/ versus carbon content. The factor patterns for each of the product classes indicated that although each of the individual product classes tended to load on factors defined by specific chemical properties, the yields of the broader product classes, such as total conversion to liquids + gases and conversion to asphaltenes, tended to load largely on factors defined by rank. The variance explained and the communalities tended to be relatively low. Evidently important sources of variance have still to be found.

  3. Pressure cylinders under fire condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hora

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of pressure cylinders under fire conditions significantly increases the risk rate for the intervening persons. It is considerably problematic to predict the pressure cylinders behaviour during heat exposition, its destruction progress and possible following explosion of the produced air–gas mixture because pressure cylinders and its environment generate a highly complicated dynamic system during an uncontrolled destruction. The large scale tests carried out by the Pilsen Fire and Rescue Department and the Rapid Response Unit of the Czech Republic Police in October 2012 and in May 2014 in the Military area Brdy and in the area of the former Lachema factory in Kaznějov had several objectives, namely, to record, qualify and quantify some of the aspects of an uncontrolled heat destruction procedure of an exposed pressure cylinder in an enclosed space and to qualify and describe the process of a controlled destruction of a pressure cylinder by shooting through it including basic tactical concepts. The article describes the experiments that were carried out.

  4. Cinema Fire Modelling by FDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasa, J; Valasek, L; Weisenpacher, P; Halada, L

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in computer fluid dynamics (CFD) and rapid increase of computational power of current computers have led to the development of CFD models capable to describe fire in complex geometries incorporating a wide variety of physical phenomena related to fire. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) for cinema fire modelling. FDS is an advanced CFD system intended for simulation of the fire and smoke spread and prediction of thermal flows, toxic substances concentrations and other relevant parameters of fire. The course of fire in a cinema hall is described focusing on related safety risks. Fire properties of flammable materials used in the simulation were determined by laboratory measurements and validated by fire tests and computer simulations

  5. Cinema Fire Modelling by FDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, J.; Valasek, L.; Weisenpacher, P.; Halada, L.

    2013-02-01

    Recent advances in computer fluid dynamics (CFD) and rapid increase of computational power of current computers have led to the development of CFD models capable to describe fire in complex geometries incorporating a wide variety of physical phenomena related to fire. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) for cinema fire modelling. FDS is an advanced CFD system intended for simulation of the fire and smoke spread and prediction of thermal flows, toxic substances concentrations and other relevant parameters of fire. The course of fire in a cinema hall is described focusing on related safety risks. Fire properties of flammable materials used in the simulation were determined by laboratory measurements and validated by fire tests and computer simulations

  6. Experience from the Inspection of Licensees' Outage Activities, Including Fire Protection Programmes, Event Response Inspections, and the Impact of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP Accident on Inspection Programmes. Workshop Proceedings, Chattanooga, Tennessee, United States, 7-10 April 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    The main purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum of exchange of information on the regulatory inspection activities. Participants had the opportunity to meet with their counterparts from other countries and organisations to discuss current and future issues on the selected topics. They developed conclusions regarding these issues and hopefully, identified methods to help improve their own inspection programmes. The NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) believes that an essential factor in ensuring the safety of nuclear installations is the continuing exchange and analysis of technical information and data. To facilitate this exchange the Committee has established working groups and groups of experts in specialised topics. The Working Group on Inspection Practices (WGIP) was formed in 1990 with the mandate '..to concentrate on the conduct of inspections and how the effectiveness of inspections could be evaluated..'. The WGIP facilitates the exchange of information and experience related to regulatory safety inspections between CNRA member countries. These proceedings cover the 12. International Workshop held by WGIP on regulatory inspection activities. This workshop, which is the twelfth in a series, along with many other activities performed by the Working Group, is directed towards this goal. The consensus from participants at previous workshops, noted that the value of meeting with people from other inspection organisations was one of the most important achievements. The focus of this workshop was on experience gained from regulatory inspection activities in three areas: - Inspection of Outage Activities Including Fire Protection Programmes. - Event Response Inspections. - The Impact of Inspection Programmes of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Accident. The main objectives of the WGIP workshops are to enable inspectors to meet with inspectors from other organisations, to exchange information regarding regulatory inspection

  7. Fire blight in Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dali L. Gaganidze

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire blight is distinguished among the fruit tree diseases by harmfulness. Fire blight damages about 180 cultural and wild plants belonging to the Rosaceae family. Quince, apple and pear are the most susceptible to the disease. At present, the disease occurs in over 40 countries of Europe and Asia. Economic damage caused by fire blight is expressed not only in crop losses, but also, it poses threat of eradication to entire fruit tree gardens. Erwinia amylovora, causative bacteria of fire blight in fruit trees, is included in the A2 list of quarantine organisms. In 2016, the employees of the Plant Pest Diagnostic Department of the Laboratory of the Georgian Ministry of Agriculture have detected Erwinia amylovora in apple seedlings from Mtskheta district. National Food Agency, Ministry of Agriculture of Georgia informed FAO on pathogen detection. The aim of the study is detection of the bacterium Erwinia amylovora by molecular method (PCR in the samples of fruit trees, suspicious on fire blight collected in the regions of Eastern (Kvemo Kartli, Shida Kartli and Kakheti and Western Georgia (Imereti.The bacterium Erwinia amylovora was detected by real time and conventional PCR methods using specific primers and thus the fire blight disease confirmed in 23 samples of plant material from Shida Kartli (11 apples, 6 pear and 6 quince samples, in 5 samples from Kvemo Kartli (1 quince and 4 apple samples, in 2 samples of apples from Kakheti region and 1 sample of pear collected in Imereti (Zestafoni. Keywords: Fire blight, Erwinia amylovora, Conventional PCR, Real time PCR, DNA, Bacterium

  8. Modeling fires in adjacent ship compartments with computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wix, S.D.; Cole, J.K.; Koski, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal effects on radioactive (RAM) transportation pack ages with a fire in an adjacent compartment. An assumption for this analysis is that the adjacent hold fire is some sort of engine room fire. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis tools were used to perform the analysis in order to include convective heat transfer effects. The analysis results were compared to experimental data gathered in a series of tests on the United States Coast Guard ship Mayo Lykes located at Mobile, Alabama. (authors)

  9. Production and Transport of Ozone From Boreal Forest Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasick, David; Liu, Jane; Osman, Mohammed; Sioris, Christopher; Liu, Xiong; Najafabadi, Omid; Parrington, Mark; Palmer, Paul; Strawbridge, Kevin; Duck, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    In the summer of 2010, the BORTAS (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites) mission was planned by several universities and government agencies in the United Kingdom, Canada, and USA. Nearly 100 ozone soundings were made at 13 stations through the BORTAS Intensive Sounding Network, although aircraft measurements were unfortunately cancelled due to the volcanic eruption in Iceland. 2010 was actually an exceptional year for Canadian boreal fires. MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fire count data shows large fire events in Saskatchewan on several days in July. High amounts of NO2 close to the large fires are observed from OMI satellite data, indicating that not all NO2 is converted to PAN. Also associated with the fires, large amounts of CO, another precursor of ozone, are observed in MOPITT (Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere), AIRS and TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) satellite data in the middle to upper troposphere. These chemical conditions combined with sunny weather all favour ozone production. Following days with large fire activity, layers of elevated ozone mixing ratio (over 100 ppbv) are observed downwind at several sites. Back-trajectories suggest the elevated ozone in the profile is traceable to the fires in Saskatchewan. Lidar profiles also detect layers of aerosol at the same heights. However, the layers of high ozone are also associated with low humidity, which is not expected from a combustion source, and suggests the possibility of entrainment of stratospheric air.

  10. Upgrading of fire safety in Indian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Indian nuclear power programme started with the installation of 2 nos. of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) at Tarapur (TAPS I and II) of 210 MWe each commissioned in the year 1996. The Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) programme in the country started with the installation of 2x220 MWe stations at Rawatbhatta near Kota (RAPS I and II) in the State of Rajasthan in the sixties. At the present moment, the country has 10 stations in operation. Construction is going on for 4 more units of 220 MWe where as work on two more 500 MWe units is going to start soon. Fire safety systems for the earlier units were engineered as per the state-of-art knowledge available then. The need for review of fire protection systems in the Indian nuclear power plants has also been felt since long almost after Brown's Ferry fire in 1975 itself. Task forces consisting of fire experts, systems design engineers, O and M personnel as well as the Fire Protection engineers at the plant were constituted for each plant to review the existing fire safety provisions in details and highlight the upgradation needed for meeting the latest requirements as per the national as well as international practices. The recommendations made by three such task forces for the three plants are proposed to be reviewed in this paper. The paper also highlights the recommendations to be implemented immediately as well as on long-term basis over a period of time

  11. Post-fire Water Quality Response and Associated Physical Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, A.; Saxe, S.; Hogue, T. S.; McCray, J. E.; Rhoades, C.

    2017-12-01

    The frequency and severity of forest fires is increasing across the western US. Wildfires are known to impact water quality in receiving waters; many of which are important sources of water supply. Studies on individual forest fires have shown an increase in total suspended solids, nutrient and metal concentrations and loading in receiving streams. The current research looks at a large number of fires across a broad region (Western United States) to identify typical water quality changes after fire and the physical characteristics that drive those responses. This presentation will overview recent development of an extensive database on post-fire water quality. Across 172 fires, we found that water quality changed significantly in one out of three fires up to five years after the event compared to pre-burn conditions. For basins with higher frequency data, it was evident that water quality changes were significant in the first three years following fire. In both the initial years following fire and five years after fire, concentrations and loading rates of dissolved nutrients such as nitrite, nitrate and orthophosphate and particulate forms of nutrients, total organic nitrogen, total nitrogen, total phosphate, and total phosphorus increase thirty percent of the time. Concentrations of some major dissolved ions and metals decrease, with increased post-fire flows, while total particulate concentrations increased; the flux of both dissolved and particulate forms increase in thirty percent of the fires over five years. Water quality change is not uniform across the studied watersheds. A second goal of this study is to identify physical characteristics of a watershed that drive water quality response. Specifically, we investigate the physical, geochemical, and climatological characteristics of watersheds that control the type, direction, and magnitude of water quality change. Initial results reveal vegetation recovery is a key driver in post-fire water quality response

  12. The importance of fire simulation in fire prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtić Radoje B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of fire in objects with lot of humans inside represents very possible real situation that could be very danger and could cause destructive consequences on human lives and material properties. Very important influence in fire prediction, fire protection, human and material properties safety could be a fire simulation in object. This simulation could give many useful information of possible fire propagation; possible and existed evacuation routes; possible and exited placing of fire, smoke, temperature conditions in object and many other information of crucial importance for human lives and material properties, such as the best places for sensors position, optimal number of sensors, projection of possible evacuation routes etc. There are many different programs for fire simulation. This paper presents complete fire simulation in Electrotechnical school Nikola Tesla in Niš in FDS.

  13. Aerosol generation from Kerosene fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, S.; Lindner, W.

    1981-01-01

    The course of solvent surface fires is dependent on the surface area on fire; depth of pool and solvent composition do not influence the fire rate. But the fire rate increases rapidly with the burning area. The residual oxygen concentration after a fire in a closed container is dependent on the violence of the fire, i.e. on the burning surface. Moreover the ending of the fire is influenced by the TBP-concentration of the solvent. With sufficient supply of solvent the TBP-concentration changes only slightly during the fire, so that a fire at 14% O 2 -concentration is extinguished within the container. With the TBP-concentration changing considerably, i.e. little mass, a fire with a similar burning surface is already extinguished at an O 2 -content of 18%. The aerosol generation depends on the fire rate, and so it is higher in free atmosphere than in closed containers. The soot production in the mixture fire (kerosene /TBP 70/30) is higher by a factor 7 than in the pure kerosene fire. Primary soot-particles have a diameter of approximately 0,05 μm and agglomerate rapidly into aggregates of 0,2-0,4 μm. (orig.) [de

  14. Nuclear insurance fire risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear facilities operate under the constant risk that radioactive materials could be accidentally released off-site and cause injuries to people or damages to the property of others. Management of this nuclear risk, therefore, is very important to nuclear operators, financial stakeholders and the general public. Operators of these facilities normally retain a portion of this risk and transfer the remainder to others through an insurance mechanism. Since the nuclear loss exposure could be very high, insurers usually assess their risk first-hand by sending insurance engineers to conduct a nuclear insurance inspection. Because a serious fire can greatly increase the probability of an off-site release of radiation, fire safety should be included in the nuclear insurance inspection. This paper reviews essential elements of a facility's fire safety program as a key factor in underwriting nuclear third-party liability insurance. (author)

  15. Learning by Erring: fire!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjugn, Roger; Hansen, Jarle

    2013-08-01

    Biorepositories may be affected by a number of emergencies ranging from bad publicity to natural disasters, and biorepositories should have plans for handling such situations. The emergency management process includes all phases from mitigation to recovery. Fire is one disaster that may cause extensive damage to both physical structures and humans. In this article, we analyze events related to a fire in a storage facility for mechanical freezers. The analysis covers both the pre-crisis stage, the fire itself, and the post-crisis stage. Even the best intended planning cannot stop a crisis from happening. However, an open-minded analysis of the crisis with focus on learning and quality improvement can improve an organization's ability to handle the next emergency situation.

  16. Development of the IPRO-zone for fire PSA and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. I.; Han, S. H.

    2012-01-01

    A PSA analyst has been manually determining fire-induced component failure modes and modeling them into the PSA logics. These can be difficult and time-consuming tasks as they need much information and many events are to be modeled. KAERI has been developing the IPRO-ZONE (interface program for constructing zone effect table) to facilitate fire PSA works for identifying and modeling fire-induced component failure modes, and to construct a one top fire event PSA model. With the output of the IPRO-ZONE, the AIMS-PSA, and internal event one top PSA model, one top fire events PSA model is automatically constructed. The outputs of the IPRO-ZONE include information on fire zones/fire scenarios, fire propagation areas, equipment failure modes affected by a fire, internal PSA basic events corresponding to fire-induced equipment failure modes, and fire events to be modeled. This paper introduces the IPRO-ZONE, and its application results to fire PSA of Ulchin Unit 3 and SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor). (authors)

  17. Development of the IPRO-zone for fire PSA and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, D. I.; Han, S. H. [Integrated Safety Assessment Div., Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst. KAERI, 1045 Daedeokdaero (150 Deokjin-Dong), Yuseong-Gu, Daejon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    A PSA analyst has been manually determining fire-induced component failure modes and modeling them into the PSA logics. These can be difficult and time-consuming tasks as they need much information and many events are to be modeled. KAERI has been developing the IPRO-ZONE (interface program for constructing zone effect table) to facilitate fire PSA works for identifying and modeling fire-induced component failure modes, and to construct a one top fire event PSA model. With the output of the IPRO-ZONE, the AIMS-PSA, and internal event one top PSA model, one top fire events PSA model is automatically constructed. The outputs of the IPRO-ZONE include information on fire zones/fire scenarios, fire propagation areas, equipment failure modes affected by a fire, internal PSA basic events corresponding to fire-induced equipment failure modes, and fire events to be modeled. This paper introduces the IPRO-ZONE, and its application results to fire PSA of Ulchin Unit 3 and SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor). (authors)

  18. USFA NFIRS 2013 Fire Incident & Cause Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The 2013 Fire Causes & Incident data was provided by the U.S. Fire Administration’s (USFA) National Fire Data Center’s (NFDC’s) National Fire Incident Reporting...

  19. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on fauna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane Kapler Smith

    2000-01-01

    VOLUME 1: Fires affect animals mainly through effects on their habitat. Fires often cause short-term increases in wildlife foods that contribute to increases in populations of some animals. These increases are moderated by the animals' ability to thrive in the altered, often simplified, structure of the postfire environment. The extent of fire effects on animal...

  20. Quantitative comparison of fire danger index performance using fire activity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, KC

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available parameters such as flame length or rate of spread can be physically measured or modeled. Fire danger indices are not designed to describe the characteristics of a fire but rather the potential of a fire taking place in an area of interest [5]. Several...

  1. Rx fire laws: tools to protect fire: the `ecological imperative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale Wade; Steven Miller; Johnny Stowe; James Brenner

    2006-01-01

    The South is the birthplace of statutes and ordinances that both advocate and protect the cultural heritage of woods burning, which has been practiced in this region uninterrupted for more than 10,000 years. We present a brief overview of fire use in the South and discuss why most southern states recognized early on that periodic fire was necessary to sustain fire...

  2. Spent fuel transportation cask response to a tunnel fire scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajwa, C.S. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, D.C. (United States); Adkins, H.E.; Cuta, J.M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    On July 18, 2001, a freight train carrying hazardous (non-nuclear) materials derailed and caught fire while passing through the Howard Street railroad tunnel in downtown Baltimore, Maryland. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), one of the agencies responsible for ensuring the safe transportation of radioactive materials in the United States, undertook an investigation of the train derailment and fire to determine the possible regulatory implications of this particular event for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel by railroad. Shortly after the accident occurred, the USNRC met with the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the U.S. agency responsible for determining the cause of transportation accidents, to discuss the details of the accident and the ensuing fire. Following these discussions, the USNRC assembled a team of experts from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine the thermal conditions that existed in the Howard Street tunnel fire and analyze the effects of this fire on various spent fuel transportation cask designs. The Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) code, developed by NIST, was used to determine the thermal environment present in the Howard Street tunnel during the fire. The FDS results were used as boundary conditions in the ANSYS {sup registered} and COBRA-SFS computer codes to evaluate the thermal performance of different cask designs. The staff concluded that the transportation casks analyzed would withstand a fire with thermal conditions similar to those that existed in the Baltimore tunnel fire event. No release of radioactive materials would result from exposure of the casks analyzed to such an event. This paper describes the methods and approach used for this assessment.

  3. Spent fuel transportation cask response to a tunnel fire scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajwa, C.S.; Adkins, H.E.; Cuta, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    On July 18, 2001, a freight train carrying hazardous (non-nuclear) materials derailed and caught fire while passing through the Howard Street railroad tunnel in downtown Baltimore, Maryland. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), one of the agencies responsible for ensuring the safe transportation of radioactive materials in the United States, undertook an investigation of the train derailment and fire to determine the possible regulatory implications of this particular event for the transportation of spent nuclear fuel by railroad. Shortly after the accident occurred, the USNRC met with the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), the U.S. agency responsible for determining the cause of transportation accidents, to discuss the details of the accident and the ensuing fire. Following these discussions, the USNRC assembled a team of experts from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to determine the thermal conditions that existed in the Howard Street tunnel fire and analyze the effects of this fire on various spent fuel transportation cask designs. The Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) code, developed by NIST, was used to determine the thermal environment present in the Howard Street tunnel during the fire. The FDS results were used as boundary conditions in the ANSYS registered and COBRA-SFS computer codes to evaluate the thermal performance of different cask designs. The staff concluded that the transportation casks analyzed would withstand a fire with thermal conditions similar to those that existed in the Baltimore tunnel fire event. No release of radioactive materials would result from exposure of the casks analyzed to such an event. This paper describes the methods and approach used for this assessment

  4. Fire Protection Informational Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    durable and launderable. A summary of contractor lead efforts to achieve these goals was presented. 3.19 US Naval Air Systems Command The NAVAIR fire... contractors spoke next concerning their companies’ technologies for fuel fire mitigation. Randy Fontinakes from Meggitt summarized his company’s products...decomprHalon FUS~ ht Surgeon’a Manual, USN: 0 Mdentlry, rapid d.eC)mpt"tMion • moct.rate .ctfvtty, rapkl decomprualon c: 0 Ill 5 1000 +- ph~lo4oglcal

  5. Fire resistant aircraft seat program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, L. A.

    1979-01-01

    Foams, textiles, and thermoformable plastics were tested to determine which materials were fire retardant, and safe for aircraft passenger seats. Seat components investigated were the decorative fabric cover, slip covers, fire blocking layer, cushion reinforcement, and the cushioning layer.

  6. National Fire News- Current Wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1 to 5) Current hours for the National Fire Information Center are (MST) 8:00 am - 4: ... for more information. June 15, 2018 Nationally, wildland fire activity remains about average for this time of ...

  7. Wilderness fire management planning guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Fischer

    1984-01-01

    Outlines a procedure for fire management planning for parks; wilderness areas; and other wild, natural, or essentially undeveloped areas. Discusses background and philosophy of wilderness fire management, planning concepts, planning elements, and planning methods.

  8. Back to Basics: Preventing Surgical Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    When fires occur in the OR, they are devastating and potentially fatal to both patients and health care workers. Fires can be prevented by understanding the fire triangle and methods of reducing fire risk, conducting fire risk assessments, and knowing how to respond if a fire occurs. This Back to Basics article addresses the basics of fire prevention and the steps that can be taken to prevent fires from occurring. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Automatic fire hydrant valve development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumheller, K.

    1976-01-01

    The development of a remotely-controlled valve to operate a fire hydrant is described. Assembled from off-the-shelf components, the prototype illustrates that a valve light enough to be handled by one man is possible. However, it does not have the ruggedness or reliability needed for actual fire-fighting operations. Preliminary testing by City of Tacoma fire department personnel indicates that the valve may indeed contribute significantly to fire-fighting efficiency

  10. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  11. Integrating remotely sensed fires for predicting deforestation for REDD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteras, Dolors; Gibbes, Cerian; Anaya, Jesús A; Dávalos, Liliana M

    2017-06-01

    Fire is an important tool in tropical forest management, as it alters forest composition, structure, and the carbon budget. The United Nations program on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) aims to sustainably manage forests, as well as to conserve and enhance their carbon stocks. Despite the crucial role of fire management, decision-making on REDD+ interventions fails to systematically include fires. Here, we address this critical knowledge gap in two ways. First, we review REDD+ projects and programs to assess the inclusion of fires in monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) systems. Second, we model the relationship between fire and forest for a pilot site in Colombia using near-real-time (NRT) fire monitoring data derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The literature review revealed fire remains to be incorporated as a key component of MRV systems. Spatially explicit modeling of land use change showed the probability of deforestation declined sharply with increasing distance to the nearest fire the preceding year (multi-year model area under the curve [AUC] 0.82). Deforestation predictions based on the model performed better than the official REDD early-warning system. The model AUC for 2013 and 2014 was 0.81, compared to 0.52 for the early-warning system in 2013 and 0.68 in 2014. This demonstrates NRT fire monitoring is a powerful tool to predict sites of forest deforestation. Applying new, publicly available, and open-access NRT fire data should be an essential element of early-warning systems to detect and prevent deforestation. Our results provide tools for improving both the current MRV systems, and the deforestation early-warning system in Colombia. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. 2013 Annual Report: Fire Modeling Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin J. Innes; Faith Ann Heinsch; Kristine M. Lee

    2014-01-01

    The Fire Modeling Institute (FMI) of the U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS), is a national and international resource for fire managers. Located within the Fire, Fuel, and Smoke Science Program at the Missoula Fire Sciences Laboratory (Fire Lab) in Montana, FMI helps managers utilize fire and fuel science and technology developed throughout the...

  13. Forecasting distribution of numbers of large fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Jeff Eidenshink; Stephen Howard; Robert E. Burgan

    2015-01-01

    Systems to estimate forest fire potential commonly utilize one or more indexes that relate to expected fire behavior; however they indicate neither the chance that a large fire will occur, nor the expected number of large fires. That is, they do not quantify the probabilistic nature of fire danger. In this work we use large fire occurrence information from the...

  14. Fire in the Earth System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, D.M.J.S.; Balch, J.K.; Artaxo, P.; Bond, W.J.; Carlson, J.M.; Cochrane, M.A.; D'Antonio, C.M.; DeFries, R.S.; Doyle, J.C.; Harrison, S.P.; Johnston, F.H.; Keeley, J.E.; Krawchuk, M.A.; Kull, C.A.; Marston, J.B.; Moritz, M.A.; Prentice, I.C.; Roos, C.I.; Scott, A.C.; Swetnam, T.W.; van der Werf, G.R.; Pyne, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Fire is a worldwide phenomenon that appears in the geological record soon after the appearance of terrestrial plants. Fire influences global ecosystem patterns and processes, including vegetation distribution and structure, the carbon cycle, and climate. Although humans and fire have always

  15. Prescribed fire research in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Brose

    2009-01-01

    Prescribed fire in Pennsylvania is a relatively new forestry practice because of the State's adverse experience with highly destructive wildfires in the early 1900s. The recent introduction of prescribed fire raises a myriad of questions regarding its correct and safe use. This poster briefly describes the prescribed fire research projects of the Forestry Sciences...

  16. Sodium fires in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzenhauer, P.

    1974-01-01

    The work deals with the behaviour of liquid sodium when it comes into contact with air, especially in the course of fires in technical plants. The most important fire procedures are constructed as realistically as possible, that is to say that the fires were not only carried out on a laboratory scale but with quantities of up to 200 kg sodium at temperatures of up to 800 0 C. The following was investigated: 1) the course of the fire in rooms, 2) restriction of the fire, 3) removal of the burnt remains, 4) protection measures. The fire was varied in its most important physical appearance such as surface fire, spurt fire and fire on isolated pipe lines. The fires were checked by precautionary, contructive measures - it was not necessary to place persons at the site of the fire - and by active measures such as for example by covering with extinguishing powder. All important test phases were captured in film and slides series. Visible material is thus available for the operation team of sodium plants and fire brigades who might possibly be called upon. (orig./LH) [de

  17. Estimates of wildland fire emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Liu; John J. Qu; Wanting Wang; Xianjun Hao

    2013-01-01

    Wildland fire missions can significantly affect regional and global air quality, radiation, climate, and the carbon cycle. A fundamental and yet challenging prerequisite to understanding the environmental effects is to accurately estimate fire emissions. This chapter describes and analyzes fire emission calculations. Various techniques (field measurements, empirical...

  18. Fire regimes, past and present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl N. Skinner; Chiru Chang

    1996-01-01

    Fire has been an important ecosystem process in the Sierra Nevada for thousands of years. Before the area was settled in the 1850s, fires were generally frequent throughout much of the range. The frequency and severity of these fires varied spatially and temporally depending upon climate, elevation, topography, vegetation, edaphic conditions, and human cultural...

  19. Measuring fire size in tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qihui

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of fire size Q′ has been introduced in longitudinally ventilated tunnel as the ratio of flame height to the height of tunnel. The analysis in this article has shown that Q′ controls both the critical velocity and the maximum ceiling temperature in the tunnel. Before the fire flame reaches tunnel ceiling (Q′ 1.0), Fr approaches a constant value. This is also a well-known phenomenon in large tunnel fires. Tunnel ceiling temperature shows the opposite trend. Before the fire flame reaches the ceiling, it increases very slowly with the fire size. Once the flame has hit the ceiling of tunnel, temperature rises rapidly with Q′. The good agreement between the current prediction and three different sets of experimental data has demonstrated that the theory has correctly modelled the relation among the heat release rate of fire, ventilation flow and the height of tunnel. From design point of view, the theoretical maximum of critical velocity for a given tunnel can help to prevent oversized ventilation system. -- Highlights: • Fire sizing is an important safety measure in tunnel design. • New measure of fire size a function of HRR of fire, tunnel height and ventilation. • The measure can identify large and small fires. • The characteristics of different fire are consistent with observation in real fires

  20. Techniques for extinguishing sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, Chander; Kale, R.D.

    1979-02-01

    The experimental work done to evaluate the performance of commercially available fire extinguishants and powders for sodium fires is described. Dry chemical powder with sodium bicarbonate base was found very effective. Another effective method of extinghishing fire by using perforated covered tray is also discussed. (auth.)