WorldWideScience

Sample records for units developing agricultural

  1. THE METHODOLOGY OF DEVELOPING VALUE INDICATORS TO INTEGRALLY ASSESS RESOURCE POTENTIAL IN AGRICULTURAL UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena TIMOFTI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem of increasing the economic efficiency of resource use in agricultural production is very important. Its solution directly depends on the economic security of the country and its constant supply with agricultural products.There are three basic factors in agricultural production: nature (land, labour and capital, which have differentmeasure units. Comparability is necessary to express the value of the integral potential that gives the possibility totake into account the main resources involved in producing and obtaining results from the agricultural sector.

  2. Analysis on Green Agriculture Policy during the Development of Eco-city in European Countries and the United States and Policy Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; QIN; Yang; QI

    2014-01-01

    Ecological agriculture is the important industrial foundation for building eco-cities,while green agriculture policy plays an essential role in promoting sustainable development of ecological agriculture. This paper analyzed the relationship between green agriculture policy and developing eco-cities and characteristics of green agriculture policies in European countries and the United States developing ecological cities.Besides,it summarized experience,in hope of providing beneficial reference for China developing eco-cities.

  3. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Scott; Gasperini, Lavinia; Rudgard, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    The distance learning experiences of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization led to the following suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development: use distance learning for the right reasons, be sensitive to context, use existing infrastructure, engage stakeholders, and…

  4. Agricultural Land in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Agricultural land cover for the western United States. This dataset was developed from Sagestitch, the Eastern Washington Shrubsteppe Mapping Project, and several...

  5. The process of developing new competences: a case study at a family agricultural production unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uiara Bandineli Montedo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the difficulties faced by farmers who implement new production methods on their land. We discuss the nature of the new competences that farmers must develop, highlighting the complexities of the means they use, the difficulties they confront in this process, and the strategies farmers develop in consonance with the practical knowledge of their profession. The method used includes elements of Ergonomic Work Analysis combined with a case study. Le Boterf's model of the process of constructing competences is used to support the data analysis. The discussion is organized based on an analysis of the evolution of consolidated competences that are re-elaborated for a new agricultural production. The analysis of the strategies and operational modes is introduced, and their contribution to the development of new competences is noted, thus enriching the model proposed by Le Boterf. It is essential to understand the cognitive processes, strategies, and operating modes involved in the development of competences. This procedure provides mechanisms that preserve the opportunity for observation of significant variables in managing variability to be included in the transformation or evolution of work situations and to define the activities that workers will perform.

  6. Distance Learning for Food Security and Rural Development: A Perspective from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott McLean

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the work of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, and describes its interest in the application of distance learning strategies pertinent to the challenges of food security and rural development around the world. The article briefly reviews pertinent examples of distance learning, both from the experience of FAO and elsewhere, and summarises a complex debate about the potential of distance learning in developing countries. The paper elaborates five practical suggestions for applying distance learning strategies to the challenges of food security and rural development. The purpose of publishing this article is both to disseminate our ideas about distance learning to interested professional and scholarly audiences around the world, and to seek feedback from those audiences.

  7. Conservation implications of amphibian habitat relationships within channelized agricultural headwater streams in the midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The widespread use of stream channelization and subsurface tile drainage for removing water from agricultural fields has led to the development of numerous channelized agricultural headwater streams within agricultural watersheds of the Midwestern United States. Channelized agricultural headwater s...

  8. Receipts. Agricultural Record Keeping. Supplementary Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    Eight supplementary units are included in these instructional materials for agricultural recordkeeping: (1) receipts; (2) expenditures; (3) cash flow; (4) inventory; (5) financial statement; (6) business agreements; (7) ownership business agreements; and (8) placement training agreements. Each unit contains an introduction, lesson objectives, and…

  9. Agricultural Water Pricing: United States

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    In summary, irrigation costs and prices are rising in most regions of the United States, due to a combination of increasing scarcity, changes in public preferences regarding water allocation among competing uses, increasing budget scrutiny in the national and state legislatures, rising energy prices, and increasing awareness of climate change and the potential implications for rainfall and the availability of surface water resources. These issues likely will continue encouraging public offici...

  10. Agricultural Pesticides. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kenneth M.; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The proper use of agricultural pesticides is the major emphasis on the unit of instruction developed as a guide for use by teachers in planning and conducting young farmer and adult farmer classes. Seven lessons are included in the unit covering topical areas related to the utilization of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, and the…

  11. Participatory plant breeding and organic agriculture: A synergistic model for organic variety development in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne C. Shelton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organic farmers require improved varieties that have been adapted to their unique soils, nutrient inputs, management practices, and pest pressures. One way to develop adapted varieties is to situate breeding programs in the environment of intended use, such as directly on organic farms, and in collaboration with organic farmers. This model is a form of participatory plant breeding, and was originally created in order to meet the needs of under-served, small-scale farmers in developing countries. A robust body of literature supports the quantitative genetic selection theory of participatory plant breeding, and helps to explain its increasing prevalence among organic breeding projects in the United States. The history of the organic farming movement in the United States highlights the cultural relevance of engaging organic farmers in the breeding process, complementing the biological rationale for participatory plant breeding. In addition, limited private investment in organic plant breeding encourages the involvement of plant breeders at public institutions. This paper synthesizes the biological, cultural, and economic justifications for utilizing participatory plant breeding as an appropriate methodology for organic cultivar development.

  12. Development of a Demand Sensitive Drought Index and its application for agriculture over the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Elius; Devineni, Naresh; Khanbilvardi, Reza; Lall, Upmanu

    2016-03-01

    A new drought index is introduced that explicitly considers both water supply and demand. It can be applied to aggregate demand over a geographical region, or for disaggregated demand related to a specific crop or use. Consequently, it is more directly related than existing indices, to potential drought impacts on different segments of society, and is also suitable to use as an index for drought insurance programs targeted at farmers growing specific crops. An application of the index is presented for the drought characterization at the county level for the aggregate demand of eight major field crops in the conterminous United States. Two resiliency metrics are developed and applied with the drought index time series. In addition, a clustering algorithm is applied to the onset times and severity of the worst historical droughts in each county, to identify the spatial structure of drought, relative to the cropping patterns in each county. The geographic relationship of drought severity, drought recovery relative to duration, and resilience to drought is identified, and related to attributes of precipitation and also cropping intensity, thus distinguishing the relative importance of water supply and demand in determining potential drought outcomes.

  13. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE...

  14. ACCOUNTING ON THE PARTICULARITIES THAT CONCESSION AGRICULTURAL UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOCHIS LEONICA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture represents the branch of the material production which deals with growing crops and raising animals in order to obtain farm produce and some raw materials, as well asthe totality of works and methods used for this purpose. Agriculture has specific traits mainly induced by the traits of its results. Thereupon, what sets apart agriculture from other sectors of the economy is the volume, structure and concretization of the resources in the process of their consumption. The essential cause of these differences is the fact that land is the main production factor and that, compared to the development level of the production forces and the natural and biological factors, it behaves in a specific manner.Definitions and characteristics of agricultural activities are given also in The International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS , respectively IAS 41, “Agriculture”. Hence, according to IAS 41 “Agriculture”, agricultural activity is defined as the management of the biological transformation of biological assets (living plants and animals into agricultural produce (harvested product of the entity's biological assets. The received concessions represent an important characteristic of these units and, as a particular case concerning such concessions, we will tackle the issue of terrains pertaining to the assets sold by the Romsilva National Forests Administration.

  15. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  16. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda GHEORGHIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture today is a strategic point of a country's economy, providing food based on population, development of internal and external trade and manufacturing industries by supplying raw materials. For Romania, this branch is a strong point both in terms climatic (temperate, balanced relief, soil quality and at the same time is also a way of national development and convergence of rural areas to their full potential untapped. With strong reforms, well implemented, a specific legislative framework which aims to protecting private property, Romania could reduce the low efficiency and can have a sustainable agriculture. The paper aimed to present the advantages of consuming organic products, and, on the other hand, the advantages of a country in terms of organic farming. European agriculture is a competitive, market-oriented, but also protecting the environment model.

  17. General Situations of Development of Photovoltaic Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohang; ZHANG; Shoufu; CUI; Fuping; LIU

    2015-01-01

    This paper firstly introduced policy of photovoltaic agriculture in China. It discussed significance of developing photovoltaic agriculture. Then,it introduced progress in application of photovoltaic agriculture at both home and abroad. Finally,it pointed out existing problems in photovoltaic agriculture and came up with recommendations for development of photovoltaic agriculture in China.

  18. Agriculture, development, and urban bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Headey, Derek

    Throughout history, agriculture-led development strategies with state support programs have been essential to achieving rapid economy-wide growth, poverty reduction, and structural transformation. Yet over the last three decades, the domestic and international policy environments have continued to

  19. Agriculture, development, and urban bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Headey, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Throughout history, agriculture-led development strategies with state support programs have been essential to achieving rapid economy-wide growth, poverty reduction, and structural transformation. Yet over the last three decades, the domestic and international policy environments have continued to d

  20. Multifactorial Vector of Regional Agriculture Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Sergeyevna Shepitko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals the agriculture development potential of the Volgograd region enabling to move to the stable type of reproduction as well as its factors: the natural conditions, location, technological types of production, agrarian structure, horizontal and vertical integration, state support. Methodological approach of the differentiation of green box subsidies is approved, the mechanism of its realization is proposed. The evidence base is substantiated by the long-term research of the soil intensification and soil quality factors influencing the soil productivity in the region. Within the boundaries of the existing natural areas, the following zones of territorial and economic development are allocated: the zones of competitive and efficient grain production; the zone of commercial sunflower production; the zones of territory and priority development. The criterion signs of their development are formulated. Alongside with the natural factor, the following factors were accepted as a criterion: the level of production adaptability and development of rural areas, displacement of population, customary lifestyle, arrangement of production infrastructure, resources, the structure of the agrarian economy. The evolutionary entrance of small agribusiness into the innovative economy have been reasoned as well as the creating on this basis of a special sector of agrarian economy — organic agriculture, which is reasonable to develop in the field of dairy cattlebreeding and vegetable-growing. A strategic analysis of the technological types of production existing in the regional agriculture in the context of organizational units and activities is presented. These are: industrial with innovative elements, extensive and intensive with innovative elements, extensive and intensive, extensive. They provide modernization as a factor of evolutionary formation of the innovative economy in the agrarian sector. Considering the global tendencies, the priorities

  1. EXPERT SYSTEMS - DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NAN Anca-Petruţa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of the fact that specialty agricultural assistance is not always available when the farmers need it, we identified expert systems as a strong instrument with an extended potential in agriculture. This started to grow in scale recently, including all socially-economic activity fields, having the role of collecting data regarding different aspects from human experts with the purpose of assisting the user in the necessary steps for solving problems, at the performance level of the expert, making his acquired knowledge and experience available. We opted for a general presentation of the expert systems as well as their necessity, because, the solution to develop the agricultural system can come from artificial intelligence by implementing the expert systems in the field of agricultural insurance, promoting existing insurance products, farmers finding options in depending on their necessities and possibilities. The objective of this article consists of collecting data about different aspects about specific areas of interest of agricultural insurance, preparing the database, a conceptual presentation of a pilot version which will become constantly richer depending on the answers received from agricultural producers, with the clearest exposure of knowledgebase possible. We can justify picking this theme with the fact that even while agricultural insurance plays a very important role in agricultural development, the registered result got from them are modest, reason why solutions need to be found in the scope of developing the agricultural sector. The importance of this consists in the proposal of an immediate viable solution to correspond with the current necessities of agricultural producers and in the proposal of an innovative solution, namely the implementation of expert system in agricultural insurance as a way of promoting insurance products. Our research, even though it treats the subject at an conceptual level, it wants to undertake an

  2. Competitive development of the agricultural enterprises France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yushkevych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The stages which determine the development of agricultural enterprises in France are investigated in the article. In the course of implementation of Ukrainian-French programs of scientific and educational cooperation on the problems of the management of agricultural enterprises in State Educational Institutions training specialists (cities of Chartres and Vic–en Bigorre, France it was found that the major components of development of agricultural enterprises in France are as follows: agricultural policy, education, motivation, information and management. The problem of the diversified development in the context of transition to green economy and sustainable development is considered. It is determined that an example of competitive development of agricultural enterprises in France is the establishment and operation of professional associations, in particular, cooperatives and clusters. The priority directions of economic and ecological development of agricultural enterprises for Ukraine are offered in order to implement potential opportunities of agricultural enterprises and to relocate the resources into new kinds of agricultural and non-agricultural activities

  3. Competitiveness of China’s Agricultural Product Export to the United States of America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiping; YAO; Liping; WAN

    2014-01-01

    Taking major agricultural product importers at the American market as reference object and using market share and growth rate,this paper analyzed current situation of the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to the United States of America. It used the Exports Similarity Index to evaluate the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA and it analyzed the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA by the shift share method. Research results indicate that China’s agricultural products occupy small portion of American market and are faced with intense competition of many developing countries,especially the Thailand. However,China still has strong export competitiveness and ranks the second place only second to India. Finally,it came up with recommendations for raising the competitiveness of China’s agricultural product export to USA and promoting China’s agricultural product export to USA.

  4. Sustainable agriculture development through effective farmer groups

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sustainable agriculture development through effective farmer groups. ... group is influenced by the skills of the group promoter and the adherence to certain ... through the different stages of group development and social capital formation.

  5. Inventions for future sustainable development in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Beers, P.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is directed to the importance of different inventions as driver for sustainable development of agriculture. Inventions are defined as radical new ideas, perspectives and technologies that hold the potential to trigger a change in sustainable agriculture. Innovation is based on one or mo

  6. Inventions for future sustainable development in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Beers, P.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is directed to the importance of different inventions as driver for sustainable development of agriculture. Inventions are defined as radical new ideas, perspectives and technologies that hold the potential to trigger a change in sustainable agriculture. Innovation is based on one or

  7. Inventions for future sustainable development in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, E.; Beers, P.J.; Fischer, A.R.H.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is directed to the importance of different inventions as driver for sustainable development of agriculture. Inventions are defined as radical new ideas, perspectives and technologies that hold the potential to trigger a change in sustainable agriculture. Innovation is based on one or mo

  8. RICE CULTIVATION ASPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT TIDAL SWAMPS AGRICULTURE SUPPORTED TO FOOD SECURITY (Case study of Danda Besar Unit, Barito Kuala district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Supriyo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available k of reclamation. Research was carried out in July 2012. Method: "participatory rural appraisal" and interviews. Secondary data were obtained from "desk study". Data were analyzed using SWOT. Results: aspects of rice cultivating in land development tidal marsh consisting problem: (a land management (land arrangement lowland system start area upstream to downstream, low soil fertility, ground is not yet mature, (b arrangements water (macro and micro, (c participation of farmers (labor and skills are limited, and (d external support (KUD is not functioning optimally, number of extension limited to one PPL serves 659 farmers and "cover" area of land covering an area of 1,546 ha. Scenario development of tidal marsh Danda Besar can be divided into (a arrangement of land, (b setting micro water management by creating a channel quarter and channel worms and sanitation channel tertiary (c mechanization of agriculture by means of pre-harvest and post-harvest systems business services, training, technological innovation swamp land for farmer groups, and (d revitalizing function of cooperatives, increasing number of personnel PPLn and labor observers water associated with task forces village

  9. Corn Production. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit contains nine lessons based upon competencies needed to maximize profits in corn production. The lessons cover opportunities for growing corn; seed selection; seedbed preparation; planting methods and practices; fertilizer rates and application;…

  10. Breeding Livestock. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Robert C.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on breeding livestock contains materials for use in teaching the importance of breeding, the physiology of livestock breeding, reproductive processes, sire selection, and breeding systems. Lessons on each of these competencies contain the following:…

  11. Model Driven Software Development for Agricultural Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten

    The design and development of agricultural robots, consists of both mechan- ical, electrical and software components. All these components must be de- signed and combined such that the overall goal of the robot is fulfilled. The design and development of these systems require collaboration between...... processing, control engineering, etc. This thesis proposes a Model-Driven Software Develop- ment based approach to model, analyse and partially generate the software implementation of a agricultural robot. Furthermore, Guidelines for mod- elling the architecture of an agricultural robots are provided......, assisting with bridging the different engineering disciplines. Timing play an important role in agricultural robotic applications, synchronisation of robot movement and implement actions is important in order to achieve precision spraying, me- chanical weeding, individual feeding, etc. Discovering...

  12. Estimates of agricultural expenses in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains estimates of agricultural expenses in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture (U.S....

  13. Multifunctional Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Land Use Planning in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Taylor Lovell

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture offers an alternative land use for integrating multiple functions in densely populated areas. While urban agriculture has historically been an important element of cities in many developing countries, recent concerns about economic and food security have resulted in a growing movement to produce food in cities of developed countries including the United States. In these regions, urban agriculture offers a new frontier for land use planners and landscape designers to become involved in the development and transformation of cities to support community farms, allotment gardens, rooftop gardening, edible landscaping, urban forests, and other productive features of the urban environment. Despite the growing interest in urban agriculture, urban planners and landscape designers are often ill-equipped to integrate food-systems thinking into future plans for cities. The challenge (and opportunity is to design urban agriculture spaces to be multifunctional, matching the specific needs and preferences of local residents, while also protecting the environment. This paper provides a review of the literature on urban agriculture as it applies to land use planning in the United States. The background includes a brief historical perspective of urban agriculture around the world, as well as more recent examples in the United States. Land use applications are considered for multiple scales, from efforts that consider an entire city, to those that impact a single building or garden. Barriers and constraints to urban agriculture are discussed, followed by research opportunities and methodological approaches that might be used to address them. This work has implications for urban planners, landscape designers, and extension agents, as opportunities to integrate urban agriculture into the fabric of our cities expand.

  14. Marketing Agricultural Products. Curriculum Guide Developed for Secondary and Post Secondary Agriculture Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. Wade; And Others

    This curriculum guide can be used by secondary and postsecondary agriculture instructors for a semester course in marketing agricultural products or individual units can be incorporated in other courses. The curriculum guide consists of six units of study made up of two to eight lessons each. The units cover the following topics: (1) marketing…

  15. Developing Programs of Supervised Agricultural Experience. Developing an SAE Program Using the Missouri Agricultural Record Book for Secondary Students. Analyzing the SAE Program Using the Missouri Farm Business Record Book. Instructor's Guide. Volume 21, Number 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admire, Myron

    This curriculum guide to the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) program contains four units of insturctor's materials as follows: Unit 1: Developing an SAE Program; Unit 2: Using the Missouri Agricultural Record Book for Secondary Students; Unit 3: Analyzing the SAE Program; and Unit 4: Using the Missouri Farm Business Record Book. The…

  16. Useful to Usable: Developing usable climate science for agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Stalker Prokopy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Useful to Usable (U2U project was a six-year research and extension project funded by the United States Department of Agriculture to provide both useful and usable climate information for the agricultural (corn sector in the Midwestern United States. The project adopted an extensive co-production of knowledge and decision-making approach that involved intense iteration with potential end-users, including farmers and a variety of professional agricultural advisors, through focus groups and surveys, feedback at outreach events, and frequent informal interactions to develop both decision support tools and delivery mechanisms that met stakeholder needs. This overview paper for this special issue illustrates some key ways that the co-production process informed the overall project. Subsequent papers in the special issue span the different objectives of the U2U project, including social, climate, and agronomic sciences. A brief overview of these papers is presented here.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR FROM MOLDOVA THROUGH AGRICULTURE LOANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona SARGO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial institutions present on the market become more attentive when they have to give loans to the agriculture sector. The lack of necessary guarantees the low profit registered in agricultural district, economy instability and other things had and continue to have a negative impact on the evolution of agricultural sector, this being seen as one with a high level of risk. Commercial banks use less own funds for lending to agriculture and especially when the loans are guaranteed from various funds, programs or foreign donor agencies. Farmers find it difficult to bank loans because of collateral amount required is too high. However, commercial banks in Moldova provide agricultural loans, thus increasing the economic efficiency of agriculture.

  18. Value and Development Countermeasures for Modern Agriculture in Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weidong; JIN

    2013-01-01

    With advance of urbanization and industrialization, modern agricultural development in Chinas economic developed areas (CEDAs) is greatly restricted by traditional concept. To speed up the development of modern agriculture in CEDAs, this paper takes Suzhou City as an example from theories supporting modern agricultural development. It demonstrates agriculture in CEDAs plays an important role in adjusting supply of agricultural and sideline products, reserving rural labor employment, protecting ecological environment, increasing farmers income, and passing on agricultural culture. It contends that CEDAs should take reserving basic farmland as prerequisite; take adequate supply of primary agricultural products, protection of living environment, maintenance of agricultural landscape, and inheritance of farming culture as objectives; establish perfect modern agricultural system through firmly setting up modern agricultural value concept; increase local public finance input; increase agricultural functional value from technical and management levels, to realize increase of farmers income, promote sustainable development of agriculture, promote integrated urban and rural development, as well as harmonious development of human and nature.

  19. Approaches to Promote China's Low Carbon Agricultural Development%Approaches to Promote China's Low Carbon Agricultural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Yao

    2012-01-01

    Low carbon agriculture is a new production mode of green agriculture development to face the challenge of the global climate change, and a kind of innovation on developing circular agriculture. Up to now, low carbon agricultural development approaches are lacking of deep and systematical researches. Therefore, the paper briefly analyzed the situation and the existing problems of China's low carbon agricultural development, and then put forward the approaches to promote the low carbon agricultural development.

  20. Rural development, agriculture, and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, W S; Mccalla, A F

    1996-12-01

    Within 30 years the world will be supplying food for an additional 2.5 billion people, most of whom will live in developing countries. Developing countries in meeting future challenges will need to implement sound and stable macroeconomic and sector policies. The World Bank is providing analysis, policy dialogue, and financial support in specific countries for opening up agricultural markets globally. Developing countries need to enhance food supplies by encouraging rapid technological change, increasing the efficiency of irrigation, and improving natural resource management. Agricultural and income growth in developing countries is dependent upon transfer of the breakthroughs in agricultural technology to the millions of small farms in the developing world. People currently use about 70% of available fresh water for irrigation, and competition for water resources with urban and industrial users has increased. Agriculture and other sectors must increase the efficiency of water use. Natural resource planning and comprehensive water and natural resource management that rely on a community-based approach have proven successful. Developing countries need to improve access to food by strengthening markets and agribusinesses, providing education and health services to both boys and girls, investing in infrastructure, and fostering broad participation. The major challenge ahead is to ensure food security for the hundreds of millions of families living in poverty. This large and complex task involves increasing agricultural output worldwide, reducing poverty, and improving health and nutrition. Progress has been made in the past 25 years in improving living conditions, but not everyone has benefitted. Almost 75% of the poor live in rural areas without access to land, and 25% are urban poor without jobs. Most of the poor live in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The World Bank mandate is to reduce poverty and hunger through revitalized rural development.

  1. AN ASSESSMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPING CAPABILITY OF INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL REGIONALIZATION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the provincial units evaluation, this paper makes an assessment for sustainable developingcapability of the integrated agricultural regionalization in China. At first, an index system of agricultural sustainabledevelopment in China is built up, which includes 5 supporting subsystems of agricultural resources, agricultural develop-ment, environment and ecosystem, rural society, sciences-education and management. We selected 95 factors on provin-cial level as basic indexes. Second, a relative assets/debt assessing method is used to gain relative net assets values(relative superiority) of every provincial unit, which are as supporting data for assessment. We also overlaid the Administra-tive Divisions Map of China and the Map of Integrated Agricultural Regionalization of China by Geography Information Sys-tem (GIS) to gain the area units of assessment. Third, according to the relative coherence principle of regionalization,we transform administration units to natural units through homogenizing all provincial relative net assets values in everyagricultural assessing unit. After making order and grade, we complete the sustainable developing capability assessmentto integrated agricultural regionalization in China. The assessing outcome shows that the total sustainable agricultural develop-ing capability of China is not high. Only about 1/3 in number or in area has reached the level of agricultural sustainabledevelopment. The relative net assets values exists a reducing trend from East China to West China. It needs a long periodand great efforts to realize sustainable agricultural development over all China. Finally, there is a discussion to the studymethod.

  2. Agricultural Biotechnology Research and Development in Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Recent agricultural biotechnology research and advances in the province are reviewed. Targets and practices for biotechnological development in depth are discussed, with stress on the talent's training, new techniques' establishment and its industrialization, starting from the existing level and problems in the field in the province.

  3. The Agricultural Development Council. A History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Russell; Locke, Virginia O.

    This history of the Agriculture Development Council (ADC) consists of eight chapters and four appendices. Chapter 1 traces the early years of the ADC, from its inception in 1953 to 1957, the year of the retirement of the council's first director, J. Lossing Buck. The chapter covers the role of John D. Rockefeller, III, the incorporation of the…

  4. The Agricultural Development Council. A History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Russell; Locke, Virginia O.

    This history of the Agriculture Development Council (ADC) consists of eight chapters and four appendices. Chapter 1 traces the early years of the ADC, from its inception in 1953 to 1957, the year of the retirement of the council's first director, J. Lossing Buck. The chapter covers the role of John D. Rockefeller, III, the incorporation of the…

  5. Diagnosing Management of Agricultural Research and Technology Development under the Agricultural Innovation Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying and analyzing issues and challenges on the agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework. The survey consisted of two groups: agricultural researchers of Agriculture-Research and Education Organization and all faculty members of public agricultural faculties of Ministry of Scientific, Research and Technology. Using Cochran sampling formula and multi-stage sampling method, 188 researchers and 205 faculty members were selected in order to fill in the survey questionnaire. Using the SPSS, collected data analyzed based on explanatory factor analysis. Totally, factor analysis of three sets of issues and challenges on the agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework led to extract 13 factors, including agricultural structure and policy, infrastructure and resources of agricultural development, supportive services for agricultural development (level of agricultural development, investment and capacity building in research and technology, management of research and technology development, research and technology productivity, research culture, networks for research and technology development (level of national innovation system, agricultural research policy, impacts and effectiveness of agricultural research and technology development, integrated management of research and technology, institutional development for agricultural research and technology and systematic synergy of agricultural research and higher education (level of agricultural innovation system. Totally, these three sets of factors explained 64%, 75% and 73% of the total variances. Finally, using conceptual clustering for the extracted factors, a conceptual model of issues and challenges of agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework was presented.

  6. The Influence of Agricultural Mechanization on the Development of Agricultural Economy in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changsheng; QIU

    2015-01-01

    The impact of the agricultural mechanization development on the agricultural economy has caught public attention. In this paper,the role of the agricultural mechanization in the agricultural economic development of Chongqing is analyzed with the qualitative and quantitative methods based on econometrics and agricultural engineering theory,and its contribution rate is 30. 6%. Moreover,the development of agricultural mechanization of the agricultural economy will play a leading role in the 21 st century,and will change the traditional economic development mode featured by increasing agricultural labor and chemical fertilizer. The quality and quantity of agricultural labor force mastering modern science technology is the key to the development of modern agricultural economy.

  7. Industrialized Development Models of Agricultural Scientific and Technological Achievements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanjiang; WANG

    2015-01-01

    Industrialization of agricultural scientific and technological achievements has become an extremely important part in agricultural structural adjustment and agricultural economic development. Basic models for industrialization of China’s agricultural scientific and technological achievements should be:( i) integrating scientific and technological development and production relying on large enterprises;( ii) integrating scientific research and development with agricultural scientific and technological achievements and scientific research institutions as support;( iii) spindle type transformation;( vi) agricultural scientific and technological demonstration area;( v) technology extension network.

  8. GEOINFORMATION MODELLING OF INNOVATION DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Nosonov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to studying of innovation development of agricultural based on the use of GIS-technologies. Implemented design options and developed a specialized GIS database structure « Innovations in the Russian regions». For the analysis of diffusion of innovations in agricultural industry Monte Carlo methods and geoinformation technologies have been used. On the basis of the analysis of diffusion of innovations by means of these methods objective regularities of distribution of the innovations used in agricultural industry in the direction on the one hand from large scientific and technological centers with another – from areas of intensive agriculture on the peripheral territories mainly in east and northern parts of the European Russia, and also Siberia and the Far East are revealed. Use of methods of geoinformation modeling has allowed to conduct researches with creation and the analysis of different degree of complexity of geoinformationcartographic models of territorial systems of the regional level, and the innovative processes which are also happening in them for implementation of management of them and forecasting of development of regional innovation systems.

  9. Urban Agriculture:The Major Direction of Future Agricultural Development in Huainan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Xing-ying

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the concept of urban agriculture, this paper analyses the necessity of developing urban agriculture in Huainan City as follows: it is the need of transformation and upgrading of agricultural industry; it is the need of development of urban-rural integration; it is the need of sustainable urban development; it is the need of solving the issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers effectively. Then this paper analyses the endowment of developing urban agriculture in Huainan City. And finally the basic conception in industrial form and spatial framework is put forward, to develop urban agriculture in Huainan City.

  10. REGIONAL FACTORS OF SMALL AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisovskaya R. N.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article says that small agricultural farms (SAF play a significant role in import substitution of food, which is aimed at replacing imported agricultural commodities and finished products to domestic security. SAF subjects of Krasnodar region made a significant contribution to the increase of efficiency of regional economy. The share of small agricultural farms is 29% of regional production of grain and meat, 36% of milk, 47% of egg, 10% of sugar beet, 30% of sunflower and 95% of potatoes, 70% of vegetables, and 29% of grapes which makes a significant contribution to the process of import substitution. In addition, the SAF showed a large positive impact on the sustainability of farming, the development dynamics of the entire rural economy, increase the competitiveness of the whole field due to the increase in segment sales, improving market sales in the infrastructure. Today SAF perform a priority vector of development of regional agrarian policy. However, when the share of regional agricultural production segment is more than 35%, a small management gets only 10% of the sum of all sources of state support. In recent years, stimulation measures of subjects of small agrarian farms aimed at increasing the size of the land, the abolition of the standards concerning the number of animals, improving lending conditions, facilitating the starting of economic conditions, union efforts to organize sales channels and other programs. However, the situation with crediting SAF is improving too slowly due to lack of sufficient collateral, and only a small part of them can use loans. Besides, the bureaucratic and departmental barriers are still saved. They still face trade discrimination in the retail markets and great difficulties due to the new requirements of the construction markets, the endowment channels marketing of products etc. All this dictates the need for further improvement of the economic mechanism of regulation of small agricultural

  11. Strategies for Development of Shaanxi’s Agricultural Insurance Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces current situations of agricultural insurance market in Shaanxi Province. It is indicated that development of Shaanxi’s agricultural insurance industry is faced with following difficulties. First, risks of agricultural production are various, occurrence frequency is high and losses are great. Second, effective supply of commercial insurance companies for agriculture is seriously inadequate. Third, farmers’ demand for agricultural insurance is restricted by many factors. Fourth, government support for agricultural insurance is not generous. Then, it puts forward strategies for development of agricultural insurance in Shaanxi Province. These include: encourage commercial insurance companies to actively enter agricultural insurance market; establish perfect agricultural reinsurance system; strengthen propaganda of agricultural insurance and speed up agricultural industrialization; enhance policy support for agricultural insurance to promote its development.

  12. Agricultural development in the context of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, N. D.; Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Global climate change and continued intensification of agriculture are two "mega-trends" that will impact agricultural systems in the coming decades. While often these two trends are analyzed in isolation, recent work describes how climate change has historically offset some crop yield gains that would have otherwise occurred. Here we spatially analyze how these interactions between climate change and agricultural development may continue to 2025. We highlight areas that will be hit hardest by climate change and require aggressive management changes, as well as areas where large productivity increases are likely given current trends. To carry out our analysis we rely on a recently developed climate analog model to produce projections of climate-induced yield changes, projections of business-as-usual crop yield trends utilizing time-series data from ~13,500 agricultural census units, and published estimates of possible crop yield increases from aggressive intervention to close yield gaps. We find that a rich picture of agriculture in 2025 emerges when analyzing these multiple critical drivers. In many regions, existing yield trends or more aggressive management interventions (closing yield gaps) can overcome negative impacts from climate change. Thus, intensification can provide a buffer from near-term climate impacts, but it is unclear how long society may be able to rely on this buffering capacity.

  13. Environmental challenges threatening the growth of urban agriculture in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortman, Sam E; Lovell, Sarah Taylor

    2013-09-01

    Urban agriculture, though often difficult to define, is an emerging sector of local food economies in the United States. Although urban and agricultural landscapes are often integrated in countries around the world, the establishment of mid- to large-scale food production in the U.S. urban ecosystem is a relatively new development. Many of the urban agricultural projects in the United States have emerged from social movements and nonprofit organizations focused on urban renewal, education, job training, community development, and sustainability initiatives. Although these social initiatives have traction, critical knowledge gaps exist regarding the science of food production in urban ecosystems. Developing a science-based approach to urban agriculture is essential to the economic and environmental sustainability of the movement. This paper reviews abiotic environmental factors influencing urban cropping systems, including soil contamination and remediation; atmospheric pollutants and altered climatic conditions; and water management, sources, and safety. This review paper seeks to characterize the limited state of the science on urban agricultural systems and identify future research questions most relevant to urban farmers, land-use planners, and environmental consultants.

  14. Organic agriculture in a development policy perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik; Halberg, Niels; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    (OA) fare globally on eco-efficiency? Are most African farmers eco-efficient – or may eco-efficient farmers be found everywhere? As OA develops throughout the planet, what does Denmark do beyond Europe? Is organic farming part of our development policy? Do we dilligently share our comparative......Farmers growing food with high eco-efficiency may be seen cultivating peace by reducing competition among nations for oil and as producers of other public goods: biodiverse landscapes and ecosystem services with more soil fertility, less water use and less pollution. How does Organic agriculture...... advantages in this field with developing nations? This article pursues these basic questions. 1...

  15. Essential Factors and Sustainable Development of Green Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong

    2009-01-01

    This paper discussed the definition and essential factors of green agriculture, including green ecological environment, green material energy input, application and the popularization of green agricultural technology, the green behavior of worker, green policy regulations guarantee, fund support, supply and the production of green agriculture products, as well as the concept of green agriculture, structural mechanism and function. And finally existing problems in present green agriculture and five suggestions of green agricultural sustainable development were proposed.

  16. Strategies for Cultivating New Peasants Based on Modern Agricultural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanxing; MENG; Jianguo; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    Development of modern agriculture has higher and higher requirements on quality of peasants.This study,on the basis of connotations of modern agriculture,current situation and problems of Chinese peasants,and contradictions between modern agricultural development and peasants’ quality,specifies requirements of modern agriculture on new peasants,proposes corresponding suggestions to promote the cultivation of new Chinese peasants.

  17. 77 FR 29531 - 150th Anniversary of the United States Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... of May 14, 2012 150th Anniversary of the United States Department of Agriculture By the President of... legislation to establish the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and codified a commitment to the... vision of service by applying sound public policy and science to an evolving food and agriculture system...

  18. Research on Development Status and Countermeasures of Agricultural Cleaner Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the study,the connotation and objectives of agricultural cleaner production were introduced firstly,and then the development status of agricultural cleaner production in China was analyzed,and the problems existing in the development of agricultural cleaner production were pointed out.From the strategy of agricultural sustainable development,the necessity and feasibility of implementing agricultural cleaner production in China were discussed.Finally,some related countermeasures were put forward according...

  19. AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Roxana MUNTEANU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The organic market has been increasing in the past couple of years and it is still expected to do so. However, even though the prices are higher on the organic market, farmers do not always manage to benefit from these better prices. Romania is a country with a high potential for organic agriculture as there are 14.8 million hectares of agricultural land out of which arable land represents 8.9 million ha. According to NIS (2012a p. 89, in 2011, 29.2% of the country’s population was employed in agriculture. However, most households in rural areas produce for mere survival due mainly to the highly fragmented land owning. Therefore there is an acute need for new development strategies in order to improve living standards in rural areas. This article describes business models of organic cooperatives in Nepal and Romania. Moreover it proposes a rural development initiative based on the creation of organic cooperatives and suggests thata NGOs could implement such a program.

  20. How to Develop Low-carbon Agriculture in China?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of low-carbon economy nowadays,the development of agriculture is necessary to adapt to the situation of global economic development,and transform the agricultural development models. This paper firstly gives an overview of low-carbon economy and lowcarbon agriculture,and then points out the possibility of developing the low-carbon agricultural economy in China,and describes the ways to develop the low-carbon agricultural economy. Finally,this paper puts forth the corresponding recommendations for the development of the lowcarbon agricultural economy.

  1. Roadmap for Agriculture Biomass Feedstock Supply in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Richard Hess; Thomas D. Foust; Reed Hoskinson; David Thompson

    2003-11-01

    The Biomass Research and Development Technical Advisory Committee established a goal that biomass will supply 5% of the nation’s power, 20% of its transportation fuels, and 25% of its chemicals by 2030. These combined goals are approximately equivalent to 30% of the country’s current petroleum consumption. The benefits of a robust biorefinery industry supplying this amount of domestically produced power, fuels, and products are considerable, including decreased demand for imported oil, revenue to the depressed agricultural industry, and revitalized rural economies. A consistent supply of highquality, low-cost feedstock is vital to achieving this goal. This biomass roadmap defines the research and development (R&D) path to supplying the feedstock needs of the biorefinery and to achieving the important national goals set for biomass. To meet these goals, the biorefinery industry must be more sustainable than the systems it will replace. Sustainability hinges on the economic profitability of all participants, on environmental impact of every step in the process, and on social impact of the product and its production. In early 2003, a series of colloquies were held to define and prioritize the R&D needs for supplying feedstock to the biorefinery in a sustainable manner. These colloquies involved participants and stakeholders in the feedstock supply chain, including growers, transporters, equipment manufacturers, and processors as well as environmental groups and others with a vested interest in ensuring the sustainability of the biorefinery. From this series of colloquies, four high-level strategic goals were set for the feedstock area: • Biomass Availability – By 2030, 1 billion dry tons of lignocellulosic feedstock is needed annually to achieve the power, fuel, and chemical production goals set by the Biomass Research and Development Technology Advisory Production Committee • Sustainability – Production and use of the 1 billion dry tons annually must be

  2. Diversification and Sustainable Development in Chinese Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Funing; Zhu Jing

    2004-01-01

    Feeding a growing population exceeding 1 billion is a big challenge to the Chinese government and has partly led to the self-sufficient policy in grain production and supply for decades. However, the efforts to push grain production everywhere have resulted in not only deterioration of the environment but also stagnation or even reduction in farmers'income as production costs continue to increase.This situation might be worsening after China's accession to the WTO that provides market access for bulk commodity imports. A sustainable development in Chinese agriculture depends on diversification, or structural adjustment, that allows Chinese farmers to fully utilize their comparative advantage in production of labor-intensive goods.Past experience has shown that diversification has contributed more than a half of the growth in Chinese agriculture during the reform period and reduced stresses on the environment at the same time. It is likely to contribute even more to Chinese agriculture in the future and in a sustainable manner.

  3. EnviroAtlas - Agricultural Water Demand by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national agricultural water demand metric provides insight into the amount of water currently used for agricultural irrigation in the contiguous United States....

  4. 397 Empirical Assessment of Agricultural Development in Manzini ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Agricultural development and other policy instruments adopted by Swaziland in the past have ... holdings following the traditional agricultural practices have improved and agricultural ... and analytical definition of the objectives and concepts formulated to meet ..... An empirical analysis of the role of agriculture in accelerated.

  5. Challenges and Opportunities in Developing Beijing Modern Urban Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We analyze development situations of Beijing modern urban agriculture from agricultural distribution,agricultural foundation and agricultural industrial system.Our research on challenges and opportunities of Beijing modern urban agriculture indicates that challenges include short of resources,deterioration of environment,and high production cost,and opportunities include large market space,advanced agricultural industrial experience and many other development opportunities.On the basis of these,we put forward development thought of Beijing modern urban agriculture in " the Twelfth Five Plan" period.We must improve foundation,integration and demonstration of agriculture;orient towards market and satisfy medium and high end market demands;actively cultivate and strengthen agricultural industrial level;create unique product brand;and raise added value of agricultural products.

  6. Experience and Ways of Low-carbon Agriculture Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinmin; ZHANG; Chunhong; QIN

    2013-01-01

    Firstly,the status quo of low-carbon agriculture development in China was analyzed,and then advanced experience of developed countries in low-carbon agriculture development was introduced,finally ways of developing low-carbon agriculture in China were put forward.

  7. Cluster Development of Zhengzhou Urban Agriculture Based on Diamond Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on basic theory of Diamond Model,this paper analyzes the competitive power of Zhengzhou urban agriculture from production factors,demand conditions,related and supporting industries,business strategies and structure,and horizontal competition.In line with these situations,it introduces that the cluster development is an effective approach to lifting competitive power of Zhengzhou urban agriculture.Finally,it presents following countermeasures and suggestions:optimize spatial distribution for cluster development of urban agriculture;cultivate leading enterprises and optimize organizational form of urban agriculture;energetically develop low-carbon agriculture to create favorable ecological environment for cluster development of urban agriculture.

  8. AN ASSESSMENT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPING CAPABILITY OF INTEGRATED AGRICULTURAL REGIONALIZATION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUXue-gong; LINHui-ping; 等

    2002-01-01

    Based on the provincial units evaluation,this paper makes an assessment for sustainable developing capability of the integrated agricultural regionalization in China.At first ,an index system of agricultural sustainable development in China is built up,which includes 5 supporting subsystems of agricultural resources,agricultural develop-ment ,environment and ecosystem,rural society,sciences-esucation and management.We selected 95 factors on provin-cial level as basic indexes.Second,a relative assets/debt assessing method is used to gain relative net assets values (relative superiority) of every provincial unit,which are as supporting data for assessment.We also overlaid the Administra-tive Divisions Map of China and the Map of Integrated Agricultural Regionalization of China by Geography Information Sys-tem(GIS) to gain the area units of assessment.Third,according to the relative coherence principle of regionalization,we transform administration units to natural units through homogenizing all provincial relative net assets values in every agricultural assessing unit.After making order and grade,we complete the sustainable developing capability assessment to integrated agricultural regionalization in China.The assessing outcome shows that the total sustainable agricultural devdelop-ing capability of China is not high.Only about 1/3 in number or in area has reached the level of agricultural sustainable development.The relative net assets values exists a reducing trend from East China to West China.It needs a long period and great efforts to realize sustainable agricultural development over all China.Finally,there is a discussion to the study method.

  9. Review Of Development And Characteristics Of Organic Agriculture In Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Petljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, an ever increasing interest of both foreign and domestic academic and general public for organic agriculture can be observed. Organic agriculture, as a new agricultural production system, enables full utilization of farming potentials while satisfying social and economic needs and preserving natural ecosystem and environment. Act on Organic Production of Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs provides an elementary strategic frame for agricultural production development in Republic of Croatia. This article gives an overview of organic agriculture legislation in Croatia and detailed analysis of development periods of organic agriculture. Special emphasis is put on structure of organic production which highlights data on organic plant and animal production in Croatia. The paper provides a comparison between levels of organic agriculture development in the world (with the special emphasis on Europe and in Croatia, as well as the overview of main obstacles towards more significant development of organic agriculture in Republic of Croatia.

  10. Agriculture Census of the United States - 2007 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays a selected set of information that was collected for the 2007 Census of Agriculture by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, U.S....

  11. Agriculture Census of the United States - 2002 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer portrays a selected set of information that was collected for the 2002 Census of Agriculture by the National Agricultural Statistics Service, U.S....

  12. Research of Development of Agricultural Knowledge Service in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Tan, Cuiping; Zheng, Huaiguo; Sun, Sufen; Yu, Feng

    With the global development of knowledge economy, the knowledge requirement of farmers is more personalized and solution-oriented, so there is pressing needs to develop agricultural knowledge service. The paper analyzes characteristics of agricultural knowledge service, and summarizes typical cases of agricultural knowledge service development in China.

  13. University Science and Agriculture Education in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlett, J. T.; Macfarlane, Ian G.

    1989-01-01

    A study of enrollment and degree rates in science, agriculture, and non-sciences in developing and developed countries suggests patterns are similar, with science and agriculture degrees somewhat higher for some developing nations. Results suggest that emphasis on science and agriculture are less crucial than overall enrollment in producing…

  14. A Study of the Development of Agricultural Mechanization in Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangyun; NING; Yulan; KUANG; Yonghua; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Kunming City has entered the rapid development stage of urbanization. In the course of building the urban modern agriculture, the agricultural mechanization of Kunming City is being faced with excellent development opportunity. In this paper, the author scientifically analyzed current development situations of agricultural mechanization in Kunming City and explored existing problems in the course of development. On the basis of analysis, the author put forward recommendations, including increasing scientific research input for agricultural machinery, supporting agricultural machinery enterprises, promoting scientific and technical innovation, taking characteristic industries (such as flowers and vegetables) as pillar industry, speeding up development of modern facility agriculture, and upgrading primary processing of agricultural products. These will play significant role in the development of agricultural mechanization in Kunming City.

  15. Plant breeding and rural development in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KE Woeste; SB Blanche; KA Moldenhauer; CD Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Plant breeders contributed enormously to the agricultural and economic development of the United States. By improving the profitability of farming, plant breeders improved the economic condition of farmers and contributed to the growth and structure of rural communities. In the years since World War II, agriculture and the quality of rural life have been driven by...

  16. Developing Potential of Low-carbon Agriculture in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Hui; Li Cui-xia; Chen Yao; Fu Rao

    2012-01-01

    Based on the trace of origin and development process of low-carbon economy, the paper defined the concept of low- carbon agriculture. As a case, the development of low-carbon advantage and disadvantage of agriculture in Heilongjiang Province made a systematic analysis of factors; it based on the empirical and comparative analysis of low-carbon development in Heilongjiang Province and put forward countermeasures and suggestions of agriculture. At last, the low-carbon agriculture was prospected in the future.

  17. Condition and prospects of development of agricultural mechanical engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vsevolod Petrovich Babushkin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an estimation of condition and level of development of agricultural mechanical engineering is given; also an expert estimation of scales of the Russian market of agricultural machinery is given. The factors negatively influencing formation of the named market are designated. Features and prospects of development of agricultural mechanical engineering of Sverdlovsk region are defined. State regulation mechanisms of domestic agricultural mechanical engineering development are designated.

  18. Practitioner Perspectives on the Current Status of Agriculture Education in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victor C X Wang

    2004-01-01

    For modern nations, a healthy agricultural sector provides the necessary foundation for the economic growth and social progress that enhance their citizens′ quality of life.Historically, agriculture education has been a dynamic and growing facet of career and technical education in the United States. Currently, however, public policy and support for agriculture education is negatively impacted by a national attitude that devalues agriculture education and perceives it as less desirable than a four-year college degree. This paper considers the history, scope, and current status of agriculture education in the context of increasing worldwide demand for agricultural products and rapidly changing technology.

  19. [The activity of local health units in agriculture: promotion, prevention, control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotzi, G; Ariano, E; Quercia, A

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture shows an high proportion of injuries, mostly by machineries and instruments, and the highest proportion between fatal and total injuries. The Conference of Regions has adopted the National Agriculture and Forestry Prevention Plan, in application of the "Pact for health and safety in workplaces". The plan gives priority to actions improving the safety of agricultural machines, specially if more frequently involved in serious and fatal injuries. Goal is to achieve an homogenous intervention standard all over in the country, composed by a mix of information, support and control, addressed to farms and agricultural machines traders. Public prevention organizations of Local Health Units moreover will record homogenously the happen modality of fatal and serious accidents, will collaborate in joining prevention objectives with Rural Develop Plans and in drawing up good practices. At another level in some regions have been developed prevention activities for other risk factors: definition of exposition profiles of pesticides, development of professionally exposed workers formation, control of buildings and cattle breeding, medical and epidemiological periodic survey of employees.

  20. Regional aspects of development of the property relations in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapsa Galina

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the theoretical and practical aspects of development of the property relations in rural household in the context of regional characteristics. Based on generalizations, theoretical approaches for the interpretation of the term "region" are given by its definition as territorial and specialized part of the economic sector of the country, which is characterized by the presence of a subject endowed with appropriate powers, interdependent unity of the natural, historical, geographical, economic and social factors. In terms of regions, there had been studied the dynamics of gross agricultural production in terms of value and also changes in the number of agricultural enterprises during the pre- and post reform periods of the property relations. It turned out that regionalization within the boundaries of the state reflects all the administrative-territorial units, which, holding a certain economic independence and managerial competence, acts as an important factor influencing on the development of economic processes, including on the property relations in agriculture

  1. 75 FR 6883 - Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-12

    ... Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Temporary Agricultural Employment of H-2A Aliens in the United States AGENCY: Employment and Training... services involved in the petition; and (B) The employment of the alien in such labor or services will not...

  2. 44 CFR 351.26 - The United States Department of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The United States Department of Agriculture. 351.26 Section 351.26 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY... PREPAREDNESS Interagency Assignments § 351.26 The United States Department of Agriculture. (a) Assist FEMA in...

  3. 76 FR 13973 - United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Farm Service Agency United States Warehouse Act; Processed Agricultural Products Licensing Agreement... warehouse licenses may be issued under the United States Warehouse Act (USWA). Through this notice, FSA is... processed agricultural products that are stored in climate controlled, cooler, and freezer warehouses....

  4. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES ON DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND MARKET IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubica RUMANOVSKÁ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the situation of the agricultural land market in Slovakia and in selected region of the SR – Nitra region, on the application and development of agricultural land prices in Slovakia and on the factors that influence the decisions of agricultural enterprises on the market with agricultural land. In this paper were used primary data obtained with interview method realized within the research of Department of European policies, Slovak University of Agriculture during the period 2012 – 2013 in all districts of region Nitra. The evaluation of the impact of agricultural subject on agricultural land market in Slovakia was realized by using the method of regression analysis. Based on the results from the research we can state that entrepreneurs still prefer more to rent land then to purchase a land. The main factors influencing the decision-making process of agricultural subjects are ownership fragmentation, the fragmentation of agricultural plots and business's financial situation and profitability of the purchase. Many entrepreneurs pointed to this indicator as one of the most influential in terms of increasing the market price, respectively as a reason for not signing the lease agreement. The agricultural land market in Slovakia is emerging but still not sufficiently transparent. Further development of the market will continue to be marked by the overall economic situation in agriculture, relatively low competitiveness of Slovak farmers in the European market and reduced profitability. Research showed that the most pronounced effect on the price of agricultural land and the amount of rent for agricultural land has the number of enterprises. Growing number of farms will increase the price or amount of rent for agricultural land.

  5. Developments in Australian Agricultural and Related Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, Peter; Rayner, John

    2011-01-01

    While the calm waters metaphor might explain the changes navigated by Australian agricultural education through most of its history, the last 20 or so years have been very turbulent. Now, the new millennium sees agricultural education in both Australia and the Western world facing a different and less certain future. This paper analyses some of…

  6. The Evaluation on Ecological Agricultural Development in Sichuan Province on the Basis of Grey Relational Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using the grey relational model,14 indexes of ecological agricultural development in Sichuan Province from 1997 to 2008 are analyzed.According to the relational degree results,the ecological agricultural development in 12 years can be divided into three stages:the first stage is from 1997 to 2000,with the shape of inverted U;the second stage is from 2001 to 2004,belonging to transition stage with slow growth rate;the third stage is from 2005 to 2008,belonging to the stage of rapid growth.It draws conclusion that per capita grain yield is an important element for evaluating ecological agricultural construction.Besides,reducing the energy consumption of per unit production,improving labor productivity and increasing agricultural science and technology application and input on agricultural infrastructure construction are the engine for developing Sichuan ecological agriculture.

  7. Engineering Education for Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewumi, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…

  8. Annual Review of Selected Developments; Agricultural Education and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    This document is the second in a series designed to describe agricultural education projects and practices which have been successful in promoting agricultural change and improvement in areas of the world where subsistance agriculture predominates. The projects are included here because of their emphasis on development of human resources and…

  9. Breaking Key Obstacles on Developing Circular Agriculture and Promoting Agricultural and Pasture Resources Benefit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengcui; FAN; Yu; TIAN; Zhihong; LI; Jianming; JIA; Yufang; SHI

    2013-01-01

    The present situation,problems and constraints of the circular agriculture development in Hebei Province are systematically analyzed,the subject modes suitable for the development of circular agriculture and the value-added potential are described,and finally some proposals are put forward.

  10. Study on Connotations and Development Strategies of Creative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangshan; YANG; Hailing; HE

    2013-01-01

    Creative agriculture is a new agricultural type with originality as a key element, integrating agricultural production activities into creative activities such as culture and art, broadening functions of agriculture and improving added value of agricultural products. Creative agriculture is characterized by external economy, technology integration, art appreciation, high efficiency and value, and it is significant for promoting inheritance of traditional culture, optimal allocation and regeneration of resources, optimal distribution of elements, expansion of agricultural functions, construction of beautiful countryside, cultural construction of rural areas, transformation of agricultural and rural economic growth mode. With agricultural resources as the foundation, sightseeing and leisure agriculture as the breakthrough point, by means of science and technology, many regions in China have explored products of creative agriculture and presented several typical cases of creative agriculture. However, these projects are mostly restricted by problems such as poor development concept, lack of supportive policies, and ineffective industrial integration. Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, we proposed path choice, supportive system and relevant policy suggestions for the development of creative agriculture.

  11. Agricultural Biotechnology : Transgenics in Agriculture and their Implications for Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Pehu, Eija; Ragasa, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Technological innovation in agriculture can bring enormous benefits to the poor. High-yielding varieties of staple food crops have improved agricultural productivity, raised incomes, and reduced food prices. Innovations in plant breeding research based on advances in genetics that make it possible to manipulate plant DNA. Referred to as 'biotechnology,' its use in agriculture is controversial, particularly with regard to the development and use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs), also k...

  12. Factor Analysis of Agricultural Development Indicators from Iranian Agriculture Experts’ Viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and its development is the foundation of development in Iran as a developing country. So, it can be regarded as the foundation for economical and social development. The capabilities of agriculture sector are limited and its efficiency is trivial because of neglecting agricultural development and keeping its support just as a slogan. The transformation of agriculture to a developed, dynamic, efficient environment depends not only on appropriate climate and natural resources but also on human resource development in the relevant sector. The main purpose of the present research was to study and recognize agricultural development indicators from agriculture experts’ viewpoints (including researchers, trainers and extension experts in six provinces in Iran on the basis of Adjacent Provinces Plan. The study was designed with three phases of theoretical foundations, field operations and data analysis. The statistical population was 863 experts, out of which 198 experts were selected by stratified sampling. The validity and reliability of measurement tool (questionnaire was analyzed by SPSS software package. The study was a correlation-descriptive study in which factor analysis statistics was used in addition to descriptive statistics. Experts grouped indicators of future agricultural development in nine groups (access to inputs, application of technologies for the development of human resource and sustainability; reduction of losses; economical development; improvement of infrastructures; agricultural mechanization; social status; improvement of marketing; land reform; yield increase. Results about the difference in respondents’ viewpoints revealed significant differences in experts’ viewpoints in six studied province about relevant variables and in their viewpoints about the components of agricultural development (infrastructure improvement, marketing, optimum management and sustainability, human resource development and economical

  13. Research on Interactive Relationship between Agricultural Insurance and Rural Financial Development in Central and Western Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By selecting the panel data from 2001 to 2008 in central and western regions,I adopt the methods of covariance analysis test,Hausman test,panel unit root test and co-integration test to conduct empirical research on the interactive relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development in central and western regions.The results show that there is a long-term balanced and interactive causal relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development in central and western regions.The agricultural insurance in western regions is the cause of rural financial development,while such relationship in central regions is not tenable.There is an interactive promotion relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development efficiency in central regions,while the relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development efficiency in western regions is mutually inhibitive,but the rural financial efficiency in western regions promotes the development of agricultural insurance.Then corresponding suggestions are put forward in order to give full play to the role of mutual promotion between agricultural insurance and rural financial development as follows:reinforce the support degree for policy finance in central and western regions;increase the inputs of rural financial institutions in serving agriculture,countryside and farmers;expand the types and coverage of policy agricultural insurance.

  14. Integrating climate change into agricultural research for development in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambwera, Muyeye; Anderson, Simon

    2011-09-15

    African agriculture is already struggling to meet increasing demand for food. Climate change, which will alter agroecological conditions and looks set to arrest and decrease agricultural yields on the continent, will make it even harder to achieve food security. Boosting agricultural productivity in Africa, especially in the face of climate change, cannot be achieved without the benefits of cutting edge science. Advances in technology development and transfer, capacity building and policy research must be harnessed by developing and disseminating relevant strategies and technologies, and improving policy environments. The European Initiative for Agricultural Research for Development (EIARD), which facilitates and coordinates European policy and support for agricultural research for development, must integrate climate change into its activities and ensure that agricultural research for development and climate change adaptation are not disjointed. This demands a more strategic and coordinated approach from the initiative — one that reflects African realities, responds to African priorities for adaptation and development, and makes the best use of limited resources.

  15. Development of Urban Agriculture in Xixian New Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qinyan; LIU

    2013-01-01

    Short for Xi’an-Xianyang New Development area,Xixian New Area is a modern garden city and the development urban agriculture is its key and bright point.With the aid of SWOT method,this paper analyzes strength,weakness,opportunity and threat of urban agriculture in Xixian New Area.Combining actual conditions of developing urban agriculture in Xixian New Area,it discusses general and specific development modes of urban agriculture.It is concluded that urban agriculture in Xixian New Area should bring into play its strength and avoid its weakness,select suitable development mode and road.Besides,it should give into play multi-function of urban agriculture,so as to promote coordinated and sustainable development of economy,society,ecology and environment.

  16. TRENDS FOR PERSPECTIVE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uspensky I. A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a study of current problems connected with the formation of a park of automobiles, tractors and aggregates for transportation of agricultural products and ways of their solution

  17. EXPERT SYSTEMS - DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE TOOL

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Because of the fact that specialty agricultural assistance is not always available when the farmers need it, we identified expert systems as a strong instrument with an extended potential in agriculture. This started to grow in scale recently, including all socially-economic activity fields, having the role of collecting data regarding different aspects from human experts with the purpose of assisting the user in the necessary steps for solving problems, at the performance level of the expert...

  18. Priority Directions of Improving the State Regulation of Agriculture Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Konstantinovna Sanakoeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews primary directions for economical regulation of agriculture, for solving problems of insufficient funds of agricultural enterprises. Goals for development of agricultural economics growth and competitive abilities are determined, economical measures for governmental support are described as functions of system for development of agricultural market. The authors reveal the problems of innovational and optimizational model for development of agriculture, and system of state regulative and supportive measures for implementing the innovational model of development by consolidation of self-development mechanisms within revealing of inner economical reserves and activisation of “growth points” for resource potential. The mutual system dependence for mechanisms of taxes and subsidiaries and their influence on budget and socio-economical externalities are analyzed. It is substantiated that the state regulation of agricultural markets must take into account low incomes of small agricultural business, not allowing to accumulate necessary funds for starting cooperation. Due to that, the article specially reviews issues of loan availableness for small agricultural enterprises, including private farmings, peasant farms and cooperatives created by them, and, for this goal, the issues of marketing effectiveness for production of such small forms of agriculture are further reviewed. As a result of research, the authors discovered the necessity for government support of socially important businesses in agriculture, which are not of high profitability and, due to that, are not attractive for investors, but are necessary for saving the traditional rural lifestyle and maintaining important social functions for sustainable development.

  19. The Development Model of Agricultural Insurance in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu; YOU

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural economy in Anhui Province is developing so fast,but farmers are severely affected by the frequent occurrence of natural disasters. The current agricultural insurance mode is not suitable,therefore,the research on agricultural insurance modes of Anhui Province helps to promote the steady development of the agricultural production. Starting from situation of agricultural insurance in Anhui Province,learning from both experience of foreign country and the latest successful domestic modes,we try to put forward agricultural insurance mode framework which is suitable for Anhui Province. Based on the actual situation of Anhui Province,it is necessary to adopt the mode of government leading combined with agricultural mutual aid rather than copy the existing mode.

  20. Embodied phosphorus and the global connections of United States agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Graham K.; Bennett, Elena M.; Carpenter, Stephen R.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural phosphorus (P) use is intricately linked to food security and water quality. Globalization of agricultural systems and changing diets clearly alter these relationships, yet their specific influence on non-renewable P reserves is less certain. We assessed P fertilizer used for production of food crops, livestock and biofuels in the US agricultural system, explicitly comparing the domestic P use required for US food consumption to the P use embodied in the production of US food imports and exports. By far the largest demand for P fertilizer throughout the US agricultural system was for feed and livestock production (56% of total P fertilizer use, including that for traded commodities). As little as 8% of the total mineral P inputs to US domestic agriculture in 2007 (1905 Gg P) was consumed in US diets in the same year, while larger fractions may have been retained in agricultural soils (28%), associated with different post-harvest losses (40%) or with biofuel refining (10%). One quarter of all P fertilizer used in the US was linked to export production, primarily crops, driving a large net P flux out of the country (338 Gg P). However, US meat consumption relied considerably on P fertilizer use in other countries to produce red meat imports. Changes in domestic farm management and consumer waste could together reduce the P fertilizer required for US food consumption by half, which is comparable to the P fertilizer reduction attainable by cutting domestic meat consumption (44%). US export-oriented agriculture, domestic post-harvest P losses and global demand for meat may ultimately have an important influence on the lifespan of US phosphate rock reserves.

  1. Social capital, agricultural innovation and the evaluation of agricultural development initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van F.C.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, I show that social capital has an important role in the evaluation of development initiatives targeting agricultural innovation. Social capital and agricultural innovation are naturally linked from an innovation system perspective in which innovations result from the integration of k

  2. Estimates of agricultural cropping-practices in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains estimates of agricultural cropping-practices in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture...

  3. Estimates of agricultural cropping-practices in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains estimates of agricultural cropping-practices in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture (U.S....

  4. Estimates of agricultural-chemical use in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains estimates of agricultural-chemical use in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture (U.S....

  5. Estimates of land in agricultural production in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains estimates of land in agricultural production in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture (U.S....

  6. Agriculture, Crops - CULTIVATED_AREAS_USDA_IN: Cultivated Areas in Indiana in 2004 (United States Department of Agriculture, 1:100,000, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) area sampling frame is a delineation of all parcels of land for...

  7. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ACCOUNTING AND DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL ACCOUNTING*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Doğan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sector, from past to present, had assumed very important duties on economic and social development of societies. It became a globally indispensable and strategic sector due to its various attributes such as: direct/indirect contributions to population nourishment, national income, employment, capital transfers, raw material supply for industry, exportation, biological diversity and ecological balance. Since the dawn of humankind, agricultural sector had gone through a variety of phases in terms of production activities and land proprietorship. Agricultural activities that emerged in the period of hunter-gatherer societies have been superseded by today’s specialized and planned agricultural enterprises utilizing information and technology. Agricultural accounting has also experienced a significant change in parallel with those improvements. This study aims to investigate historical development of agricultural accounting and difficulties encountered during its implementation. Research studies indicate that agricultural assets were initially recorded and inventory controls were performed by Sumerians. Until the Middle Ages, agricultural accounting did not experience any development, whereas it still encounters various difficulties eve

  8. The Reorganization of Agricultural Extension Toward Sustainable Agricultural Development in Eastern Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadalla. A. E. Omar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The specific objectives of Sustainable agricultural development are to enhance food security; to increase productivity and competitiveness of the sector; to deepen linkages with other sectors; to create new sources of growth for the sector; and to conserve and utilize natural resources in a sustainable basis. The agricultural extension services can play a crucial role in providing this network of information on sustainable agricultural education. Thus, the role of agricultural extension is very important to support Sustainable agricultural development which is moving from production to a wider set of sustainability and environmental objectives may need to change their extension approach. To fulfill this objective, a sample of 46 Managers, Deputy Directors, respondents was selected through simple of sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research .A questionnaire was used to collect the data and Analysis of descriptive statistics. Results: According to factor analysis, the implications for sustainable agricultural development were categorized into two groups consisting: (a The Decentralization (b The Pluralism. That decentralization is high with Delegate the local committees (local leaders, farmers’ organizations and agricultural credit organizations for the dissemination of sustainable agricultural development programs and for the collection of taxes and financial charges from the farmers due to the extension services and loans of 67.4�0.While 69.6 �0of Managers and Deputy Directors mentioned that high performance of Pluralism is Providing training for farmers organizations’ staff. To achieve this participation, extension organizations would need to formally of decentralization and Pluralism or transfer the control of specific program planning and management functions to the system levels of local Agricultural extension, Private sector organizations, Farmers organizations and Education organizations where

  9. SPECIALIZATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Kołoszko-Chomentowska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article, an attempt was made to assess the sustainability of agricultural holdings with diff erent directions of production. Agricultural holdings in the Podlaskie voivodeship registered in the FADN system in 2011–2012 were investigated. Assessment accounted for agroecological indicators (share of permanent grasslands, share of cereals in crops, soil coverage with vegetation, stock density and economic indicators (profi tableness of land and labor. Analysis was conducted according to a classifi cation into agricultural holding types: fi eldcrops, dairy cattle, and granivores. Fieldcrop and granivore holdings achieved more favourable environmental sustainability indicators. Holdings specializing in dairy cattle breeding posed a threat to the natural environment, mainly due to their excessive stock density. Economic sustainability assessment showed that granivore holdings were assessed most favorably. In these holdings, holding income per full-time worker was 37% greater than in fi eldcrop holdings and 57% greater than in dairy cattle holdings.

  10. Cloud Computing and Agricultural Development of China: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxin Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing technology has brought great opportunities to the development of China's agriculture; however it is also facing unprecedented challenges. According to the advantages of cloud computing, based on the status quo of China's agricultural development, the paper first discussed the impacts of cloud computing for China's agricultural development; and analyzed the field and the prospects of its possible applications in agriculture; then presented the application and promotion of cloud computing technology is a long-term system works, not only need to build the data center, integrate resources, enhance service capabilities, and also need to make information security.

  11. The Development Model Electronic Commerce of Regional Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jun; Cai, Lecai; Li, Hongchan

    With the developing of the agricultural information, it is inevitable trend of the development of agricultural electronic commercial affairs. On the basis of existing study on the development application model of e-commerce, combined with the character of the agricultural information, compared with the developing model from the theory and reality, a new development model electronic commerce of regional agriculture base on the government is put up, and such key issues as problems of the security applications, payment mode, sharing mechanisms, and legal protection are analyzed, etc. The among coordination mechanism of the region is discussed on, it is significance for regulating the development of agricultural e-commerce and promoting the regional economical development.

  12. Public-Private Partnerships and Sustainable Agricultural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Castle

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in Africa is not sustainable because average yields have been stagnating for decades due to underinvestment, especially in the development of agricultural markets, crop improvement and the sustainable management of agricultural systems. Low public sector funding for agricultural research and lack of incentives for the private sector to operate in areas where there is no market largely explain the yield gap in many food-importing developing countries. Yet, there are effective ways in which the public and the private sector could work together and jointly improve agricultural sustainability in poor countries. The public sector provides a favorable institutional environment for the development of agricultural markets and investment in rural infrastructure, facilitates local business development and funds research with local relevance. The private sector, in return, brings its considerable expertise in product development and deployment. This article illustrates how new forms of public-private partnerships (PPPs for agricultural development can work in challenging environments. It discusses three promising examples of PPPs in which the Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture (SFSA is actively involved, and shows that an experimental approach can sometimes be more effective than social planning in efforts to achieve sustainable agriculture.

  13. A Study of Agricultural Technology Extension and Synchronous Development of Agricultural Modernization,Urbanization and Industrialization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bibo HU

    2016-01-01

    Through the study of relationship between agricultural technology extension and the development of agricultural modernization,urbanization and industrialization,it is found that agricultural technology extension is an important means to achieve synchronous development of agricultural modernization,urbanization and industrialization. Based on the sample data in China during 1978-2011,we perform the empirical analysis using VAR model and cointegration analysis and impulse response methods. The results show that there is a long-term positive equilibrium relationship between agricultural technology extension and the development of agricultural modernization,urbanization and industrialization,and agricultural technology extension plays a role in promoting agricultural modernization,urbanization and industrialization to varying degrees. Finally,it is concluded that there is a need to establish efficient agricultural technology extension mechanism and diversified agricultural technology extension investment mechanism to make agricultural technology extension better promote China’s agricultural modernization,urbanization and industrialization.

  14. On Development of Agricultural Machinery Operating Service in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjing; TAN; Shi; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing takes on rapid increase in number of service organizations,diversified service methods,improvement in service level,and constant service income. However,there are some problems,including unreasonable composition and small scale of service organization,imbalanced development of four service methods,low service level,and low operating income of agricultural machinery households. To accelerate development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing,it is recommended to take following measures: adjusting subsidy for purchase and operation of agricultural machinery; improving fiscal and taxation and financial system; speeding up infrastructure construction,establishing agricultural machinery information network,and improving organizational form and methods of agricultural machinery operating service.

  15. Development of the agricultural insurance market in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vávrová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Proactive approach to risk management of agriculture companies is the way to ensure the efficiency of agricultural production even affected by natural disasters, to ensure the continuity of agricultural business and ultimately affect the level of development of rural regions. The instrument that solves the problem of reduction and elimination of risks associated with agricultural production is a systemic approach to the insurance of agricultural production, both crop insurance and livestock insurance, linked to a support program for SME in agriculture.This presented paper aims to identify and discuss the possibility of eliminating risks possibly threate­ning the agricultural production and to analyze forms of covering risks associated with agricultural production on the commercial insurance market in the Czech Republic. The paper analyzes the current situation and current development of the agricultural insurance on the insurance market in the Czech Republic.This paper was written as a part of the research project MSM 6215648904, carried out by the Faculty of Business and Economics, under the title „The Czech economics in the processes of integration and globalization, and the development of the agriculture and service sector in the new conditions of the integrated European market“, following the goals and methodology of the research project.

  16. Agricultural Development Mode Transformation and Government Functions in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the brief account of the connotation of transforming economic development pattern and government functions,the thesis will introduce the development status of agricultural economy in Guizhou Province:firstly,single agricultural industrial structure;secondly,large gap between urban and rural development;thirdly,low-level utilization of agricultural science and technology;fourthly,fierce contradiction between agricultural mode of production and ecological environment.Then it analyzes the basic requirements for government functions in transforming the development pattern of agricultural economy in Guizhou Province:the first one is the function to guide sustainable development and the structural adjustment of agricultural production;the second is the function to coordinate urban-rural development and equally supply basic public goods;the third is the function to input science and technology to serve agriculture;the fourth one is the dominant function to promote the harmonious development of man and nature as well as to reduce the number of peasants.In order to promote the transformation of agricultural development mode and maintain the sound and rapid economic development,some corresponding measures and suggestions are proposed from the perspective of government functions:firstly,promoting the optimization and upgrading of industrial structure;secondly,the government should take the lead in providing rural public goods;thirdly,strengthening the skills training and technological education of rural labor force;fourthly,reducing the number of farmers and retaining the farmers.

  17. Organic agriculture in a development policy perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik; Halberg, Niels; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    Farmers growing food with high eco-efficiency may be seen cultivating peace by reducing competition among nations for oil and as producers of other public goods: biodiverse landscapes and ecosystem services with more soil fertility, less water use and less pollution. How does Organic agriculture...

  18. 7 CFR 1924.8 - Development work for modular/panelized housing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Development work for modular/panelized housing units..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROGRAM REGULATIONS CONSTRUCTION AND REPAIR Planning and Performing Construction and Other Development § 1924.8 Development work for modular/panelized housing units. (a) Exhibit B...

  19. Agricultural Extension: Farm Extension Services in Australia, Britain and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald B.

    By analyzing the scope and structure of agricultural extension services in Australia, Great Britain, and the United States, this work attempts to set guidelines for measuring progress and guiding extension efforts. Extension training, agricultural policy, and activities of national, international, state, and provincial bodies are examined. The…

  20. Work-related pilot fatalities in agriculture--United States, 1992-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-23

    Aircraft often are used in agriculture to apply pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizers. During 1992-2001, a total of 141 persons died in agriculture-related plane crashes. To characterize aviation fatalities in agriculture, CDC analyzed data on fatal injuries to pilots working in U.S. agriculture during 1992-2001. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that agricultural pilots are at increased risk for fatal injury compared with pilots in all other industries. The agriculture aviation profession continues to work to reduce fatalities by recommending continual skill development and by offering training to aerial application pilots.

  1. Agricultural rent-seeking in developing countries: an empirical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Recent increases in demand for agricultural land has fuelled academic, as well as public, interest in the potential effects of high value agricultural land, particularly in developing countries. The dominating question seems to be: will increasing demand for agricultural land imply land grabbing...... or rural development? This article finds empirical support for a proposed theory which suggests that the extent of agricultural rent-seeking, in the form of large-scale land acquisitions, is determined by the relative political power of an elite and a farmer group. © 2014 Taylor & Francis....

  2. Grids of Agricultural Pesticide Use in the Conterminous United States, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset consists of 199 1-kilometer (km) resolution grids depicting estimated agricultural use of 199 pesticides in 1992 for the conterminous United...

  3. EnviroAtlas - Percent Agriculture on Hydric Soil for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on Agricultural Land Coverage on Hydric Soils for each Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-Digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC-12)...

  4. The Climate Change Squeeze Facing the United States and US Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sohngen, Brent; McCarl, Bruce A.

    2004-01-01

    Agriculture and forestry in the United States face pressures from the eventual effects of climate change and from efforts to control greenhouse gasses. This set of papers looks at the economic consequences from both pressures.

  5. Grids of Agricultural Pesticide Use in the Conterminous United States, 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset consists of 219 1-kilometer (km) resolution grids depicting estimated agricultural use of 219 pesticides in 1997 for the conterminous United...

  6. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.

    2008-01-01

    into the crop can be helped by diversification within the crop, allowing complementation and compensation among plants. Although the problems of breeding cereals for organic farming systems are large, there is encouraging progress. This lies in applications of ecology to organic crop production, innovations......The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...

  7. Selection Factors for Market Subjects of Agricultural Industrial Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The paper firstly analyzes selection factors for market subjects of agricultural industrial development in China. From the political aspect, it is required to take account of features of subjects of agricultural industrial development at current stage. From economic aspects, we should adheres to the two-tier management system that integrates unified with separate management on the basis of household contract management in the countryside, and cultivate and foster subject enterprises according to features of most important market subjects in market economy. From natural aspects, it is proposed to consider features of agricultural industry and inherent advantages of agricultural resources in China. From social aspects, it is essential to draw on successful experience of developed countries in developing market subjects of agricultural industry.

  8. Empowering Women in Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugbomeh, George M. M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the concepts of agricultural education, women empowerment, and sustainable rural development. Suggests that, because women make up more than half of Nigeria's population, their empowerment would assist the efforts for sustainable rural development. (Contains 48 references.) (JOW)

  9. Development of Bioelectrochemical Systems to Promote Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojin Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrochemical systems (BES are a newly emerged technology for energy-efficient water and wastewater treatment. Much effort as well as significant progress has been made in advancing this technology towards practical applications treating various types of waste. However, BES application for agriculture has not been well explored. Herein, studies of BES related to agriculture are reviewed and the potential applications of BES for promoting sustainable agriculture are discussed. BES may be applied to treat the waste/wastewater from agricultural production, minimizing contaminants, producing bioenergy, and recovering useful nutrients. BES can also be used to supply irrigation water via desalinating brackish water or producing reclaimed water from wastewater. The energy generated in BES can be used as a power source for wireless sensors monitoring the key parameters for agricultural activities. The importance of BES to sustainable agriculture should be recognized, and future development of this technology should identify proper application niches with technological advancement.

  10. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Development of Agricultural Listed Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of industrial division of China’s Securities Regulatory Commission,listed companies in the processing industry of agro-products and food production industry have also been incorporated into agricultural listed companies.Developmental discrepancy of agricultural listed companies is analyzed.The main manifestations are small population quantity,slow development,weak growing capacity,relatively poor rationality and unbalanced regional distribution.The internal causes of this kind of situation lie in the weak quality and inadequate developmental driving force of agricultural listed companies,while the external causes are the capital chasing and unbalanced political support of the country.Therefore,the key of quickening the development of agricultural listed companies is inner power and external competition.Thus,the political thoughts of the development of agricultural listed companies are proposed.

  12. Making Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS Work for Development in Tropical Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Aerni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural innovation in low-income tropical countries contributes to a more effective and sustainable use of natural resources and reduces hunger and poverty through economic development in rural areas. Yet, despite numerous recent public and private initiatives to develop capacities for agricultural innovation, such initiatives are often not well aligned with national efforts to revive existing Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS. In an effort to improve coordination and responsiveness of Capacity Development (CD initiatives, the G20 Agriculture Ministers requested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO to lead the development of a Tropical Agricultural Platform (TAP, which is designed to improve coherence and coordination of CD for agricultural innovation in the tropics. This paper presents a summary of the results obtained from three regional needs assessments undertaken by TAP and its partners. The surveyed tropical regions were Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Central America. The findings reveal a mismatch in all three regions between the external supply of primarily individual CD and the actual demand for institutional CD. The misalignment might be addressed by strengthening south-south and triangular collaboration and by improving the institutional capacities that would render national AIS more demand-oriented and responsive to the needs of smallholders in domestic agriculture.

  13. Changes and Problems of Agricultural Development in Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karbasioun, M.; Mulder, M.; Biemans, H.

    2008-01-01

    There has been a big debate on the evolution of agricultural development (AD), the challenges and problems hindering AD in Iran since last decade. This study was implemented in the province of Esfahan and a number of 130 out of 212 agricultural experts from 13 different townships were selected as

  14. Leadership, Education and Agricultural Development Programs in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Dale W.

    1968-01-01

    The lack of qualified leadership to direct, plan, and do research in agricultural agencies is an important restraint on rural development in countries like Colombia. An increase in the number of students attending institutions for agricultural education has been often viewed as the solution to this problem. It is argued here that an increase in…

  15. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…

  16. A Professional Development Climate Course for Sustainable Agriculture in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, David; Clewett, Jeff; Birch, Colin; Wright, Anthony; Allen, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    There are few professional development courses in Australia for the rural sector concerned with climate variability, climate change and sustainable agriculture. The lack of educators with a sound technical background in climate science and its applications in agriculture prevents the delivery of courses either stand-alone or embedded in other…

  17. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  18. Unit Performance Assessment System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Overview of the enhanced UPAS ...... . 57 xiv UNIT PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT Introduccion The networking of combat vehicle simulators...converting SIMNET terrain data from the UNIX format to a DOS format as part of their work on the development of Intelligent Semi-Automated Forces. The...and Social Sciences. (AD A226 956). LB&M Associates (1992). Phase I Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program for Simulation Networkinc Training

  19. FORECAST OF THE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT FOR THE AMUR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reymer V. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the relevance of evaluation of agricultural growth, which can be achieved through the implementation of agricultural sectors’ innovative potential. The opportunities of agricultural growth are defined by the set of macroeconomic, sectoral and regional factors as well as the type of enterprises that have different levels of innovative susceptibility. The authors give an overview of the main methods of social and economic forecasting and justify the choice of the ARIMA (Autoregressive integrated moving average as a tool for forecasting regional development of agriculture. The article presents the experts’ estimatesbased values of integrated indicators of agricultural exogenous factors and the ARIMA-parameters based on the use of these indicators for time series prediction of agricultural production in the Amur region. The authors conclude that the time series ARIMA-model of the gross agricultural production, taking into account the influence of innovation potential factors, demonstrate a good approximation to the Amur region data. This article also compares the forecasts of agricultural production on inertial and innovative scenario for the Amur region, and provides an estimation of innovation potential growth of the agricultural branches

  20. Agricultural Mechanics Unit for Plant Science Core Curriculum. Volume 15, Number 4. Instructor's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhardt, Richard E.; Hunter, Bill

    This instructor's guide is intended for use in teaching the agricultural mechanics unit of a plant science core curriculum. Covered in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: arc welding (following safety procedures, controlling distortion, selecting and caring for electrodes, identifying the material to be welded, and welding…

  1. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Florida Agriculture. Crop Protection with Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

    This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

  2. Opportunities and challenges of sustainable agricultural development in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingzhu; Luo, Qishan; Deng, Hongbing; Yan, Yan

    2008-02-27

    This paper introduces the concepts and aims of sustainable agriculture in China. Sustainable agricultural development comprises sustainability of agricultural production, sustainability of the rural economy, ecological and environmental sustainability within agricultural systems and sustainability of rural society. China's prime aim is to ensure current and future food security. Based on projections of China's population, its economy, societal factors and agricultural resources and inputs between 2000 and 2050, total grain supply and demand has been predicted and the state of food security analysed. Total and per capita demand for grain will increase continuously. Total demand will reach 648 Mt in 2020 and 700 Mt in 2050, while total grain yield of cultivated land will reach 470 Mt in 2010, 585 Mt in 2030 and 656 Mt in 2050. The per capita grain production will be around 360kg in the period 2000-2030 and reach 470kg in 2050. When productivities of cultivated land and other agricultural resources are all taken into consideration, China's food self-sufficiency ratio will increase from 94.4% in 2000 to 101.3% in 2030, suggesting that China will meet its future demand for food and need for food security. Despite this positive assessment, the country's sustainable agricultural development has encountered many obstacles. These include: agricultural water-use shortage; cultivated land loss; inappropriate usage of fertilizers and pesticides, and environmental degradation.

  3. The new political economy of food and agricultural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, J W; Adams Rh

    1986-11-01

    This paper emphasizes the benefits of an agricultural strategy of development in developing countries. It begins by analyzing the close links between food and employment in the development process. In an underdeveloped country, food production is minimal, but demand is as well because of the small population growth. After development begins, income rises and food demand outstrips production. Only at later stages of development can food production meet demand. The middle stage of development describes most developing countries, which have averaged annual growth rates of 3% per capita in 1966-80. The growth in food demand must be met through technological advance in agriculture: high-yield seeds, fertilizers, and irrigation, which, for example, helped India increase cereal yields 29% between 1954-55 and 1964-65. The rate of growth in cropped areas has declined between 1961-1980, making increased yields more necessary. Growth in employment and income leads to higher food demand, which leads to higher prices and labor costs and a tendency towards capital-intensive agriculture. As the rural sector becomes wealthier, there is also more opportunity for non-agricultural rural workers, creating still more demand. In the final development stage, agricultural products can generate foreign exchange. In Asia, the priority is to ensure efficient outcomes of capital allocations, while in Africa, technology must be instituted. Public investment has been shown to be essential to rapid development in Japan, Taiwan, and the Punjab of India. The absence of this investment in Africa, partly because of an overemphasis on urban sector investment, is largely responsible for the backward state of African agriculture. Often rural areas are overtaxed, agricultural experts are lacking, and there is a growing presence of urban bureaucrats. Both experts in the donor community and farmers themselves must become more vocal in demanding investment in the agricultural sector.

  4. Urban agriculture and poverty alleviation in developing countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urban agriculture and poverty alleviation in developing countries. ... regular institutionalized management in a participatory manner including all relevant ... of the advantage of planning a city, a definition and pros of urban economy in country ...

  5. Contract Farming and the Development of Smallholder Agricultural Businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Contract farming has received renewed attention recently as developing economies try to grapple with how to transform the agricultural sector and its associated value chains. This book examines different contract arrangements for selected crops, applying both qualitative and quantitative approaches...

  6. (12) A blueprint for agricultural development in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adeyinka Odunsi

    Nigerian economic development and revealed that foreign .... Table 3 Population and Output of major Agricultural Commodities (2000-2012). Year ... interested in farming while the aged farmers who ..... from all companies operating in Nigeria.

  7. Strawberry fields forever? Urban agriculture in developed countries: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Mok, Hoi-Fei; Williamson, Virginia; Grove, James; Burry, Kristal; Barker, S; Hamilton, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Food production in cities has long been a tradition in many countries around the world and a mainstream activity for many developed countries. While urban agriculture plays an important role in increasing food security and social well-being, it comes with significant costs and constraints. Here, we review the growth of urban agriculture throughout the developed world in order to clarify the different benefits, risks, and hindrances associated with the practice. Through...

  8. Estimation of annual agricultural pesticide use for counties of the conterminous United States, 1992-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelin, Gail P.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2013-01-01

    A method was developed to calculate annual county level pesticide use for selected herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides applied to agricultural crops grown in the conterminous United States from 1992 through 2009. Pesticide-use data compiled by proprietary surveys of farm operations located within Crop Reporting Districts were used in conjunction with annual harvested-crop acreage reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) to calculate use rates per harvested crop acre, or an 'estimated pesticide use' (EPest) rate, for each crop by year. Pesticide-use data were not available for all Crop Reporting Districts and years. When data were unavailable for a Crop Reporting District in a particular year, EPest extrapolated rates were calculated from adjoining or nearby Crop Reporting Districts to ensure that pesticide use was estimated for all counties that reported harvested-crop acreage. EPest rates were applied to county harvested-crop acreage differently to obtain EPest-low and EPest-high estimates of pesticide-use for counties and states, with the exception of use estimates for California, which were taken from annual Department of Pesticide Regulation Pesticide Use Reports. Annual EPest-low and EPest-high use totals were compared with other published pesticide-use reports for selected pesticides, crops, and years. EPest-low and EPest-high national totals for five of seven herbicides were in close agreement with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and National Pesticide Use Data estimates, but greater than most NASS national totals. A second set of analyses compared EPest and NASS annual state totals and state-by-crop totals for selected crops. Overall, EPest and NASS use totals were not significantly different for the majority of crop-stateyear combinations evaluated. Furthermore, comparisons of EPest and NASS use estimates for most pesticides had rank correlation coefficients greater than 0.75 and median

  9. Estimated annual agricultural pesticide use for counties of the conterminous United States, 2008-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2015-01-01

    Annual county-level pesticide use was estimated for 423 herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides applied to agricultural crops grown in the conterminous United States during 2008–12. For all States except California, pesticide-use data were compiled from proprietary surveys of farm operations located within U.S. Department of Agriculture Crop Reporting Districts (CRDs). Surveyed pesticide-use data were used in conjunction with county annual harvested-crop acres reported by the U.S. Department of Agriculture 2007 and 2012 Censuses of Agriculture and the 2008–11 County Agricultural Production Survey to calculate use rates per harvested-crop acre, or an “estimated pesticide use” (EPest) rate, for each crop by year. County-use estimates were then calculated by multiplying EPest rates by harvested-crop acres for each pesticide crop combination. Use estimates for California were obtained from annual Department of Pesticide Regulation-Pesticide Use Reports.

  10. Reasons and Improving Strategies of Slow Development of Agricultural Insurance System in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yifan; WANG Xingyuan; CAI Yuqiu

    2011-01-01

    In order to establish modern agriculture and reduce harmful effects of natural disasters to agriculture, developing agricultural insurance and improving agricultural management system are essential. This paper firstly elaborated the feasibility and importance of improving agricultural economy, and analyzed some reasons which restricted China agricultural insurance developing speed, and then gave some improving suggestions in the end.

  11. Dynamic Agricultural Land Unit Profile Database Generation using Landsat Time Series Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Rua, A. F.; McKee, M.

    2012-12-01

    Agriculture requires continuous supply of inputs to production, while providing final or intermediate outputs or products (food, forage, industrial uses, etc.). Government and other economic agents are interested in the continuity of this process and make decisions based on the available information about current conditions within the agriculture area. From a government point of view, it is important that the input-output chain in agriculture for a given area be enhanced in time, while any possible abrupt disruption be minimized or be constrained within the variation tolerance of the input-output chain. The stability of the exchange of inputs and outputs becomes of even more important in disaster-affected zones, where government programs will look for restoring the area to equal or enhanced social and economical conditions before the occurrence of the disaster. From an economical perspective, potential and existing input providers require up-to-date, precise information of the agriculture area to determine present and future inputs and stock amounts. From another side, agriculture output acquirers might want to apply their own criteria to sort out present and future providers (farmers or irrigators) based on the management done during the irrigation season. In the last 20 years geospatial information has become available for large areas in the globe, providing accurate, unbiased historical records of actual agriculture conditions at individual land units for small and large agricultural areas. This data, adequately processed and stored in any database format, can provide invaluable information for government and economic interests. Despite the availability of the geospatial imagery records, limited or no geospatial-based information about past and current farming conditions at the level of individual land units exists for many agricultural areas in the world. The absence of this information challenges the work of policy makers to evaluate previous or current

  12. Index of Circular Agriculture Development in the Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trendov Nikola M.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Macedonia, the circular economy would boost country’s agri-food sector competitiveness and help create new business and market opportunities for the farmers and processing industry. Public benefits that could accrue from the bio-economy perspective has become compelling. Nevertheless, the question arises: “At what level are we? Does the country go toward the development of the circular agriculture or not?” By using conceptual model of BPEIR (Behaviour - Pressure - Effect - Impact - Response and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method, the author introduces a comprehensive analysis and quantitative evaluation of the level of Macedonian circular agriculture development. This paper discusses the fact that the Republic of Macedonia shows positive trends regarding circular economy disciplines in agriculture, given by natural geographic conditions and traditional agricultural production.

  13. DEVELOPING CURRICULUM MATERIALS FOR COOPERATIVE EXPERIENCE PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS INSTITUTE 1966 WORKSHOP REPORT (JUNE 6-JULY 15, 1966).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater. Research Foundation.

    THIRTY VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS FROM 11 STATES DEVELOPED THESE CURRICULUM MATERIALS FOR A 2-YEAR HIGH SCHOOL COOPERATIVE EXPERIENCE PROGRAM FOR OCCUPATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL SALES AND SERVICE, AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY, AND HORTICULTURE. A RATIONALE FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, AN EXPLANATION OF THE CURRICULUM, AND AN EXPLANATION OF THE…

  14. LENDING PROJECT IMPACT ON AGRICULTURAL INDIVIDUAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT IN MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia LITVIN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic development within rural areas of the Republic of Moldova is affected by multiple issues which cross the agricultural individual sector development. One of the main factors that would influence positively the development of agriculture is investment. Investment plays an important role on the country's economy, representing the material support of its economic and social development. It ensures the permanent capital increase, advances the technical and economic efficiency of existing ones and creates new places of employment. In this context, investment is the decisive element of economic growth, of the intensive, qualitative and effective factors promotion.

  15. Considering Professional Identity to Enhance Agriculture Teacher Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoulders, Catherine W.; Myers, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    The professional identity secondary agriculture teachers display can affect their receptiveness and interest in different professional development events, yet is often overlooked when designing professional development because it is not included in the consensus of proven methods of professional development design and delivery (Desimone, 2009).…

  16. Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Laxmi Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new…

  17. Learning and Innovation Competence in Agricultural and Rural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Laxmi Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The fields of competence development and capacity development remain isolated in the scholarship of learning and innovation despite the contemporary focus on innovation systems thinking in agricultural and rural development. This article aims to address whether and how crossing the conventional boundaries of these two fields provide new…

  18. Strategic ways of economic development of agriculture in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klochko Vіtalіy M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides data with respect to the modern state and tendencies of development of the agrarian sector of Ukraine. The issue of the optimal size of an agricultural enterprise is discussed in the scientific literature. The world practice shows that competitive advantages of farms are achieved through their unification for creation of various partnerships and co-operatives, which operate on the unprofitable basis. Powerful industrial enterprises, financial, trading and service structures took advantage of absence of co-operatives and monopolised production of agricultural products, holding significant areas of agricultural land on lease. Today, ten biggest Ukrainian agro-holdings have more than three million hectares of land or 7.5% of all lands. Big capital, trying to maximise profit, is specialised, as a rule, in mono-production. The article shows main ways of strategic development of agriculture in Ukraine. Depending on the main form of farm management, there are two directions of further development of agro-industrial production: development of big agro-industrial formations (branch organisation of agro-industrial production and vertical integration in the agro-industrial complex (AIC or co-operatives (territorial organisation of agro-industrial production and horizontal integration in AIC. Depending on the way selected by the state, an organisational and economic mechanism is created. The article develops conceptual grounds of state regulation of AIC in the context of development of major agro-industrial formations and agricultural service co-operatives.

  19. Vertical Coordination Development Mode and Influential Factors of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuzhan WANG

    2016-01-01

    In China,the vertical coordination development mode of agricultural products can be divided into traditional market-oriented transaction mode with fluctuation according to market conditions,made-to-order on the basis of farmer organization,company leading cooperative mode,share or shareholding cooperative mode,and vertical integration mode. There are differences in coordination characteristics,advantages and disadvantages,and adaptability between different modes. Traditional vertical coordination mode is transforming and upgrading to close and high-efficient mode. In this process,it is influenced by factors such as cost-benefit balance between farmers and agricultural product processing enterprises,special use of agricultural product processing,structure of agricultural product industry chain,and action of local government.

  20. Fitting Islamic Financial Contracts in Developing Agricultural Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hakimi Mohd Shafiai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Islamic finance industry is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. However, many potential Muslim customers, particularly in rural areas, have unfulfilled banking needs and lack access to financing. Meanwhile, entrepreneurial projects in the agricultural sector are presumed to optimize economic growth. In addition, some scholars have expounded that the financial problems faced by the agricultural sector are caused by the risks of debt financing and lack of access to the capital market. In Islamic law, almuzara’ah and al-musaqah can be considered as forms of partnership contract in farming. Therefore, using descriptive analysis, this paper attempts to portray how Islamic financial principles are closely related to the agricultural sector in developing Islamic agricultural finance. This study found that the application of the modes of Islamic financing in the agricultural sector through financial institutions could be very effective in providing financing to ensure that the partnership progresses effectively and efficiently. As a result, there is an urgent need to develop a sound agricultural financial system based on Islamic contracts in order to increase and sustain the income of farmers and landowners and to reduce poverty.

  1. Sustainable Development of Agriculture from the Perspective of Rural Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengjun; ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    In recent years,China’s economic construction enters into a new development period.The buyer’s market appears,structural demand of agricultural products becomes excessive,and the demand market becomes depressed.In the process of seeking approaches for expanding domestic demands,accelerating construction of small towns is a breakthrough point of rural population urbanization,and also an optimal approach for realizing transfer of rural surplus labor.Besides,accelerating construction of small towns is an inevitable path for intensive management of rural land implementing ecological agriculture,and also an optimal path for improving farmers’ quality and improving living conditions.In addition,it is an essential strategy for increasing consumption,expanding domestic demand,pulling rural economic and social development,and also a powerful measure for realizing sustainable development of agriculture.In the process of construction of rural urbanization,it is required to attach importance to strategy of sustainable development of agriculture.This is beneficial for the present generation and for descendants.Therefore,how to build small towns and how to solve many problems in sustainable development of agriculture have received much concern.

  2. Considerations on Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development in Dryland Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Li; TSUNEKAWA Atsushi; TSUBO Mitsuru; KOIKE Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Drylands of the world cover 41% of the Earth's land surface and are a direct source of livelihood for 6.5 billion people, especially in developing countries. However, nearly all drylands are at risk of land degradation as a result of human activities. Poverty and desertification in dryland areas are major problems threatening sustainable agriculture and rural development in dryland areas. Several topics that are significant for sustainable agriculture and rural development for food security and environmental rehabilitation in dryland areas were stressed in this paper.

  3. The economics of agricultural development: what have we learned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumasset James

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural development thinking has gone through several stages of fad and fancy, often without an understanding of previous fallacies. Its current doldrums are unfortunate given the unrivaled importance of agricultural development for poverty reduction in most development countries. After reviewing several policy and program areas, lessons are synthesized, and a forward-looking research framework suggested, especially regarding role of specialization in the evolution of economic organization. The corresponding role of government is seen to be the facilitation of economic cooperation, rather than social engineering.

  4. Agriculture in the xxi century: transgenic plants role in agricultural sector´s technological development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Artunduaga Salas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The new advances in biotechnology, especially in the completion of the Arabidopsis thaliana, genome sequence has profound implications for human health as well as plant biology and agriculture. It will permit us to know the action of all the genes involved in the key growing and development processes of plants. Modification of the structure of genes will allow the regulation of the expression of some characteristics such as the size of the leaves or the dynamics of the roots and fruits growth. In this way, the commercialization of the products of the new biotechnologies will influence in this century´s nations, agricultural production, productivity and food supply. The challenges and opportunities for the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC are enormous, due to the rich base of their flora, fauna and microorganisms resources, which are essential to the pharmaceutical and feeding industries. The international Community recognizes the benefits of Biotechnology, but it also advocate more inquiry into the impacts of advanced agricultural biotechnologies on the environment, food system, structure of agriculture, rural communities, and population health.The countries of LAC should continue the development and improvement of the regulatory framework for preventing or minimizing the possible risks of the use and management of the transgenic organisms in their territory, and therefore, be able to make use of their potential benefits, ensuring the protection of public health and the environment.

  5. Impression on Agricultural Development in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fromen, D.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available In Ivory Coast, the freshwater fishculture in rural areas is mainly on a small scale. This type of breeding in ponds (2 to 4 ares yields on an average 3 metric tons of fish/ha/year and represents only an activity with self-consumption of products. The yield in intensive pond fishculture Tilapia nilotica is on an average 6 to 7 metric tons/ha/year but yields bigger than 10 metric tons/ha/year are not uncommon. The intensive fishculture in floating cages, requiring a minor investment but a more improved formation than in fischculture, yields on an average about 30 to 40 kg/m3/year. However the effective development of this activity rests on the resolution of problems like the sufficient fry production, the feeding and the commercialization.

  6. Existing Problems of Agricultural Development in China and Recommendations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqin; HUANG

    2015-01-01

    In 2012,China’s total grain yield reached 590 million tons and realized nine consecutive years of growth. This is huge historic achievement of China and also rare in development history of world agriculture. However,at the same time of making great achievements,China’s agriculture is still confronted with many problems. On the basis of extensive survey,it pointed out 10 outstanding problems: farmland,labor,livestock power,water conservancy,input,agricultural disaster,ecological and environmental problem,waste of resources,economic scale and economic benefits. These problems have brought great adverse influence on China’s agricultural development. In view of these problems,to realize sustainable,stable and healthy development of agriculture in the new period,it came up with following recommendations:( i)deepening the understanding;( ii) enforcing laws strictly;( iii) enhancing training;( iv) increasing benefits;( v) saving resources;( vi) protecting environment;( vii) developing science and technology;( viii) consolidating foundation.

  7. Research on plant-parasitic nematode biology conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitwood, David J

    2003-01-01

    The recent de-registration of several chemical nematicides and the impending loss of methyl bromide from the pest-control market necessitate the development of new methods for controlling nematode-induced crop damage. One approach for developing novel target-specific controls is by exploiting fundamental differences between the biological processes of nematodes and their host plants. Researchers of the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the US Department of Agriculture are actively exploring these differences. Research accomplishments include the discovery of heat shock protein genes possibly involved in developmental arrest of the soybean cyst nematode, the identification of neuropeptides and female-specific proteins in the soybean cyst nematode, the disruption of nematode reproduction with inhibitors of nematode sterol metabolism, the development of novel morphological and molecular (heat shock protein genes and the D3 segment of large subunit ribosomal DNA) features useful for nematode identification and classification, and the elucidation of the population genetics of potato cyst nematode pathotypes. In addition, several ARS researchers are investigating biological determinants of nematode response to management strategies utilized in agricultural fields. These collective efforts should lead to new chemical and non-chemical alternatives to conventional nematode control strategies.

  8. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects b...

  9. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...

  10. The Development and Persistence of Agricultural Policy in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthou, Silas

    Abstract The analysis of which factors affect the development of European agricultural policy, the CAP, combines economic, political and historic methods to examine the interaction between politicians, farmers and voters/taxpayers. The objective of this PhD thesis is to examine the development...

  11. Agricultural Trade Liberalization and the Least Developed Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, N.B.J.; Pinstrup-Andersen, P.

    2007-01-01

    Although the current round of international trade negotiations was called a `Development Round¿, very little was accomplished before the negotiations stalled in mid-2006. Developing countries as a group stand to gain very substantially from trade reform in agricultural commodities. It is less clear

  12. Proactive Risk Assessments and the Continuity of Business Principles: Perspectives on This Novel, Combined Approach to Develop Guidance for the Permitted Movement of Agricultural Products during a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Timothy J; Culhane, Marie Rene; Sampedro, Fernando; Cardona, Carol J

    2016-01-01

    Animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have the potential to severely impact food animal production systems. Paradoxically, the collateral damage associated with the outbreak response may create a larger threat to the food supply, social stability, and economic viability of rural communities than the disease itself. When FMD occurs in domestic animals, most developed countries will implement strict movement controls in the area surrounding the infected farm(s). Historically, stopping all animal movements has been considered one of the most effective ways to control FMD and stop disease spread. However, stopping all movements in an area comes at a cost, as there are often uninfected herds and flocks within the control area. The inability to harvest uninfected animals and move their products to processing interrupts the food supply chain and has the potential to result in an enormous waste of safe, nutritious animal products, and create animal welfare situations. In addition, these adverse effects may negatively impact agriculture businesses and the related economy. Effective disease control measures and the security of the food supply thus require a balanced approach based on science and practicality. Evaluating the risks associated with the movement of live animals and products before an outbreak happens provides valuable insights for risk management plans. These plans can optimize animal and product movements while preventing disease spread. Food security benefits from emergency response plans that both control the disease and keep our food system functional. Therefore, emergency response plans must aim to minimize the unintended negative consequence to farmers, food processors, rural communities, and ultimately consumers.

  13. Proactive Risk Assessments and the Continuity of Business Principles: Perspectives on This Novel, Combined Approach to Develop Guidance for the Permitted Movement of Agricultural Products during a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Timothy J.; Culhane, Marie Rene; Sampedro, Fernando; Cardona, Carol J.

    2017-01-01

    Animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have the potential to severely impact food animal production systems. Paradoxically, the collateral damage associated with the outbreak response may create a larger threat to the food supply, social stability, and economic viability of rural communities than the disease itself. When FMD occurs in domestic animals, most developed countries will implement strict movement controls in the area surrounding the infected farm(s). Historically, stopping all animal movements has been considered one of the most effective ways to control FMD and stop disease spread. However, stopping all movements in an area comes at a cost, as there are often uninfected herds and flocks within the control area. The inability to harvest uninfected animals and move their products to processing interrupts the food supply chain and has the potential to result in an enormous waste of safe, nutritious animal products, and create animal welfare situations. In addition, these adverse effects may negatively impact agriculture businesses and the related economy. Effective disease control measures and the security of the food supply thus require a balanced approach based on science and practicality. Evaluating the risks associated with the movement of live animals and products before an outbreak happens provides valuable insights for risk management plans. These plans can optimize animal and product movements while preventing disease spread. Food security benefits from emergency response plans that both control the disease and keep our food system functional. Therefore, emergency response plans must aim to minimize the unintended negative consequence to farmers, food processors, rural communities, and ultimately consumers. PMID:28097122

  14. INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL LABORERS: PURÉPECHAS HIRED H2-A IN THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Casimiro Leco Tomás

    2014-01-01

    An analysis of the temporary workers program that are recruited by the H2-A type visas for agricultural workers, who leave the rural state of Michoacan, Mexico, particularly of indigenous Purepecha communities and what is their participation in contracts, cross-border connections and the impact on Mexico and the United States.

  15. Fuels and Lubricants. An Instructional Unit for High School Teachers of Vocational Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, John; Carpenter, Bruce

    Designed as a 2-week course of study in the agricultural mechanics curriculum to be taught at the junior and senior high school level, unit on fuels and lubricants is divided into eight major performance objectives. Each objective is subdivided into the areas of content, suggested teaching and learning activities, resources, and evaluation. Topics…

  16. The Impact of Development of Rural Finance in Jiangxi Province on the Agricultural Economy and Farmers’ Income

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yu-ting; WENG Zhen-lin

    2012-01-01

    Based on the rural economic data pertaining to the development of rural finance, the growth of agricultural economy and farmers’ income in Jiangxi Province during the period 1990-2009, we conduct empirical research on the impact of development of rural finance on the growth of agricultural economy and farmers’ income, using the ADF test method, the Granger causality test, and regression analysis. The results show that the development of rural finance in Jiangxi Province has a significant positive effect on the growth of rural economy and farmers’ income. When the ending balance of agricultural loans increases by 1 unit, the agricultural added value will increase by 0.367 1 units; when the ending balance of agricultural loans increases by 1 unit, farmers’ income will increase by 0.597 5 units, indicating that the development of rural finance plays a significant role in promoting the per capita net income of farmers.Finally we propose to increase agricultural credit efforts in the financial institutions, establish and improve the agricultural credit management system.

  17. The Role of Agriculture in Iran’s Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Reza Khorami

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector as one of the most important sectors in the process of development has always had a special status in world economy. However, relative decrease of the share of agriculture over the recent decades often leads one to believe that agriculture can be ignored in favor of those sectors which have a faster progress, whereas, on the contrary, in order to accelerate favorable economic transition agriculture must be encouraged. Therefore, this research seeks to study the role and effect of the agricultural sector in comparison to other sectors such as industry, services, mining and commerce on variables such as GDP, the remnant of bank facilities and credit organizations, total petroleum exports in Iran during the past 15 years. Research methodology is applied and of descriptive-correlational type. Data collection tool is previous documents and evidence. Data analysis method is step-by-step regression. The results of the research indicate that in the first, second and third regression models agriculture respectively has the third, first and second status in regard to level of effectiveness.

  18. Building an agricultural research for development system in Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses how impact-oriented agricultural research for development systems in Africa can be better organized and managed. Specifically, the paper puts forth the argument that achieving the development targets set by African leaders and the international community, for example, through the Millennium Development Goals, will be extremely difficult without a satisfactory re-orientation of the organization and management of African research for development systems. Such a re-orientati...

  19. Biological control of weeds: research by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: selected case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Paul C; DeLoach, C Jack; Wineriter, Susan A; Goolsby, John A; Sobhian, Rouhollah; Boyette, C Douglas; Abbas, Hamed K

    2003-01-01

    Research by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on biological control of weeds has been practiced for many years because of its inherent ecological and economic advantages. Today, it is further driven by ARS adherence to Presidential Executive Order 13112 (3 February 1999) on invasive species and to USDA-ARS policy toward developing technology in support of sustainable agriculture with reduced dependence on non-renewable petrochemical resources. This paper reports examples or case studies selected to demonstrate the traditional or classical approach for biological control programs using Old World arthropods against Tamarix spp, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) ST Blake and Galium spurium L/G aparine L, and the augmentative approach with a native plant pathogen against Pueraria lobata Ohwi = P montana. The examples illustrated various conflicts of interest with endangered species and ecological complexities of arthropods with associated microbes such as nematodes.

  20. COMPARISON OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE DEVELOPMENT OF CROATIA, EU AND USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovro Babić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the usage of multiple sources of literature in this paper, a review of the most important characteristics is made along with the comparison of functions related to agricultural insurance in Croatia. Larger part of this paper is about comparison of offers and the ways agricultural insurance is being subsided in developed countries of the EU and USA on one hand, and Croatia on the other. Also, a display of risk coverage is made, along with the subsidization of the country and the way insurance system functions in Spain (country with the most developed security in Europe, Portugal, Italy, Austria and France. Main characteristic of the agricultural insurance in Croatia is a weak offer from the insurance companies, but also a weak demand. Therefore, only four companies can insure crops and plantations in Croatia. Although risk is unavoidable, negative impacts can be reduced with well-timed reaction and responsible organisation.

  1. Theoretical and Empirical Analysis on Influence Factors of Modern Agricultural Equipment Level in the Process of Agricultural Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Tingwu; Li Lingchao; Wang Wang Ruixue

    2012-01-01

    To promote modem agricultural equipment level is one characteristic of constructing and developing modem agriculture in China. This paper makes up stepwise linear regression analysis model of influence factors of modem agricultural equipment level, and chooses rural labor, per capita income of rural residents, rural investment, proportion of people at secondary education level and at higher level in per hundred rural labor force and arable land area as independent variables, and total power of machine as induced variable. The major results show that the relativity of modem ag- ricultural equipment level, rural investment and education level of peasants is remarkable, and they are the major influence factors of modem agricultural equipment level. Raising investment level of rural infrastructure construction as well as and research and devel- opment and promotion of advanced and applicable modem agricultural equipment, improving quality and education level of peasants can accelerate the development of China's modern agricultural equipment effectively in the process of agricultural sustainable development.

  2. Why is Agricultural Labor Productivity so Low in the United States?

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Schoellman; Berthold Herrendorf

    2011-01-01

    A big question in development economics is why developing countries are so unproductive in agriculture. This question is hard to answer because of limited data. In this project, we explore what we can learn from agriculture in US states where we have rich data. Focusing on US states has the advantage that there are no major barriers or institutional differences. We provide evidence that there are large labor productivity gaps between nonagriculture and nonagriculture; in some US states the di...

  3. AGRICULTURAL LAND CONVERSION DRIVERS : A COMPARISON BETWEEN LESS DEVELOPED, DEVELOPING AND DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azadi, H.; Ho, P.; Hasfiati, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the level of intensity, trend and the main drivers of agricultural land conversion (ALC) worldwide. Considering the World Bank classification and using a stratified random sampling, 94 countries were selected in three different groups: less developing, developing and developed co

  4. Assessment of land use change in the coterminous United States and Alaska for global assessment of forest loss conducted by the food and agricultural organization of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanushree Biswas; Mike Walterman; Paul Maus; Kevin A. Megown; Sean P. Healey; Kenneth. Brewer

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations conducted a global assessment for forest change in 2010 using satellite imagery from 1990, 2000, and 2005. The U.S. Forest Service was responsible for assessing forest change in the United States. A polygon-based, stratified sampling design developed by FAO was used to assess change in forest area...

  5. COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY – THE MAIN DRIVER OF SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Balgar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Being one of the oldest common policies, common agricultural policy (CAP has undergone several reforms being remodelled as "the project of a united Europe" was enriched with new meanings. In this context, it should be noted that, in recent years, CAP has been reshaped by a major reform that has set new goals and ways of achieving them under the framework of "Europe 2020" Strategy. Our paper aims to highlight that trough the last transformation, CAP has evolved from a policy with a strong degree of interventionism, to a policy that supports rural development, preserving the environment and the competitiveness of European agriculture.

  6. Pyrethroid insecticides in bed sediments from urban and agricultural streams across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are hydrophobic compounds that partition to streambed sediments and have been shown to cause toxicity to non-target organisms; their occurrence is well documented in parts of California, but there have been limited studies in other urban and agricultural areas across the United States. To broaden geographic understanding of pyrethroid distributions, bed sediment samples were collected and analyzed from 36 streams in 25 states, with about 2/3 of the sites in urban areas and 1/3 in agricultural areas. At least one pyrethroid (of the 14 included in the analysis) was detected in 78% of samples. Seven pyrethroids were detected in one or more samples. Bifenthrin was the most frequently detected (58% of samples), followed by permethrin (31%), resmethrin (17%), and cyfluthrin (14%). The other three detected pyrethroids (cyhalothrin, cypermethrin and delta/tralomethrin) were found in two or fewer of the samples. Concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 180 ng g-1 dry weight. The number of pyrethroids detected were higher in the urban samples than in the agricultural samples, but the highest concentrations of individual pyrethroids were split between urban and agricultural sites. The pyrethroids detected in the agricultural areas generally followed use patterns. Predicted toxicity was greater for urban areas and attributed to bifenthrin, cyfluthrin and cypermethrin, while in agricultural areas the toxicity was mainly attributed to bifenthrin.

  7. Reducing pitfalls in agricultural development projects: a case for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The management of agricultural development projects is a factor that can contribute to their success or failure. ... The argument is that these can be avoided if the Participatory Project Management Cycle (PPMC) is followed. ... PPMC was used during the ex-post evaluation to identify where and why major pitfalls occurred.

  8. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. ... Effect of regular consumption of provitamin a biofortified staple crops on vitamin A status in ... M Haskell, S.A. Tanumihardjo, A Palmer, A Melse-Boonstra, E Talsma, B Burri ...

  9. Motivating Agriculture Students to Participate in Career Development Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Carmen R.; Robinson, J. Shane; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research conducted in agricultural education has revealed a lack of participation among National FFA Organization members. However, of those FFA members who participated in FFA sponsored events; students were most satisfied with their experiences in Career Development Events (CDEs). The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe…

  10. Examining Oregon Agriculture Teachers' Professional Development Needs by Career Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Tyson J.; Lambert, Misty D.; McKim, Aaron J.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture teachers face challenges at every stage of their career, creating a need for professional development to meet their individual needs. Additionally, research suggests the need for periodic needs assessments to be conducted within individual states. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe, using the Borich needs assessment…

  11. North American networking activities on non-wood forest products by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul. Vantomme

    2001-01-01

    FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, is the largest autonomous agency within the United Nations system dealing with agriculture, fisheries, forestry, and related disciplines. FAO provides a neutral forum for policy dialogue, a source of information and knowledge, technical assistance, and advice to 180 member countries. Technical...

  12. 77 FR 10037 - Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... and Hour Division 29 CFR Part 503 Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United... Division 29 CFR Part 503 RIN 1205-AB58 Temporary Non-Agricultural Employment of H-2B Aliens in the United...

  13. System analysis and path choice for modem agricultural development: a case study of Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Rongxin; Liu Yansui

    2009-01-01

    From the view of.system theory,modern agriculture in a region embodies elements conformitv,structure optimization,multi-functionality and sustainable development.This paper first expounds on the relationship among agricultural elements,structure,function and development theoretically,compartmentalizes agriculture types based on human-land elements matching,and depicts the development path of agricultural multi-functionality.It shows that the matching of human-land elements is a key to agricultural types,and the multi:functionality is an indication of agricultural development stages.At last,as a case study of Suzhou in easteru coastal area,the paper analyzes the evolvement situation and developing mechanism and some typical models of modern agriculture which suit to agriculture system evolvement.The results show that in Suzhou the agriculture productivity has improved greatly,And along with the agriculture structure optimizing,agriculture function has translated from "production " to "nonproduction and production ".With simulation of agricultural trend in Suzhou,it is found that Suzhou has a LP,dependence (labor productivity) on agricultural element,so Suzhou will has much more potential in land productivity.Based on the above analysis on agricultural system,some typical patterns on modern agriculture in Suzhou are brought up,such as export-oriented agriculture,enterprises-leading agriculture,science and technology parks agriculture,stereoscopic agriculture,and tourism and sightseeing agriculture.

  14. Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Management Professional Development Needs of Wyoming Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Billy R.; Saucier, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Accidents happen; however, the likelihood of accidents occurring in the agricultural mechanics laboratory is greatly reduced when agricultural mechanics laboratory facilities are managed by secondary agriculture teachers who are competent and knowledgeable. This study investigated the agricultural mechanics laboratory management in-service needs…

  15. Evolutional development of controlling software for agricultural vehicles and robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Tsuneo; Jæger-Hansen, Claes Lund; Griepentrog, Hans-Werner

    Agricultural vehicles and robots expand their controlling software in size and complexity for their increasing functions. Due to repeated, ad hoc addition and modification, software gets structurally corrupted and becomes low performing, resource consuming and unreliable. This paper presents...... of the autonomous tractor, that applies XDDP initially for addition and modification of functions, accumulates core assets and cultivates a global view of the system through iterated development with XDDP, and finally shifts to SPL development....

  16. Analysis on Relationship between Adjustment of Agricultural Structure and Urbanization Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinhua; TANG; Yinghui; LI; Hongxia; LI; Yilin; LIU; Gangqiang; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    As a part of certain region,agricultural development has inevitable connection with regional urbanization,and they are highly heterogeneous and complementary in space. Their internal relationship is manifested as agricultural structure suits demand of urbanization development through adjustment in the process of urbanization,while urbanization is based on development of regional agriculture. From history of world agriculture and urbanization development,agriculture firstly provides primitive accumulation for urbanization development,and drives regional urbanization through promoting agricultural development. When urbanization develops to certain stage,urbanization accumulation increases and reaches the goal of " boosting urbanization through agriculture". If urbanization develops slowly,agricultural adjustment will lack motive force. On the contrary,weak agricultural development will lead to stagnation of urbanization. Therefore,adjustment of agricultural structure and urbanization development are interconnected,mutually promoted and restricted,and interdependent.

  17. Analysis on Function Orientation and Development Countermeasures of New Agricultural Business Entities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yang,; Wang Yan

    2016-01-01

    Along with the rapid advance of industrialization and urbanization process, fostering new agricultural business entities become inevitable for agricultural transformation and the construction of agricultural modernization in China. The status of the new agricultural business entities determines the level of modern agricultural development. In recent years, new agricultural business entities have grew rapidly. However, there are still many problems including the difficulties in financing loans, inadequate agricultural insurance system, bad implementation of agricultural subsidies, jagged agricultural talents and so on. In order to foster new agricultural business entities, countermeasures should be carried out to ensure financial support, perfect the agricultural insurance, strengthen the level of agricultural subsidies, strive to develop the degree of specialization agricultural operators and so on.

  18. SUSTAINABLE ORGANIC AGRICULTURE: OPPORTUNITY FOR THAI-RURAL FARMER DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waripas Jiumpanyarach

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzed an opportunity of rural farmers in north of Thailand by interviewing 124 households which were 59 families from Tumbon-Santa Aumpor- Narnoi Nan province, 23 families from Tumbon-Banlao Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province, 22 families from Tumbon-Sritoi Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province, and 20 families from Tumbon-Parfak Aumpor-Mayjai Prayao Province during January 2012 – October 2012. Probit model was developed to answer some factors that impacted farm’s income. The results showed that the relationships between both organic and inorganic land and income level are positive. Most of the farmers were willing to change from conventional agricultures to organic agriculture but they did not have enough information and extension from government and private sectors. Comparing benefits and cost between conventional and organic agriculture found that organic agricultures provided better price and farmers will have better quality of live. Systems of knowledge and policies need to be developed and apply for peasants and farmers in north rural area in Thailand.

  19. Agricultural Waste Management Systems on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 312

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP312), Agricultural...

  20. Remote sensing and GIS in support of sustainable agricultural development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duro, Dennis Correa

    Over the coming decades it is expected that the vast amounts of area currently in agricultural production will face growing pressure to intensify as world populations continue to grow, and the demand for a more Western-based diet increases. Coupled with the potential consequences of climate change, and the increasing costs involved with current energy-intensive agricultural production methods, meeting goals of environmental and socioeconomic sustainability will become ever more challenging. At a minimum, meeting such goals will require a greater understanding of rates of change, both over time and space, to properly assess how present demand may affect the needs of future generations. As agriculture represents a fundamental component of modern society, and the most ubiquitous form of human induced landscape change on the planet, it follows that mapping and tracking changes in such environments represents a crucial first step towards meeting the goal of sustainability. In anticipation of the mounting need for consistent and timely information related to agricultural development, this thesis proposes several advances in the field of geomatics, with specific contributions in the areas of remote sensing and spatial analysis: First, the relative strengths of several supervised machine learning algorithms used to classify remotely sensed imagery were assessed using two image analysis approaches: pixel-based and object-based. Second, a feature selection process, based on a Random Forest classifier, was applied to a large data set to reduce the overall number of object-based predictor variables used by a classification model without sacrificing overall classification accuracy. Third, a hybrid object-based change detection method was introduced with the ability to handle disparate image sources, generate per-class change thresholds, and minimize map updating errors. Fourth, a spatial disaggregation procedure was performed on coarse scale agricultural census data to render

  1. Integrating Agriculture into the Science Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Pamela M.; Linder, Mark P.

    1993-01-01

    The California Foundation for Agriculture in the Classroom supports efforts to integrate agricultural education into K-12 science curriculum. Thirteen pilot agriculture/science units have been developed. (SK)

  2. Development of a global Agricultural Stress Index System (ASIS) based on remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoolst, R.

    2016-12-01

    According to the 2012 IPCC SREX report, extreme drought events are projected to become more frequent and intense in several regions of the world. Wide and timely monitoring systems are required to mitigate the impact of agricultural drought. Therefore, FAO's Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS) and the Climate, Energy and Tenure Division (NRC) have established the `Agricultural Stress Index System' (ASIS). The ASIS is a remote sensing application that provides early warnings of agricultural drought at a global scale. The ASIS has first been designed and described by Rojas et al. (2011). This study focused on the African continent and was based on the back processing of low resolution data of the NOAA-satellites. In the current setup, developed by VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), the system operates in Near Real Time using data from the METOP-AVHRR sensor. The Agricultural Stress Index (ASI) is the percentage of agricultural area affected by drought in the course of the growing season within a given administrative unit. The start and end of the growing season are derived per pixel from the long term NDVI average of SPOT-VEGETATION. The Global Administrative Unit Layer (GAUL) defines the administrative boundaries at level 0, 1 and 2. A global cropland and grassland map eliminates non-agricultural areas. Temperature and NDVI anomalies are used as drought indicators and calculated at a per pixel base. The ASIS aggregates this information and produces every dekad global maps to highlight hotspots of drought stress. New developments are ongoing to strengthen the ASIS to produce country specific outputs, improve existing drought indicators and estimate production deficits using a probabilistic approach.

  3. Adapting the innovation systems approach to agricultural development in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friederichsen, Rupert; Thai, Thi Minh; Neef, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Competing models of innovation informing agricultural extension, such as transfer of technology, participatory extension and technology development, and innovation systems have been proposed over the last decades. These approaches are often presented as antagonistic or even mutually exclusive...... is broadly appropriate for analyzing the Vietnamese case, but that the IS approach in the contemporary Vietnamese context requires adaptation for taking into account the blurred line between private and state sectors, and recognizing the hegemonic position of state-based networks. Improving extensionists...

  4. Urban agriculture in the developing world: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Orsini, Francesco; Kahane, Remi; Nono-Womdim, Remi; Gianquinto, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The year 2007 marked a critical event in the world history. For the first time, more than half of the world population now lives in cities. In many developing countries, the urbanization process goes along with increasing urban poverty and polluted environment, growing food insecurity and malnutrition, especially for children, pregnant and lactating women; and increasing unemployment. Urban agriculture represents an opportunity for improving food supply, health conditi...

  5. Sustainable development in agriculture: a socio-ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Castro

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented a perspective on sustainability in agriculture - which derives from a notion of development tied to the idea of growth - supported by technological advances aimed at ensuring sustainable management of natural resources. In this sense, we consider here a socio-ecological approach in order to bring together the individual and their environment, showing that this relationship is fundamental for a process of coevolution, where nature and human being together can define the organization society.

  6. Tree-Fruit Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryan, Robert C.; Iverson, Maynard J.

    Designed as a guide for teachers in planning and conducting young and adult farmer classes, the unit covers the basic areas of tree-fruit production. The format of the 10-lesson unit allows for the utilization of the problem-solving and discussion methods of teaching. The major objective of the unit is to develop the ability to effectively…

  7. Discussion about Shareholding Cooperative Development Road for Agricultural Cooperatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongcai WANG

    2016-01-01

    Using modern economic theories,this paper analyzed drawbacks of Shareholding cooperative development of agricultural cooperatives in institutional design and expounded inevitable difficulties of development of agricultural cooperatives. Shareholding cooperative development provides a pass for many social forces entering and controlling agricultural cooperatives and making numerous non-agricultural cooperative organizations become formal cooperatives. Deep cause for Shareholding cooperative development of agricultural cooperatives involves how to recognize status and function of family producers of agricultural products in the drive of agricultural modernization and the problem of state policies choosing family producers of agricultural products or other participants in the agricultural industry chain. Shareholding cooperative development is only an expedient measure in certain period,and it should not change development laws of things and essential feature of agricultural cooperatives because of stressing national conditions.

  8. Development Mode and Recommendations for Industrialization of Tropical Agricultural Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meihuan; QIU; Minxia; LIN; Xiaodong; ZHANG; Hongyi; ZHANG; Zhunian; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology is an essential part of tropical agricultural technological innovation.This paper firstly analyzed development mode of industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology in Chin and then came up with recommendations for developing industrialization of tropical agricultural science and technology.

  9. Leasing as an instrument for innovative development of agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Prokopenko

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is an analysis of technological aspects of leasing application for agricultural enterprises in the context of complex innovative development of agrarian sphere.The results of the analysis. It is shown that the latest technology and recovery techniques must be at all stages of the agricultural sector. The first stage is selection of breeding. The last is sale of agricultural products. Asset structure of agricultural enterprises occupies about one third of machines and equipment, which are now physically and morally outdated. Authors of the article analyze the technological aspect of leasing and prove that leasing of biological assets and leasing equipment should be considered separately, which are more consistent with the structure of the innovation needs of agricultural businesses (purchase of machinery and equipment, research and development, acquisition software and industrial design. Innovative technologies and leasing are proposed to be considered in the context of the eco-village system to ensure maximum utilization of all natural resources: low-temperature heat of the earth, air and water (heat pumps, alternative energy (solar, biomass, wind, water, etc., not carbon motor fuel (biogas, air, electricity, new modes, innovative agricultural technologies, safe disposal of solid waste of local wastewater treatment (biological, resonance, mechanical, technologies in the construction and infrastructure development. Stability of eco-village is affected by a lot of factors, including: economic (existence of a business within the eco-village and use the most cost-effective technologies; social (creating conditions for the development of human capital; technological (business uses the most effective technologies; environment (rational use of natural resources; political (agreement with the objectives of the state and its support; information (high level of information and transport connectivity. New

  10. Impacts of Intensified Agriculture Developments on Marsh Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoqing Luan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A spatiotemporal analysis on the changes in the marsh landscape in the Honghe National Nature Reserve, a Ramsar reserve, and the surrounding farms in the core area of the Sanjiang Plain during the past 30 years was conducted by integrating field survey work with remote sensing techniques. The results indicated that intensified agricultural development had transformed a unique natural marsh landscape into an agricultural landscape during the past 30 years. Ninety percent of the natural marsh wetlands have been lost, and the areas of the other natural landscapes have decreased very rapidly. Most dry farmland had been replaced by paddy fields during the progressive change of the natural landscape to a farm landscape. Attempts of current Chinese institutions in preserving natural wetlands have achieved limited success. Few marsh wetlands have remained healthy, even after the establishment of the nature reserve. Their ecological qualities have been declining in response to the increasing threats to the remaining wetland habitats. Irrigation projects play a key role in such threats. Therefore, the sustainability of the natural wetland ecosystems is being threatened by increased regional agricultural development which reduced the number of wetland ecotypes and damaged the ecological quality.

  11. The Research on Countermeasures of Green Agricultural Development in Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Firstly,the thesis introduces the connotation of green agriculture,indicating that the green agriculture has 4 characteristics,namely openness,continuity,high efficiency and standardization,compared with the traditional agricultural development model.Secondly,the advantages of developing green agriculture in Jiangsu Province are discussed,namely rich agricultural resources,notable technological advantage,solid agricultural foundation,high quality of agricultural products,great market prospect of green consumption,and notable policy advantage.In view of the increasing shortage of natural resources,increasing restriction of rural labor force,increasing deterioration of rural environment,inadequate popularization of green agriculture,and fierce competition at home and abroad,the restricted factors of developing green agriculture in Jiangsu Province are introduced.Finally,in view of the agricultural concept innovation,green agricultural system innovation,agricultural technology innovation,agricultural management innovation,operation system innovation,ecological system innovation,development of tourism agriculture and regional differentiation development strategy,the relevant countermeasures and suggestions are put forward,in order to explore a new agricultural development model for Jiangsu’s modern agricultural development.

  12. Agricultural Diversification and Marketing. Instructional Materials Developed for Secondary, Postsecondary, and Continuing Education Agriculture Programs in Iowa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Dept. of Agriculture, Des Moines.

    These instructional materials on agricultural diversification and marketing were developed for use by Iowa's vocational and technical agricultural instructors and extension personnel. This document is one of three manuals making up a single package. (The other two are Christmas Tree Production and Marketing and Sod Production and Marketing). The…

  13. Agricultural Development, Land Change, and Livelihoods in Tanzania's Kilombero Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, John Patrick

    The Kilombero Valley lies at the intersection of a network of protected areas that cross Tanzania. The wetlands and woodlands of the Valley, as well as the forest of surrounding mountains are abundant in biodiversity and are considered to be critical areas for conservation. This area, however, is also the home to more than a half million people, primarily poor smallholder farmers. In an effort to support the livelihoods and food security of these farmers and the larger Tanzanian population, the country has recently targeted a series of programs to increase agricultural production in the Kilombero Valley and elsewhere in the country. Bridging concepts and methods from land change science, political ecology, and sustainable livelihoods, I present an integrated assessment of the linkages between development and conservation efforts in the Kilombero Valley and the implications for food security. This dissertation uses three empirical studies to understand the process of development in the Kilombero Valley and to link the priorities and perceptions of conservation and development efforts to the material outcomes in food security and land change. The first paper of this dissertation examines the changes in land use in the Kilombero Valley between 1997 and 2014 following the privatization of agriculture and the expansion of Tanzania's Kilimo Kwanza program. Remote sensing analysis reveals a two-fold increase in agricultural area during this short time, largely at the expense of forest. Protected areas in some parts of the Valley appear to be deterring deforestation, but rapid agricultural growth, particularly surrounding a commercial rice plantation, has led to loss of extant forest and sustained habitat fragmentation. The second paper focuses examines livelihood strategies in the Valley and claims regarding the role of agrobiodiversity in food security. The results of household survey reveal no difference or lower food security among households that diversify their

  14. 76 FR 36512 - Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Bertini, Chair, International Relations Program and Professor, Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public...; ] AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT Board for International Food and Agricultural Development; Notice of Meeting Amendment to Original Notice: ``Board for International Food and Agricultural Development;...

  15. THE IMPACT OF REDUCED AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL USE ON FOOD: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE FOR THE UNITED STATES

    OpenAIRE

    Senauer, Benjamin

    1993-01-01

    Concerns about food safety and environmental quality have increased in recent years. Consumers are particularly concerned about the health risks posed by pesticide residues in food and the environmental impact of agricultural chemicals. These concerns have stimulated a considerable amount of recent research to assess the effects of reduced agricultural chemical use. This paper focuses on the research in the United States which has examined the impact of reduced agricultural chemical use on fo...

  16. ENHANCING THE ROLE OF THE STATE REGULATION IN MANAGING DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papahchyan I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Domestic and foreign experience of operation of the segment of "small" rural economy shows that its capabilities are still being used not completely out of the difficulties and risks of development. The main reason for the slow dynamics of the modern development of subjects of small farming (SAF, according to the authors, is the inaccessibility of the credit market in this sphere since the key rate of the Central Bank at 10.5%, which is too high and, therefore, significantly reduces the efficiency of the investments in this risky industrial sector. In addition, the most narrow «neck bottle» is remaining a unit of realization of products of small businesses. The authors propose a refined definition of "small agricultural businesses" that differs from the previous definitions by its conciseness and by including small enterprises of not only 1-st production, but also the 2-nd processing of agricultural sector. The study revealed that the most distinctive features of small agricultural forms are: high autonomy, independence, and self-protection from adverse environmental factors. The authors propose to adjust the long-term regional development program, and suggest the method of determining the capacity of the market for products of small agricultural farms with possibilities of a differentiated accounting of consumers by their income, residency, and consumption of domestic and other animals. They believe that the problem of affordability of lending and perfecting of system of marketing of small agricultural farming today is largely able to solve with the multi-level agricultural credit and sales-living cooperatives. The authors believe that the government should create a high-in-demand SAF productive assets and then transfer them to the operational management of cooperatives, with subsequent transformation of them into equity of the small participants of cooperatives

  17. Research on Urban Agricultural Scientific Development Path of the Construction of Central Economic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehui; WU

    2014-01-01

    The significance of developing characteristic agriculture in Central Economic Zone was elaborated from four aspects of three modernizations coordinated development,guaranteeing city supply of agricultural products,creating more jobs for farmers,making agriculture more significant. The existing problems in urban agriculture development were analyzed,such as understanding deviation,extensive development,market confusion,short industrial chain,low degree of specialization,harsh environment. Several corresponding countermeasures were put forward,including giving full play to the role of government’s macro-control; perfecting compensation mechanism of urban agriculture,developing characteristic agriculture,promoting deep processing of agricultural products; advancing scientific innovation,improving production efficiency;operating sustainable ecological agricultural development road; relying on traffic advantage,promoting industrialization operation and urban agricultural logistics development.

  18. Analysis of the Price of Development Right of Agricultural Land in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the viewpoints of predecessors, we define the signification of development right of agricultural land and connotation of the price of development right of agricultural land as follows: the development right of agricultural land is to change the former use nature of agricultural land, so as to become the right of construction use land; the price of development right of agricultural land refers to the price that is difference between the price of construction use land, and summation of the price of former agricultural land, the expense of developing agricultural land, the expense of management, and profit, after the agricultural land is transformed into non-agricultural construction use land. By using the principle of economics of land, this paper expounds the generation mechanism of the price of development right of agricultural land, namely the diversity of agricultural land use and the change of demand and supply of development right of agricultural land. The influencing factors of the development right of agricultural land are analyzed, and there are mainly the price of agricultural land, the price of construction use land, the contradiction of demand and supply of urban land, land use, and agricultural land.

  19. 76 FR 11286 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2011 Adverse Effect Wage Rates, Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers...

  20. 77 FR 12882 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and Travel...

  1. 78 FR 15741 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2013 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and Travel...

  2. 77 FR 13635 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Allowable Charges for Agricultural Workers' Meals and Travel...

  3. A conservation ontology and knowledge base to support delivery of technical assistance to agricultural producers in the united states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information systems supporting the delivery of conservation technical assistance by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to agricultural producers on working lands have become increasingly complex over the past 25 years. They are constrained by inconsistent coordination of domain knowl...

  4. Agricultural biotechnology and smallholder farmers in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Vivienne M; Ferroni, Marco

    2012-04-01

    Agricultural biotechnology holds much potential to contribute towards crop productivity gains and crop improvement for smallholder farmers in developing countries. Over 14 million smallholder farmers are already benefiting from biotech crops such as cotton and maize in China, India and other Asian, African and Central/South American countries. Molecular breeding can accelerate crop improvement timescales and enable greater use of diversity of gene sources. Little impact has been realized to date with fruits and vegetables because of development timescales for molecular breeding and development and regulatory costs and political considerations facing biotech crops in many countries. Constraints to the development and adoption of technology-based solutions to reduce yield gaps need to be overcome. Full integration with broader commercial considerations such as farmer access to seed distribution systems that facilitate dissemination of improved varieties and functioning markets for produce are critical for the benefits of agricultural biotechnology to be fully realized by smallholders. Public-private partnerships offer opportunities to catalyze new approaches and investment while accelerating integrated research and development and commercial supply chain-based solutions.

  5. Estimates of livestock holdings in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains estimates of livestock holdings in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture (U.S. Department...

  6. EnviroAtlas - Percent Land Cover with Potentially Restorable Wetlands on Agricultural Land per 12-Digit HUC - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the percent land cover with potentially restorable wetlands on agricultural land for each 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) watershed in...

  7. Introduction to Agricultural Business Unit. Student Reference for Agricultural Science I Core Curriculum. [Volume 19, Number 20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timko, Joseph J.; Birkenholz, Robert J.

    This student reference on agricultural business, designed to accompany the lessons outlined in the 1984 instructor's guide, "Introduction to Agricultural Business," has seven lessons: (1) introduction to agribusiness; (2) careers in agribusiness; (3) agribusiness in the community; (4) the role of the employee in an agribusiness; (5)…

  8. Corn Production and Marketing. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Clyde, Jr.; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The instructional unit designed to develop the effective ability of farmers to produce, harvest, store, and market corn profitably is structured in 11 lessons. The unit was developed as a guide for use by teachers in planning and conducting young farmer or adult farmer classes. The specific topic areas include varieties of corn, principles of…

  9. Soybean Production and Marketing. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irish, Paul; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The instructional unit was developed for use as a guide for planning and teaching adult or young farmer classes in Kentucky. The unit consists of 12 lessons covering various aspects of soybean production and marketing. The course objective is to develop the effective ability of farmers to plan for profitable soybean production. Transparency and…

  10. The Ways and Strategies for Overall Development of the Modernization of Agriculture in Chongqing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongyong Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the causes of the low-leveled conditions of agricultural production in Chongqing, the low-degreed organization, scale and standardization on production, the huge income gap between urban and rural residents and the indistinctive diversification and characteristics of agricultural modernization. It analyzes Chongqing made use of industry to nurture agriculture in the context of scientific development and enriching the people and developing the city, cities promote the development of rural areas, improve the quality and efficiency of agriculture and explore a suitable development path for modern agriculture based on Chongqing facts. This study researches the base of Chongqing in developing modern agriculture, determines the clear development goals and analyzes the issues of large-scale operation and transfer of rural labor that influence the development of featured agriculture in Chongqing. It is developed from five aspects: cultivate business entities of modern agriculture, accelerate the innovation in agricultural science and technology, optimize the agricultural public services, develop ecological agriculture and establish a system of modern agricultural industry, in order to speed up the construction of agricultural modernization, promote the sustained and rapid growth of farmers' income and seek for proper ways and strategies to promote the development of agricultural modernization in Chongqing.

  11. Issue of productivity versus strategies for the development of Polish agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Floriańczyk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article assessment of economic efficiency of agriculture is discussed from the sustainable development perspective. Basic definitions are outlined and spheres of sustainability related to Polish agriculture characteristics. Concepts of productivity and efficiency measurement are illustrated with the use of recently conducted research. Ability of different measures to reflect most important processes in agriculture sector is discussed. Following, development policies for economy and agricultural sector are reviewed to suggest concept of economic efficiency measurement form the sustainable agriculture perspective.

  12. Evaluation on the Development of Circular Agriculture in Guizhou Province Based on Entropy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo; CAO; Shunqiang; SUN

    2015-01-01

    Vigorously developing agricultural circular economy is an effective way to achieve sustainable agricultural development,and a strategic measure to ease the pressure on agricultural resources,protect ecological and clean resources,and promote sustainable agricultural and rural economic development. From the theoretical perspective of circular agriculture,this paper builds the evaluation indicator system for circular agriculture,and uses entropy method to carry out the comprehensive evaluation of the development level of agricultural circular economy in Guizhou Province from 2003 to 2012. At the same time,this paper analyzes the obstacles to the development of agricultural circular economy in Guizhou Province in 2012,and sets forth the relevant recommendations based on these limitations,in order to improve the development level of circular agriculture in Guizhou Province.

  13. The Balanced Development of Yunnan Bazi Agriculture and its Resource Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The developmental status and situation of Yunnan Bazi agriculture are introduced. The prominent problems of Yunnan Bazi agriculture are put forward from the restriction of natural environment and the limitation of social economic conditions. The factors that affect the development of Bazi agriculture in Yunnan Province are analyzed. The factors include the burdens born by Bazi agriculture, the natural endowment of Bazi culture, policy preference of Yunnan Province, the potential and direction of the development of Bazi agriculture. Countermeasures on developing Bazi agriculture in Yunnan Province are put forward: the first one is to improve the level of agricultural science and technoogy; the second one is to intensify the balanced development between mountainous areas and mountainous areas, industry and agriculture, urban and rural areas; the third one is to pay attention to the development and adjustment of ecological agriculture; the fourth one is to keep rational development.

  14. Agricultural Education for Sustainable Rural Development in Developing Countries – Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhansi Seetharam Chittoor

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Governments all over the world have focused upon sustainable rural development in an organized way. Rural locations, in particular, need more economic development in order to match urban centric development. Poverty in rural areas has remained by and large, the main focal point of governments and development agencies. Sustainable rural development is the most effective way to eliminate this curse. Environment friendly growth stimulators have been provided to rural populations. This paper aims to: (a give an insight into the linkages between the agricultural education and sustainable rural development, and (b present strategies for sustainable rural development. Challenges in sustainable rural development for developing countries in the 21st century have also been looked into. The paper concludes that agricultural education institutions in developing countries will need to address not only immediate production needs, but also long-term food security, sustainable agriculture and rural development needs.

  15. Research Situation and Development Trend of Resource Recycling Technology for Agricultural Wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Yan-yan; ZHAO Yun-hua

    2012-01-01

    Rational utilization of agricultural waste resources is of great significance to reducing environmental pollution, improving rural ecological environment, and developing agricultural circular economy. Besides, in the context of global energy crisis, the research of resource utilization technology for agricultural wastes will exert considerable influence on survival and living of human beings. We firstly discuss about general situations of agricultural waste resources in China, research and application situations of agricultural waste recycling technology both at home and abroad. On the basis of development trend of agricultural waste recycling, we put forward countermeasures for agricultural waste recycling in China.

  16. Recovery Act:Rural Cooperative Geothermal development Electric & Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Elzie Lynn [Surprise Valley Electrification Corp., Alturas, CA (United States)

    2016-01-12

    Surprise Valley Electric, a small rural electric cooperative serving northeast California and southern Oregon, developed a 3mw binary geothermal electric generating plant on a cooperative member's ranch. The geothermal resource had been discovered in 1980 when the ranch was developing supplemental irrigation water wells. The 240°F resource was used for irrigation until developed through this project for generation of electricity. A portion of the spent geothermal fluid is now used for irrigation in season and is available for other purposes, such as greenhouse agriculture, aquaculture and direct heating of community buildings. Surprise Valley Electric describes many of the challenges a small rural electric cooperative encountered and managed to develop a geothermal generating plant.

  17. An Exploratory Literature Review of Efforts to Help the Small-Scale, Resource Poor Farmer in International Agricultural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jennifer E. II

    1998-01-01

    An Exploratory Literature Review of Efforts to Help the Small-Scale, Resource Poor Farmer in International Agricultural Development By Jennifer E. Taylor Abstract Since the 1979 World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (WCARRD) and the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment Development, which generated the Agenda 21 document, international agaricultural development organizations have been urged to strengthen their focus toward the sustainable development o...

  18. International Comparison and Implications of Agricultural Development in Foreign Low Latitude Plateau Regions for Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; LUO; Yan; YANG; Rui; CHEN; Wei; WU; Ziyun; PENG; Liangzheng; CHEN; Xuelin; LI

    2013-01-01

    Climatic characteristics of foreign low latitude plateau regions are firstly introduced.Then,experience and lessons of major foreign low latitude plateau countries in developing modern agriculture are analyzed,including Indian three agricultural revolutions and agricultural informationization development,application of agricultural biotechnology in Brazil,trade liberalization and economic de-agriculture of Mexico,and Argentina,Saudi Arabia and South Africa attaching great importance to developing modern agriculture relying on science and technology and paying close attention to resource conservation and environmental protection.Combining natural and social resource characteristics of Yunnan plateau agriculture,pertinent implications and recommendations for modern agricultural development in Yunnan are put forward.Specifically,these include strengthening agricultural sci-tech research and development,and extension and application;transforming agricultural development model;enhancing agricultural resource conservation and environmental protection;accelerating developing mountain organic ecological agriculture and autumn agriculture;reinforcing urban and rural integration to develop plateau characteristic agriculture on the basis of local actual conditions.

  19. Path Exploration and Countermeasure Innovation for Developing Circular Agriculture in Southeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boqi; WENG; Weili; ZHANG; Yixiang; WANG

    2014-01-01

    This paper firstly elaborated current situation of agricultural resources and ecological environment protection of China,and pointed out that circular agriculture is an inevitable choice for sustainable development of agriculture and effective approach for low-carbon economic development. Then,it analyzed mode and benefit of typical circular agriculture,such as ecological orchard in southeast hills,sightseeing ecological agricultural garden,and crop straw use. Finally,it came up with countermeasures for further developing circular agriculture,including integrating building system and establishing suitable mode,formulating production standard and ensuring food safety,strengthening technological innovation,and supporting sustainable development.

  20. SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures of Ecological Agricultural Development of Jianshan Farm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Can; Wang Da-qing; Wang Hong-yan; Dai Lin

    2015-01-01

    At present, the excessive use of the fertilizers and pesticides in the agricultural production has result in hardening of the soil and decrease of the wild animals and can not maintain the sustainable using of land resources. To develop ecological agriculture is a powerful measure to reduce energy consumption, protect environment, and realize the sustainable development of the agriculture. In order to promote the sustainable development of agriculture in Jianshan Farm, this paper by using SWOT analysis method analyzed the strength, weakness, opportunity and threat in the development of the ecological agriculture in Jianshan Farm, based on the experience from domestic and foreign ecological agricultural development, and put forward the countermeasures for the development of the ecological agriculture in order to develop ecological circular agriculture and non-genetic soybean crop protected areas, and to establish soybean-corn rotation area and healthy aquaculture zone, as well as develop new energy industry.

  1. Proactive Risk Assessments and the Continuity of Business Principles: Perspectives on This Novel, Combined Approach to Develop Guidance for the Permitted Movement of Agricultural Products during a Foot-and-Mouth Disease Outbreak in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Goldsmith, Timothy J.; Culhane, Marie Rene; Sampedro, Fernando; Cardona, Carol J.

    2017-01-01

    Animal diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) have the potential to severely impact food animal production systems. Paradoxically, the collateral damage associated with the outbreak response may create a larger threat to the food supply, social stability, and economic viability of rural communities than the disease itself. When FMD occurs in domestic animals, most developed countries will implement strict movement controls in the area surrounding the infected farm(s). Historically, sto...

  2. Relating management practices and nutrient export in agricultural watersheds of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Relations between riverine export (load) of total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P) from 133 large agricultural watersheds in the United States and factors affecting nutrient transport were evaluated using empirical regression models. After controlling for anthropogenic inputs and other landscape factors affecting nutrient transport-such as runoff, precipitation, slope, number of reservoirs, irrigated area, and area with subsurface tile drains-the relations between export and the area in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) (N) and conservation tillage (P) were positive. Additional interaction terms indicated that the relations between export and the area in conservation tillage (N) and the CRP (P) progressed from being clearly positive when soil erodibility was low or moderate, to being close to zero when soil erodibility was higher, to possibly being slightly negative only at the 90th to 95th percentile of soil erodibility values. Possible explanations for the increase in nutrient export with increased area in management practices include greater transport of soluble nutrients from areas in conservation tillage; lagged response of stream quality to implementation of management practices because of nitrogen transport in groundwater, time for vegetative cover to mature, and/or prior accumulation of P in soils; or limitations in the management practice and stream monitoring data sets. If lags are occurring, current nutrient export from agricultural watersheds may still be reflecting the influence of agricultural land-use practices that were in place before the implementation of these management practices.

  3. AGRICULTURE AND ITS PLACE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF UZBEKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilorom Tadjibaeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the share of agriculture in GDP in Uzbekistan, the country can be allocated to a group of countries with a transitional type of economy that proceeds from agriculture to urbanization. At the same time specific local features exist. In Uzbekistan, about 65% of the population live in rural areas and currently about 3 million people are employed in agriculture. Although the trend shows a decline in the share of agriculture in gross domestic product, the number of people employed in agriculture has comparably slowly reduced. Agriculture's share of investment is only about 3-4% of the total amount of a fixed capital.

  4. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  5. Development of a Global Agricultural Hotspot Detection and Early Warning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, G.; Rembold, F.; Urbano, F.; Csak, G.

    2015-12-01

    The number of web based platforms for crop monitoring has grown rapidly over the last years and anomaly maps and time profiles of remote sensing derived indicators can be accessed online thanks to a number of web based portals. However, while these systems make available a large amount of crop monitoring data to the agriculture and food security analysts, there is no global platform which provides agricultural production hotspot warning in a highly automatic and timely manner. Therefore a web based system providing timely warning evidence as maps and short narratives is currently under development by the Joint Research Centre. The system (called "HotSpot Detection System of Agriculture Production Anomalies", HSDS) will focus on water limited agricultural systems worldwide. The automatic analysis of relevant meteorological and vegetation indicators at selected administrative units (Gaul 1 level) will trigger warning messages for the areas where anomalous conditions are observed. The level of warning (ranging from "watch" to "alert") will depend on the nature and number of indicators for which an anomaly is detected. Information regarding the extent of the agricultural areas concerned by the anomaly and the progress of the agricultural season will complement the warning label. In addition, we are testing supplementary detailed information from other sources for the areas triggering a warning. These regard the automatic web-based and food security-tailored analysis of media (using the JRC Media Monitor semantic search engine) and the automatic detection of active crop area using Sentinel 1, upcoming Sentinel-2 and Landsat 8 imagery processed in Google Earth Engine. The basic processing will be fully automated and updated every 10 days exploiting low resolution rainfall estimates and satellite vegetation indices. Maps, trend graphs and statistics accompanied by short narratives edited by a team of crop monitoring experts, will be made available on the website on a

  6. Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture and Future Developments of the CAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted Nielsen, Helle; Branth Pedersen, Anders; Christensen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    in the world market could increase pressure to slacken regulatory requirements on agriculture. Thus, the question of whether liberalization will hinder or promote environmentally sustainable production methods in agriculture is unresolved. This paper analyses different scenarios of agricultural policy......Recent reforms of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have set in motion a process of increased market orientation in the agricultural sector, a process that will be intensified by trade liberalization if an agreement is reached under the World Trade Organization (WTO......). It is widely expected that both CAP reforms and a WTO agreement will also lead to a more environmentally friendly European agriculture. It is conceivable, however, that market demand would instead provide renewed incentives for intensive agricultural production. Opening European agriculture to more competition...

  7. Development Path for Agricultural Modernization of Shaanxi Province from the Perspective of Technological Progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lufeng; DUAN

    2013-01-01

    The lag in technological innovation is a bottleneck for modern agricultural development,so technological progress is an inevitable path to break this bottleneck. On the basis of introducing theory of technological progress,this study presents 4 paths for promoting agricultural modernization development in line with current situations of agricultural development and technological progress in Shaanxi Province.

  8. Evaluation of the Development of Circular Agriculture in Sichuan Province Based on the Coefficient of Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangying; ZHOU; Shunqiang; SUN; Joseph; J.Molnar

    2015-01-01

    Circular agriculture helps to solve the drawbacks of traditional agricultural production and achieve unified economic and ecological benefits,consistent with the concept of sustainable development.Based on the theoretical perspective of circular agriculture,this paper builds the evaluation indicator system for circular agriculture in Sichuan Province,and uses the coefficient of variation to evaluate the current situation of development of circular agriculture in Sichuan Province from 2000 to 2012.Then it analyzes the obstacles to the development of circular agriculture in Sichuan Province in 2012,and sets forth the targeted recommendations.

  9. Strategies and models for agricultural sustainability in developing Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, P C; Swaminathan, M S

    2008-02-27

    The green revolution of the 1960s and 1970s which resulted in dramatic yield increases in the developing Asian countries is now showing signs of fatigue in productivity gains. Intensive agriculture practiced without adherence to the scientific principles and ecological aspects has led to loss of soil health, and depletion of freshwater resources and agrobiodiversity. With progressive diversion of arable land for non-agricultural purposes, the challenge of feeding the growing population without, at the same time, annexing more forestland and depleting the rest of life is indeed daunting. Further, even with food availability through production/procurement, millions of marginal farming, fishing and landless rural families have very low or no access to food due to lack of income-generating livelihoods. Approximately 200 million rural women, children and men in India alone fall in this category. Under these circumstances, the evergreen revolution (pro-nature, pro-poor, pro-women and pro-employment/livelihood oriented ecoagriculture) under varied terms are proposed for achieving productivity in perpetuity. In the proposed 'biovillage paradigm', eco-friendly agriculture is promoted along with on- and non-farm eco-enterprises based on sustainable management of natural resources. Concurrently, the modern ICT-based village knowledge centres provide time- and locale-specific, demand-driven information needed for evergreen revolution and ecotechnologies. With a system of 'farm and marine production by masses', the twin goals of ecoagriculture and eco-livelihoods are addressed. The principles, strategies and models of these are briefly discussed in this paper.

  10. Innovation of China’s Circular Agricultural Development in the Perspective of Low Carbon Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of the concept and characteristics of circular economy, this paper analyzes the restraining factors of China’s circular agricultural development as follows: issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers are outstanding; the problems of agricultural resources and agricultural ecological environment are serious; the quality of agricultural products cannot meet the demand of domestic and international market for food. Based on the internal requirements of low carbon economic development, this paper advances four innovative models concerning China’s circular agricultural development as follows: the model of combining planting and breeding of agriculture, the developmental model of leisure and sightseeing, ecological integration model, and the developmental model of reusing agricultural byproducts. Every region should choose or create different circular agricultural model in different domains, in order to better use agricultural resources, reduce the consumption of agricultural energy inputs, reduce the emission of agricultural greenhouse gas, develop low carbon agriculture, and make great contribution for meeting the international challenges and promoting China’s agricultural development.

  11. Sustainable Agriculture- Mandatory Approach for Regional and National Economic Development. Case Study: Tecuci Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Sorcaru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania has a considerable agricultural potential, Tecuci Plain being one of the nationalagricultural regions with high potential, which can generate economic growth at regional and alsonational level.The study main objective is to analyze thedynamics of the main crops, livestock andcrop production in the region, for each administrative unit, between 1970-2011 trying to determinethe major trends and patterns, identifying the favorable and restriction factors and also thepossibilities of thedevelopment of primary economic activities by practicing a sustainableagriculture.The research usedthe data obtainedfrom the Bucharest National Instituteof Statistics,but also fromlocal institutions(Galati&VasluiCounty Department of StatisticsandGalati&VasluiDepartment for Agriculture andRural Development. We also used the cartographic method in orderto highlight the dynamics of the agricultural activities whichcan beanytimeanalyzed bythelocalauthoritiesdirectlyresponsible forthe evolution ofthe region′sagriculturein the last twodecades.The results reflected significantagriculturaldisparities betweenthe ruraladministrativeunitsfromthecentreof theregion(nearTecuci City and the ones from north and south,disparitieswhich webelieveareclosely related totheimplementationof sustainable agriculture.

  12. Regression models for estimating concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine in shallow groundwater in agricultural areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackelberg, Paul E.; Barbash, Jack E.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Stone, Wesley W.; Wolock, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Tobit regression models were developed to predict the summed concentration of atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] and its degradate deethylatrazine [6-chloro-N-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5,-triazine-2,4-diamine] (DEA) in shallow groundwater underlying agricultural settings across the conterminous United States. The models were developed from atrazine and DEA concentrations in samples from 1298 wells and explanatory variables that represent the source of atrazine and various aspects of the transport and fate of atrazine and DEA in the subsurface. One advantage of these newly developed models over previous national regression models is that they predict concentrations (rather than detection frequency), which can be compared with water quality benchmarks. Model results indicate that variability in the concentration of atrazine residues (atrazine plus DEA) in groundwater underlying agricultural areas is more strongly controlled by the history of atrazine use in relation to the timing of recharge (groundwater age) than by processes that control the dispersion, adsorption, or degradation of these compounds in the saturated zone. Current (1990s) atrazine use was found to be a weak explanatory variable, perhaps because it does not represent the use of atrazine at the time of recharge of the sampled groundwater and because the likelihood that these compounds will reach the water table is affected by other factors operating within the unsaturated zone, such as soil characteristics, artificial drainage, and water movement. Results show that only about 5% of agricultural areas have greater than a 10% probability of exceeding the USEPA maximum contaminant level of 3.0 μg L-1. These models are not developed for regulatory purposes but rather can be used to (i) identify areas of potential concern, (ii) provide conservative estimates of the concentrations of atrazine residues in deeper potential drinking water supplies, and (iii) set priorities

  13. Sustainable tourism development of globally important agricultural heritage sites: a case study of "traditional rice-fish agriculture system"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongle; Sun Yehong; Min Qingwen; Cheng Shengkui

    2008-01-01

    Traditional rice-fish agricultural heritage site in Qingtian County, China, one of the pilot sites of Glob-ally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS), is of great value in tourism development. This paper aims to explore how to realize sustainable tourism development in agricultural heritage site through identifying current problems in GIAHS site, and making constructive recommendations for coupled development of heritage preserva-tion and economic development. Field survey was carried out and data was collected through field questionnaire surveys of tourists and residents' in Longxian Village of Qingtian County, as well as interviews of residents with semi-structured questionnaires for their perceptions and attitudes to tourism development. The following results are got.(1) the tourism industry is still at its early state of Nongjiale tourism (enjoy and experience authentic country life-style), under very limited administrative management; (2) what attracts visitors most are delicious fish and beautiful natural environment, but not agricultural heritage itself; (3) most tourists come from adjacent areas and stay only half a day, many of whom pay their visits twice or more; (4) a few local residents take part in the activities of tourism industry, but in very limited manners even if they do.Current patterns of tourism development are casting negative impacts on agricultural heritage. Conservation agricultural heritage should be put in the first place for sustainable tourism development. Agricultural heritage, as a key attraction, should be taken as the focus for tourism development. The important thing is to change the present Nongjiale tourism into real heritage tourism, to establish a cooperative mechanism among different stakeholders,and to increase local residents' income through engaging in tourism industry.

  14. Agricultural Policy and Nest Success of Prairie Ducks in Canada and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C. Drever

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Prairie Pothole Region of North America has been modified by agriculture during the past 100 yr, resulting in habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation that have reduced the abundance and productivity of many wildlife species. The 1985 U.S. Farm Bill provided economic incentives to agriculture that are considered by many to be beneficial to nesting waterfowl and other wildlife. Canada has not experienced an equally comprehensive legislative initiative, which would seem to indicate that benefits to waterfowl in Canada should lag behind those in the United States. However, with the removal of some agricultural subsidies in Canada during the 1990s, the amount of perennial cover in the Canadian prairies increased to levels similar to those of the 1970s. Therefore, it is unclear whether and how the U.S. and Canadian prairies might differ with regard to habitat quality for nesting waterfowl. We used historical and contemporary data to compare temporal trends in duck nest success between the United States and Canada and to assess how mean nest success varied with proportion of cropland and wetland density. The data best supported models with nonlinear temporal trends that varied between the two countries and suggested that mean nest success in Canada declined from its high point in 1930s and remained below the long-term value of 0.16 until the end of the time series in 2005. Mean nest success in the United States also declined from its high point in the 1930s, but increased to above the long-term value of 0.25 during the early 2000s. Mean nest success varied negatively with proportion of cropland in both the United States and Canada. Mean nest success was positively correlated with pond density at Canadian sites, but showed only a weak association with pond density at U.S. sites. All models explained the low proportions of the variation in nest success, suggesting that unmeasured factors such as the abundance and identity of nest predators may

  15. Green House Gas Control and Agricultural Biomass for Sustainable Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Important green house gases (GHG) attributed to animal agriculture are methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), though carbon dioxide (CO2) contributes almost half of total greenhouse effect. Rumen CH4 production in an enteric fermentation can be accounted as the biggest anthropogenic source. Some of prebiotics and probiotics have been innovated to mitigate rumen CH4 emission. The possible use of agricultural biomass consisted of non-edible parts of crop plants such as cellulose and hemi cellul...

  16. Evaluation of the Development of Circular Agriculture in Chongqing City Based on Entropy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangying; ZHOU; Shunqiang; SUN; Guiying; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    The circular agriculture is conducive to achieving the purpose of efficient agricultural economy and environment- friendliness.Based on the perspective of circular agriculture theory,this paper builds the evaluation indicator system for circular agriculture,and uses entropy method and Matlab analysis tool to carry out the comprehensive evaluation of the level of agricultural development in Chongqing City during the period 2003- 2012. It analyzes the obstacles to the development of circular agricultural economy in Chongqing City in 2012,and finally puts forward the corresponding recommendations.

  17. The Current Situation and Development Countermeasures of Creative Agriculture in Miyun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Runlian; MIAO; Tong; LIU; Mei; LI

    2013-01-01

    Creative agriculture,a new agricultural format formed by integrating agriculture,tourism and creative industries,is an important part of the urban modern agriculture. Proceeding from the functional position as an ecological conservation area,Miyun creative agriculture has obtained rapid growth,relying on its ecological resources,agricultural resources,tourist resources and leisure industry advantages. But there are still some problems. On the basis of analyzing the advantages and problems of creative agriculture in Miyun,the paper put forward the basic principles and thought pattern of developing creative agriculture in there. Besides,several countermeasures in terms of resources integration, scientific planning,exploring local cultural resources,developing theme products,constructing industrial chain,carrying out project design and creative planning,creating creative agricultural advantage brand are put forward.

  18. Evaluating agricultural trade-offs in the age of sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanter, David R.; Musumba, Mark; Wood, Sylvia L.R.; Palm, Cheryl; Antle, John; Balvanera, Patricia; Dale, Virginia H.; Havlik, Petr; Kline, Keith L.; Scholes, R.J.; Thornton, Philip; Tittonell, Pablo; Andelman, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    A vibrant, resilient and productive agricultural sector is fundamental to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Bringing about such a transformation requires optimizing a range of agronomic, environmental and socioeconomic outcomes from agricultural systems – from crop yields, to

  19. Assessing the Learning Needs of Student Teachers in Texas regarding Management of the Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory: Implications for the Professional Development of Early Career Teachers in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, P. Ryan; McKim, Billy R.

    2011-01-01

    Skills needed to manage a laboratory are essential knowledge for all school-based, agriculture teachers who instruct agricultural mechanics curriculum (Saucier, Terry, & Schumacher, 2009). This research investigated the professional development needs of Texas agricultural education student teachers regarding agricultural mechanics laboratory…

  20. Limited occurrence of denitrification in four shallow aquifers in agricultural areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C.T.; Puckett, L.J.; Böhlke, J.K.; Bekins, B.A.; Phillips, S.P.; Kauffman, L.J.; Denver, J.M.; Johnson, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    The ability of natural attenuation to mitigate agricultural nitrate contamination in recharging aquifers was investigated in four important agricultural settings in the United States. The study used laboratory analyses, field measurements, and flow and transport modeling for monitoring well transects (0.5 to 2.5 km in length) in the San Joaquin watershed, California, the Elkhorn watershed, Nebraska, the Yakima watershed, Washington, and the Chester watershed, Maryland. Ground water analyses included major ion chemistry, dissolved gases, nitrogen and oxygen stable isotopes, and estimates of recharge date. Sediment analyses included potential electron donors and stable nitrogen and carbon isotopes. Within each site and among aquifer-based medians, dissolved oxygen decreases with ground water age, and excess N2 from denitrification increases with age. Stable isotopes and excess N2 imply minimal denitrifying activity at the Maryland and Washington sites, partial denitrification at the California site, and total denitrification across portions of the Nebraska site. At all sites, recharging electron donor concentrations are not sufficient to account for the losses of dissolved oxygen and nitrate, implying that relict, solid phase electron donors drive redox reactions. Zero-order rates of denitrification range from 0 to 0.14 ??mol N L-1d-1, comparable to observations of other studies using the same methods. Many values reported in the literature are, however, orders of magnitude higher, which is attributed to a combination of method limitations and bias for selection of sites with rapid denitrification. In the shallow aquifers below these agricultural fields, denitrification is limited in extent and will require residence times of decades or longer to mitigate modern nitrate contamination. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  1. The Discussion on the Interaction and Integration of Modern Agriculture and Rural Tourism Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The thesis summarizes the connotation of rural tourism and divides it into six types,including rural sight-seeing,rural body-building activity,rural folk culture,rural experience of farm work,rural business affairs,and study and development.It outlines the theory of sustainable development of rural tourism and points out that what sustainable development of tourism concerns is the coordination of ecology,economy,and society centering on human and nature.On the basis of introducing the connotation of modern agriculture,it divides modern agriculture into six types,including sightseeing agriculture,leisure agriculture,green agriculture,characteristic agriculture,factory agriculture,and three-dimensional agriculture.And by concluding,it obtains the combination model of modern agriculture and rural tourism.Based on the introduction of the above related theories,the thesis discusses the interaction and integration model of the sustainable development of modern agriculture and rural tourism.It emphatically analyzes the integration model of modern agriculture and rural tourism,including pastoral agriculture tourism model(sightseeing village,leisure farm,citizen farm),and science education tourism model(agricultural science and technology education base,tourism and leisure education agricultural park,children’s,agricultural education base,agricultural exposition).Based on the interaction and integration relationship between modern agriculture and rural tourism,the thesis puts forward corresponding countermeasures so as to promote their positive development and realize the maximum of ecological,social and economic benefits.

  2. Effects of agricultural policy on the development of Slovenian agriculture during the transition and the process of accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volk Tinea S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The thesis analyzes the development of agricultural policy and agriculture in Slovenia in the period from 1992 to 2002. The analysis is based on the classification of agricultural policy and its measures, standard indicators used for analysis of development of agricultural policy and agriculture, and specific methods for evaluating the efficiency of agricultural policy (evaluation methods, simulation methods. The results show that the transition in Slovenia caused no marked shocks for agricultural production. The development goals for agriculture were set forth early (in 1992 and were modeled on the EU standards, and they remained unchanged throughout the transition. A protectionist development concept of agricultural policy was adopted, which assured a relatively high level of support to agriculture. Under this concept, the agricultural policy was substantially reoriented during the transition, but this happened gradually and was reflected above all in the re-instrumentation of policy and changes of the structure of support to agriculture. Agricultural policy was relatively successful. It managed to achieve most of the strategic development goals of agriculture and a high degree of compatibility with the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP.

  3. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service stored-grain areawide integrated pest management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Paul W; Hagstrum, David W; Reed, Carl; Phillips, Tom W

    2003-01-01

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) funded a demonstration project (1998-2002) for areawide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilized two elevator networks, one in each state, for a total of 28 grain elevators. These elevators stored approximately 31 million bushels of wheat, which is approximately 1.2% of the annual national production. Stored wheat was followed as it moved from farm to the country elevator and finally to the terminal elevator. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator silos. Wheat stored at elevators was frequently infested by several insect species, which sometimes reached high numbers and damaged the grain. Fumigation using aluminum phosphide pellets was the main method for managing these insect pests in elevators in the USA. Fumigation decisions tended to be based on past experience with controlling stored-grain insects, or were calendar based. Integrated pest management (IPM) requires sampling and risk benefit analysis. We found that the best sampling method for estimating insect density, without turning the grain from one bin to another, was the vacuum probe sampler. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed that interprets insect sampling data, and provides grain managers with a risk analysis report detailing which bins are at low, moderate or high risk for insect-caused economic losses. Insect density was predicted up to three months in the future based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. Because sampling costs money, there is a trade-off between frequency of sampling and the cost of fumigation. The insect growth model in SGA Pro reduces the need to sample as often, thereby making the program more cost-effective. SGA Pro was validated

  4. Obstacles to Development of Marketing Channels of Agricultural Products in China and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the connotation of marketing channels of agricultural products, and gives an overall of current modes of marketing channels of agricultural products in China, including the marketing channel of transportation and sale of agricultural products, the marketing channel of intermediary sales agent, and the marketing channel of mutual cooperation. The problems existing in the marketing channel of agricultural products in China as follows: first, the cost is high; second, the technological content is low; third, the upstream main body lacks competitiveness; fourth, the structure of investment is irrational. Corresponding countermeasures are put forward to develop marketing channels of agricultural products as follows: perfect the service function of wholesale market of agricultural products; propel the construction of integration and expansion of wholesale market; develop the circulation cooperatives of agricultural products; develop the integrated organization of production and sales of agricultural products.

  5. Analysis of Factors Influencing the Development Effect of Characteristic Agriculture in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ying

    2012-01-01

    Based on 303 questionnaires of farmers in different types of areas of Henan Province, we analyze the impact of various factors (different types of areas, types of characteristic agriculture, sales of characteristic agricultural products, risk management of characteristic agricultural products, science and technology reliance, and improvement in farmers’ life) on the development of characteristic agriculture in Henan Province, using Logistic model. The results show that improving farmers’ living standards, expanding the sales channels, increasing scientific and technological input and perfecting risk management mechanism of agricultural products, is of great significance to promoting farmers’ satisfaction, and improving the development effect of characteristic agriculture. Finally, the relevant policy recommendations are put forth for the development of characteristic agriculture: increasing the government support; relying on scientific and technological progress to improve the quality of characteristic agricultural products; cultivating and improving the market system; perfecting risk management system.

  6. Nanotechnology in Sustainable Agriculture: Recent Developments, Challenges, and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Prasad

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology monitors a leading agricultural controlling process, especially by its miniature dimension. Additionally, many potential benefits such as enhancement of food quality and safety, reduction of agricultural inputs, enrichment of absorbing nanoscale nutrients from the soil, etc. allow the application of nanotechnology to be resonant encumbrance. Agriculture, food, and natural resources are a part of those challenges like sustainability, susceptibility, human health, and healthy life. The ambition of nanomaterials in agriculture is to reduce the amount of spread chemicals, minimize nutrient losses in fertilization and increased yield through pest and nutrient management. Nanotechnology has the prospective to improve the agriculture and food industry with novel nanotools for the controlling of rapid disease diagnostic, enhancing the capacity of plants to absorb nutrients among others. The significant interests of using nanotechnology in agriculture includes specific applications like nanofertilizers and nanopesticides to trail products and nutrients levels to increase the productivity without decontamination of soils, waters, and protection against several insect pest and microbial diseases. Nanotechnology may act as sensors for monitoring soil quality of agricultural field and thus it maintain the health of agricultural plants. This review covers the current challenges of sustainability, food security and climate change that are exploring by the researchers in the area of nanotechnology in the improvement of agriculture.

  7. Sustainable development of agriculture in karst areas, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhua Song

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The exposed carbonate rocks aged from Sinian to Mid-Triassic Periods cover an area of 500,000 Km2 in south-west China. In karst areas with spectacular landscapes characterized by magnificent tower karst and conical karst, rare surface drainage systems and prevalent subsurface drainage systems, the environment is ecologically very fragile. The rapid increase of population, over deforested and cultivated lands, worsted the ecological system, causing a higher frequency of draught, flood and various disasters, backward economic development, low living standard of the people. In order to improve the sustainability of the agriculture the experience shows that the following operations should be adopted: (1 serious control of the population increase, emigration, extra labours and improvement of the environmental education of the local inhabitants; (2 terracing of the slopes (shi jala di as to improve the cultivated land quality, to preserve the water, soil and fertiliser and ameliorate the effective utilisation of the land; (3 development of new rural energies such as the solar energy and gas energy, and expansion of the saving-fuel stoves to reduce the load of bio-energy; (4 reforestation and bounding the hills and mountains; the ecological, economic and fuel forests model has been developed in fengcong-depression areas: the tree species with high ecological, economical and energetic characteristics, should be chosen, such as the bamboo, wild grapes, Sapium rotundifolium etc.; (5 better utilisation of the ram water and karst water resource to solve the water supply problems. The karst landscape is well developed in the 500,000 km2 carbonate terrain in Yunnan, Guizhou, Guangxi, west Hunan and south Sichuan provinces in south-west China, where 100 million habitants live (Song, 1997. The large population and its high density, serious deforestation, over-cultivation and fragile ecological system make the environmental problems very serious and about 30

  8. Influence of instream habitat and water chemistry on amphibians within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    The widespread use of stream channelization and subsurface tile drainage for draining agricultural fields has led to the development of numerous channelized agricultural headwater streams within agricultural watersheds of the Midwestern United States, Canada, and Europe. Channelized agricultural he...

  9. SOME PROBLEMS REGARDING THE AGRICULTURAL AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The old rural civilization which assured a long and miraculous surviving of the Romanian people, it is at present in a critical breaking up moment. Production and rural living standard have become lacked of competitiveness, traditions and customs are left and people move to cities. Production looks to be unefficient and not sustainable from an ethnical and social point of view. Under the pressure of this situation, and also of the international concerns (ONU 1972, FAOSARD, UE and European concerns (LEADER 199, EU RDP 2007-2013, sustainable development has become the core of the activity of Romanian scientists and authorities (SNDD 2013-2020-2030, PNDR 2007-2013 . Taking into consideration the previous research results and programmes, the present study approaches the need to pass to real actions based on the analysis of the thresholds of the affected space, some aspects of the agricultural and rural sustainable development, regarding: farm modernization as an economical and social imperative and mention some aspects of the rural sustainable development including also the preservation of cultural, natural and rural heritage.

  10. Development of Agricultural Product Logistics from the Perspective of the 4PL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alex; Wuya; ZHONG; Wei; YAN

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of the Fourth Party Logistics(4PL),this paper elaborates the concept,background and development plight of agricultural products logistics,advises developing 4PL under the background of rapid development of agricultural products and logistics,etc.and explores issues of information,efficiency and supervision of agricultural products logistics,draws the conclusion that only construct an 4PL agricultural products logistics system can alleviate the aporia of cost,and speed the efficiency of China’s agricultural products logistics.

  11. Career Development Event Participation and Professional Development Needs of Kansas Agricultural Education Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Clark R.

    2008-01-01

    Past studies have shown that agricultural education teachers perceive a need for professional development in Career Development Events (CDEs) preparation, but they did not identify the individual CDEs where training was needed. This study examined the CDEs that Kansas schools were participating in at the district and state levels and the CDEs…

  12. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1976. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Focus of this 1976 journal on agricultural and rural development education is how to deal with the shortage of trained manpower which is an obstacle to large-scale rural development efforts. The journal's theme is that a broader approach must be made to generate adequate numbers of trained manpower--all types of nonformal education (agricultural…

  13. Multiple Knowledges for Agricultural Production: Implications for the Development of Conservation Agriculture in Kenya and Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Keith M.; Lamb, Jennifer N.; Sikuku, Dominic Ngosia; Ashilenje, Dennis S.; Laker-Ojok, Rita; Norton, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates the extent of multiple knowledges among smallholders and connected non-farm agents around Mount Elgon in Kenya and Uganda in order to build the communicative competence needed to scale up conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS). Design/methodology/approach: Our methodological approach examines local…

  14. Interdisciplinary Entrepreneurial Leadership Education and the Development of Agricultural Innovators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Matthew M.

    2015-01-01

    This article qualitatively explores the potential of entrepreneurial leadership curricula to encourage interdisciplinary interest in agricultural issues and prompt diverse student engagement in agricultural leadership and innovation. The study focuses specifically on the activities and perspectives of 15 undergraduate students who completed an…

  15. Construction and development of the Agricultural Science Data Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xianxue

    2007-01-01

    Science data are very important resources for innovative research in all scientific disciplines. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of China has launched a comprehensive platform program for supporting scientific innovations and agricultural science database construction and sharing project is one of the activities under this program supported by MOST. This paper briefly described the achievements of the Agricultural Science Data Center Project.

  16. Development and application of fuzzy indicator for assessment of agricultural land resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    With ever increasing demands on agriculture, it is essential that we be able to adequately evaluate agriculture land resources. Recently, efforts have been undertaken to develop methods and tools for the purpose of evaluating agricultural land resources. However, to be successful, assessments need...

  17. Pedagogy for Addressing the Worldview Challenge in Sustainable Development of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nicholas R.; Bawden, Richard J.; Bergmann, Luke

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is offering new forms of support to society, as evidenced by rapid development of an agricultural "bio-economy," and increasing emphasis on production of ecological services in farmed landscapes. The advent of these innovations will engage agricultural professionals in critical civic debates about matters that are complex and…

  18. Pedagogy for Addressing the Worldview Challenge in Sustainable Development of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Nicholas R.; Bawden, Richard J.; Bergmann, Luke

    2008-01-01

    Agriculture is offering new forms of support to society, as evidenced by rapid development of an agricultural "bio-economy," and increasing emphasis on production of ecological services in farmed landscapes. The advent of these innovations will engage agricultural professionals in critical civic debates about matters that are complex and that will…

  19. The Role of Organic Agriculture in Rural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Sarudi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Rural development includes local population, its way of life, employment characteristics, income structure, dwelling conditions, service levels as well as cultural aspects just as traditional handcrafts, dishes, language, clothing and habits. Since agriculture is a historically determining economic activity in rural areas its effects primarily determines the rural ways of life. New rural development policy of EU can be featured by multisectoral and integrated approach. Organic farming is based on the definition of ecology as former namings just as ˝ecological˝, ˝biological˝ represent it. Its basic aim is ensuring sustainable development whereas it uses again, from time to time to locally available reserves. Among basic principles of organic farming can be found the protection of soil and environment and this implies the usage of natural capacities of plants, animals and the landscape and willingly tries to improve the quality of the environment. It can be stated that market demand for organic products is the strongest in Europe, as much as 46% of the world´s organic product output is sold in this continent which possibly can be explained by its economic development level. This overall development reached Hungary, too. In December 2002 the estimations showed 105.000 ha and within this 54.497 ha had been registered as approved organic area. During the last year we carried out two focus group analyses examining the reasons for buying or not buying organic foods. In the presentation the most important results of the two focus groups will also be introduced in details.

  20. Effect of Agricultural Comprehensive Development on Increasing Income of Farmers in Jiangsu Hilly and Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuzhan WANG

    2015-01-01

    To adapt to rural and agricultural economic development,Jiangsu Province adjusted main task of comprehensive development of hilly and mountainous areas to supporting and promoting agricultural structural adjustment of hilly and mountainous areas and promoting increase of agricultural benefits and farmers’ income. Through typical survey,this paper made an objective evaluation of effect of agricultural comprehensive development of hilly and mountainous areas in Jiangsu Province from increasing farmers’ income. Results indicated that agricultural comprehensive development investment projects in Jiangsu hilly and mountainous areas are closely coupled with local agricultural production structure; financial funds promote social capital input to construction of economic forest,fruit and grass planting,and livestock raising. Through demonstration and guidance of farmers,it promoted adjustment of agricultural production structure and increased farmers’ income. Finally,it came up with pertinent policy recommendations.

  1. Research on Harmony between Agricultural Modernization and Regional Economy Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The inharmonious development of agricultural modernization and regional economy is a major cause to the imbalanced development of regional economy in China.The evaluation index system of modern agriculture is established according to the relevant data from Chinese Agricultural Yearbook 2009,China Rural Statistical Yearbook and China Statistical Yearbook.By using the Grey Relation Analysis,the developmental level of agricultural modernization of 31 provinces and cities in China is ranked and compared by combining the overall regional economic strength.The results show that the developmental level of agricultural modernization in each area of China is different;the agricultural modernization level of each area in China is inharmonious with the total economic strength;inharmonious characteristic is presented between agricultural modernization development and regional overall economy development in China.

  2. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions and adapting agricultural management for climate change in developing countries: providing the basis for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogle, Stephen M; Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Lini; Rosenstock, Todd; Tubiello, Francesco; Paustian, Keith; Buendia, Leandro; Nihart, Alison; Smith, Pete

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture in developing countries has attracted increasing attention in international negotiations within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change for both adaptation to climate change and greenhouse gas mitigation. However, there is limited understanding about potential complementarity between management practices that promote adaptation and mitigation, and limited basis to account for greenhouse gas emission reductions in this sector. The good news is that the global research community could provide the support needed to address these issues through further research linking adaptation and mitigation. In addition, a small shift in strategy by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and ongoing assistance from agricultural organizations could produce a framework to move the research and development from concept to reality. In turn, significant progress is possible in the near term providing the basis for UNFCCC negotiations to move beyond discussion to action for the agricultural sector in developing countries.

  3. Strategic Planning for the Development of Ukrainian Agriculture in the Face of Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Ostapenko

    2016-01-01

    The essence of the “strategic planning” is explored and the peculiarities of strategic planning in the agricultural sector are defined. Global climate change as a factor stimulating the formation of new approaches to strategic planning of agricultural development is considered, and the impact of climate change on the agricultural sector of Ukraine is evaluated. A predictive model of changes in the parameters of agricultural production under expected climate change conditions is constructed, a...

  4. Evaluation on Ecological Agriculture Benefit and Coordinated Development Level in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to establish theevaluation index system of ecological agriculture benefit in Henan Province to assess its ecological agriculture benefit and coordinated development level. [Method] Based on the existing evaluation index system of ecological agriculture, the evaluation index system of ecological agriculture benefit in Henan Province was established by means of factor analysis from the aspects of economic benefit, social benefit and ecological benefit, so as to assess the ecological ag...

  5. Countermeasures for Circular Agricultural Development of Chongqing Based on AHP Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taiyan; YANG; Shuo; BAI; Shunqiang; SUN

    2014-01-01

    With rapid economic development,resource and environment problems become more and more prominent. Chongqing Municipality, as a city focusing on industrial development in the past,has serious problem of environmental pollution and scarce agricultural resources. At present,it is urgent to find out how to develop circular agriculture and coordinate economic,social,environmental development. On the basis of understanding the intension of circular agriculture,this paper built evaluation indicator system for development of circular agriculture from social and economic development,resource reduction input,resource recycling use,and resource and environment safety. Then,it made an evaluation of circular agricultural development of Chongqing Municipality by AHP approach combined with gray correlation analysis. Finally,it came up with countermeasures,including reducing input of agricultural production materials,strengthening land management,promoting scientific and technological progress,and improving policy systems.

  6. Advances in Research on Modern Agricultural Development in Grain Production Core Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; LIU

    2015-01-01

    Grain production core area is key region of modern agricultural development in China. Through summarizing related literature about grain production area and modern agricultural development researches both at home and abroad,it obtained characteristics and existing problems in the modern agricultural development of the grain production core area. It is found that there are many research perspectives in modern agricultural development of the grain production core area. On the basis of analyzing the grain production core area and connotation,mode and evaluation of the modern agricultural development,it is concluded that further study should be carried out for adopting which development mode and how to make evaluation,so as to provide theoretical guidance for balanced development of modern agriculture in grain production core area of different regions.

  7. Descriptors of Modular Formation of Accounting and Analytical Cluster in Innovation Development of Agricultural Holdings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanna Degaltseva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the division of accounting into financial accounting, taxation accounting, management accounting and statistical accounting a problem of improving their relationship arises. The accounting and analytical cluster plays the role of the correlating factor of the relationship between the subdivisions of the agricultural holding property. To improve its work a modular principle of its building based on information technology was introduced. Practical implementation of modular accounting and analytical cluster revealed its shortcomings. They were as follows: each type of account and each production unit used its own natural and cost parameters. The number and nature of these parameters were different. To eliminate the shortcomings in the information security of managers and specialists of the agricultural holding, we attempt to develop a methodology for establishing a rational number of descriptors (binding parameters for each module. The proposed descriptors are designed on the basis of validity of the methodological approach to their calculations and legal support. The proposed method allowed to limit the asymmetric information in all kinds of records, to improve its quality and to bring a synergistic effect from the scale and structure of the use of the agricultural holdings property complex.

  8. Agricultural resources and development priorities of the municipality of Stara Pazova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Branko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the agricultural potentials of Stara Pazova, and consequently defines development priorities in this area. The aim at the research is to assess the real possibilities for improvement on agriculture Municipality. The analysis is focused on: knowledge transfer and innovation, agriculture technical equipment, warehouse and finishing capacities in agriculture, processing of agricultural products and the vision and development priorities over agriculture Municipality. The research results show that the improvement to the competitiveness of the agricultural sector of Stara Pazova requires the implementation of adequate policy measures and projects related to the improvement to human resources, higher level of processing of agricultural and food products, as well as better agricultural technical equipment agricultural producers. Activities in this area include primarily higher correlation science and practice across the reorganized agricultural station, extension services, home service , agricultural cooperatives and other associations of farmers; development and implementation of new knowledge and skills of farmers through advice, training, seminars, courses; support young farmers in the modernization of farms. All projects in this field must be based on adequate state support and coordinated efforts of the public and private sectors.

  9. South African Agricultural Research and Development: A Century of Change

    OpenAIRE

    Liebenberg, Frikkie; Pardey, Philip G.; Kahn, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The 20th Century saw substantive shifts in the structure of agriculture and agricultural production in South Africa. Farm size grew, farm numbers eventually declined, and production increasingly emphasized higher-valued commodities, notably a range of horticultural crops. The real gross value of agricultural output grew steadily (by 3.32 percent per year) from 1910-1981, but declined thereafter (by 0.21 percent per year from 1982-2008). These long-run sectoral changes provide a context to pre...

  10. The sustainable human development and the education of the agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Patricia Álvarez Ochoa

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available lt is necessary to reconsider the paradigm of development followed by nations as well as the concept of human welfare. The United Nations Development Plan (UNDP is an alternative, taking into account that it focuses its approach on the humanistic axis. Although it has been debated but not completely accepted by the main world powers, it is evident that a new system in which human beings are able to reach equality should be promoted, and in which the difference between rich and poor could be counteracted. This article tries to make a reflection on this alternative model and gives some guidelines for the education in the agricultural sector, to educate professionals interested in the sustainable human development as La Salle University does.

  11. Collaborative evaluation and market research converge: an innovative model agricultural development program evaluation in Southern Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, John M; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-11-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A partnership of local officials, agricultural development staff, and students worked with the outside team to craft a survey of agricultural traders working between northern Uganda and Southern Sudan the steps approach of a collaborative model. The goal was to create a market directory of use to producers, government officials and others interested in stimulating agricultural trade. The directory of agricultural producers and distributors served as an agricultural development and promotion tool as did the collaborative process itself.

  12. Practical Model and Countermeasures for the Development of Ecological Circular Agriculture in Zhejiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Development status and five principal practice modes of ecological cycling agriculture are introduced,such as the quantitative reduction mode with the characteristics of fertilizer reduction and clean production,the ecological chain connection and conversion mode including the combination of farming and grazing and the new mode of farming,the agricultural waste recycling mode with biogas as a link and the comprehensive utilization of waste,quality enhancement mode of agricultural products,and eco-cycle mode of agricultural park.Based on the analysis of the socio-economic characteristic environment of these modes,corresponding policy suggestions are put forward in order to promote the development of circular agriculture,such as improving the macro-control mechanism led by the government,promoting the construction of technological innovation system of ecological circular agriculture,and creating the atmosphere for circular agriculture development.

  13. On the Cooperation of Jiangmen City with Guangzhou Experimental Station,CATAS in Agricultural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongqing; ZHENG; Zhiyang; LI; Qiongyan; LI; Shouxing; WEI

    2013-01-01

    Guangdong Province is one of the provinces in China with the best modern agricultural industry and the highest production efficiency.While Jiangmen City,one of the agriculture-based cities in Guangdong Province,has made active exploration in building a modern agricultural system.China has established cooperation with the four largest agricultural research institutes in China to offer technical support for the development of modern agriculture.In this paper,the status quo and existing problems of agricultural development in Jiangmen,Guangdong are briefly introduced.Then,the cooperation status and prospect of local government with the research institutes are discussed.Finally some suggestions are given on the agricultural development pattern in Jiangmen City.

  14. 处方农业与我国未来农业发展%The Prescription of Agriculture and China’s Future Agricultural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程高峰

    2014-01-01

    从处方农业的起源、发展、紧迫性、措施来谈处方农业与我国未来农业的发展。%This paper from prescription agricultural origin, development, urgency, measures to talk about prescription agriculture and development of the future of agriculture.

  15. The strategic aspects and results of agriculture development in Serbia in the transition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aničić Jugoslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic development in Yugoslavia (Serbia after the second world war has been conducted at the expense of agriculture because the industrialisation was in the forefront of the economic policy. It has an impact on the present position of the agriculture compared to the other sectors because the parity of product exchange is still retained at the expense of agriculture. Even under these circumstances agriculture is an industry with a positive foreign trade balance, important share in the national product and the unemployment rate reduction, and that has been analysed and shown in this paper. Many developed European countries are an example of the successful agricultural development as a carrier of the complete development. There are indisputably much wider possibilities for agriculture development in Serbia, and it could become a great comparative advantage of our economy in the developed markets in the world, with the appropriate macroeconomic policy.

  16. EnviroAtlas - Agricultural Buffers by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset estimates the average agricultural buffer width, the percentage of agricultural lands with flow paths that would intersect natural land...

  17. Research on the diffusion of agricultural innovations in the United States and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, E.M.; Ban, van den A.W.

    1963-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide a comparative analysis of two sub-traditions within rural sociology, the research on diffusion that has occurred (1) in the United States, and (2) in the Netherlands. Emphasis will be placed upon the historical development of the field in both countries

  18. Research on the diffusion of agricultural innovations in the United States and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, E.M.; Ban, van den A.W.

    1963-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to provide a comparative analysis of two sub-traditions within rural sociology, the research on diffusion that has occurred (1) in the United States, and (2) in the Netherlands. Emphasis will be placed upon the historical development of the field in both countries

  19. National Economic Development Procedures Manual - Agricultural Flood Damage,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    the planning process and the NED evaluacion ’- ". procedures for agriculture, as described in the P&G, are thei presented. Also identified are some...effectiveness, efficiency, and acceptability. Appropriate mitigation of adverse effects is to be an integral part of each plan. STEP FOUR: EVALUATION OF...CROP FLOOD DAMAGE ANALYSIS PROCESS % , The purpose of this chapter is to present an integrated overview of the process needed to perform agricultural

  20. Land System Adjustment in Process of Developing Modern Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Jiwen

    2008-01-01

    Under the premise of unchanging the collective ownership and the mode of family business, China should choose land shares pack system as the goal pattern of farmland system innovation.It is hoped that the pattern is accepted and supported by both sides of the government and the farmers,and then it constructs the land reasonable circulation and the effective centralism mechanism, thus realizing smooth transition from the traditional agriculture to the modern agriculture.

  1. Low carbon development and poverty alleviation. Options for development cooperation in energy, agriculture and forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funder, M.; Fjalland, J.; Munk Ravnborg, H.; Egelyng, H.

    2009-07-01

    This report presents the main findings of a desk study on 'Climate change mitigation and poverty reduction in developing countries: opportunities for development cooperation'. The main objective of the study is to identify options for combining low carbon development pathways with poverty reduction and economic growth in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), as part of efforts to target development assistance to address both poverty and global warming problems. The report discusses the pros and cons of climate change mitigation measures that also support poverty alleviation and economic development within the energy, agriculture and forestry sectors. It concludes with a series of recommendations for development cooperation.

  2. Training for Agriculture and Rural Development--1977. FAO Economic and Social Development Series No. 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome (Italy).

    Fifteen papers on aspects of education and training for agriculture and rural development are contained in this journal for 1977. Several deal with the rising need for more direct participation by the farmers, landless workers, foresters, and fishermen for whom rural education and training systems are designed to supplement traditional types of…

  3. Comprehensive Evaluation on the Agricultural Sustainable Development with the Smallest Generalized Deviation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation index system of agricultural sustainable development is constructed with the four components of social index,agricultural economic index,resources index,and environment index.According to the comprehensive evaluation model of agricultural sustainable development with the participation of single person,comprehensive evaluation model of agricultural sustainable development with the smallest generalized deviation and the participation of many people is established.Based on the case studies,agricultural sustainable development status of a certain region is evaluated.Result shows that the evaluation scores of the social index and agricultural economic index are high in this region,but the score of resources index is general and the evaluation result of environment index is not very good.The comprehensive evaluation value of overall sustainable development is 0.665 5;and the evaluation result is "good".

  4. 78 FR 1260 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: Prevailing Wage Rates for Certain Occupations Processed Under H-2A Special...

  5. 76 FR 79711 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2012 Adverse Effect Wage Rates AGENCY: Employment and Training...

  6. 78 FR 1259 - Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Certification Process for the Temporary Employment of Aliens in Agriculture in the United States: 2013 Adverse Effect Wage Rates AGENCY: Employment and Training...

  7. Comparing Soil Carbon of Short Rotation Poplar Plantations with Agricultural Crops and Woodlots in North Central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark D. Coleman; J.G. Isebrands; David N. Tolsted; Virginia R. Tolbert

    2004-01-01

    We collected soil samples from 27 study sites across North Central United States to compare the soil carbon of short rotation poplar plantations to adjacent agricultural crops and woodlots. Soil organic carbon (SOC) ranged from 20 to more than 160 Mg/ha across the sampled sites. Lowest SOC levels were found in uplands and highest levels in riparian soils. We attributed...

  8. Delivery Strategies to Enhance the Sustainability of Training: Lessons from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosa, Cecilia; Nadeau, Andrew; Hernandez, Emilio; Kafeero, Fred; Zahiga, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) utilizes training as a major component of the support it provides to its member countries in Africa. In the past, stand-alone training events targeting individual actors were the norm. However, an external evaluation indicated that this type of training scores low in terms of…

  9. The Construction of Ecological Agriculture in Gongcheng County and Its Development Ideas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of survey of current situations of eco-agricultural construction in Gongcheng County, major "Cultivation + Methane + Planting" triple model of ecological agriculture in Gongcheng County is presented. Then, the eco-agricultural benefits of Gongcheng County are analyzed from three aspects, namely economic, social and ecological benefits. Through summing up, the eco-agricultural construction of Gongcheng County has following problems: imperfect ecological technological system; follow-up service level and ability to be improved; slow in unified planning and design and industrialization step. Finally, ideas of further development of ecological agriculture in Gongcheng County are put forward. These include proper planning and overall management, extending ideas and deepening eco-agricultural construction system; strengthening development of ecological tourism; and perfecting social service system for ecological agriculture.

  10. Regression models for estimating concentrations of atrazine plus deethylatrazine in shallow groundwater in agricultural areas of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackelberg, Paul E; Barbash, Jack E; Gilliom, Robert J; Stone, Wesley W; Wolock, David M

    2012-01-01

    Tobit regression models were developed to predict the summed concentration of atrazine [6-chloro--ethyl--(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] and its degradate deethylatrazine [6-chloro--(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5,-triazine-2,4-diamine] (DEA) in shallow groundwater underlying agricultural settings across the conterminous United States. The models were developed from atrazine and DEA concentrations in samples from 1298 wells and explanatory variables that represent the source of atrazine and various aspects of the transport and fate of atrazine and DEA in the subsurface. One advantage of these newly developed models over previous national regression models is that they predict concentrations (rather than detection frequency), which can be compared with water quality benchmarks. Model results indicate that variability in the concentration of atrazine residues (atrazine plus DEA) in groundwater underlying agricultural areas is more strongly controlled by the history of atrazine use in relation to the timing of recharge (groundwater age) than by processes that control the dispersion, adsorption, or degradation of these compounds in the saturated zone. Current (1990s) atrazine use was found to be a weak explanatory variable, perhaps because it does not represent the use of atrazine at the time of recharge of the sampled groundwater and because the likelihood that these compounds will reach the water table is affected by other factors operating within the unsaturated zone, such as soil characteristics, artificial drainage, and water movement. Results show that only about 5% of agricultural areas have greater than a 10% probability of exceeding the USEPA maximum contaminant level of 3.0 μg L. These models are not developed for regulatory purposes but rather can be used to (i) identify areas of potential concern, (ii) provide conservative estimates of the concentrations of atrazine residues in deeper potential drinking water supplies, and (iii) set priorities among

  11. THE PERSPECTIVE OF AGRICULTURE IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL IN VRANCEA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RĂDULESCU CARMEN VALENTINA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is an important field and also a priority of Romania's development. In this regard, providing food for population is a factor that ensures the specificity of agriculture. For this reason, we can consider that agriculture is a starting point for the socio-economic development of the country. Romania is recognized, at European and international level, for its experience in cultivating natural and traditional products. The agricultural area offers the possibility of supplying raw materials for both the population and for the manufacturing industry. It is aimed that the organization of the agricultural area to be made so that the lands that have agricultural destination to be used as rationally as possible. Also, it is important to introduce in the agricultural circuit all the unused lands. The fragmentation of the agricultural land is a disadvantage in the process of rational organization of agricultural area. Efficient use of land, as a requirement of the intensive and durable agriculture is a complex activity that involves conservation activities and soil improvement. Due to the role that they have, the approach of the aspects referring to the medium and big farms has to be different from the approaches referring to the small farms. If the farms from the first category take into account the agriculture as a business, the small farms are important for the rural area by oferring food and social security and means of traditional production that contributes to the environment conservation. Romania's economic recovery can be achieved based on the attention that has to be given to this field. Being an important factor of social stability and of the maintainance of the ecological balance, agriculture enjoys an increasing attention worldwide. The supply and the demand of food determines the use of agricultural resources. The article presents the current situation of agriculture, at national and regional levels. Through this analysis, we

  12. Development assessment of leisure agriculture in Henan province of China based on SWOT-AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development of leisure agriculture is an important means of agricultural industry structure adjustment of Henan province, China, to realize the transition from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. Design/methodology/approach: The SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat analysis of Henan leisure agriculture will contribute to the sustainable development of Henan leisure agriculture. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of developing leisure agriculture in Henan province were systematically analyzed using SWOT method in our study. The aspects including location, resources, traffic, population, economy, urbanization, industrialization, market, policy, capital, product, technology, management, marketing and environment were involved. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat were quantified in this study using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process method. Findings and Originality/value: The result showed that the total strength and total opportunity of Henan leisure agriculture are much greater than that of total weakness and total threat, which suggests that the opportunities outweigh threats, and advantage outweigh disadvantage. The growth-oriented strategy combining the external opportunities and its own advantages shall be employed in development of Henan leisure agriculture as indicated by the strategy strength coefficient in strategy quadrangle we have constructed. The barriers to the development need to be overcome while strengthening competitive advantages. Originality/value: New ideas for working out the developmental strategy for Henan leisure agriculture is provided by SWOT-AHP method.

  13. Towards the Development of a Smart Flying Sensor: Illustration in the Field of Precision Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Andres; Murcia, Harold; Copot, Cosmin; De Keyser, Robin

    2015-07-10

    Sensing is an important element to quantify productivity, product quality and to make decisions. Applications, such as mapping, surveillance, exploration and precision agriculture, require a reliable platform for remote sensing. This paper presents the first steps towards the development of a smart flying sensor based on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The concept of smart remote sensing is illustrated and its performance tested for the task of mapping the volume of grain inside a trailer during forage harvesting. Novelty lies in: (1) the development of a position-estimation method with time delay compensation based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors and image processing; (2) a method to build a 3D map using information obtained from a regular camera; and (3) the design and implementation of a path-following control algorithm using model predictive control (MPC). Experimental results on a lab-scale system validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  14. An intellectual property sharing initiative in agricultural biotechnology: development of broadly accessible technologies for plant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Ham, Cecilia L; Boettiger, Sara; Figueroa-Balderas, Rosa; Bird, Sara; Geoola, Josef N; Zamora, Pablo; Alandete-Saez, Monica; Bennett, Alan B

    2012-06-01

    The Public Intellectual Property Resource for Agriculture (PIPRA) was founded in 2004 by the Rockefeller Foundation in response to concerns that public investments in agricultural biotechnology benefiting developing countries were facing delays, high transaction costs and lack of access to important technologies due to intellectual property right (IPR) issues. From its inception, PIPRA has worked broadly to support a wide range of research in the public sector, in specialty and minor acreage crops as well as crops important to food security in developing countries. In this paper, we review PIPRA's work, discussing the failures, successes, and lessons learned during its years of operation. To address public sector's limited freedom-to-operate, or legal access to third-party rights, in the area of plant transformation, we describe PIPRA's patent 'pool' approach to develop open-access technologies for plant transformation which consolidate patent and tangible property rights in marker-free vector systems. The plant transformation system has been licensed and deployed for both commercial and humanitarian applications in the United States (US) and Africa, respectively.

  15. Green House Gas Control and Agricultural Biomass for Sustainable Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Takahashi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Important green house gases (GHG attributed to animal agriculture are methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, though carbon dioxide (CO2 contributes almost half of total greenhouse effect. Rumen CH4 production in an enteric fermentation can be accounted as the biggest anthropogenic source. Some of prebiotics and probiotics have been innovated to mitigate rumen CH4 emission. The possible use of agricultural biomass consisted of non-edible parts of crop plants such as cellulose and hemi cellulose and animal wastes was proposed as a renewable energy and nitrogen sources. The ammonia stripping from digested slurry of animal manure in biogas plant applied three options of nitrogen recycling to mitigate nitrous oxide emission. In the first option of the ammonia stripping, the effect of ammonolysis on feed value of cellulose biomass was evaluated on digestibility, energy metabolism and protein utilization. Saccharification of the NH3 treated cellulose biomass was confirmed in strictly anaerobic incubation with rumen cellulolytic bacteria, Ruminoccous flavefaciens, to produce bio-ethanol as the second option of ammonia stripping. In an attempt of NH3 fuel cell, the reformed hydrogen from the NH3 stripped from 20 liter of digested slurry in thermophilic biogas plant could generate 0.12 W electricity with proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM as the third option.

  16. Biofertilizers: a potential approach for sustainable agriculture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanty, Trishna; Bhattacharjee, Surajit; Goswami, Madhurankhi; Bhattacharyya, Purnita; Das, Bannhi; Ghosh, Abhrajyoti; Tribedi, Prosun

    2017-02-01

    The worldwide increase in human population raises a big threat to the food security of each people as the land for agriculture is limited and even getting reduced with time. Therefore, it is essential that agricultural productivity should be enhanced significantly within the next few decades to meet the large demand of food by emerging population. Not to mention, too much dependence on chemical fertilizers for more crop productions inevitably damages both environmental ecology and human health with great severity. Exploitation of microbes as biofertilizers is considered to some extent an alternative to chemical fertilizers in agricultural sector due to their extensive potentiality in enhancing crop production and food safety. It has been observed that some microorganisms including plant growth promoting bacteria, fungi, Cyanobacteria, etc. have showed biofertilizer-like activities in the agricultural sector. Extensive works on biofertilizers have revealed their capability of providing required nutrients to the crop in sufficient amounts that resulted in the enhancement of crop yield. The present review elucidates various mechanisms that have been exerted by biofertilizers in order to promote plant growth and also provides protection against different plant pathogens. The aim of this review is to discuss the important roles and applications of biofertilizers in different sectors including agriculture, bioremediation, and ecology.

  17. Income Gap Between Urban and Rural Residents in Guangxi on the Impact of Agricultural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The gap between urban and rural incomes in Guangxi is increasing year by year in a rising tendency,which resulted in agricultural development impact cannot be ignored.Such impact on agricultural development was analyzed from three aspects:agricultural development fund,farmland and food problems and labor force flow.The following problems were found:capitals flew to non-agricultural industry,which resulted in deficiency of agricultural development fund;farmland reduced and the problem of food supply was highlighted;labor force in rural areas emigrated,the price of agricultural products rose up.Related policies were offered:to strengthen the financial support;to speed up utilization of abundant labor force;to motivate farmers’ enthusiasm in food production;to increase investment in farmers’ endowment insurance and retirement pension in rural areas.

  18. Development of Urban Agriculture:A Case Study of Qianjin Village,Jiangxia District,Wuhan City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We take the case of Qianjin Village,Jiangxia District,Wuhan City,to research how to establish the system of urban agriculture with distinctive features relying on the advantage of urban resources.Under the guidance of guiding ideology,basic principles and overall objectives of urban agriculture development planning,we analyze the specific construction planning of urban agriculture in Qianjin Village,mainly including the construction of growing areas and construction of leisure areas.Then we put forth the security system of development of urban agriculture as follows: land transfer is the prerequisite of development of urban agriculture;policy support is the important foundation of development of urban agriculture; agricultural science and technology is strong support for development of urban agriculture;good leadership is the organizational guarantee for development of urban agriculture;the industrialization of agriculture is the main objective of development of urban agriculture.

  19. The role of rural population in agricultural development in the Pčinja district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slavoljub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research results presented in this paper refer to changes in the structure of the agricultural population of the Pčinja District in the period from 1971 to 2002. They point to markedly decrease in the agricultural population, the share of agricultural population in total population, the share of rural population in total population, as well as the share of active agricultural population in total active population. The process of deagrarianization in this area is a constraining factor for the development of agriculture and causes spontaneous abandonment by working-age population who is employing in other sectors. Transfer of agricultural population in non-agricultural activities takes place either by moving into the city centre or by remaining in agricultural households and employing in non-agricultural activities (which causes daily rural-urban migration. The process of depopulation and deruralization caused ageing population to be involved in agriculture in many rural settlements so that the effects of agricultural production have become significantly decreasing. To eliminate the negative effects of the regional development of the Pčinja District, it is necessary to establish and implement a functional demographic policy and concept of the revitalization of rural area.

  20. Regional Evaluation on Sustainable Development of Agriculture in Tibet Based on Cluster Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Zibao SUN; Ping FENG

    2016-01-01

    To understand the spatial difference of agricultural sustainability in Tibet,this paper establishes a comprehensive evaluation model of agricultural sustainability to calculate the score of agricultural sustainability of 7 areas in 2013 in Tibet. By using cluster analysis,this paper conducts the regional evaluation of Tibet’s agricultural sustainability. The results show that 7 cities’ regional difference of agricultural sustainability was obvious in 2013,the agricultural sustainability index value was 0. 4232- 0. 6937,and the value was in the order of Nyingchi > Lhasa > Shannan > Ali > Shigatse > Qamdo > Nagqu. According to the agricultural sustainable development level,Tibet can be divided into three regions: the first type is the area with the highest level of sustainable development of agriculture,including Nyingchi and Lhasa; the second type is the area with the average level of sustainable development of agriculture,including Shigatse and Shannan; the third type is the area with the low level of sustainable development of agriculture,including Qamdo,Ali and Nagqu.

  1. REGION AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT ON THE BASIS OF OPTIMIZATION MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Neganova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific substantiation of accommodation of an agricultural production of territorial divisions of region is a complex social-economic problem. The decision of this problem demands definition market-oriented criteria of an optimality. The author considers three criteria of optimality: maximum of profit; maximum of gross output without production costs and costs for soil fertility simple reproduction; maximum of marginal income. Conclusion is drawn that the best criterion of optimization of production is the maximum the marginal income (the marginal income without constant costs, which will raise economic and ecological efficiency of an agricultural production at all management levels. As a result of agricultural production optimization the Republic Bashkortostan will become self-provided and taking out (foodstuffs region of Russia. In this case the republic is capable to provide with food substances (protein, carbohydrates and etc. 5.8 – 6.5 million person. It exceeds a population of republic on 40 – 60 %.

  2. Funding priorities in animal reproduction at the United States Department of Agriculture's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirando, Mark A; Hamernik, Debora L

    2006-03-01

    The National Research Initiative (NRI) Competitive Grants Program is the U.S. Department of Agriculture's major competitive grants program and is administered by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES). Since its inception in 1991, the NRI has funded competitive grants in the discipline of animal reproduction. Previously, this program provided funding for a broad range of projects encompassing almost every subdiscipline in reproductive biology of farm animals, including aquatic species important to the aquaculture industry. During fiscal year 2004, the NRI Animal Reproduction Program narrowed the focus of funding priorities to the topics of infertility, basic mechanisms regulating fertility, cryopreservation of gametes, reducing the postpartum interval to conception, and sterilization methods or development of monosex populations. In response to a directive to further narrow the focus of funding priorities for fiscal year 2005 and beyond, CSREES conducted a Stakeholder Workshop on Funding Priorities in Animal Reproduction at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction in Vancouver, Canada. More than 75 stakeholder scientists from a cross section of federal, public, and private institutions from across the United States participated in the workshop and provided recommendations to CSREES for future NRI-funding priorities in Animal Reproduction. The recommendations provided by stakeholders included continuing efforts to focus funding priorities into fewer high-impact areas relevant to animal agriculture and aquaculture. Recommendations also included movement back toward subdisciplines of animal reproduction that cut across all applicable species. The three funding priorities that consistently emerged as recommendations from the workshop participants were 1) gonadal function and production of gametes, 2) pituitary-hypothalamic function, and 3) embryo and conceptus development, including interaction between the

  3. Blending local scale information for developing agricultural resilience in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Husak, Gregory; Mahiny, A.S; Gary Eilerts,; Rowland, James

    2013-01-01

    This brief article looks at the intersection of climate, land cover/land use, and population trends in the world's most food insecure country, Ethiopia. As a result of warming in the Indian and Western Pacific oceans, Ethiopia has experienced substantial drying over the past 20 years. We intersect the spatial pattern of this drying with high resolution climatologies, maps of agricultural expansion, population data, and socioeconomic livelihoods information to suggest that the coincidence of drying and agricultural expansion in south-central Ethiopia is likely adversely affecting a densely populated region with high levels of poverty and low wage levels.

  4. Cluster Analysis of the Agricultural Economic Development in the Districts and Counties of Qingyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongya; MA

    2014-01-01

    From the perspective of economic growth,agricultural development,the development of township enterprises and farmers’ income,we select 11 indicators to build the evaluation indicator system for the agricultural economic development in the districts and counties of Qingyang City. Using data processing and SPSS13. 0 statistical software,we carry out the cluster analysis of the level of economic development in the districts and counties,and divide the level of agricultural economic development of these districts and counties into three economic gradients in descending order:(i) The first gradient: Xifeng;(ii) The second gradient: Qingchi and Huachi;(iii) The third gradient: Huanxian,Heshui,Zhengning,Ningxian and Zhenyuan. The study results systematically reflect the level of agricultural economic development in the districts and counties,and point out the status of the districts and counties in Qingyang’s agricultural economic development. Finally we put forth the corresponding recommendations.

  5. Developing Boiler Concepts as Integrated Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kim; Condra, Thomas Joseph; Houbak, Niels

    2004-01-01

    With the objective to be able to optimize the design and operation of steam boiler concepts Aalborg Industries A/S [1] has together with Aalborg University, Institute of Energy Technology [9] carried out a development project paying special attention to the boiler concept as an integrated unit...... - consisting of pressure part, burner and control system. The Technical University of Denmark, MEK - Energy Engineering Section [12] has participated in the modelling process. The project has included static and dynamic modelling of the boiler concept. For optimization of operation, verication of performance......, emissions and to obtain long time operation experiences with the boiler concept, a full scale prototype has been built and these tests have been accomplished on the prototype. By applying this integrated unit approach to the boiler concept development it has been possible to optimize the different building...

  6. Problems and Countermeasures for the Development of Modern Agriculture in Henan Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current status of agricultural development in Henan Province of China is analyzed,showing that the agricultural production condition is increasingly improved;food production reaches to a new level;characteristic agriculture and green agricultural production begin to take shape;the level of agricultural mechanization is significantly improved;and the agricultural standardization and opening degree are enhanced.Problems in the development of modern agriculture in Henan Province are pointed out,such as the prominent pressure on the increase in grain production,the great risks in food safety,the tough employment situation,and the weak ecological environment.Countermeasures for developing the modern agriculture in Henan Province are put forward,including stabilizing cultivation area,optimizing structure,relying on science and technology,doing everything possible to ensure the increase in grain production,strengthening the supervision on food safety,actively exploring the employment space of modern agriculture,and protecting ecological environment by modern agriculture.

  7. Seasonal variations of nitric oxide flux from agricultural soils in the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneja, Viney P.; Robarge, Wayne P.; Sullivan, Lee J.; Moore, Thomas C.; Pierce, Thomas E.; Geron, Chris; Gay, Bruce

    1996-11-01

    Fluxes of nitric oxide (NO) were measured from the summer of 1994 to the spring of 1995 from an intensively managed agricultural soil using a dynamic flow through chamber technique in order to study the seasonal variability in the emissions of NO. The measurements were made on a Norfolk sandy loam (Fine-Loamy, Siliceous, Thermic Typic Paleudult) soil located at an agricultural research station in the Upper Coastal Plain region of North Carolina. Soil nitric oxide fluxes from 3 crops, representing 3 levels of fertilizer application (corn, 168kgNha1; cotton, 68kgNha1; and soybean, 0kgNha1), were measured in each season (summer, fall, winter, and spring). Additional measured soil parameters included soil temperature, soil water content (expressed as percent water filled pore space,%WFPS), and extractable nitrogen. The greatest NO flux observed in each crop occurred during the summer (June to August) measurement period (corn, 21.9±18.6ngNm2 s1; cotton, 4.3±3.7ngNm2 s1; and soybean, 2.1±0.9ngNm2 s1). NO flux decreased in each crop through the fall months to a minimum flux in the winter. Application of fertilizer during the spring months once again produced substantial NO flux, but not as high as during the summer months. Over 80% of NO flux from the three crops measured occurred in the summer months with an estimated 5% of the nitrogen applied as fertilizer emitted as NO in a year's time. The corn crop, which had the highest amount of applied fertilizer, had the highest average yearly NO flux (7.0±4.8ngNm2 s1) followed by cotton and soybean in order (1.7±1.2ngNm2 s1 and 1.0±0.3ngNm2 s-1, respectively). NO flux from soil tracked soil temperature very closely throughout the year, especially through the summer and spring months. However, NO flux measured under a cotton canopy decreased when soil temperature was>25°C and soil moisture content wasassumption that in the Southeast United States, which has naturally emitted VOC's and large acreages of fertilized

  8. Foreign Agricultural Trade of the United States November?December 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Warden, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    U.S. agricultural exports totaled $40 billion during FY 1991, just about unchanged from a year earlier ... Imports of FY 1990 agricultural products " rose 5 percent to $22.5 billion, led by an II-percent gain for competitive items, such as cattle, beef, cheeses, fruit, fruit juices, fresh vegetables, and sugar ... U.S. agricultural exports under the Commodity Credit Corporation's I export credit guarantee programs increased 29 percent in FY 1989 to $4.77 billion.

  9. Exploring options for agricultural development : a case study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong Jiayou,

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Linear programming; Land use model; Technology assessmen China's agriculture faces a series of challenges, i.e. guaranteeing national food security, increasing farmer's income and reducing the adverse effects on environment and human health associated with the use of fertilizers and bioc

  10. EMPIRICAL STUDY REGARDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miru Oana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining a certainty degree for the agricultural producers in order to obtain stable and efficient results makes it both necessary and welcomes the protection through insurance and reinsurance in this field. In this paper we carry out an analysis regar

  11. Current United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on understanding agrochemical fate and transport to prevent and mitigate adverse environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Rice, Clifford P; Sadeghi, Ali M; Schmidt, Walter F; McCarty, Gregory W; Starr, James L; Rice, Pamela J; Angier, Jonathan T; Harman-Fetcho, J A

    2003-01-01

    Environmentally and economically viable agriculture requires a variety of cultivation practices and pest management options as no one system will be appropriate for every situation. Agrochemicals are some of the many pest control tools used in an integrated approach to pest management. They are applied with the intent of maximizing efficacy while minimizing off-site movement; however, their judicious use demands a practical knowledge of their fate and effects in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Agrochemical distribution into environmental compartments is influenced by the physical and chemical properties of the agrochemical and environmental conditions, ie soil type and structure, and meteorological conditions. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) researchers working in the area of agrochemical fate have focused on accurately describing those processes that govern the transport, degradation and bioavailability of these chemicals under conditions reflecting actual agronomic practices. Results from ARS research concerning the environmental fate and effects of agrochemicals have led to the development of science-based management practices that will protect vulnerable areas of the ecosystem. The new challenge is to identify these vulnerable areas and the temporal and spatial variations prior to use of the chemical by predicting how it will behave in environmental matrices, and using that information, predict its transport and transformation within an air- or watershed. With the development of better predictive tools and GIS (Geographic Information System)-based modeling, the risks of agricultural management systems can be assessed at the watershed and basin levels, and management strategies can be identified that minimize negative environmental impacts.

  12. Land Policy for Sustainable Agricultural Land Development and Its Implementation: Experiences from West Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Noer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- Agriculture development in traditions requires land to grow the commodity, either for consumption and industrial commodities. In one hand, it implies that land as resources is understood as an important and high value to attain sustainable agriculture development. In the other hand, land for agricultural use is realized as lower value than land for commercial purposes. That results on land conversion from agriculture to non-agricultural land such as land for settlement, and tends to happen increasingly at alarming rate. It dares to food supply which may not meet the demand. The paper discusses about how problematical of land competition for settlement and agriculture have been taking place in West Sumatra Province in Indonesia. How regulation on land use planning at national level is being implemented at the provincial or sub district/city level with regard to sustainable land for food and agriculture development. It is argued that land policy for agriculture and settlement development planning should be laid into an integrated and sustainable development planning thought.  Keywords: food, non-agriculture, and sustainable land 

  13. No-till and conservation agriculture in the United States: An example from the David Brandt farm, Carroll, Ohio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Islam

    2014-03-01

    Another early adopter, Bill Richards, from Circleville, Ohio, also became a national leader and promoter of no-till farming. He served as head of the United States Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service in the early 1990s and instituted a program that led to rapid expansion of no-till. He advises that farmers who follow conservation agriculture principles need to be more proactive, from local level to national levels, to influence policy decisions that can lead to robust improvement in soil health.

  14. Development of a biorefinery optimized biofuel supply curve for the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan Parker; Peter Tittmann; Quinn Hart; Richard Nelson; Ken Skog; Anneliese Schmidt; Edward Gray; Bryan Jenkins

    2010-01-01

    A resource assessment and biorefinery siting optimization model was developed and implemented to assess potential biofuel supply across the Western United States from agricultural, forest, urban, and energy crop biomass. Spatial information including feedstock resources, existing and potential refinery locations and a transportation network model is provided to a mixed...

  15. Development of Agricultural Recycle Economy in Arid Areas of Hexi Corridor——A Case Study of Zhangye City, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Taking Zhangye City as an example, the thesis analyzes the restricted factors of resources and environment confronted by the agriculture in arid area of Hexi Corridor: the first is the agricultural natural resources. The area of cultivated land decreases year by year, and there are sharp decrease of biological diversity as well as the shortage and waste of water resources; the second is the ecological environment. There are critical soil erosion, frequent natural disaster and outstanding agricultural area source pollution; the third is the rural economy. The agricultural structure still can not meet the need of agricultural development in recent years, and the proportion of agricultural product processing is low. It points out that implementation of agricultural recycle economy is the necessary choice of the agricultural development in Zhangye City. Developing recycle economy is conducive to improving ecological environment and realizing agricultural sustainable development; developing recycle economy can solve the agricultural area source pollution to much extent and protect rural environment; developing recycle economy is conducive to adjusting rural industrial structure, increasing job opportunities and increasing farmers’ income; developing recycle economy is conducive to elevating the international competitiveness of agricultural products. The thesis also has put forward the countermeasures of developing agricultural recycle economy in Zhangye City as follows: firstly, fostering the ambience of the development of agricultural recycle economy; secondly, forming the incentive mechanism of development of agricultural recycle economy; thirdly, broadening the investment channel of development of agricultural recycle economy; fourthly, perfecting socialized service system of agricultural recycle economy.

  16. Role of an explorative model for learning about sustainable agricultural development in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paassen, van A.; Ridder, de N.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural development is complex, highly dynamic and differs among varying contexts. Decision-making for sustainable agricultural development cannot be based on generalized science-based knowledge, but should include context-specific knowledge and values of local stakeholders. Computer models see

  17. A Study of Factors Associated with the Vocational Development of High School Agricultural Occupations Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byler, Bennie L.; Hemp, Paul E.

    Among the most crucial problems facing young people today are decisions in the process of vocational development. This study was designed to determine if there are differences in certain aspects of vocational development among the groups of high school agriculture students who plan to enter on-farm agricultural occupations, those who plan to enter…

  18. Rural Development and the Regional State: Denying Multifunctional Agriculture in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Terry; Sonnino, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Under the emerging rural development paradigm, we argue that to be multifunctional an activity must add income to agriculture, it must contribute to the construction of a new agricultural sector that corresponds to the needs of the wider society and it must reconfigure rural resources in ways that lead to wider rural development benefits. By…

  19. 精确农业背景下我国农业机械发展趋势%The Tendency of China's Agricultural Machinery Development Under Precision Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段向敏; 代荣

    2013-01-01

    精确农业是世界农业发展的新潮流,是传统农业发展的必然趋势。为此,讲述了我国发展精确农业的必要性,并简单说明了国外智能农业机械的发展现状及趋势;分析了我国精确农业背景下的农业机械化发展存在的问题,对比国外精确农业的发展并结合我国基本国情,对我国新形势下的智能农业机械发展提出意见。%Precision agriculture is the latest trend in contemporary agriculture , precision agriculture also is the inevitable trend of the traditional agricultural .This paper chiefly tells about the necessity of developing precise agriculture in China and current situation and development trend of intelligent agricultural machinery in foreign countries .This paper analyzes the existing problems of developing agricultural mechanization under precision agriculture in China .Comparing with the development of precision agriculture in foreign countries , in addition , considering China ’ s fundamental condition , paper has put forward opinions to develop intelligent agricultural machinery under precise agriculture in China .

  20. A Study of the Self-Perceived Teaching Effectiveness of Female and Male Vocational Agriculture/Agribusiness Teachers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan Fayette

    The self-perceived teaching effectiveness of female and male vocational agriculture/agribusiness teachers in the United States was studied. The population for the study consisted of all female teachers of vocational agriculture/agribusiness in the United States (325) and an equal number of randomly selected male teachers of vocational…

  1. Directions of agriculture and rural areas development after Polish accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Mickiewicz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the study was an analysis of Polish agriculture development after 4 years of joining the European Union. The changes were associated with the strategy of the Common Agricultural Policy, which led to a reorientation in the sphere of agriculture production and also to adopting high standards resulting from cross-compliance requirements. Adoption of the sugar policy has led to an increase of cereal crops and plants associated with biofuels. In turn, the introduced milk quota contributed to the concentration and specialization of animal production. There was a positive development in commercial agricultural production, consisting in improving the quality and food safety.

  2. EnviroAtlas - Cultivated biological nitrogen fixation in agricultural lands by 12-digit HUC in the Conterminous United States, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EnviroAtlas dataset contains data on the mean cultivated biological nitrogen fixation (C-BNF) in cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands per 12-digit Hydrologic Unit (HUC) in 2006. Nitrogen (N) inputs from the cultivation of legumes, which possess a symbiotic relationship with N-fixing bacteria, were calculated with a recently developed model relating county-level yields of various leguminous crops with BNF rates. We accessed county-level data on annual crop yields for soybeans (Glycine max L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.), various dry beans (Phaseolus, Cicer, and Lens spp.), and dry peas (Pisum spp.) for 2006 from the USDA Census of Agriculture (http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/index.php). We estimated the yield of the non-alfalfa leguminous component of hay as 32% of the yield of total non-alfalfa hay (http://www.agcensus.usda.gov/index.php). Annual rates of C-BNF by crop type were calculated using a model that relates yield to C-BNF. We assume yield data reflect differences in soil properties, water availability, temperature, and other local and regional factors that can influence root nodulation and rate of N fixation. We distributed county-specific, C-BNF rates to cultivated crop and hay/pasture lands delineated in the 2006 National Land Cover Database (30 x 30 m pixels) within the corresponding county. C-BNF data described here represent an average input to a typical agricultural land type within a county, i.e., they are not

  3. The Ecological Service Function Development of Urban Modern Agriculture in Tianjin City and Corresponding Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; QIN; Guoxing; SUN; Jin; LI

    2013-01-01

    Based on the current situation of ecological environment of agriculture in Tianjin City,we divide the ecological service function of urban modern agriculture in Tianjin City into seven types: air regulation,climate regulation,water conservation,soil formation and protection, waste disposal,biodiversity conservation,and ecological entertainment. According to the method for assessing the value of natural ecosystem, coupled with the ecological service value equivalency factor table of China’s ecosystem formulated by domestic scholars,we estimate the ecological value in Tianjin City. The results show that the actual ecological value of agriculture in Tianjin City was 30. 752 billion yuan in 2010,close to the agricultural economic value ( 31. 733 billion yuan) in 2010. Finally we put forth the following countermeasures for the ecological function development of urban modern agriculture in Tianjin City: strictly protecting arable land,and raising the standards of compensation for agricultural land requisition; actively and prudently developing facility agriculture,and preventing the blind scale expansion of facility agriculture to better give play to its ecological function; strengthening the construction of ecological agriculture,and promoting the market conversion of the ecological service value of agriculture; improving the environment,to form relatively complete agro-ecological system.

  4. Analysis of Factors Influencing Development of Resource-saving and Environment-friendly Agriculture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By selecting the data from 1989 to 2009 in China, we conduct regression analysis on the total output value of agriculture, the usage amount of chemical fertilizer, total power of agricultural machinery, effective irrigation area, and the damage area. The results show that the usage amount of chemical fertilizer and the damage area, the great obstacle to the construction of resource-saving and environment-friendly agriculture, have significant impact on the output value of agriculture; total power of agricultural machinery and effective irrigation area have insignificant impact on the output value of agriculture. Based on these, the suggestions for promoting the development of resource-saving and environment-friendly agriculture are put forward as follows: transform agricultural production mode, and optimize the industrial structure of agriculture; promote scientific use of chemical fertilizer, and promote the ability of agriculture to resist risks; promote the development of biogas in rural areas, and carry out the comprehensive use of biological material resources in rural areas.

  5. Remote sensing for developing world agriculture: opportunities and areas for technical development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeunnette, Mark N.; Hart, Douglas P.

    2016-10-01

    A parameterized numerical model is constructed to compare platform options for collecting aerial imagery to support agriculture electronic information services in developing countries like India. A sensitivity analysis shows that when Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, UAVs, are limited in flight altitude by regulations, the velocity and altitude available to manned aircraft lead to a lower cost of operation at altitudes greater than 2000ft above ground level, AGL. If, however, the UAVs are allowed to fly higher, they become cost-competitive once again at approximately 1000ft AGL or higher. Examination of assumptions in the model highlights two areas for additional technology development: baseline-dependent feature-based image registration to enable wider area coverage, and reflectance reconstruction for ratio-based agriculture indices.

  6. Study on Balanced Development of Industrialization,Urbanization and Agricultural Modernization in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article expounds the connotation of balanced development of " industrialization,urbanization and agricultural modernization",and points out the problems thwarting balanced development of " industrialization,urbanization and agricultural modernization" in Henan Province as follows:the level of industrialization is not high;the general level of urbanization is low;the agricultural foundation is weak and there are many institutional barriers.The goal of balanced development of " industrialization,urbanization and agricultural modernization" in Henan Province is to take a road of industrialization and urbanization,not at the expense of agriculture and food.Based on this,the measures are put forward for balanced development of " industrialization,urbanization and agricultural modernization " in Henan Province as follows:keep to the new road of industrialization with characteristics of Henan Province,promote the development of industry and accelerate the transformation of pattern;keep to the road of new urbanization with characteristics of Henan Province,and promote the rapid change in urban development pattern;adhere to the road of agricultural modernization with characteristics of Henan Province,and promote the rapid change in pattern of agricultural development.

  7. Climate change and agriculture under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and related documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuuren, Jonathan; Angelo, Mary Jane; du Plessis, Anél

    Agriculture contributes to climate change to a considerable extent. Agriculture is also among the sectors that will suffer the largest negative impacts of climate change, for which, consequently, huge adaptation efforts are needed. At the same time this sector faces the challenge of feeding a

  8. A Status Report on Middle Grade Agricultural Education and FFA Programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Rosemarie; McCaslin, N. L.

    1994-01-01

    Census of 52 Future Farmers of America (FFA) executive secretaries found the following: 30 states have middle-grade agricultural education; 19 have middle-grade FFA membership; 14 have a core agriculture curriculum; 17 have state-level competitions; most do not favor national middle-grade competitions; and few disadvantages apart from potential…

  9. NASA Applied Sciences' DEVELOP National Program: Summer 2010 Florida Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Zachary C.; Billiot, Amanda; Lee, Lucas; McKee, Jake

    2010-01-01

    The main agricultural areas in South Florida are located within the fertile land surrounding Lake Okeechobee. The Atlantic Watershed monthly rainfall anomalies showed a weak but statistically significant correlation to the Oceanic Nino Index (ONI). No other watershed s anomalies showed significant correlations with ONI or the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI). During La Nina months, less sea breeze days and more disturbed days were found to occur compared to El Nino and neutral months. The increase in disturbed days can likely by attributed to the synoptic pattern during La Nina, which is known to be favorable for tropical systems to follow paths that affect South Florida. Overall, neither sea breeze rainfall patterns nor total rainfall patterns in South Florida s main agricultural areas were found to be strongly influenced by the El Nino Southern Oscillation during our study time.

  10. ROMANIAN AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Condrea DRAGANESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of civilisation within the last two hundred years has involved the replacement of extensive, pastoral livestock systems for intensive production methods. The dangers implicit in this rapid evolution are discussed by Forrester (1971,in the Meadows report (1972 and latterly the necessity for “sustainable development” was flagged by the Brudtland Report (1987. The last agrarian reform in Romania increased the weight of small farms and led to non sustainable agriculture. In such conditions we are obliged to follow a twin-track strategy: (1livestock systems with high productivity potentials; (2traditional pastoral systems and organic agriculture, on marginal lands, which allow the utilisation of extensive grazing lands, the conservation of environment, genetic resources, landscape, the minimisation of the use of non-renewable resources and the production of "natural foods".

  11. Practice of Developing Low-carbon Leisure Agriculture in Agricultural Sci-tech Experiment and Demonstration Park: A Case Study of Xinglong Tropical Botanical Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan; OUYANG; Huasong; WU; Aiqin; LIU; Huan; YU; Hongmei; FU

    2013-01-01

    The Agricultural Science and Technology Experiment and Demonstration Park,as a unique tourist scenic spot,is a new model for the development of low-carbon leisure agriculture.In this paper,with Xinglong Tropical Botanical Park as a study case,the practice of developing a model of low-carbon agricultural science and technology tourism in the park is explored.Main measures for developing low-carbon leisure agriculture in Agricultural Science and Technology Experiment and Demonstration Park are summarized,including development of low carbon attractors,construction of low carbon facilities,strengthening low-carbon management,building low-carbon environment and so on,according to analysis on the models for development of low-carbon agricultural science tourism in this park.

  12. Comprehensive Benefit Analysis on Development Models of Circular Agriculture in Wangcang County of Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan; CHU; Shunqiang; SUN

    2015-01-01

    Taking Wangcang County of Sichuan Province as an example,this paper made comprehensive benefit analysis on models of circular agriculture in Wangcang County. Major models include " pig- biogas- fruit", " pig- biogas- vegetable",and " pig- biogas- tea". It made cost benefit analysis of economic,social and ecological benefits. Through benefit analysis charts,it obtained that the net present value of each household building biogas pool is 6029 yuan. In this way,it significantly improved ecological environment and social benefits,and the agricultural economic development model gradually changes to sustainable development model. However,there are still problems of insufficient government input and single model of agricultural circular economy. Therefore,government should increase input and develop diversified agricultural circular economical models in accordance with local situations,to realize sustainable agricultural development.

  13. Agriculture and environment. State and Development 2012; Jordbruk og miljoe. Tilstand og utvikling 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bye, Anne Snelllingen; Aarstad, Per Amund; Loevberget, Anne Ingun; Hoeie, Henning

    2012-07-01

    Statistics Norway produces the report 'Agriculture and Environment - State and Development' on annual commission from the Norwegian Agricultural Authority.The report contains statistical information on status and development of agrienvironmental issues in Norwegian agriculture. A wide range of data sources from Statistics Norway and other institutions serve as input to this information. The report is published in Norwegian and is available on the Internet: http://www.ssb.no/emner/10/04/ Land use and agricultural holdings In the period 1999-2011 the agricultural area in use was reduced by 3.9 per cent. Fully cultivated agricultural land decreased by 7.4 per cent, while there was a 29 per cent increase in infield pastures. In 2011 the agricultural area in use was estimated to about 1.0 million hectares. In 2011 there were 45 500 holdings with agricultural activity in Norway, 36 per cent lower than in 1999. Transfer of agricultural area to non-agriculture purposes In 2011, 660 hectares cultivated land and 390 hectares of cultivable land were transferred to non-agricultural use. Organic farming In 2011, organic farming covered about 5 per cent of the total agricultural area in use. The number of holdings with organic farming was 2 700, comprising 6 per cent of the total number of agricultural holdings in Norway. Plant protection: The Norwegian Food Safety Authorities has developed risk indicators for the use of pesticides in agriculture. The health risk decreased by 18 percentage points from 2005 to 2008, whereas the environmental risk decreased by 7 points in the same period. Sales of commercial fertiliser In 2011, the total amount of nutrients in commercial fertiliser was on the same level as in the 1960's. The sales of nitrogen were on the level as in the 1970's, while the sales of phosphorus were lower than in the 1950's. Discharges of nutrients to waterways and ocean environment The main purpose of the EU Water Directive is to achieve

  14. State Regulation of the Regional Agricultural Complex Development: Assessment and Rationalization Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal’ya Viktorovna Mironenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the current state and the main trends in the development of agriculture (on the example of agricultural enterprises in the Vologda Oblast. Nowadays there is a trend of decline in the production of basic agricultural products. The insufficient financing of agricultural enterprises is one of the key reasons for this situation. Internal and external sources of funding can be such tools. As world practice shows, the largest share in the funds, which are at the disposal of agricultural enterprises, accounts for direct budgetary financing. However, in the Russian Federation there is another trend: over the last decades there is noticeable reduction in direct state support of agricultural producers. In addition, in the framework of Russia’s accession to the WTO there will be further decline in such support and simultaneous transfer of financial burden onto agricultural enterprises. Therefore, the government faces an acute problem of planning and forecasting volumes of state support and earnings of agricultural enterprises. In this regard, this work makes a forecast calculation of the amount of public support and the revenue size of agricultural enterprises. To make forecasts the author uses methods of econometric modeling and forecasting (in particular, the method of correlation and regression analysis. The forecasts are presented in 3 scenarios: most realistic, optimistic and pessimistic. The article offers recommendations on determining the actual needs of regional agricultural enterprises in the amount of state support

  15. Bank Units. Assessment and Development Tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available There are new trends in development banking sector especially concerning branches. The e-banking has diminished impact the old fashion branches as main tool finance activity. Now we have units (departments localised at supermarkets and in other strange places. Due to some researches mortgages and insurance polices ought to be sold in traditional branches according to clients preferences. Lafferty Agency researched quality of banking service condition in the UK. Base on this methodology similar case studies were done in Poland.

  16. The Theory of Political Tariff Protection for Agricultural Sector in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Feizabadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze tariff protection policies in the agricultural sector of developing countries. The agricultural tariff structure in developing countries is characterized by: i high average tariffs, ii the existence of tariff escalation, iii dispersion of nominal tariffs across tariff lines, and iv a wide gap between average nominal tariffs and import-weighted average tariffs. Consequently, some features can be extracted that are consistent with the observed patterns of tariff protection in developing countries: i escalation of nominal tariff rates with the degree of processing, ii higher average tariffs in the agricultural sector compared to agriculture in developed countries, and iii higher non-agricultural than agricultural tariff protection. Here the Theory of Political Tariff Protection for Agricultural Sector in developing countries is described. This theory allows us to identify two sets of products. Agricultural products for which tariffs are higher than their political fitted values, therefore, tariff cuts should occur in a long period of time and for which tariffs are higher than their political fitted values therefore tariff reductions would not be politically costly.

  17. Directions and Objectives of Hunan's Agricultural Development in the Early of the New Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@2000 is the beginning of the new millennium from which on Hunan's agriculture will meet with a new challenge and chance. Hunan will carry out 12 central agricultural engineering projects in the early stage of the new century to promote the adjustment and optimilization of the province's industries for agricultural production and development, speed up the new technological revolution to prosper agriculture with science and technology, accelerate agriculture's opening to the outside world in depth and richen farmers through their income increase from both high crop yield and favourable marketing price. These 12 projects are as follows:

  18. Development of agricultural production in Croatia: tendencies, present condition and fundamental issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stipetić

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper point out the fact that Croatia agriculture, during the 20th century, underwent three wartime periods with profound consequences on the production volume. It investigates the critical areas in agriculture that is indentified in the production of main cultures and products of this activity. Further, it investigates and determines the long-term causes of agricultural stagnation. Finally, it proposes solutions for the problems in the future development of Croatian agriculture. In conclusion, it states the main points of our research.

  19. Conditions and factors promoting the movement of agricultural producers towards innovation-based development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mikhailovich Sovetov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the results of a questionnaire survey carried out in 2011 –2013 by the Department of Production Management at the Vologda State Dairy Farming Academy Named after N.V. Vereshchagin. The survey was supported by the Vologda Oblast Department of Agriculture, Food Stocks and Trade in the framework of ongoing research into the issues of transition of agricultural economy to innovation development. The authors present and systematize the opinions of the heads of the region’s agricultural enterprises concerning the challenges and opportunities of innovation-investment activity of agricultural organizations

  20. Agriculture as the opportunity for sustainable development of Slovene rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Lampič

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The role of agriculture in rural areas has changed significantly, it has even increased, since having been attributed numerous new functions, from social to ecologic. Also Slovene agriculture, its direction, intensity level, size and proprietal structure was subject to considerable changes as a result of inclusion of Slovenia in the EU and implementation of the Common Agricultural Policy. However it should be considered whether the direction of development of Slovene agriculture corresponds to protection and conservation of our major natural resources?

  1. IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT ON YOUTH EMPLOYMENT IN ZIMBABWE: THE CASE OF MASVINGO PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clainos Chidoko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Zimbabwe is basically endowed in agricultural resources. As a result agricultural activities have a large bearing on developmental issues in the country. Employment is one such economic issue that hinges much on agricultural development. Over the past decade employment levels have reduced as a result of low investment in the country. Masvingo Province has not been spared. This scenario has seen many youths being out of employment as the sector employed less labour. The study found out that economic woes that Zimbabwe experienced over the past half decade have contributed significantly to youth unemployment in agriculture in Masvingo Province as a result of low investment in the sector. The study recommends that heavy investment be put in agriculture and agriculture related projects to enhance employment levels of the Zimbabwean youths in Masvingo province.

  2. KEYNOTE ADDRESS: The roles of agriculture and mining in pro-poor sustainable development in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mogae, Festus G.

    2013-01-01

    Africa has an abundance of energy and mineral assets and agricultural land. In spite of the variety of outlooks across its numerous countries there is a common understanding that these natural resources need to be used carefully and thoughtfully if there is to be sustainable development across Africa as a whole, especially pro-poor sustainable development. Botswana has poor soils and climate for agricultural production, but it has developed some of its other resources. That development, combi...

  3. Marketing in the pre-development process of agricultural machines: a reference model

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Alexandre S.; Dallmeyer,Arno U.; Romano,Leonardo N.

    2012-01-01

    The theme of the research is the development of the domain of marketing knowledge in the design of agricultural machinery. It is developed throughout the design of agricultural machinery in order to identify the corporate and customers needs and to develop strategies to satisfy these needs. The central problem of the research questions which marketing tools to apply on pre-development process of farm machinery, in order to increase the market value of the products and of the company and, cons...

  4. System Variable Analysis on Development Stages of Urban Agriculture in Large Cities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min; ZHANG; Fengjun; LU; Runlian; MIAO; Yan; JIN

    2014-01-01

    China’s urban agricultural development takes on stage evolution,and functional structure,customer structure,industrial organization,innovation activity,spatial form and industrial value of each stage has significant difference. Using the system variable analysis method,this paper established the urban agricultural development system including six types of functional variables. On the basis of summarizing stage characteristics,it analyzed reasons for stage characteristics focusing on four key variables,i. e. cost,efficiency,connection,and risk. Finally,it came up with recommendations for promoting China’s urban agricultural development with the aid of stage development rules.

  5. Driving Force Filtering and Driving Mechanism Analysis of Urban Agricultural Development in Weifang County, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUI Fei-fei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As an agricultural nation, the agricultural landscape is the basic appearance and existence in China, but the common existence often be neglected and contempted. As a new type of design and ideology, the development of urban agricultural landscape will greatly affect the texture and structure of the urban space. According to the urban agricultural production data and the socio-economic data of Weifang County, a set of evaluation index system that could analyze quantitatively the driving force of urban agricultural production changes and the internal drive mechanism was built. The original driving force indicators of economy, society, resources and environment from the time-series were chosen, and then 15 driving forces from the original driving forces by correlation analysis and principal component analysis were selected. The degree of influence was analyzed and the driving forces model by means of partial least squares(PLS was built. The results demonstrated that the factors greatly influenced the increase of urban agricultural output value in Weifang County were per capita net income of rural residents, agricultural machinery total power, effective irrigation area, centralized treatment rate of urban sewage, with the driving exponents 0.2509, 0.1019, 0.1655, 0.1332, respectively. The negative influence factor was the use amount of agricultural plastic film and the driving exponent was-0.2146. The research provides a reference for the development of urban agriculture, as well as a reference for the related study.

  6. Modern trends in the development of agriculture and demands on plant breeding and soil management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Dušan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is usually developed as much and just society where there is a branch of the economy. Today, there are different directions from industry agriculture to many concepts based on ecological principles. Future of agriculture development in the XXI century will imply sustainable agriculture as the alternative to the industrial agriculture. Conventional agriculture as an intensive one has a duty to ensure maximum production in terms of quantity and quality with the low cost. For this purpose we have many cultural practices, sometimes in addition to the expected positive but sometimes with many unexpected long-term negative effects in agroecosystems. Organic agriculture is one of the most interesting current trends in agriculture completely based on strong ecological principles and the absence of application of agrochemicals (pesticides, fertilizers, hormones, GMO, etc. Organic agriculture is a holistic way of farming: besides production of goods of high quality (better flavor, high content dry matter, vitamins, antioxidants; conservation of the natural resources (soil, water and richness of biodiversity.

  7. Expedition agroparks : research by design into sustainable development and agriculture in network society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This book is the result of several years of expedition into the development of metropolitan FoodClusters. The authors fascination for the agricultural landscapes in and around metropolises led him to the conclusion that improving the efficiency of agriculture is the most effective way to safeguard

  8. Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-01-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

  9. Export diversification in Uganda : developments in non-traditional agricultural exports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Tjalling

    2001-01-01

    Over the last two decades agricultural export diversification has been pushed as an economic development strategy for sub-Saharan Africa. This paper looks at Uganda, where nontraditional agricultural export commodities have been (re)-introduced since Museveni came to power in 1986. The most importan

  10. Rural-urban migration and endogenous ethic: the cultural role of agriculture in economic development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haagsma, R.; Koning, N.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that, in a developing economy, progress in agriculture may stimulate growth of the urban sector through important non-market-mediated e¤ects. Higher living standards enable traditional agricultural societies to solve their social dilemmas, which implies a stream of civic-minded

  11. Expedition agroparks : research by design into sustainable development and agriculture in network society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This book is the result of several years of expedition into the development of metropolitan FoodClusters. The authors fascination for the agricultural landscapes in and around metropolises led him to the conclusion that improving the efficiency of agriculture is the most effective way to safeguard t

  12. Cotton Research and Development at Institute for Agricultural Research,Samaru,Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ADO S G; ABDULLAHI Y I; MOHAMMED S M

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Institute for Agricultural Research,Samaru,has the national mandate for genetic improvement and development of production technologies for cotton,maize,sorghum,cowpea,groundnut,sunflower,and castor.The Institute collaborates well with other national agricultural research institutes as well as with other governmental and non-governmental organizations,national cotton farmers association,input supply agencies,marketers,etc.

  13. Collaborative Evaluation and Market Research Converge: An Innovative Model Agricultural Development Program Evaluation in Southern Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, John M.; O'Sullivan, Rita

    2012-01-01

    In June and July 2006 a team of outside experts arrived in Yei, Southern Sudan through an AID project to provide support to a local agricultural development project. The team brought evaluation, agricultural marketing and financial management expertise to the in-country partners looking at steps to rebuild the economy of the war ravaged region. A…

  14. Youth Leadership Development: Perceptions and Preferences of Urban Students Enrolled in a Comprehensive Agriculture Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James C., II; Kim, Eunyoung

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study explores the perceptions of and preferences for leadership development by students enrolled in a comprehensive urban agriculture program. A total of 284 students from the Chicago High School for Agricultural Sciences participated in the study. The results of the study showed that the average respondent was involved in a…

  15. Analysis of Maize versus Ethanol Production in Nebraska, United States and International Agricultural Droughts: Lessons for Global Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boken, V.; Tenkorang, F.

    2012-04-01

    Nebraska is one of the eight main corn (maize) belt states of the United States. Maize is the major crop of Nebraska with an average annual production of about 38 million tons (about 12% of U.S. production), which contributes billions of dollars to the state's economy. The yield of maize has increased significantly over the past century - from 1.6 t/ha in 1900 to 10.4 t/ha in 2010. While the majority of maize (about 40%) is currently used for animal feed and ethanol production, only about six percent is exported. It is estimated that about one billion people accounting for about 15% population of the world live in chronic hunger because of low agricultural productivity and drought. Most of these people depend on the U.S. for grains including maize. If a greater quantity of maize is diverted to ethanol production, considerably less quantity of maize would be available for export to developing countries where it could be used for human consumption and to mitigate hunger and improve food security. This paper presents analysis of maize production in Nebraska for the past three decades and examines how its commercialization for ethanol production has affected its exports in the face of drought at an international level.

  16. EnviroAtlas - Potentially Restorable Wetlands on Agricultural Land - Contiguous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EnviroAtlas Potentially Restorable Wetlands on Agricultural Land (PRW-Ag) dataset shows potentially restorable wetlands at 30-meter resolution. Beginning two...

  17. EnviroAtlas - 2011 Agricultural Land Cover on Steep Slopes for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset represents the percentage land area that is classified as agricultural land cover that occurs on slopes above a given threshold for each...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF A HYDRONIC ROOFTOP UNIT -- HYPAK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Lee; Dick Bourne; Mark Berman

    2004-03-25

    The majority of US commercial floor space is cooled by rooftop HVAC units (RTU's). RTU popularity derives chiefly from their low initial cost and relative ease of service access without disturbing building occupants. Unfortunately, current RTU's are inherently inefficient due to a combination of characteristics that unnecessarily increase cooling loads and energy use. Existing RTU's in the U.S. consume an estimated 2.4 quads annually. Inefficient RTU's create an estimated 3.5% of U.S. CO{sub 2} emissions, thus contributing significantly to global warming. Also, RTU's often fail to maintain adequate ventilation air and air filtration. This project was developed to evaluate the feasibility of a radically new ''HyPak'' RTU design that significantly and cost-effectively increases RTU performance and delivered air quality. The objective of the HyPak Project was to design, develop and test a hydronic RTU that provides a quantum improvement over conventional RTU performance. Our proposal targeted 60% and 50% reduction in electrical energy use by the HyPak RTU for dry and humid climates, respectively, when compared with a conventional unit.

  19. Comparison of production-phase environmental impact metrics derived at the farm- and national-scale for United States agricultural commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Christine; Xue, Xiaobo; Howarth, Robert W.

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural production is critical for human survival and simultaneously contributes to ecosystem degradation. There is a need for transparent, rapid methods for evaluating the environmental impacts of agricultural production at the system-level in order to develop sustainable food supplies. We have developed a method for estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG), land use and reactive nitrogen inputs associated with the agricultural production phase of major crop and livestock commodities produced in the United States (US). Materials flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques were applied to national inventory datasets. The net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) toolbox served as the primary accounting tool for LCA and MFA. NANI was updated to create links between nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen fixation associated with feed crops and animal food commodities. Results for the functional units kilogram (kg) of product and kg of protein for 2002 data fall within ranges of published LCA results from farm-scale studies across most metrics. Exceptions include eutrophication potential for milk and GHGs for chicken and eggs, these exceptions arise due to differing methods and boundary assumptions; suggestions for increasing agreement are identified. Land use for livestock commodities are generally higher than reported by other LCA studies due to the inclusion of all land identified as pasture or grazing land in the US in this study and given that most of the estimates from other LCAs were completed in Europe where land is less abundant. The method provides a view of the entire US agricultural system and could be applied to any year using publically available data. Additionally, utilizing a top-down approach reduces data collection and processing time making it possible to develop environmental inventory metrics rapidly for system-level decision-making.

  20. ASPECTS OF THE STOCK VALUATION AND ACCOUNTING IN AGRICULTURAL UNITS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana BANUTA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches a current and common and topical problem of the business entities operating in agriculture, the stock valuation and accounting problem. Thus, gradually the article starts from the delimitation of the categories of inventories in agriculture, continues with the reasons for the need to valuate them and shows the stock valuation methods in the current accounting and in other specific situations.

  1. Investigation and Analysis of Agricultural Cold Chain Logistics and Its Development Strategy in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; SHEN; Li; LIU; Zhipeng; HUANG

    2013-01-01

    Accelerating the development of agricultural cold chain logistics is of great significance to improve the competitiveness of agricultural products,increase rural incomes and ensure food security. The present situation and main problems of agricultural cold chain logistics in Heilongjiang Province were analyzed from five aspects,such as the scale of construction,infrastructure,status quo of cold chain logistics technology,cold chain logistics enterprises and development environment,and proposed that Heilongjiang Province should focus on the development of poultry,fruit and vegetable,aquatic products,and processed food cold chain,then the strategic implementation measures for above areas were put forward.

  2. Research on the Development of E-commerce Model of Agricultural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huo Yaping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, electronic commerce of agricultural products has developed rapidly. In the development process of electronic commerce of agricultural products,many classic cases and business models have emerged. Such as tootoo industrial commune model (product drive type, Original life model (marketing driven type, Suichang model (service platform type. The author analyzes and compares each model from 7 aspects, and summarizes their differences and links. Finally, The author puts forward suggestions on the development of electronic commerce of agricultural products in china.

  3. Understanding indigenous knowledge: Bridging the knowledge gap through a knowledge creation model for agricultural development

    OpenAIRE

    Edda T. Lwoga; Patrick Ngulube; Christine Stilwell

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the management of agricultural indigenous knowledge (IK) in developing countries, with a specific focus on Tanzania. It provides background details on IK and its importance for agricultural development. It introduces various knowledge management (KM) concepts and discusses their application in managing IK in the developing world by placing Nonaka’s knowledge creation theory (Nonaka 1991; Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995; Nonaka, Toyama & Konno 2000) in the context of the ...

  4. BARRIERS TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF INSTRUMENTS ASSISTING SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard KATA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides identification and assessment of barriers to the implementation of the instruments of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP that support sustainable development of agriculture. This issue has been studied on the example of individual farms of south-eastern Poland, which benefited from programs to support sustainable agriculture in 2004-2013. The introduction of agriculture on the path of sustainable development depends on institutional factors (including political, which can induce farmers to take into account the environment and future generations in their microeconomic decisions. It has been shown that the most important barriers to the efficient and effective implementation of programs in support of sustainable agriculture are financial and information and education constraints.

  5. ASPECTS OF EMPLOYMENT IN AGRICULTURE IN THE MAIN DEVELOPMENT REGIONS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reta CONDEI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a sector of primary importance in Romania, both through its contribution to the economy and the share of employment. Its continuous development and improvement and the countryside must be designed and analyzed under three main aspects, namely agriculture, food and environment. The current analysis takes into account the state of Romanian agriculture today, but also economic and human potential of rural areas in the main areas of development, and their evolution in 2008-2013. The rural space in Romania is characterized by poor economic diversification and a major dependence on agricultural activities, which results in obtaining low incomes for farmers. The rural labour force should be directed to other activities, particularly in services, based on a correct and permanent information, human resource awareness and training. The rural employment strategies include measures to improve the quality of human resources to facilitate access to non-agricultural employment in connection with labour market needs.

  6. Grasslands, wetlands, and agriculture: the fate of land expiring from the Conservation Reserve Program in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morefield, Philip E.; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Clark, Christopher M.; Iovanna, Richard

    2016-09-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is the largest agricultural land-retirement program in the United States, providing many environmental benefits, including wildlife habitat and improved air, water, and soil quality. Since 2007, however, CRP area has declined by over 25% nationally with much of this land returning to agriculture. Despite this trend, it is unclear what types of CRP land are being converted, to what crops, and where. All of these specific factors greatly affect environmental impacts. To answer these questions, we quantified shifts in expiring CRP parcels to five major crop-types (corn, soy, winter and spring wheat, and sorghum) in a 12-state, Midwestern region of the United States using a US Department of Agriculture (USDA), field-level CRP database and USDA’s Cropland Data Layer. For the years 2010 through 2013, we estimate almost 30%, or more than 530 000 ha, of expiring CRP land returned to the production of these five crops in our study area, with soy and corn accounting for the vast majority of these shifts. Grasslands were the largest type of CRP land converted (360 000 ha), followed by specifically designated wildlife habitat (76 000 ha), and wetland areas (53 000 ha). These wetland areas were not just wetlands themselves, but also a mix of land covers enhancing or protecting wetland ecosystem services (e.g., wetland buffers). Areas in the Dakotas, Nebraska, and southern Iowa were hotspots of change, with the highest areas of CRP land moving back to agriculture. By contrast, we estimate only a small amount (∼3%) of the expiring land shifted into similar, non-CRP land-retirement or easement programs. Reconciling needs for food, feed, fuel, and healthy ecosystems is an immense challenge for farmers, conservationists, and state and federal agencies. Reduced enrollment and the turnover of CRP land from conservation to agriculture raises questions about sustaining ecosystem services in this region.

  7. The Transformation of Agriculture in Brazil Through Development and Adoption of Zero Tillage Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.L. de Freitas

    2014-03-01

    These were the turning points in the sustainable development of annual crop farming in Brazil. Today, society recognizes the role of these pioneers as key to achieving social, economic and environmental sustainability. ZT/CA reversed the historically accelerating degradation of soil organic matter and soil structure by abandoning conventional tillage, thus improving soil physical and chemical characteristics. This was achieved by promoting cover cropping and permanent soil cover with crop residues, crop rotations, and complementary, environmentally suitable soil management technologies.

  8. ACCELERATION DEVELOPMENT OF CORN ICM TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION AT SEVERAL AGROECOSYSTEM AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Sirappa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Technology innovation of corn integrated crop management (ICM is formed of concept with integrated a variety of technology component which synergy interdependent so disperse local problem, increasing eficiency input, take care of and increasingsoil fertility. Agriculture Agency of Research Development agitating for assemble new superior varieties which have a highest production, early ripening, resistent main pest and disease, tolerance of marginal domain, and yield quality which accord with consumer preference. A new superior variety which admissible for agroecosystem rain field are Lamuru, Srikandi Kuning-1, Srikandi Putih-1, Bima-1, dan Semar-10; For dry land wet climate are Bisma, Lamuru, Srikandi Kuning-1, Srikandi Putih-1, Bima-1 and Semar-10; For acid dry land wet climate are Sukmaraga; and for dry land and dry climate are Lamuru, Srikandi Kuning-1 and Srikandi Putih-1. For necessity silage, development directed towards varieties of Bisma, Lamuru, Bima-1, and Semar-10, whereas for food matter are Srikandi Kuning-1 and Srikandi Putih-1. Several strategy for accelerate of corn development, especially varieties which producting by Agriculture Agency of Research Development for farmer are trough survey or PRA, verification and evaluation technology production, field encountered, socialization of technology production, and management of seed measuring.

  9. Contrasting Contaminant Occurrence in Urban and Agricultural Streams in the Midwestern and Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Metre, P. C.

    2015-12-01

    Streams in urban and agricultural settings are known to have many anthropogenic chemical stressors; however, there are important differences in the occurrence of pesticides, metals, legacy contaminants, combustion byproducts, and contaminants of emerging concern between the two settings. In 2013 and 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey characterized water-quality stressors and ecological conditions in 100 streams in the Midwestern U.S. and 115 streams in the southeastern U.S., respectively. Water samples were collected weekly for 10-12 weeks during spring and early summer. Habitat, sediment chemistry, and ecological communities were sampled once at the end of the water-sampling period. Water and(or) sediment samples were analyzed for pesticides, nutrients, wastewater indicator compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, metals, volatile organic compounds, and pharmaceuticals. The spatial and temporal distribution of detected compounds and health-based-benchmark-normalized summations of compound mixtures indicate important differences between agricultural and urban settings. In general, urban streams are affected by more complex chemical mixtures than agricultural streams. Although higher herbicide and nutrient concentrations generally are found in agricultural settings, the more frequent occurrence of insecticides, hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, and metals in urban settings indicates higher potential toxicity in urban streams than in agricultural streams. The effects of these complex mixtures and other stressors are being evaluated in relation to stream ecological communities at the regional scale.

  10. A framework for developing an impact-oriented agricultural drought monitoring system from remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    With a changing climate, drought has become more intensified, of which agriculture is the major affected sector. Satellite observations have proven great utilities for real-time drought monitoring as well as crop yield estimation, and many remotely sensed indicators have been developed for drought monitoring based on vegetation growth conditions, surface temperature and evapotranspiration information. However, those current drought indicators typically don't take into account the different responses of various input information and the drought impacts during the growing season, revealing some limitations for effective agricultural drought monitoring and impact analysis. Therefore, the goal of this research is to build a framework for the development of an impact-oriented and remote sensing based agricultural drought indicator. Firstly, the global agricultural drought risk was characterized to provide an overview of the agricultural drought prone areas in the world. Then, the responses of different remotely sensed indicators to drought and the impacts of drought on crop yield from the remote sensing perspective during the growing season were explored. Based on previous works on drought risk, drought indicator response and drought impact analysis, an impact-oriented drought indicator will be prototyped from the integration of the drought responses of different indicators and the drought impacts during the growing season. This research can inform an impact-oriented agricultural drought indicator, help prototype an impact-oriented agricultural drought monitoring system, and thus provide valuable inputs for effective agricultural management.

  11. A Study of The Contribution of Multifuncional Agriculture for Sustainable Rural Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Machado Granziera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper purports to discuss how the multifunctionality of agriculture - which is a view of agriculture as an activity that is not only economic but also environmental, social and cultural - could be incorporated in public and private strategies in order to achieve a rural sustainable development and a bigger income to the farmer. Therefore, the research problem is how the integration of the concept would be a strategy to meet the needs of fibre, energy and food production while maintaining sustainability in agriculture. At first a bibliography research was carried out, approaching the concepts of multifuncionality of agriculture and positive externalities; subsequently an empirical research was done, through a case study whose aim was to replicate a method to access the multifuncionality of agriculture in the city of Cunha (SP. The multifunctional agriculture generates positive externalities but, generally, the farmer is not paid for the social benefits of its production. For that reason, metrics are needed to assess the impact generated by the multifunctional agriculture so the farmer gets paid for the social services that arises from its production. As soon as the farmer gets paid for the positive outcome he/she is generating, we will get an agricultural model that is more aligned to rural sustainable development.

  12. Presence of Fungicides Used to Control Asian Soybean Rust in Streams in Agricultural Areas in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, M. W.; Battaglin, W. A.

    2007-05-01

    Concentrations of 11 fungicides were measured in stream samples during 2 years in agricultural areas in the United States that grow predominantly corn and soybean. The fungicides are registered for control of Asian Soybean Rust (ASR), which entered the United States in 2004. Many of these fungicides were registered under an emergency exemption because evaluation of environmental risks related to their widespread use on soybeans had not been completed. Some of these fungicides are considered moderately to highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates. We developed a solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for determining the fungicides at low concentrations (ng/L). Stream samples were collected 2 to 4 times at study areas during the late spring through fall season when fungicides are applied. Six fungicides registered for control of ASR (Phakospora pachyrhizi) in 2005 were measured in streams in Alabama, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Mississippi during August-November, 2005. One or more fungicides were detected in 8 of the 12 streams sampled. Azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and myclobutanil were found in at least one of the 40 samples collected, while chlorothalonil was not found. Azoxystrobin was detected most frequently, in 35 percent of the samples. In 2006, five additional fungicides registered for use in control of ASR were included in the analytical method. One or more of the fungicides (azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, trifloxystrobin, metconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, tetraconazole, myclobutanil) were detected in 12 of the 16 streams sampled from areas in the South and Midwest during May-September, 2006. Azoxystrobin was detected most frequently (40 percent of the samples) and the highest concentration was 1.1 μg/L in a small predominantly cotton and soybean watershed. The highest concentrations of azoxystrobin were measured prior to the spread of ASR in 2006, and the detections

  13. Study on Decision Support System of Agricultural Sustainable Development of Jianli County in Jianghan Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    With the agricultural development and the modernization of decision-making, it is necessary to establish the agricultural sustainable development decision support system supported by GIS. We set Jianli county as an example; our aim is to realize decision spatialiazation with the support of information system, remote sensing and artificial intelligence. The system components are described in the aspects of database, knowledge base, model-base, and method-base. This system will provide a workable system for local decision-makers and agricultural management sections.

  14. Current Situations of Agricultural Sci-tech Innovation and Development Path in Nantong

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Chun-xin; SUN Qing-shan; QIU Hai-rong; ZHU Hai-yan; TANG Ming-xia; XUE Chen-xia

    2012-01-01

    Nantong is a typical region of large population and little land.The conflict between resources and environment is growing.Thus,the improvement of independent innovation ability based on current situations,oriented towards the future and relying on scientific and technological force directly decides the effect of strong economic city construction.Through analysis on achievements of agricultural sci-tech innovation works,existing problems and demand for developing modern agriculture in Nantong,we present development ideas,target orientation and basic principles of agricultural sci-tech innovation works in Nantong,and put forward eight paths.

  15. Environmental Compliance Costs in Developed Country Agricultures: Implications for Trade and Competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, G.; Brouwer, F.M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter reflects on the costs of compliance with environmental regulations and standards in agriculture in developed countries, and its implications for trade and competitiveness. It highlights the importance of enforcement mechanisms and implementation, subjects which often have been undervalu

  16. Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Capacity in Earth Observations for Agricultural Monitoring: The GEOGLAM Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Di Bella, C. M.; Becker Reshef, I.; Deshayes, M.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture, with the goals of reducing market volatility and promoting food security. GEOGLAM aims to develop capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global. This is accomplished through training workshops, developing and transferring of best-practices, establishing networks of broad and sustainable institutional support, and designing or adapting tools and methodologies to fit localized contexts. Over the past four years, capacity development activities in the context of GEOGLAM have spanned all agriculture-containing continents, with much more work to be done, particularly in the domains of promoting access to large, computationally-costly datasets. This talk will detail GEOGLAM's experiences, challenges, and opportunities surrounding building international collaboration, ensuring institutional buy-in, and developing sustainable programs.

  17. Perspectives on climate change and human development in the Mediterranean agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Varela Ortega, Consuelo; Blanco Gutiérrez, Irene; Esteve Bengoechea, Paloma

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is one of the world's climate change hotspots. Future climate projections envisage dramatic implications for the agricultural and water sectors that will endanger economic development and lead to natural resources degradation and social instability.

  18. Environmental Impact Assessment and Sustainable Agricultural Development--With Special Reference to Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiragu, Consolater Wambuku; Goode, Pamela M.

    1990-01-01

    The concept of sustainable agriculture from the perspective of development in Kenya is discussed. The steps in an Environmental Impact Assessment which takes into account the physical, cultural, social, and ecological aspects of the problem are presented. (CW)

  19. Entrepreneurial competence in agriculture : characterization, identification, development and the role of the work environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, T.

    2009-01-01

    In the last few decades, primary agricultural production in the Netherlands has been significantly influenced by firm expansion, innovation and diversification. These developments suggest that, increasingly, farmers and growers require entrepreneurial competence to continuously recognize and purs

  20. Promoting Agriculture Development for Social Stability in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-30

    also produces lesser amounts of oil crops ( Palm oil , sesame, sunflower), wheat, cocoa, coffee, and other cereals. Although rice is by far and away...amount of pessimism over the fate of the smallhold farmer that any reasonable public policy can prevent. The United Kingdom’s Department of...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1

  1. Institutional capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies and strategies in Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    Adebayo, Kolawole; Babu, Suresh Chandra; Rhoe, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the capacity for designing and implementing agricultural and rural development policies, strategies, and programs in Nigeria. Data for this study were derived from initial consultations at the Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources (FMAWR), Federal Ministry of Women affairs and Social Development (FMWASD), and the Federal Ministry of Environment (FMEnv) early in 2008. Two consultation workshops were also held, one for relevant staff in the ministries, parastat...

  2. A content review of precision agriculture courses in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of what precision agriculture (PA) content is currently taught in North America will help build a better understanding for what PA instructors should incorporate into their classes in the future. The University of Missouri partnered with several universities throughout the nation on a USDA...

  3. Solar energy controlled-environment agriculture in the United States and in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, W.; Froechtenigt, J.

    1981-11-01

    Greenhouse designs proposed for use in hot climates to reduce the temperature by essentially passive means are illustrated. The project plans of the SOLERAS, solar powered, controlled environment agriculture are outlined. The water desalination technology being evaluated is reverse osmosis. The solar collection technologies include flat plate thermal collectors, solar ponds, photovoltaics and wind turbines.

  4. Development of Market Prices of Agricultural Land within the Conditions of the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pletichová

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Market prices of agricultural land in the world have increased significantly in recent years. Important factors in regard to this trend are not only the fact that land is a basic, irreplaceable resource for the production of food and natural resources of each country, but also the fact that it is generally perceived as a favorable holder of capital, not succumbing to the effects of inflation. Market prices of agricultural land and the rent level in individual EU member countries are affected by historical development, the size structure of agricultural businesses, legislation, regulation of the land market, natural conditions and the intensity of agricultural production (e.g. the Netherlands. Market prices of agricultural land in the Czech Republic are monitored by the Czech Statistical Office (CSO, Institute for Agricultural Economics and Information (IAEI and Ministry of Agriculture (MoA, but output of the data base is not comparable within a time series 1993-2012, as institutions work with differing methodology. On the basis of the description of prices of agricultural land and regression analysis, the hypothesis that the market price of agricultural land for agricultural use in the Czech Republic is affected primarily by its quality was not confirmed. The official (administrative price is only an orientational and subsidiary tool for the determination of the market price. The development of the agricultural land market in the Czech Republic was affected by the privatization of land after 2000. According to an estimate (of the author, after the completion of privatization, and also in view of changes in tax policy, the prices of transacted land for agricultural use can decline within 3 years (2014 by up to 30%. It is probable that the demand will be focused on transactions with land for speculative and investment purposes, as, according to world trends, the average increase in value of investments in land in a time of economic crisis is

  5. Unit Test Frameworks Tools for High-Quality Software Development

    CERN Document Server

    Hamill, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This is the only book to explore unit testing as a language-independent, standalone development methodology. It covers the theory and methodology of unit test frameworks, offers instruction in unit test development, provides useful code examples in both Java and C++, and details the most commonly used frameworks from the XUnit family, including JUnit for Java, CppUnit for C++, and NUnit for .NET. It also includes the complete source code for CppUnit for C++ and NUnit for .NET.

  6. Assessment of potential impacts of climate change on agricultural development in the Lower Benue River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abah, Roland Clement; Petja, Brilliant Mareme

    2016-12-01

    Agriculture in the Lower Benue River Basin faces several challenges which threaten the future of agricultural development. This study was an assessment of potential impacts of climate change on agricultural development in the Lower Benue River Basin. Through analysis of physical and socioeconomic parameters, the study adapted an impact assessment model to rank potential impacts on agricultural development in the study area. Rainfall intensity seemed to be increasing with a gradual reduction in the number of rainy days. The average discharge at Makurdi hydrological station was 3468.24 cubic metres per second (m(3) s(-1)), and the highest peak flow discharge was 16,400 m(3) s(-1). The daily maximum temperature and annual temperature averages for the study area are gradually rising leading to increased heat stress. Physical and chemical analyses showed that the soils are moderately fertile but require effective application of inorganic and organic fertilisers. The main occupational activities in the study area are agricultural based. The identified potential impacts of climate change on agriculture were categorised under atmospheric carbon dioxides and oxides, rainfall intensity, frequency of floods and droughts, temperature intensity and variation, heat stress, surface water trends, and soil quality and fertility. The identified potential impacts related to population dynamics on agriculture were categorised under population growth, rural-urban migration, household income and infectious diseases and HIV and AIDS. Community-level mitigation strategies were proffered. Policy makers are advised to promote irrigation farming, support farmers with farm inputs and credit facilities and establish active agricultural extension services to support the sustainable development of agriculture.

  7. Sustainable development in agriculture, food and nutrition--a patent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani, Kohila P; Doble, Mukesh

    2011-05-01

    The paper discusses the patents that have been filed in the areas of sustainable development in agriculture, food and nutrition and use of natural resources in achieving this goal. A large number of patents deal with the production of fertilizers from animal manure, plant sources and other organic wastes, which are more sustainable that the chemical fertilizers that are being currently used. Sustainability in agriculture is achieved in developing processes for the manufacture of biopesticides/insecticides and bioactive agricultural products. Development of novel sustainable agricultural processes has also been the focus of researchers and technologists. Plant derived nutritious food products are sustainable and can cater for the growing population burden. This has been the focus of several patents. Processes for enhancing the nutrition in food also serve the purpose of catering for the under nourished population.

  8. Evaluation on the Development of Agricultural Circular Economy in Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By using conceptual model of BPEIR(Behavior-Pressure-Effect-Impact-Response) and Delphi method,we establish the evaluation index system of agricultural circular economy including four indices,namely index of socio-economic development,index of reducing input of resources,index of recycling of resources and index of safety of environment and resources.We conduct comprehensive evaluation on developmental level of agricultural circular economy from 1998 to 2007 in Hunan Province.The analysis results show that the agricultural circular economy of Hunan Province from 1998 to 2007,on the whole,has the tendency of development with annual growth rate of 1.89%.The annual decrease rate of recycling of resources and reducing input of resources from 1999 to 2003 is 25% and 11% respectively,which has become the main factor impeding development of agricultural circular economy.After the year 2003,it is mainly reducing input of resources.

  9. An Examination of Middle School Enrollment in Agricultural Education and Membership in the National FFA Organization in the United States. Summary of Research 73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Rosemarie; And Others

    The status of middle and junior high school agricultural education and Future Farmers of America (FFA) programs in the United States was the focus of a study. Data were collected through a census of the FFA executive secretaries and a survey of a purposive sample of 27 successful middle or junior high school agricultural education programs in 9…

  10. Development Interventions and Agriculture Adaptation: A Social Network Analysis of Farmer Knowledge Transfer in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstie Cadger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Social ties play an important role in agricultural knowledge exchange, particularly in developing countries with high exposure to agriculture development interventions. Institutions often facilitate agricultural training projects, with a focus on agroecological practices, such as agroforestry and agrobiodiversity. The structural characteristics of social networks amongst land managers influences decision-making to adopt such adaptive agroecoloigcal practice; however, the extent of knowledge transfer beyond direct project participants is often unknown. Using a social network approach, we chart the structure of agrarian knowledge networks (n = 131 in six communities, which have been differentially exposed to agriculture development interventions in Ghana. Farmer network size, density and composition were distinctly variable; development project-affiliated farmers were embedded in larger networks, had non-affiliated farmers within their networks, were engaged in more diverse agricultural production and reported adopting and adapting agroecological practice more frequently. Such bridging ties that link across distinctive groups in a network can expose network members to new and innovative agroecological practices, such as increasing agrobiodiversity, thus, contributing to livelihood strategies that mitigate environmental and market risk. Furthermore, we show that these knowledge networks were crop-specific where network size varied given the type of crop produced. Such factors, which may influence the rate and extent of agroecological knowledge diffusion, are critical for the effectiveness of land management practices as well as the persistence of agriculture development interventions.

  11. Spatial variation in level of agricultural development in Bulandshahr district of western Uttar Pradesh (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomatee Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper an attempt has been made to find out the spatial variation in the adaptation of improved agricultural practices to ascertain the level of agricultural development in Bulandshahr district of western Uttar Pradesh. The spatial variation of agricultural development is determined with the help of nine variables viz. net sown area, irrigated area, cropping intensity, crops productivity, area under HYV, agricultural labourers, role of banks and agricultural machinery. Beside this, the development of blocks are taken with their respective categories viz. high, medium and low on the basis of scores (like mean SD of these variables. These analyses have been carried out by transforming and combining the data related to nine variables, using ‘Z’ score to get the composite score. On the basis of Composite Score, developments of blocks have been again categorized in to three categories i.e. high, medium and low. Results of the aforesaid analysis shows that the modern technological inputs have reciprocal relationship with agricultural development in the study area.

  12. 农业信息技术与精确农业的发展%Development of Agricultural Information Technology and Precision Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭望禄; PierreRobert

    2001-01-01

    介绍了美国精确农业发展现状及当前进行的主要工作,阐述精确农业就是信息农业的概念。着重介绍SSCM(根据田间具体情况作物管理系统)系统和YieldMap产量图在精确农业发展中的作用及GIS与精确农业的不可分关系%This paper describes the status of development of precision agriculture in the US and the profile of precision agriculture center. From these the concept of precision agriculture that precision agriculture is information agriculture is emphasized. The site-specific crop management and yield map analysis are important to precision agriculture. Geographic information system has close relation with precision agriculture. Finally, the recent issues of precision agriculture are listed. All above will likely be helpful for the development of precision agriculture in China.

  13. Controlling Agricultural Nonpoint Pollution through Developing Organic Agriculture%发展有机农业 控制农业面源污染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纪兵; 席运官; 肖兴基

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the current status of agricultural nonpoint pollution in China, the feasibility of controlling agricultural nonpoint pollution through developing organic agriculture was evaluated. Several countermeasures were suggested to promote the environmental strategy of developing organic agriculture to control agricultural nonpoint pollution, including making up national action plan of development of organic agriculture, enacting economic policies to extend organic agriculture, reinforcing scientific research on organic agriculture to control agricultural nonpoint pollution, creating key organic agricultural production technology relying on innovation of science and technology, boosting organic agriculture development through rural environment protection projects, and strengthening domestic market of organic food.%文章针对我国农业面源污染的现状,分析了发展有机农业,控制农业面源污染的可行性,并提出了推动有机农业控制农业面源污染的环境战略,包括制订有机农业发展的国家行动计划;建立激励有机农业发展的经济机制;加大对有机农业控制农业面源污染的科学研究;依靠科技创新建立有机农业生产关键技术;以农村环境保护工作为突破口,推动有机农业的发展;加大对国内有机食品市场的培育等。

  14. An Analysis of Policy Optimization concerning Sustainable Agricultural Development in China Based on 2014 US Farm Bill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongxing LI; Joseph J.Molnar; Shunqiang SUN

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of ensuring farmers’ income,the US 2014 Farm Bill emphasizes resources and environmental protection,and some policies and measures to promote rural development,sustainable agricultural development and agricultural science and technology,which provides a good lesson for China’s agricultural policy on how to ensure sustainable agricultural development. Finally,we set forth the following recommendations: speeding up the establishment of a legal system of modern agriculture; optimizing agricultural safety net and strengthening agricultural risk management and control; establishing agricultural science and technology extension system and adjusting agricultural planting structure; establishing farmers’ associations,nurturing new farmers and protecting the legitimate rights and interests of farmers; increasing environmental remediation investment and efforts.

  15. Developing Ubiquitous Sensor Network Platform Using Internet of Things: Application in Precision Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrández-Pastor, Francisco Javier; García-Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Nieto-Hidalgo, Mario; Mora-Pascual, Jerónimo; Mora-Martínez, José

    2016-07-22

    The application of Information Technologies into Precision Agriculture methods has clear benefits. Precision Agriculture optimises production efficiency, increases quality, minimises environmental impact and reduces the use of resources (energy, water); however, there are different barriers that have delayed its wide development. Some of these main barriers are expensive equipment, the difficulty to operate and maintain and the standard for sensor networks are still under development. Nowadays, new technological development in embedded devices (hardware and communication protocols), the evolution of Internet technologies (Internet of Things) and ubiquitous computing (Ubiquitous Sensor Networks) allow developing less expensive systems, easier to control, install and maintain, using standard protocols with low-power consumption. This work develops and test a low-cost sensor/actuator network platform, based in Internet of Things, integrating machine-to-machine and human-machine-interface protocols. Edge computing uses this multi-protocol approach to develop control processes on Precision Agriculture scenarios. A greenhouse with hydroponic crop production was developed and tested using Ubiquitous Sensor Network monitoring and edge control on Internet of Things paradigm. The experimental results showed that the Internet technologies and Smart Object Communication Patterns can be combined to encourage development of Precision Agriculture. They demonstrated added benefits (cost, energy, smart developing, acceptance by agricultural specialists) when a project is launched.

  16. Developing Ubiquitous Sensor Network Platform Using Internet of Things: Application in Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ferrández-Pastor

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of Information Technologies into Precision Agriculture methods has clear benefits. Precision Agriculture optimises production efficiency, increases quality, minimises environmental impact and reduces the use of resources (energy, water; however, there are different barriers that have delayed its wide development. Some of these main barriers are expensive equipment, the difficulty to operate and maintain and the standard for sensor networks are still under development. Nowadays, new technological development in embedded devices (hardware and communication protocols, the evolution of Internet technologies (Internet of Things and ubiquitous computing (Ubiquitous Sensor Networks allow developing less expensive systems, easier to control, install and maintain, using standard protocols with low-power consumption. This work develops and test a low-cost sensor/actuator network platform, based in Internet of Things, integrating machine-to-machine and human-machine-interface protocols. Edge computing uses this multi-protocol approach to develop control processes on Precision Agriculture scenarios. A greenhouse with hydroponic crop production was developed and tested using Ubiquitous Sensor Network monitoring and edge control on Internet of Things paradigm. The experimental results showed that the Internet technologies and Smart Object Communication Patterns can be combined to encourage development of Precision Agriculture. They demonstrated added benefits (cost, energy, smart developing, acceptance by agricultural specialists when a project is launched.

  17. Developing Ubiquitous Sensor Network Platform Using Internet of Things: Application in Precision Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrández-Pastor, Francisco Javier; García-Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Nieto-Hidalgo, Mario; Mora-Pascual, Jerónimo; Mora-Martínez, José

    2016-01-01

    The application of Information Technologies into Precision Agriculture methods has clear benefits. Precision Agriculture optimises production efficiency, increases quality, minimises environmental impact and reduces the use of resources (energy, water); however, there are different barriers that have delayed its wide development. Some of these main barriers are expensive equipment, the difficulty to operate and maintain and the standard for sensor networks are still under development. Nowadays, new technological development in embedded devices (hardware and communication protocols), the evolution of Internet technologies (Internet of Things) and ubiquitous computing (Ubiquitous Sensor Networks) allow developing less expensive systems, easier to control, install and maintain, using standard protocols with low-power consumption. This work develops and test a low-cost sensor/actuator network platform, based in Internet of Things, integrating machine-to-machine and human-machine-interface protocols. Edge computing uses this multi-protocol approach to develop control processes on Precision Agriculture scenarios. A greenhouse with hydroponic crop production was developed and tested using Ubiquitous Sensor Network monitoring and edge control on Internet of Things paradigm. The experimental results showed that the Internet technologies and Smart Object Communication Patterns can be combined to encourage development of Precision Agriculture. They demonstrated added benefits (cost, energy, smart developing, acceptance by agricultural specialists) when a project is launched. PMID:27455265

  18. PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN UKRAINIAN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pimenova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Main directions of development of small and medium-sized enterprises in Ukrainian agriculture are examined. It is determined that entrepreneurship in agrarian sector is a driving force behind the development of agriculture, as these activities contributes to the production of quality agricultural products that satisfies the needs of society, food security, independence and improves the living standards of rural population. Potential customers of small parties of harvest in Ukrainian grain market are analyzed. The ways of mutually beneficial cooperation between Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs are proved. The study of foreign experience has proven that strengthening the competitiveness of Ukrainian agricultural products in the context of globalization is possible on the basis of mutually beneficial cooperation of Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs, where recent purchase of output at market prices for the purpose of resale or creation of agricultural cooperatives, such form of economy in agrarian relations that combines a balanced economic, social and environmental components. In particular in paper is shown that sustainable economic management provide only forms of economy that take into account the socioeconomic and geophysical specifics of agriculture, particularities of agricultural labor and methods of management. The most common among these forms are farmers.

  19. Analysis on Factors Influencing Sustainable Development of Self-study Examination of Agricultural Science Disciplines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on existing problems in the course of development of self-study examination of agricultural science disciplines, this paper analyzes logical conditions for its sustainable development. Major logical conditions include requirement for free and comprehensive development of individuals; requirement for social institutional evolution and change; requirement for fairness and justice of education and development; as well as requirement for better-established organization system and higher social reputation. Finally, it presents basic measures for sustainable development of self-study examination of agricultural science disciplines, including carrying on reasonable core elements of self-study examination system, adjusting structure of discipline, improving social assistance system, and expanding service space.

  20. On sustainable development of agriculture in oasis: a case study of Hexi Corridor, Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Limin

    2007-01-01

    Hexi Corridor is one of the most potential areas in the China's Western Development in 21s' century.However,the problems - the sustainable development of oasis agriculture,the ecosystem of the oasis edge,the landscape structure,the population density in oasis,water resources and land resources in oasis are deteriorating and have restricted the sustainable development of society and economy in this area.This paper summarizes the problems at present,and puts forward the concept of protecting and constructing the oasis environment and sustainable development for the sustainable development of the oasis agriculture in the Hexi Corridor.

  1. From agricultural modernisation to agri-food globalisation: the waning of national development in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, J; Burch, D

    2001-01-01

    Agriculture has been central to accounts of Thailand's modernisation and the rise of the national development project between the 1940s and the 1970s. However, the role of agriculture in the waning of national development is rarely explored critically in the Thai context. This paper focuses on agriculture and the role of the state in the shift from national development to globalisation. The first part of the paper examines the beginnings of Thailand's modern agricultural sector, before turning to the state-sponsored diversification of agriculture in the 1950s. The paper locates shifting state responses to agriculture in the late 1950s and 1960s in the context of specific political and historical social forces, before exploring the emergence of agri-food exports in the 1970s and the rise of agribusiness in the 1980s and 1990s. The paper concludes by commenting on the significance of the Thai state's role in the national development project and the globalisation project.

  2. Disaster policy and nuclear liability: Insights from post-Chernobyl agriculture in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, William A.; Kwaczek, Adrienne S.; Mooney, Sian

    1989-09-01

    The recent events at Chernobyl have again brought the issues of nuclear safety to the forefront of the nuclear power debate. Fortunately, our experience with such incidents has been very limited, but it is important to learn as much as possible from such events so as to minimize the cost and effect of any other nuclear incidents, be they small or large. Much of the discussion about the possible effects of nuclear incidents has centered around the human cost in terms of health. While this is undoubtedly of paramount concern, the effect of the release of radiation from Chernobyl on the agricultural resource base in Europe can provide valuable insights on how to reduce the costs associated with the contamination of agricultural areas. This article outlines some of the lessons that can be learned using the livestock-raising industry in northern Wales as an example.

  3. Beef Cattle Production. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Bruce; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The unit on beef cattle production is designed primarily for the adult farmer program in Kentucky as an aid to making the beef enterprise more profitable. It is aimed primarily at the commercial producer. The lessons center on some of the more important economic points in beef cattle production. Ten lessons comprise the unit, which can be adapted…

  4. Current Situations and Development Strategies for Integration of Peanut Agronomy and Agricultural Machinery in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengfeng WU; Junhua LIU; Hao FENG; Dianxu CHEN; Caibin WANG

    2015-01-01

    The mechanization level of peanut production is the bottleneck restricting the development of peanut production in China,while integration of agronomy and agricultural machinery is an essential approach for improving mechanization level of peanut production. This paper elaborated requirements of peanut agronomy for agricultural machinery from peanut planting modes,land cultivation,sowing,harvesting,picking,and shelling,etc. Besides,it discussed requirements of agricultural machinery for agronomy from peanut seed quality,variety characteristics,planting modes,and soil condition. In addition,it analyzed existing problems and restricting factors of integration of peanut agronomy and agricultural machinery. Finally,it came up with recommendations for development strategies including increasing government fund input,optimizing industrial distribution,and multidisciplinary joint research.

  5. Soil acidification and the importance of liming agricultural soils with particular reference to the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, K W T

    2016-09-01

    Soil acidification is caused by a number of factors including acidic precipitation and the deposition from the atmosphere of acidifying gases or particles, such as sulphur dioxide, ammonia and nitric acid. The most important causes of soil acidification on agricultural land, however, are the application of ammonium-based fertilizers and urea, elemental S fertilizer and the growth of legumes. Acidification causes the loss of base cations, an increase in aluminium saturation and a decline in crop yields; severe acidification can cause nonreversible clay mineral dissolution and a reduction in cation exchange capacity, accompanied by structural deterioration. Soil acidity is ameliorated by applying lime or other acid-neutralizing materials. 'Liming' also reduces N2O emissions, but this is more than offset by CO 2 emissions from the lime as it neutralizes acidity. Because crop plants vary in their tolerance to acidity and plant nutrients have different optimal pH ranges, target soil pH values in the UK are set at 6.5 (5.8 in peaty soils) for cropped land and 6.0 (5.3 in peaty soils) for grassland. Agricultural lime products can be sold as 'EC Fertiliser Liming Materials' but, although vital for soil quality and agricultural production, liming tends to be strongly influenced by the economics of farming. Consequently, much less lime is being applied in the UK than required, and many arable and grassland soils are below optimum pH.

  6. Globalisation determinants of export-led development of Ukrainian agricultural sector

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliia Karasova

    2014-01-01

    This article describes globalisation preconditions for export in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. The summarised results of the previous research highlight the essential characteristics of the export-led activity concept, establish the current trends, factor conditions and the impact of globalisation on the development of agricultural exports. The article also shows the dynamics and peculiarities of goods and geographical structure of agrarian exports. The areas and causes of Ukraine’s vul...

  7. The Roles of Agriculture in the Development Process: Recent Experiences and Lessons from Ethiopia.

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Political and economic reforms have been implemented for a number of years to alter the institutional, infrastructural and financial/economic environment in which Ethiopian agriculture operates. Changing the environment in which agriculture operates may be an intermediate goal; at the end, the question remains; have the new reforms and policies had the capacity to improve the performance of the sector and its roles in the development process of the economy? And have they contributed to the ge...

  8. Comparing the development of agricultural technology and information technology in rural Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Kaila, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a descriptive analysis on the ownership of different types of technology - both agricultural machinery and information technology - within households in rural areas of Vietnam. We find that there has been little development in the ownership of agricultural machinery, but a rapid expansion of information technology, especially phones. Households without phones or internet access are more likely to be poor, female-headed, have less education, and rely more on transfers. When...

  9. Challenges and impacts of agricultural biotechnology on developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... development and training, public-private sector collaboration, intellectual property management, and .... research and extension, but over the years, budgets for research .... are diverse questions of safety, ethics, and welfare.

  10. USSR INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT: SOVIET TRACTORS AND AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY NO. 57.

    Science.gov (United States)

    by I. I. Trepenenkov The conditions and prospects of work on the development of mechanization means for harvest ing ensilage crops, by K. Klement’ev PPN-30 picker loader, by I. P. Shvetsov and A. V. Petrovskii

  11. Leveraging social networks for agricultural development in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, Martha

    2017-01-01

    This thesis contributes to a growing literature that explores relationships between social networks and innovation diffusion within a developing country context. Given this context, the networks of interest within this thesis are the offline interpersonal relationships between community members.

  12. Integrated agricultural research for development: lessons learnt and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    expand South-South-North partnerships involving educational as well as research and development ... programmes as the SSA-Challenge Programme are discussed. ..... made learning experiences at the regional (Latin America) or national ...

  13. Status of Job Motivation and Job Performance of Field Level Extension Agents in Ogun State: Implications for Agricultural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabusoro, E.; Awotunde, J. A.; Sodiya, C. I.; Alarima, C. I.

    2008-01-01

    The field level extension agents (FLEAs) are the lifeline of the agricultural extension system in Nigeria. Their motivation and job performance are therefore important to achieving faster agricultural development in Nigeria. The study identified the factors motivating the FLEAs working with Ogun State Agricultural development programme (OGADEP)…

  14. Global trends and priorities for agriculture development in the beginning of the xxi century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Vasil’evich Smekalov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays attention to global issues related to the growth of population and food production: reduced growth rate of agricultural production, reduction of resource potential of agriculture and others. Critical factors and trends of structural changes in agriculture are identified. Results of comparative analysis of the development of farms in European countries and Russia are presented. Studies have shown that at the end of the last century there have been the following trends in the global agriculture: there has been a trend of farm consolidation in size, new controls and control of production are were introduced as well as more stringent quality standards of ecology were launched, which, in turn, require introduction of new technics and technologies; the processes of plants and animals development become more controllable and manageable. Conseptual foresights of pricing in the food market are given. Priority areas of agricultural policy aimed at creating conditions for sustainable rural development and accelerated growth in agricultural production by improving its competitiveness are identified

  15. Industrial Development Bonds for Financing Projects in Rural Areas. Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 216.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Stephen W.

    As one of several special reports on development possibilities for the agriculture and forestry sector of the Four Corners Economic Development Region, this monograph deals with the use of industrial development bonds as a means of resolving finance problems arising from inadequate or nonexistent credit in rural areas. Distinguishing between the…

  16. Innovative type of Reproduction of Agriculture of the Komi Republic - the Basis of its Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomareva, Anna

    2013-04-01

    The necessity of transition of agriculture to sustainability is complicated by the necessity to increase production of local environmentally safe food, unemployment indigenous growth of living standards of the peasant community, stable and balanced nature management. Due to the difficult economic conditions of natural and agricultural development for the Komi Republic principle of food self-sufficiency is unacceptable, but the production of basic food products, for which favorable there are conditions, is objective necessity in the short term. Priority directions of development of the agricultural and fisheries sectors: the production of socially significant food products - potatoes, vegetables of the local range, milk, fresh meat, eggs, dietary, preservation and development of traditional industries, and collecting wild mushrooms and berries and its processing. Off forecast in the northern agricultural areas three scenarios selected: a base (slow), optimistic and pessimistic. For all versions of the forecast to be considered systemic crisis of the agricultural sector of the North is ongoing. Functioning of on sector under a particular scenario will depend on the factors and conditions that affect the stability of the agricultural enterprises and farms. At the base, especially under unfavorable conditions, negative external factors and conditions will prevail. The baseline scenario of recent years assumes the maintenance of the rate of change indicators of agriculture, of the levels of state industry conditions of interbranch exchange in agriculture, of access to economic entities in the financial markets, of the pricing and taxation policies, of relatively low investment opportunities to upgrade production capacity. In this embodiment the growth of agricultural production and its reduction will occur in suburban (peripheral areas). The optimistic scenario will be characterized by protectionist policies of the state, increase investment to improve soil fertility

  17. THOUGHTS ON DEMONSTRATION AND SPREAD OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH UNITS%农业科研单位对农业科技示范推广工作的认识与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟瑞平; 耿东梅; 李云伏

    2011-01-01

    This article discussed the important role of agricultural scientific research unit in science and technology innovation and diversified agricultural technology service system, and how to correctly handle the relationship between scientific research and demonstration expansion, summarized the major methods in spreading agricultural technology in the units of agricultural scientific research, and put forward the main problems and work proposal.%文章论述了农业科研单位在科技创新和多元化农技推广服务体系的重要作用,以及如何正确处理科研与示范推广的关系等问题,总结了农业科研单位在农技推广的主要做法,并提出了主要问题和工作建议。

  18. Ecological and economic dynamics of the Shunde agricultural system under China's small city development strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongfang; Campbell, Daniel E

    2009-06-01

    The agricultural and industrial development of small cities is the primary environmental management strategy employed to make full use of extra labor in the rural areas of China. The ecological and economic consequences of this development strategy will affect over 100 million people and change the organization of the Chinese landscape. In this study, we examined the agricultural development of Shunde, a small city in Guangdong Province, over the period 1978 until 2000. Our analysis of the ecological and economic dynamics of the agricultural system revealed the dominant role of labor in the intensification of agricultural production, even though the use of fuels, fertilizers and machines also increased during this time. The Shunde agricultural system was examined from both biophysical or donor-based and human utility or receiver-based perspectives, using emergy and economic methods, respectively. After 22 years of urbanization, the Shunde agricultural system was still able to fill 96% of the local demand for agricultural products using only 6% of its total yield compared to using 14% of the total yield in 1978. Aquaculture developed quickly during the study period as grain production decreased. In 2000, the production of fish, pork, and vegetables accounted for 92% of the total emergy output of the system; however, the emergy buying power of the money received in exchange was lower than the emergy contained in the products exported. The excess emergy exported is the basis for a high quality diet delivered to city dwellers at a relatively low price. In the 1980s, the productivity of both land and labor increased; but after 1992 the productivity of labor decreased, causing the efficiency of the whole agricultural system to decrease. We recommend that processing plants be established for the main agricultural products of Shunde to decrease the emergy loss in trading and to increase employment. The effect of including monetized ecosystem services in the balance between

  19. ON DEVELOPING CLEANER ORGANIC UNIT PROCESSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic waste products, potentially harmful to the human health and the environment, are primarily produced in the synthesis stage of manufacturing processes. Many such synthetic unit processes, such as halogenation, oxidation, alkylation, nitration, and sulfonation are common to...

  20. Developing the organizational-economic relations during agricultural-industrial integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana A. Okladchik

    2016-09-01

    . Practical significance the main results of the research can be used in the establishment and operation of integrated units of agriculturalindustrial business and applied in the educational process of agricultural universities.

  1. Research on the development and preliminary application of Beijing agricultural sci-tech service hotline WebApp in agricultural consulting services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Weishui; Luo, Changshou; Zheng, Yaming; Wei, Qingfeng; Cao, Chengzhong

    2017-09-01

    To deal with the “last kilometer” problem during the agricultural science and technology information service, we analyzed the feasibility, necessity and advantages of WebApp applied to agricultural information service and discussed the modes of WebApp used in agricultural information service based on the requirements analysis and the function of WebApp. To overcome the existing App’s defects of difficult installation and weak compatibility between the mobile operating systems, the Beijing Agricultural Sci-tech Service Hotline WebApp was developed based on the HTML and JAVA technology. The WebApp has greater compatibility and simpler operation than the Native App, what’s more, it can be linked to the WeChat public platform making it spread easily and run directly without setup process. The WebApp was used to provide agricultural expert consulting services and agriculture information push, obtained a good preliminary application achievement. Finally, we concluded the creative application of WebApp in agricultural consulting services and prospected the development of WebApp in agricultural information service.

  2. Developing Agricultural Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel; Gibbon, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the process of development in a traditional African export market, focusing on a contract farming scheme for organic cocoa in rural Uganda. Based on a repeated household survey, we measure the impact of the scheme on the income of participants and the economic mechanisms...

  3. Agricultural Value Chains in Developing Countries; a Framework for Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a framework for developing country value chain analysis made up of three components. The first consists of identifying major constraints for value chain upgrading: market access restrictions, weak infrastructures, lacking resources and institutional voids. In the second component

  4. Agricultural Value Chains in Developing Countries; a Framework for Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents a framework for developing country value chain analysis made up of three components. The first consists of identifying major constraints for value chain upgrading: market access restrictions, weak infrastructures, lacking resources and institutional voids. In the second component

  5. Proposal of optical farming: development of several optical sensing instruments for agricultural use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Y.; Kobayashi, K.

    2013-05-01

    We propose the use of "Optical Farming," which is the leading application of all types of optical technologies, in agriculture and agriculture-related industries. This paper focuses on the optical sensing instruments named "Agriserver," "Agrigadget" and "LIFS Monitor" developed in our laboratory. They are considered major factors in utilizing Optical Farming. Agriserver is a sensor network system that uses the Internet to collect information on agricultural products growing in fields. Agrigadget contains several optical devices, such as a smartphone-based spectroscopic device and a hand framing camera. LIFS Monitor is an advanced monitoring instrument that makes it possible to obtain physiological information of living plants. They are strongly associated with information communication technology. Their field and data usage performance in agricultural industries are reported.

  6. CAPACITY BUILDING FOR CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION: MODULES FOR AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O. Ogunbameru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Basically, climate change refers to any change in climate overtime, generally caused by natural variability and/or human activities. It has great devastating impact, particularly on agriculture and by extrapolation on farmers and the national economy. The frontline agricultural extension workers are expected to be among the principal stakeholders to teach farmers how to cope with climate change. Consequently, there is a need to develop appropriate teaching package for the training of the frontline agricultural extension workers, based on the myriad of adaptation strategies and practices available in the literature. This paper synthesizes the rationale for capacity building in climate change and the adaptation or coping strategies. The modules (train-the-trainer for teaching agricultural extension workers and farmers are documented in the paper.

  7. Farmer-Entrepreneurs, Agricultural Innovation, and Explosive Research and Development Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Ricardo Faria

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Private sector research and development (R&D in food processing has seen a growing share of agricultural R&D. This paper analyzes market and technological links between farmer-entrepreneurs and food processing firms. It is shown that processing sector R&D tends to display explosive cycles. To avoid explosive cycles, the processing sector sets the R&D growth path and its target. Dynamic adjustments are related to the shadow price of R&D and farm output price. In equilibrium, the effects of increases in technological innovations (e.g., at the farm level, in public agricultural research, from entrepreneurial talent, in processing sector R&D, and in the price of final goods on agricultural price and output are positive. The patent race does not affect steady-state agricultural price and output, nor processing sector R&D; it only reduces the opportunity cost of R&D.

  8. Fighting for rents: agricultural windfall gains and social change in land-abundant developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Anna

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a global increase in demand for agricultural commodities and land has contributed to increasing agricultural prices. This trend can be expected to continue in the future, and may result in significantly higher land rents. This paper investigates the potential distributional effects...... of increasing land rents in land-abundant developing countries from a theoretical viewpoint, and provides historical case examples to support the theoretical propositions. It is proposed that the specific characteristics of a rent-generating natural resource have implications for the concentration of economic...... and political power and hence the distribution of rents. Specifically, when it comes to agricultural land, the characteristics of land imply that the organizational capacity of farmers is a crucial determinant of the distribution of agricultural rents. The historical case examples indicate that the extent...

  9. EVOLUTION OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA AND ITS IMPORTANCE IN SUSTAINABLE RURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Daniela PASCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic farming uses sustainable production systems, diversified and balanced to prevent environmental and harvest pollution. In this paper I wish to highlight the opportunities arising from the practice of sustainable agriculture and the efficient management of natural resources in Romania. Sustainable rural development can be achieved with the transition from subsistence agriculture to organic agriculture by building and strengthening competitive small and medium enterprises in rural areas. For this we analyzed empirical data provided by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forests and Rural Developmen and the National Institute of Statistics.The analyzed period covers the years 2006-2011. The organic food market in Romania is contoured by statistical methods and the opportunities and limitations incurred by those who choose this form of exploitation.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF ACTIVE AND BIODEGRADABLES CONTAINERS FOR AGRICULTURAL CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Poggio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the development of biodegradable containers for crops that could be transplanted directly and act as fertilizers is proposed. Bovine gelatin was chosen as the base material, which was processed in a mini-injector mixer with a concentrated urea solution acted as a plasticizer. Rheological and tensile tests were performed in order to evaluate the injection of gelatin based formulations and mechanical properties related to the proposed application. Taking into account that biodegradable materials have a low water resistance, the increment of container stability was proposed using a surface coating. In addition, the influence of moisture content, the soluble matter and swelling were studied and analyzed. It was observed that coated samples were significantly more stable than the control ones, which guarantees the feasibility of the selected system and its potential development of biodegradable containers.

  11. The possibilities and limitations of entrepreneurship development in agriculture in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aničić Jugoslav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Serbia is very convenient for agricultural production: large, high-quality arable land, favourable climate conditions for all agricultural cultures, rich flora and fauna, rich tradition and developed scientific institutions are the priceless treasure of Serbian agriculture. However, the results of numerous research show that Serbian agriculture competitiveness is based on cheap production factors compared to other countries (soil, workforce, other inputs. One of the ways of solving this situation is larger application of entrepreneurial type of production in agribusiness, for which there are great possibilities in Serbia. This paper analyses the position of agriculture at the moment, and points out the importance and the need for faster and wider development of an entrepreneurial orientation in this sector. Serbia is in the EU accession process, and therefore the imperative of approaching the European model of doing business and the need for companies and family economies in agribusiness to build and protect their competitive advantages. In order to achieve this goal, traditional weaknesses should be overcome, so education and introduction of entrepreneurship into the school system are a good basis for farmers to have a stronger influence on the economic policy carriers as well as the adequate treatment of agricultural sector at the macroeconomic level.

  12. Developing an Ontology for Improving Question Answering in the Agricultural Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, Katia; Ferrández, Antonio

    Numerous resources have been developed to have a better access to scientific information in the agricultural domain. However, they are rather concerned with providing general metadata of bibliographic references, which prevents users from accessing precise agricultural information in a transparent and simple manner. To overcome this drawback, in this paper, we propose to use domain-specific resources to improve the results in the answers obtained by an Open-Domain Question Answering (QA) system, obtaining a QA system for the agricultural domain. Specifically, it has been made by (i) creating an ontology that covers concepts and relationships from journal publications of the agricultural domain, (ii) enriching this ontology with some public data sources (e.g the Agrovoc thesaurus and the WordNet lexical database) in order to be precisely used in an agricultural domain, and (iii) aligning this enriched ontology with articles from our case-study journal, i.e. the Cuban Journal of Agricultural Science. Finally, we have developed a set of experiments in order to show the usefulness of our approach.

  13. A DSS for sustainable development and environmental protection of agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Basil D; Papathanasiou, Jason; Bournaris, Thomas; Voudouris, Kostas

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents a decision support system (DSS) for sustainable development and environmental protection of agricultural regions developed in the framework of the Interreg-Archimed project entitled WaterMap (development and utilization of vulnerability maps for the monitoring and management of groundwater resources in the ARCHIMED areas). Its aim is to optimize the production plan of an agricultural region taking in account the available resources, the environmental parameters, and the vulnerability map of the region. The DSS is based on an optimization multicriteria model. The spatial integration of vulnerability maps in the DSS enables regional authorities to design policies for optimal agricultural development and groundwater protection from the agricultural land uses. The DSS can further be used to simulate different scenarios and policies by the local stakeholders due to changes on different social, economic, and environmental parameters. In this way, they can achieve alternative production plans and agricultural land uses as well as to estimate economic, social, and environmental impacts of different policies. The DSS is computerized and supported by a set of relational databases. The corresponding software has been developed in a Microsoft Windows XP platform, using Microsoft Visual Basic, Microsoft Access, and the LINDO library. For demonstration reasons, the paper includes an application of the DSS in a region of Northern Greece.

  14. A rainfall simulation model for agricultural development in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sayedur Rahman

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A rainfall simulation model based on a first-order Markov chain has been developed to simulate the annual variation in rainfall amount that is observed in Bangladesh. The model has been tested in the Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Few significant differences were found between the actual and simulated seasonal, annual and average monthly. The distribution of number of success is asymptotic normal distribution. When actual and simulated daily rainfall data were used to drive a crop simulation model, there was no significant difference of rice yield response. The results suggest that the rainfall simulation model perform adequately for many applications.

  15. Agricultural SWOT analysis and wisdom agriculture design of chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiangyu; Du, Shaoming; Yin, Guowei; Yu, Feng; Liu, Guicai; Gong, Jin; Han, Fujun

    2017-08-01

    According to the status of agricultural information, this paper analyzed the advantages, opportunities and challenges of developing wisdom agriculture in Chengdu. By analyzed the local characteristics of Chengdu agriculture, the construction program of Chengdu wisdom agriculture was designed, which was based on the existing agricultural informatization. The positioning and development theme of Chengdu agriculture is leisure agriculture, urban agriculture and quality agriculture.

  16. Psychiatric agriculture: systemic nutritional modification and mental health in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Douglas S; Stoll, Andrew L; Manning, Bruce B

    2006-01-01

    Modernization of agricultural systems to increase output causes changes to the nutritional content of food entire populations consume. Human nutritional needs differ from their "food", thus producing healthy agricultural products is not equivalent to providing agricultural products that are healthy for humans. Inclusion of the food production system as a factor in the increase of neuropsychiatric disorders and other chronic diseases helps explain negative trends in modern chronic diseases that remain unchecked despite stunning advances in modern medicine. Diseases in which our own technology plays a significant role include obesity and resulting disorders, such as diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, stroke and arthritis. Modernization's lure leads to importation of modern agricultural practices into a nutritionally vulnerable, malnourished and sometimes starving developing world. Wealthier nations hedge their food portfolio by having access to a wider variety of foods. The developing world's reliance on staple foods means even a minor widespread nutritional modification of one key food can have profound effects. New agricultural techniques may improve or exacerbate neuropsychiatric disorders through nutritional modification in regions where populations walk a nutritional tightrope with little margin for error. In most of the developing world western psychiatric interventions have failed to make inroads. People's consumption of fish has a demonstrated beneficial effect on their mental health and the omega-3 fatty acid content is a significant factor. Epidemiological, biological and agricultural studies implicate a lack of dietary omega-3s as a factor in certain mental disorders. Replenishing omega-3s has improved mental illnesses in controlled clinical trials. This article's detailed tilapia fish-farming model demonstrates how aquaculture/agriculture techniques can function as a public health intervention by increasing dietary omega-3s through creation of

  17. Sustainable Development of Bioheat from Agricultural Wastes and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeen Mustafa Omer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This Article discusses a comprehensive review of biomass energy sources, environment and sustainable development. This includes all the biomass energy technologies, energy efficiency systems, energy conservation scenarios, energy savings and other mitigation measures necessary to reduce emissions. The current literature is reviewed regarding the ecological, social, cultural and economic impact of biomass technology. This article gives an overview of present and future use of biomass as an industrial feedstock for production of fuels, chemicals and other materials. However, to be truly competitive in an open market situation, higher value products are required. Results suggest that biomass technology must be encouraged, promoted, invested, implemented, and demonstrated but especially in remote rural areas.

  18. Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge: Infusing Agricultural Science and Engineering Concepts into 4-H Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Joshua E.; Rugg, Bradley; Davis, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Youth involved in 4-H projects have been engaged in science-related endeavors for years. Since 2006, 4-H has invested considerable resources in the advancement of science learning. The new Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge program challenges 4-H youth to work together to identify agriculture-related issues in their communities and to…

  19. Environmental agricultural policy in Japan in harmony with WTO agricultural agreements: current situation and its development (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Masaaki ISHIDA

    2005-01-01

    Environmental agricultural policies in Japan have yet to be initiated in earnest, being in what might be called a “preparation stage.” The reasons for this have already been discussed above, but in fact it is not only the environmental agricultural policies that are incomplete; so too are the environmental measures that would form the foundations for these policies.

  20. The Models for the Development of Specialty Agriculture in the Hilly Areas of Southern Ningxia: Are They Truly Effective?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoyi; SUN; Qing; TANG; Yong; XU; Lijuan; DANG

    2013-01-01

    The development of specialty agriculture is of great significance to western China’s agricultural structure adjustment,and it’s an essential way for the construction of ecological agriculture in Southern Ningxia mountainous area.This paper makes a summary about the development status of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area and put forward the basic benefit goal and problems needing attention.On this basis,the paper studies the development pattern of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area from the aspects of production factors and industry.This paper suggests that the development pattern of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area should combine the regional agricultural pattern and innovative organization structure pattern,demonstration agriculture and market-directing pattern,engineering agricultural pattern and enterprise-driven pattern.The development of specialty agriculture in Southern Ningxia Mountainous Area should promote the three patterns,in order to achieve the construction of ecological agriculture and agricultural structure adjustment.

  1. Development of a Low-Cost Attitude Sensor for Agricultural Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to develop a low-cost attitude sensor for agricultural vehicles. The attitude sensor was composed of three vibratory gyroscopes and two inclinometers. A sensor fusion algorithm was developed to estimate tilt angles (roll and pitch) by least-squares method. In the a...

  2. First year with the course ‘Organic agriculture in a development perspective'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2010-01-01

    In 2010, the course ‘Organic agriculture in a development perspective' was run for the first time at Aarhus University. Education within and continuous reflections upon organic farming and food systems on all levels is a prerequisite for the development of the field, and young university students...

  3. People's response to policy change in agricultural development organization. The Benin case.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tossou, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This book is about change. It deals with the way in which social actors, be they individuals or groups, involved in the agricultural development of Benin reconstruct for themselves the new policy context in order to develop relevant strategies translating policy measures into practical objectives an

  4. THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION TO THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF ETHIOPIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KERBRET, MAKONNEN

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENT SITUATION IN ETHIOPIA AND A REVIEW OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN THE WORLD WAS MADE THROUGH INTENSIVE LIBRARY RESEARCH. GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE BASED ON THE REVIEW SUBMITTED TO A JURY OF EXPERTS FOR VERIFICATION. REVISED GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE THEN DEVELOPED FOR GUIDING AND IMPLEMENTING THE…

  5. People's response to policy change in agricultural development organization : the Benin case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tossou, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    This book is about change. It deals with the way in which social actors, be they individuals or groups, involved in the agricultural development of Benin reconstruct for themselves the new policy context in order to develop relevant strategies translating policy measures into practical

  6. Agricultural biotechnologies in developing countries and their possible contribution to food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, John; Sonnino, Andrea

    2011-12-20

    Latest FAO figures indicate that an estimated 925 million people are undernourished in 2010, representing almost 16% of the population in developing countries. Looking to the future, there are also major challenges ahead from the rapidly changing socio-economic environment (increasing world population and urbanisation, and dietary changes) and climate change. Promoting agriculture in developing countries is the key to achieving food security, and it is essential to act in four ways: to increase investment in agriculture, broaden access to food, improve governance of global trade, and increase productivity while conserving natural resources. To enable the fourth action, the suite of technological options for farmers should be as broad as possible, including agricultural biotechnologies. Agricultural biotechnologies represent a broad range of technologies used in food and agriculture for the genetic improvement of plant varieties and animal populations, characterisation and conservation of genetic resources, diagnosis of plant or animal diseases and other purposes. Discussions about agricultural biotechnology have been dominated by the continuing controversy surrounding genetic modification and its resulting products, genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The polarised debate has led to non-GMO biotechnologies being overshadowed, often hindering their development and application. Extensive documentation from the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies in Developing Countries (ABDC-10), that took place in Guadalajara, Mexico, on 1-4 March 2010, gave a very good overview of the many ways that different agricultural biotechnologies are being used to increase productivity and conserve natural resources in the crop, livestock, fishery, forestry and agro-industry sectors in developing countries. The conference brought together about 300 policy-makers, scientists and representatives of intergovernmental and international non

  7. 农业专家在线访谈系统开发与应用%Development and Application on the Online Interview System Based on the Agricultural Experts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋秀英; 金鹏

    2011-01-01

    This system is developed by Agricultural Sciences Academy of Yantai and Agricultural Technology Extension Center of Yantai and so on.These units have continued to explore new ways of agricultural science and technology's service for agriculture.The online text and photo living broadcast system based on the platform of Agricultural Information Network creates a new extension mode for agricultural technology and agricultural scientific achievements.%烟台市农业专家在线访谈系统旨在不断探索农业科技服务三农的新途径,以烟台农业信息网为平台开发的网上图文直播系统,开创了烟台市农业技术和农业科研成果推广的新模式。

  8. Promoting Agricultural Research and Development to Strengthen Food Security in South Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghose Bishwajit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the status of agricultural R&D in South Asia and contends that creating an effective agricultural research and innovation systems is a vital element to ensure food security in this region. South Asia is home to around one-fourth of mankind and houses the largest proportion of undernourished people in the world. Despite a period of marked economic growth averaging 6% a year over the past two decades, it remains the world's second poorest region contributing a mere 2.2% in global annual GDP. Agriculture is the mainstay of South Asian economy employing around 60% of the total workforce and generating around 20% of total GDP. South Asia has the recognition of being the second most food-insecure region next only to sub-Saharan Africa. Though there is growing evidence that technological innovation has a key role to play in increasing agricultural production and strengthening food security, agricultural research and development (R&D sector has failed to garner sufficient attention till now. This study also depicts the current situation of food security in South Asia and illustrates how agricultural education and innovation hold the master key to solve the food security issues for the world's most densely populated region.

  9. Pesticides in rain in four agricultural watersheds in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J.R.; Majewski, M.S.; Capel, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    Rainfall samples were collected during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons at four agricultural locales across the USA in Maryland, Indiana, Nebraska, and California. The samples were analyzed for 21 insecticides, 18 herbicides, three fungicides, and 40 pesticide degradates. Data from all sites combined show that 7 of the 10 most frequently detected pesticides were herbicides, with atrazine (70%) and metolachlor (83%) detected at every site. Dacthal, acetochlor, simazine, alachlor, and pendimethalin were detected in more than 50% of the samples. Chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and diazinon were the only insecticides among the 10 most frequently detected compounds. Of the remaining pesticide parent compounds, 18 were detected in fewer than 30% of the samples, and 13 were not detected. The most frequently detected degradates were deethylatrazine; the oxygen analogs (OAs) of the organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion; and 1-napthol (degradate of carbaryl). Deethylatrazine was detected in nearly 70% of the samples collected in Maryland, Indiana, and Nebraska but was detected only once in California. The OAs of chlorpyrifos and diazinon were detected primarily in California. Degradates of the acetanilide herbicides were rarely detected in rain, indicating that they are not formed in the atmosphere or readily volatilized from soils. Herbicides accounted for 91 to 98% of the total pesticide mass deposited by rain except in California, where insecticides accounted for 61% in 2004. The mass of pesticides deposited by rainfall was estimated to be less than 2% of the total applied in these agricultural areas. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  10. Nitrogen fluxes through unsaturated zones in five agricultural settings across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C.T.; Fisher, L.H.; Bekins, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    The main physical and chemical controls on nitrogen (N) fluxes between the root zone and the water table were determined for agricultural sites in California, Indiana, Maryland, Nebraska, and Washington from 2004 to 2005. Sites included irrigated and nonirrigated fields; soil textures ranging from clay to sand; crops including corn, soybeans, almonds, and pasture; and unsaturated zone thicknesses ranging from 1 to 22 m. Chemical analyses of water from lysimeters and shallow wells indicate that advective transport of nitrate is the dominant process affecting the flux of N below the root zone. Vertical profiles of (i) nitrogen species, (ii) stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen, and (iii) oxygen, N, and argon in unsaturated zone air and correlations between N and other agricultural chemicals indicate that reactions do not greatly affect N concentrations between the root zone and the capillary fringe. As a result, physical factors, such as N application rate, water inputs, and evapotranspiration, control the differences in concentrations among the sites. Concentrations of N in shallow lysimeters exhibit seasonal variation, whereas concentrations in lysimeters deeper than a few meters are relatively stable. Based on concentration and recharge estimates, fluxes of N through the deep unsaturated zone range from 7 to 99 kg ha-1 yr-1. Vertical fluxes of N in ground water are lower due to spatial and historical changes in N inputs. High N fluxes are associated with coarse sediments and high N application rates. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  11. Embrapa's experience in the production and development of agriculture reference materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, A. R. A.; Souza, G. B.; Bossu, C. M.; Bianchi, S. R.; Verhalen, T. R.; Silva, P. T.; Peixoto, A. A. J.; Silva, C. S.

    2016-07-01

    The main challenge of Embrapa is to develop a model of genuine Brazilian tropical agriculture and livestock. To get this task, the quality of laboratories results is mandatory, increasing the demand for reference materials. Projects were proposed to produce reference materials to support the national agriculture laboratories and consolidate a network able to perform reliable and reproducible analytical testing laboratory within the internationally standards required. Reference materials were produced and available to interested laboratories and collaborative tests were conducted to obtain consensus values. The results and statistical evaluations were performed with the use of software developed by Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste.

  12. Ranking provinces based on development scale in agriculture sector using taxonomy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rostampour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine comparative ranking of agricultural development in different provinces of Iran using taxonomy technique. The independent variables are amount of annual rainfall amount, the number of permanent rivers, the width of pastures and forest, cultivated level of agricultural harvests and garden harvests, number of beehives, the number of fish farming ranches, the number of tractors and combines, the number of cooperative production societies, the number of industrial cattle breeding and aviculture. The results indicate that the maximum development coefficient value is associated with Razavi Khorasan province followed by Mazandaran, East Azarbayjan while the minimum ranking value belongs to Bushehr province.

  13. Globalisation determinants of export-led development of Ukrainian agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Karasova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes globalisation preconditions for export in the agricultural sector of Ukraine. The summarised results of the previous research highlight the essential characteristics of the export-led activity concept, establish the current trends, factor conditions and the impact of globalisation on the development of agricultural exports. The article also shows the dynamics and peculiarities of goods and geographical structure of agrarian exports. The areas and causes of Ukraine’s vulnerability in the global agro-food market have been established. The work also deals with the directions of export-led activity development in the context of economic globalisation

  14. 我国节水农业发展现状研究%The study on development of china's water-saving agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁青青; 朱厚岩

    2011-01-01

    The utilization coefficient of irrigation water in China is 45%,far behind the 70% of developed countries;The efficiency of national agricultural water is low,the unit grain yield water of developing countries is 2.5-3 times higher than developed countries.Therefore,the development of water-saving agriculture in China has a crucial significance.This paper based on the current situation of China's agricultural development,combined with the layout of the development of China's water-saving agriculture,focusing on analysis of technical,institutional,financial and policy aspects of five major water-saving agricultural areas,review and exchange of successful experience developing water saving agriculture,analysis of its shortcomings and put forward countermeasures to promote water-saving agricultural development.%中国的灌溉水利用系数只有45%,大大落后于发达国家的70%;全国农业用水效率较低,单位粮食产量耗水量比发达国家高2.5~3倍。所以我国发展节水农业具有至关重要的意义。本文根据我国农业发展现状,结合我国节水农业发展布局,重点分析5大节水农业区在技术、制度、资金和政策等方面的节水农业现状,总结交流发展节水农业的成功经验,分析其存在的不足,从而提出更好的促进节水农业发展的路径。

  15. SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT IN SALINE- ALKALI SOIL AREA OF SONGNEN PLAIN,NORTHEAST CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhi-chun; LI Qu-sheng; LI Xiu-jun; SONG Chang-chun; ZHANG Guang-xin

    2003-01-01

    There is great potential for agriculture in saline-alkali soil area in Songnen Plain, Northeast China. Butthe sustainable crop production in this area has been restricted by a few of main factors, such as less precipitation, higherevaporation and frequent drought, high salinity and alkalinity, high exchangeable sodium content and poor infiltration ofthe soil, and insufficiency and low availability in nutrition. It is also considered that there are a few of favorable condi-tions for agricultural development in this region, such as sufficient light and heat resources, rich ground water resources,plenty of manure produced by livestock, and so on. At the same time, scientific management and measurements havebeen employed; rational irrigation and drainage system has been established; reclamation, amendment and fertilization ofsoil, and suitable strategies of cropping practices have been made for the sustainable development of agriculture. Greatprogress has been made during 1996- 2000.

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF LAND BANK FOR AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT AND THE TECHNIQUE OF GRANTING RURAL LAND LOAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCIAN-ION MEDAR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, with the liberalization of the land market, appears the prospect of functioning of aspecialized agricultural bank which might be named ,,land bank’’. In principle, this institution can buy and sellagricultural land and to provide priority "rural land loan" for farm development. Mainly, it may incorporate anadvantageous loan system created for those who want to buy land for agriculture use, once of the liberalizationof land market since 2014. In this article we present some details about importance of this credit institution andgrant technique of rural land loan . Currently, the number of Romanian farmers grouped in associations is verysmall compared to the millions agricultural holdings. Young farm development can be possible only byappealing to an "engine" type "rural land loans" and which may more quickly solve their financial problems.

  17. Development of agricultural e-commerce framework for India, a strategic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darryl Jeethesh Dsouza

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to put forward an inclusive and pertinent e-commerce framework that serves as a platform for the development and improvement of rural agriculture sector in India; which plays a major role towards socioeconomic development of rural livelihoods along with food security and poverty reduction. The main approach used was to critically review and understand the National Informatics Centre (NIC and the Ministry of Agriculture policies. In general, these policies emphasize on promoting IT based information kiosks, establishing gyan chaupals (Knowledge centers in villages, construction of Agri-India knowledge portal. Next, the challenges and information gaps were identified and translated in the form of agriculture e-commerce framework which can be used to build an e-commerce application.

  18. Evaluation of the Potential for Agricultural Development at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Robert G.; Hattendorf, Mary J.; Kincaid, Charles T.

    2000-02-25

    By 2050, when cleanup of the Hanford Site is expected to be completed, large worldwide demands to increase the global production of animal and fish protein, food, and fiber are anticipated, despite advancements in crop breeding, genetic engineering, and other technologies. The most likely large areas for expanded irrigation in the Pacific Northwest are the undeveloped East High areas of the Columbia Basin Project and non-restricted areas within the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The area known as the Hanford Site has all the components that favor successful irrigated farming. Constraints to agricultural development of the Hanford Site are political and social, not economic or technical. Obtaining adequate water rights for any irrigated development will be a major issue. Numerous anticipated future advances in irrigation and resource conservation techniques such as precision agriculture techniques, improved irrigation systems, and irrigation system controls will greatly minimize the negative environmental impacts of agricultural activities.

  19. Scenario development as a basis for formulating a research program on future agriculture: a methodological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Ingrid; Bengtsson, Jan; Hedenus, Fredrik; Rydhmer, Lotta; Stenström, Maria; Vrede, Katarina; Westin, Charles; Magnusson, Ulf

    2013-11-01

    To increase the awareness of society to the challenges of global food security, we developed five contrasting global and European scenarios for 2050 and used these to identify important issues for future agricultural research. Using a scenario development method known as morphological analysis, scenarios were constructed that took economic, political, technical, and environmental factors into account. With the scenarios as a starting point future challenges were discussed and research issues and questions were identified in an interactive process with stakeholders and researchers. Based on the outcome of this process, six socioeconomic and biophysical overarching challenges for future agricultural were formulated and related research issues identified. The outcome was compared with research priorities generated in five other research programs. In comparison, our research questions focus more on societal values and the role of consumers in influencing agricultural production, as well as on policy formulation and resolving conflicting goals, areas that are presently under-represented in agricultural research. The partly new and more interdisciplinary research priorities identified in Future Agriculture compared to other programs analyzed are likely a result of the methodological approach used, combining scenarios and interaction between stakeholders and researchers.

  20. Case Studies of Rural Development and Clean Agriculture in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachika Hirokawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the kind of actors and resources that empower small-scale farmers to promote sustainable agriculture. It also analyzes the reasons given by farmers who changed their farming methods. In 2004, the Department of Agriculture launched a project for the Promoting Organic Farming and Marketing in Lao PDR (PROFIL. PROFIL tried to develop market opportunities for Lao’s organic products and supported the local organic farmers. I conducted field researches at Nonte village in Vientiane Capital twice in 2008. The researches indicated that “Clean Agriculture” is one of the new challenges for farmers. Thus, this research focuses on the observation of how local organic farmers adapt to a new method and cope with problems. Information as knowledge from community groups and external actors such as local institutions and experts might help villagers to have choices in terms of farming methods, which gave them positive choices in terms of health and an agricultural environment. Since the government has the recognition of comparative advantages of clean agriculture, farmers may have the opportunity to gain a large market of organic farm products if they can develop distribution channels. This study encourages the positive contributions of challenges of sustainable agriculture in Lao PDR.

  1. EFFICIENT MANAGEMENT OF NON-AGRICULTURAL ACTIVITIES FOR A SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena, SIMA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The non-agricultural economy (small and medium-sized enterprises in industry, services, rural tourism has a low share in Romania's rural area. To start a business in the countryside can be both an advantage and a risk. The investments in the non-agricultural and food economy, while contributing to gross value added increase through the processing of agricultural and non-agricultural raw products from local resources, have another great advantage, by creating new jobs and by using and maintaining the local (rural labour, revitalization of rural localities, mainly those in the less-favoured and remote rural areas. The paper presents aspects of the management of small and medium enterprises in agriculture and services, in order to create a concrete analysis framework for sustainable development in rural areas. The socioeconomic analysis based on current data and future forecasts is the basis in drawing conclusions on the possibilities of encouraging a sustainable entrepreneurship in the less-developed regions and also for the economic revitalization.

  2. DIAGNOSIS OF ALTERNATIVE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN THE CITY OF UBÁ-MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Sperandio Duriguetto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Conventional agriculture uses mechanization practices, remediation and soil fertilization and pesticides to control pests and diseases. The criticism of this farming system grows as studies show that pesticides contaminate food and the environment and cause health damage. Aiming at sustainable development and the pursuit of consolidation between the social, economic and ecological agriculture alternative arises. This work is outlined in order to understand the current status, characteristics, limitations and difficulties for the implementation of alternative agriculture in the municipality of Ubá-MG. Furthermore, we seek to identify the knowledge of agricultural alternative as well as the interest and profile of likely consumers of these products in the municipality. We conducted a quantitative research through the use of two questionnaires with multiple choice questions and dichotomous, by simple random sampling. The results show that there are many difficulties for the development of alternative agriculture in the county, including: a lack of resources for producers, small-scale production, lack of market and consumer knowledge about alternative product in the municipality. Given these difficulties, the alternative system seems advantageous and competitive both economically and environmentally compared to the conventional system. There was a lack of information regarding organic products, alternative, since access to these is restricted to much of the population in the municipality of Ubá and adjacent municipalities. Seeking theoretical basis it was necessary also to perform a literature search in several papers that address the theme.

  3. Development and application of modern agricultural biotechnology in Botswana: the potentials, opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batlang, Utlwang; Tsurupe, Gorata; Segwagwe, Amogelang; Obopile, Motshwari

    2014-07-03

    In Botswana, approximately 40% of the population live in rural areas and derive most of their livelihood from agriculture by keeping livestock and practising arable farming. Due to the nature of their farming practises livestock and crops are exposed to diseases and environmental stresses. These challenges offer opportunities for application of biotechnology to develop adaptable materials to the country's environment. On the other hand, the perceived risk of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) has dimmed the promise of the technology for its application in agriculture. This calls for a holistic approach to the application of biotechnology to address issues of biosafety of GMOs. We have therefore assessed the potentials, challenges and opportunities to apply biotechnology with specific emphasis on agriculture, taking cognisance of requirement for its research, development and application in research and teaching institutions. In order to achieve this, resource availability, infrastructure, human and laboratory requirements were analyzed. The analysis revealed that the country has the capacity to carry out research in biotechnology in the development and production of genetically modified crops for food and fodder crops. These will include gene discovery, genetic transformation and development of systems to comply with the world regulatory framework on biosafety. In view of the challenges facing the country in agriculture, first generation biotech crops could be released for production. Novel GM products for development may include disease diagnosis kits, animal disease vaccines, and nutrient use efficiency, drought, and pest and disease resistant food and fodder crops.

  4. Promote the modernization of agriculture and develop modern agriculture through improving the agricultural futures market%完善农产品期货市场与农业现代化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑春燕

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture is a developmental edge for Henan Province.Thus,promoting the modernization of agriculture and developing modern agriculture are obvious choices.In modern service industry,finance is the core and the blood.Promotion of agricultural modernization through agricultural futures market brings practical feasibility.For example,agricultural futures market can avoid price risk,optimize the cultivation of agricultural products,and make hedging a possible choice for agricultural enterprises.This paper analyzes the role of the agricultural futures market in agricultural modernization,as well as its shortcomings in this process.Based on the analysis,recommendations in relation to futures markets in agricultural modernization are proposed.%农业是河南的优势、机遇和筹码。大力推动农业现代化、发展现代农业是我们的必然选择。在现代服务业中,金融是核心,是血液。通过完善农产品期货市场来推动农业现代化,发展现代农业,既有意义,也有现实的可行性。农产品期货市场可以规避农产品的价格风险,优化农产品的种植品种,有利于农产品生产经营企业进行套期保值等。本文分析了农产品期货市场对农业现代化、发展现代农业的推动作用,以及在这一发展过程中存在的不足,并综合各方意见,给出了具体的措施。

  5. Presence of organoarsenicals used in cotton production in agricultural water and soil of the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, A.J.; Garbarino, J.R.; Ranville, J.F.; Wildeman, T.R.

    2002-01-01

    Arsenicals have been used extensively in agriculture in the United States as insecticides and herbicides. Mono- and disodium methylarsonate and dimethylarsinic acid are organoarsenicals used to control weeds in cotton fields and as defoliation agents applied prior to cotton harvesting. Because the toxicity of most organoarsenicals is less than that of inorganic arsenic species, the introduction of these compounds into the environment might seem benign. However, biotic and abiotic degradation reactions can produce more problematic inorganic forms of arsenic, such as arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)]. This study investigates the occurrences of these compounds in samples of soil and associated surface and groundwaters. Preliminary results show that surface water samples from cotton-producing areas have elevated concentrations of methylarsenic species (>10 ??g of As/L) compared to background areas (<1 ??g of As/L). Species transformations also occur between surface waters and adjacent soils and groundwaters, which also contain elevated arsenic. The data indicate that point sources of arsenic related to agriculture might be responsible for increased arsenic concentrations in local irrigation wells, although the elevated concentrations did not exceed the new (2002) arsenic maximum contaminant level of 10 ??g/L in any of the wells sampled thus far.

  6. Performance of SMAP, AMSR-E and LAI for weekly agricultural drought forecasting over continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Di; Mishra, Ashok K.; Yu, Zhongbo; Yang, Chuanguo; Konapala, Goutam; Vu, Tue

    2017-10-01

    This study applied support vector machines (SVMs) and data assimilation (DA) methods to investigate the performance of in-situ and remotely sensed products (i.e., leaf area index (LAI), AMSR-E and SMAP soil moisture retrievals) for near-real time agricultural drought forecasting for in-situ stations located in continental United States (CONUS). The agricultural drought was quantified using soil water deficit index (SWDI) derived based on available soil moisture and basic soil water parameters. It is observed that SVMs or SVM-DA with limited meteorological variables as inputs able to forecast SWDI at most of the in-situ stations up to 1-2-week lead time. Addition of remotely sensed products (i.e., LAI, AMSR-E, SMAP) either individually or simultaneously as inputs to SVMs can able to improve SWDI forecast at most of the stations where the strong relationship exists between LAI (and/or AMSR-E, SMAP) with SWDI. Such improvement can persist up to 2-4-week lead time at some of the stations. But the efficiency tends to decrease with the increase in lead time. The addition of both LAI and SMAP (AMSR-E) performs better than the independent addition of LAI or SMAP (AMSR-E). Typically, the performance of drought prediction varies at local scales; therefore it is difficult to generalize our findings at regional scale.

  7. DOMESTIC AGRICULTURAL MIGRANTS IN THE UNITED STATES, COUNTIES IN WHICH AN ESTIMATED 100 OR MORE SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKERS MIGRATED INTO THE AREA OF WORK DURING THE PEAK SEASON IN 1965.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Employment Security (DOL), Washington, DC.

    THE NUMBER OF SEASONAL DOMESTIC AGRICULTURAL MIGRANTS IN EACH COUNTY OF THE UNITED STATES IS PRESENTED GRAPHICALLY ON THIS 26 BY 40 INCH MAP. PUBLIC HEALTH AND OTHER SERVICE AGENCIES MAY USE IT AND ACCOMPANYING TABLES TO PLAN PROGRAM ADJUSTMENTS NECESSITATED BY THE WORKER INFLUX. THE DATA ARE CONFINED TO DOMESTIC WORKERS AND THEIR ACCOMPANYING…

  8. Atmospheric concentrations of ammonia and ammonium at an agricultural site in the southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarge, Wayne P.; Walker, John T.; McCulloch, Ronald B.; Murray, George

    In this study, we present ˜1 yr (October 1998-September 1999) of 12-hour mean ammonia (NH 3), ammonium (NH 4+), hydrochloric acid (HCl), chloride (Cl -), nitrate (NO 3-), nitric acid (HNO 3), nitrous acid (HONO), sulfate (SO 42-), and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) concentrations measured at an agricultural site in North Carolina's Coastal Plain region. Mean gas concentrations were 0.46, 1.21, 0.54, 5.55, and 4.15 μg m -3 for HCl, HNO 3, HONO, NH 3, and SO 2, respectively. Mean aerosol concentrations were 1.44, 1.23, 0.08, and 3.37 μg m -3 for NH 4+, NO 3-, Cl -, and SO 42-, respectively. Ammonia, NH 4+, HNO 3, and SO 42- exhibit higher concentrations during the summer, while higher SO 2 concentrations occur during winter. A meteorology-based multivariate regression model using temperature, wind speed, and wind direction explains 76% of the variation in 12-hour mean NH 3 concentrations ( n=601). Ammonia concentration increases exponentially with temperature, which explains the majority of variation (54%) in 12-hour mean NH 3 concentrations. Dependence of NH 3 concentration on wind direction suggests a local source influence. Ammonia accounts for >70% of NH x (NH x=NH 3+NH 4+) during all seasons. Ammonium nitrate and sulfate aerosol formation does not appear to be NH 3 limited. Sulfate is primarily associated ammonium sulfate, rather than bisulfate, except during the winter when the ratio of NO 3--NH 4+ is ˜0.66. The annual average NO 3--NH 4+ ratio is ˜0.25.

  9. Water movement within the unsaturated zone in four agricultural areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, L.H.; Healy, R.W.

    2008-01-01

    Millions of tons of agricultural fertilizer and pesticides are applied annually in the USA. Due to the potential for these chemicals to migrate to groundwater, a study was conducted in 2004 using field data to calculate water budgets, rates of groundwater recharge and times of water travel through the unsaturated zone and to identify factors that influence these phenomena. Precipitation was the only water input at sites in Indiana and Maryland; irrigation accounted for about 80% of total water input at sites in California and Washington. Recharge at the Indiana site (47.5 cm) and at the Maryland site (31.5 cm) were equivalent to 51 and 32%, respectively, of annual precipitation and occurred between growing seasons. Recharge at the California site (42.3 cm) and Washington site (11.9 cm) occurred in response to irrigation events and was about 29 and 13% of total water input, respectively. Average residence time of water in the unsaturated zone, calculated using a piston-flow approach, ranged from less than 1 yr at the Indiana site to more than 8 yr at the Washington site. Results of bromide tracer tests indicate that at three of the four sites, a fraction of the water applied at land surface may have traveled to the water table in less than 1 yr. The timing and intensity of precipitation and irrigation were the dominant factors controlling recharge, suggesting that the time of the year at which chemicals are applied may be important for chemical transport through the unsaturated zone. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  10. Agricultural Commodity Exchanges and the Development of Grain Markets and Trade in Africa: A Review of Recent Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Jayne, T.S.; Sturgess, Chris; Kopicki, Ron; Sitko, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Vibrant agricultural commodity exchanges will greatly enhance the performance of Africa’s agricultural sectors and contribute to overall economic development. Yet specific conditions in grain markets are required for agricultural commodity exchanges to develop.1 The absence or short-lived nature of many of these conditions explains why commodity exchanges for staple grains have remained stunted in Sub-Saharan Africa despite strong interest in their development by the international donor commu...

  11. Development and prospect of unmanned aerial vehicles for agricultural production management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles have been developed and applied to support agricultural production management. Compared to piloted aircrafts, an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can focus on small crop fields in lower flight altitude than regular airplanes to perform site-specific management with high precisi...

  12. Liberalisation and Smallholder Agricultural Development : A Case Study of Coffee Farms in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanja, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Key words, Market reforms, smallholder agricultural development, prices, institutional framework, resource allocation and productivity, efficiency, policy interventionsLiberalisation and smallholder agricultural development : a case study of coffee farms in central Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanja, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Key words, Market reforms, smallholder agricultural development, prices, institutional framework, resource allocation and productivity,

  13. Agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections. Policy implications for regional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, G.; van Lindert, P.H.C.M.; Fold, Niels; Mynborg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This report analyses agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections in Sub-Saharan Africa with the aim to identify key policy areas for regional development. The report draws on the results from comparative empirical studies in various dynamic rural regions characterized by sma

  14. Modelling the Dynamics of Agricultural Development: A Process Approach. The case of Koutiala (Mali)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struif Bontkes, T.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction

    Sustainability of agricultural production and food supply is threatened in many developing countries by human population growth. The increasing food requirement forces the population to extend the cultivated areas to less fertile areas, often without taking sufficient measures t

  15. Modelling the dynamics of agricultural development : a process approach : the case of Koutiala (Mali)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struif Bontkes, T.

    1999-01-01

    Introduction

    Sustainability of agricultural production and food supply is threatened in many developing countries by human population growth. The increasing food requirement forces the population to extend the cultivated areas to less fertile areas, often without taking

  16. Agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections. Policy implications for regional development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steel, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304349828; van Lindert, P.H.C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069299382; Fold, Niels; Mynborg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    This report analyses agricultural transformations, livelihoods and rural-city connections in Sub-Saharan Africa with the aim to identify key policy areas for regional development. The report draws on the results from comparative empirical studies in various dynamic rural regions characterized by

  17. Climate change and development responses on agriculture in Quang Nam Province Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    2011-01-01

    The study describes the development of agriculture in Quang Nam Province and the adaptation to climate change. Climate change can be defined as the deviation from the “normal” climate variation and we did not assess the anthropogenic contributions to the climate events. It was not possible...

  18. The Development of Leisure Agriculture Based on Characteristics of Land Resource Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on analysis of geographical and location advantages of Qiaocheng District,we discussed characteristics of land utilization and local industry. In accordance with these characteristics,it is proposed to explore potential of farming land,speed up transfer of farming land in Qiaocheng District,and develop the leisure agriculture.

  19. Development of a Solid Phase Extraction Method for Agricultural Pesticides in Large-Volume Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analytical method using solid phase extraction (SPE) and analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was developed for the trace determination of a variety of agricultural pesticides and selected transformation products in large-volume high-elevation lake water sa...