WorldWideScience

Sample records for unitname ethnic total

  1. Ethnic differences in total and HDL cholesterol among Turkish, Moroccan and Dutch ethnic groups living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ujcic-Voortman, J.K.; Bos, G.; Baan, C.A.; Uitenbroek, D.G.; Verhoeff, A.P.; Seidell, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background High total cholesterol and low HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol are important determinants of cardiovascular disease. Little is known about dyslipidemia among Turkish and Moroccan migrants, two of the largest ethnic minority groups in several European countries. This study exami

  2. Understanding ethnic disparities in the use of total joint arthroplasty: application of the health belief model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Dennis C; Monahan, Patrick O; Cronan, Terry A

    2008-01-15

    The Health Belief Model holds promise in understanding patient-related factors that may explain disparities in the use of total joint arthroplasty (TJA). We examined whether patients' health beliefs differ between African Americans and whites. In a primary care clinic setting, 691 African Americans and whites with at least a moderately severe degree of osteoarthritis (OA) completed the Arthritis-related Health Belief Instrument. The instrument has 4 scales: perceived benefits of TJA, perceived barriers to obtaining TJA, perceived severity of arthritis, and perceived susceptibility of arthritis to worsen. The sample (40% women) consisted of 263 (38%) African Americans and 428 (62%) whites who were similar with respect to education, amount of insurance coverage, number of comorbidities, and self-report OA severity score. The African American group was younger, had less men, had more participants who reported an annual incomeperceive that TJA is beneficial or helpful for their arthritis. Furthermore, African Americans were 70% (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.18-2.44, P=0.004) more likely than whites to recognize barriers (e.g., risky, etc.) to TJA. Race was not associated with either the perceived severity or the perceived susceptibility of arthritis to worsen. Among patients with at least moderately severe OA, African Americans were significantly less likely than whites to perceive the benefits of TJA and more likely to recognize barriers to TJA.

  3. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Munter Jeroen SL

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due to differences in the PA composition. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the total PA, along with its intensity and duration, with HDL and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population. Methods The study population was sampled from the SUNSET study and included: 502 European- Dutch, 338 Hindustani-Surinamese, and 596 African-Surinamese participants living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We assessed PA with the SQUASH questionnaire. We calculated age-sex-adjusted betas, geometric mean ratios (GMRs, and prevalence ratios (PRs to assess the relationship of PA with HDL and triglycerides. Results In the adjusted models, the highest total PA tertile compared to the lowest tertile was beneficially associated with HDL (beta: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.16 and PR low HDL 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.88 and triglycerides (GMR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03 and PR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.29, 1.08 for the African-Surinamese. No statistically significant associations appeared for total PA among the European-Dutch and Hindustani-Surinamese. The adjusted models with the intensity score and HDL showed beneficial associations for the European-Dutch (beta: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.10 and African-Surinamese (beta: 0.06, 0.02, 0.10, for log triglycerides for the European-Dutch (beta: -0.08, 95% CI: -0.12, 0.03, Hindustani-Surinamese (beta: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.16, 0.03, and African-Surinamese (beta: -0.04, 95% CI: -0.10, 0.01. Excepting HDL in African-Surinamese, the duration score was unrelated to HDL and triglycerides in any group. Conclusions Activity intensity related beneficially to blood lipids in almost every ethnic group. The activity duration was unrelated to blood lipids, while

  4. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due to differences in the PA composition. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the total PA, along with its intensity and duration, with HDL and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population. Methods The study population was sampled from the SUNSET study and included: 502 European- Dutch, 338 Hindustani-Surinamese, and 596 African-Surinamese participants living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We assessed PA with the SQUASH questionnaire. We calculated age-sex-adjusted betas, geometric mean ratios (GMRs), and prevalence ratios (PRs) to assess the relationship of PA with HDL and triglycerides. Results In the adjusted models, the highest total PA tertile compared to the lowest tertile was beneficially associated with HDL (beta: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.16 and PR low HDL 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.88) and triglycerides (GMR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03 and PR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.29, 1.08) for the African-Surinamese. No statistically significant associations appeared for total PA among the European-Dutch and Hindustani-Surinamese. The adjusted models with the intensity score and HDL showed beneficial associations for the European-Dutch (beta: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.10) and African-Surinamese (beta: 0.06, 0.02, 0.10), for log triglycerides for the European-Dutch (beta: -0.08, 95% CI: -0.12, 0.03), Hindustani-Surinamese (beta: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.16, 0.03), and African-Surinamese (beta: -0.04, 95% CI: -0.10, 0.01). Excepting HDL in African-Surinamese, the duration score was unrelated to HDL and triglycerides in any group. Conclusions Activity intensity related beneficially to blood lipids in almost every ethnic group. The activity duration was unrelated to blood lipids, while the total PA

  5. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Munter, Jeroen S L; van Valkengoed, Irene G; Stronks, Karien; Agyemang, Charles

    2011-11-30

    Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due to differences in the PA composition. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the total PA, along with its intensity and duration, with HDL and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population. The study population was sampled from the SUNSET study and included: 502 European- Dutch, 338 Hindustani-Surinamese, and 596 African-Surinamese participants living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We assessed PA with the SQUASH questionnaire. We calculated age-sex-adjusted betas, geometric mean ratios (GMRs), and prevalence ratios (PRs) to assess the relationship of PA with HDL and triglycerides. In the adjusted models, the highest total PA tertile compared to the lowest tertile was beneficially associated with HDL (beta: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.16 and PR low HDL 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.88) and triglycerides (GMR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03 and PR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.29, 1.08) for the African-Surinamese. No statistically significant associations appeared for total PA among the European-Dutch and Hindustani-Surinamese. The adjusted models with the intensity score and HDL showed beneficial associations for the European-Dutch (beta: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.10) and African-Surinamese (beta: 0.06, 0.02, 0.10), for log triglycerides for the European-Dutch (beta: -0.08, 95% CI: -0.12, 0.03), Hindustani-Surinamese (beta: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.16, 0.03), and African-Surinamese (beta: -0.04, 95% CI: -0.10, 0.01). Excepting HDL in African-Surinamese, the duration score was unrelated to HDL and triglycerides in any group. Activity intensity related beneficially to blood lipids in almost every ethnic group. The activity duration was unrelated to blood lipids, while the total PA 'summary score' was associated only with

  6. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munter, J.S.L.; van Valkengoed, I.G.; Stronks, K.; Agyemang, C.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due

  7. Impact of the IL-4 -590 C/T transition on the levels of Plasmodium falciparum specific IgE, IgG, IgG subclasses and total IgE in two sympatric ethnic groups living in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafa, Manijeh; Maiga, Bakary; Israelsson, Elisabeth; Dolo, Amagana; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Troye-Blomberg, Marita

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of IL-4 -590 T/C polymorphism on the levels of malaria-specific IgE, IgG, IgG (1-4) subclasses as well as total IgE in the Fulani and their sympatric ethnic group, the Dogon, in Mali. Asymptomatic individuals, of the Fulani and the Dogon ethnic groups, were included in the study. IL-4 is involved in the regulation of IgE and IgG4 subclass. In line with this we found that within the Fulani, the T allele was associated with increased levels of total and anti-malarial IgE (P=0.02 and P=0.04, respectively). The Fulani T allele carriers had slightly higher levels of malarial specific IgG4 as compared to those with the CC genotype (P=0.08). No such differences were observed amongst the Dogon individuals. Taken together, these data indicate that the impact of IL-4 -590 variants on antibody levels may vary in different ethnic populations, and that this might affect the Ig-class and subclass distributions.

  8. Ethnic Tibetans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LHUNDRUP; DORJI

    2007-01-01

    Ethnic Tibetans speak and write by using their own language and characters. This language belongs to the Tibet-Burman phylum in the Sino-Tibetan language family. In over 1400 years of recorded history,ethnic Tibetans have been enriched by the profuse contents of their archaic books that make us gasp in admiration.

  9. Ethnicity and Ethnic Perception of Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Moorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The discourse of ethnicity, race dominance and Islamization has dominated Malaysian politics since 1957, after several centuries of colonial rule. Although the country has achieved admirable socio-economic progress, the ethnic Indians situation has somewhat remained backward compared to the Malay and Chinese communities. The objective of this article is to examine how ethnic Indians recognize their ethnic identity based on self perception of ethnic status and social upliftment and self assessment of the values of globalization that affect their thinking and opinions. Approach: The study employs a qualitative analysis of the data derived through open and close-ended questions posted on several social media forums (face book twitter and emails frequented by ethnic Indians. Results: The findings reveal that there was increased dissatisfaction among ethnic Indians regarding the status of their ethnicity and aspects of their social upliftment within the Malaysian polity. The analysis on how they perceive the values of globalization shows increased appreciation of values such as human rights, cultural rights, human security, freedom and right for social upliftment, but at the same time the analysis illustrates high level of discontentment on the actual achievements of these values. Conclusion: Therefore this study concludes that the recent socioeconomic and value changes have influenced how ethnic Indian perceives their ethnicity in the context of a multiethnic mix. Future studies into Indian ethnicity may explore aspects such as the changing ethnic worldviews, affects of human mobility and social ethnic conflicts.

  10. Ethnic Indentification in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄光学

    2004-01-01

    The ethnic identification has significant theoretical, policy-related and scientific aspects, and it has a direct bearing on the basic work of carrying out the Communist Party of China's (CPC) policy of equality for all ethnic groups. For more than thirty years, Chinese government departments at all levels concerned with ethnic affairs, starting from the actual conditions of all of China's ethnic groups,

  11. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    The thesis has three aims: The first aim is to review the existing knowledge about ethnic minorities’ outdoor recreation in Europe. The second aim is to investigate similarities and differences in outdoor recreation patterns between adolescents with ethnic Danish and ethnic minority background....... An emerging field of research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation was identified, compared to the research in North America. However, the European research on ethnicity and outdoor recreation is growing. The European research has shown differences in outdoor recreation pattern (e.g. the motives for outdoor...... for visiting natural areas were most often social, such as being with family and friends, and health and well-being reasons (exercise and relaxing from stress). However, the ethnic minority adolescents more often stated “to be with family” as an important reason for visiting green spaces compared...

  12. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    for visiting natural areas were most often social, such as being with family and friends, and health and well-being reasons (exercise and relaxing from stress). However, the ethnic minority adolescents more often stated “to be with family” as an important reason for visiting green spaces compared...... to their ethnic Danish counterparts. The adolescents use different areas for outdoor recreation: the adolescents with ethnic Danish background use sports grounds for outdoor recreation, while adolescents with ethnic minority backgrounds use urban green spaces for outdoor recreation. For activities reported...... comparison of to what extend and in what way policy documents and research approaches take into account ethnic minority groups. The findings indicate that there is a correlation in the current national research approaches of the four countries and the societal and political context of the four countries...

  13. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    for visiting natural areas were most often social, such as being with family and friends, and health and well-being reasons (exercise and relaxing from stress). However, the ethnic minority adolescents more often stated “to be with family” as an important reason for visiting green spaces compared...... recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... to their ethnic Danish counterparts. The adolescents use different areas for outdoor recreation: the adolescents with ethnic Danish background use sports grounds for outdoor recreation, while adolescents with ethnic minority backgrounds use urban green spaces for outdoor recreation. For activities reported...

  14. THE ETHNIC AND CONFESSIONAL STRUCTURE OF MUREŞ COUNTY IN 2011

    OpenAIRE

    George-Bogdan TOFAN

    2014-01-01

    At the 2011 Census, ethnicity, language, and religion registration were done based on each person's statement. Those who refused to declare these three characteristics, that is the people whose information had been collected indirectly from administrative sources, were included in the undeclared category. Therefore, the two structures (ethnicity and religious) are calculated based on the total number of declared people and not on the stable population. For the ethnic structure of ...

  15. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  16. Outdoor recreation and ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gentin, Sandra

    recreation, activities, and preferred outdoor recreation areas) between the minority and majority populations and related these differences to the ethnic minorities’ cultural background. The second paper presents the empirical work of this thesis, which is based on a survey of adolescents’ outdoor recreation...... pattern. The survey was conducted in two school districts: in North West Copenhagen and the municipality of Ringkøbing-Skjern (n=449, aged 14-16 years, 365 adolescents with ethnic Danish background, and 84 adolescents with ethnic minority background). The results of the questionnaire have shown both...... carried out during some part of the year, “going for a walk”, “barbequing”, “taking a trip with family” were frequently cited by both groups, but more common among adolescents with ethnic minority background. “Walking the dog” was much more common among adolescents with Danish background, who also more...

  17. Ethnicities and violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bodil Maria

    Ethnicities and Violence Bodil Pedersen, University of Roskilde A recent publication (Thiara, Condon and Schröttle 2011) presents and discusses questions concerning diverse forms of violence against women from ethnic minorities in Europe. The issue raises unsolved questions of how to study...... as violence and what meanings do we attribute to it? What meanings does gender and ethnicities have for diverse participants in violent relations? What are their societal consequences and how do we study these? Central is also how we conceptualise and study questions concerning violence in minorised as well...... as against ethnic communities. On one hand our research should allow for conceptualising and studying specific practices in these communities. On the other hand - risking repeating and supporting dominant discourses of gendered violence as characteristic for them – we do not intend to represent them...

  18. Ethnicity and children's diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced...... dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than...... those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm...

  19. Cardiovascular disease by diabetes status in five ethnic minority groups compared to ethnic Norwegians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diep Lien M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The population in Norway has become multi-ethnic due to migration from Asia and Africa over the recent decades. The aim of the present study was to explore differences in the self-reported prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD and associated risk factors by diabetes status in five ethnic minority groups compared to ethnic Norwegians. Methods Pooled data from three population-based cross-sectional studies conducted in Oslo between 2000 and 2002 was used. Of 54,473 invited individuals 24,749 (45.4% participated. The participants self-reported health status, underwent a clinical examination and blood samples were drawn. A total of 17,854 individuals aged 30 to 61 years born in Norway, Sri-Lanka, Pakistan, Iran, Vietnam or Turkey were included in the study. Chi-square tests, one-way ANOVAs, ANCOVAs, multiple and logistic regression were used. Results Age- and gender-standardized prevalence of self-reported CVD varied between 5.8% and 8.2% for the ethnic minority groups, compared to 2.9% among ethnic Norwegians (p Conclusions Ethnic differences in the prevalence of CVD were prominent for individuals without diabetes. Primary CVD prevention including identification of undiagnosed diabetes should be prioritized for ethnic minorities without known diabetes.

  20. Ethnic Identities of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Özdikmenli-Demir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to understand the relationship between ethnic identity, victimization/witnessing community violence, ethnic discrimination, and aggression in a sample of university students living in the South East Region of Turkey. The participants were 263 university students of predominantly Kurdish ethnic origin. The results showed that males had higher levels of ethnic identity in the dimensions of exploration and commitment. Males also presented higher scores for witnessing community violence and lifetime exposure to ethnic discrimination. The most important predictor of participants’ ethnic identity was witnessing community violence. Participants who witnessed violent acts in their social environment had higher ethnic identity levels. Although the predictor variables could not explain an important part of the participants’ aggression levels, only perceived ethnic discrimination was positively related to aggressive behavior. The role of native language efficiency in ethnic identity is also discussed.

  1. College Students' Storytelling of Ethnicity-Related Events in the Academic Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine storytelling of ethnicity-related events among college-going, emerging adults. A total of 280 ethnically diverse participants recounted a memory about a time in which they told a previously reported, ethnicity-related story to others. Analysis centered on the function of the telling and on to whom…

  2. Fatty acids intake among diverse ethnic groups in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna D. Hatma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of dietary pattern specifically fatty acids intake should prove to be an informative and powerful means to augment our understanding of the role of diet in chronic disease particularly CHD. Cross sectional study was implemented to describe the nutrients intake specifically fatty acids intake of 4 (four ethnic groups in Indonesia, such as Minangkabau, Sundanese, Javanese and Buginese. The percentage of saturated fatty acid (SAFA to total energy intakes were around 20%. The percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA to the total energy were about 4.4% to 4.6% among the Sundanese and the Javanese.While among the other two ethnic groups, the percentage of PUFA to total energy were less, 2.6 % among the Minangkabau and 2.8% among the Buginese ethnic. The percentage of mono unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA to total energy intake were higher among the two ethnic groups, Sundanese and Javanese (6.1% vs. 5.5%. While the percentages of MUFA between the other two ethnic groups Minangkabau and Buginese ethnic were lower (2.6% vs. 2.8%. Based on the ratio of PUFA: MUFA: SAFA, we could consider that Minangkabau and Buginese ethnic groups both had poor quality of dietary fat pattern. Having the poor quality of dietary fat pattern and higher fat intake, we might take into consideration that the Minangkabau ethnic groups, had higher risk toward dyslipidemia compared to the other three ethnic groups. (Med J Indones 2005; 14:242-8Keywords: fatty acids intake, SAFA, MUFA, PUFA , ethnic Nutrient intake

  3. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    in health related to migration and ethnicity. Thereto we will first define the concepts of migration and ethnicity, briefly review the various groups of migrants and ethnic minorities in Europe, and introduce a conceptual model that specifies the link and causal pathways between ethnicity and health....... Then we use the example of ethnic inequalities in cardiovascular disease and diabetes to illustrate the conceptual model. The second issue concerns the potential contribution from the health-care system to minimize the ethnic inequalities in health. As a public health sector, we should do all we can...

  4. Ethnic monitoring and social control: Descriptions from juveniles in juvenile care institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Basic, Goran

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has emphasized the institutional racism in total institutions. Researchers have highlighted the importance of narratives but have not focused on narratives about ethnic monitoring and social control. This article tries to fill this gap by analysing stories related to descriptions of ethnic monitoring and social control as told by juveniles of non-Swedish ethnicity in Swedish juvenile care institutions. A juvenile’s ethnicity was highlighted by drawing attention to the staff’...

  5. Ethnicity, ethnic identity, self-esteem, and at-risk eating disordered behavior differences of urban adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhea, Deborah J; Thatcher, W Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: to determine the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem as dimensions of one's self-concept; and to determine if differences exist among one's ethnicity, ethnic identity, and/or self-esteem when examining at-risk eating disordered behaviors. A total of 893 urban adolescent females completed three behavioral subscales: the Eating Disorder Inventory, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale, and Phinney's Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. As hypothesized, ethnic identity was significantly associated with self-esteem to form one's self-concept. When compared to Mexican American and White females, only Black females who were in the higher ethnic identity and self-esteem categories had significantly lower at-risk eating disordered scores. Our findings suggest eating disorder status in Mexican American and White females may not be associated as much with ethnic identity as with other acculturation and self-concept factors. Further, this study demonstrated ethnicity, self-esteem, and ethnic identity play significant roles in eating disorder risks.

  6. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Ethnic Heritage Foods. Experimental Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, Theresia

    Designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines, this teaching guide focuses on ethnic foods and their influence on and contributions to America's eating habits. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Project described in ED 150 043. The objective of this unit is to develop a knowledge and an appreciation of the food…

  7. Ethnic Speech and Ethnic Action as Ethnic Behavior I: Construction of the Brunel Ethnic Behavior Inventory (BEBI)

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, SO; Lefringhausen, K; Charura, D; Kangatharan, J; Singh, J; Tamimi, N.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we report the construction of a new survey – specifically, the Brunel Ethnic Behavior Inventory (BEBI) – designed to measure ethnic speech and ethnic action as separate, yet related, aspects of individuals’ ethnic behavior. Using Tajfel’s (1981; Tajfel & Turner, 1986) social identity theory as our conceptual frame of reference, we sought an answer to the research question of how many factors actually are measured by the BEBI; and we tested the hypothesis that a two-factor mode...

  8. Ethnicity, Marriage and Family Income

    OpenAIRE

    Matz, Julia Anna

    2013-01-01

    This study adds a microeconomic perspective to the discussion on ethnic diversity and economic performance in developing countries by investigating the motivation for intra-ethnicity marriage in rural Sub-Saharan Africa. Specifically, the paper proposes that ethnic similarity between spouses enhances economic outcomes through a shared agricultural production technology. Furthermore, the framework suggests that the probability of marriage within the same ethnic group is positively related to t...

  9. Ethnic variations in parental ethnic socialization and adolescent ethnic identity: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Morse, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents' ethnic socialization practices and adolescents' ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development.

  10. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  11. Ethnic Identity: Crisis and Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Aureliano Sandoval

    1990-01-01

    Presents Chicano/Latino ethnic identity development model that fosters understanding of ethnic identity conflicts particular to Chicano and Latino clients. Presents five stages (causal, cognitive, consequence, working through, and successful resolution) in relationship to ethnic identity conflicts, interventions, and resolution. Combines several…

  12. Ethnicity and the experience of work: job stress and satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G V F; Travers, C J

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents the findings of a nationwide investigation into the mental well-being and job satisfaction of minority ethnic teachers in the UK. Data were collected via a questionnaire containing both open and closed questions. The sample, totalling 208 participants was derived from the National Union of Teachers (NUT) database of minority ethnic teachers and an advertisement in the NUT's Teacher magazine. Univariate analysis of the results revealed that this group of teachers, as compared with other groups were experiencing poorer mental health and lower job satisfaction. Multivariate analysis revealed four reliable factors regarding the 'sources of stress' these minority ethnic teachers perceived they were experiencing. They are the 'hierarchy and culture of the school', workload', 'cultural barriers', and the 'lack of status and promotion'. Some minority ethnic teachers reported that ethnic discrimination on a daily basis or at least several times per week was a contributory factor in their experience of stress. Many of the teachers believed they worked within an institutionally racist environment. Multiple regression analysis discovered that 'total stress', 'total self-esteem', 'working conditions job satisfaction' and 'total discrimination' were the major predictors of mental ill-health in the minority ethnic teachers. Job dissatisfaction was predicted by 'total discrimination', 'workload', 'total general health', 'resolution strategy', and the 'lack of status and promotion'.

  13. ADDRESSING ETHNIC INEQUALITIES IN MEDICINE USE IN DENMARK:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero Arevalo, Lourdes; Traulsen, Janine Marie; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig

    2016-01-01

    . Methodology: We conducted a review of the scientific and grey literature on ethnic minorities and their access to and use of medicines. Because the aim was to share the philosophy behind the work of SCP‑KU (based on inclusion of the user’s perspective and the use of theory), only studies conducted...... with that orientation were selected. Results: A total of 24 studies were selected and analysed. The following successful practices were identified: (i) building trust between the pharmacist and the user/patient; (ii) involving ethnic minorities in all phases of the intervention (design, implementation and follow....... Conclusions: Shaping ethnically sensitive pharmacy‑related services requires the involvement and empowerment of ethnic minorities in all phases of the intervention research. Caution is needed when classifying social groups based on migrant and ethnic premises....

  14. Ethnic voting in the Andes: how ethnicity and ethnic attitudes shape presidential vote choice

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, S. G. W.

    2016-01-01

    The rise of ethnic politics has been a prominent feature of Latin America’s recent history, particularly in the Andes where much of the population claim some indigenous descent. Prominent politicians use ethnicity to frame important aspects of their political projects and identities, survey data show an emerging ethnic voting gap in several countries, and political protests, debates, and media coverage periodically expose strong ethnic undercurrents. Yet existing scholarship has not examined ...

  15. Commodification of Transitioning Ethnic Enclaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzano, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This literature review examines the changing roles of ethnic enclaves, the question of their authenticity, and their value as commodified spaces, giving special attention to Little Italy neighborhoods in the United States. Understanding the roles of ethnic enclaves requires some understanding about immigrants’ identities. For some theorists, immigrants become blended into society over the course of generations; for other theorists, descendants of immigrants sometimes retain their cultural heritage and traits, helping form a multicultural or pluralist society. In the traditional sense, ethnic enclaves consist of both ethnic residents and ethnic businesses (such as restaurants, shops, and grocers). One way that ethnic enclaves change is when the area experiences a demographic shift, and people from outside the ethnic group move their residences and businesses to the neighborhood, resulting in the area becoming diversified in people and businesses. A second way that an ethnic enclave changes is when the ethnic group shrinks, but the shops and other businesses remain, resulting in the area becoming diversified in residents but not businesses. This latter situation may encourage commodification of the neighborhood’s ethnic identity, where a municipality or business association seeks to preserve an enclave’s ethnic reputation for tourism purposes. This commodification has implications for many individuals and groups within the enclave as well as outside of it. PMID:25431441

  16. Commodification of transitioning ethnic enclaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzano, Kathryn

    2014-09-29

    This literature review examines the changing roles of ethnic enclaves, the question of their authenticity, and their value as commodified spaces, giving special attention to Little Italy neighborhoods in the United States. Understanding the roles of ethnic enclaves requires some understanding about immigrants' identities. For some theorists, immigrants become blended into society over the course of generations; for other theorists, descendants of immigrants sometimes retain their cultural heritage and traits, helping form a multicultural or pluralist society. In the traditional sense, ethnic enclaves consist of both ethnic residents and ethnic businesses (such as restaurants, shops, and grocers). One way that ethnic enclaves change is when the area experiences a demographic shift, and people from outside the ethnic group move their residences and businesses to the neighborhood, resulting in the area becoming diversified in people and businesses. A second way that an ethnic enclave changes is when the ethnic group shrinks, but the shops and other businesses remain, resulting in the area becoming diversified in residents but not businesses. This latter situation may encourage commodification of the neighborhood's ethnic identity, where a municipality or business association seeks to preserve an enclave's ethnic reputation for tourism purposes. This commodification has implications for many individuals and groups within the enclave as well as outside of it.

  17. Commodification of Transitioning Ethnic Enclaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Terzano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This literature review examines the changing roles of ethnic enclaves, the question of their authenticity, and their value as commodified spaces, giving special attention to Little Italy neighborhoods in the United States. Understanding the roles of ethnic enclaves requires some understanding about immigrants’ identities. For some theorists, immigrants become blended into society over the course of generations; for other theorists, descendants of immigrants sometimes retain their cultural heritage and traits, helping form a multicultural or pluralist society. In the traditional sense, ethnic enclaves consist of both ethnic residents and ethnic businesses (such as restaurants, shops, and grocers. One way that ethnic enclaves change is when the area experiences a demographic shift, and people from outside the ethnic group move their residences and businesses to the neighborhood, resulting in the area becoming diversified in people and businesses. A second way that an ethnic enclave changes is when the ethnic group shrinks, but the shops and other businesses remain, resulting in the area becoming diversified in residents but not businesses. This latter situation may encourage commodification of the neighborhood’s ethnic identity, where a municipality or business association seeks to preserve an enclave’s ethnic reputation for tourism purposes. This commodification has implications for many individuals and groups within the enclave as well as outside of it.

  18. Drawing on healthcare professionals' ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind, Anna; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Traulsen, Janine M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Methods: Data sources include 1) reflection notes from an introduc......Aims: To present and discuss implementation experiences regarding the involvement of community pharmacists with ethnic minority backgrounds in a medication review intervention for ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients in Denmark. Methods: Data sources include 1) reflection notes from...... minority backgrounds in interventions for ethnic minorities. Results: Informants perceived the need for interventions targeted at ethnic minority poly-pharmacy patients, and highlighted the potential of involving professionals with diverse ethnic backgrounds in such interventions. However, implementation...

  19. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, concealing substantial variation in actual exposure...... to ethnic diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context – where interethnic exposure is inevitable – affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each......, while the effect vanishes in larger contextual units. This supports the conjecture that interethnic exposure underlies the negative relationship between ethnic diversity in residential contexts and social trust....

  20. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, concealing substantial variation in actual exposure...... to ethnic diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context – where interethnic exposure is inevitable – affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each...... individual’s residential surroundings. We focus on contextual diversity within a radius of 80 meters of a given individual, but compare the effect in the micro-context to the impact of diversity in more aggregate contexts. The results show that ethnic diversity in the micro-context affects trust negatively...

  1. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2015-01-01

    We argue that residential exposure to ethnic diversity reduces social trust. Previous within-country analyses of the relationship between contextual ethnic diversity and trust have been conducted at higher levels of aggregation, thus ignoring substantial variation in actual exposure to ethnic......, whereas the effect vanishes in larger contextual units. This supports the conjecture that interethnic exposure underlies the negative relationship between ethnic diversity in residential contexts and social trust....... diversity. In contrast, we analyze how ethnic diversity of the immediate micro-context—where interethnic exposure is inevitable—affects trust. We do this using Danish survey data linked with register-based data, which enables us to obtain precise measures of the ethnic diversity of each individual...

  2. Place of Ethnic Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    UMAR Abdurehim of the Uygur ethnic group, aged 65, livesin Kuqa County, Aksu Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Facing the gate in the courtyard of his home is a row of buildings: from right to left a sitting room, bedrooms and kitchen. In front of the house is a five-meter-wide carpeted corridor. Umar's two-year-old grandson swings playfully on a long rope hanging from the trellis. A household specializing in tourism, the family receives countless tourists. The child is obviously accustomed to visitors and poses for photographs like a professional.

  3. Ethnic Differences in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldenhawer, Bolette; Kallehave, Tina; Hansen, Sune Jon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe, analyse and discuss the major findings of the qualitative phase of the EDUMIGROM project. The questions of analysis are: 1. How do social, gender and “ethnic” factors and their interplay inform performance, attendance and the general position of “minority......-ethnic environment play in the process? How do experiences of “othering” inform the shaping of “minority ethnic” identity? 4. Who are the agents (institutions, persons) responsible for promoting equal opportunities in the education of “minority ethnic” youth, and for diminishing the gap between majority and minority...

  4. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  5. Ethnic Differences in Persistence with COPD Medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yusun; Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Frølich, Anne

    2017-01-01

    : A cohort of COPD patients diagnosed in 2003-2007 in Copenhagen, Denmark, was followed for 2 years in the Danish national registers. According to the number of the LABD medications dispensed, individuals were categorized into three therapy groups: monotherapy, drug combination therapy, and multiple drug...... therapy. Persistence was defined as the period from the first prescription date to the date of discontinuation. Treatment was considered discontinued if the interval between the two prescriptions was longer than the number of days of cumulative medication supply according to defined daily doses plus 7...... days. RESULTS: In total, 1129 incident COPD patients using LABDs were included; 6.7% had other than Danish ethnic background. Survival analyses showed that in the cases where LABD medication combination presented COPD maintenance therapy, ethnic background was associated with the higher risk...

  6. Ethnicity identification from face images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.

    2004-08-01

    Human facial images provide the demographic information, such as ethnicity and gender. Conversely, ethnicity and gender also play an important role in face-related applications. Image-based ethnicity identification problem is addressed in a machine learning framework. The Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) based scheme is presented for the two-class (Asian vs. non-Asian) ethnicity classification task. Multiscale analysis is applied to the input facial images. An ensemble framework, which integrates the LDA analysis for the input face images at different scales, is proposed to further improve the classification performance. The product rule is used as the combination strategy in the ensemble. Experimental results based on a face database containing 263 subjects (2,630 face images, with equal balance between the two classes) are promising, indicating that LDA and the proposed ensemble framework have sufficient discriminative power for the ethnicity classification problem. The normalized ethnicity classification scores can be helpful in the facial identity recognition. Useful as a "soft" biometric, face matching scores can be updated based on the output of ethnicity classification module. In other words, ethnicity classifier does not have to be perfect to be useful in practice.

  7. Migrant and Ethnic Minority Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Agyemang, Charles; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    European populations have become increasingly ethnically diverse as a result of migration, and evidence supports the existence of health inequalities between ethnic groups in Europe. This chapter addresses two main issues. First, we examine the pathways that are considered causal to inequalities ...

  8. Ethnic Differences in Bone Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse eZengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available There are differences in bone health between ethnic groups in both men and in women. Variations in body size and composition are likely to contribute to reported differences. Most studies report ethnic differences in areal bone mineral density (aBMD which do not consistently parallel ethnic patterns in fracture rates. This suggests that other parameters beside aBMD should be considered when determining fracture risk between and within populations, including other aspects of bone strength: bone structure and microarchitecture as well muscle strength (mass, force generation, anatomy and fat mass. We review what is known about differences in bone-densitometry derived outcomes between ethnic groups and the extent to which they account for the differences in fracture risk. Studies are included that were published primarily between 1994 – 2014. A ‘one size fits all approach’ should not be used to understand better ethnic differences in fracture risk.

  9. Ethnic Differences in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moldenhawer, Bolette; Kallehave, Tina; Hansen, Sune Jon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe, analyse and discuss the major findings of the qualitative phase of the EDUMIGROM project. The questions of analysis are: 1. How do social, gender and “ethnic” factors and their interplay inform performance, attendance and the general position of “minority...... ethnic” adolescents in school? How do these factors intervene in forming educational strategies, and how are they reflected in longer-term career options? 2. How do “minority ethnic” students and their families relate to actual school experiences and to schooling in general? How do they interpret success......-ethnic environment play in the process? How do experiences of “othering” inform the shaping of “minority ethnic” identity? 4. Who are the agents (institutions, persons) responsible for promoting equal opportunities in the education of “minority ethnic” youth, and for diminishing the gap between majority and minority...

  10. Selective moving behaviour in ethnic neighbourhoods: white flight, white avoidance, ethnic attraction or ethnic retention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2017-01-01

    called ‘Ethnic Attraction’, or to remain there, called ‘Ethnic Retention’. This paper estimates the importance and size of these four kinds of behaviour based on an extensive database from Denmark using new statistical methods. It is concluded that white avoidance is the strongest reason for spatial...

  11. Total algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tel, G.

    1993-01-01

    We define the notion of total algorithms for networks of processes. A total algorithm enforces that a "decision" is taken by a subset of the processes, and that participation of all processes is required to reach this decision. Total algorithms are an important building block in the design of distri

  12. Tribal Hands and Ethnic Votes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elling, Rasmus Christian

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic politics is a serious domestic challenge in Iran. Non-Persian communities are mobilizing to claim their rights and to demand representation in a system that activists claim is biased against minorities and the peripheral regions. Yet the inner workings of contemporary Iranian ethnic politics...... are largely understudied. This article explores recent evolutions in the role that ethnicity, regionalism and tribalism plays in Iranian domestic politics. It focuses on how these interconnected factors figured in the 2013 presidential and local council elections in Iran in a particular province that has...

  13. The disease burden across different ethnic groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2011-2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Kunst, Anton E; Lamkaddem, Majda; Stronks, Karien

    2014-08-01

    Current disease burden estimates do not provide evidence across different ethnic groups. This study aims to assess the disease burden as measured by the disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for six ethnic groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, for 2011 and 2030. The DALYs were calculated by combining three components: disease-/sex-/age-specific DALYs per person; disease-specific relative risks (RRs) by ethnicity; and sex-/age-specific population sizes by ethnicity in Amsterdam in 2011 and 2030. Disease-specific DALYs were derived from the National Institute of Public Health. The RRs were obtained through a systematic review of studies published in 1997-2008. The population figures were gathered from the Statistics Netherlands and municipality of Amsterdam. The findings suggest that cardiovascular diseases and anxiety and depressive disorders dominate disease burden in all ethnic groups in 2011 and 2030. In most of the non-Western ethnic minorities, diabetes mellitus is the strongest contributor to the disease burden. The total disease burden will increase more strongly in non-Western ethnic minorities than ethnic Dutch. The 2030 disease burden is estimated to be highest among Surinamese and Antilleans. In ethnic minorities, diabetes plays an important role in the disease burden, and the total disease burden will grow stronger than ethnic Dutch, resulting in a higher total disease burden for some ethnic groups in 2030. We encourage researchers to estimate the disease burden by ethnicity so that health priorities can be set in the fields of policy, health care and research. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypertension and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Amanda; Parto, Parham; Krim, Selim R

    2016-07-01

    Despite its continued increase in prevalence in minorities, data regarding hypertension (HTN) control among such ethnic groups remains limited. This review highlights the most recent literature on the epidemiology, prevalence, and treatment strategies of HTN among four racial groups (non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), Blacks, Hispanics, and Asians). Overall awareness and treatment of HTN were found to be higher in blacks when compared with NHWs. Access to health insurance is associated with successful HTN control, particularly among the Hispanic populations. Recent data from SBP Intervention Trial suggests the blood pressure control and adherence rates in blacks were highest among men, with a higher number of comorbidities, and on diuretic therapy. Additionally, the initiation of thiazide-type diuretics and calcium channel blocker was superior to β-adrenergic blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blockers in blood pressure lowering among blacks. However, no specific treatment recommendations exist for Hispanics or Asians. Finally, recent guidelines from the Joint National Commission recommend initial treatment with a thiazide-type diuretic regardless of race. Despite recent progress, racial disparities in awareness and treatment of HTN continue to exist. To reduce this important gap, future research should focus on epidemiologic, genetic, and sociologic factors as well as specific therapies to achieve maximum medical benefit in these subgroups.

  15. Cultural Fields, Communication and Ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tufte, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    This article is a cultural analysis conducted in a neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Indre Nørrebro, where approximately 20 percent of the population is of other than Danish ethnic origin. It sheds light on the structural characteristics of two strategic sites, or cultural fields, within which everyday...... life and identity formation of ethnic minorities take place. We deliberately explore how ethnicity works or does not work as a marker in the configuration of the two chosen cultural fields: public libraries and ethnic media. We analyse the role of these two cultural fields in the social formation...... of Indre Nørrebro as a neighbourhood and in the local citizens' process of producing locality and a sense of belonging. How are these cultural fields structurally configured and organized, and what role do they historically and contemporarily have in the neighbourhood? The implicit assumption is that both...

  16. Methodological Reflections: Inter- ethnic Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on the methodological and epistemological aspects of the ethical issues involved in encounters between researcher and research participants with ethnic minority background in contexts with diversity. Specific challenges involved in longitudinal research (10 - 15 years) are a...

  17. Media Flows, Ethnicity, Racism and Xenophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, John D. H.; Husband, Charles

    1995-01-01

    States the importance of media definitions of ethnic majorities. Discusses media discourses concerning settled ethnic minorities, race relations and the news, ethnic minority media, contract labor, migrants and refugees, indigenous land-based groups, and ethnic minority presence in mainstream media. Draws examples from the United States, Eastern…

  18. Media Flows, Ethnicity, Racism and Xenophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, John D. H.; Husband, Charles

    1995-01-01

    States the importance of media definitions of ethnic majorities. Discusses media discourses concerning settled ethnic minorities, race relations and the news, ethnic minority media, contract labor, migrants and refugees, indigenous land-based groups, and ethnic minority presence in mainstream media. Draws examples from the United States, Eastern…

  19. Anthropology: Focus Upon Ethnic Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This course syllabus is designed to serve as the basis for a one-semester, 12th grade anthropology course or a one-year, 12th grade ethnic studies course. As such it can be used as the culminating course in a kindergarten-grade 12 sequence. The ethnic studies component is based on data collected by an Italo-American Curriculum Studies Project and…

  20. Ethnic identity and socio-linguistic: Multi-ethnic conflicts in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Manuel Lozano Martín

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Kazakhstan Republic is the ninth biggest country in territorial extension and it is also an important communication link between Eastern and Western countries because of its situation. The strong migration, both natural and forced movements since the 19th century, has influenced this country, has set it today as a melting pot of cultures and ethnic groups, having to live up to a total of 130 different ethnic groups. This circumstance has favored, from the Government of Kazakhstan, social policies, such as the creation of the «Assembly of peoples» where all ethnicities are represented, in order to try to establish a peaceful coexistence between different cultures which allows them to move from a multi-ethnic society to an inter-ethnic society. In this context is where the research is registered, the one which was commissioned by the Ministry of Culture of the Government of Kazakhstan to the Institute for Socio-Political Research, and to the authors of this article which have participated in this. The objective of this study was to detect those situations which we could call «significant multicultural situations» (Giménez 1997 in the daily reality of the population and which could be at the origin of the multicultural conflicts. In short, those conflict situations where the distinctive cultural component is the central axis in which the social agents, involved in the problem, take part. The results of this research are those which are intended to present to understand multicultural reality and can help social policies that are designed to be able to take the step towards «interculturality» of Kazakh society and obtain a peaceful coexistence based on respect for each other.

  1. Self-Assessed Intelligence: Inter-Ethnic, Rural-Urban, and Sex Differences in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined inter-ethnic, rural-urban, and sex differences in self-assessed intelligence (SAI) in a Malaysian general population sample. In total, 633 individuals varying in rural or urban location, ethnicity (Malay, Kadazan, and Bajau), and sex (women versus men) provided their self-assessed overall intelligence and ten multiple…

  2. Exploring Physical Activity by Ethnicity and Gender in College Students Using Social Cognitive Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip; Rhodes, Ryan; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Courneya, Kerry S.

    2012-01-01

    Intervention;The psychological determinants of physical activity (PA) among college students may vary by ethnicity and gender, but few studies have considered these characteristics. This study tested constructs from Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) by ethnicity and gender to explain differences in PA. A total of 231 Blacks (70% female) and 218 White…

  3. Ethnic enclaves and middleman minorities: alternative strategies of immigrant adaptation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobas, J A

    1987-04-01

    This article examines 2 modes or strategies of immigrant adaptation: middleman minorities and ethnic enclaves. Although they have been discussed as if they were disjointed and mutually exclusive, the authors challenge this view. Middleman minorities 1) tend to be self-employed or to work for a coethnic, 2) are usually concentrated in small business, 3) tend to rely on the in-group for resources, and 4) fill a "status gap" in the receiving society. Ethnic enclaves depend on 3 features: 1) recent coethnic arrivals spend a tour of duty at the worst jobs, 2) coethnics provide ethnic entrepreneurs with consumer markets, 3) ethnic businesses rely on each other to supply their operating needs. Ethnic enclaves are concentrated and spatially identifiable. For this study, the authors collected data in a survey of the Cuban exile community of San Juan, Puerto Rico. The sample selection procedure yielded a total of 261 individuals, 220 of whom were interviewed. 10 predictions found in the middleman minority and ethnic enclave perspectives were checked against the researchers' data. 4 of these predictions are hld in common by both approaches: 1) eomployment in an ethnic enterprise increases subsequent chances of self-employment, 2) ethnic firms rely on the in-group for business resources, 3) coethnic workers represent an asset to the ethnic entrepreneur in that they occupy important positions requiring the employer's trust, and 4) there is business competition between locals and minority members. As predicted by the middleman strategy, Cuban businesses in Puerto Rico tend not to be immediately productive and there is no evidence of spatial concentration of these businesses. However, fitting the enclave approach, these firms do not dominate certain business lines, Cuban entrepreneurs do not appear to be sojourners, and they tend to have business backgrounds. The middleman perspective is supported in that some elements of the local elite favor Cuban exiles. Thus, there is no

  4. Narrative and Ethnic Identity Exploration: A Longitudinal Account of Emerging Adults' Ethnicity-Related Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this longitudinal study was to investigate further the link between ethnic identity processes and content through an examination of emerging adults' narratives of ethnicity-related experiences. Seventy ethnically diverse college students completed an ethnic identity exploration index and told an ethnicity-related narrative on 2…

  5. A review of the dental caries status of ethnic minority children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shinan; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Liu, Juan; Chu, Chun Hung

    2015-02-01

    China has 55 ethnic minority groups comprised of 113 million persons, or 7.0% of total population. Dental caries is a major health problem for children in China, and national oral health surveys currently report dental caries based on geographical location rather than by ethnic group. This study reviews the literature on dental caries in ethnic minority children in China. Publications were retrieved in Chinese and English from five electronic databases; thirty-eight studies from 1983 to 2012 met inclusion criteria and described 25 ethnic minority groups. Primary dentition median caries prevalence and experience were higher (51% and dmft = 3.0, respectively) than permanent dentition caries prevalence and experience (39% and DMFT = 0.8). Median caries prevalence was highest (80%) for permanent dentition among aggregated ethnic minorities with population greater than 1 million. More work and research is needed to expand dental caries prevention and treatment measures for ethnic minority child populations in China.

  6. THE ETHNIC AND CONFESSIONAL STRUCTURE OF MUREŞ COUNTY IN 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George-Bogdan TOFAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At the 2011 Census, ethnicity, language, and religion registration were done based on each person's statement. Those who refused to declare these three characteristics, that is the people whose information had been collected indirectly from administrative sources, were included in the undeclared category. Therefore, the two structures (ethnicity and religious are calculated based on the total number of declared people and not on the stable population. For the ethnic structure of Mureş County, there is available information for 527 299 people (out of total of 550 846 people, Romanians numbering 277 372 people (52.6%, Hungarians 200 858 people (38.1%, Gypsies (Rroma 46 947 people (8.9%, followed by Germans (1 478 people, 0.3%, and other ethnic groups (Jews, Italians, Turks, Russian-Lipovans, Ukrainians, Polish, Armenians, Bulgarians, Czeanga, Serbians, Slovaks, Greeks, Chinese, Czechs, Croatians, Tartars, Macedonians and other ethnicities - 644 people (0.1%. Religion was declared by 525 764 people, most being affiliated to the Orthodox Church (281 113 people, 53.5%, followed by Reformed (138 129 people, 26.3%, Roman-Catholics (48 530 people, 9.2%, Unitarians (12 200 people, 2.3%, Greek-Catholics (11 077 people, 2.1%, while the category comprised of other religions, without religion and atheists reached 34 715 people (6.6%.

  7. Another Challenge for Africa: Ethnic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    interests. Ethnicity For the purpose of this paper, ethnicity is the common trait shared by all ethnic groups—a vague, but strongly held sense of shared...origin that creates ―enduring values, cultures or beliefs.‖5 Essentially, ethnicity is based on ―frustratingly ill-defined ascriptive traits that...respective legal codes of Cote d‘Ivoire, Nigeria and Kenya, ethnicity is the new 21st Century apartheid.37 Corruption New post-colonial leaders turned

  8. Ethnic family structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, P

    1989-04-01

    Using information from large-scale statistical collections and elaborations from ethnographic studies, this paper examines the underlying social processes and structures of migrant families in Australia. Migrants in Australia are often confronted by family values and behavior which run counter to their own. For some migrants, particularly those from the United Kingdom and Western European countries, there is little conflict as Australian family values and behavior approximate their own; the feminine conception of the family is not foreign to them. On the other hand, migrants from Mediterranean countries and from Asia are likely to face a clash between the masculine conception of the family and the dominant feminine conception they find in Australia. Economic structure also often forces an accommodation to the feminine conception of the family. For example, migrant women in Australia are heavily involved in the work force outside the family circle, and, in the main, have relatively low fertility. Age at marriage is increasing and many single women of migrant origin are being educated at the tertiary level and are working before marriage. These changes necessarily expose women and youths to the dominant social values and increase their economic independence, thus disrupting the conventional male family authority. There is evidence of a degree of accommodation to Australian patterns of behavior in migrant groups more inclined to a masculine conception of the family. In other areas, however, which are less directly related to economic pressure, migrant values have been far less accommodating. There is still a high level of endogamy, the 1st birth occurs soon after marriage, divorce rates are low, and the aged are very likely to live with their children. Large migrant groups have been able to maintain these patterns of behavior through the formation of ethnic substructures that form their principal social environment. In the longer term, however, their children are

  9. Ethnic diversity outpatient clinic in paediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahhan Nordin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health status of chronic sick ethnic minority children in the Netherlands is unequal compared with indigenous Dutch children. In order to optimize the health care for these children a specific patient-oriented clinic in ethnic-cultural diversity: the Mosaic Outpatient Clinic (MOC was integrated in the general Paediatric Outpatient Departments (POPD of three hospitals in Amsterdam. Methods Feasibility of the MOC, factors influencing the health care process and encountered bottlenecks in health care were studied in ethnic minority children with asthma, diabetes type 1 or metabolic disease originating from Morocco, Turkey and Surinam. Feasibility was determined by the number of patients attended, support from the paediatric medical staff and willingness of the patients to participate. Influences on the health care process comprised parents' level of knowledge of disease, sense of disease severity, level of effort, linguistic skills, health literacy, adherence to treatment and encountered bottlenecks in the health care process. Moreover, the number of admissions and visits to the POPD in the years before, during and after the MOC were analysed. Results In 2006 a total of 189 ethnic minority children were seen. Integration of the MOC within the general POPD of the hospital is feasible. The ability of the parents to speak and understand Dutch was found to be 58%, functional health literacy was 88%; sufficient knowledge of disease and sense of disease severity were 59% and 67%, respectively. The main bottlenecks in the healthcare process: poor knowledge of disease, limited sense of disease severity and low health literacy in the parents proved to be the best predictors for decreased adherence. After attending the MOC there was a decrease in the number of admissions and visits to the POPD for asthma while the number of visits increased in patients with diabetes and the amount of no-shows decreased in patients with a metabolic

  10. Ethnic issues in the works of John Steinbeck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Vičič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available John Steinbeck is an author whose literary oeuvre has evoked a rich palette of reactions, from open admiration to total rejection. This divided reaction to his works is probably at least to some extent due to the fact that his works address several contentious issues, one of them being ethnic issues, which will be discussed in this paper.

  11. Trauma and Psychological Distress among Ethnically Diverse Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Jeanne L.; Watson, Susan B.; Patron, David J.

    2016-01-01

    An association has been found between traumatic experiences and psychological distress; however, the impact of ethnicity on psychological distress is less clear. The present study examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and measures of psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of community college students. A total of 389…

  12. Trauma and Psychological Distress among Ethnically Diverse Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edman, Jeanne L.; Watson, Susan B.; Patron, David J.

    2016-01-01

    An association has been found between traumatic experiences and psychological distress; however, the impact of ethnicity on psychological distress is less clear. The present study examined the relationship between traumatic experiences and measures of psychological distress among a multiethnic sample of community college students. A total of 389…

  13. Living together apart? Ethnic concentration in the neighbourhood and ethnic minorities' social contacts and language practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, M.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Together with the rise in ethnic residential concentration, attention for the potential negative consequences of ethnic concentration in the neighbourhood for ethnic minorities’ integration has also increased in recent years. And although many neighbourhood interventions have been implemented, there

  14. Ethnicity and Public Space in the City: Ethnic Precincts in Sydney

    OpenAIRE

    Jock Collins; Patrick Kunz

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic precincts are one example of the way that cultural diversity shapes public spaces in the postmodern metropolis. Ethnic precincts are essentially clusters of ethnic or immigrant entrepreneurs in areas that are designated as ethnic precincts by place marketers and government officials and display iconography related to that ethnicity in the build environment of the precinct. They are characterized by the presence of a substantial number of immigrant entrepreneurs of the same ethnicity as...

  15. Ethnicity and interdisciplinary pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Christine M; Matsuura, Justin T; Smith, Clark C; Stanos, Steven P

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify ethnic differences in interdisciplinary pain treatment outcome and whether these differences occur while controlling for the effects of demographics, psychosocial, and secondary gain. We assessed a sample of 116 (Caucasian, African American, and Latino/a) chronic pain patients who participated a 4-week interdisciplinary pain treatment program. Outcome measure included pretreatment, post-treatment, and change scores on the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, Pain Anxiety Symptom Scale 20, Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, Coping Strategies Questionnaire-revised, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-short form. Analysis of covariances revealed that after accounting for educational and sex differences, ethnic minorities differed from Caucasians on a number of treatment outcome measures at pre- and post-treatment [F's ≥ 5.38; P's activity than Caucasians. Results support the notion that ethnic differences in pain treatment outcome exist. Further, ethnic minority groups appear to have greater levels of distress compared to Caucasians. However, African Americans, Latino/a's and Caucasians demonstrated similar improvements on all outcome measures, with exception of the use of prayer. Future studies should begin to explore the mechanisms to explain why ethnic group differences in pain treatment outcome occur. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  16. Patient satisfaction and ethnic identity among American Indian older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garroutte, Eva Marie; Kunovich, Robert M; Jacobsen, Clemma; Goldberg, Jack

    2004-12-01

    Work in the field of culturally competent medical care draws on studies showing that minority Americans often report lower satisfaction with care than White Americans and recommends that providers should adapt care to patients' cultural needs. However, empirical evidence in support of cultural competence models is limited by reliance upon measurements of racial rather than ethnic identity and also by a near-total neglect of American Indians. This project explored the relationship between ethnic identity and satisfaction using survey data collected from 115 chronically ill American Indian patients >or=50 years at a Cherokee Nation clinic. Satisfaction scores were high overall and comparable to those found in the general population. Nevertheless, analysis using hierarchical linear modeling showed that patients' self-rated American Indian ethnic identity was significantly associated with satisfaction. Specifically, patients who rated themselves high on the measure of American Indian ethnic identity reported reduced scores on satisfaction with health care providers' social skill and attentiveness, as compared to those who rated themselves lower. Significant associations remained after controlling for patients' sex, age, education, marital status, self-reported health, wait time, and number of previous visits. There were no significant associations between patients' American Indian ethnic identity and satisfaction with provider's technical skill and shared decision-making. Likewise, there were no significant associations between satisfaction and a separate measure of White American ethnic identity, although a suggestive trend was observed for satisfaction with provider's social skill. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including measures of ethnic identity in studies of medical satisfaction in racial minority populations. They support the importance of adapting care to patient's cultural needs, and they highlight the particular significance of interpersonal

  17. Ethnic Diversity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2017-01-01

    Due to its wide-ranging implications for social cohesion in diversifying Western countries, the question of the potential negative consequences of ethnic diversity for social trust is arguably the most contentious question in the literature on social trust. In this chapter we critically review...... the empirical evidence for a negative relationship between contextual ethnic diversity (measured locally within countries) and social trust. We cautiously conclude that there are indications of a negative relationship, although with important variations across study characteristics including national setting......, context unit analyzed, and conditioning on moderating influences. Building on the review, we highlight a number of paths for theoretical and methodological advances, which we argue would advance the literature on the relationship between ethnic diversity and social trust....

  18. Ethnicity, music experience, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Paul D; Swope, Alan J; Heide, Frederick J

    2009-01-01

    The researchers studied differences in self-reported music experience and depression across ethnic groups, as well as differences in the relationship between music experience and depression across groups. College participants (78 African Americans, 111 Asian Americans, 218 Whites, and 87 in other ethnic groups) completed the Music Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale. Statistically significant differences across groups were found on depression as well as on the MEQ factor for Subjective/Physical Reactions to music and on MEQ scales for Commitment to Music, Affective Reactions, Positive Psychotropic Effects, and Reactive Musical Behavior. A distinctive pattern of relationship was found between music variables and depression in the Asian American group, relative to the White and Other group. In particular, among Asian Americans there were negative correlations between depression and the MEQ Subjective/ Physical Reactions factor as well as the Affective Reactions scale. Implications were discussed for the literature on ethnicity and depression, music experience, and music therapy.

  19. Transracial adoptees bridging heritage and national cultures: Parental socialisation, ethnic identity and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Laura; Ranieri, Sonia; Barni, Daniela; Rosnati, Rosa

    2015-12-01

    Transracial adoptees represent a specific group of immigrants who experience unique immigration processes that bring them face-to-face with two cultural backgrounds: that of their heritage culture on one hand and that of their national culture on the other hand. However, there is a scarcity of studies focused on the way these processes unfold within adoptive families. This study was aimed at exploring how transracial adoptees cope with the construction of their ethnic identity. Administering a self-report questionnaire to 127 transracial adoptees and their mothers, for a total of 254 participants, we first investigated the association between mothers' cultural socialisation (enculturation and preparation for bias strategies) and adoptees' ethnic identity (i.e. ethnic identity exploration and ethnic identity affirmation dimensions). We then investigated whether ethnic identity affects self-esteem by testing the hypothesis that national identity moderates the relationship between ethnic identity and self-esteem. Results revealed that mothers' enculturation (but not their preparation for bias) supported adoptees' ethnic identity exploration, which in turn was positively associated with ethnic identity affirmation. Moreover, we confirmed the moderation effect: ethnic identity affirmation enhanced the level of self-esteem, but only for those adoptees who perceived a higher degree of national identity affirmation.

  20. Dietary Intake and Cardiometabolic Risk in Ethnically Diverse Urban Schoolchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lauren E.; Economos, Christina D.; Goodman, Elizabeth; Houser, Robert F.; Must, Aviva; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Morgan, Emily H.; Sacheck, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    Dietary factors vary widely among ethnic groups. However, the effect of specific nutrients on cardiometabolic risk is not well understood, especially in children. Four dietary factors known to influence cardiometabolic risk (ie, carbohydrate, saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fat intake) were assessed by the Block Kids 2004 Food Frequency Questionnaire in a cross-sectional sample of racially diverse fourth- through eighth-grade students (n=148) in a Boston-area school district studied between January and April 2010. Fasting total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, and body mass index z scores were measured. Differences in dietary factors and cardiometabolic risk factors were examined among the following racial/ethnic groups: white (39%), Hispanic (32%), black (8%), Asian (10%), and multiracial/other (11%). In bivariate analyses, total, saturated, and polyunsaturated fat intakes differed by race/ethnicity (Psaturated fat intakes above the recommended level. Forty-seven percent of children had at least one suboptimal cardiometabolic risk factor. HDL cholesterol, triglyceride, and IL-6 concentrations differed by race/ethnicity (P<0.05, P<0.01, and P<0.01, respectively), with Hispanics having low HDL cholesterol levels and high triglyceride levels, whereas Asians had high IL-6 levels. In multivariate analyses controlling for demographic characteristics, none of the dietary factors examined explained racial/ethnic differences in lipid profiles or inflammatory markers. Body mass index z score was associated with lower HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride, higher CRP, and higher IL-6 levels (P<0.0001). Further research is warranted to determine the influence of dietary recommendations at a young age among different racial/ethnic groups on cardiometabolic health. PMID:23102181

  1. Perceived ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms: the buffering effects of ethnic identity, religion and ethnic social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; de Wit, Matty A S; Schene, Aart H; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-05-01

    Perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) is positively associated with depressive symptoms in ethnic minority groups in Western countries. Psychosocial factors may buffer against the health impact of PED, but evidence is lacking from Europe. We assessed whether ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network act as buffers in different ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Baseline data were used from the HEalthy Living In a Urban Setting study collected from January 2011 to June 2014. The random sample included 2501 South-Asian Surinamese, 2292 African Surinamese, 1877 Ghanaians, 2626 Turks, and 2484 Moroccans aged 18-70 years. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. PED was measured with the Everyday Discrimination Scale. Ethnic identity was assessed using the Psychological Acculturation Scale. Practicing religion was determined. Ethnic social network was assessed with the number of same-ethnic friends and amount of leisure time spent with same-ethnic people. PED was positively associated with depressive symptoms in all groups. The association was weaker among (a) those with strong ethnic identity in African Surinamese and Ghanaians, (b) those practicing religion among African Surinamese and Moroccans, (c) those with many same-ethnic friends in South-Asian Surinamese, Ghanaians, and Turks, and (d) those who spend leisure time with same-ethnic people among African Surinamese and Turks. Ethnic identity, religion, and ethnic social network weakened the association between PED and depressive symptoms, but the effects differed by ethnic minority group. These findings suggest that ethnic minority groups employ different resources to cope with PED.

  2. A Preliminary Analysis of Associations among Ethnic-Racial Socialization, Ethnic Discrimination, and Ethnic Identity among Urban Sixth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Hughes, Diane; Way, Niobe

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from cultural ecological models of adolescent development, the present research investigates how early adolescents received ethnic-racial socialization from parents as well as how experiences of ethnic and racial discrimination are associated with their ethnic identity (i.e., centrality, private regard, and public regard). Data for this…

  3. Ethnicity as a variable in mental health research: a systematic review of articles published 1990-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møllersen, S; Holte, A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate how the ethnic variable has been used in mental health research, in theory, in measurement and classification criteria. Journal articles published 1990-2004 that address original research on psychopathology, treatment and mental health services and with "ethnic" or "ethnicity" in their title or abstract were selected. The papers were examined for their theoretical definition of ethnicity, how the ethnic data were collected and the criteria used to identify ethnic groups. The use of comparison groups and country of the studies were recorded. A total of 421 papers were identified. An explicit theoretical definition was found in 33 (7.8%) papers. Data collection procedure was mentioned in 248 (58.9%) and 104 (24.7%) papers described how data was converted into ethnic groups. The operationalizations of ethnicity have remained almost unchanged during the 15-year review period. Generally, the ethnic variable was incompletely reported. Confusion regarding which individual or social characteristics ethnicity refers to makes the research findings of limited value in clinical settings, and may continue to create misunderstanding about the effect of ethnicity in clinical contexts.

  4. Ethnic Groups in History Textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Nathan; Ueda, Reed

    Six popular high school American history textbooks are examined to address accusations of overcompensation by textbook publishers as a result of the raised ethnic consciousness of the 1970s. The textbooks are: "Our American Heritage" (Silver Burdett); "The Pageant of American History" (Allyn and Bacon); "A History of Our American Republic"…

  5. Socialization and Ethnic Identity Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Peter

    A study of identity development was carried out in Bristol, England, with Asian, West Indian, and indigenous British adolescents. Ethnic and gender differences in patterns of identification conflict with others were found between minority group boys and girls. Both sexes from both minority groups, however, had substantial identification conflicts…

  6. Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, D.J.; Jong-A-Pin, R.

    2013-01-01

    Bezemer, Dirk, and Jong-A-Pin, Richard Democracy, globalization and ethnic violence Do democratization and globalization processes combine to increase the incidence of violence in developing and emerging economies? The present paper examines this hypothesis by a study of internal violence in Sub-Sah

  7. [Ethnic Arts Program at UCLA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Allegra Fuller

    The ethnic arts major at the University of California, Los Angeles--an interdisciplinary undergraduate program of courses in anthropology, art, dance, folklore and mythology, music, and theater arts--is described. The program objectives are to facilitate cultural and cross-cultural investigation of human artistic expression, and to provide an…

  8. A Lisu Ethnic Traditional Wedding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUXIAOPING

    2005-01-01

    JANUARY 11, 2004, 20th day of the 12th lunar month,was Lisu ethnic minority girl Zhang Zhengxiu's wedding day. Her traditional wedding ceremony was held in her home village in Dechang County, Sichuan Province. The date had been chosen by a village elder and ritual master.

  9. Testing theories about ethnic markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Holm; Petersen, Michael Bang; Høgh-Olesen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, evolutionary psychologists and anthropologists have debated whether ethnic markers have evolved to solve adaptive problems related to interpersonal coordination or to interpersonal cooperation. In the present study, we add to this debate by exploring how individuals living in a m...

  10. Ethnicity and Education in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. L.

    With over 95 percent of the people professing Buddhism, about 90 percent having a common or related racial origin, and almost 85 percent speaking the Thai language, the Thai society is fairly homogeneous. There are, however, a few ethnic minorities of which the significant ones are the Chinese (12 percent of the population), the Malays (2…

  11. Education and ethnic minorities in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colding, Bjørg

    The objective of this dissertaion is to investigate educational behavior of ethnic monorities i Denmark. The focus of the analyses undertaken in the three papers included in the dissertation si, first, to what extent differences in educational choices, and consequently in educational attainmant......, among ethnic minorities and native danes can be explainedby differences i parental, family and ethnic background and, second, how education resources are allocated among children within ethnic minorities families....

  12. Ethnic segregation in context : Social discrimination among native Dutch pupils and their ethnic minority classmates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, L.; van Duijn, M.A.J.; Baerveldt, C.

    2009-01-01

    Social discrimination, defined as the relative preference for intra-ethnic over inter-ethnic relationships, was studied in pupils' networks in Dutch secondary school classes. While native Dutch pupils (ethnic majority members) mainly named fellow majority members, ethnic minority members reported ti

  13. On Psychology of Ethnic Identity and Behavioral Tendency of Ethnic Minority College Students in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huiying; Zhang, Qinglin; Chen, Peifeng; Fan, Fenghui

    2008-01-01

    In China, ethnic identity refers to both one's own ethnic identity and the identity of the Chinese nation. It is of great significance not only to individuals' mental health and full play of psychological functions but also to ethnic solidarity and regional and national stability. On the whole, ethnic minority college students in the Southwestern…

  14. Democratisation and Conflict in Ethnically Divided Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorrath, Judith; Krebs, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews three important factors in the academic debate on ethnic civil wars: the role of ethnicity in causing and structuring violence, the spread of ethnic civil wars once they have started, and the influence of democratic transitions in divided societies. The review displays the range

  15. Family ethnic socialization and ethnic identity: a family-driven, youth-driven, or reciprocal process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2013-02-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal associations between family ethnic socialization and youths' ethnic identity among a sample of Mexican-origin youth (N = 178, Mage = 18.17, SD = .46). Findings from multiple-group cross lagged panel models over a 2-year period indicated that for U.S.-born youth with immigrant parents, the process appeared to be family driven: Youths' perceptions of family ethnic socialization in late adolescence were associated with significantly greater ethnic identity exploration and resolution in emerging adulthood, while youths' ethnic identity during late adolescence did not significantly predict youths' future perceptions of family ethnic socialization. Conversely, for U.S.-born youth with U.S. born parents, youths' ethnic identity significantly predicted their future perceptions of family ethnic socialization but perceptions of family ethnic socialization did not predict future levels of youths' ethnic identity, suggesting a youth-driven process. Findings were consistent for males and females.

  16. Mexican-origin Early Adolescents' Ethnic Socialization, Ethnic Identity, and Psychosocial Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; O'Donnell, Megan; Knight, George P; Roosa, Mark W; Berkel, Cady; Nair, Rajni

    2014-02-01

    The current study examined how parental ethnic socialization informed adolescents' ethnic identity development and, in turn, youths' psychosocial functioning (i.e., mental health, social competence, academic efficacy, externalizing behaviors) among 749 Mexican-origin families. In addition, school ethnic composition was examined as a moderator of these associations. Findings indicated that mothers' and fathers' ethnic socialization were significant longitudinal predictors of adolescents' ethnic identity, although fathers' ethnic socialization interacted significantly with youths' school ethnic composition in 5(th) grade to influence ethnic identity in 7(th) grade. Furthermore, adolescents' ethnic identity was significantly associated with increased academic self-efficacy and social competence, and decreased depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors. Findings support theoretical predictions regarding the central role parents play in Mexican-origin adolescents' normative developmental processes and adjustment and, importantly, underscore the need to consider variability that is introduced into these processes by features of the social context such as school ethnic composition.

  17. Ethnic differentials in under-five mortality in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedini, Sunday A.; Odimegwu, Clifford; Imasiku, Eunice N.S.; Ononokpono, Dorothy N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. There are huge regional disparities in under-five mortality in Nigeria. While a region within the country has as high as 222 under-five deaths per 1000 live births, the rate is as low as 89 per 1000 live births in another region. Nigeria is culturally diverse as there are more than 250 identifiable ethnic groups in the country; and various ethnic groups have different sociocultural values and practices which could influence child health outcome. Thus, the main objective of this study was to examine the ethnic differentials in under-five mortality in Nigeria. Design. The study utilized 2008 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample drawn from 33,385 women aged 15–49 that had a total of 104,808 live births within 1993–2008. In order to examine ethnic differentials in under-five mortality over a sufficiently long period of time, our analysis considered live births within 15 years preceding the 2008 NDHS. The risks of death in children below age five were estimated using Cox proportional regression analysis. Results were presented as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results. The study found substantial differentials in under-five mortality by ethnic affiliations. For instance, risks of death were significantly lower for children of the Yoruba tribes (HR: 0.39, CI: 0.37–0.42, p HR: 0.58, CI: 0.55–0.61, p HR: 0.66, CI: 0.64–0.68, p practices such as plural marriage, having higher-order births and too close births showed statistical significance for increased risks of under-five mortality (p practices that negatively impact on child health and survival among some ethnic groups in Nigeria. PMID:24593689

  18. CVD risk factors and ethnicity--a homogeneous relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forouhi, Nita G; Sattar, Naveed

    2006-04-01

    Current understanding of cardiovascular disease risk (CVD) is derived largely from studies of Caucasians of European origin. However, people of certain ethnic groups experience a disproportionately greater burden of CVD including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Adoption of a Westernised lifestyle has different effects on metabolic and vascular dysfunction across populations, e.g. South Asians have a higher prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular mortality compared with Europeans. African-Americans demonstrate higher rates of CHD and stroke while African/Caribbeans in the UK have lower CHD rates and higher stroke rates than British Europeans. Other non-European groups such as the Chinese and Japanese exhibit consistently high rates of stroke but not CHD, while Mexican Americans have a higher prevalence of both stroke and CHD, and North American native Indians also have high rates of CHD. While conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, blood pressure and total cholesterol predict risk within these ethnic groups, they do not fully account for the differences in risk between ethnic groups, suggesting that alternative explanations might exist. Ethnic groups show differences in levels of visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, and novel risk markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin and plasma homocysteine. The marked differences across racial and ethnic groups in disease risk are likely due in part to each of genetic, host susceptibility and environmental factors, and can provide valuable aetiological clues to differences in patterns of disease presentation, therapeutic needs and response to treatment. Ongoing studies should increase understanding of ethnicity as a potential independent risk factor, thus enabling better identification of treatment targets and selection of therapy in specific populations.

  19. Ethnic minority psychology: struggles and triumphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sue, Stanley

    2009-10-01

    This article focuses on my interpretation of the history of ethnic minority psychology, using as a base the presentations of the contributing authors to this special issue of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. Because each contributing author has focused on a particular ethnic group or a particular aspect of history, my goal is to focus on 3 common issues and problems. First, what are the themes and issues that confronted African Americans, American Indians and Alaska Natives, Asian Americans, and Latinos? Second, what were characteristics of the ethnic leaders on whose shoulders we now stand? Third, what kinds of relationships existed between members of different ethnic minority groups?

  20. Race/ethnicity and workplace discrimination: results of a national survey of physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Pilgrim, Nanlesta; Wynia, Matthew; Desai, Mayur M; Jones, Beth A; Bright, Cedric; Krumholz, Harlan M; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2009-11-01

    Promoting racial/ethnic diversity within the physician workforce is a national priority. However, the extent of racial/ethnic discrimination reported by physicians from diverse backgrounds in today's health-care workplace is unknown. To determine the prevalence of physician experiences of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination at work and to explore physician views about race and discussions regarding race/ethnicity in the workplace. Cross-sectional, national survey conducted in 2006-2007. Practicing physicians (total n = 529) from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds in the United States. We examined physicians' experience of racial/ethnic discrimination over their career course, their experience of discrimination in their current work setting, and their views about race/ethnicity and discrimination at work. The proportion of physicians who reported that they had experienced racial/ethnic discrimination "sometimes, often, or very often" during their medical career was substantial among non-majority physicians (71% of black physicians, 45% of Asian physicians, 63% of "other" race physicians, and 27% of Hispanic/Latino(a) physicians, compared with 7% of white physicians, all p workplace. Opportunities exist for health-care organizations and diverse physicians to work together to improve the climate of perceived discrimination where they work.

  1. Total Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Moris E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Total thyroidectomy is a surgery that removes all the thyroid tissue from the patient. The suspect of cancer in a thyroid nodule is the most frequent indication and it is presume when previous fine needle puncture is positive or a goiter has significant volume increase or symptomes. Less frequent indications are hyperthyroidism when it is refractory to treatment with Iodine 131 or it is contraindicated, and in cases of symptomatic thyroiditis. The thyroid gland has an important anatomic relation whith the inferior laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid glands, for this reason it is imperative to perform extremely meticulous dissection to recognize each one of these elements and ensure their preservation. It is also essential to maintain strict hemostasis, in order to avoid any postoperative bleeding that could lead to a suffocating neck hematoma, feared complication that represents a surgical emergency and endangers the patient’s life.It is essential to run a formal technique, without skipping steps, and maintain prudence and patience that should rule any surgical act.

  2. Bussing of Ethnic Minority Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Gro Hellesdatter

    2015-01-01

    This article concerns the rights and duties of ethnic minority children in education in Denmark. More specifically, it discusses the policy of compulsory bussing of ethnic minority children based on language screenings that was legalized by the Danish Parliament in 2005. The policy concerns......, namely the right to free choice of school and the right – or duty? – to obtain more-equal opportunities in education. The policy creates a dilemma between these two rights and furthermore between a right and a duty to obtain better education results. The article discusses whether the bussing policy may...... be seen as an indication of a broader tendency for formerly established rights to be blurred and for duties to replace rights in education and in welfare more generally....

  3. Television viewing, aggression, and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M B

    1992-02-01

    For 416 college students, questioned about their experiences with aggression and television viewing, only very weak correlations between preference for violent shows and aggression were observed. Black males watched significantly more television than other respondents. These findings suggest that the frequently reported correlation between viewing televised violence and aggression may not appear when sex, ethnicity, and education are controlled in a sample of young adults.

  4. Young ethnic minorities in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche

    2007-01-01

    In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA-Copenhagen re......In Danish as well as in international comparative educational research, there is a tendency to foreground lack of skills or lack of achievement in discussions about learning among ethnic minorities[1]. Empirically, this kind of research (see for example Ragnvid, 2005, about the PISA......-Copenhagen results) is based on statistics and test scores - and it often lacks a basis in a theoretical understanding of how learning comes about. Theoretical and qualitative examples of recent educational research about ethnic minorities are often poststructuralist analyses of discourses and social categories...... come to be positioned in ways which can cumulatively disadvantage them trough intersections of ‘race', gender and social class. The factors that produce such cumulative disadvantage can surely be thought of as institutional racism, however unwitting and unintended" (Phoenix, 2001, p. 137...

  5. Ethnicity and Public Space in the City: Ethnic Precincts in Sydney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock Collins

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic precincts are one example of the way that cultural diversity shapes public spaces in the postmodern metropolis. Ethnic precincts are essentially clusters of ethnic or immigrant entrepreneurs in areas that are designated as ethnic precincts by place marketers and government officials and display iconography related to that ethnicity in the build environment of the precinct. They are characterized by the presence of a substantial number of immigrant entrepreneurs of the same ethnicity as the precinct who line the streets of the precinct selling food, goods or services to many co-ethnics and non co-ethnics alike. Ethnic precincts are thus a key site of the production and consumption of the ethnic economy, a commodification of place where the symbolic economy of space (Zukin 1995:23-4 is constructed on representations of ethnicity and ‘immigrantness’. To explore some dimensions of the way that ethnic diversity shapes public space we present the findings of recent fieldwork in four Sydney ethnic precincts: Chinatown, Little Italy, Auburn (“Little Turkey” and Cabramatta (“Vietnamatta”. This fieldwork explores the complex and sometimes contradictory relationship between immigrant entrepreneurs, local government authorities, and ethnic community representatives in shaping the emergence of, and development of, ethnic precincts. It demonstrates how perceptions of the authenticity of precincts as ethnic places and spaces varies in the eyes of consumers or customers according to whether they are ‘co-ethnic’, ‘co-cultural’ or ‘Others”. It explores relations of production and consumption within the ethnic precinct and how these are embedded within the domain of regulation in the daily life of these four Sydney ethnic precincts.

  6. Ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological adjustment among transracially adopted and nonadopted ethnic minority adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Tara; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Kawahara, Debra; Shuman, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Little is known on how transracial adoptees (TRA) navigate issues of race and ethnicity. Using Shared Fate Theory as a framework, this study was interested in the moderating role of adoption status among a group of ethnic minority adults in explaining the relationship between ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and mental health outcomes. Nonadopted (NA; n = 83) and TRA (n = 87) ethnic minorities responded to measures on ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes administered online. TRA and NA ethnic minorities reported similar levels of ethnic socialization, perceived discrimination, and psychological outcomes (depression and self-esteem). Perceived discrimination was significantly associated with depression for both TRA and NA ethnic minorities. Ordinal Least Squares (OLS) regressions that were run for a moderated moderational analysis suggest that the protective role of ethnic socialization depended on adoption status. Among the different forms of ethnic socialization, cultural socialization and preparation for bias significantly buffered against the effects of perceived discrimination, but the effects were more pronounced for TRA than for NA ethnic minorities. Because NA and TRA ethnic minorities were similarly affected by discrimination, it suggests that being a TRA does not confer any additional risk when experiencing discrimination. Additionally, the study found that ethnic socialization may continue to serve a protective role against the effects of discrimination into adulthood for TRA, but less so for NA ethnic minorities. These results have policy implications regarding the role of parental ethnicity in adoption decisions as well as the importance of educating adopted parents about ethnic socialization for ethnic minority children. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Do dimensions of ethnic identity mediate the association between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S; Kim, Su Yeong; Armenta, Brian E; Lee, Richard M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Schwartz, Seth J; Villalta, Ian K; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Juang, Linda P; Castillo, Linda G; Hudson, Monika L

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic group discrimination represents a notable risk factor that may contribute to mental health problems among ethnic minority college students. However, cultural resources (e.g., ethnic identity) may promote psychological adjustment in the context of group-based discriminatory experiences. In the current study, we examined the associations between perceptions of ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms, and explored dimensions of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) as mediators of this process among 2,315 ethnic minority college students (age 18 to 30 years; 37% Black, 63% Latino). Results indicated that perceived ethnic group discrimination was associated positively with depressive symptoms among students from both ethnic groups. The relationship between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms was mediated by ethnic identity affirmation for Latino students, but not for Black students. Ethnic identity resolution was negatively and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through ethnic identity affirmation for both Black and Latino students. Implications for promoting ethnic minority college students' mental health and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Ethnic Segregation in Arizona Charter Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey D. Cobb

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the criticisms of charter schools is their potential to further stratify schools along ethnic and class lines. This study addressed whether Arizona charter schools are more ethnically segregated than traditional public schools. In 1996-97, Arizona had nearly one in four of all charter schools in the United States. The analysis involved a series of comparisons between the ethnic compositions of adjacent charter and public schools in Arizona's most populated region and its rural towns. This methodology differed from the approach of many evaluations of charter schools and ethnic stratification in that it incorporated the use of geographic maps to compare schools' ethnic make-ups. The ethnic compositions of 55 urban and 57 rural charter schools were inspected relative to their traditional public school neighbors.

  9. Ethnic diversification in clinical psychology graduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toia, A; Herron, W G; Primavera, L H; Javier, R A

    1997-01-01

    Thirty-eight directors and 334 advanced graduate students from clinical psychology programs completed a survey on ethnic minority training offered in clinical doctoral programs. Comparisons were made between directors' and students' ratings on the following variables: students' level of interest in ethnic minority training, the importance of this training, and the effectiveness of the clinical programs' minority-related education. Minority and nonminority students' responses were also compared on these variables. Supplementary data were collected on ethnic minority education in coursework, research, and clinical practica. Findings indicate that students, relative to clinical directors, assign more importance to ethnic minority training and lower efficacy ratings to their programs' ethnic minority education. The results also suggest that minority students feel more strongly about the value of ethnic minority training than do their nonminority peers and the directors. The implications of these results are discussed, and recommendations are made to address identified problems.

  10. Race, ethnicity and the sport media

    OpenAIRE

    van Sterkenburg, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its multi-ethnic character and popularity, television coverage of sport can contribute to people’s beliefs and ideas about race and ethnicity. This role of the sport media is however, often overlooked or downplayed by the general public, by policy makers and by many scholars. This research project addresses this neglect and discusses the often taken-for-granted assumptions that are embedded in the use of racial/ethnic meanings and categorizations by soccer commentators on television an...

  11. Ethnic Conflicts and Governmental Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    manipulation by ethnic leaders. Thus, there are bidirectional relationships between hegemonic aspirations and ethnic leaders. Most of the time ethnic...perhaps the strongest and clearest statement of national identity. In essence, they serve as modern totems that bear a special relationship to the...Assessment of Interracial /Interethnic Conflict in Los Angeles,” 2002, Center for Research in Society and Politics, University of California. Serwer, Daniel

  12. The Mountain People——Ethnic Teng

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kelsang; Gonpo

    2008-01-01

    The Teng people are an ethnic group who live in the boundary area of Tibet.For various reasons,the survey of ethnic minorities in China.conducted in the 1950s,excluded the Teng people. Nevertheless,the products,the lifestyle and even the culture of the Teng people are unique amongst ethnic Tibetan.Moinpa, and Lhopa.They are,therefore,named as the"Teng people".

  13. National and ethnic identity in the face of discrimination: ethnic minority and majority perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Ludwin E; Phillips, Nia L; Sidanius, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Does the United States afford people of different backgrounds a sense of equal identification with the nation? Past research has documented ethnic/racial group differences on levels of national identity but there has been little research examining what psychologically moderates these disparities. The present research investigates how perceived group discrimination is associated with national and ethnic identification among ethnic majority and minority groups. Study 1 examines whether perceived group discrimination moderates subgroup differences on national and ethnic identification. Study 2 makes salient group discrimination--via an item order manipulation--and examines the effects on national and ethnic identification. In general, the 2 studies demonstrate that for most ethnic minorities higher perceptions of group discrimination are related to lower levels of national identity and higher ethnic identity. Conversely, among majority group members, higher levels of perceived discrimination predict higher levels of national identity with little influence on ethnic identification. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Reintegration of Local Communities Divided by Ethnic Conflict: Ethnically Mixed Municipalities in the Western Balkans

    OpenAIRE

    Čermák, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents findings from the research on the intensity and quality of local inter-ethnic relations in the sample of five ethnically mixed Bosniak-Croat-Serb municipalities in the Western Balkans region which were hit by the ethnic conflict in the 1990s. In each municipality, potential territorial, ideological and socio-economic cleavages are investigated. Directions of the identified cleavages are compared with the ethnic cleavage. Depending on the cross-cutting or reinforcing charact...

  15. Ethnic Diversity of Population in Vojvodina at the Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snežana Stojšin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vojvodina, an autonomous province in the Republic of Serbia, is ethnically one of the most heterogeneous regions of Europe and therefore represents an inexhaustible subject of research. There are more than 20 ethnic groups living in Vojvodina. According to the most recent 2011 census, there are 1,931,809 people living in Vojvodina and the Serbs make the largest ethnic group, 66.7% of the total population. Hungarians make 13.0% of the total population of Vojvodina and with a somewhat smaller proportion come the Slovaks, Croats, Rroma and Rromanians. In the period between the two censuses the reduction in the number of members of all ethnic groups was recorded and the only ethnic group that increased in number was the Rroma. Different socio-economic and demographic trends have had a great influence on the reduction of the share of members of almost all ethnic groups in the total population of Vojvodina in the last decades. First of all, it was influenced by forced migrations in the nineties of the previous century caused by the war on the territory of former Yugoslavia and its disintegration, a period of transition. The goal of this paper is to analyze the ethnic structure of the population in Vojvodina, as well as the factors which have had the most significant impact on the changes in the structure at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. The importance of this analysis is reflected in better understanding of the status of different ethnic groups in Vojvodina and a better quality of their inclusion in social, cultural and political life.

  16. Ethnic identity and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W.; Wiersma, Durk; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether neg

  17. Ethnic diversity at work : About interpersonal relations, well-being and performance in ethnically diverse organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, W.G.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304836478

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to better understand the mixed findings about consequences of ethnic diversity in organizations on various work-outcomes. This thesis starts with an overview of theory and research on ethnic diversity in the workplace in Chapter 2. Thereafter, ethnic diversity is

  18. Gender, Ethnicity, Ethnic Identity, and Language Choices of Malaysian Youths: The Case of the Family Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granhemat, Mehdi; Abdullah, Ain Nadzimah

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between gender, ethnicity, ethnic identity, and language choices of Malaysian multilingual youths in the family domain of language use. Five hundred undergraduate students who belonged to different Malaysian ethnic groups were selected as participants of the study. The participant aged between 17 to 25 years…

  19. Ethnic diversity at work : About interpersonal relations, well-being and performance in ethnically diverse organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, W.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to better understand the mixed findings about consequences of ethnic diversity in organizations on various work-outcomes. This thesis starts with an overview of theory and research on ethnic diversity in the workplace in Chapter 2. Thereafter, ethnic diversity is e

  20. Mild psychotic experiences among ethnic minority and majority adolescents and the role of ethnic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilbracht, Lizzy; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Wigman, J. T. W.; van Dorsselaer, S.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite evidence of the increased risk of psychotic disorders among ethnic minority adults, little is known about the effect of ethnic minority status to mild psychotic experiences among adolescents. This study investigated mild psychotic experiences in ethnic minority and majority adolescents in a

  1. Ethnic incongruence and the student-teacher relationship: the perspective of ethnic majority teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, J.; Westhof, S.; Koomen, H.M.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Among 36 ethnic-Dutch school teachers in the Netherlands, the present study examined the role of ethnic incongruence in perceived student-teacher relationship quality. Teachers rated their relationships with 59 Turkish-Dutch, 62 Moroccan-Dutch, and 109 ethnic-Dutch students attending grades 4 throug

  2. Mild psychotic experiences among ethnic minority and majority adolescents and the role of ethnic density

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilbracht, Lizzy; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Wigman, J. T. W.; van Dorsselaer, S.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.

    Despite evidence of the increased risk of psychotic disorders among ethnic minority adults, little is known about the effect of ethnic minority status to mild psychotic experiences among adolescents. This study investigated mild psychotic experiences in ethnic minority and majority adolescents in a

  3. Ethnic identity and the risk of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities : a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, Wim; Hoek, Hans W.; Wiersma, Durk; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The high incidence of schizophrenia in immigrant ethnic groups in Western Europe may be explained by social stress associated with ethnic minority status. Positive identification with one's own ethnic group is a strong predictor of mental health in immigrants. We investigated whether neg

  4. The work–study interface: similarities and differences between ethnic minority and ethnic majority students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Meeuwisse (Marieke); L.A.L. de Meijer (Lonneke); M.Ph. Born (Marise); S.E. Severiens (Sabine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractGiven the poorer academic outcomes of non-Western ethnic minority students compared to ethnic majority students, we investigated whether differences exist in work–study interface between ethnic groups. We tested a work–study interface model, in which the work-related factors work–study

  5. Birds of an Ethnic Feather? Ethnic Identity Homophily among College-Age Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…

  6. Epidemiology of atherothrombotic disease and the effectiveness and risks of antiplatelet therapy: race and ethnicity considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Elijah; Ofili, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, accounting for approximately 60% of total mortality in 2002. There is evidence that race and ethnicity is a risk factor for atherothrombotic events. Blacks have a greater risk of complications from coronary heart disease and unstable angina, with a higher coronary heart disease death rate compared with whites. The risk of ischemic stroke is 2-4 times higher among blacks compared with whites, whereas the risk of peripheral arterial disease is highest among non-Hispanic blacks. Additionally, Asian-Pacific Islander ethnicity is an independent risk factor for bleeding, even though this ethnic group receives less antithrombotic therapy compared with whites. The increased risk of events in these patient populations may have its basis in racial and ethnic differences in the pathobiology of atherosclerosis. Some racial and ethnic populations are also inadequately prescribed antiplatelet therapy despite their higher risk. Although this difference in therapy is hard to explain, it is becoming clear that factors other than socioeconomic status or clinical presentation are influencing racial differences in physician provisions of therapy. Antiplatelet therapy, including aspirin and clopidogrel, is an important component of risk reduction strategies, and there are few data to suggest racial or ethnic variations in drug efficacies. Thus, understanding and overcoming race and ethnicity-related treatment disparities should lead to significant clinical improvements in these under-served populations.

  7. Gender and Ethnicity Based Differences in Clinical and Laboratory Features of Myasthenia Gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzi Abukhalil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Previous reports describe ethnicity based differences in clinical and laboratory features between Caucasians and African Americans with myasthenia gravis. However, it is not known whether these findings apply to other ethnicities. Methods. Retrospective analysis of all patients treated for myasthenia gravis during a three-year period at a community based medical center. Results. A total of 44 patients were included, including 19 of Hispanic, 16 of African American, 6 of Caucasian, and 3 of Asian ethnicities. Female gender was more common among those with Hispanic, Asian, and African American ethnicities compared to Caucasian ethnicity (p=0.029. Anti-acetylcholine receptor antibody subtypes demonstrated no significant ethnicity based differences in either generalized or ocular myasthenia gravis. A trend was noted towards greater frequency of blocking antibodies among Hispanics (52.6% compared to African American (37.5% and Caucasian (33.3% patients (p=0.059. Generalized but not ocular myasthenia patients showed greater frequency of anti-muscle specific kinase antibodies in Asians and Hispanics compared to African Americans and Caucasians (p=0.041. Conclusions. The results of this study support the existence of ethnicity based differences in clinical and laboratory features of myasthenia gravis. Further study of genetic factors influencing clinical features of myasthenia gravis is indicated.

  8. Ethnicity, Strategic Mobilization and Voting in the Romanian Parliamentary Elections of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius I. TĂTAR

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Social scientists have made contradictory claims about the impact of ethnicity on social cohesion, the levels of social trust, civic and political engagement. This paper conceptualizes ethnic diversity as a contextual variable and evaluates its effect on the electoral participation of the Hungarian minority from Romania, using a case study of the Romanian Parliamentary Elections of 2008. The article examines the differences in turnout between Hungarian electors living in different counties of Romania, and how this varies by the ethnic composition of the counties. We discern two patterns of electoral participation of the Hungarian minority: lower turnout in ethnically non-competitive counties (i.e. low ethnical diversity, with the size of Hungarian minority below 8% or above 50% of the county’s total population; higher turnout in ethnically competitive counties (i.e. higher ethnical diversity, with the size of the Hungarian minority between 8% and 50% of the county’s population. The findings support the “strategic mobilization hypothesis” according to which electoral mobilization was unevenly distributed due to various stakes attributed to voting in different electoral districts, followed by a pragmatic cost/benefit logic adopted by the leaders and partisans of the Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania (DAHR.

  9. Research on Ethnic Minority Representatives in State Council Agencies During the Period of Nanjing National Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xueyin

    2016-01-01

    China is a multi-ethnic country. From the wuzu gonghe ( Five nationalities under one union ) in the early Republic of China to the current union of 56 ethnic groups, the participation of ethnic minorities in political affairs has always been a vital and important factor for the develop-ment of China’s democratic politics. On one hand, the Nanjing National Government was dedicated to the model of a“civil identification” and weakening ethnic characteristics. On the other hand, due to the immense pressure from the resistance of the Japanese invasion and the increase of minority representatives’ appeals, they had to gradually al-low some ethnic elites, as ethnic minority repre-sentatives, to participate in the national affairs so that they could acquire more political identity. Al-though the government of the Republic of China claimed “Five nationalities under one union” as well as declaring many times to guarantee extensive and orderly ethnic minority participation in national affairs, by analyzing cases of elections in the state council agencies during the period of Nanjing na-tional government, not all the promises were imple-mented. I. The general situation of the elections for ethnic minority representatives in the state council agencies. In the National Conference in 1931 , only Mongolia and Tibet were allowed to organize their own elections and send their own ethnic representa-tives. Among the total of 520 national conference representatives, Mongolian representatives accoun-ted for 12 , and Tibetans accounted for 10 . The National Political Council, which also known as“the Congress during war”, was founded on July 6 , 1938 , and was abolished on March 28 , 1948 . It lasted for 9 years and held conferences a total of 4 times. In all the 4 conferences, 10 people were elected as participants to represent Tibet to discuss political affairs, and 18 people were elected as participants representing Mongolia. However, al-though other minorities were

  10. Racial differences in sleep architecture: the role of ethnic discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomfohr, Lianne; Pung, Meredith A; Edwards, Kate M; Dimsdale, Joel E

    2012-01-01

    African Americans have been consistently shown to have less deep (slow wave sleep; SWS) and more light (Stages 1 and 2) sleep than Caucasian Americans. This paper explored whether discrimination, a stressor that uniquely impacts certain ethnic groups, contributes to differences in sleep architecture. The sleep of 164 African and Caucasian Americans was examined with laboratory based polysomnography (PSG). Experiences of perceived discrimination (The Scale of Ethnic Experience) and sociodemographic factors were also assessed. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking status, African Americans slept approximately 4.5% more total sleep time (TST) in Stage 2 sleep and 4.7% less TST in SWS than Caucasian Americans (pssleep architecture. Individuals who reported experiencing more discrimination slept more time in Stage 2 and less time in SWS (pssleep architecture.

  11. Ethnic differences in anthropometric measures and abdominal fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønn, Pernille F.; Andersen, Gregers S.; Lauritzen, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ethnic variation in abdominal fat distribution may explain differences in cardiometabolic risk between populations. However, the ability of anthropometric measures to quantify abdominal fat is not clearly understood across ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to investigate...... the associations between anthropometric measures and visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) in Inuit, Africans and Europeans. METHODS: We combined cross-sectional data from 3 studies conducted in Greenland, Kenya and Denmark using similar methodology. A total of 5275 individuals (3083 Inuit......, 1397 Africans and 795 Europeans) aged 17-95 years with measures of anthropometry and ultrasonography of abdominal fat were included in the study. Multiple regression models with fractional polynomials were used to analyse VAT and SAT as functions of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, waist...

  12. Partner selection and divorce in ethnic minorities: distinguishing between two types of ethnic homogamous marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Lievens, John; Van de Putte, Bart; Lusyne, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article compares divorce risks according to marriage type. The common dichotomy between ethnic homogamous and ethnic heterogamous marriages is further elaborated by differentiating a third marriage type; ethnic homogamous marriages between individuals from an ethnic minority group and a partner from the country of origin. Based on the analysis of data concerning the Turkish and Moroccan minorities in Belgium, it has been confirmed that the divorce risk associated with these marriages is higher than that of other ethnic homogamous marriages. However, specific divorce patterns according to marriage type also indicate the importance of differences between the minority groups.

  13. Cognitive Training for Ethnic Minority Older Adults in the United States: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzuang, Marian; Owusu, Jocelynn T; Spira, Adam P; Albert, Marilyn S; Rebok, George W

    2017-05-30

    Interest in cognitive training for healthy older adults to reduce cognitive decline has grown considerably over the past few decades. Given the shift toward a more diverse society, the purpose of this review is to examine the extent of race/ethnic minority participation in cognitive training studies and characteristics of studies that included race/ethnic minority participants. This review considered peer-reviewed studies reporting cognitive training studies for cognitively healthy, community-dwelling older adults (age 55+) in the United States published in English before December 31, 2015. A total of 31 articles published between 1986 and 2015 meeting inclusion criteria were identified and included in the review. A total of 6,432 participants were recruited across all of the studies, and ranged in age from 55 to 99 years. Across all studies examined, 39% reported racial/ethnic background information. Only 3 of these studies included a substantial number of minorities (26.7% in the ACTIVE study; 28.4% in the SeniorWISE study; 22.7% in the TEAM study). Race/ethnic minority older adults were disproportionately underrepresented in cognitive training studies. Further research should aim to enroll participants representative of various race/ethnic minority populations. Strategies for recruitment and retention of ethnic minority participants in cognitive training research are discussed, which could lead to the development of more culturally appropriate and perhaps more effective cognitive interventions.

  14. The Emotional Challenge of Ethnic Studies Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Paul R.

    1992-01-01

    Many ethnic-majority college students have strong emotional reactions to ethnic-American literature and the conflict of social myth with social reality. Teachers can guide students through the seven stages leading from disillusionment to understanding (shock, denial, anger, rejection, examination, understanding, and acceptance) in part by…

  15. Ethnicity, National Integrity and Monument in Argal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Bahadur Khattri

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In Nepal, social inclusion, ethnic identity, positive discrimination and proportional representation being burning issues now. Ethnic identity is a vital element of discussion for social inclusion, positive discrimination and proportional representation. Assertion on ethnic identity, seeks recognition from concerned institutions, practices traditions and advocates their ethnic right on socio-economic and political power. These issues are intrinsically linked to national integration. To be sure, very little attention is paid toward ancestral monuments of the past. Monuments vary by their size, pattern, investment, management, and range of dissemination. Local level monuments have little possibility to attract the attention of people of various places and interest, unless they have becomes extraordinary significance. In order to understand monumentality in wider social context, it is very important to look at the village level society. Monument building in Nepal has been linked to culture, history, religion, ethnic identity as well as social system. Argal VDC of Baglung district of Nepal represent with multi-ethnic/caste setting that has high influence over the nature of monument and the rituals performed. In multiethnic setting economic, social, and political activities co-exist, each nourishing the other.Key Words: Ethnicity, Argali Magars, Intra-ethnic relation, Magars, Monuments, National Integrity, NepalDOI = 10.3126/dsaj.v2i0.1359Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.2 pp.101-120

  16. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT VS PROTECTION OF ETHNIC CULTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑茜; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    In November 2004,on international symposium was held in Kunming capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province,on economic development vs.protection of China's ethnic cultures.Participants agreed that the gathering came in good time in view of the fact that economic development is posing a growing threat to the very existence of ethnic cultures.

  17. Race, ethnicity and the sport media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sterkenburg, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Due to its multi-ethnic character and popularity, television coverage of sport can contribute to people’s beliefs and ideas about race and ethnicity. This role of the sport media is however, often overlooked or downplayed by the general public, by policy makers and by many scholars. This research pr

  18. Uyghur Muslim Ethnic Separatism in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Japanese occupied territories and warlord fiefdoms, including Xinjiang, which was ruled by an autonomous military governor who nervously sought aid...many even greater injustices against ethnic minorities. Religion was especially suppressed, but so was ethnic language, cultural cuisines and garb

  19. Ethnic Attitudes of Hungarian Students in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Bob; Obenchain, Kathryn M.; Oikonomidoy, Eleni

    2012-01-01

    Participants in this study were ethnic Hungarian secondary students attending high schools in Romania in which Hungarian was the primary language of instruction. Attitudes of participants toward ethnic and cultural groups were measured using a variation of the Bogardus (1933) Scale of Social Distance. Results were consistent with predictions based…

  20. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  1. Ethnic Minority Problems in the Niger Delta

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    brief historical overview of ethnic minority problems and politics in Nigeria; the third and fourth sections ... and the ethno-nationalistic Kurds are examples of indigenous peoples. ... Koreans in Japan, the Chinese in Malaysia and the residual European and ... three major institutional paradigms of ethnic conflict management.

  2. Racial and Ethnic Stereotypes and Bullying Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Anthony A.; Williams, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a serious problem within the U.S. school system. Prior research suggests that victimization is stratified by race and ethnicity. However, few studies consider factors that may moderate this relationship. This article extends research on this topic by considering whether stereotypes moderate bullying among racial and ethnic youth. Youth…

  3. Student and Faculty Ethnic Diversity Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Keith; Girardi, Anthony G.

    2007-01-01

    The annual Ethnic Diversity Report provides information about minority student enrollment and minority faculty at Iowa colleges and universities. The "Student and Faculty Ethnic Diversity Report" has been prepared annually since 1992 and is provided to the Governor and General Assembly leadership. This summary is based on a Fall 2006…

  4. Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Labour Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This study investigates empirically how residence in ethnic enclaves affects labour market outcomes of refugees. Self-selection into ethnic enclaves in terms of unobservable characteristics is taken into account by exploitation of a Danish spatial dispersal policy which randomly disperses new ref...

  5. Racial and Ethnic Identities in American Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.

    The investigation of race relations, of social problems related to race and ethnicity, and of different racial and social groups, all presume prior information about the definition of racial or ethnic group identity, about the formation, maintenance, and dissolution of such identities, and about the importance of such identities in American…

  6. [Discrimination and depression in ethnic minority groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, U.Z.; Snijder, M.B.; Fassaert, T.J.; Schene, A.H.; Kunst, A.E.; Stronks, K.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of perceived ethnic discrimination to depression in various ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: We included participants aged 18-70 years of Dutch (n = 1,744), Asian Surinamese (n = 1,126), Creole Surinamese (n = 1,770)

  7. Ethnic disparities in Dutch juvenile justice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komen, M.; van Schooten, E.

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, ethnic minority boys are heavily overrepresented in prisons and secure judicial institutions for juveniles. In a sample of 324 juveniles of both native Dutch and ethnic minority origin who have come into contact with the Dutch criminal justice authorities, we compared the number

  8. Ethnic Art Falling Out of Favor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Maria Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    During the multiculturalist wave that started in the 1950s, traditional ethnic art flowed in from across the globe. Today, that wave has receded as contemporary art has gained momentum. The trend toward contemporary art became more palpable in the 1990s. Baby Boomers had been exposed to ethnic art through programs like the Peace Corps. However, as…

  9. Why Does China Adopt the System of Regional Ethnic Autonomy?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic autonomous areas have been set up throughout China where ethnic minorities live china practices regional autonomy for ethnic minorities, not other policies. It is the right choice based on China’s basic conditions.

  10. Chinese ethnic meat products: Continuity and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weicai; Wen, Wenting; Deng, Yue; Tian, Yuanyuan; Sun, Honghu; Sun, Qun

    2016-10-01

    With their distinctive sensory characterizations and unique processing technologies, Chinese ethnic meat products possess great potential for development and continuity in modern China's meat industry. Due to the greater demand for meat products and higher quality and safety concerns in economically fast growing China, the development and continuity of ethnic meat products face its own unique challenges. In this review, the classification of typical ethnic products and their characteristics, and the research progress on their quality and processing technologies are discussed. The application of innovative and green technologies to improve the safety and quality of ethnic meat products for greater industrialization and sustainable development is highlighted. Furthermore, the strategy for promoting the production of Chinese ethnic meat products during the next five years is presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ethnic marketing possibilities and its ethics issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agota Kozma

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the possibilities of ethnic marketing and its ethic connections. The differences found in our face-to-face interviews and analysing questionnaire data will provide opportunities for Hungarian small enterprises. Targeting ethnic groups for marketing purposes results in ethical difficulties. In Hungary, ethnic marketing is yet an inexperienced concept. Based on these ideas the authors examine the ins and outs of using ethnic marketing in case of Germans in Hungary. Consumers with German ethnic attitude really want German products and brands. At the same time, enterprises have to emphasise the products’ “Germanness” and character in a better/stronger way because this can help for better consumer decision making.

  12. Narrative and ethnic identity exploration: a longitudinal account of emerging adults' ethnicity-related experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    The purpose in this longitudinal study was to investigate further the link between ethnic identity processes and content through an examination of emerging adults' narratives of ethnicity-related experiences. Seventy ethnically diverse college students completed an ethnic identity exploration index and told an ethnicity-related narrative on 2 occasions 18 months apart. Results indicated that (a) participants who increased in exploration over time were more likely to change their narrative theme than participants who decreased or remained stable in exploration and (b) these changes were more likely to be to stories of experience of prejudice or connection to culture. This study highlights the costs and benefits of ethnic identity and provides evidence for a linkage between ethnic identity process and content in emerging adulthood.

  13. Ethnic Conflicts and Identity Construction in a European Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕

    2008-01-01

    "ethnicity". "othnie identity"and"ethnic conflicts"have been remaining a focus for research. In this article it will explain the understanding of ethnicity as well as the definition of ethnic groups and ethnic identity;illustrate the relationship between ethnlcity and ethnic conflict based on 4 kinds of examples;discuss 4 sorts of methods on minorities and display the aim and measures of EU identity construction.

  14. Ethnic Russian Minority in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarska-Frykowska Agata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the position of Russians in Estonia and their relation with ethnic Estonians. The author analyzes models of the society integration introduced by Tallinn after 1991. The results raise questions regarding language education in Estonia, the proficiency level of Estonian is getting widely known by Russians, but on the other hand, there is still a significant part of the population that cannot communicate in Estonian. Those who have a good command of Estonian tend to be better integrated and to coexist with both Estonians and Russians. Russians living in Estonia are supposed to be equally involved in social and political life of the state. The potential of all residents has to be effectively and considerably used, especially when the number of population is decreasing. The position of Russians in Estonia is a major domestic and bilateral issue in the relations with the Russian Federation.

  15. Ethnicity and stratum corneum ceramides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, J.M.; Høgh, Julie Kaae; Hellgren, Lars

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The barrier function of the skin is dependent on an optimal composition of the stratum corneum lipids, exemplified by the altered lipid profile in patients with atopic eczema (AE). Differences in the global prevalence of AE point to the environment as an important factor in AE. Studies...... on filaggrin point to a genetic aspect in AE. The influence of environment and genes needs to be explored. OBJECTIVES: To investigate possible differences in stratum corneum lipids between different healthy ethnicities living in the same environment. METHODS: Healthy participants without any major skin...... diseases were enrolled in the study. Twenty-five participants of Asian origin (Asians), 18 of African origin (Africans) and 28 of Danish origin (white-skinned), all students at universities in the Copenhagen area of Denmark, had the ceramide profile of their stratum corneum examined using the cyanoacrylate...

  16. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Problem Behaviors in Muslim Immigrant Early Adolescents : Moderating Effects of Ethnic, Religious, and National Group Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuijten, Maykel

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship.

  17. Russian Population Ethnic Structure: Trends and Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safronov S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the census data from 1989, 2002 and 2010, the article analyzes the evolution of the ethnic structure of the population of the post-Soviet Russia from the territorial perspective. The stability of the ethnic structure of the “Russian mega nucleus” and indigenization of the national regions are considered in view of the differences in migration trends during the two inter-census periods and the socioeconomic situation in the regions. The urbanization rate of major ethnic groups is an indirect indicator of the prospects of traditional “primordial” ethnic identities in different ethnic groups. Special attention is paid to new trends — an increase in the number of people refraining from answering the question about their ethnic identity or giving an unclear answer. Alongside serious census errors, this phenomenon can be a result of growing complexity of the ethnic identity structures and the processes of modernization, which occur at different rates in Russian and national regions. Based on the 2010 census data, the article analyses the differences in polyethnicity between the rural and urban population, which are accounted for by the historical background, particularities of regional development, settlement features, and migration processes of the past two decades.

  18. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infections among ethnic groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; determinants and ethnic sexual mixing patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannie J van der Helm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for chlamydia, including the role of ethnicity, and identified transmission patterns and ethnic sexual networks among clients of two clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname. METHODS: Participants were recruited at two sites a sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic and a family planning (FP clinic in Paramaribo. Urine samples from men and nurse-collected vaginal swabs were obtained for nucleic acid amplification testing. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of chlamydia. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST was performed to genotype C. trachomatis. To identify transmission patterns and sexual networks, a minimum spanning tree was created, using full MLST profiles. Clusters in the minimum spanning tree were compared for ethnic composition. RESULTS: Between March 2008 and July 2010, 415 men and 274 women were included at the STI clinic and 819 women at the FP clinic. Overall chlamydia prevalence was 15% (224/1508. Age, ethnicity, and recruitment site were significantly associated with chlamydia in multivariable analysis. Participants of Creole and Javanese ethnicity were more frequently infected with urogenital chlamydia. Although sexual mixing with other ethnic groups did differ significantly per ethnicity, this mixing was not independently significantly associated with chlamydia. We typed 170 C. trachomatis-positive samples (76% and identified three large C. trachomatis clusters. Although the proportion from various ethnic groups differed significantly between the clusters (P = 0.003, all five major ethnic groups were represented in all three clusters. CONCLUSION: Chlamydia prevalence in Suriname is high and targeted prevention

  19. Buryat Ethnic Mentality and National Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagbaev E.D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on ways the national (in a regional aspect broadcasting impacts ethnic mind formation and its further development, the latter issues being under a main focus of Buryat State University scholars as well. They set an objective to investigate the issue from different angles, for this reason gathering within scientific projects into scholars’groups took place. In this case the group of educators, philologists and sociologists have focused on media which construct ethnic mind via interiorizing and cultivating ethnic-related ideas and images for five years. Providing a general outlook of the world, National Broadcasting (NB is a proper institutional mechanism that helps a person identify himself / herself among different ethnic groups. Ethnic identity and self-consciousness are manifested in various social and intercultural communications. This allows a person to become aware of the peculiarities of his / her and others’ ethnic communities. The outcomes of a sociological research held by the authors verify the significance of both the posed problems and the TV role. One may find theoretical and empirical data in Zandeeva, S.K. (2012, Dagbaeva, N.Zh.(2012, Dagbaev (2014, Dashinimaeva, P.P., et al (2015. Generally, national programs do contribute to integrating people of the same ethnicity into a common community, to shaping such moral qualities as humanity, love to motherland, respect for the elders and other ethnic nationalities. All these characteristics form proper rules of living in a tolerant community. At the same time, they contribute to strengthening of the feeling of ethnic unity. Beyond any doubt, NB needs a relevant assessment and interest to promote and advance its function in a modern society. On the one hand, telecommunications markets liberalize. On the other hand, broadcasting technologies have developed to a highest extent, leading to the increase of international competition [14]. Anyway, both directions force

  20. Exclusion and Inclusion of Nonwhite Ethnic Minority Groups in 72 North American and European Cardiovascular Cohort Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cohort studies are recommended for understanding ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to review the process for identifying, including, and excluding ethnic minority populations in published cardiovascular cohort studies in Europe and North America. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We found the literature using Medline (1966-2005, Embase (1980-2001, Cinahl, Web of Science, and citations from references; consultations with colleagues; Internet searches; and RB's personal files. A total of 72 studies were included, 39 starting after 1975. Decision-making on inclusion and exclusion of racial/ethnic groups, the conceptual basis of race/ethnicity, and methods of classification of racial/ethnic groups were rarely explicit. Few publications provided details on the racial/ethnic composition of the study setting or sample, and 39 gave no description. Several studies were located in small towns or in occupational settings, where ethnic minority populations are underrepresented. Studies on general populations usually had too few participants for analysis by race/ethnicity. Eight studies were explicitly on Caucasians/whites, and two excluded ethnic minority groups from the whole or part of the study on the basis of language or birthplace criteria. Ten studies were designed to compare white and nonwhite populations, while five studies focused on one nonwhite racial/ethnic group; all 15 of these were performed in the US. CONCLUSIONS: There is a shortage of information from cardiovascular cohort studies on racial/ethnic minority populations, although this has recently changed in the US. There is, particularly in Europe, an inequity resulting from a lack of research data in nonwhite populations. Urgent action is now required in Europe to address this disparity.

  1. Immigration Ethnic Diversity and Political Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmon, Nikolaj Arpe

    2017-01-01

    I study the impact of immigration and increasing ethnic diversity on political outcomes in immigrant-receiving countries, focusing on immigration and election outcomes in Danish municipalities 1981-2001. A rich set of control variables isolates ethnic diversity effects from those of other immigrant...... characteristics and a novel IV strategy based on historical housing stock data addresses issues of endogenous location choices of immigrants. Increases in local ethnic diversity lead to right-ward shifts in election outcomes by shifting electoral support away from traditional "big government" left-wing parties...... and towards anti-immigrant nationalist parties in particular. These effects appear in both local and national elections....

  2. Cultural perspectives of interventions for managing diabetes and asthma in children and adolescents from ethnic minority groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Manus, V; Savage, E

    2010-09-01

    Both diabetes and asthma are increasingly being recognized as health problems for ethnic groups. Because of cultural differences, ethnicity is reported to be a risk factor for poorer quality in health care, disease management and disease control. Ethnic groups are at risk for poorer quality of life and increased disease complications when compared with non-ethnic counterparts living in the same country. There is little known about how culture is addressed in interventions developed for ethnic groups. The aim of this paper is to systematically review the cultural perspectives of interventions for managing diabetes and asthma in children, adolescents and/or their families from ethnic minority groups. A total of 92 records were identified that were potentially relevant to this review following which, 61 papers were excluded. The full texts of remaining papers (n= 31) were then read independently by both authors, and agreement was reached to exclude a further 27 papers that did not meet inclusion criteria. A total of four papers were eligible for inclusion in this review. Findings indicate that despite growing concerns about health disparities between ethnic and non-ethnic groups in relation to both asthma and diabetes in childhood, there has been little effort to develop cultural specific interventions for ethnic groups. By systematically reviewing asthma and diabetes interventions we have highlighted that few interventions have been developed from a cultural perspective. There are a limited number of interventions published that add knowledge on the specific elements of intervention that is needed to effectively and sensitively educate other cultures. More work is required into identifying which strategies or components of cultural interventions are most effective in achieving positive health outcomes for children, adolescents and/or their families from ethnic groups.

  3. Debating the viability of ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilna Bashi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Immigration and the Political Economy of Home: West Indian Brooklyn and American Indian Minneapolis, 1945-1992. RACHEL BUFF. Berkeley: University of Califomia Press, 2001. xv + 240 pp. (Paper US$ 18.95 Black Cuban, Black American: A Memoir. EVELIO GRILLO. Houston TX: Arte Püblico Press, 2000. xvi + 134 pp. (Paper US$ 13.95 West Indian in the West: Self Representations in an Immigrant Community. PERCY C. HINTZEN. New York: New York University Press, 2001. x + 200pp. (Paper US$ 18.50 Caribbean Families in Britain and the Transatlantic World. HARRY GOULBOURNE & MARY CHAMBERLAIN (eds.. Oxford UK: Macmillan, 2001. xvi + 270 pp. (Paper £15.50 Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. ALEJANDRO PORTES & RUBÉN G. RUMBAUT. Berkeley: University of Califomia Press/ New York: Russell Sage Foundation, 2001. xxiv + 406 pp. (Paper US$ 19.95 "Ethnicity" and its meaning, both as an identity and as a resilient cultural influence, has dominated late twentieth-century social scientific analyses of the process of immigrant incorporation. Perhaps we may mark the crowning of the term with the publication of Glazer and Moynihan's The Melting Pot, one famous tome that "explained" varying "assimilation" outcomes among the "new" (post-1965 newcomers by examining their ethnic culture for flaws or strengths that justified socioeconomic failure or success. Muddying the ensuing policy debate was the use of buzzwords, like mainstream, deviant, assimilated, minority, black matriarch, absent father, and underclass, that were themselves categorizing and hierarchical. The tautology of hierarchically labeling groups and then asking why groups with different labels have different outcomes seems to be perpetually invisible to the parties in the assimilation debate, but the debate itself rages on. Newer scholarship has added a different voice to that debate, arguing that variance in "assimilation" is instead explained by incorporation into

  4. The Impact of Ethnicity on Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Emma Lisa Jane; Duncan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and obesity-related diseases (cardiovascular disease/metabolic risk factors) are experienced differently in individuals from different ethnic backgrounds, which originate in childhood. Physical activity is a modifiable risk factor for obesity and related diseases. Both physical activity and metabolic risk factors track to adulthood, and thus understanding the physical activity patterns in children from different ethnic backgrounds is important. Given the limitations of self-report measures in children, this study provides a review of studies which have objectively measured physical activity patterns in children from different ethnic backgrounds. From a total of 16 studies, it can be concluded that physical activity does seem to vary amongst the ethnic groups especially South Asian and Black compared to White EU (European Union). The findings are less consistent for Hispanic/Mexican American children. However, there are several methodological limitations which need to be considered in future studies. Firstly, there is a need for consistency in the measurement of physical activity. Secondly, there are a range of complex factors such as socioeconomic status and body composition which affect both physical activity and ethnicity. Studies have failed to account for these differences limiting the ability to generalise that ethnicity is an independent risk factor for physical activity. PMID:24555154

  5. [The distribution of Y-chromosome haplotypes of Shui ethnic in Sandu,Guizhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Wen, Bo; Shan, Ke-Ren; Huang, Wei; Xie, Yuan; Wu, Chang-Xue; Xiong, Xiao-Yan; Xiu, Jin; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Lei; Ren, Xi-Lin; Jin, Li

    2003-05-01

    Non-recombination region of Y-chromosome is a useful marker in tracing evolutionary history of paternal lineage. In the present study, total 92 individuals from Shui ethnic group in Sandu Shui Ethnic Group Autonomous County of Guizhou Province were inspected with 11 SNP sites including M7, M9, M15, M45, M89, M95, M119,M122, M130, M134 and YAP on Y-chromosome.All the subjects were required to be unrelated and without intermarriage with other ethnic groups within three generations. The haplotypes were analyzed by PCR-RFLP method. Four haplotypes H5,H8,H9 and H11 were detected with frequencies of 0.054, 0.044, 0.315 and 0.587, respectively.Principle component indicated that the paternal lineage of Shui ethnic group is much closer to Li ethnic group of Hainan Province and Bouyei ethnic group of Guizhou Province,which belong to the group of Zhuang-Dong branch of Sino-Tibetan language family. In addition genetic study of Shui coincides with its linguistic distribution.

  6. Patients' experiences and expectations of general practice: a questionnaire study of differences by ethnic group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jane; Jain, Asha

    2005-01-01

    Background Research has highlighted variations in morbidity, mortality and health needs by ethnic group, and suggests that some ethnic groups may receive a poorer service. Aim To explore the impact of ethnic group on patients' experiences and expectations of their general practice consultation. Design of study Cross-sectional survey. Setting One general practice in a multicultural area of London. Method A total of 604 consecutive patients attending their general practice (response rate = 60.4%) who described their ethnic group as white British, black African, black African Caribbean or Vietnamese completed a measure relating to their experiences and their expectations of the general practice consultation in terms of treatment, communication, patients' agenda, patients' choice and doctor consistency. Results No differences were found for the black African or black African Caribbean patients. The Vietnamese patients reported better experiences of communication, more focus on their agenda and more attention to their choices than the white British patients. However, they also reported expecting lower levels of communication, less focus on their own agenda and reported wanting less GP consistency than the other ethnic groups. Conclusion Vietnamese patients state that they are receiving better standards of care in general practice than other ethnic groups. However, they also state that they expect less. This may illustrate a problem with assessing experiences of primary care. Higher scores of experience may not illustrate better consultations as such, but only better when compared with a lower level of initial expectation. A lower expectation is easier to fulfil. PMID:15904553

  7. Ethnic incongruence and the student-teacher relationship: the perspective of ethnic majority teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijs, Jochem; Westhof, Saskia; Koomen, Helma

    2012-04-01

    Among 36 ethnic-Dutch school teachers in the Netherlands, the present study examined the role of ethnic incongruence in perceived student-teacher relationship quality. Teachers rated their relationships with 59 Turkish-Dutch, 62 Moroccan-Dutch, and 109 ethnic-Dutch students attending grades 4 through 6 (M(age)=10.81 years, SD=1.05). On average, relationships were less favorable for the Moroccan-Dutch students only. However, the effects of ethnic incongruence were most pronounced among students with strong perceived inattention/hyperactivity and among teachers endorsing lower levels of multiculturalism (the view that different cultures deserve equal treatment). Results support the notion that ethnically incongruent relationships may be perceived as less favorable than ethnically congruent ones due to cultural misunderstandings and intergroup bias. Practical implications are discussed.

  8. [Frequency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (A-376/202) in three Malian ethnic groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolo, A; Maiga, B; Guindo, A; Diakité, S A S; Diakite, M; Tapily, A; Traoré, M; Sangaré, B; Arama, C; Daou, M; Doumbo, O

    2014-08-01

    Erythrocyte G6PD deficiency is the most common worldwide enzymopathy. The aim of this study was to determine erythrocyte G6PD deficiency in 3 ethnic groups of Mali and to investigate whether erythrocyte G6PD deficiency was associated to the observed protection against malaria seen in Fulani ethnic group. The study was conducted in two different areas of Mali: in the Sahel region of Mopti where Fulani and Dogon live as sympatric ethnic groups and in the Sudanese savannah area where lives mostly the Malinke ethnic group. The study was conducted in 2007 in Koro and in 2008 in Naguilabougou. It included a total 90 Dogon, 42 Fulani and 80 Malinke ethnic groups. Malaria was diagnosed using microscopic examination after Giemsa-staining of thick and thin blood smear. G6PD deficiency (A-(376/202)) samples were identified using RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism) assay and analysis of PCR-amplified DNA amplicon. G6PD deficiency (A-(376/202)) rate was 11.1%, 2.4%, and 13.3% in Dogon, Fulani, and Malinke ethnic group respectively. Heterozygous state for G6PD (A-(376/202)) was found in 7.8% in Dogon; 2.4% in Fulani and 9.3% in Malinke ethnic groups while hemizygous state was found at the frequency of 2.2% in Dogon and 4% in Malinke. No homozygous state was found in our study population.We conclude that G6PD deficiency is not differing significantly between the three ethnic groups, Fulani, Dogon and Malinke.

  9. Consumer responses to ethnic targeted marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.-S.I.A. Lenoir (Anne-Sophie); S. Puntoni (Stefano)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Marketing is impacted more than ever by demographic change, to the extent that practitioners targeting ethnic groups should re-think their approach depending upon the strength with which different generations identify with their cultural heritage.

  10. Ethnic Disparities in the Graduate Labour Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslan Zorlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines ethnic wage differentials for the entire population of workers who enrolled for the first time as students at Dutch universities (WO and colleges (HBO in 1996 using unique administrative panel data for the period 1996 to 2005 from the Dutch tertiary education system. The study breaks down wage differentials into two components: a component which can be explained by the observed characteristics and an unexplained component. The analysis provides new evidence for the magnitude and the origin of ethnic wage differentials by gender. In general, ethnic wage gap is larger for migrant women than migrant men and larger for Western and Caribbean migrants than for Mediterranean migrants. Ethnic minority workers appear to have larger wage surpluses which is almost entirely explained by their observed favourable characteristics. Most notably, Mediterranean female graduates have significantly positive wage discrimination, while Western female graduates seem to face a small wage penalty.

  11. Essentialism Promotes Children's Inter-ethnic Bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil eDiesendruck

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the developmental foundation of the relation between social essentialism and attitudes. Forty-eight Jewish Israeli secular 6-year-olds were exposed to either a story emphasizing essentialism about ethnicity, or stories controlling for the salience of ethnicity or essentialism per se. After listening to a story, children’s attitudes were assessed in a drawing and in an IAT task. Compared to the control conditions, children in the ethnic essentialism condition drew a Jewish and an Arab character as farther apart from each other, and the Jewish character with a more positive affect than the Arab character. Moreover, boys in the ethnic essentialism condition manifested a stronger bias in the IAT. These findings reveal an early link between essentialism and inter-group attitudes.

  12. Safety Work with an Ethnic Slant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wästerfors

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic discrimination in the criminal justice system is a well-researched topic, but the significance of ethnicity in policing activities at more mundane levels has attracted less attention. This article analyzes ethnographic data on municipal ‘safety work’ in a Swedish city troubled with robberies, vandalism, and violence. It shows how the efforts of different safety workers, operating to curb crime and promote security, came to focus on the ‘soft’ policing of young men with various immigrant backgrounds. A set of street-level safety practices, performed within spatial demarcations, was found to represent a more-or-less silent orientation towards local minorities; a focus on non-Swedish ethnicities was embedded in the policing activity. This article points out the importance of implied ethnicities in the contemporary landscape of plural policing.

  13. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting colorectal cancer or dying from colorectal cancer varies by race ...

  14. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English Español ( ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting lung cancer or dying from lung cancer varies by race ...

  15. Skin Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Partners for Comprehensive Cancer Control Coalitions References Statistics Rates by Race and Ethnicity Rates by State Trends Behavior Rates What CDC Is Doing Skin Cancer Prevention Progress Report The Burning Truth Initiative A ...

  16. I am more than an ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Christian Franklin

    2014-01-01

    argues that the students construct identifications from belonging to communities of practice rather than from religion, ethnicity and nationality. Their resilience is made manifest in hybrid identities, as an individuated way of understanding their cultural negotiation as Indian Malaysians....

  17. Communication in medical practice across ethnic boundaries.

    OpenAIRE

    Crisp, A. H.; Edwards, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    The communication skills basic to good medical practice are, for many of us, unnatural. The authors attempt to address aspects of the matter with particular reference to communication across ethnic boundaries.

  18. Surveying Ethnical Policies in Iran and Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Wendt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On the bases of culture and ethnic nowadays the world is a plural world, in way that it’s reasonable to say nowhere could be exempted fro this classification. Researches conducted in this field have classified all countries whether developed or developing into lingual, religion, racial and cultural classes.As result of religious, cultural and ethnical overlapping between the countries and cases of unsatisfied needs and request by such group, local, national and even disputes between theses group and their governments is a common case through the ages.this study was conducted while having a historical look on the issue of ethnics in two countries including Iran and Malaysia and also surveying current situation and place of this challenge in the two countries, and also determining courses of ethnical and tradition reconstruction.

  19. Safety Work with an Ethnic Slant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wästerfors

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic discrimination in the criminal justice system is a well-researched topic, but the significance of ethnicity in policing activities at more mundane levels has attracted less attention. This article analyzes ethnographic data on municipal ‘safety work’ in a Swedish city troubled with robberies, vandalism, and violence. It shows how the efforts of different safety workers, operating to curb crime and promote security, came to focus on the ‘soft’ policing of young men with various immigrant backgrounds. A set of street-level safety practices, performed within spatial demarcations, was found to represent a more-or-less silent orientation towards local minorities; a focus on non-Swedish ethnicities was embedded in the policing activity. This article points out the importance of implied ethnicities in the contemporary landscape of plural policing.

  20. Intercultural Effectiveness, Authoritarianism, and Ethnic Prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nesdale, Drew; Robbe, Mike de Vries; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter

    This study examined the extent to which intercultural effectiveness dimensions (cultural empathy, open-mindedness, social initiative, emotional stability, flexibility) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA) predicted the ethnic prejudice of 166 Australian respondents toward Indigenous Australians.

  1. An Instructional Guide for Ethnic Studies at Evergreen Valley College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Mauro

    Guidelines and conceptual parameters are presented for ethnic studies courses at Evergreen Valley College (EVC). Introductory material discusses the requirement that all associate degree students complete three units of ethnic studies; presents general guidelines for ethnic studies; defines "ethnic-racial minority"; and suggests criteria for…

  2. Does intergenerational social mobility affect antagonistic attitudes towards ethnic minorities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, J.; Graaf, N.D. de; Quillian, L.

    2009-01-01

    Up till now, no study satisfactorily addressed the effect of social mobility on antagonistic attitudes toward ethnic minorities. In this contribution, we investigate the effect of educational and class intergenerational mobility on ethnic stereotypes, ethnic threat, and opposition to ethnic intermar

  3. The role of communication in an ethnically diverse organization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinsbach, A.A.; Feij, J.A.; Vries, de R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract A research on the content of communication at work, job attitudes and unequal treatment was conducted in an ethnically diverse organization in the Netherlands comprising 504 ethnic majority and 113 ethnic minority employees. Ethnic minority employees experienced less person-related communic

  4. Ethnic density effects on psychological distress among Latino ethnic groups: an examination of hypothesized pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécares, Laia

    2014-11-01

    Studies among US Latinos provide the most consistent evidence of ethnic density effects. However, most studies conducted to date have focused on Mexican Americans, and it is not clear whether ethnic density effects differ across Latino sub-groups, generational status, or measures of ethnic density. In addition, the mechanisms behind ethnic density are not well understood. This study uses a multi-group structural equation modeling approach to analyze the Latino sample from the National Latino and Asian-American Study (n=1940) and examine ethnic density effects on psychological distress among Latino sub-groups, and explore two hypothesized mechanisms: increased neighborhood cohesion and reduced exposure to interpersonal racism. Results of the main effects between ethnic density and health, and of the hypothesized mechanisms, show clear differences across Latino ethnic groups, generational categories and measures of ethnic density. Findings highlight that ethnic density effects and their mechanisms depend on the current and historical context of Latino sub-groups, including reasons for migration and rights upon arrival.

  5. Measuring the effect of ethnic and non-ethnic discrimination on Europeans' self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Galvez, Javier

    2016-04-01

    The study of perceived discrimination based on race and ethnic traits belongs to a long-held tradition in this field, but recent studies have found that non-ethnic discrimination based on factors such as gender, disability or age is also a crucial predictor of health outcomes. Using data from the European Social Survey (2010), and applying Boolean Factor Analysis and Ordered Logistic Regression models, this study is aimed to compare how ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination might affect self-rated health in the European context. We found that non-ethnic types of discrimination produce stronger differences on health outcomes. This result indicates that the probabilities of presenting a poor state of health are significantly higher when individuals feel they are being discriminated against for social or demographic conditions (gender, age, sexuality or disability) rather than for ethnic reasons (nationality, race, ethnicity, language or religiosity). This study offers a clear comparison of health inequalities based on ethnic and non-ethnic types of discrimination in the European context, overcoming analytical based on binary indicators and simple measures of discrimination.

  6. Ethnicity, Soybean Consumption, and Mammographic Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    and glycitein (26-29). Daidzein present in soy respectively]. Urinary excretion of isoflavones was also foods is partially converted by the gut flora...intestinal bacteria (34, 52) ous ethnic groups for isoflavone excretion was found, but the such as Lactobacilli, Bacteroides , Bifidobacterium, and...other ethnic groups. Similar to our results, in the gut flora (54). The intestinal bacteria vary widely be- Japanese women excreted very low levels

  7. Ethnicity and Earnings in Urban Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ñopo, Hugo; Saavedra, Jaime; Torero, Máximo

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study the relationship between ethnic exclusion and earnings in Urban Peru. Our approach to the concept of ethnicity involves the usage of instruments in many of its several dimensions: mother tongue, parental background, religion, migration events and race. In order to approximate what can be called racial differences in a context like the Peruvian in which "racial mixture" is the main characteristic of the population, we use a score-based procedure to capture both the diffe...

  8. Towards a Postmodern Approach of Ethnic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-George FEDOR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our paper is a concise review of the various approaches to the concept of ethnic community, starting from the classical ones and ending with the postmodern ones. Emphasis is laid on the constructivist and constructionist approaches, and our conclusions point out that an individual’s belonging to an ethnic group is an ever-changing social construct. Classification-JEL: A23

  9. Contexts for Ethnic Identity of Japanese Canadians

    OpenAIRE

    浦田, 葉子; Yoko, URATA

    1997-01-01

    In this paper I reviewed the literature in order to gain a broad understanding of the contexts for ethnic identity of Japanese Canadians guided by the premise that ethnic identity is a situational as well as a primordial phenomenon. Two main areas were reviewed - the pattern of distribution of resources in Canadian society and the particular situation in which Japanese Canadians are placed. In the distribution of material resources, individual meritocracy for mass and social closure for elite...

  10. Ethnic Enclaves and Immigrant Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2009-01-01

    Spatial concentration of ethnic groups may theoretically have positive or negative effects on the economic performance of those groups. I examine the effects of the ethnic enclave size on labor market outcomes of immigrants. I account for ability-sorting into ethnic enclaves by exploiting a Danish...... increase in the ethnic enclave size increases annual earnings by 18 percent on average, irrespective of skill level. Third, the paper proposes an explanation for the earnings gain of ethnic enclave members. Enclave members benefit from more access to ethnic networks because ethnic networks disseminate job...

  11. Dental Arch Dimension of Malay Ethnic Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Many previous studies tried to define and put specific measurements for dental arches dimension in different ethnics groups. However, these studies may be specific to an ethnic group and cannot always be applied to other ethnic types. The aim of this study: is to obtain specific dental arch dimensions for Malaysian Malay ethnic groups and compare between both genders. Approach: Involved clinical examination, collection and analysis of 60 dental cast of Malaysian Malay subjects from pure ethnic group (30 males and 30 females, 20-24 years old. All dental landmarks were located and determined and subsequently measurements had been done according to specific points have been selected. Statistical analysis were done using t-test. Results: Dental arch dimension were established in normal occlusion for Malaysian Malay ethnic group in this study. No significant difference was observed in arch dimensions between male and female of Malaysian Malay. Conclusion: These measurement should be considered during treatment, especially in prosthodontics and orthodontics where arch dimension can be modified appreciably.

  12. Effect of ethnicity on live birth rates after in vitro fertilisation or intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasan, K; Pandian, D; Hopkisson, J; Campbell, B K; Maalouf, W E

    2014-02-01

    To assess the relationship between the ethnicity of women and the clinical success of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. Observational cohort study. Nottingham University Research and Treatment Unit in Reproduction (NURTURE), UK. A total of 1517 women, of which 1291 were white Europeans and 226 belonged to an ethnic minority group. All the women were undergoing their first cycle of assisted reproductive technology (ART) between 2006 and 2011. All of the women underwent their first cycle of ART between 2006 and 2011. Live birth rates following IVF or ICSI treatment. Although pre-treatment ovarian reserve variables [mean age, basal follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and total antral follicle count] were significantly favourable in the ethnic group, the live birth rates were significantly lower in this group (35%) compared with the white European group (43.8%) (relative risk 0.8; 95% CI 0.66-0.97). On logistic regression analysis, ethnicity was an independent predictor of live birth rate (OR 0.688; 95% CI 0.513-0.924). After controlling for the other independent variables (age and FSH), the significant association between ethnicity and live birth rate remained strong (OR 0.591; 95% CI 0.425-0.822) on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Live birth rates following IVF or ICSI treatment were significantly lower in the ethnic minority group compared with white European women, which suggests that ethnicity is a major determinant of live birth following IVF treatment. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  13. Some Results on Ethnic Conflicts Based on Evolutionary Game Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Jun; Wu, Hongrun; Liu, Yuhang; Tong, Xiaonian; Zheng, Bojin

    2014-01-01

    The force of the ethnic separatism, essentially origining from negative effect of ethnic identity, is damaging the stability and harmony of multiethnic countries. In order to eliminate the foundation of the ethnic separatism and set up a harmonious ethnic relationship, some scholars have proposed a viewpoint: ethnic harmony could be promoted by popularizing civic identity. However, this viewpoint is discussed only from a philosophical prospective and still lack supports of scientific evidences. Because ethic group and ethnic identity are products of evolution and ethnic identity is the parochialism strategy under the perspective of game theory, this paper proposes an evolutionary game simulation model to study the relationship between civic identity and ethnic conflict based on evolutionary game theory. The simulation results indicate that: 1) the ratio of individuals with civic identity has a positive association with the frequency of ethnic conflicts; 2) ethnic conflict will not die out by killing all ethni...

  14. Ethnic discrimination and global self-worth in early adolescents : The mediating role of ethnic self-esteem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Thijs, Jochem

    2006-01-01

    Peer victimization based on one’s ethnic group membership contributes to the problems and conflicts of ethnic minority children around the world. With ethnic discrimination, a part of the self is implicated. Hence, it is likely that being treated negatively on the basis of one’s ethnicity has a

  15. Purchasing Behaviour in Multi-Ethnic Society, Computer Brand Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Firend, A.R; Abu Altiman, A.

    2011-01-01

    This research is one of a series of research attempting to examine multi-ethnic consumer’s attitude in ethnically diverse societies. This research also attempt to determine factors that influence consumer preference of computing products in a multi-ethnic society such as the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The objectives of this study is to determine the influence of multi-ethnicity on attitudes toward consumer brands, and to compare attitudes toward purchasing decisions by various ethnicities an...

  16. Rurality, ethnicity and mountain areas:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Amilhat-Szary

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In a Latin American context where indigenous populations have had to wait until the end of the XXth century to recover a certain visibility, the definition of Andean identity is still an issue. In this paper, an analysis of the various steps in a territorially based collective movement provides insights into this identity that was for so long denied or repressed on account of socio-political conditions. The possible re-assertion of “Andeanity” is very complex, as the case study of the “Aymaras Sin Fronteras” (Aymaras without borders movement reveals. In this movement, the territorialisation process is based on the dialectics between its rural, ethnic and mountain (Andean components.Dans un contexte latinoaméricain où les populations autochtones ont dû attendre la fin du XXème siècle pour regagner en visibilité, l’identité andine pose question. Dans cet article, l’analyse des étapes d’une mobilisation collective à base territoriale permet de suivre la  redécouverte d’un ancrage identitaire longtemps nié ou refoulé du fait des conditions socio-politiques. L’affirmation retrouvée de l’ethnicité, voire de l’« andinité » s’avère très  complexe, comme le cas étudié, l’alliance « Aymaras sin Fronteras » (Aymaras sans frontières le révèle. Dans ce cas, le processus de territorialisation se fonde sur une interaction dialectique entre ses composantes rurale, ethnique, et montagnarde (andine.

  17. Ethno-cultural duality and, ethnic, stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žikić Bojan P.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A construction of an individual identity, in dual ethno-cultural environments, is often based on a premise that an ethnic identity is a primary human determinant. In such dual ethno-cultural communities, a basic ethnic stereotype could be called „relational“: it is founded on the concept of „Others/We-group“ distinction, where the Others appear as a main reason for the existence of the We-group members who use the distinction. This stereotype is based on the following premises: the first one says that a local socio-cultural reality contains two solid ethno-cultural groups, whereas the other suggests that in a local context, there exist just „They“ as a solid ethno-cultural group while among „Us“ the solidity is in fact, limited to ethnic affiliation. The consequence of the attitude is pervasive presentation of intra-ethnic differences, more than mere stereotyping of the Others. These stereotypes are based on the so-called „homeland“ classifications and appear to represent a small ethnography of ideas and images on what constitutes and makes a local ethnic community. The stereotypes of this particular kind are more often seen among members of Serbian ethnic group, at least based on a research in two local communities - Bečej and Seleuš. In the two communities, the prevailing attitudes on intra-ethnic differences and the stereotypes developed out of the differences are more numerous and elaborated, based on the „homeland“ classification. This cultural, cognitive process is a consequence of intertwining of two perspectives in understanding of the We-group. The first perspective narrates about the We-group ethnic background, and the second emphasizes the group domicile, that is, it defines the We-group in space. The first perspective is founded, more or less, on indispensable experience of an ethnic identity, while the other perspective is more based on empirical experience; the second perspective is also a creation of a

  18. Adolescent Pregnancy among Ethnic Variants at Lumbini Medical College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subha Shrestha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescent pregnancy is a common social phenomenon that results to both maternal and fetal related health consequences globally. Important factors affecting this high risk group of pregnancies are social, cultural, ethnic and racial disparities which may limit the care during pregnancy thereby affecting the perinatal outcome. The main objective of this study was to estimate the maternal and fetal outcome of adolescent pregnancies visiting Lumbini Medical college among ethnic variants of mid-western region. Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted in Lumbini Medical College and Teaching Hospital for one year duration. Data was retrieved from the medical records of the admitted adolescent pregnant mothers with hospital delivery after 20 weeks’ gestation. Variables of interest were the selective demographic characteristics like place of residence and ethnicity of women, parity, and obstetrical &fetal outcomes. Results: The total numbers of admission for deliveries during the study period were 1905, out of which 462 (24.3% were adolescent pregnancy. A total of 184 (39% adolescent mothers were at the age of 19 and 334 (72.2% of them were from Palpa district. The highest number of teenagers were from Janajati group i.e. 240 (52%. Among all, 38 (10% had preterm delivery and 7 (1.5% had intrauterine fetal death. While 407 (88.3% adolescent pregnancies had vaginal deliveries, 54 (11.7%of them had lower segment cesarean section (LSCS. Fifty-one (11.4% neonates had low birth weight (below 2500 gmand 11 (2.4% had stillbirths. Among the low birth weight, 32 (51% newborns were admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU. Conclusions: Adolescent pregnancy is higher common in Palpa district of Nepal. Janajati adolescent girls are becoming pregnant early after marriage. Higher numbers of teenagers are 19 years of age and are primigravida. On reaching the tertiary center, obstetrical outcome is better with less maternal

  19. ‘A morass of considerations’: exploring attitudes towards ethnicity-based haemoglobinopathy-carrier screening in primary care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, L; de Jonge, A; van El, C G; van Tuyl, L H; Cornel, M C; Lagro-Janssen, A L M

    2013-01-01

    Background. The Netherlands does not have a national haemoglobinopathy (HbP)-carrier screening programme aimed at facilitating informed reproductive choice. HbP-carrier testing for those at risk is at best offered on the basis of anaemia. Registration of ethnicity has proved controversial and may complicate the introduction of a screening programme if based on ethnicity. However, other factors may also play a role. Objective. To explore perceived barriers and attitudes among GPs and midwives regarding the registration of ethnicity and ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening. Methods. Six focus groups in Dutch primary care, with a total of 37 GPs (n = 9) and midwives (n = 28) were conducted, transcribed and content analysed using Atlas-ti. Results. Both GPs and midwives struggled with correctly identifying ethnicities at risk for HbP. Ethical concerns regarding privacy seemed to originate from World War II experiences, when ethnic and religious registration facilitated deportation of Jewish citizens, coupled with the political climate at the time focus groups were held. Some respondents thought the ethnicity question might undermine the relationship with their clients. Software programmes prevented GPs from registering ethnicity of patients at risk. Financial implications for patients were also a concern. Despite this, respondents seemed positive about screening and were familiar with identifying ethnicity and used this for individual patient care. Conclusions. Although health professionals are generally positive about screening, ethical, financial and practical issues surrounding ethnicity-based HbP-carrier screening need to be clarified before introducing such a programme. Primary care professionals can be targeted through professional organizations but they need national policy support. PMID:23629736

  20. Racism-Related Stress and Ethnic Identity as Determinants of African American College Students' Career Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Murray, Darrick; Jenifer, Ericka S.; Andrusyk, Jara; D'Angelo, Ryan; King, Tia

    2012-01-01

    Drawing primarily on the construct of psychological buffer, the purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which racism-related stress and ethnic identity are determinants of career aspirations. A total of 163 African American college students from a predominately White Midwestern university participated in the study. A moderation…

  1. A comparison of ethnic minority and majority students: social and academic integration, and quality of learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severiens, S.; Wolff, R.P.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines students from ethnic minorities and majorities with regard to the relationships between their social and academic integration and their quality of learning. A total of 523 students at four universities completed a questionnaire: analyses of variance were used to examine mean di

  2. PROMOTING CIVIC ENGAGEMENT THROUGH ETHNIC MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ahadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic media, defined by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (for the ethnic program specifically as “one, in any language, that is specifically directed to any culturally or racially distinct group other than one that is Aboriginal Canadian or from France or the British Isles” (CRTC, 1999, are emerging to offer new communicative civic spaces to ethno-cultural citizens. Studies, however, suggest that while they may not be completely disconnected from broader society, they remain largely “distinct from the dominant public sphere” (Karim, 2002. The majority are focused on a single ethnic group and develop in isolation of each other to cater to their specific group’s interests. Such an isolationist tendency is a concern in multicultural societies in that it can potentially intensify political, socio-economic, and cultural divides among older and new populations and develop “parallel societies” (Hafez, 2007 and a fragmented citizenship. Whether or not ethnic media will lead to hindering immigrants’ civic integration by raising citizens of communities rather than citizens of the broader society needs to be empirically validated. This paper, therefore, explores the distinction between mainstream and ethnic media through a comparative content analysis on coverage of the October 14 2008 Canadian federal election in English and Korean press in British Colombia, Canada. The findings suggest that in-group orientation is in fact more distinct in English media with significantly low attention given to ethnic minorities either as candidates or voters. Ethnic media, on the other hand, undertake significant citizenship education by delivering step-by-step “how-to” information about the election to immigrants who are less familiar with the Canadian political system to assist them in exercising voting rights.

  3. Ethnic variation in inflammatory profile in tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K Coussens

    Full Text Available Distinct phylogenetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB cause disease in patients of particular genetic ancestry, and elicit different patterns of cytokine and chemokine secretion when cultured with human macrophages in vitro. Circulating and antigen-stimulated concentrations of these inflammatory mediators might therefore be expected to vary significantly between tuberculosis patients of different ethnic origin. Studies to characterise such variation, and to determine whether it relates to host or bacillary factors, have not been conducted. We therefore compared circulating and antigen-stimulated concentrations of 43 inflammatory mediators and 14 haematological parameters (inflammatory profile in 45 pulmonary tuberculosis patients of African ancestry vs. 83 patients of Eurasian ancestry in London, UK, and investigated the influence of bacillary and host genotype on these profiles. Despite having similar demographic and clinical characteristics, patients of differing ancestry exhibited distinct inflammatory profiles at presentation: those of African ancestry had lower neutrophil counts, lower serum concentrations of CCL2, CCL11 and vitamin D binding protein (DBP but higher serum CCL5 concentrations and higher antigen-stimulated IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-12 secretion. These differences associated with ethnic variation in host DBP genotype, but not with ethnic variation in MTB strain. Ethnic differences in inflammatory profile became more marked following initiation of antimicrobial therapy, and immunological correlates of speed of elimination of MTB from the sputum differed between patients of African vs. Eurasian ancestry. Our study demonstrates a hitherto unappreciated degree of ethnic heterogeneity in inflammatory profile in tuberculosis patients that associates primarily with ethnic variation in host, rather than bacillary, genotype. Candidate immunodiagnostics and immunological biomarkers of response to antimicrobial therapy

  4. Bullying and Victimization Among Adolescents: The Role of Ethnicity and Ethnic Composition of School Class

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervoort, M.H.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Overbeek, G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between ethnicity, peer-reported bullying and victimization, and whether these relationships were moderated by the ethnic composition of the school classes. Participants were 2386 adolescents (mean age: 13 years and 10 months; 51.9% boys) from 117 school

  5. Bullying and Victimization among Adolescents: The Role of Ethnicity and Ethnic Composition of School Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervoort, Miranda H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between ethnicity, peer-reported bullying and victimization, and whether these relationships were moderated by the ethnic composition of the school classes. Participants were 2386 adolescents (mean age: 13 years and 10 months; 51.9% boys) from 117 school classes in the Netherlands. Multilevel analyses…

  6. School Ethnic-Racial Socialization: Learning about Race and Ethnicity among African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, Adriana; Byrd, Christy M.

    2015-01-01

    Research has sought to understand how parents socialize their children around race and ethnicity, but few studies have considered how contexts outside the home are also important sources of socialization. In this paper we review and integrate literature on practices in school settings that have implications for ethnic-racial socialization using a…

  7. Ethnic Swedish parents' experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence in Swedish paediatric care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavallali, Azar G; Kabir, Zarina Nahar; Jirwe, Maria

    2014-06-01

    Sweden has a population of a little more than 9.4 million. The rapid growth of immigration in Sweden has resulted in an increased number of minority ethnic patients and minority ethnic nurses in the Swedish healthcare system. This also applies to paediatric care. The purpose of this study was to explore how parents with ethnic Swedish backgrounds experience minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence and the care the nurses provide in a Swedish paediatric care context. This exploratory qualitative study is of 14 parents with an ethnic Swedish background whose child was in a ward at a children's hospital in Stockholm County Council. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews to identify parents' perceptions and experiences of minority ethnic nurses' cultural competence. The interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The analyses of the interviews led to four main categories: influence of nurses' ethnicity; significance of cross-cultural communication; cross-cultural skills; and the importance of nursing education. Nurses' ethnicity did not have much impact on parents' satisfaction with their child's care. The parents attached importance to nurses' language skills and to their adaptation and awareness of Swedish culture. They also attached weight to nurses' professional knowledge and personal attributes. The role of nursing education to increase nurses' cultural awareness was highlighted too. © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  8. Bilingual Education among Ethnic Koreans in China: Ethnic Language Maintenance and Upward Social Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fang

    2010-01-01

    Ethnic minority education is a challenge for developing countries and a matter of international urgency. This paper imputes bilingual policy for ethnic Koreans as an example for exploring the implementation of bilingual education during China's reform period. Drawn from an ethnographic research study at a bilingual Korean school in northeast…

  9. Ethnic Awareness, Prejudice, and Civic Commitments in Four Ethnic Groups of American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Syvertsen, Amy K.; Gill, Sukhdeep; Gallay, Leslie S.; Cumsille, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    The role of prejudice and ethnic awareness in the civic commitments and beliefs about the American social contract of 1,096 (53% female) adolescents (11-18 year olds, Mean = 15) from African-, Arab-, Latino-, and European-American backgrounds were compared. Ethnic awareness was higher among minority youth and discrimination more often reported by…

  10. Developing an Integrated Self: Academic and Ethnic Identities among Ethnically Diverse College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the development of college students' major selection and whether and how this choice is associated with their developing ethnic identities. Ninety ethnically diverse college students were interviewed in their first, sophomore, and senior years. Mixed-method analyses revealed 5 theoretically…

  11. Ethnicity and Multi-ethnicity in the Lives of Belizean Rural Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Sarah Woodbury

    2002-01-01

    The government of Belize promotes ethnicity and nationalism in schools through a curriculum that teaches about the country's ethnic diversity but ignores its many multiethnic/multiracial children. A study of such children in one rural town reveals the irrelevance of the curriculum and shows how the children are constructing their own multiethnic…

  12. Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Neelakantan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18–79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%–47%; and pork dishes, 0%–50%. The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings.

  13. Development of a Semi-Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess the Dietary Intake of a Multi-Ethnic Urban Asian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, Nithya; Whitton, Clare; Seah, Sharna; Koh, Hiromi; Rebello, Salome A; Lim, Jia Yi; Chen, Shiqi; Chan, Mei Fen; Chew, Ling; van Dam, Rob M

    2016-08-27

    Assessing habitual food consumption is challenging in multi-ethnic cosmopolitan settings. We systematically developed a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in a multi-ethnic population in Singapore, using data from two 24-h dietary recalls from a nationally representative sample of 805 Singapore residents of Chinese, Malay and Indian ethnicity aged 18-79 years. Key steps included combining reported items on 24-h recalls into standardized food groups, developing a food list for the FFQ, pilot testing of different question formats, and cognitive interviews. Percentage contribution analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used to identify foods contributing cumulatively ≥90% to intakes and individually ≥1% to intake variance of key nutrients, for the total study population and for each ethnic group separately. Differences between ethnic groups were observed in proportions of consumers of certain foods (e.g., lentil stews, 1%-47%; and pork dishes, 0%-50%). The number of foods needed to explain variability in nutrient intakes differed substantially by ethnic groups and was substantially larger for the total population than for separate ethnic groups. A 163-item FFQ covered >95% of total population intake for all key nutrients. The methodological insights provided in this paper may be useful in developing similar FFQs in other multi-ethnic settings.

  14. Dietary sources of five nutrients in ethnic groups represented in the Multiethnic Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sangita; Wilkens, Lynne R; Shen, Lucy; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2013-04-28

    Data are limited on how dietary sources of energy and nutrient intakes differ among ethnic groups in the USA. The objective of the present study was to characterise dietary sources of energy, total fat, saturated fat, protein, dietary fibre and added sugar for five ethnic groups. A validated quantitative FFQ was used to collect dietary data from 186,916 men and women aged 45-75 years who were living in Hawaii and Los Angeles between 1993 and 1996. Participants represented five ethnic groups: African-American; Japanese-American; Native Hawaiian; Latino; Caucasian. The top ten dietary sources of energy contributed 36·2-49·6% to total energy consumption, with rice and bread contributing the most (11·4-27·8%) across all ethnic-sex groups. Major dietary sources of total fat were chicken/turkey dishes and butter among most groups. Ice cream, ice milk or frozen yogurt contributed 4·6-6·2% to saturated fat intake across all ethnic-sex groups, except Latino-Mexico women. Chicken/turkey and bread were among the top dietary sources of protein (13·9-19·4%). The top two sources of dietary fibre were bread and cereals (18·1-22%) among all groups, except Latino-Mexico men. Regular sodas contributed the most to added sugar consumption. The present study provides, for the first time, data on the major dietary sources of energy, fat, saturated fat, protein, fibre and added sugar for these five ethnic groups in the USA. Such data are valuable for identifying target foods for nutritional intervention programmes and directing public health strategies aimed at reducing dietary risk factors for chronic disease.

  15. Who is bullying whom in ethnically diverse primary schools? Exploring links between bullying, ethnicity, and ethnic diversity in Dutch primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, Jochem; van Deurzen, Ioana; Stark, Tobias; Veenstra, René

    This study investigated associations between ethnicity, ethnic diversity, and bullying among 739 pupils enrolled in their last year of primary school. Hypotheses derived from social misfit and inter-ethnic relations theories were tested using the multilevel p(2) model. Our key findings were: (1)

  16. Who is bullying whom in ethnically diverse primary schools? Exploring links between bullying, ethnicity, and ethnic diversity in Dutch primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolsma, Jochem; van Deurzen, Ioana; Stark, Tobias; Veenstra, René

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations between ethnicity, ethnic diversity, and bullying among 739 pupils enrolled in their last year of primary school. Hypotheses derived from social misfit and inter-ethnic relations theories were tested using the multilevel p(2) model. Our key findings were: (1) int

  17. Review - Inter-Ethnic Dynamics in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Ramirez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Culas, Christian and François Robinne (eds. 2009. Inter-ethnic Dynamics in Asia: Considering the Other Through Ethnonyms, Territories and Ritual. London: New York: Routledge. 215. Bibliography, index. ISBN: 978-0-415-55936-2 (hardcover, 130USD, 978-0-203-86138-7 (ebook, 99.61USD. One of this volume's many merits is that it sets out to seriously address ethnic categorization in Upland Southeast Asia. Many valuable publications have dealt specifically with ethnicity in this region, where the complex intricacies of collective identities are easily noticed by social scientists. A strongpoint of this volume is its highlighting certain dimensions that have traditionally received little attention. This is thanks to a relatively unusual approach aimed at understanding horizontal inter-ethnic relationships. While many scholars have focused on relations between the state and 'minorities', or on opposition between hills and valleys – and sometimes both, as in the case of Scott (2009 – this compilation examines the manifold identity relations that "structure the ethnic groups' social spaces on a local or micro-regional level" (1.

  18. Exploring Ethnic Differences in Taste Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Johnny A; Bartoshuk, Linda M; Fillingim, Roger B; Dotson, Cedrick D

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that nutritional intake can vary substantially as a function of demographic variables such as ethnicity and/or sex. Although a variety of factors are known to underlie the relationship between these demographic variables and nutritional intake, it is interesting to speculate that variation in food intake associated with ethnicity or sex may result, in part, from differences in the perceived taste of foods in these different populations. Thus, we initiated a study to evaluate taste responsiveness in different ethnic groups. Moreover, because of the known differences in taste responsiveness between males and females, analyses were stratified by sex. The ethnic groups tested differed significantly from one another in reported perceived taste intensity. Our results showed that Hispanics and African Americans rated taste sensations higher than non-Hispanic Whites and that these differences were more pronounced in males. Understanding the nature of these differences in taste perception is important, because taste perception may contribute to dietary health risk. When attempting to modify diet, individuals of different ethnicities may require personalized interventions that take into account the different sensory experience that these individuals may have when consuming foods.

  19. The relationship between ethnicity and the pain experience of cancer patients: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wingfai Kwok

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer pain is a complex multidimensional construct. Physicians use a patient-centered approach for its effective management, placing a great emphasis on patient self-reported ratings of pain. In the literature, studies have shown that a patient′s ethnicity may influence the experience of pain as there are variations in pain outcomes among different ethnic groups. At present, little is known regarding the effect of ethnicity on the pain experience of cancer patients; currently, there are no systematic reviews examining this relationship. Materials and Methods: A systematic search of the literature in October 2013 using the keywords in Group 1 together with Group 2 and Group 3 was conducted in five online databases (1 Medline (1946-2013, (2 Embase (1980-2012, (3 The Cochrane Library, (4 Pubmed, and (5 Psycinfo (1806-2013. The search returned 684 studies. Following screening by inclusion and exclusion criteria, the full text was retrieved for quality assessment. In total, 11 studies were identified for this review. The keywords used for the search were as follows: Group 1-Cancer; Group 2- Pain, Pain measurement, Analgesic, Analgesia; Group 3- Ethnicity, Ethnic Groups, Minority Groups, Migrant, Culture, Cultural background, Ethnic Background. Results: Two main themes were identified from the included quantitative and qualitative studies, and ethnic differences were found in: (1 The management of cancer pain and (2 The pain experience. Six studies showed that ethnic groups face barriers to pain treatment and one study did not. Three studies showed ethnic differences in symptom severity and one study showed no difference. Interestingly, two qualitative studies highlighted cultural differences in the perception of cancer pain as Asian patients tended to normalize pain compared to Western patients who engage in active health-seeking behavior. Conclusion: There is an evidence to suggest that the cancer pain experience is different between

  20. Analysis of the viability of Armenian ethnic community being an integral social organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Paronikian

    2017-08-01

    The viability specifics of the Armenian ethnic community as an integral social organism in Ukraine has been revealed in the article by the author. Well-known researcher V. Arbenina includes several factors to the indicators of ethnic groups viability. On the basis of them, the Armenian community has been analyzed by the author. Such indicators as the size of the group, its specific weight in the general structure of the population of the state, the features of the educational, vocational qualification, industry, and settlement structure of the group; the status of an ethnic group in the system of social stratification, the preservation of the cultural identity of the group, the social activity of its members and the formation of the group as the aggregate subject of social life, have been described in the article. It has been found that during the last century, the Armenian ethnic community is being strengthened in a quantitative way, and its share among the total population of Ukraine is permanently growing. It has also been revealed that this group is represented mainly by the urban, educated population, which is involved in many important spheres of society. The high level of recognition of the Armenian language as a native language has been pointed out, also its general prevalence among the ethnic community has been defined. The presence of a significant number of national (Armenian Union of Ukraine and regional (Armenian national city community in Kharkiv public organizations that care for the cultural life of Armenians, as well as social activity of their members, has been described. High level of social maturity of the Armenian ethnic community and its formation as a cumulative subject of social life has been defined. Therefore, according to these indicators, Armenian ethnic community can be considered as a viable integral social organism with significant prospects for further development.

  1. An examination of biracial college youths' family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and adjustment: do self-identification labels and university context matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittian, Aerika S; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Derlan, Chelsea L

    2013-04-01

    This study examined family ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, and adjustment among Latino/White and Asian/White biracial college students (n = 507), with special attention to how ethnic self-identification and university ethnic composition informed the ethnic identity process. Findings indicated that family ethnic socialization was positively related to participants' ethnic identity exploration and resolution, but not ethnic identity affirmation. Furthermore, ethnic identity resolution and affirmation were associated with higher self-acceptance and self-esteem, and lower depressive symptoms. Importantly, university ethnic composition moderated the association between ethnic identity resolution and anxiety, such that resolution promoted adjustment in contexts that were relatively more ethnically diverse. University ethnic composition also moderated the association between ethnic identity affirmation and both self-esteem and self-acceptance, such that affirmation was associated with better adjustment but only in schools that were less ethnically diverse.

  2. When Ethnic Identity is a Private Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Olsen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the change of articulation of ethnic boundaries on the coastline and the fjord areas in Finnmark, Northern Norway in the post-World War II period. From being a ‘social stigma’ in the 1950s a Sámi identity is today something that can be expressed in certain cultural constructed spaces. This change can be described as a result of socio-economic changes in the region, the populations’ firmer integration in a Norwegian culture and the ethno-political struggle of some Sámi that corresponded with a general development in the view on indigenous people in the Western world. Even if great changes have occurred there are still some resemblances with ethnic processes 50 years ago. A spatial ordering of ethnic boundaries and pragmatic assumption of Norwegian culture being neutral norm are among those features perpetuated until today.

  3. Dietary patterns, food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Christensen, Dirk; Larsson, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To compare dietary patterns and food and macronutrient intakes among adults in three ethnic groups in rural Kenya. Design. In the present cross-sectional study, dietary intake was estimated in adult volunteers using two non-consecutive interactive 24 h recalls. Dietary patterns were...... was conducted in the Bondo, Kitui and Transmara districts of rural Kenya. A high prevalence of food insecurity in Kenya underlines the importance of describing the dietary patterns and intakes in different Kenyan ethnic groups. Subjects. A total of 1163 (61% women) adult Luo, Kamba and Maasai, with a mean age...... of 38.6 (range: 18–68) years, volunteered to participate. Results. Dietary patterns and food groups contributing to EI differed significantly among the ethnic groups. Mean EI ranged from 5.8 to 8.6 MJ/d among women and from 7.2 to 10.5 MJ/d among men, with carbohydrates contributing between 55.7% and 74...

  4. Analysis of 49 autosomal SNPs in three ethnic groups from Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharafi Farzad, M; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Børsting, C;

    2013-01-01

    A total number of 149 individuals from Iran (Persians, Lurs and Kurds) were analyzed for 49 autosomal SNPs using PCR, SBE and capillary electrophoresis. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed. One SNP pair (rs1015250-rs251934) showed significant linkage disequilibrium in Kurds....... However, this was most likely due to chance. High intrapopulation variability and no significant population structure were observed among the three ethnic groups from Iran. Pairwise FST values obtained from the mean numbers of pairwise differences between SNP profiles were calculated for Persians, Lurs......, Kurds and eighteen other worldwide populations. For each of the three Iranian ethnic groups, the lowest FST values calculated between an Iranian and non-Iranian populations were observed between Iranians and populations in Iraq and Turkey. The three Iranian ethnic groups grouped together with other West...

  5. Intra-ethnic and inter-ethnic marriage and divorce in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, F C; Johnson, R C

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of intra- and inter-ethnic divorce rates in Hawaii showed that inter-ethnic marriages resulted in a higher proportion of divorces than did intra-ethnic marriages when the marriage data used had to do with all marriages occurring in Hawaii. However, a sizeable portion of marriages in Hawaii are of nonresidents who, if they divorce, probably divorce elsewhere. Nonresident marriages are chiefly intra-ethnic marriages of Caucasians. When examining the proportions of divorces to resident marriages, within-group marriages are more at risk than inter-ethnic marriages. As in prior research, persons who marry members of other racial/ethnic groups tend to marry persons from groups with income levels similar to their own. As in previous reports, some cross-ethnic combinations appeared more at risk for divorce than did others. Group income appeared to be a predictor of risk. When considering only resident marriages as related to divorces, those marriages in which the bride was from a higher income group than the groom were at a significantly greater risk for divorce than marriage in which the bride came from an income group lower than that of the groom.

  6. Interaction of Ethnicity and H. pylori Infection in the Occurrence of Microscopic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Amnon; Turner, Kevin O; Genta, Robert M

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies found that microscopic colitis is inversely associated with Helicobacter pylori infection and that microscopic colitis is characterized by a marked ethnic variation. The aim of the present study was to test whether an underlying ethnic variation of H. pylori infection is responsible for the ethnic variation of microscopic colitis. The Miraca Life Sciences Database is a large national electronic repository of histopathologic records of patients distributed throughout the entire USA. A cross-sectional study evaluated the influence of age, gender, ethnicity, and histologic diagnosis of H. pylori on the occurrence of microscopic colitis among subjects who underwent esophago-gastro-duodenoscopies plus colonoscopy. The total study population comprised 228,506 subjects, of whom 28,890 carried a diagnosis of H. pylori gastritis and 3460 microscopic colitis. Female sex, old age, and H. pylori infection exerted the strongest influence on the occurrence of microscopic colitis. In comparison with the population comprising Caucasians and African-Americans, microscopic colitis was less common among subjects of Hispanic (0.34, 0.27-0.47), East Asian (0.13, 0.06-0.22), Indian (0.31, 0.10-0.73), or Middle Eastern descent (0.28, 0.07-0.74). All these ethnic subgroups were also characterized by a higher prevalence of H. pylori than the comparison group. A low prevalence of H. pylori was significantly associated with a high prevalence of microscopic colitis (R (2) = 0.91, p microscopic colitis.

  7. Prevalence and correlates of chronic dieting in a multi-ethnic U.S. community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachelin, F M; Regan, P C

    2006-06-01

    Despite the increasing rates of obesity in the U.S. and corresponding rise in weight-related concerns among men and women in all ethnic groups, most research in the U.S. has been conducted using white female samples. This study explored the prevalence and correlates of chronic dieting (high levels of dietary restraint) among a U.S. communitybased sample of Hispanic, Asian, Black, and White women and men (N=1257). Chronic dieting was more common among women than men, and less common among Asians than other ethnic groups. Across the total sample, dietary restraint was positively correlated with weight history, disordered eating attitudes, distorted body experiences, and depression, and was negatively correlated with self-esteem. Female chronic dieters showed the highest degree of disturbance; compared with female non-dieters (and male chronic dieters), they reported lower self-esteem, higher depression, and more disordered eating attitudes. As hypothesized, they also exhibited a higher degree of acculturation to Anglo-American society. Male chronic dieters had more disordered eating attitudes and experienced greater body distortion than male non-dieters. Interestingly, these results were not moderated by ethnicity. Although the prevalence of chronic dieting differs among ethnic groups living in the U.S., the psychological characteristics related to eating and weight appear similar for individuals who diet, irrespective of ethnicity.

  8. Culture and ethnicity influence outcomes of the Scoliosis Research Society Instrument in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Lee Jae; Kawakami, Noriaki; Lenke, Lawrence G; Sucato, Daniel J; Sanders, James O; Diab, Mohammad

    2012-05-20

    Retrospective comparative study. To report preoperative differences in the Scoliosis Research Society Outcomes Instrument (SRS-30) between multiple US ethnicities and native Japanese and Korean children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). The SRS-24 was developed in a US cohort with AIS. Comparative studies using the SRS-24 between US and Japanese patients showed differences, suggesting that culture might affect functional outcome. Preoperative SRS-30 outcomes were collected from 1853 children with AIS from 6 different ethnic groups: US white (1234), black (213), Hispanic (78), and Asian (29), as well as native Japanese (192) and Koreans (107). Analysis of covariance of 4 SRS-30 domains (pain, appearance, activity, and mental) was compared between groups adjusting for differences in age, sex, major curve magnitude, and body mass index. Pairwise comparisons of the 4 SRS-30 domains were adjusted for multiple comparisons, using Bonferroni correction. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Significant differences between ethnicities were found in all domains (P Culture and ethnicity influence SRS-30 outcomes in AIS. Whites reported more pain than Japanese and Koreans. Japanese and Koreans had the lowest appearance scores. Koreans additionally were distinguished by the lowest activity, mental, and total scores. These cultural and ethnic differences must be taken into account when counseling patients with AIS and studying functional outcomes.

  9. [Genetic polymorphisms of X-STR loci in Chinese Yugur ethnic group and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Jiong; Chen, Feng; Xin, Na; Zhang, Hong Bo; Zheng, Hai Bo; Yu, Bing; Li, Sheng-Bin; Chen, Teng

    2008-09-01

    To study the genetic polymorphism of nine short tandem repeats (STRs) loci (DXS7130, DXS7132, DXS6804, DXS7423, DXS7424, DXS6789, DXS6799, DXS8378, and HPRTB) on X chromosome in Chinese Yugur ethnic group. The allele and genotype frequency of nine X-STR loci among 120 unrelated individuals (55 female, 65 male) from Yugur ethnic group were analyzed using PCR and followed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. The numbers of alleles in the nine X-STR loci were 8, 6, 6, 5, 6, 7, 6, 4, and 6, respectively; the numbers of genotypes in the nine loci were 16, 14, 13, 6, 13, 20, 11, 6, and 12, respectively. The genotype frequencies in females were in accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P>0.05). The nine X-STR loci were relatively abundant in polymorphic information for individual identification, paternity testing and population genetics. A total of 15 haplotypes were detected in DXS7130 and DXS8378 loci, and 55 haplotypes were detected in DXS6789, DXS6799, DXS7424, and DXS6804 loci. The haplotype diversity reached 0.8212 and 0.9947, respectively. Phylogeny tree and cluster analysis based on X-STR allele frequencies in genesis showed that Yugur ethnic group share a close relationship with Mongolian ethnic group and Chinese Han, Tibetan population and far from Hui and Uygur ethnic group, who dwell in the northwest of China.

  10. Housing Systems and Ethnic Spatial Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    Residential spatial segregation is related to housing markets and housing policies. In this paper, ethnic segregation is compared across four Nordic capitals and explanations for the differences are examined by comparing the housing markets and housing policies of the countries. The housing markets...... of neighbourhoods. Ethnic segmentation of housing tenures thus contributes to segregation, but the effect is much dependent on how tenures are distributed across space. In one of the cities, the policy of neighbourhood tenure mix has resulted in a relatively low degree of segregation in spite of high concentrations...

  11. Housing Systems and Ethnic Spatial Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are ethnically segmented with high concentrations of immigrants in some forms of tenures (especially social/public housing) and low concentrations in others. The paper shows that the spatial distribution of immigrants is strongly connected with the tenure composition...... of immigrants in social/public housing.......Residential spatial segregation is related to housing markets and housing policies. In this paper, ethnic segregation is compared across four Nordic capitals and explanations for the differences are examined by comparing the housing markets and housing policies of the countries. The housing markets...

  12. HLA and malaria in four colombian ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Restrepo

    1988-10-01

    Full Text Available HLA antigens and their relationship with malaria infection were studied in four different ethnic groups in Colombia (South America: two groups of indians (Kunas and Katios, one of negroes and a group of mixed ancestry. A total of 965 persons were studied, 415 with malaria and 550 as controls. HLA-A,B, and C antigen frequencies in the four groups are reported. The association of each HLA antigen with malaria infection due to P. vivax and to P. falciparum was evaluated. Negroes, Kunas and Katios indians variously lack from 6 to 9 of the HLA antigens found in the mixed group. In the designated ethnic groups, antigens B5, B13, B15, Cw2 and Cw4 showed borderline association with malaria infection. However, in the mixed ethnic group, statistically significant associations were found with malaria infection and the presence of A9, Aw19, B17, B35, and Z98 (a B21-B45: crossreacting determinant with few differences when P. vivax infection and P. falciparum infection were considered individually. This finding may represent a lack of general resistance to malaria in the group that harbors antigens of Caucasian origin. These individuals have been in direct and permanent contact with malaria only in the past 65 years. In contrast, indians, both Kunas and Katios, and Negroes have lived for centuries in malaria endemic areas, and it is possible that a natural selection system has developed through which only those individuals able to initiate an acute immune response to malaria have survived.

  13. Ethnic Differences in the Role of Adipocytokines Linking Abdominal Adiposity and Insulin Sensitivity Among Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaresh Rizi, Ehsan; Teo, Yvonne; Leow, Melvin Khee-Shing; Khoo, Eric Yin Hao; Yeo, Chia Rou; Chan, Edmund; Song, Tammy; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Velan, S Sendhil; Gluckman, Peter D; Lee, Yung Seng; Chong, Yap Seng; Tai, E Shyong; Toh, Sue-Anne; Khoo, Chin Meng

    2015-11-01

    Among Asian ethnic groups, Chinese or Malays are more insulin sensitive than South Asians, in particular in lean individuals. We have further reported that body fat partitioning did not explain this ethnic difference in insulin sensitivity. We examined whether adipocytokines might explain the ethnic differences in the relationship between obesity and insulin resistance among the three major ethnic groups in Singapore. This was a cross-sectional study of 101 Chinese, 82 Malays, and 81 South Asian men. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was measured using hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) volumes were quantified using magnetic resonance imaging. Plasma total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin, leptin, visfatin, apelin, IL-6, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), retinol binding protein-4 (RBP 4), and resistin were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Principle component (PC) analysis on the adipocytokines identified three PCs, which explained 49.5% of the total variance. Adiponectin loaded negatively, and leptin and FGF21 loaded positively onto PC1. Visfatin, resistin, and apelin all loaded positively onto PC2. IL-6 loaded positively and RBP-4 negatively onto PC3. Only PC1 was negatively associated with ISI in all ethnic groups. In the path analysis, SAT and VAT were negatively associated with ISI in Chinese and Malays without significant mediatory role of PC1. In South Asians, the relationship between VAT and ISI was mediated partly through PC1, whereas the relationship between SAT and ISI was mediated mainly through PC1. The relationships between abdominal obesity, adipocytokines and insulin sensitivity differ between ethnic groups. Adiponectin, leptin, and FGF21 play a mediating role in the relationship between abdominal adiposity and insulin resistance in South Asians, but not in Malays or Chinese.

  14. Restricted total stability and total attractivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Zappala'

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the new concepts of restricted total stability and total attractivity is formulated. For this purpose the classical theory of Malkin with suitable changes and the theory of limiting equations, introduced by Sell developed by Artstein and Andreev, are used. Significant examples are presented.

  15. Race/Ethnic Differences in the Associations of the Framingham Risk Factors with Carotid IMT and Cardiovascular Events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystel M Gijsberts

    Full Text Available Clinical manifestations and outcomes of atherosclerotic disease differ between ethnic groups. In addition, the prevalence of risk factors is substantially different. Primary prevention programs are based on data derived from almost exclusively White people. We investigated how race/ethnic differences modify the associations of established risk factors with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events.We used data from an ongoing individual participant meta-analysis involving 17 population-based cohorts worldwide. We selected 60,211 participants without cardiovascular disease at baseline with available data on ethnicity (White, Black, Asian or Hispanic. We generated a multivariable linear regression model containing risk factors and ethnicity predicting mean common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT and a multivariable Cox regression model predicting myocardial infarction or stroke. For each risk factor we assessed how the association with the preclinical and clinical measures of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease was affected by ethnicity.Ethnicity appeared to significantly modify the associations between risk factors and CIMT and cardiovascular events. The association between age and CIMT was weaker in Blacks and Hispanics. Systolic blood pressure associated more strongly with CIMT in Asians. HDL cholesterol and smoking associated less with CIMT in Blacks. Furthermore, the association of age and total cholesterol levels with the occurrence of cardiovascular events differed between Blacks and Whites.The magnitude of associations between risk factors and the presence of atherosclerotic disease differs between race/ethnic groups. These subtle, yet significant differences provide insight in the etiology of cardiovascular disease among race/ethnic groups. These insights aid the race/ethnic-specific implementation of primary prevention.

  16. VERBAL HYGIENE AND ETHNIC POLITICS IN NIGERIA: A STUDY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dean SPGS NAU

    analyzed through the lens of Politeness Theory of Brown and Levinson. ... the positive face of people from opposing ethnic groups, this constitutes ... unconsciously think, act and verbalize in line with these ethnic ...... John Benjamins.

  17. Violence Against Women During the 1991 Ethnic Conflicts of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    violence against women during the 1991 ethnic conflicts of the East Gonja District of Ghana. A qualitative approach ... KEY WORDS: Ethnic Conflict, Violence against Women, Gender, Armed Conflict Culture ...... New Delhi: Macmilan India Ltd.

  18. Ethnicity, Governance and Prevention of Conflict: State of the Issue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethnicity, Governance and Prevention of Conflict: State of the Issue and Research Perspectives. ... Africa Development ... The paper presents the issues of ethnicity, governance, and prevention of conflicts in terms of their political management ...

  19. Some nonfermented ethnic foods of Sikkim in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sikkim, the Himalayan state of India has several ethnic foods which have not been documented. A field survey was conducted in randomly selected 370 households in Sikkim representing the major ethnic communities, namely, Nepali, Bhutia, and Lepcha. Information was collected on different types of nonfermented ethnic foods, as prepared and consumed by these inhabitants, the traditional method of preparation, mode of consumption, as well as culinary, socioeconomic, and ethnic values. We have listed more than 83 common and uncommon nonfermented ethnic foods of Sikkim consumed by different ethnic groups in Sikkim, India. Some of these foods have been documented and include achar, alum, chatamari, chhwelaa, dheroh, falki, foldong, kodoko roti, kwanti, momo, pakku, phaparko roti, phulaurah, ponguzom, suzom, thukpa or gya-thuk, and wachipa. Nutritional analysis, process technology development and packaging of these ethnic foods may boost ethnic food tourism in the region, which could in turn enhance the regional economy.

  20. Young Adults Seeking Medical Care: Do Race and Ethnicity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... equal percentages of those within each racial and ethnic group had a usual source of medical care. However, ... in the past year. Within each racial and ethnic group, uninsured young adults were about three times as ...

  1. Ethnicity distinctiveness through iris texture features using Gabor filters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mabuza-Hocquet, Gugulethu P

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available and ethnicity. Researchers have reported that iris texture features contain information that is inclined to human genetics and is highly discriminative between different eyes of different ethnicities. This work applies image processing and machine learning...

  2. Ethnic Disparities in the Graduate Labour Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines ethnic wage differentials for the entire population of workers who enrolled for the first time as students at Dutch universities (WO) and colleges (HBO) in 1996 using unique administrative panel data for the period 1996 to 2005 from the Dutch tertiary education system. The study

  3. Ethnic disparities in the graduate labour market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zorlu, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines ethnic wage differentials for the entire population of students enrolled in 1996 using unique administrative panel data for the period 1996 to 2005 from the Dutch tertiary education system. The study decomposes wage differentials into two components: a component which can be expl

  4. TOWARDS BRIDGING ETHNIC AND RELIGIOUS DIVIDES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    tackling socio-economic and political challenges in Nigeria appear illusive. Of about 250 ethnic .... laments that “it was the British who forced us,as it were, into one nation. ... Previous elections have been characterized by where the candidates ...

  5. Ethnicity, education, and blood pressure in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordunez, Pedro; Munoz, Jose Luis Bernal; Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo; Silva, Luis Carlos; Cooper, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    The causes of variation in hypertension risk by ethnicity and educational level are not well understood. To gain further insight into this issue in a nonindustrialized country, a population-based sample of 1,667 persons aged 15-74 years was recruited in Cienfuegos, Cuba. In this 2001-2002 study, interviewers classified 29% of participants as Black or mulatto and 71% as White. Educational attainment was stratified at the median number of school years. Compared with White women, non-White women had higher blood pressures (3.0/1.7, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure) and a higher prevalence of hypertension (24%, 95% confidence interval: 20, 28 vs. 15%, 95% confidence interval: 12, 18). Among men, no differences in blood pressure were observed by ethnicity. Men with a lower level of education had a 14% lower risk of hypertension compared with men above the median. However, women with a lower level of education had a 24% increase in risk. The effect of education was equally strong among Whites alone and when occupation was used for stratification. No variation was observed for body mass index or self-reported health behaviors by ethnicity or education. The narrower ethnic gradient in hypertension prevalence than seen in North America and the gender-specific social status effect, in the context of relatively equal living conditions, suggest that the influence of psychosocial stressors may be specific to cultural contexts.

  6. Minority (Ethnic) Studies in the Elementary Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Lita Linzer

    The paper offers recommendations for an ethnic studies curriculum at the elementary school level which would be interdisciplinary in nature and integrate the basic skills of reading, writing, and critical thinking. In the social studies, for example, concepts of cultural diversity and universality can be presented in simple form in the early…

  7. Ethnic Differences on the MMPI-2?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbrook, Rodney E.; Graham, John R.

    1994-01-01

    Ethnic differences on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) were studied in the restandardization sample of 75 African American and 725 white men and 65 African American and 743 white women. The MMPI-2 scales were not differentially accurate in predicting relevant characteristics for both groups. (SLD)

  8. Prejudice, Tolerance, and Attitudes Toward Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Mary R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual and empirical examination of the term "prejudice". The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the term "tolerance" as it has developed in political sociology and suggests the application of this concept to the study of inter-ethnic attitudes. (Author)

  9. MARKS OF ETHNICITY IN PURPLE HIBISCUS TRANSLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Oliveira Müller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study gives an analysis of the English – Brazilian Portuguese translation of Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s novel, Purple Hibiscus, made by Julia Romeu. It is an attempt to analyze how traces of ethnic identities marked in the source text are reproduced in the Brazilian version Hibisco Roxo, published in 2011. Initially, is a brief biography of the writer is presented together with her history towards the construction of a new paradigm for the literature about Africa and Nigeria. Adichie challenges Western stereotypes about that continent, which tend to report poverty, war and disease scenarios. Secondly, a summary of the story was made and the main characters were described. Thirdly, a collection of recorded words and phrases in the Igbo language was compiled from the original text and an analysis of the translation of those terms into Brazilian Portuguese was performed. Afterwards, the concept of ethnicity described by the sociologist Anthony Giddens was presented. Based on that concept, it was concluded that the terms previously selected could be considered as marks of ethnicity, reflecting the presence of the Igbo ethnic group in the British colonial culture. Finally, taking Antoine Berman’s proposition for an ethical translation, which embraces the foreign and rejects ethnocentrism, the conclusion to be drawn is that the translator’s option to keep Igbo terms in her work respected the author’s manifest intention of, through her work, showing the readers from other countries a bit of Nigeria’s culture and history.

  10. International Tourism, Ethnic Contact, and Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Yehuda; Ben-Ari, Rachel

    1985-01-01

    Evaluates a book about Egypt, designed to improve the ethnic attitudes of Israel tourists who were about to visit that country as a cognitive intervention. Reports that the intervention was successful only in moderating negative attitudinal changes, and that the intergroup contact provided by tourism does not guarantee positive attitude change.…

  11. Ethnic and Nationality Stereotypes in Everyday Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Mary E.; Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a demonstration of stereotype use in everyday language that focuses on common phrases reflecting stereotypic beliefs about ethnic groups or nationalities. The exercise encourages students' discussion of stereotype use. Students read 13 common phrases from the English language and stated whether they had used each phrase and…

  12. Ethnicity, Forms of Capital, and Educational Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Geert W. J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Using Bourdieu's theory of cultural capital, which explains how social class influences transmission of educational inequality, this article questions the extent to which various forms of capital also apply to ethnic minorities. Discusses a study of Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan students, which found that there was no mediating effect…

  13. Ethnicity and State Politics in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C e point ale vae est tees elisca table, sartoat ... C identity poli- ... in the newly independent. countries.3 The thesis was enthusiasti- ..... (3) ethnic cleansing and genocide. ..... Front (NIF) leadership seem willing t.o consider the partition op- tion.

  14. Intraoral Pressure in Ethnic Wind Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Goss, Clinton F

    2013-01-01

    High intraoral pressure generated when playing some wind instruments has been linked to a variety of health issues. Prior research has focused on Western classical instruments, but no work has been published on ethnic wind instruments. This study measured intraoral pressure when playing six classes of ethnic wind instruments (N = 149): Native American flutes (n = 71) and smaller samples of ethnic duct flutes, reed instruments, reedpipes, overtone whistles, and overtone flutes. Results are presented in the context of a survey of prior studies, providing a composite view of the intraoral pressure requirements of a broad range of wind instruments. Mean intraoral pressure was 8.37 mBar across all ethnic wind instruments and 5.21 +/- 2.16 mBar for Native American flutes. The range of pressure in Native American flutes closely matches pressure reported in other studies for normal speech, and the maximum intraoral pressure, 20.55 mBar, is below the highest subglottal pressure reported in other studies during singing...

  15. Ethnic minority ageing and intergenerational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    This paper deals with the dynamics of ageing among ethnic minorities within a broad psychosocial framework involving the transnational contexts. Based on findings from psychotherapy with older adults (Knight, 2004) and a couple of empirical studies (Singla, 2008, Westerling, 2008) with young adults...

  16. Race and Ethnicity in Fragile Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummer, Robert A.; Hamilton, Erin R.

    2010-01-01

    Robert Hummer and Erin Hamilton note that the prevalence of fragile families varies substantially by race and ethnicity. African Americans and Hispanics have the highest prevalence; Asian Americans, the lowest; and whites fall somewhere in the middle. The share of unmarried births is lower among most foreign-born mothers than among their U.S.-born…

  17. Visually Translating Educational Materials for Ethnic Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffman, Carole B.

    Growing populations of older adults, ethnic minorities, and the low-literate create unique concerns for the design of visual information. Those for whom text presents a barrier will respond most to legibility, use of familiar formats and symbols, and simplification. Guidelines for those processes are needed, and this paper, in particular,…

  18. Ethnicity and constitutionalism in contemporary Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the Constituti

  19. Ethnic and Nationality Stereotypes in Everyday Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kite, Mary E.; Whitley, Bernard E., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe a demonstration of stereotype use in everyday language that focuses on common phrases reflecting stereotypic beliefs about ethnic groups or nationalities. The exercise encourages students' discussion of stereotype use. Students read 13 common phrases from the English language and stated whether they had used each phrase and…

  20. Tribune: Retention Policy for Ethnic Minority Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herfs, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The question of the retention of ethnic minority university students in universities in the Netherlands, especially at the University of Utrecht, is examined. In particular, the cases of Surinamese, Antillian, and Aruban students, foreign refugee students, particularly medical doctors, and Turkish a

  1. Ethnic Awareness of Chinese-American Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Esther Lee

    1983-01-01

    American-born Chinese students in Houston, Texas, possess a bicultural identity with strong attachment to their Chinese heritage, a high level of self-esteem, early acceptance of racial differences, and proximity to ethnic social contacts. The students also have assimilated American cultural values and are receptive to social integration. (AOS)

  2. Ethnic Succession in a Highland Chiapas Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmeyer, Joseph M.

    1997-01-01

    Since the 1950s, ethnic relations in Tenejapa (Chiapas, Mexico) have shifted toward greater equality and less antagonism between formerly dominant mestizos and formerly dominated "indigenas" (Maya Indians). An important cause is the long-term promotion of indigenous education by a national agency, Instituto Nacional Indigenista, imparting to…

  3. Food safety aspects on ethnic foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fusco, Vincenzina; Besten, den H.M.W.; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Rodriguez, Fernando Perez; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.; Stessl, Beatrix; Teixeira, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Ethnic foods are becoming popular worldwide. Nevertheless, foodborne outbreaks and food recalls due to the contamination of these foods with pathogenic agents, toxins, undeclared allergens and hazardous chemical compounds are increasing in recent years together with their growing popularity. In t

  4. Ethnic Awareness of Chinese-American Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Esther Lee

    1983-01-01

    American-born Chinese students in Houston, Texas, possess a bicultural identity with strong attachment to their Chinese heritage, a high level of self-esteem, early acceptance of racial differences, and proximity to ethnic social contacts. The students also have assimilated American cultural values and are receptive to social integration. (AOS)

  5. The Paradox of the Unmeltable Pseudo Ethnic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Eduardo

    One purpose of this paper is to clarify and sharpen categories of social reality that have great emotional and evaluation connotations and consequences. The term "ethnicity" needs clarification. It should refer to the character, style, and way of life taken in by people from their distinct culture. It is not what the naive realism of American…

  6. Ethnicity, schooling, and merit in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werfhorst, Herman G. van de; Tubergen, Frank van

    2007-01-01

    We examine to what extent ethnicity affects academic ability measured in the first year of secondary school and secondary school type in the Netherlands. We focus on second-generation immigrants. The empirical results indicate that academic ability (both in mathematics and language) is not affected

  7. Do ethnicity and gender influence posterior tibial slope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisicchia, Salvatore; Scordo, Gavinca M; Prins, Johan; Tudisco, Cosimo

    2017-02-02

    Ethnicity and gender can affect posterior tibial slope; however, studies on this topic have limitations and are in disagreement. The aim of the present study was to evaluate posterior tibial slope in a large group of consecutive patients, determining whether ethnicity and gender can influence its value. Secondly, to determine intra- and inter-rater reliability of the two radiographic methods adopted. Posterior tibial slope was calculated (rater 1) in lateral view X-rays of the knee according to the posterior tibial cortex (PTC) and tibial proximal anatomical axis (TPAA) methods. Data were matched with ethnicity and gender. For determination of intra- and inter-rater reliability, 50 random X-rays were selected, and blindly measured by two other raters (2 and 3). A total of 581 radiographs were included (413 white and 168 black knees). Comparing white and black subjects, a statistically significant difference was found for both PTC (4.9 ± 1.2 vs 7.1 ± 2.9, p < 0.0001), and for TPAA (7.7 ± 1.1 vs 10.2 ± 3.0, p < 0.0001). In white subjects, an influence of gender was found only for TPAA (6.4 ± 1.1 in males vs 7.6 ± 1.1 in females, p < 0.0001). In black subjects, an influence of gender was found only for PTC (7.4 ± 3.0 in males vs 6.2 ± 2.9 in females, p = 0.01). Intra-rater reliability was good for both methods for rater 1, and very good for rater 2. Inter-rater reliability among the 3 raters was very good for both methods. Differences in posterior tibial slope between different ethnic groups exist. Differences observed between genders are conflicting and might be too small to have implications in clinical practice. The TPAA method is recommended for the evaluation of posterior tibial slope because of higher intra- and inter-rater reliability. Level of evidence 3 Case-control study.

  8. Births per U.S. woman? Depends on race, ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haub, C

    1993-09-01

    A profile of mothers giving birth is presented for the US for 1990 based on race and ethnicity. Some of the complexities involved in compiling racial and ethnic data are described. The total fertility rate was 2.1 for all American women, 1.1 for Japanese Americans, and 3.2 for Hawaiians and Mexican Americans. The number of births per woman was derived from state birth registration data, which culls data from preadmission hospital forms filled out by the mother. The denominator of the birth rate comes from the number of women in the specified age group as determined by the Census. The problem arises from self-reports themselves. Consistency between recording systems has been improved since 1989 when births were counted based on mother's race and ethnicity. There have been greater percentages of interracial births for which race of both parents were known, and the trend was for 15% of the births for race of the father not to be reported in 1990. The data revealed that in 1990, Mexican Americans and Hawaiians had the highest birth rate of 3.2, which was comparable to developing countries in Latin America. The other Hispanic group was another high fertility group for a developed country. Low fertility was found among Japanese, Chinese, and Cuban Americans. The actual numbers revealed that non-Hispanic whites constitute 2.6 million out of 4.2 million children born in the US. 595,100 were Hispanics, 661,700 were non-Hispanic blacks, 142,000 were Asian or Pacific Islander, and less than 40,000 were American Indian. Teenage pregnancy was considerable among the ethnic populations: nearly 25% of African Americans, and about 20% of American Indians, Puerto Ricans, Hawaiians, and Mexican Americans having births to women under 20 years of age. The birthing patterns were different among minority groups. Hispanic women had early childbearing and continued childbearing throughout the reproductive years. Black and American Indian women tended to complete childbearing early. Asian

  9. Migrations of ethnic Albanians in Kosovo 1938-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelajac Mile

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kosovo crisis and the dissolution of the SFR of Yugoslavia provoked the scholarly community to respond in many and varied ways. This paper seeks to show how difficult it was for many to 'navigate' between the 'rocks' of hard fact and pure propaganda, and in what ways that open-ended situation echoes in the present. A more important goal, however, is to put forward the results of my research regarding the reliability of the Yugoslav census data of 1931 which may shed clarifying light on the vastly discrepant demographic figures that are currently in use. The 1931 census data for non-Slav minorities were highly classified and intended only for internal government use in response to the needs of external defense or internal order. Migrations of the ethnic Albanians and other ethnic groups in the Kosovo region during the first half of the twentieth century led to significant shifts in ethnic proportions. It is almost impossible to form a clear fact-based picture of what had happened during the First World War and why the Orthodox Christian Serbian population dropped to 21.1% in 1921, almost twice as low as their number in 1911. On the other hand, it is debatable how many ethnic Albanians or Turks permanently emigrated or went in exile in 1918-21. According to various Yugoslav data sources, some 65,000 settlers and state officials came to Kosovo, while some 24,000 Muslims from all parts of Yugoslavia emigrated to Turkey or Albania. The Second World War brought about another significant population shift. Some 10,000 Serbs were killed in 1941, while almost all Christian Orthodox settler families (about 60,000 people were expelled. The expulsion was followed by an inflow of Albanians from Albania proper. Only two thirds of the expelled were permitted to return after 1945. The provisional Yugoslav census of 1948 registered a significant increase for Albanians and a decrease for Serbs and Montenegrins or, expressed in percentage terms, Serbs dropped

  10. Cancer risks in Nairobi (2000-2014) by ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, Anne; Yu Wang, Emma; Sasieni, Peter; Okerosi, Nathan; Ronoh, Victor; Maxwell Parkin, D

    2017-02-15

    We investigated the ethnic differences in the risk of several cancers in the population of Nairobi, Kenya, using data from the Nairobi Cancer Registry. The registry records the variable "Tribe" for each case, a categorisation that includes, as well as 22 tribal groups, categories for Kenyans of European and of Asian origin, and non-Kenyan Africans. Tribes included in the final analysis were Kikuyu, Kamba, Kisii, Kalenjin, Luo, Luhya, Somalis, Asians, non-Kenyans, Caucasians, Other tribes and unknown. The largest group was taken as the reference category for the calculation of odds ratios; this was African Kenyans (for comparisons by race), and Kikuyus (the tribe with the largest numbers of cancer registrations (38% of the total)) for comparisons between the Kenyan tribes. P-values are obtained from the Wald test. Cancers that were more common among the white population than in black Kenyans were skin cancers and cancers of the bladder, while cancers that are more common in Kenyan Asians include colorectal, lung, breast, ovary, corpus uteri and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Cancers that were less common among Asians and Caucasians were oesophagus, stomach and cervix cancer. Within the African population, there were marked differences in cancer risk by tribe. Among the tribes of Bantu ethnicity, the Kamba had higher risks of melanoma, Kaposi sarcoma, liver and cervix cancer, and lower risks of oesophagus, stomach, corpus uteri and nervous system cancers. Luo and Luhya had much higher odds of Kaposi sarcoma and Burkitt lymphoma. © 2016 UICC.

  11. Diabetes in migrants and ethnic minorities in a changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesi, Luca; Caletti, Maria Turchese; Marchesini, Giulio

    2016-02-10

    On a worldwide scale, the total number of migrants exceeds 200 million and is not expected to reduce, fuelled by the economic crisis, terrorism and wars, generating increasing clinical and administrative problems to National Health Systems. Chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD), and specifically diabetes, are on the front-line, due to the high number of cases at risk, duration and cost of diseases, and availability of effective measures of prevention and treatment. We reviewed the documents of International Agencies on migration and performed a PubMed search of existing literature, focusing on the differences in the prevalence of diabetes between migrants and native people, the prevalence of NCD in migrants vs rates in the countries of origin, diabetes convergence, risk of diabetes progression and standard of care in migrants. Even in universalistic healthcare systems, differences in socioeconomic status and barriers generated by the present culture of biomedicine make high-risk ethnic minorities under-treated and not protected against inequalities. Underutilization of drugs and primary care services in specific ethnic groups are far from being money-saving, and might produce higher hospitalization rates due to disease progression and complications. Efforts should be made to favor screening and treatment programs, to adapt education programs to specific cultures, and to develop community partnerships.

  12. Superstitions regarding health problems in different ethnic groups in Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, S S I; Pardhan, A; Khan, A S; Ahmed, A; Choudry, F J; Pardhan, K; Nayeem, K; Khan, M

    2002-08-01

    To find out the superstitions regarding health problems in different ethnic groups, their implications over the socio-economic development of that group and to what extent can those superstitions be related to their level of literacy. The study was a questionnaire-based survey, 20 subjects from each ethnic group were selected by cluster sampling of residential areas where that particular group has its highest concentration, making a total of 100 subjects. It was found that most people (73%) do have some superstitious beliefs. Fifty percent of people believe in them as a part of culture and tradition, another 25% got them from their elders. No significant difference was found between different racial groups (p value = 0.9). According to literacy rate, 73.5% of literate community and 94.1% illiterate community were found to have superstitions. The occupation of the breadwinner of family didn't have a significant impact over the belief in superstitions (p value = 0.6). Majority of our population believes in superstitions, which are more common in illiterates. These superstitions not only predict health seeking behaviour of a person but also play a major role in shaping the response of a community to any health intervention program. Without the knowledge of these superstitions, effective community participation cannot be achieved.

  13. Teenage pregnancies: Consequences of poverty, ethnic background, and social conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Azhar, Hussain

    The study investigates the economic, ethnic and social background of teenagers before becoming teenage mothers or before having an induced abortion for the first time in order to study if results will be consistent with the hypotheses that poverty, social deprivation or ethnicity are causes of teen...... were at the same level for ethnic minorities as for ethnic Danes, this was not the case for teen motherhood, when controlling for social disadvantage and poverty....

  14. Some nonfermented ethnic foods of Sikkim in India

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Prakash Tamang; Namrata Thapa

    2014-01-01

    Sikkim, the Himalayan state of India has several ethnic foods which have not been documented. A field survey was conducted in randomly selected 370 households in Sikkim representing the major ethnic communities, namely, Nepali, Bhutia, and Lepcha. Information was collected on different types of nonfermented ethnic foods, as prepared and consumed by these inhabitants, the traditional method of preparation, mode of consumption, as well as culinary, socioeconomic, and ethnic values. We have list...

  15. Essence and Content Schoolchildren’s Ethnic Education

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The article discloses essence and content of schoolchildren’s ethnic education on the basis of the study of scientific works by domestic and foreign researchers. The analysis of their works shows that ethnic education as a scientific and pedagogical problem is associated with the development of ethno-pedagogical science. The article considers different points of view on the definition of the terms "folk pedagogy" and "ethnic pedagogy", "popular education" and "ethnic education". The analysis ...

  16. Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Uterine Cancer Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out of ...

  17. Educations in Ethnic Violence: Identity, Educational Bubbles, and Resource Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In "Educations in Ethnic Violence", Matthew Lange explores the effects education has on ethnic violence. Lange contradicts the widely-held belief that education promotes peace and tolerance. Rather, Lange finds that education commonly contributes to aggression, especially in environments with ethnic divisions, limited resources, and…

  18. Ethnic disparities in quality of care for children with asthma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, J.J.N. van; Stronk, K.; Devillé, W.

    2004-01-01

    Studies from the UK and USA found ethnic disparities in asthma treatment for children. Little is known about ethnic disparities in asthma treatment for chidlren in the Netherlands. The aim of this study is to gain insight into ethnic disparities in asthma care for children living in the Nederlands.

  19. Examining Race and Ethnicity Information in Medicare Administrative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filice, Clara E; Joynt, Karen E

    2016-07-29

    Racial and ethnic disparities are observed in the health status and health outcomes of Medicare beneficiaries. Reducing these disparities is a national priority, and having high-quality data on individuals' race and ethnicity is critical for researchers working to do so. However, using Medicare data to identify race and ethnicity is not straightforward. Currently, Medicare largely relies on Social Security Administration data for information about Medicare beneficiary race and ethnicity. Directly self-reported race and ethnicity information is collected for subsets of Medicare beneficiaries but is not explicitly collected for the purpose of populating race/ethnicity information in the Medicare administrative record. As a consequence of historical data collection practices, the quality of Medicare's administrative data on race and ethnicity varies substantially by racial/ethnic group; the data are generally much more accurate for whites and blacks than for other racial/ethnic groups. Identification of Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander beneficiaries has improved through use of an imputation algorithm recently applied to the Medicare administrative database. To improve the accuracy of race/ethnicity data for Medicare beneficiaries, researchers have developed techniques such as geocoding and surname analysis that indirectly assign Medicare beneficiary race and ethnicity. However, these techniques are relatively new and data may not be widely available. Understanding the strengths and limitations of different approaches to identifying race and ethnicity will help researchers choose the best method for their particular purpose, and help policymakers interpret studies using these measures.

  20. Financial Education in Small Ethnic Minority Businesses in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Javed; Matlay, Harry; Scott, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to set out to evaluate the financial education needs of ethnic minority SMEs in the West Midlands region of the United Kingdom. Design/methodology/approach: A postal survey was used to investigate the financial needs of owner/managers in 64 ethnic minority SMEs and a control sample of 23 non-ethnic SMEs.…

  1. Hmong American Adolescents' Perceptions of Ethnic Socialization Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moua, MyLou Y.; Lamborn, Susie D.

    2010-01-01

    Guided by an ecological framework, this study explored ethnic socialization practices from the perspective of Southeast Asian American adolescents. Defined as a multidimensional construct that is conceptually distinct from racial socialization, ethnic socialization involves parents' communication to children about their ethnic heritage. The…

  2. A Review of Chinese Ethnic Law Studies in 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yunwu; WANG Jie

    2014-01-01

    The Studies of Chinese Ethnic Law have made ongoing significant achievements in 2013.These studies have the following character-istics in content: firstly, the content is more com-prehensive, among it, research on the protection of ethnic cultural rights , ethnic regional autonomy and ethnic judicial issues has increased; and up-holding and perfecting regional ethnic autonomy , and minority customary law in the judicial process has become the important topic of the year .Sec-ondly, applied research increased . Thirdly, there have been relatively more reflective achieve-ments.Fourthly, there has been attention paid to some hot events . Methodologically , these studies have the following characteristics: the first is in the diversity of their perspectives; and the second is emphasizing empirical study . According to the content of the research involved , which includes the protection of ethnic rights , ethnic regional au-tonomy, ethnic legal systems, ethnic customary law, ethnic legal history, an ethnic judiciary, this article gives a comprehensive review on the main achievements on this subject and in so doing provides a comprehensive annual reference for the study of Ethnic Law .

  3. Underdiagnosis and referral bias of autism in ethnic minorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Bouk, S.; Boussaid, W.; Meerum Terwogt, M.; Koot, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined (1) the distribution of ethnic minorities among children referred to autism institutions and (2) referral bias in pediatric assessment of autism in ethnic minorities. It showed that compared to the known community prevalence, ethnic minorities were under-represented among 712

  4. Coping with Perceived Ethnic Prejudice on the Gay Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspal, Rusi

    2017-01-01

    There has been only cursory research into the sociological and psychological aspects of ethnic/racial discrimination among ethnic minority gay and bisexual men, and none that focuses specifically upon British ethnic minority gay men. This article focuses on perceptions of intergroup relations on the gay scene among young British South Asian gay…

  5. Change in Ethnic Identity across the College Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kim M.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    This article examined changes in ethnic identity as a function of college type and residential status and whether differences due to college type could be explained by involvement in extracurricular activities and college ethnic composition. Although no changes in ethnic labeling or belonging were found, there was a normative decrease in ethnic…

  6. An Ethnic Studies Component in the FL Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Neil

    1976-01-01

    Enrollment in ethnic studies courses is greatly increasing as students seek to learn the history, language, nature, problems and contributions of their own ethnic group. Language departments can aid this trend and meet students' needs by offering language and ethnic literature and culture courses. (CHK)

  7. Quotas and intersectionality: ethnicity and gender in candidate selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celis, K.; Erzeel, S.; Mügge, L.; Damstra, A.

    2014-01-01

    Gender equality is not fully realised when it is restricted to ethnic majority men and women. This article examines how gender quotas as a form of equality policy affect ethnic minority groups, in particular, the gender balance among ethnic minority candidates for political office. Our analysis focu

  8. Social Equity Theory and Racial-Ethnic Achievement Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process,…

  9. World on Fire? Democracy, Globalization and Ethnic Violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Jong-A-Pin, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that democracy and globalization lead to ethnic hatred and violence in countries with a rich ethnic minority. We examine the thesis by Chua (2003) that democratization and globalization lead to ethnic violence in the presence of a market-dominant minority. We use different dat

  10. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.

  11. Gender, Ethnicity, Ethnic Identity, and Language Choices of Malaysian Youths: the Case of the Family Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Granhemat

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationships between gender, ethnicity, ethnic identity, and language choices of Malaysian multilingual youths in the family domain of language use. Five hundred undergraduate students who belonged to different Malaysian ethnic groups were selected as participants of the study. The participant aged between 17 to 25 years old. To select the participants, a random proportional stratified sampling strategy was developed. A self administered questionnaire survey comprising three sections was used for gathering information about participants’ demographic profiles, their language choices in the family domain, and the concepts of their ethnic identity. To make analyses about the most used languages of the participants and the relationships between variables, SPSS software was run. Descriptive statistics was used to describe the participants’ profiles as well as participants’ used languages in the family domain of language use. Inferential statistics was used to examine relationships between variables. According to results of the study, in the family domain five codes were mostly used by the participants. These five codes were respectively, the Malay language, mixed use of Malay and English, Chinese, Mixed use of Chinese and English, and English. Furthermore, in the family domain, gender did not exert any influence on the choice of language of the multilingual participants, but ethnicity was found to be a determinant of language choice. Ethnic identity was found to influence the language choices of the Malays as well, but it did not affect the Chinese and Indian participants’ language choices in this domain of language use.

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh Ethnicities in Xinjiang Rural Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Songfeng; Gao, Qi; Cai, Xia; La, Xiaolin

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence and associated factors of current infertility for Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities in Xinjiang rural residents. Chinese Uygur, Kazakh, and Han populations represent > 90% of the total population of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and their customs, culture, and food consumption are different. The effect of ethnic differences on infertility risk factors is rarely studied. A cross-sectional study of 5,086 married and common-law couples, with a female partner aged 18-49, living in Hami, Kuche, or Xinyuan counties in Xinjiang, China. General information for the study subjects, including demographic characteristics, life customs, sexual history, history of contraception use, and history of disease, was collected by questionnaire. General health, gynecologic examinations, and sociodemographic characteristics were also carried out. A total of 5,086 females from Xinjiang Province were surveyed, including 493 with infertility. The standardized prevalence rate of infertility was 9.7% (95% CI 8.9-10.5), and the prevalence of infertility in Han, Uygur, and Kazakh ethnicities was 6.8% (95% CI 5.7-7.9), 10.9% (95% CI 8.0-13.8), and 10.1% (95% CI 7.4-12.8), respectively. The present study suggests that the prevalence of infertility was lower in the Han as compared to the Kazakh and Uygur ethnicities.

  13. BMI, fat and muscle differences in urban women of five ethnicities from two countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, E C; Goedecke, J H; Jennings, C; Micklesfield, L; Dugas, L; Lambert, E V; Plank, L D

    2007-08-01

    To investigate body composition differences, especially the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat (%BF), among five ethnic groups. Cross-sectional. Seven hundred and twenty-one apparently healthy women aged 18-60 years (BMI: 17.4-54.0 kg/m(2)) from South Africa (SA, 201 black, 94 European) and New Zealand (NZ, 173 European, 76 Maori, 84 Pacific, 93 Asian Indian). Anthropometry, including waist circumference, and total, central and peripheral body fat, bone mineral content and total appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM) derived from dual X-ray absorptiometry. Regression analysis determined that at a BMI of 30 kg/m(2), SA European women had a %BF of 39%, which corresponded to a BMI of 29 for SA black women. For a BMI of 30 kg/m(2) in NZ Europeans, equivalent to 43% body fat, the corresponding BMIs for NZ Maori, Pacific and Asian Indian women were 34, 36 and 26 kg/m(2), respectively. Central fat mass was lower in black SA than in European SA women (PBMI varies with ethnicity and may be due, in part, to differences in central fatness and muscularity. Use of universal BMI or waist cut-points may not be appropriate for comparison of obesity prevalence among differing ethnic groups, as they do not provide a consistent reflection of adiposity and fat distribution across ethnic groups.

  14. "American" or "Multiethnic"? Family Ethnic Identity among Transracial Adoptive Families, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Children's Self-Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Zhang, Xian; Agerbak, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a model of ethnic-racial socialization (E-RS; Pinderhughes, 2013), this study examined hypothesized relations among parents' role variables (family ethnic identity and acknowledgment of cultural and racial differences), cultural socialization (CS) behaviors, and children's self-perceptions (ethnic self-label and feelings about…

  15. Being Smart is not Enough: the role of psychlogical factors in study success of ethnic minority and ethnic majority students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Meeuwisse (Marieke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the past decade(s), many studies have been conducted on the differences in study success between ethnic minority students and ethnic majority students to identify explanations for the less successful academic careers of ethnic minority students. This dissertation aimed to explain the

  16. Associations between γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and Biomarkers of Atherosclerosis: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Ryan D.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; Jacobs, David R.; Lee, Duk-Hee; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Wake, David Herrington

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate associations between total serum γ-glutamyltransferase activity (GGT) and biomarkers of arteriosclerosis in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), including 6,783 participants from four ethnic subgroups, i.e., White, Chinese, Black and Hispanic. METHODS Associations between fasting total serum GGT activity and oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) were assessed. Following evaluation of linear trends between GGT and biomarkers of interest, multivariable linear regression models were serially adjusted for age, gender, site, ethnicity (M1); M1+lifestyle variables (M2); M2+traditional cardiovascular risk factors plus medications (M3); and M3+metabolic status (M4). Interactions were evaluated between GGT and age and ethnicity in all models. RESULTS Linear trends were positive and significant between GGT and oxLDL, IL-6, CRP and sICAM-1 in crude models, and trends remained significant in all ethnic subgroups for CRP (pLDL-C and other traditional risk factors. All models were attenuated with adjustment for metabolic status. No age interactions were evident. CONCLUSIONS Our findings support the hypothesis that total serum GGT activity represents the impact of metabolic disease on vascular injury and atherosclerosis. PMID:24530768

  17. Trends in birth across high-parity groups by race/ethnicity and maternal age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Muktar H; Salihu, Hamisu M; Keith, Louis G; Ehiri, John E; Islam, M Aminul; Jolly, Pauline E

    2005-06-01

    The changing racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. population along with delayed childbearing suggest that shifts in the demographic composition of gravidas are likely. It is unclear whether trends in the proportion of births to parous women in the United States have changed over the decades by race and ethnicity, reflecting parallel changes in population demographics. Singleton deliveries > or = 20 weeks of gestation in the United States from 1989 through 2000 were analyzed using data from the "Natality data files" assembled by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). We classified maternal age into three categories; younger mothers (aged or = 40 years) and maternal race/ethnicity into three groups: blacks (non-Hispanic), Hispanics and whites (non-Hispanic). We computed birth rates by period of delivery across the entire population and repeated the analysis stratified by age and maternal race. Chi-squared statistics for linear trend were utilized to assess linear trend across three four-year phases: 1989-1992, 1993-1996 and 1997-2000. In estimating the association between race/ethnicity and parity status, the direct method of standardization was employed to adjust for maternal age. Over the study period, the total number of births to blacks and whites diminished consistently (p for trend fashion among the high (5-9 previous live births), very high (10-14 previous live births) and extremely high (> or = 15 previous live births) parity groups (p for trend < 0.001). After maternal age standardization, black and Hispanic women were more likely to have higher parity as compared to whites. Our findings demonstrate substantial variation in parity patterns among the main racial and ethnic populations in the United States. These results may help in formulating strategies that will serve as templates for optimizing resource allocation across the different racial/ethnic subpopulations in the United States.

  18. Bridging the gap: the roles of social capital and ethnicity in medical student achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Suzanne; Sanders, Tom; Crossley, Nick; O'Neill, Paul; Wass, Val

    2015-01-01

    Within medical education, there is a discrepancy between the achievement level of White students and that of their ethnic minority peers. The processes underlying this disparity have not been adequately investigated or explained. This study utilises social network analysis to investigate the impact of relationships on medical student achievement by ethnicity, specifically by examining homophily (the tendency to interact with others in the same group) by ethnicity, age and role. Data from a cross-sectional social network study conducted in one UK medical school are presented and are analysed alongside examination records obtained from the medical school. Participants were sampled across the four hospital placement sites; a total of 158 medical students in their clinical phase (Years 3 and 4) completed the survey. The research was designed and analysed using social capital theory. Although significant patterns of ethnic and religious homophily emerged, no link was found between these factors and achievement. Interacting with problem-based learning (PBL) group peers in study-related activities, and having seniors in a wider academic support network were directly linked to better achievement. Students in higher academic quartiles were more likely to be named by members of their PBL group in study activities and to name at least one tutor or clinician in their network. Students from lower-achieving groups were least likely to have the social capital enabling, and resulting from, interactions with members of more expert social groups. Lower levels of the social capital that mediates interaction with peers, tutors and clinicians may be the cause of underperformance by ethnic minority students. Because of ethnic homophily, minority students may be cut off from potential and actual resources that facilitate learning and achievement. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A Study on Ethnic Artistic Design and Branding Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG Qiao

    2014-01-01

    Ethnic Artistic Design refers to a kind of artistic designing which takes the ethnic minorities’ cultural symbols and cultural connota-tion as its basic material , and which reflects the lo-cal conditions and customs and characteristics of the ethnic minorities.In a strict sense, any coun-try’ s artistic design belongs to “national/ethnic artistic designing”.However, in this article, it specifically refers to the artistic design which takes the cultural symbols of the ethnic minorities of Chi-na as its source , so as to distinguish it from other more general artistic design .

  20. Effect of ethnic background on Danish hospital utilisation patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krasnik, Allan; Nørredam, Marie Louise; Sorensen, Tine Moller;

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study is to examine possible ethnic differences in the utilisation patterns of hospitalised immigrants versus patients born in Denmark. Data were obtained from the Register of Prevention at Statistics Denmark. This register includes both clinical and socio-demographic data. All pat...... on duration of hospital stay and consequently the utilisation patterns of inpatient care seem to reflect equal care for equal needs....... patients discharged as inpatients during 1997 at Bispebjerg Hospital (a major hospital in Copenhagen) were identified through the Register of Prevention and linked to data concerning diagnosis, place of birth, age and gender. To compare immigrants with patients born in Denmark, a study group...... contacts characterised by the same diagnostic categories among a random sample of 10,000 patients born in Denmark. The measure of utilisation employed was length of inpatient stay determined by the total number of days that each admission lasted. Data were analysed by a multiple regression analysis...

  1. Qualidade total do produto Products total quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silveira de Almeida

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available O texto aborda o conceito de qualidade total do produto, seus determinantes, bem como as dimensões que compõem essa qualidade. Parte-se do pressuposto de que a qualidade do produto deve ser avaliada pela satisfação total do consumidor. Para o consumidor a qualidade do produto envolve pelo menos as seguintes dimensões: a qualidade do produto em si; a qualidade do produto ao longo do tempo; a qualidade dos serviços associados ao uso do produto; e o custo do ciclo de vida do produto. O trabalho procura detalhar e discutir cada uma dessas dimensões da qualidade, tendo em vista a satisfação do consumidor.The paper concerns to the concept of product's total quality, its determinants, and the dimensions wich constitute this quality. We admit that product quality should be evaluated via consumer's total satisfaction. Product quality for consumers includes at least the following dimensions: the product quality per se; the performance of product quality over time; the quality of services related to the use of the product; and the product lifecycle costs. This study seeks to specify and to discuss each of these quality dimensions related to consumer's satisfaction.

  2. A Critical Review of Chinese Ethnic Law Studies in 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yunwu; Wang Jie; Liao Yanping

    2015-01-01

    I. Basic Theory of Ethnic Law Studies As a mature discipline,research on the basic theory of ethnic law studies is no longer the focus of research. Nonetheless,this does not deny that it is a research of reflection and transcendence. In 2014,there were also important achievements with regard to this aspect. Concerning theory within the discipline of ethnic law studies,Wu Zongjin made a review on the development process of this disci ̄pline,and stated that the in-depth implementation of ethnic regional autonomy, the design of ethnic law institutions,the guarantee of ethnic rights legis ̄lation,and legal administration on ethnic work,etc. are still the responsibility of this discipline. Con ̄cerning the theory of the rule of law in ethnic are ̄as,it seems that a breakthrough was difficult. In 2014,Li Chao and Wang Huaju proposed a thor ̄ough evaluation of the rule of law in ethnic areas, but stated that this evaluation is facing problems due to the lack of local knowledge and lack of an efficient evaluation methodology and scientific su ̄pervision system. Hence,a concept for a scientific evaluation should be constructed, and local ethnic law resources should be found,and members of the various ethnic groups should participate.

  3. Ethnic differences in adverse drug reactions to asthma medications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yusun; Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes

    2016-01-01

    and to examine the relationship between ethnic background and ADRs to asthma medications. METHODS: MEDLINE was searched until March 2014. All types of studies reporting ADRs to asthma medications involving more than one ethnic group were included. Extracted information includes study designs, ethnic backgrounds......, intervention, and types and severities of ADRs. RESULTS: Among the selected 15 randomised clinical trials, six pooled analyses of randomized clinical trials, and five prospective observational studies, only six studies compared ADRs across different ethnic groups. The majority of the comparisons were either...... studies disaggregated information by ethnic background, and reports of ADRs to asthma medications in different ethnic groups were rare. We suggest that the inclusion of ADR analysis by different ethnic backgrounds is desirable....

  4. Essence and Content Schoolchildren’s Ethnic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botakoz A. Zhekibaeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses essence and content of schoolchildren’s ethnic education on the basis of the study of scientific works by domestic and foreign researchers. The analysis of their works shows that ethnic education as a scientific and pedagogical problem is associated with the development of ethno-pedagogical science. The article considers different points of view on the definition of the terms "folk pedagogy" and "ethnic pedagogy", "popular education" and "ethnic education". The analysis specifies the concept "schoolchildren’s ethnic education”, which is considered as a goal-oriented, well-organized educational process of schoolchildren familiarizing with ethno-social values and, as a result, formation of positive ethnic identity. The necessity of ethnic education in the process of formation of multicultural personality is justified; the importance of special training of future teachers for this activity is emphasized

  5. Psychological distress during pregnancy in a multi-ethnic community: findings from the born in Bradford cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L Prady

    Full Text Available Antenatal anxiety and depression are predictive of future mental distress, which has negative effects on children. Ethnic minority women are more likely to have a lower socio-economic status (SES but it is unclear whether SES is an independent risk factor for mental health in pregnancy. We described the association between maternal mental distress and socio-demographic factors in a multi-ethnic cohort located in an economically deprived city in the UK.We defined eight distinct ethno-language groups (total N = 8,454 and classified a threshold of distress as the 75th centile of within-group GHQ-28 scores, which we used as the outcome for univariate and multivariate logistic regression for each ethnic group and for the sample overall.Financial concerns were strongly and independently associated with worse mental health for six out of the eight ethnic groups, and for the cohort overall. In some groups, factors such as working status, education and family structure were associated with worse mental health, but for others these factors were of little importance.The diversity between and within ethnic groups in this sample underlines the need to take into consideration individual social, migration and economic circumstances and their potential effect on mental health in ethnically diverse areas.

  6. The Effect of Ethnic Variation on the Success of Induced Labour in Nulliparous Women with Postdates Pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Papoutsis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the potential effect of ethnic variation on the success of induction of labour in nulliparous women with postdates pregnancies. Study Design. This was an observational cohort study of women being induced for postdates pregnancies (≥41 weeks between 2007 and 2013. Women induced for stillbirths and with multiple pregnancies were excluded. The primary objective was to identify the effect of ethnicity on the caesarean section (CS delivery rates in this cohort of women. Results. 1,636 nulliparous women were identified with a mean age of 27.2 years. 95.8% of the women were of White ethnic origin, 2.6% were Asian, and 1.6% were of Black ethnic origin. The CS delivery rate was 24.4% in the total sample. Women of Black ethnic origin had a 3.26 times greater likelihood for CS in comparison to White women, after adjusting for maternal age, BMI, smoking, presence of meconium, use of epidural analgesia, fetal gender, birth weight, and head circumference (adjusted OR = 3.26; 95% CI: 1.31–8.08, p = 0.011. Conclusion. We have found that nulliparous women of Black ethnicity demonstrate an almost threefold increased risk of caesarean section delivery when induced for postdates pregnancy.

  7. The Effect of Ethnic Variation on the Success of Induced Labour in Nulliparous Women with Postdates Pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonakou, Angeliki; Tzavara, Chara

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify the potential effect of ethnic variation on the success of induction of labour in nulliparous women with postdates pregnancies. Study Design. This was an observational cohort study of women being induced for postdates pregnancies (≥41 weeks) between 2007 and 2013. Women induced for stillbirths and with multiple pregnancies were excluded. The primary objective was to identify the effect of ethnicity on the caesarean section (CS) delivery rates in this cohort of women. Results. 1,636 nulliparous women were identified with a mean age of 27.2 years. 95.8% of the women were of White ethnic origin, 2.6% were Asian, and 1.6% were of Black ethnic origin. The CS delivery rate was 24.4% in the total sample. Women of Black ethnic origin had a 3.26 times greater likelihood for CS in comparison to White women, after adjusting for maternal age, BMI, smoking, presence of meconium, use of epidural analgesia, fetal gender, birth weight, and head circumference (adjusted OR = 3.26; 95% CI: 1.31–8.08, p = 0.011). Conclusion. We have found that nulliparous women of Black ethnicity demonstrate an almost threefold increased risk of caesarean section delivery when induced for postdates pregnancy. PMID:27006861

  8. Ethnic return migration: an Estonian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulu, H

    1998-01-01

    "This article examines return migration during the post World War 2 period of descendants of Estonians who emigrated to Russia at the end of the nineteenth and at the beginning of the twentieth century" The focus is on changing migration patterns over time. "The behavioural norm of Estonians born in the 1910s-1920s has been return migration to Estonia, while the migration behaviour of the 1930s-1940s and the 1950s-1960s generations can be characterized by urbanization in West Siberia. The results give reason to assume that ethnic return migration over a long period depends neither directly nor indirectly on momentary environmental changes, but rather on changes in people's values, habits, identity etc., which in the case of an ethnic minority living outside its historical homeland may be followed generation by generation." (EXCERPT)

  9. Ethnic and gender differences in boredom proneness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, G.S.; Morales,

    1996-02-01

    Although boredom may exhibit many shared elements, culturally specific attitudes have also been found to exist. The present paper investigated boredom proneness among African-American college students. Data from 120 participants on the Boredom Proneness (BP) Scale was analyzed and compared to cross-cultural participants. African-American females scored significantly higher than African-American males. Scores were presented from two other studies to show a comparative look at boredom proneness in five other ethnic groups. African-American females are the only female ethnic group to score higher on the BP Scale than their male counterparts. Additionally, overall African-Americans, were found to have higher BP scores than their Western counterparts.

  10. Study of Ethnic Stereotype of Young Bulgarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ganeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic stereotypes and prejudices as terms were examined from the point of view of the social identity theory (Tajfel, 1981. The results from a carried out longitudinal survey of stereotype and prejudices of young people of Bulgarian origin (n=1154; 453 men and 701 women; average age 21.7 years in 6 time intervals: in 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010, 2012 and 2014, towards the in-group and the representatives of the main ethnic minorities: Turks, Roma and Jews, were presented. Through free associations, the relation between stereotypes and attitudes was studied in two social contexts: personal and community. The results show that the assessment of the minority groups is more positive in the former than in the latter context. The persons studied perceive most negatively the representatives of the Romani ethnos, more weakly negatively the Turks, and the attitudes towards the Jews are positive.

  11. Recent immigration and studies of ethnic assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taeuber, A F; Taeuber, K E

    1967-06-01

    Studies of ethnic assimilation are frequently based upon status comparisons between the foreign born and their "children," the second generation. The assumption that recent immigration has been negligible and that the foreign born represent a closed population is implicit in that procedure. However, analysis of official statistics indicates that immigrants who arrived since World War II now comprise a substantial share of the foreign-born population, while the foreign born who arrived before quota restrictions are rapidly being depleted by mortality. Recent immigrants, as intended by quota legislation, are of much higher socioeconomic status than immigrants who arrived before World War 1. Hence, characteristics of both recent immigrants and earlier arrivals are confounded in data for the foreign-born population. Existing data do not permit rigorous assessment of this confusion or adequate control for it. This paper suggests that tabulations of the foreign born by "year of arrival" would improve the sociological utility of data for ethnic groups.

  12. Diversity disorders: Ethnicity and newsroom cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Hultén

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Sweden, as many other European countries, has been engaged in the debate concerning the relationships between social cohesion and the media. The article examines the tension between officially expressed attitudes and diversity goals of Swedish newsrooms and how journalists who have foreign backgrounds perceive these. Despite the intense discussions in recent years concerning media's role in a multi-ethnic context Swedish media organizations have not yet developed an effective means of promoting and implementing diversity in the newsrooms. The interviewed journalists draw attention to the dilemma of not being accepted in majority dominated newsrooms and stress the need to change editorial organization patterns, newsroom cultures and to re-define journalistic missions regarding ethnic diversity. The article concerns the market focus of news production and argues that the present tendency to mainstream cultural diversity in media content may lead to the exclusion of minority voices and thus undermining diversity efforts.

  13. Ethnic minority ageing and intergenerational relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    in Denmark, the paper challenges the myths about intergenerational care. The concept of intersectionality emphasises that the older adults are simultaneously positioned within the social categories such as gender, ethnicity and social class, along with directing attention to processes of exclusion as well......This paper deals with the dynamics of ageing among ethnic minorities within a broad psychosocial framework involving the transnational contexts. Based on findings from psychotherapy with older adults (Knight, 2004) and a couple of empirical studies (Singla, 2008, Westerling, 2008) with young adults...... as colonisation at societal levels. While the life course model of agency within structures focuses at the temporal transitions and ‘linked lives’, involving affective depth and complexity of close relationships, especially intergenerational ones between the adult children and their parents. A combination...

  14. Ethnic and Cultural diversity in Contemporary Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    to the above consequences through relatively under- researched phenomena: societal responses to immigrants, their psychological health across time, interethnic health communication, ‘mixing’ dynamics in intermarried couples, in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The first two papers enrich about the ppsycho...... intermarried couples and ‘mixed’children. The symposium thus challenges, by adding nuanced theoretical and empirical knowledge, the stereotypes about multiculturalism/Danishness, the stigmatised ethnic minorities and polarisation of populations into us and the others....

  15. Ethnic Minority Games Come To Guizhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ROSEANNE; GERIN

    2011-01-01

    Ateam of barefoot young peoplet ake to the water on 7.5-meter-long bamboo poles and maintain their stability with ease as they glide across the Hongfeng Lake in southwest China’s Guizhou Province.But unlike local merchants who long agou sed large pieces of bamboo as makeshift floats to get their wares to market,thesey oung people are professional,full-timea thletes in the ethnic minority sport of single bamboo drifting.

  16. LAUGHING AT OURSELVES: REFLECTING MALAYSIAN ETHNIC DISPARITIES

    OpenAIRE

    SWAGATA SINHA ROY; KAVITHA SUBARAMANIAM

    2014-01-01

    Malaysia’s various ethnic groups make interesting study both sociologically and culturally. With such a heady mix of cultural elements to explore, it is often natural that the many groups stumble upon ‘rare gems’ that reflect their ‘Malaysianess’. Have Malaysians really ever appreciated the many and varied aspects of culture that they are seemingly suddenly thrown into? Do we embrace these happily or are we constantly rejecting them? Fortunately, through the medium of film, we are, from time ...

  17. Terrorism, ethnicity and Islamic extremism in Sahel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sousa Galito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Terrorism is a threat in the Sahel region, where peoples and rulers seem to be losing control of the situation. Yet, the true origins of the instability are questionable. Ethnical conflicts and the religious differences, especially those related with the spreading of Islamic extremism among the local population, are two of the main reasons. This research paper analyzes different theories so as to attain some answers to these issues.

  18. J. L. Comaroff & J. Comaroff. Ethnicity, Inc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Weeks

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Venture-capital outfits run by chiefs; tribal holding companies of precious metals; nations as brands and commercial enterprises; indigenous-themed casinos and shopping malls; amusement parks dedicated to warrior heroes; consultancies that advise clients on how to commodify identity; and culture as intellectual property and patent rights. With these examples in mind, it is obvious that ethnicity has become a new frontier in Late Capitalism. Whereas Marx emphasized the alienation of the commod...

  19. Total abdominal colectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the rectum. This can cause an infection or abscess. Scarring of the connection between the small intestine ... More Crohn disease Ileostomy Total proctocolectomy and ileal - anal pouch Total proctocolectomy with ileostomy Ulcerative colitis Patient ...

  20. Total parenteral nutrition - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007239.htm Total parenteral nutrition - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  1. Total parenteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000177.htm Total parenteral nutrition To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is a method of feeding that bypasses ...

  2. Early childhood identity: ethnicity and acculturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available How are concepts such as ethnic identity, acculturation and cultural orientation being perceived by a child? What is the process of identity construction in early preschool age? How is children’s wellbeing affected by parents’ desire to expose them to a certain culture, other than the one the children were born into? How natural is learning a foreign language for children, given a multiethnic space characterized by adversity and disparities such as “them”-“us”? And what are the potential outcomes of the phenomena in question? These are a few questions that the current study reflectively followed up upon by using a qualitative research design and data triangulation in order to increase its validity. The SDQ Questionnaire used to study the children’s wellbeing, the semi-structured “in-depth” interviews conducted on the main early preschool identity builders in the Cristian community and the participative observation indicated the children were proud to be part of the German department group. They did not undergo a brutal process of affiliation to the Saxon ethnicity due to the educators’ various compromises, and their wellbeing didn’t seem to be affected at the SDQ administration stage. However, learning German proved to be a difficult process and the two potential outcomes included hitting the language barrier or resuming adaptation to the native ethnic code. This study highlights the impact of the cultural code on the early identity foundation.

  3. Stigmatized ethnicity, public health, and globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S Harris

    2008-01-01

    The prejudicial linking of infection with ethnic minority status has a long-established history, but in some ways this association may have intensified under the contemporary circumstances of the "new public health" and globalization. This study analyzes this conflation of ethnicity and disease victimization by considering the stigmatization process that occurred during the 2003 outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in Toronto. The attribution of stigma during the SARS outbreak occurred in multiple and overlapping ways informed by: (i) the depiction of images of individuals donning respiratory masks; (ii) employment status in the health sector; and (iii) Asian-Canadian and Chinese-Canadian ethnicity. In turn, stigmatization during the SARS crisis facilitated a moral panic of sorts in which racism at a cultural level was expressed and rationalized on the basis of a rhetoric of the new public health and anti-globalization sentiments. With the former, an emphasis on individualized self-protection, in the health sense, justified the generalized avoidance of those stigmatized. In relation to the latter, in the post-9/11 era, avoidance of the stigmatized other was legitimized on the basis of perceiving the SARS threat as a consequence of the mixing of different people predicated by economic and cultural globalization.

  4. GENDER AND ETHNICITY DIFFERENCES IN TAX COMPLIANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyapalan Kasipillai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender and ethnicity differences occur in relation to tax compliance attitude and behavior. Prior studies on tax compliance have focused little on gender as a predictor of compliance. In Malaysia, ethnic background of a taxpayer could be a major determinant of tax compliance. A personal interview approach is used to obtain information from taxpayers in urban towns. A t-test suggests that males and females were found to have similar compliant attitude. As for ethnicity, asimilar result was observed. Results of a regression analysis indicate that gender, academic qualification, and the person preparing tax return were statistically significant as determinants of non-compliant attitude. In terms of compliant behavior, a regression analysis revealed that "attitude towards non-compliance" and "receipt of cash income" were two significant explanatory variables of tax non-compliance behavior of understating income knowingly. The findings of this study are useful for policyimplications in identifying groups that require additional attention to increase voluntary tax compliance.

  5. How to Harmonize the Ethnic Nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinfeld, Artur; Betelli, Rodrigo; Arruda, Guilherme; Almeida, Washington

    2016-12-01

    The demand for cosmetic surgery has significantly increased in the past few years mainly due to economic rise witnessed in Brazil. The state of Bahia has predominately Afro-descendant population with the same countrywide scenario, where the surgeon must be able to face challenges such as the specifics demands of rhinoplasty in an ethnic nose. It represents not only a different nasal variety from the Caucasoid, but also a complex anatomical feature, with its own peculiarities, as thicker and oilier skin, with bulky fibrous fatty tissue with numerous sebaceous glands. The nose tip features both inadequate projection and definition, including a short columella and underdeveloped nasal spine. The lower lateral cartilages are lower and thinner if compared with Caucasian noses. The nasal septum is short and fragile, whereas the dorsum is low and wide with deep nasion and wide obtuse angles between nasal bones. Finally, yet importantly, the nose base has increased interalar distance and excess of alar wing, with an ovoid, horizontal, and open nostril. Considering all these uniqueness, the existing challenges to approach an ethnic nose are clear. It requires skill and accurate surgical maneuvers to seek facial harmony while maintaining the characteristics that define the individual ethnicity and identity. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. How sadness and happiness influence ethnic stereotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žeželj Iris

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidental affective states tend to influence stereotyping in counterintuitive way: experimentally induced happiness leads to more stereotyping while experimentally induced sadness leads to less stereotyping. It was therefore predicted that happy subjects would a. would make more stereotype-consistent errors in memory task; b. attribute more stereotypical features to a specific ethnic group, and c. be less sensitive to ethnic discrimination in comparison to sad subjects. In a sample of 90 high school students from Belgrade, Serbia, differently valenced affects were successfully induced using 'autobiographic recollection' procedure. Experiment 1 showed that happy and sad subjects did not differ in the number of stereotype consistent errors in memory task. In experiment 2, however, happy subjects in comparison to sad subjects attributed more stereotypic traits to a non-stereotypical exemplar of a national category and expected him to behave more stereotypically in the future. Additionally, in thought listing task, happy subjects recorded more irrelevant and less story-focused thoughts in comparison to sad subjects. Finally, in Experiment 3 (N=66 sad subjects demonstrated more sensitivity to ethnic discrimination in comparison to happy subjects. These findings are discussed in terms of the impact of emotional experience on social information-processing strategies.

  7. Reemplazo total de cadera

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Vergel, Alfredo; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2002-01-01

    Definición/Tipos de prótesis/ ¿Qué pacientes se podrían beneficiar de un reemplazo total de cadera?/Artrosis de cadera/Tipos de artrosis de cadera/Alternativas al reemplazo total de cadera/Preguntas frecuentes sobre el reemplazo total de cadera.

  8. Reemplazo total de cadera

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Vergel, Alfredo; Fundación Valle de Lili

    2002-01-01

    Definición/Tipos de prótesis/ ¿Qué pacientes se podrían beneficiar de un reemplazo total de cadera?/Artrosis de cadera/Tipos de artrosis de cadera/Alternativas al reemplazo total de cadera/Preguntas frecuentes sobre el reemplazo total de cadera.

  9. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  10. Ethnic identity development and ethnic discrimination: examining longitudinal associations with adjustment for Mexican-origin adolescent mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2013-10-01

    Few studies examine normative developmental processes among teenage mothers. Framed from a risk and resilience perspective, this prospective study examined the potential for ethnic identity status (e.g., diffuse, achieved), a normative developmental task during adolescence, to buffer the detrimental effects of discrimination on later adjustment and self-esteem in a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Ethnic discrimination was associated with increases in depressive symptoms and decreases in self-esteem over time, regardless of ethnic identity status. However, ethnic discrimination was only associated with increases in engagement in risky behavior among diffuse adolescents, suggesting that achieved or foreclosed identities buffered the risk of ethnic discrimination on later risky behavior. Findings suggest that ethnic identity resolution (i.e., the component shared by those in foreclosed and achieved statuses) may be a key cultural factor to include in prevention and intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of ethnic discrimination on later externalizing problems.

  11. Ethnicity and self-reported experiences of stigma in adults with intellectual disability in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A; Kock, E; Molteno, C; Mfiki, N; King, M; Strydom, A

    2015-06-01

    Studies have shown that individuals with intellectual disability (ID) are aware of stigma and are able to describe experiences of being treated negatively. However, there have been no cross-cultural studies examining whether self-reported experiences of stigma vary between ethnic groups. Participants with mild and moderate ID were recruited from a number of different settings in Cape Town, South Africa. Self-reported experiences of stigma in three ethnic groups were measured using the South African version of the Perceived Stigma of Intellectual Disability tool, developed by the authors. One-way anova was used to test whether there were differences in the total stigma score between the ethnic groups. Regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with stigma. A total of 191 participants agreed to take part; 53 were Black, 70 were of mixed ethnicity and 68 were Caucasian. There were no differences in the levels of stigma reported by the three groups but the Black African ethnic group were more likely to report being physically attacked and being stared at, but were also more likely to report that they thought they were 'the same as other people'. There was an interaction effect between ethnicity and level of ID, with participants with mild ID from the Black African group reporting higher levels of stigma compared with those with moderate ID. Younger age was the only factor that was associated with stigma but there was a trend towards ethnicity, additional disability and socio-economic status being related to stigma. Interventions should target the Black African community in South Africa and should include the reduction of both public stigma and self-reported stigma. © 2014 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Ethnofederalism and the Accommodation of Ethnic Minorities in Burma: United They Stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    is reserved for my God and my Savior, Jesus Christ . I entrust the totality of my life to His gracious and generous hands, and I am continually in...examine Burma’s pre-colonial and colonial history, focusing on the origins of the country’s deep ethnic differences, and on the emergence of its main...misgiving originating from the past, cooperation and “close relations” were possible as long as “hereditary rights, customs and religions” were

  13. The geographic polymorphisms of Y chromosome at YAP locus among 25 ethnic groups in Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石宏; 董永利; 李卫翔; 杨洁; 李开源; 昝瑞光; 肖春杰

    2003-01-01

    The genetic polymorphisms of Y chromosome at YAP locus in 25 ethnic groups (33 populations) of China were analyzed in a total of 1294 samples. The average YAP+ frequency of the 33 populations was 9.2%, coinciding with published data of Chinese populations. Primi has the highest YAP+ frequency (72.3%), which is also the highest YAP+ among all the eastern Asian populations studied. The YAP+ occurred in 17 populations studied including Tibetan (36.0%), Naxi (37.5% and 25.5%), Zhuang (21.3%), Jingpo (12.5%), Miao (11.8%), Dai (11.4%, 10.0%, 3.3% and 2.0%), Yi (8.0%), Bai of Yunnan (6.7% and 6.0%), Mongol of Inner Mongolia (4.3%), Tujia of Hunan (2.6%), Yao (2.2%) and Nu (1.8%). The other 15 populations are YAP? including Lahu (2 populations), Hani, Achang, Drung, Lisu, Sui, Bouyei, Va, Bulang, Deang, Man and Hui and Mongol of Yunnan and Bai of Hunan. The YAP+ frequencies varied among the different ethnic groups studied, and even different among the same ethnic group living in different geographic locations. Using the genetic information, combined with the knowledge of ethnology, history and archaeology, the origin and prehistoric migrations of the ethnic groups in China, especially in Yunnan Province were discussed.

  14. Afghanistan's ethnic groups share a Y-chromosomal heritage structured by historical events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Haber

    Full Text Available Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia.

  15. Influence of sex and ethnic tooth-size differences on mixed-dentition space analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altherr, Edward R.; Koroluk, Lorne D.; Phillips, Ceib

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Most mixed-dentition space analyses were developed by using subjects of northwestern European descent and unspecified sex. The purpose of this study was to determine the predictive accuracy of the Tanaka-Johnston analysis in white and black subjects in North Carolina. Methods A total of 120 subjects (30 males and 30 females in each ethnic group) were recruited from clinics at the University of North Carolina School of Dentistry. Ethnicity was verified to 2 previous generations. All subjects were less than 21 years of age and had a full complement of permanent teeth. Digital calipers were used to measure the mesiodistal widths of all teeth on study models fabricated from alginate impressions. The predicted widths of the canines and the premolars in both arches were compared with the actual measured widths. Results In the maxillary arch, there was a significant interaction of ethnicity and sex on the predictive accuracy of the Tanaka-Johnston analysis (P = .03, factorial ANOVA). The predictive accuracy was significantly overestimated in the white female group (P <.001, least square means). In the mandibular arch, there was no significant interaction between ethnicity and sex (P = .49). Conclusions The Tanaka-Johnston analysis significantly overestimated in females (P <.0001) and underestimated in blacks (P <.0001) (factorial ANOVA). Regression equations were developed to increase the predictive accuracy in both arches. (Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2007;132:332-9) PMID:17826601

  16. Ethnicity, Identity and Cartography: Possession/Dispossession, Homecoming /Homelessness in Contemporary Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Moni Sarma

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Ethnicity is emerging as a focal consideration in the politics of identity in contemporary Assam, a state of the Indian union in the North East of India. Often identified as a flash point in the subversive politics that question the logistics of the Indian nation, North East India is emerging as a cartographic domain that posits questions of internal colonialism and hegemony. Cartographic reorientation of territory based on factors of linguistic and ethnic identity is perceived as a way to acquire new homelands that will foster self-validation and the ‘all round development’ of the people. The North East of India is dotted with armed insurrection for autonomous territories under the Indian Union or total severance, depending on the population and the spatial domain of the ethnic groups in question. The linkages with questions of social, cultural and political marginalisation, as well as political assertion provide interesting scope for academic exploration. The present paper seeks to understand and trace such assertive movements in Assam to forces of historical neglect as well as the rhetoric of marginalisation that is surfeit in contemporary assertive idioms of different ethnic groups.

  17. Anthropometry of Iranian Guidance School Students with Different Ethnicities: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Mehrparvar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We measured some anthropometric dimensions of Iranian guidance school students selected from different ethnicities. Background. Anthropometric dimensions are used for design of equipment, furniture, and clothing. Furniture with inappropriate design not fulfilling the users’ anthropometric dimensions may have a negative effect on health. Method. A total of 7400 Iranian guidance school students aged 12–14 years entered the study and their static anthropometric dimensions were measured. Descriptive statistics such as mean, standard deviation, and key percentiles were calculated. All dimensions were compared among different ethnicities and different genders. Results. This study showed significant differences in a set of 22 anthropometric dimensions regarding gender, age, and ethnicity. Conclusion. According to the results of this study, difference between genders and among different ethnicities should be taken into account by designers and manufacturers of guidance school furniture. Application. This study has prepared a data bank of anthropometric dimensions of 12–14-year-old students which can be used as basic information to find appropriate dimensions of school furniture.

  18. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM OF SIX Y CHROMOSOMAL STR IN CHINESE HUI ETHNIC GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Bofeng; Lü Guiping; Yao Guifa; Zhu Jun; Dong Hongwang; Sun Qingdong; Huang Lei; Liu Yao

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study genetic polymorphism of 6 Y chromosomal STR in Hui ethnic group living in Ningxia Hui ethnic autonomous region, in order to evaluate their usefulness in forensic science and enrich the Chinese genetic information resources. Methods We investigated 101 unrelated, healthy, male individuals of Hui ethnic group and studied their allelic frequency distribution and haplotype diversity of 6 Y chromosomal STR. Primer for each loci was labeled with the fluorescent by FAM (blue) or TAMRA(yellow). The data of Hui ethnic group were generated co-amplification, GeneScan, genotype, and genetic distribution analysis. Results 31 alleles and 43 phenotype(DYS385) were detected, with the frequencies ranging from 0.0099-0.7129. Out of a total of 101 individuals, 96 showed different haplotypes; 91 were unique; 5 were found 2 times. The haplotype diversity for 6 Y-STR loci was 0.9990. Conclusion The date obtained can be valuable for individual identification, paternity testing in forensic fields and for population genetics because of 6 Y-STR loci high polymorphism.

  19. Ethnic-specific body mass index cut-off points for overweight and obesity in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J Scott; Duncan, Elizabeth K; Schofield, Grant

    2010-03-19

    To develop ethnic-specific body mass index (BMI) cut-off points for overweight and obesity in girls from New Zealand's five major ethnic groups. A total of 1676 girls (41% European, 21% Pacific Island, 15% East Asian, 13% Māori, and 11% South Asian) aged 5-16 years participated in this study. BMI was determined from height and weight, and body fat percentage (%BF) was obtained from hand-to-foot bioelectrical impedance measurements. Using stepwise multiple regression, a series of ethnic-specific BMI cut-off points were developed that corresponded to the equivalent %BF of European girls at the BMI reference values provided by the International Obesity TaskForce (IOTF). The adjusted cut-off points for overweight and obesity ranged from an average of 3.3 and 3.8 kg.m(-2) (respectively) lower than the IOTF standards in South Asian girls to 1.5 and 1.9 kg.m(-2) higher in Pacific Island girls. We conclude that the ethnic-specific BMI cut-off points developed in this study are more appropriate than universal definitions of overweight and obesity for predicting excess adiposity in New Zealand girls.

  20. ETHNICITY AND TYPE 2 DIABETES IN ASIAN INDIAN MIGRANTS IN AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowitt Ljiljana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to present ethnic differences in body size and body composition in Asian Indian migrants in New Zealand, associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, through the comparison with other ethnic groups in New Zealand. International databases including PubMed and Google scholar were consulted, as well as the websites of the World Health Organization and International Diabetes Federation. About 74 studies out of 128 publications were selected to ensure relevance to the topic of the review. Seven research projects were presented for the body size and body composition of Asian Indian migrants in New Zealand. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes of 8.6% in Asian Indians in New Zealand is still higher than in their homeland, owing to their ethnicity, genetic predisposition, sedentary lifestyle and altered nutrition, and other psychosocial factors related to migration and living conditions like stress at work and depression. For the same body mass index, in comparison with people of other ethnic groups in New Zealand Asian Indians had more total body fat, higher percent body fat, more central fat, less lean mass and appendicular skeletal muscle mass. Central obesity was associated with insulin resistance and low grade systemic inflammation. Considering the evidence that type 2 diabetes develops ten years earlier in Asian Indians than in other populations, further studies are warranted to shed some light on the still incompletely understood metabolic syndrome and “thin-fat” Indian phenotype.

  1. Ethnic Motives in Russian Mass Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalija Pliskevič

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines certain finding on ethnic aspects of mass consciousness in the Russian Federation, as presented in the journal Monitoring public opinion: economic and social changes (rus. Мониторинг общественного мнения: экономические и социальные перемены, published by the All-Russian Centre for the Study of Public Opinion. The problems of national identity and ethnic tension in Russia increased after the collapse of the Soviet empire. Ethnic phobias, complexes and ambitions reached a peak in the period 1993–1995. However, by 1999–2000, according to the surveys, they returned to the 1989–1990 level. The increase until 1995 occurred during the break-down of former Soviet political and administrative relations. By 1994 negative attitudes, apart from a traditional aversion to immigrants from the Caucasus, were directed to peoples of the newly independent former Soviet republics (especially to those from the Baltic states, and to ethnic groups such as the Vietnamese, Gypsies, etc. On the other hand, the subsequent decrease in negative attitudes to other ethnic groups was not so much the result of greater tolerance or the development of civil society, but rather due to an imperial tradition of indifference to ethnic problems. According to L. Gudkov, ethnic views in 1994–1995 showed traces inherited from the Stalinist period. Gudkov found that passivity and a “victim“ complex had assumed a central position in the self-image of Russians. Such a complex serves to exonerate the subject from any feeling of personal blame or deficiency, but also leads to a nostalgic idealisation of the past and a negation of the present. The result is a social syndrome that denies action and an ethnosocial self-awareness that prevents universalisation and the development of a national identity based on the principles of civil society. The “victim“ complex fosters a feeling of threat to the

  2. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, smoking and alcohol consumption in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell, Luisa N; Diez Roux, Ana V; Jacobs, David R; Shea, Steven; Jackson, Sharon A; Shrager, Sandi; Blumenthal, Roger S

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking and alcohol consumption in adults participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Data on 6680 black, Chinese, Hispanic and white adults aged 45 to 84 years of age recruited from Illinois, New York, Maryland, North Carolina, Minnesota and California during 2000 and 2002 were used for this analysis. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking status and alcohol consumption for each racial/ethnic group separately. Blacks were more likely to experience racial/ethnic discrimination (43%) than Hispanics (19%), Chinese participants (10%) or whites (4%, Pracial/ethnic discrimination had 34% and 51% greater odds of reporting smoking and drinking, respectively, than blacks who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Hispanics reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 62% greater odds of heavy drinking. Whites reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 88% greater odds of reporting being current smokers than whites who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Our findings suggest that the experience of discrimination is associated with greater prevalence of unhealthy behaviors. Specifically, the use of smoking and alcohol may be patterned by experience of discrimination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early respiratory and skin symptoms in relation to ethnic background: the importance of socioeconomic status; the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.P. Koopman (Laurens); A.H. Wijga (Alet); H.A. Smit (Henriëtte); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); M. Kerkhof (Marjan); J. Gerritsen (Jorrit); A.P.H. Vos (Ada); R.T. van Strien; B. Brunekreef (Bert); H.J. Neijens (Herman)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAIMS: To evaluate ethnic differences in the prevalence of respiratory and skin symptoms in the first two years of life. METHODS: A total of 4146 children participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) study. Parents completed questionnai

  4. Moderating Effects of Group Status, Cohesion, and Ethnic Composition on Socialization of Aggression in Children's Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3…

  5. A Meta-Analytic Review of Racial-Ethnic Matching for African American and Caucasian American Clients and Clinicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Man; Chow, Clifton; Camacho-Gonsalves, Teresita; Levy, Rachel J.; Allen, I. Elaine; Leff, H. Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of client-clinician matching on the basis of race-ethnicity on overall functioning, service retention, and total number of sessions attended for African American and Caucasian American adult populations in mental health services. The analysis included 10 published and unpublished studies…

  6. Moderating Effects of Group Status, Cohesion, and Ethnic Composition on Socialization of Aggression in Children's Peer Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2014-01-01

    We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses.…

  7. Early respiratory and skin symptoms in relation to ethnic background : The importance of socioeconomic status; the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, LP; Wijga, A; Smit, HA; de Jongste, JC; Kerkhof, M; Gerritsen, J; Vos, APH; van Strien, RT; Brunekreef, B; Neijens, HJ

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate ethnic differences in the prevalence of respiratory and skin symptoms in the first two years of life. Methods: A total of 4 146 children participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) study. Parents completed questionnaires on respiratory and skin s

  8. Early respiratory and skin symptoms in relation to ethnic background : The importance of socioeconomic status; the PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, LP; Wijga, A; Smit, HA; de Jongste, JC; Kerkhof, M; Gerritsen, J; Vos, APH; van Strien, RT; Brunekreef, B; Neijens, HJ

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate ethnic differences in the prevalence of respiratory and skin symptoms in the first two years of life. Methods: A total of 4 146 children participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) study. Parents completed questionnaires on respiratory and skin

  9. Revision Total Elbow Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Miguel A; Cheung, Emilie V; Murthi, Anand M

    2017-08-01

    Despite recent technologic advances, total elbow arthroplasty has complication rates higher than that of total joint arthroplasty in other joints. With new antirheumatic treatments, the population receiving total elbow arthroplasty has shifted from patients with rheumatoid arthritis to those with posttraumatic arthritis, further compounding the high complication rate. The most common reasons for revision include infection, aseptic loosening, fracture, and component failure. Common mechanisms of total elbow arthroplasty failure include infection, aseptic loosening, fracture, component failure, and instability. Tension band fixation, allograft struts with cerclage wire, and/or plate and screw constructs can be used for fracture stabilization.

  10. Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Totalization Data Exchange (TDEX) process is an exchange between SSA and its foreign country partners to identify deaths of beneficiaries residing abroad. The...

  11. Racial and ethnic differences in wealth and asset choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, S

    White households in the United States are far wealthier than black or Hispanic households, a disparity that remains unexplained even after taking into account income and demographic factors. This article uses data from the Health and Retirement Study to examine various components of aggregate wealth, including housing equity, nonhousing equity, financial assets in general, and risky assets in particular. It inspects asset choices by race and ethnicity and assesses whether differences in saving behavior--and, consequently, in rates of return on assets--are possible sources of the wealth gap. It also demonstrates the equalizing effect of pension wealth and Social Security wealth on total wealth. Racial and ethnic differences in housing equity narrow among households in the higher income quartiles, whereas differences in nonhousing equity generally widen as income increases. The widening gap in nonhousing equity stems from differences in financial asset holdings, particularly risky assets. At every income quartile and educational level, the percentage of black and Hispanic households that own risky, higher-yielding assets in considerably smaller than the percentage of white households. Thus, some of the wealth gap appears to be attributable to differences in saving behavior. Understanding how people save--in particular, knowing whether certain people will be more vulnerable financially because of their saving choices--helps policymakers assess older Americans' financial preparedness for retirement and anticipate their economic well-being thereafter. Lower rates of investment in the financial market will probably result in slower wealth creation in minority households. Recognizing this, some organizations are trying to open opportunities for minority households to invest in the financial market. This is a positive step toward narrowing the wealth divide. Such efforts will become even more critical if Social Security reform places increased responsibility on individuals

  12. Loneliness and Ethnic Composition of the School Class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Katrine Rich; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rubin, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    Loneliness is a public health concern that increases the risk for several health, behavioral and academic problems among adolescents. Some studies have suggested that adolescents with an ethnic minority background have a higher risk for loneliness than adolescents from the majority population....... The increasing numbers of migrant youth around the world mean growing numbers of heterogeneous school environments in many countries. Even though adolescents spend a substantial amount of time at school, there is currently very little non-U.S. research that has examined the importance of the ethnic composition...... not belong to the ethnic majority in the school class had increased odds for loneliness compared to adolescents that belonged to the ethnic majority. Furthermore, having more same-ethnic classmates lowered the odds for loneliness. We did not find any statistically significant association between the ethnic...

  13. Exploring Ethnic Inequalities in Admission to Russell Group Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boliver, Vikki

    2016-04-01

    This article analyses national university applications and admissions data to explore why ethnic minority applicants to Russell Group universities are less likely to receive offers of admission than comparably qualified white applicants. Contrary to received opinion, the greater tendency of ethnic minorities to choose highly numerically competitive degree subjects only partially accounts for their lower offer rates from Russell Group universities relative to white applicants with the same grades and 'facilitating subjects' at A-level. Moreover, ethnic inequalities in the chances of receiving an admissions offer from a Russell Group university are found to be greater in relation to courses where ethnic minorities make up a larger percentage of applicants. This latter finding raises the possibility that some admissions selectors at some Russell Group universities may be unfairly rejecting a proportion of their ethnic minority applicants in an attempt to achieve a more ethnically representative student body.

  14. Ethnic concentration and language fluency of immigrants in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Studies that investigate the effect of the regional ethnic composition on immigrant outcomes have been complicated by the self-selection of ethnic minorities into specific neighbourhoods. We analyse the impact of own-ethnic concentration on the language proficiency of immigrants by exploiting the fact that the initial placement of guest-workers after WWII was determined by labour demanding firms and the federal labour administration and hence exogenous to immigrant workers. Combining several ...

  15. Impact of ethnicity in upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenman, Casey S; Chason, Rebecca; Reisch, Joan S; Rockey, Don C

    2014-04-01

    To examine ethnicity's role in the etiology and outcome of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (UGIH). UGIH is a serious condition with considerable associated morbidity and mortality. We analyzed 2196 patients admitted with acute UGIH between January 2006 and February 2012. Complete clinical data were gathered prospectively and entered into our GI Bleed Registry, which captures demographic and clinical variables. Results were analyzed using the χ² analyses and the analysis of variance techniques with Tukey multiple comparisons. Among 2196 patients, 620 (28%) were black, 625 (29%) white, 881 (40%) Hispanic, and 70 (3%) were members of other ethnicities. Gastroduodenal ulcers (25%), esophageal varices (25%), and esophagitis (12%) were the most frequently identified causes of UGIH. Blacks experienced a high rate of gastroduodenal ulcers (199/620), whereas Hispanics most commonly had esophageal varices. In all ethnicities, the most common cause of bleeding in patients younger than 35 or older than 65 years was gastroduodenal ulcer disease. However, among patients aged 35 to 64 years, there were differences in the etiology of UGIH. Blacks aged 50 to 64 years frequently experienced gastroduodenal ulcers, whereas Hispanics aged 35 to 49 years typically had esophageal varices. Rebleeding rates were significantly lower in whites (5.8%) than in Hispanics (9.9%) or blacks (8.7%) (P=0.02). By examining a diverse population, we conclude that UGIH may follow trends. Hispanics were likely to have esophageal varices and higher rebleeding rates, whereas blacks were likely to have ulcers and the highest mortality. Whites were equally likely to have ulcers or varices, but a lower rate of rebleeding.

  16. Strictness and Totality Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solberg, K. L.; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    1998-01-01

    We define a novel inference system for strictness and totality analysis for the simply-typed lazy lambda-calculus with constants and fixpoints. Strictness information identifies those terms that definitely denote bottom (i.e. do not evaluate to WHNF) whereas totality information identifies those ...

  17. Genoptraening efter total knaealloplastik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Bente; Kehlet, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    The short- and long-term benefits of post-discharge physiotherapy regimens after total knee arthroplasty are debatable. A national survey including hospitals in Denmark that perform total knee arthroplasty showed a large variability in indication and regimen for post-knee arthroplasty rehabilitat...

  18. Sex differences in mortality by ethnic background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oksuzyan, Anna; Drefahl, Sven; Jacobsen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    migrant effect and predominantly male migration from non-Western countries to Denmark and Sweden in 1960-70s, as well as high fertility in their female spouses, we expect to find even smaller sex differential mortality among migrants than in the ethnic Danish and Swedish populations. We use high....... In this study we address whether the substantial differences in the gender gap that are observed between countries can also be observed for different immigrant groups. Previous research has indicated that migrants enjoy better health and lower mortality compared with the host population. Considering the healthy...

  19. Political Ethnicity: A New Paradigm of Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    moral disengagement phenomena see Albert Bandura, "Mechanisms of moral disengagement " in Origins of Terror, edited by Walter Reich (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 161-191. 21. Donald L. Horowitz has an excellent discussion of the idea of emulation and fear of extinction in Ethnic Groups in Conflict, 171-181 22. The use of political goals in this contest refers to the political status of a nation-states, their sub-divisions, and political representation in governments. If we accept that political authority leads

  20. I am more than an ethnicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Christian Franklin

    2014-01-01

    situation in order to gain personal realisation in the era of globalisation. Indian students are a group who are particularly prone to trauma in their current situation, as individuals lacking a sense of full citizenship. As strategies of transformation based on education take on many different forms, he...... argues that the students construct identifications from belonging to communities of practice rather than from religion, ethnicity and nationality. Their resilience is made manifest in hybrid identities, as an individuated way of understanding their cultural negotiation as Indian Malaysians....

  1. Ethnic and Cultural diversity in Contemporary Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    to the above consequences through relatively under- researched phenomena: societal responses to immigrants, their psychological health across time, interethnic health communication, ‘mixing’ dynamics in intermarried couples, in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The first two papers enrich about the ppsycho......-political processes in handling the challenges of cultural globalisation, and insights into the dynamics of shame among immigrant women through a pioneer longitudinal study. While the last two papers delineate communication between immigrants and health workers, and identity negotiation processes among the ethnically...

  2. Time dependent ethnic convergence in colorectal cancer survival in hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundahl Scott A

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although colorectal cancer death rates have been declining, this trend is not consistent across all ethnic groups. Biological, environmental, behavioral and socioeconomic explanations exist, but the reason for this discrepancy remains inconclusive. We examined the hypothesis that improved cancer screening across all ethnic groups will reduce ethnic differences in colorectal cancer survival. Methods Through the Hawaii Tumor Registry 16,424 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer were identified during the years 1960–2000. Cox regression analyses were performed for each of three cohorts stratified by ethnicity (Caucasian, Japanese, Hawaiian, Filipino, and Chinese. The models included stage of diagnosis, year of diagnosis, age, and sex as predictors of survival. Results Mortality rates improved significantly for all ethnic groups. Moreover, with the exception of Hawaiians, rates for all ethnic groups converged over time. Persistently lower survival for Hawaiians appeared linked with more cancer treatment. Conclusion Ethnic disparities in colorectal cancer mortality rates appear primarily the result of differential utilization of health care. If modern screening procedures can be provided equally to all ethnic groups, ethnic outcome differences can be virtually eliminated.

  3. Ethnic Museum of the Central University for Nationalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    THE Central University for Nationalities Ethnic Museum houses over 20,000 cultural relics relating to China’s 56 ethnic groups. The majority of these are traditional costumes and ornaments that examplify expertise on the part of ethnic minorities in weaving, dying, embroidery and tannage. Some are decades, and others centuries old. Exhibits such as the gifts to Chairman Mao Zedong and the central government in the early days of the People’s Republic from the Panchen Lama, Dalai Lama, and ethnic minorities across China are of great political and historical significance.

  4. Release of Regional Autonomy for Ethnic Minorities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The Construction of 60 Important Projects Begun under the Strategy for the Development of Western China;The Enrollment of 2,500 Students for Master's and PhD Programs from Ethnic Minority Areas;Each of the 55 Ethnic Minorities Having Its Own Brief Written History;The Per-capita Net Income of Rural Residents in Tibet is Growing Constantly;Every Ethnic Group Having its Own NPC Deputy or Deputies;Strengthening Specific Forms of Implementation of the System of Regional Ethnic Autonomy;

  5. Racially and ethnically diverse schools and adolescent romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strully, Kate

    2014-11-01

    Focusing on romantic relationships, which are often seen as a barometer of social distance, this analysis investigates how adolescents from different racial-ethnic and gender groups respond when they attend diverse schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating. Which groups respond by forming inter-racial-ethnic relationships, and which groups appear to "work around" opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating by forming more same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of school boundaries? Most prior studies have analyzed only relationships within schools and, therefore, cannot capture a potentially important way that adolescents express preferences for same-race-ethnicity relationships or work around constraints from other groups' preferences. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, I find that, when adolescents are in schools with many opportunities for inter-racial-ethnic dating, black females and white males are most likely to form same-race-ethnicity relationships outside of the school; whereas Hispanic males and females are most likely to date across racial-ethnic boundaries within the school.

  6. The Role of Ethnic Identity on Self-Esteem for Ethnic Minority Youth: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, Russell B.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2012-01-01

    "Who am I?" "How do I fit in with others around me?" "How do I feel about my ethnicity?" Understanding the answers to these complex questions is part of a process that many individuals revisit throughout the course of their lives. This process becomes particularly salient during adolescence when youth gain the cognitive abilities necessary to…

  7. TRUST IN MONO-ETHNIC AND MIXED-ETHNIC ASSOCIATIONS IN PENANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Campbell

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation into trust has become a topical issue in current socialscience research. This is, in large part, a result of a perception that trust in institutions has declined markedly in the past two decades. This paper investigates trust in some of Penang’s civil associations as a way of measuring the health of social capital in Penang. It focuses on issues of trust and diversity since both are critical issues in Malaysian society in general and civil associations in particular. We began our analysis expecting higher forms of trust among members in the mono-ethnic associations, based on the power of bonding. However, findings from this study tend to suggest that rather than leading to lesser trust and infectiveness, involvement in mixed-ethnic associations have in fact generated higher trust among their members. These findings reveal an interesting corrective to more pessimistic view on the relationshipbetween trust and diversity. Data from this study also provide important insight into how bridging between different people in associations marked by diversity can accentuate trust over and above the levels found in associations were bonding between like types is the dominant characteristic. The data also indicate that for both, mono-ethnic and mixed-ethnic associations, it is the extent of members’ involvements in their associations that form trust and not vice versa.

  8. Prejudice, Ethnic Identity, Contact and Ethnic Group Preferences Among Dutch Young Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masson, C.N.; M.J.A.M. Verkuyten (Maykel)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractSocial identity theory, the contact hypothesis, and prejudice research are three important perspectives for studying ingroup information and preferences in the context of ethnic groups. This paper studies the utility of the three perspectives in a particular interethnic group context amo

  9. Ethnic Cleansing, Yes; Genocide, No: Textbook Coverage of Ethnic Violence in the Former Yugoslavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David

    2012-01-01

    The ethnic violence that occurred in the former Yugoslavia during the mid-1990s has become one of the defining events of recent history. As such, today's students should develop an awareness of the history of that situation and its implications for contemporary society. Because textbooks provide the structure of most high school history courses,…

  10. Why Are Some Ethnic Groups More Violent than Others? The Role of Friendship Network's Ethnic Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabold, Susann; Baier, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Ethnic differences in violent behavior can be found in official crime statistics, as well as in surveys on juvenile delinquency. To explain these differences, research mainly focuses on factors like parental violence, violence legitimizing norms of masculinity, or socio-economic status. Little research has examined the role of friendship network's…

  11. Environmental exposure to trace elements and prostate cancer in three New Zealand ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Marion A; Centeno, Jose A; Slaney, David P; Ejnik, John W; Todorov, Todor; Nacey, John N

    2005-12-01

    A stratified random sample of 176 men was taken from a larger community prostate study group of 1405 eligible subjects from three ethnic groups in the Wellington region of New Zealand, in order to examine ethnic differences in exposure to cadmium (Cd), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) and possible associations of blood levels of Cd, Se and Zn with the prevalence of elevated serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA); a marker of prostate cancer. Maori and Pacific Islands men were found likely to have higher Cd exposure than New Zealand Europeans through diet, occupation and smoking. However, there was no significant difference between ethnic groups in mean blood Cd levels. Pacific Islands men had significantly higher levels of blood Se than both New Zealand European men and Maori men. Maori men had significantly higher levels of blood Zn than both New Zealand European men and Pacific Islands men. A positive association was found between blood Cd and total serum PSA. Se and Zn levels were not associated with elevated PSA. Maori and Pacific Islands men have higher prostate cancer mortality rates than New Zealand European men. Ethnic differences in mortality could be contributed to by differences in rates of disease progression, influenced by exposure and/or deficiency to trace elements. However, results did not reflect a consistent ethnic trend and highlight the complexity of the risk/protective mechanisms conferred by exposure factors. Further research is needed to ascertain whether the associations found between Cd and PSA levels are biologically important or are merely factors to be considered when interpreting PSA results clinically.

  12. Environmental Exposure to Trace Elements and Prostate Cancer in Three New Zealand Ethnic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. Nacey

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A stratified random sample of 176 men was taken from a larger community prostate study group of 1405 eligible subjects from three ethnic groups in the Wellington region of New Zealand, in order to examine ethnic differences in exposure to cadmium (Cd, selenium (Se and zinc (Zn and possible associations of blood levels of Cd, Se and Zn with the prevalence of elevated serum Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA; a marker of prostate cancer. Maori and Pacific Islands men were found likely to have higher Cd exposure than New Zealand Europeans through diet, occupation and smoking. However, there was no significant difference between ethnic groups in mean blood Cd levels. Pacific Islands men had significantly higher levels of blood Se than both New Zealand European men and Maori men. Maori men had significantly higher levels of blood Zn than both New Zealand European men and Pacific Islands men. A positive association was found between blood Cd and total serum PSA. Se and Zn levels were not associated with elevated PSA. Maori and Pacific Islands men have higher prostate cancer mortality rates than New Zealand European men. Ethnic differences in mortality could be contributed to by differences in rates of disease progression, influenced by exposure and/or deficiency to trace elements. However, results did not reflect a consistent ethnic trend and highlight the complexity of the risk/protective mechanisms conferred by exposure factors. Further research is needed to ascertain whether the associations found between Cd and PSA levels are biologically important or are merely factors to be considered when interpreting PSA results clinically.

  13. The influence of Helicobacter pylori on the ethnic distribution of esophageal eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Amnon; Dellon, Evan S; Turner, Kevin O; Genta, Robert M

    2017-06-01

    Environmental factors associated with ethnicity may contribute to the occurrence of eosinophilic esophagitis. Our study aimed to investigate the influence of Helicobacter pylori on the ethnic variation of esophageal eosinophilia in a large national sample of patients undergoing esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy. The Miraca Life Sciences Database is an electronic repository of histopathologic patient records. A case-control study evaluated the influence of ethnicity on the occurrence of esophageal eosinophilia and how age, gender, and histologic diagnosis of H. pylori modify this relationship. The total study population comprised 596 479 subjects, of whom 25 969 harbored a diagnosis of esophageal eosinophilia. Young age, male sex, and H. pylori infection in declining order exerted the strongest influence on the occurrence of esophageal eosinophilia. In comparison with the population comprising of Caucasians and African-Americans, esophageal eosinophilia was less common among patients of African (OR=0.10, 95% CI=0.01-0.46), Middle Eastern (0.22, 0.15-0.31), East Asian (0.32, 0.26-0.38), Indian (0.28, 0.21-0.37), Hispanic (0.40, 0.37-0.43), or Jewish descent (0.58, 0.51-0.66), but more common among patients of Northern European descent (1.25, 1.07-1.45). With the exception of Northern Europeans, all ethnic subgroups were characterized by a higher prevalence of H. pylori than the comparison group. A low prevalence of H. pylori was significantly associated with a high prevalence of esophageal eosinophilia (R(2) =0.90, Ppylori and esophageal eosinophilia, H. pylori infection may be in part responsible for the observed ethnic distribution of esophageal eosinophilia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Ethnic boundaries and personal choice. Assessing the influence of individual inclinations to choose intra-ethnic relationships on pupils' networks : Assessing the influence of individual inclinations to choose intra-ethnic relationships on pupils’ networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baerveldt, C; Van Duijn, MAJ; Vermeij, L; Van Hemert, DA; Hemert, Dianne A. van

    2004-01-01

    The existence of ethnic boundaries in 20 pupils' networks is tested by comparing the proportion of intra-ethnic to inter-ethnic relationships, while controlling for the distribution of intra- and inter-ethnic dyads in pupils' networks. Also, we tested if those boundaries are affected by the inclinat

  15. A Study on the Employment Problems of Ethnic Minority Graduates and Its Countermeasure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Weibo

    2014-01-01

    When China ’ s economic devel-opment slows down , but the number of college graduates constantly increases , the problem of the difficulty of college students finding employment becomes not only an economic problem , but also a social problem , and even a political problem .The problem of employment for ethnic minority college students is much more so .How to solve effectively the problem of the minority college students ’ em-ployment difficulty is an issue related to ethnic uni-ty, social stability and national prosperity and has a very important political , social and economic sig-nificance.Hence, this research is based on the re-sults from a survey conducted at the Southwest U-niversity for Nationalities , and it tries to provide some corresponding suggestions for solving the em-ployment problems of ethnic minority graduates in the universities of Chengdu . The target of this survey were the ethnic mi-nority graduates who enrolled in Southwest Univer-sity for Nationalities in 2009.Using the principles of random sampling , a total number of 500 ques-tionnaires were distributed . Among these 480 questionnaires were completed and collected . Therefore , the efficiency of the questionnaires is 96%.Through the survey , we find that the main problems related to present ethnic minority college students’ employment are four aspects described as follows: 1.Minority college students prefer to work in big cities. The big cities have strong attraction to the mi-nority college students , and half of the graduates prefer to stay in the big cities .This creates a con-tradiction , because the employment situation in the big cities is already so serious that it is difficult for the big cities to accept so many college graduates . However , some minority areas which need talent are not able to attract excellent minority college graduates . 2.The minority college students lack commu-nication skills . Ethnic minority college graduates have their own languages or writing

  16. Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private…

  17. Therapist Perceptions of Ethnicity Issues in Family Therapy: A Qualitative Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kaye W.; Brendel, Johnston M.; Mize, Leslye K.; Lad, Kaetlyn; Hancock, Cecilia C.; Pinjala, Anjali

    2001-01-01

    Family therapists presenting a regional marriage and family therapy conference were interviewed about ethnicity issues in therapy. Questions focused on ethnicity in the therapy process; ethnicity issues for the therapist and the client; strategies when ethnicity is an issue; and recommendations for ethnicity training. Qualitative analysis revealed…

  18. Correlates of Prosocial Behaviors of Students in Ethnically and Racially Diverse Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Asha Leah; White, Samantha Simmons; Juvonen, Jaana; Graham, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between ethnicity-related context variables and the prosocial behavior of early adolescents in ethnically/racially diverse schools. Specifically, youths' perceptions of greater representation of same-ethnic peers at school, school support for ethnic diversity, and engagement in and valuing cross-ethnic contact…

  19. A Narrative Approach to Ethnic Identity in Emerging Adulthood: Bringing Life to the Identity Status Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita

    2008-01-01

    This study used a narrative approach to understand how emerging adults experience ethnicity in their everyday lives and to link ethnic identity processes with the content of how ethnic identity is experienced. Participants were 191 ethnically diverse emerging adults who completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and provided a written…

  20. Correlates of Prosocial Behaviors of Students in Ethnically and Racially Diverse Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Asha Leah; White, Samantha Simmons; Juvonen, Jaana; Graham, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between ethnicity-related context variables and the prosocial behavior of early adolescents in ethnically/racially diverse schools. Specifically, youths' perceptions of greater representation of same-ethnic peers at school, school support for ethnic diversity, and engagement in and valuing cross-ethnic contact…

  1. Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Cai, Yunqiang; Liu, Xubao; Peng, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is a complicated surgical procedure and rarely been reported. This study was conducted to investigate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic total pancreatectomy. Patients and Methods: Three patients underwent laparoscopic total pancreatectomy between May 2014 and August 2015. We reviewed their general demographic data, perioperative details, and short-term outcomes. General morbidity was assessed using Clavien–Dindo classification and delayed gastric emptying (DGE) was evaluated by International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery (ISGPS) definition. Diagnosis and Outcomes: The indications for laparoscopic total pancreatectomy were intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) (n = 2) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET) (n = 1). All patients underwent laparoscopic pylorus and spleen-preserving total pancreatectomy, the mean operative time was 490 minutes (range 450–540 minutes), the mean estimated blood loss was 266 mL (range 100–400 minutes); 2 patients suffered from postoperative complication. All the patients recovered uneventfully with conservative treatment and discharged with a mean hospital stay 18 days (range 8–24 days). The short-term (from 108 to 600 days) follow up demonstrated 3 patients had normal and consistent glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level with acceptable quality of life. Lessons: Laparoscopic total pancreatectomy is feasible and safe in selected patients and pylorus and spleen preserving technique should be considered. Further prospective randomized studies are needed to obtain a comprehensive understanding the role of laparoscopic technique in total pancreatectomy. PMID:28099344

  2. The Economic Viability of Ethnicity: Economic Behavior as an Expression of Ethnic Identity among Serbian Immigrants in the USA

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The economic aspect of ethnicity represents a wide topic of research which still hasn’t been extensively studied in Serbian ethnology and anthropology. It encompasses numerous kinds of relationships between people who belong to the same ethnic group, as well as all kinds of economic discrimination or economic favorizing based on ethnic identity. In this paper I shall attempt to highlight some of the basic characteristics of this issue, and to point out the interconnectedness of economic behav...

  3. Estonian total ozone climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Eerme

    Full Text Available The climatological characteristics of total ozone over Estonia based on the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS data are discussed. The mean annual cycle during 1979–2000 for the site at 58.3° N and 26.5° E is compiled. The available ground-level data interpolated before TOMS, have been used for trend detection. During the last two decades, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO corrected systematic decrease of total ozone from February–April was 3 ± 2.6% per decade. Before 1980, a spring decrease was not detectable. No decreasing trend was found in either the late autumn ozone minimum or in the summer total ozone. The QBO related signal in the spring total ozone has an amplitude of ± 20 DU and phase lag of 20 months. Between 1987–1992, the lagged covariance between the Singapore wind and the studied total ozone was weak. The spring (April–May and summer (June–August total ozone have the best correlation (coefficient 0.7 in the yearly cycle. The correlation between the May and August total ozone is higher than the one between the other summer months. Seasonal power spectra of the total ozone variance show preferred periods with an over 95% significance level. Since 1986, during the winter/spring, the contribution period of 32 days prevails instead of the earlier dominating 26 days. The spectral densities of the periods from 4 days to 2 weeks exhibit high interannual variability.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (middle atmosphere – composition and chemistry; volcanic effects – Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology

  4. Familial ethnic socialization, gender role attitudes, and ethnic identity development in Mexican-origin early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida; Whittaker, Tiffany A; Hamilton, Emma; Arango, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the relations between familial ethnic socialization and ethnic identity development in 438 Mexican-origin (n = 242 boys and n = 196 girls) preadolescents. In addition, machismo and marianismo gender role attitudes were examined as potential mediators in this link. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of the Familial Ethnic Socialization Scale (FES), Machismo Measure (MM), Marianismo Beliefs Scale (MBS), and the Ethnic Identity Brief Scale (EISB) were conducted to test the factor structure with a preadolescent Mexican-origin sample. Separate path analyses of analytic models were then performed on boys and girls. Results of the CFAs for survey measures revealed that for the FES, a 1-factor version indicated acceptable fit; for the MM, the original 2-factor structure indicated acceptable model fit; for the MBS, a revised 3-factor version indicated acceptable model fit; and, for the EISB, the affirmation and resolution dimensions showed acceptable fit. Among boys, FES was significantly and positively linked to caballerismo, and EISB affirmation and resolution; furthermore, the links between FES and EISB affirmation and resolution were indirectly connected by caballerismo. In addition, traditional machismo was negatively linked to EISB affirmation, and caballerismo was positively linked to EISB affirmation and resolution. Among girls, FES was significantly and positively related to the MBS-virtuous/chaste pillar, and EISB affirmation and resolution. The MBS-subordinate to others pillar was negatively linked to EISB affirmation. This study underscores the importance of FES and positive gender role attitudes in the link to ethnic identity development among Mexican-origin preadolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Community health education: reaching ethnically diverse elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    States, Rebecca A; Susman, William M; Riquelme, Luis F; Godwin, Ellen M; Greer, Ellen

    2006-01-01

    To address disparities in access to health care information, we developed a model program of community-based, health education workshops to be delivered in English and Spanish to older urban adults from diverse ethnic, cultural, and language backgrounds. The workshops were created through an interdisciplinary collaboration among faculty from seven health care professions and focused on three healthcare topics identified in Healthy People 2010: dementia and depression, stress reduction, and physical activity. The development of workshop content and structure, including didactic and interactive components, an approach to interdisciplinary student involvement, and program evaluation by clients and community center staff, are presented as a model for other educators. The workshops presented at five senior centers were attended by 1110 mostly female clients with an average age of 74 yrs and with a large proportion self-identified as of minority background. One hundred seven students from seven healthcare programs helped deliver the workshops. Interviews and surveys of the clients demonstrated that most had a positive learning experience, whereas the evidence of intent to take action on health care issues was less definitive. Analysis of student essays demonstrated increased student understanding of older adults and of community services. A website, Geriatric Educational Resources for Instructors and Elders (www.GERIE.org), was created to provide access to the instructional and resource materials used for the workshops, including presentation materials in Spanish. This model program may help address the substantial health education needs of a growing population of older adults from diverse ethnic, cultural, and language minorities.

  6. Aging in Multi-ethnic Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians.

  7. LAUGHING AT OURSELVES: REFLECTING MALAYSIAN ETHNIC DISPARITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SWAGATA SINHA ROY

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia’s various ethnic groups make interesting study both sociologically and culturally. With such a heady mix of cultural elements to explore, it is often natural that the many groups stumble upon ‘rare gems’ that reflect their ‘Malaysianess’. Have Malaysians really ever appreciated the many and varied aspects of culture that they are seemingly suddenly thrown into? Do we embrace these happily or are we constantly rejecting them? Fortunately, through the medium of film, we are, from time to time, allowed to reflect on our obvious similarities and even more apparent disparities. In this paper, we explore the culture and perceptions of people from the major ethnic groups that are the human base of this very country. When was it we have last laughed at ourselves … heartily? Nasi Lemak 2.0 provides an interesting, if not disturbing insight into the workings of the Malaysian ‘mind’. Nasi Lemak 2.0 was released on 8th September 2011 and impacted a whole generation of Malaysians. The characters have been well chosen and have done a wonderful job of being representations of the various communities in this nation. Ethnocentrism is a reality and often rears its head, ‘ugly’ or otherwise in several situations. Are we able to grapple with the levels of ethnocentrism that we encounter? These are some of the issues that will trigger much debate and discussion among ourselves and perhaps also reflect our cores.

  8. Keratins and lipids in ethnic hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, C F; Fernandes, M M; Gomes, A C; Coderch, L; Martí, M; Méndez, S; Gales, L; Azoia, N G; Shimanovich, U; Cavaco-Paulo, A

    2013-06-01

    Human hair has an important and undeniable relevance in society due to its important role in visual appearance and social communication. Hair is mainly composed of structural proteins, mainly keratin and keratin associated proteins and lipids. Herein, we report a comprehensive study of the content and distribution of the lipids among ethnic hair, African, Asian and Caucasian hair. More interestingly, we also report the study of the interaction between those two main components of hair, specifically, the influence of the hair internal lipids in the structure of the hair keratin. This was achieved by the use of a complete set of analytical tools, such as thin layer chromatography-flame ionization detector, X-ray analysis, molecular dynamics simulation and confocal microscopy. The experimental results indicated different amounts of lipids on ethnic hair compositions and higher percentage of hair internal lipids in African hair. In this type of hair, the axial diffraction of keratin was not observed in X-ray analysis, but after hair lipids removal, the keratin returned to its typical packing arrangement. In molecular dynamic simulation, lipids were shown to intercalate dimers of keratin, changing its structure. From those results, we assume that keratin structure may be influenced by higher concentration of lipids in African hair. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  9. "Foreign brides" meet ethnic politics in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Chang

    2011-01-01

    A great number of women from China, Vietnam, and Indonesia recently arrived in Taiwan to marry men of lower social strata. Such an unusual pattern of migration has stimulated debates about the status and the citizenship of the new arrivals. This study analyzes Taiwanese responses toward these marriage migrants by using a national survey conducted in 2004. Three aspects of restrictive attitudes were tapped concerning these newcomers: (1) rights to work; (2) access to public health insurance; and (3) full citizenship. Immigrants from China were most opposed, compared to women with other origins (Southeast Asia, Japan, Europe, and the US). The seemingly unrelated regression estimation regression results do not support the split labor market hypotheses, as marriage migrants do not appear to be economic threats toward members of the lower classes. In contrast, ethnic nationalism plays a key role in determining the natives’ restrictive attitudes. The case of Taiwan represents a special genre, where ethnic politics selectively arouses the social rejection of women immigrants of certain origins.

  10. Lipid Status and Predisposing Genes in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 from Various Ethnic Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikova, L I; Kolesnikov, S I; Darenskaya, M A; Grebenkina, L A; Semenova, N V; Osipova, E V; Gnusina, S V; Bardymova, T A

    2015-12-01

    The peculiarities of HLA class II profile and lipid metabolism were examined in Buryat and Russian ethnic groups of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1. The incidence of type 1 haplotypes in HLA class II gene family was lower in Buryats than that in Russians. In comparison with Russians, the course of diabetes mellitus type 1 in Buryat patients was characterized with a lower content of total lipids, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, and LDL, which probably explains a more favorable course of the disease in Buryat population.

  11. Total Water Management - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Total Water Management (TWM) examines urban water systems in an interconnected manner. It encompasses reducing water demands, increasing water recycling and reuse, creating water supply assets from stormwater management, matching water quality to end-use needs, and achieving envi...

  12. Total 2004 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    This document presents the 2004 results of Total Group: consolidated account, special items, number of shares, market environment, adjustment for amortization of Sanofi-Aventis merger-related intangibles, 4. quarter 2004 results (operating and net incomes, cash flow), upstream (results, production, reserves, recent highlights), downstream (results, refinery throughput, recent highlights), chemicals (results, recent highlights), Total's full year 2004 results (operating and net income, cash flow), 2005 sensitivities, Total SA parent company accounts and proposed dividend, adoption of IFRS accounting, summary and outlook, main operating information by segment for the 4. quarter and full year 2004: upstream (combined liquids and gas production by region, liquids production by region, gas production by region), downstream (refined product sales by region, chemicals), Total financial statements: consolidated statement of income, consolidated balance sheet (assets, liabilities and shareholder's equity), consolidated statements of cash flows, business segments information. (J.S.)

  13. Revised Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR) aims to increase public health protection through the reduction of potential pathways for fecal contamination in the distribution system of a public water system (PWS).

  14. Total Ecosystem Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Total ecosystem carbon includes above- and below-ground live plant components (such as leaf, branch, stem and root), dead biomass (such as standing dead wood, down...

  15. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Eicher-Miller

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2–18 years old (n = 10,298 of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level least square means (p < 0.05/3 race/ethnic groups. All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.

  16. Processed Food Contributions to Energy and Nutrient Intake Differ among US Children by Race/Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R

    2015-12-02

    This study determined and compared the mean daily intake of energy and nutrients from processed foods by level of processing (minimally processed; processed for preservation, nutrient enhancement, and freshness; mixtures of combined ingredients; ready-to-eat processed foods; and prepared foods/meals) among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American US children. Data from participants 2-18 years old (n = 10,298) of the nationally representative cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2008 with a complete one day, 24-h dietary recall were used to determine mean intake of energy and nutrients recommended for increase and decrease, as per the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, among child race/ethnic groups by category of food processing. Regression analysis was used to estimate and compare covariate-adjusted (gender, age, and poverty-income-level) least square means (p ethnic groups). All children, regardless of race or ethnicity consumed processed foods. Approximately 66% to 84% of total daily energy, saturated fat, cholesterol, fiber, total sugar, added sugars, calcium, vitamin D, potassium, and sodium intake are contributed by one of the five categories of processed foods. Clinicians and policy should primarily advise consideration of the energy and nutrient composition of foods, rather than the processing level, when selecting a healthy diet for children.

  17. Total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  18. A culturally competent education program to increase understanding about medicines among ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarero-Arévalo, Lourdes; Kassem, Dumoue; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2014-01-01

    focus group interviews were conducted before and four after the education program. Thirty Arabic-speaking participants were recruited from language and job centers in Copenhagen. Participants received teaching sessions in Arabic on appropriate medicine use. The education program was evaluated by two....... In contrast to the USA or the UK, serving ethnically diverse populations is still a relatively new phenomenon for the Danish healthcare system. Ethnic minorities with a non-Western background comprised a total of 6.9 % of the Danish population. METHODS: Data were collected through qualitative research. Four...... methods: a written quiz for knowledge evaluation and focus group interviews for process evaluation. It took place during the first semenester of 2012. Results The majority of the participants were dissatisfied with the knowledge about medicines inherited from their parents. They also expressed...

  19. Nationalistic Attitudes and Ethnic Exclusionism in a Comparative Perspective. An Empirical Study of Attitudes Toward the Country and Ethnic Immigrants in 22 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenders, Marcel Theodorus Aloysius

    2001-01-01

    The start of the twenty-first century is characterized by massive international migration, intense ethnic conflicts and ethnic antagonism. Attitudes toward the ethnic in-group and toward ethnic out-groups have gained increasing relevance as a research topic in the social sciences. In this

  20. Nationalistic Attitudes and Ethnic Exclusionism in a Comparative Perspective. An Empirical Study of Attitudes Toward the Country and Ethnic Immigrants in 22 Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenders, Marcel Theodorus Aloysius

    2001-01-01

    The start of the twenty-first century is characterized by massive international migration, intense ethnic conflicts and ethnic antagonism. Attitudes toward the ethnic in-group and toward ethnic out-groups have gained increasing relevance as a research topic in the social sciences. In this cross-nati

  1. Ethnic differences in dissatisfaction with sexual life in patients with type 2 diabetes in a Swedish town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taloyan Marina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first aim of this study was to analyze whether self-reported satisfaction with one's sexual life was associated with ethnicity (Swedish and Assyrian/Syrian in patients with type 2 diabetes. The second was to study whether the association between satisfaction with one's sexual life and ethnicity remained after controlling for possible confounders such as marital status, HbA1c, medication, and presence of other diseases. Methods This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted at four primary health care centers in the Swedish town of Södertälje. A total of 354 persons (173 ethnic Assyrians/Syrians and 181 ethnic Swedes participated. Results The total prevalence of self-reported dissatisfaction with one's sexual life in both groups was 49%. No significant ethnic differences were found in the outcome. In the final model, regardless of ethnicity, the odds ratio (OR for self-reported dissatisfaction with one's sexual life in those ≥ 70 years old was 2.52 (95% CI 1.33-4.80. Among those living alone or with children, the OR was more than three times higher than for married or cohabiting individuals (OR = 3.10, 95% CI 1.60-6.00. Those with other diseases had an OR 1.89 times (95% CI 1.10-3.40 higher than those without other diseases. Conclusions The findings demonstrate that almost half of participants were dissatisfied with their sexual life and highlight the importance of sexual life to people with type 2 diabetes. This factor should not be ignored in clinical evaluations. Moreover, the findings demonstrate that it is possible to include questions on sexual life in investigations of patients with type 2 diabetes and even in other health-related, questionnaire studies, despite the sensitivity of the issue of sexuality.

  2. A Study on the Issue of Population Aging among Ethnic Minorities in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Changde

    2014-01-01

    There are differences in the issue of population aging among China ’ s various ethnic groups.The aging process of some ethnic groups is very fast, and the structure of their population ag-ing belongs to a typical aging model .Some ethnic groups ’ aging process is relatively slow , and the structure of their aging still belongs to a young model.Moreover, the rate of aging of various eth-nic groups in the same region is also different , e-ven the rates and trends of aging within one specif-ic ethnic group also differ .Hence , the situation of population aging among minorities in China is very complicated . Based on the data from three demographic censuses conducted in 1990, 2000 and 2010, this article analyzes the differences of population aging among various ethnic groups . 1.The Basic Situation of Population Aging a-mong Ethnic Minorities in China According to the census , the population above age 60 among minority populations was 6.29 million in 1990.; It increased to 9.02 million in 2010;and reached above 11.75 million in 2010.The popula-tion above the age of 65 among the minority popula-tion was 4.05 million in 1990; 5.87 million in 1990;and reached 7.83 million in 2010. According to typical international standards of population aging frameworks and statistics from the 2000 census , China ’ s population has already be-come an aging population .Among the total popula-tion of that year , 10.46%of the population was a-bove the age of 60;7.10% of the population was above the age of 65.Among the ethnic minority populations , 8.57% of the population was above the age of 60 , and 5.58% was above the age of 65.Hence, the minority population had not yet become a typical aging population .However , in 2010, the rate of aging in the total minority popu-lation further increased , and it also became a typi-cal aging population . 2 .Ethnic Differences of Population Aging a-mong the Minorities There are 55 ethnic minorities in China , and the rate of aging among these

  3. Students' Attitudes toward Teachers' Ethnicity, Bilinguality, and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galguera, Tomas

    1998-01-01

    A study of 186 mostly Latino and African-American students, aged 9 to 17, in six inner-city California schools assessed student attitudes toward the ethnicity, bilinguality, and gender of 12 hypothetical teachers. Students rated African-American bilingual, and female teachers highest. Evidence was found of same-ethnicity preferences. Contains 70…

  4. Ethnic inequalities in patient safety in Dutch hospital care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rosse, F.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis shows the first results of Dutch studies on the relation between ethnicity and patient safety. We used mixed methods to identify patient safety outcomes and patient safety risks in a cohort study in 4 urban hospitals among 763 Dutch patients and 576 ethnic minority patients. In a record

  5. Ethnic density in school classes and adolescent mental health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, M.; Vollebergh, W.A.M; Dorsselaer, S. van

    2009-01-01

    Objective The present study set out to examine the association between ethnic composition of school classes and prevalence of internalising and externalising problem behaviour among ethnic minority and majority students. Methods Data were derived from the Dutch 2002 Health Behaviour in School-aged C

  6. Ethnicity, youth cultural participation, and cultural reproduction in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, Frits van; Couwenbergh-Soeterboek, Nellie; Couwenbergh, Christianne; Bogt, Tom ter; Raaijmakers, Quinten

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is the explanation of differences in cultural participation of adolescents of different ethnic backgrounds. Six hundred ninety-eight Dutch and ethnic minority adolescents in a large city in the Netherlands filled in a questionnaire about their active cultural participati

  7. Teaching about Ethnic Heritage: More than Costumes and Unusual Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Valerie Ooka

    1988-01-01

    Multicultural education, at least in elementary school, should represent a balance between our national identity as Americans and our diverse ethnic heritage, fostering respect for the contributions of different ethnic groups. A unit on the Underground Railroad and Black courage is included. (MT)

  8. The Quest for Ethnic Reclassification in Multiculturalist Taiwan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that the large-scale ethnic resurgence, as observed in the quest for ethnic reclassification in Taiwan today, is not simply the result of deep-seated feelings of primordial attachment of people in a post-colonial society. As it has been described in the case of Brazil...

  9. Occlusal status in Asian male adults : Prevalence and ethnic variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soh, J; Sandham, John; Chin, Yeen

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the occlusal status in young Asian male adults of three ethnic groups. Study models of a sample of male army recruits (N = 339, age 1722 years) with no history of orthodontic treatment were assessed. The ethnic proportions of the sample were Chinese 76.1% (

  10. Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Ethnic Minority Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Stanley J., Jr.; Polo, Antonio J.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews research on evidence-based treatments (EBTs) for ethnic minority youth using criteria from Chambless et al. (1998), Chambless et al. (1996), and Chambless and Hollon (1998). Although no "well-established" treatments were identified, "probably efficacious" or "possibly efficacious" treatments were found for ethnic minority…

  11. Teaching Ethnic Psychology to Undergraduates: Course Development, Delivery, and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Dan; And Others

    This paper discusses the development, delivery, and evaluation of university undergraduate courses in ethnic psychology, which is defined as research and literature about four major racial/ethnic minority groups, Asian American/Pacific Islanders, Black Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans. Following a brief history of the role of…

  12. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  13. With Roots Entwined: Intergroup Relations in Urban Ethnic America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, Kenneth Julius

    The history of European immigration to the United States and the roles that white ethnic groups have played in American industrialization, urbanization, and suburbanization are discussed in this paper. Focused on is the process by which major American cities grew and changed in terms of their ethnic composition. Fluctuations in the national…

  14. Ethnic Minorities’ Impression Management in the Interview: Helping or Hindering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derous, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities’ interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred ‘entitlements’ whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians) preferred ‘opinion conformity’ as IM-tactics. An experimental follow-up study among 163 ethnic majority raters showed no main effect of IM-tactics on interview ratings. Ethnic minorities’ use of IM-tactics only affected interview ratings if rater characteristics were considered. Specifically, interview ratings were higher when ethnic minorities used opinion conformity (i.e., majority-preferred IM-tactic) and lower when minorities used entitlements (i.e., minority-preferred IM-tactic) if recruiters were high in social dominance orientation, and when they felt more experienced/proficient with interviewing. IM-tactics are a human capital factor that might help applicants to increase their job chances on the labor market. It is concluded that ethnic minority applicants’ preferences for certain IM-tactics might lead to bias even in structured interview settings, but that this depends on ethnic majority recruiters’ interview experience and ingroup/outgroup attitudes. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:28203211

  15. Ethnic Identity at a Majority Hispanic-Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Roger Geertz

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the ethnic identity of Cuban American and non-Hispanic White college students at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida. Current Latino/a and White college student ethnic identity theories are limited regarding a variety of contextual considerations such as immigration, majority-minority demographics, student…

  16. National Unity and Ethnic Identity in a Vietnamese University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Linh T.; Walter, Pierre G.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the ways in which Vietnam's educational policies for ethnic minorities are enacted in the bachelor of arts (BA) program in ethnic minority cultures (EMC) at the Hanoi University of Culture (HUC). Hanoi University of Culture is one of only two universities in Vietnam that offer this program. Although the BA is…

  17. Recent Dutch and Belgian approaches to ethnicity in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, K.; Binsbergen, W.M.J.

    1993-01-01

    This article is an editorial introduction to the five contributions to a two-day Dutch-Belgian workshop on ethnicity in Africa (Leiden, The Netherlands, December 1991) selected for publication in the present issue of 'Afrika Focus'. It highlights various aspects of the study of ethnicity which emerg

  18. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis by Kindergarten Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Paul L.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Farkas, George; Maczuga, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whether and to what extent racial/ethnic disparities in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnosis occur by kindergarten entry is currently unknown. We investigated risk factors associated with an ADHD diagnosis by kindergarten entry generally, and specifically whether racial/ethnic disparities in ADHD diagnosis occur by…

  19. Ethnic Minorities' Impression Management in the Interview: Helping or Hindering?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derous, Eva

    2017-01-01

    Cross-cultural impression management (IM) has not been considered much, which is remarkable given the fast rate at which the labor market is becoming multicultural. This study investigated whether ethnic minorities and majorities differed in their preference for IM-tactics and how this affected ethnic minorities' interview outcomes. A preliminary study (focus groups/survey) showed that ethnic minorities (i.e., Arab/Moroccans) preferred 'entitlements' whereas majorities (i.e., Flemish/Belgians) preferred 'opinion conformity' as IM-tactics. An experimental follow-up study among 163 ethnic majority raters showed no main effect of IM-tactics on interview ratings. Ethnic minorities' use of IM-tactics only affected interview ratings if rater characteristics were considered. Specifically, interview ratings were higher when ethnic minorities used opinion conformity (i.e., majority-preferred IM-tactic) and lower when minorities used entitlements (i.e., minority-preferred IM-tactic) if recruiters were high in social dominance orientation, and when they felt more experienced/proficient with interviewing. IM-tactics are a human capital factor that might help applicants to increase their job chances on the labor market. It is concluded that ethnic minority applicants' preferences for certain IM-tactics might lead to bias even in structured interview settings, but that this depends on ethnic majority recruiters' interview experience and ingroup/outgroup attitudes. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  20. Details from the Dashboard: Charter School Race/Ethnicity Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Alliance for Public Charter Schools, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Details from the Dashboard" report examines race/ethnicity breakouts for public charter schools and traditional public schools at the state and the school district level. The data in this report indicate that in the large majority of states, the race/ethnicity student demographics of charter schools are almost identical to those of the…

  1. Ethnic diversity and its effects on social cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, T.; Tolsma, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a sharp increase in empirical studies on the constrict claim: the hypothesized detrimental effect of ethnic diversity on most if not all aspects of social cohesion. Studies have scrutinized effects of different measures of ethnic heterogeneity in different geographical areas

  2. Habitat Variability and Ethnic Diversity in Northern Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Lee, Harry F.; Cui, Mengchun; Liu, Chao; Zeng, Lin; Yue, Ricci P. H.; Zhao, Yang; Lu, Huayu

    2017-04-01

    There are 56 officially-recognized ethnic groups in China. However, the distinct geographic patterns of various ethnic groups in relation to the physical environment in China have rarely been investigated. Based on the geo-referenced physical environmental parameters of 455 Han, Tu, Hui, Salar, Mongolian, and Tibetan communities in Qinghai, we found that the communities could be statistically demarcated by temperature and aridity threshold according to their ethnic populations, implying that the geographic distribution of each ethnic group is mediated by the physical environment. We also observed that the habitat of each ethnic group is ecologically compatible with current subsistence strategies. Tibetans settle in cold high-altitude regions owing to the cultivation of highland barley and the breeding of yak, dzo, Tibetan sheep and Tibetan goat. Mongolians survive by animal husbandry in cold and humid grassland areas. The Han and Tu ethnic groups settle in the Huangshui River Valley, which offers relatively humid climate and flat land for agriculture. The Hui and Salar ethnic groups occupy the Yellow River Valley with its relatively arid environment and grassland vegetation suitable for animal breeding. Our findings offer a new perspective in explaining the geographic pattern and the variety of ethnic groups in China and elsewhere.

  3. Race and Ethnicity in Empirical Research: An 18-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Kimber L.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Wells, Eliza M.

    2009-01-01

    Extending previous research (E. A. Delgado-Romero, N. Galvan, P. Maschino, & M. Rowland, 2005) regarding race and ethnicity in counseling and counseling psychology, this article examined how race and ethnicity were reported and used in empirical studies published in diversity-focused journals from 1990 to 2007. The results are discussed and…

  4. Ethnic Variations in Prognosis of Patients with Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agyemang, Charles; van de Vorst, Irene E.; Koek, Huiberdina L.

    2017-01-01

    rate, ethnic minority patients with dementia did not have a worse prognosis. Given the poor prognosis of dementia, timely and targeted advance care planning is essential, particularly in ethnic minority groups who are mired by cultural barriers and where uptake of advance care planning is known...

  5. Typological Features of the Kazakh Ethnic Picture of the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tleubergenov, Arman A.; Jumaniyazova, Raushan K.; Begembetova, Galiya Z.; Nussupova, Aizada S.; Kairbekova, Alima G.; Keshubayeva, Dinara Ye.

    2016-01-01

    This research investigates the problems of self-identification of the Kazakh ethnic group in the post-totalitarian period, which are based on the values of traditional nomadic life of Kazakhs. The research shows the mechanisms of evolution of the ethnic group's worldview paradigms and their typology. The purpose of the research is to investigate…

  6. Employment and Earnings in High-Tech Ethnic Niches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    The increase in high-skilled immigrants to the United States coincided with the expansion of the high-technology sector, and now a large share of Asian immigrants concentrate in high-tech industries. Despite much research on the relationship between ethnic concentration and labor market outcomes, the association between ethnic niche employment and…

  7. Association of ocular conditions with narrow angles in different ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roland Y; Chon, Brian H; Lin, Shuai-Chun; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan C

    2015-09-01

    To quantify the predictive strength of anterior chamber area (ACA), anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber width (ACW), lens vault (LV), iris thickness (IT), and iris area (IArea) for 2 angle width parameters, trabecular-iris space area (TISA750) and angle opening distance (AOD750) at 750 μm from the scleral spur, in different ethnicities. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography images for 166 white, 90 African, 75 Hispanic, and 132 Chinese subjects were analyzed. First, ACA, ACV, ACW, LV, IT, and IArea were compared among ethnic groups. Second, associations of TISA750 and AOD750 with ACA, ACV, ACW, LV, IT, and IArea were investigated within each ethnic group using multivariable linear regression models, standardized regression coefficients (β), and coefficients of determination (R(2)). Significant ethnic differences were observed in ACA, ACV, ACW, LV, IT, and IArea (all P ACV, and LV were significant predictors of TISA750 and AOD750 in all ethnic groups (all P ACV, and LV had the highest predictive strength for both TISA750 and AOD750 in all ethnic groups based on β and R(2). Despite ethnic differences in ACA, ACV, ACW, LV, IT, and IArea, the same 3 anterior segment parameters (ACA, ACV, and LV) were the strongest predictors of angle width (TISA750 and AOD750) in all 4 ethnic groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Economic Dimensions of the Niger Delta Ethnic Conflicts (Pp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Niger Delta in the sharing of the economic and political benefits of the oil and gas wealth of the .... new dimensions including violent ethnic conflicts and vandalisation of oil installations. .... “animal Farm” and the works on political economy by Karl Marx. These authors in ... potential of violent ethnic conflict. Planners should ...

  9. Ethnic divisions, trust, and the size of the informal sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, David Dreyer

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between ethnic fractionalization and the size of the informal, or hidden, economy. Recent experimental and empirical research links, in turn, ethnicity and trust, and trust and tax compliance. In addition, recent empirical studies have identified an unwill...

  10. Theoretical and Applied Foundations of the Subject of Ethnic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnaz K. Tleuzhanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the problem of the relevance of forming the subject of ethnic culture in the educational system on the basis of socio-cultural situation both in Kazakhstan and in the global community, presents views of leading scholars in the field of personality theory, theory of knowledge, gives author's definition of "the subject of ethnic culture"

  11. "Ethnic" Assimilates "Indigenous": A Study in Intellectual Neocolonialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Winona

    1998-01-01

    Argues that Native American Studies does not belong under the rubric of Ethnic Studies, where unbalanced power relations result in the marginalization, silencing, and exploitation of issues unique to indigenous peoples. Examines the process by which "ethnicity" assimilates "indigenous" and how this process and its impact…

  12. Longitudinal Trajectories of Ethnic Identity during the College Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Azmitia, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    The goals of this study were to examine trajectories of change in ethnic identity during the college years and to explore group-level and individual-level variations. Participants were 175 diverse college students who completed indices of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, self-esteem, and domain-general identity resolution. Multilevel…

  13. Ethnic diversity and its effects on social cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. van der Meer; J. Tolsma

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen a sharp increase in empirical studies on the constrict claim: the hypothesized detrimental effect of ethnic diversity on most if not all aspects of social cohesion. Studies have scrutinized effects of different measures of ethnic heterogeneity in different geographical areas o

  14. Ethnicity and Economic Well-Being: The Case of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Isaac; Pokimica, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    In the context of decades of successful economic reforms in Ghana, this study investigates whether ethnicity influences economic well-being (perceived and actual) among Ghanaians at the micro-level. Drawing on Afro-barometer 2008 data, the authors employs logistic and multiple regression techniques to explore the relative effect of ethnicity on…

  15. Ethnicity and Nationalism. IREX Occasional Papers, Volume 1, Number 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massell, Gregory J.; Shoup, Paul S.

    Two papers examine the relationship between ethnicity and nationalism in the Soviet Union and in Yugoslavia. The first paper assesses the ethnicity in Soviet Central Asia. Because in recent years an increasing number of scholars has been placed in Soviet Central Asia, observation is now combined with commonly held hypotheses to determine regional…

  16. Testicular microlithiasis is associated with ethnicity and socioeconomic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Roland Vils; Bartlett, Emily C; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2017-01-01

    group of 1105 men without TML, 560 (50.7%) were white, 171 (15.5%) black, 111 (10.0%) had other specified ethnicities, and 263 (23.8%) had no ethnicity recorded. Men from the most deprived socioeconomic groups had higher prevalence of TML than men in the most affluent groups, with a trend in OR from...

  17. Ethnic disparities in undergraduate pre-clinical and clinical performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegers-Jager, Karen M.; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P. N.

    2012-01-01

    Medical Education 2012: 46:575585 Context Research from numerous medical schools has shown that students from ethnic minorities underperform compared with those from the ethnic majority. However, little is known about why this underperformance occurs and whether there are performance differences amo

  18. Wilderness values in America: Does immigrant status or ethnicity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Y. Johnson; J. Michael Bowker; John C. Bergstrom; H. Ken Cordell

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the values immigrant groups or U.S.-born racial and ethnic minorities attribute to wilderness. However, the views of these groups are important to wilderness preservation because of increasing diversity along ethnic, cultural, and racial lines in the United States. We examine the proposition that wilderness is a social construction (valued...

  19. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Kim Cook

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES, and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12–17 from the 2007–2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS. In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level, age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities, low family income (<300% of the Federal Poverty Level, and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively. These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans.

  20. Ethnic Identity and Subjective Well-Being of Bully Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Elizabeth M.; Kordesh, Kathy; Polanin, Megan; Adams, Kristen; Aydin, Fatma; Knoll, Mike; Oh, Jennifer; Wade, James; Roche, Meghan; Hughes, Kelly; Eisenberg, Corry; Camacho, Daniel; Jeremie-Brink, Gihane

    2015-01-01

    Relationships among bully victimization, bully perpetration, ethnic identity, and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) were examined in a group of urban, ethnically diverse early adolescents. Indices of subjective well-being correlated with participants' scores on bully victimization and…

  1. Centro Asturiano Club: A Tampa Spanish Ethnic Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebozo, Roland A.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a Spanish ethnic institution in Florida as an example of one way in which knowledge about foreign people and places can be obtained within the local community. Outlines are provided for unit development, concept teaching, and evaluation techniques in the areas of ethnic and area studies. For journal availability, see, SO 505 790. (AV)

  2. Gender, ethnicity and teaching evaluations : Evidence from mixed teaching teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Wagner (Natascha); M. Rieger (Matthias); K.J. Voorvelt (Katherine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies the effect of teacher gender and ethnicity on student evaluations of teaching quality at university. We analyze a unique data-set featuring mixed teaching teams and a diverse, multicultural, multi-ethnic group of students and teachers. Co-teaching allows us to study th

  3. The socioeconomic and ethnic segregation of living conditions in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Iver Hornemann; Larsen, Jørgen Elm

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the discrepancies between certain aspects of living conditions of ethnic Danes and immigrants in Copenhagen. Copenhagen is quite prosperous and fares well in the globalized economy but is at the same time experiencing increasing poverty and ethnic segregation...

  4. A Multilevel Approach on Self-Reported Dental Caries in Subjects of Minority Ethnic Groups: A Cross-Sectional Study of 6440 Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Carlos M; Posada-López, Adriana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A

    2016-02-01

    Regional contextual factors and dental caries using multilevel modeling related to adults in minority ethnic groups have been scantily explored. The influence of the socioeconomic context on self-reported dental caries (SRDC) in individuals of minority ethnic groups (IEG) in Colombia was studied. Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey were collected in 34,843 participants of the population. The influence of different factors on SRDC in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 6440 individuals belonged to an ethnic group. Multilevel analysis showed a significant variance in SRDC that was smaller in IEG level than between states. Multilevel multivariate analysis also associated SRDC with increasing age, lower education level, last dental visit >1 year, unmet dental need and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Minority ethnic groups were at risk to report higher dental caries, where low GDP was an important variable to be considered.

  5. Are there Ethnic inequalities in revascularisation procedure rate after an ST-elevation myocardial infarction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Rittersma, Saskia; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L.; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previously, ethnic inequalities in prognosis after a first acute myocardial infarction were observed in the Netherlands. This might be due to differences in revascularisation rate between ethnic minority groups and ethnic Dutch. Therefore, we investigated inequalities in

  6. Are there Ethnic inequalities in revascularisation procedure rate after an ST-elevation myocardial infarction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oeffelen, Aloysia A M; Rittersma, Saskia; Vaartjes, Ilonca; Stronks, Karien; Bots, Michiel L.; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previously, ethnic inequalities in prognosis after a first acute myocardial infarction were observed in the Netherlands. This might be due to differences in revascularisation rate between ethnic minority groups and ethnic Dutch. Therefore, we investigated inequalities in revascularisatio

  7. Ethnicity and infant mortality in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, G

    1993-06-01

    Malaysian infant mortality differentials are a worthwhile subject for study, because socioeconomic development has very clearly had a differential impact by ethnic group. The Chinese rates of infant mortality are significantly lower than the Malay or Indian rates. Instead of examining the obvious access to care issues, this study considered factors related to the culture of infant care. Practices include the Chinese confinement of the mother in the first month after childbirth ("pe'i yue") and Pillsbury's 12 normative rules for Malaysian Chinese care. Malay practices vary widely by region and history. Indian mothers are restricted by diet. Data-recording flaws do not permit analysis of Sarawak or Sabah. The general assumption that Western medicine favors better health for mothers and infants is substantiated among peninsular communities, however, there are also negative impacts which affect infant mortality. The complex interaction of factors impacting on infant mortality reported in seven previous studies is discussed. A review of these studies reveals that immediate causes are infections, injuries, and dehydration. Indirect causes are birth weight or social and behavioral factors such as household income or maternal education. Indirect factors, which are amenable to planned change and influence the biological proximate determinants of infant mortality, are identified as birth weight, maternal age at birth, short pregnancy intervals or prior reproductive loss, sex of the child, birth order, duration of breast feeding and conditions of supplementation, types of household water and sanitation, year of child's birth, maternal education, household income and composition, institution of birth, ethnicity, and rural residence. Nine factors are identified empirically as not significant: maternal hours of work in the child's first year, maternal occupation, distance from home to workplace, presence of other children or servants, incidence of epidemics in the child's first

  8. Total Energy Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, S

    2008-08-11

    The total energy monitor (TE) is a thermal sensor that determines the total energy of each FEL pulse based on the temperature rise induced in a silicon wafer upon absorption of the FEL. The TE provides a destructive measurement of the FEL pulse energy in real-time on a pulse-by-pulse basis. As a thermal detector, the TE is expected to suffer least from ultra-fast non-linear effects and to be easy to calibrate. It will therefore primarily be used to cross-calibrate other detectors such as the Gas Detector or the Direct Imager during LCLS commissioning. This document describes the design of the TE and summarizes the considerations and calculations that have led to it. This document summarizes the physics behind the operation of the Total Energy Monitor at LCLS and derives associated engineering specifications.

  9. Algebraic totality, towards completeness

    CERN Document Server

    Tasson, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Finiteness spaces constitute a categorical model of Linear Logic (LL) whose objects can be seen as linearly topologised spaces, (a class of topological vector spaces introduced by Lefschetz in 1942) and morphisms as continuous linear maps. First, we recall definitions of finiteness spaces and describe their basic properties deduced from the general theory of linearly topologised spaces. Then we give an interpretation of LL based on linear algebra. Second, thanks to separation properties, we can introduce an algebraic notion of totality candidate in the framework of linearly topologised spaces: a totality candidate is a closed affine subspace which does not contain 0. We show that finiteness spaces with totality candidates constitute a model of classical LL. Finally, we give a barycentric simply typed lambda-calculus, with booleans ${\\mathcal{B}}$ and a conditional operator, which can be interpreted in this model. We prove completeness at type ${\\mathcal{B}}^n\\to{\\mathcal{B}}$ for every n by an algebraic metho...

  10. Revitalization of ethnic identity among the Germans in Sremski Karlovci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krel Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the 1990's, many members of the German national minority have awaken from the several decades long sleep in 'ethnic hibernation'. Several associations have been founded at that time, with an aim to gather and encourage ethnic feelings of the Germans living in Vojvodina. These associations work toward revitalization and reconstruction of the German ethnic and cultural identity. There are quite a few of such institutions today, and one of them is German association promoting good neighbor relations Karlowitz, Sremski Karlovci. This paper will discuss transformation of an ethnic identity strategy among the Germans in Sremski Karlovci; in addition, I will analyze modus operandi by which this local association aims at keeping and encouraging certain elements of the ethnic and cultural particulars. The results of the research point out how a relatively small group, without social power, can define and redefine its own identity, in regards to historical, social and economic conditions.

  11. Ethnic meat products of Kashmiri wazwan: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad A. Rather

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Wazwan, the Kashmiri cuisine, is a unique and inseparable component of Kashmiri culture. It comprises from seven to 36 dishes of mutton or beef, chicken, fruits, and vegetables. The important ethnic meat products of wazwan include kabab, tabak maaz, aab gosh, rogan josh, nate-yakhni, rista, and goshtaba. The ethnic meat products of Kashmiri wazwan are popular because of their appealing flavor, texture, and palatability characteristics. However, traditional knowledge of these ethnic meat products in other aspects is not carefully documented. As the demand for ethnic/heritage meat products is ever-growing because of rapid urbanization and industrialization, substantial efforts need to be made to meet such increasing requirements. In addition, because of their popularity, there is a vast potential to introduce them at the national level and promote their export. This review aims to describe processing, quality characteristics, underlying problems, and approaches for the development of some important ethnic meat products of Kashmiri wazwan.

  12. Diabetes in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe; Ladelund, Steen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This paper reports an investigation to establish whether metabolic control is different in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities with type 1 diabetes compared with young Danish patients, and to learn about factors affecting their opportunities to achieve good metabolic control....... BACKGROUND: The prevalence of diabetes in children and adolescents from ethnic minorities in Denmark is increasing. Having a different ethnic background has frequently been described as a risk factor for poor metabolic control, but whether the risk is represented by the ethnicity and immigration itself...... or in combination with other factors is unclear. METHODS: The study included data (gender, age, diabetes duration HbA(1c), number of incidents of severe hypoglycaemia and ketoacidosis) from a national register including 919 Danish and 58 children and adolescents from ethnic minorities, questionnaires to all 20...

  13. Factors Influencing Rural Teacher Flow in Yunnan Ethnic Minority Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; SUN; Zhaochang; REN; Yang; HE; Haijiao; ZHU

    2013-01-01

    Ethnic minority areas area old revolutionary base areas,areas inhabited by ethnic minorities,remote areas,impoverished areas, and also difficult areas for construction of socialist harmonious society.Studying on factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas is of great significance to improving local teacher team structure and promoting balanced development of urban and rural education.However,it lacks empirical analysis based on field survey for the nonce.In this study,based on interview and questionnaire data of education departments and school leaders in 4 ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,it established binary Logistic model,analyzed factors influencing rural teacher flow in ethnic minority areas of Yunnan Province,and finally present policy recommendations.

  14. [Total temporomandibular joint prostheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwetyenga, N; Amroun, S; Wajszczak, B-L; Moris, V

    2016-09-01

    The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is probably the most complex human joint. As in all joints, its prosthetic replacement may be indicated in selected cases. Significant advances have been made in the design of TMJ prostheses during the last three decades and the indications have been clarified. The aim of our work was to make an update on the current total TMJ total joint replacement. Indications, contraindications, prosthetic components, advantages, disadvantages, reasons for failure or reoperation, virtual planning and surgical protocol have been exposed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Ethnic and socioeconomic variation in incidence of congenital heart defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Rachel L; Ridout, Deborah; Crowe, Sonya; Bull, Catherine; Wray, Jo; Tregay, Jenifer; Franklin, Rodney C; Barron, David J; Cunningham, David; Parslow, Roger C; Brown, Katherine L

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Ethnic differences in the birth prevalence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) have been reported; however, studies of the contemporary UK population are lacking. We investigated ethnic variations in incidence of serious CHDs requiring cardiac intervention before 1 year of age. Methods All infants who had a cardiac intervention in England and Wales between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2010 were identified in the national congenital heart disease surgical audit and matched with paediatric intensive care admission records to create linked individual child records. Agreement in reporting of ethnic group by each audit was evaluated. For infants born 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2009, we calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for CHDs by ethnicity and investigated age at intervention, antenatal diagnosis and area deprivation. Results We identified 5350 infants (2940 (55.0%) boys). Overall CHD incidence was significantly higher in Asian and Black ethnic groups compared with the White reference population (incidence rate ratios (IRR) (95% CIs): Asian 1.5 (1.4 to 1.7); Black 1.4 (1.3 to 1.6)); incidence of specific CHDs varied by ethnicity. No significant differences in age at intervention or antenatal diagnosis rates were identified but affected children from non-White ethnic groups were more likely to be living in deprived areas than White children. Conclusions Significant ethnic variations exist in the incidence of CHDs, including for specific defects with high infant mortality. It is essential that healthcare provision mitigates ethnic disparity, including through timely identification of CHDs at screening, supporting parental choice and effective interventions. Future research should explore the factors underlying ethnic variation and impact on longer-term outcomes. PMID:27986699

  16. Visibly ethnically different families in Denmark & Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    . Alongside colorblindness, limited/ missing racialisation discussions, the visible bodies of spouses, children in the mixed families and the transnational adoptees are made salient in their everyday lives in interactions with the white majority population through experiences as gaze, curious questions......This paper foregounds visibly ethnically different families (Phoenix, 2011) in Denmark. These comprise both.families with parents from two different countries (India and Denmark) and families with transnational adoptees (South Korea). The former are barely scientifically explored due...... to the dominant colorblindness discourse, while later comprise a heated topic challenging poor (global south) adoptee meeting a loving Danish family’ discourse. How do these family members narrate their experiences of societal encounter is the research question, which is answered through two qualitative interview...

  17. Migration, the Chinese wholesale trade and ethnicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Betrisey Nadali

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the historical-social context of Spain, the ethnic-national identities of Chinese immigrants are not free from hierarchisation, given that they can tend to be sources of recognition and prestige, though also of discrimination. In recent decades, the presenceof Chinese people has become alternately or simultaneously an ambiguous resource to be celebrated by certain hegemonic groups as something positive in accordance with their cultural and economic contributions (“entrepreneurs”, “model traders”, or a dissonance thatis sufficiently complex to be accepted within the country. This article focuses on analysing Chinese immigrants working in the area of wholesale trading in the city of Madrid, and bears in mind the social processes by which these groups were constituted as different in cultural terms in the heart of social relations of inequality; it also examines to what extent and under what conditions these processes end up forming part of these traders’ self-image, determine

  18. Ethnic group preferences for multicultural counseling competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Elizabeth D; Atkinson, Donald R; Wampold, Bruce E

    2004-02-01

    Asian American (n = 155), European American (n = 200), and Hispanic (n = 152) undergraduate students were surveyed using a paired-comparison format to determine preferences for the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 11 knowledges, and 11 skills identified by D. W. Sue, P. Arredondo, and R. J. McDavis (1992) as characteristics of the competent multicultural counselor. The Bradley-Terry-Luce model, which uses a weighted least square regression to place the competencies on a continuum from least preferred to most preferred and to test for significant intergroup differences, was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that preferences for 5 of the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 5 of the 11 knowledges, and 7 of the 11 skills competencies varied as a function of race/ethnicity.

  19. [Patients' rights in ethnic cross-section].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, Ágnes; Feith, Helga Judit

    2016-05-01

    The perception of health and sickness are culturally determined and, therefore, ethnic and religious socialization forms attitudes toward the medical system. During everyday practice, patients' rights and obligations, which are based on the norms of the major society, confront Roma minority norms. The aim of the authors was to explore the main interferences of patients' rights and obligations during the medical care of the Roma. The authors analyzed the results of medical anthropology, health sociology, and the experience obtained from more than 40 courses about patients' rights. Cultural determinants, effects of the lower socioeconomic status and social-psychological mechanism equally form the situations of healthcare and the observance of patients' rights and obligations. Most of the misunderstandings between healthcare workers and Roma patients stem from the lack of knowledge about cultural differences. Therefore, transcultural approach and Romani studies should be significant part of graduate and postgraduate courses in the field of medical education.

  20. Association between Self-Rated Health and the Ethnic Composition of the Residential Environment of Six Ethnic Groups in Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonore M. Veldhuizen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies on the association between health and neighborhood ethnic composition yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological limitations. We assessed these associations at different spatial scales and for different measures of ethnic composition. Methods: We obtained health survey data of 4673 respondents of Dutch, Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish other non-Western and other Western origin. Neighborhood ethnic composition was measured for buffers varying from 50–1000 m. Associations with self-rated health were measured using logistic multilevel regression analysis, with control for socioeconomic position at the individual and area level. Results: Overall ethnic heterogeneity was not related to health for any ethnic group. The presence of other Surinamese was associated with poor self-rated health among Surinamese respondents. The presence of Moroccans or Turks was associated with poor health among some groups. The presence of Dutch was associated with better self-rated health among Surinamese and Turks. In most cases, these associations were stronger at lower spatial scales. We found no other associations. Conclusions: In Amsterdam, self-rated health was not associated with ethnic heterogeneity in general, but may be related to the presence of specific ethnic groups. Policies regarding social and ethnic mixing should pay special attention to the co-residence of groups with problematic interrelations.

  1. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  2. Ethnic differences in the effects of media on body image: the effects of priming with ethnically different or similar models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Gina L; Carter, Michele M

    2015-04-01

    Media exposure has been positively correlated with body dissatisfaction. While body image concerns are common, being African American has been found to be a protective factor in the development of body dissatisfaction. Participants either viewed ten advertisements showing 1) ethnically-similar thin models; 2) ethnically-different thin models; 3) ethnically-similar plus-sized models; and 4) ethnically-diverse plus-sized models. Following exposure, body image was measured. African American women had less body dissatisfaction than Caucasian women. Ethnically-similar thin-model conditions did not elicit greater body dissatisfaction scores than ethnically-different thin or plus-sized models nor did the ethnicity of the model impact ratings of body dissatisfaction for women of either race. There were no differences among the African American women exposed to plus-sized versus thin models. Among Caucasian women exposure to plus-sized models resulted in greater body dissatisfaction than exposure to thin models. Results support existing literature that African American women experience less body dissatisfaction than Caucasian women even following exposure to an ethnically-similar thin model. Additionally, women exposed to plus-sized model conditions experienced greater body dissatisfaction than those shown thin models. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethnic differences in antenatal care use in a large multi-ethnic urban population in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chote, Anushka A.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; Bruijnzeels, Marc A.; Redekop, Ken; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Foets, Marleen

    Objective: to determine differences in antenatal care use between the native population and different ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands. Design: the Generation R Study is a multi-ethnic population-based prospective cohort study. Setting: seven midwife practices participating in the

  4. Perceived Racial/Ethnic Discrimination and Adjustment among Ethnically Diverse College Students: Family and Peer Support as Protective Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda; Ittel, Angela; Hoferichter, Frances; Gallarin, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a risk and resilience perspective, the current study examined whether family cohesion and peer support functioned as protective factors against the negative effects of racial/ethnic discrimination by peers. The sample included 142 ethnically diverse college students. The results showed that while greater perceived discrimination was…

  5. Coping with the Culturally Unpredictable: An Ethnically Encapsulated Beginning Teacher's Struggle with African-American Students' Ethnic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birrell, James R.

    1994-01-01

    Reports a study that examined how one ethnically encapsulated white beginning teacher responded to African American students' unfamiliar ethnic behavior. Interviews, observations, and journal data indicated that he was underprepared to teach in multicultural settings and noted that ineffective interracial classroom relationships stifled learning…

  6. 'Hunkering down' in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods? The effects of ethnic diversity on dimensions of social cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijsberts, M.; van der Meer, T.; Dagevos, J.

    2012-01-01

    Putnam (2007) claims that in ethnically diverse neighbourhoods, residents of all ethnic groups tend to ‘hunker down’. Solidarity and trust are lower, mutual help and cooperation rarer, and friends fewer. Various studies in the United States found a clear correlation between diversity and cohesion, a

  7. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and the Metabolic Syndrome in Ethnic Minority Groups: The Healthy Life in an Urban Setting Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikram, U.Z.; Snijder, M.B.; Agyemang, C.; Schene, A.H.; Peters, R.J.; Stronks, K.; Kunst, A.E.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ethnic differences in the metabolic syndrome could be explained by perceived ethnic discrimination (PED). It is unclear whether PED is associated with the metabolic syndrome. We assessed this association and quantified the contribution of PED to the metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Baseline d

  8. Education and Ethnic Prejudice in Europe : explanations for crossnational variances in the educational effect on ethnic prejudice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hello, Evelyn; Scheepers, Peer; Gijsberts, Mérove

    2002-01-01

    Education is often found to be a strong determinant of ethnic prejudice. However, there is preliminary evidence that this educational effect varies across countries. Moreover, there are also theoretical arguments to expect cross-national variances in the educational effect on ethnic prejudice. From

  9. Ethnicity and children's diets: the practices and perceptions of mothers in two minority ethnic groups in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte

    2015-10-01

    This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm that ethnic distinctions do matter in the concerns and dilemmas mothers experience when feeding their children, but they also challenge the health authorities' reliance on dichotomies in promoting health among immigrant families. The participants' ethnic self-identification through food practices did not refer primarily to the birthplaces of their parents. Rather, it was context dependent and directed simultaneously towards majority and minority culture.

  10. Children's Cross-Ethnic Relationships in Elementary Schools: Concurrent and Prospective Associations between Ethnic Segregation and Social Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children ("n" = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity…

  11. Friendships and outgroup attitudes among ethnic minority youth : The mediating role of ethnic and host society identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munniksma, Anke; Verkuijten, Maykel; Flache, Andreas; Stark, Tobias H.; Veenstra, René

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates among ethnic minority adolescents how friendships with ethnic minority and majority group peers are related to their attitudes towards the majority outgroup.Friendships with majority group peers are proposed to be indirectly related to outgroup attitudes through host society

  12. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Lawson

    Full Text Available The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological

  13. Ethnicity and child health in northern Tanzania: Maasai pastoralists are disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, David W; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G M; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic

  14. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  15. Total versus subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimbel, Helga; Zobbe, Vibeke; Andersen, Anna Birthe;

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare total and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy for benign indications, with regard to urinary incontinence, postoperative complications, quality of life (SF-36), constipation, prolapse, satisfaction with sexual life, and pelvic pain at 1-year postoperative. Eighty...

  16. Total Quality Management Simplified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Pam

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that Total Quality Management (TQM) is one method that helps to monitor and improve the quality of child care. Lists four steps for a child-care center to design and implement its own TQM program. Suggests that quality assurance in child-care settings is an ongoing process, and that TQM programs help in providing consistent, high-quality…

  17. Total Quality Management Seminar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massachusetts Career Development Inst., Springfield.

    This booklet is one of six texts from a workplace literacy curriculum designed to assist learners in facing the increased demands of the workplace. The booklet contains seven sections that cover the following topics: (1) meaning of total quality management (TQM); (2) the customer; (3) the organization's culture; (4) comparison of management…

  18. Total hip arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavković Nemanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Total hip arthroplasty is most common reconstructive hip procedure in adults. In this surgery we replace some parts of the upper femur and acetabulum with biocompatible materials. The main goal of this surgery is to eliminate pain and regain full extent of joint motion, maintaining hip stability. Surgical technique, biomaterials, design of the prosthesis and fixation techniques have evolved with time adjusting to each other. After total hip arthroplasty patients’ quality of life should be improved. There are many various postoperative complications. Some of them are fatal, and some are minor, which may become manifested years after surgery. Each next surgical procedure following previous hip surgery is associated with considerably lower chances to be successful. Therefore, in primary total hip arthroplasty, preoperative evaluation and preparation of patients are essential. Every orthopaedic surgeon needs to improve already adopted surgical skills applying them with precision and without compromise, with the main goal to achieve long-term durability of the selected implant. The number of total hip arthroplasties will also increase in future, and newer and higher quality materials will be used.

  19. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) ...

  20. Total Cost of Ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Frederik

    2007-01-01

    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO), som giver et bud på, hvordan virksomheder kan opnå en bedre indsigt i, hvilke leverandører der forårsager hvilke omkostninger og dermed danne et forbedret beslutningsgrundlag for besparelser i leverandørleddet. I artiklen argumenteres først og fremmest for, hvorfor TCO er...

  1. Supravaginal eller total hysterektomi?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edvardsen, L; Madsen, E M

    1994-01-01

    is examined. It is concluded that the risk of developing carcinoma of the cervical stump is low, and no longer a weighty indication for the total in preference to the supravaginal hysterectomy as long as subsequent screening of the cervix is performed. At the same time it is important to inform the women...

  2. Total synthesis of aquatolide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saya, J.M.; Vos, K.; Klein Nijenhuis, R.A.; van Maarseveen, J.H.; Ingemann, S.; Hiemstra, H.

    2015-01-01

    A total synthesis of the sesquiterpene lactone aquatolide has been accomplished. The central step is an intramolecular [2 + 2]-photocycloaddition of an allene onto an alpha,beta-unsaturated delta-lactone. Other key steps are an intramolecular Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction to close the lactone and

  3. Total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik M.; Petersen, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a successful treatment of the osteoarthritic knee, which has increased dramatically over the last 30 years. The indication is a painful osteoarthritic knee with relevant radiographic findings and failure of conservative measures like painkillers and exercise. Trea...

  4. Total Synthesis of Naloxone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wen-Xiang; WANG Jian-Ying; XU Ming

    2003-01-01

    @@ Naloxone (1) is one of the 14-hydroxyl substituted opium antagonists which are valuable medications for treat ment of opiate abuse, opiate overdose, and alcohol addiction. Here, the total synthesis of naloxone was described. We selected 2,6-dihydroxynaphalene (2) as the starting material.

  5. Total Quality Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focus in Change, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The philosophy known as Total Quality Management (TQM) is frequently presented as a way to change and improve public education. This issue of "Focus in Change" examines Deming's original 14 TQM points and their application to education. Myron Tribus lays out the core philosophy of the movement and discusses its possible application to…

  6. Latino Male Ethnic Subgroups: Patterns in College Enrollment and Degree Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponjuan, Luis; Palomin, Leticia; Calise, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines Latino male ethnic subgroups and their college enrollment and degree completion patterns. The chapter also offers recommendations to improve Latino male ethnic subgroups' educational achievement.

  7. The influence of ethnic discrimination and ethnic identification on African American adolescents' school and socioemotional adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Carol A; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Sameroff, Arnold

    2003-12-01

    Do experiences with racial discrimination at school predict changes in African American adolescents' academic and psychological functioning? Does African American ethnic identity buffer these relations? This paper addresses these two questions using two waves of data from a longitudinal study of an economically diverse sample of African American adolescents living in and near a major East Coast metropolis. The data were collected at the beginning of the 7th grade and after the completion of the 8th grade. As expected, experiences of racial discrimination at school from one's teachers and peers predicts declines in grades, academic ability self-concepts, academic task values, mental health (increases in depression and anger, decreases in self-esteem and psychological resiliency), and increases in the proportion of one's friends who are not interested in school and who have problem behaviors. A strong, positive connection to one's ethnic group (our measure of ethnic identity) reduced the magnitude of the association of racial discrimination experiences with declines in academic self-concepts, school achievement, and perception of friends' positive characteristics, as well as the association of the racial discrimination experiences with increases in problem behaviors.

  8. Contextualizing ethnic educational inequality: the role of stability and quality of neighborhoods and ethnic density in second-generation attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Fenella; Phalet, Karen; Neels, Karel; Deboosere, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the joint impact of neighborhood structure and ethnic density on the educational attainment of the second generation. Using second-generation samples and a majority reference sample from the Belgian Census, multi-level analysis yields the expected positive effects of neighborhood stability and quality and ethnic density on second-generation school completion. Reflecting the ethnic stratification of the Belgian housing market, majority residential concentration tends to coincide with high neighborhood stability and quality and high completion rates, whereas Moroccan concentrations overlap with low neighborhood quality, and low completion rates. For the Turkish and Italian second generation, neighborhood structure moderates ethnic density effects on school completion, in line with segmented assimilation. Our findings suggest distinct Moroccan, Turkish and Italian incorporation modes which reflect differential access to, and investments in ethnic versus mainstream social networks.

  9. Perceptions of parents' ethnic identities and the personal ethnic-identity and racial attitudes of biracial adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepney, Cesalie T; Sanchez, Diana T; Handy, Phillip E

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship of perceived parental closeness and parental ethnic identity on personal ethnic identity and colorblindness beliefs in 275 part-White biracial Americans (M age = 23.88). Respondents completed online measures of their personal ethnic identity (minority, White, and multiracial), perceived parental ethnic identity, parental closeness, and attitudes about the state of race relations and the need for social action in the United States. Using path modeling, results show that part-White biracial individuals perceive their ethnic identity to be strongly linked to their parental racial identities, especially when they had closer parental relationships. Moreover, stronger minority identity was linked to less colorblind attitudes, and greater White identity was linked to greater colorblind attitudes suggesting that patterns of identity may influence how biracial individuals view race-relations and the need for social action. Implications for biracial well-being and their understanding of prejudice and discrimination are discussed.

  10. Rome III survey of irritable bowel syndrome among ethnic Malays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Waid, Anuar; Tan, Huck Joo; Chua, Andrew Seng Boon; Whitehead, William E

    2012-11-28

    To survey irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) using Rome III criteria among Malays from the north-eastern region of Peninsular Malaysia. A previously validated Malay language Rome III IBS diagnostic questionnaire was used in the current study. A prospective sample of 232 Malay subjects (80% power) was initially screened. Using a stratified random sampling strategy, a total of 221 Malay subjects (112 subjects in a "full time job" and 109 subjects in "no full time job") were recruited. Subjects were visitors (friends and relatives) within the hospital compound and were representative of the local community. Red flags and psychosocial alarm symptoms were also assessed in the current study using previously translated and validated questionnaires. Subjects with IBS were sub-typed into constipation-predominant, diarrhea-predominant, mixed type and un-subtyped. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to test for association between socioeconomic factors and presence of red flags and psychosocial alarm features among the Malays with IBS. IBS was present in 10.9% (24/221), red flags in 22.2% (49/221) and psychosocial alarm features in 9.0% (20/221). Red flags were more commonly reported in subjects with IBS (83.3%) than psychosocial alarm features (20.8%, P 50 years old and this was reported by 16.7% of subjects with IBS. Using the Rome III criteria, IBS was common among ethnic Malays from the north-eastern region of Peninsular Malaysia.

  11. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome in various ethnic population of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, S; Dulal, S; Maharjan, I M

    2008-09-01

    Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is an ocular condition characterized by a distinctive deposition of fibrillar material in the anterior segment of the eye. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is frequently associated with glaucoma. Though it is seen in all the population, prevalence varies considerably in different races. A hospital based study done in Nepal by our group showed that Gurung population is frequently affected by this disease than any others. To determine the fact a larger population based study was necessary. Thus a research was designed to survey the various populations in the community. Different population from Kathmandu valley, Kavrepalanchowk, Pokhara, and Ghandruk were evaluated in two different phases to include major ethnic population living in Nepal. Household surveys done to bring all the targeted population to base hospital and detail examination including anterior segment evaluation after dilatation of pupil, optic disc evaluation, intraocular pressure measurement, gonioscopy, visual field recording and photographic documentation was done. Total of4430 population surveyed while only 2135 fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. Gurungs irrespective of their place of residence showed higher prevalence of Pseudoexfoliation syndrome accounting for 7.8% in Kathmandu valley while 12.0% in Ghandruk. Tamangs were affected very rarely by this disease accounting only for 0.3%. Gurungs are at higher risk of developing Pseudoexfoliation syndrome than any others in Nepal.

  12. Widening access to cardiovascular healthcare: community screening among ethnic minorities in inner-city Britain – the Healthy Hearts Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Inessa

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD in Britain is concentrated in inner-city areas such as Sandwell, which is home to a diverse multi-ethnic population. Current guidance for CVD risk screening is not established, nor are there specific details for ethnic minorities. Given the disparity in equitable healthcare for these groups, we developed a 'tailored' and systematic approach to CVD risk screening within communities of the Sandwell locality. The key anticipated outcomes were the numbers of participants from various ethnic backgrounds attending the health screening events and the prevalence of known and undiagnosed CVD risk within ethnic groups. Methods Data was collected during 10 health screening events (September 2005 and July 2006, which included an assessment of raised blood pressure, overweight, hyperlipidaemia, impaired fasting glucose, smoking habit and the 10 year CVD risk score. Specific features of our approach included (i community involvement, (ii a clinician who could deliver immediate attention to adverse findings, and (iii the use of an interpreter. Results A total of 824 people from the Sandwell were included in this study (47% men, mean age 47.7 years from community groups such as the Gujarati Indian, Punjabi Indian, European Caucasian, Yemeni, Pakistani and Bangladeshi. A total of 470 (57% individuals were referred to their General Practitioner with a report of an increased CVD score – undetected high blood pressure in 120 (15%, undetected abnormal blood glucose in 70 (8%, undetected raised total cholesterol in 149 (18%, and CVD risk management review in 131 (16%. Conclusion Using this systematic and targeted approach, there was a clear demand for this service from people of various ethnic backgrounds, of whom, one in two needed review from primary or secondary healthcare. Further work is required to assess the accuracy and clinical benefits of this community health screening approach.

  13. Racial/ethnic and gender differences in the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and inflammation in the CARDIA cohort of 4 US communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Seeman, Teresa E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gortmaker, Steven L; Jacobs, David R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Berkman, Lisa F

    2012-09-01

    Inflammation is etiologically implicated in cardiometabolic diseases for which there are known racial/ethnic disparities. Prior studies suggest there may be an association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and inflammation, particularly C-reactive protein (CRP). It is not known whether that association is influenced by race/ethnicity and gender. In separate hierarchical linear models with time-varying covariates, we examined that association among 901 Black women, 614 Black men, 958 White women, and 863 White men in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study in four US communities. Self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination were ascertained in 1992-93 and 2000-01. Inflammation was measured as log-transformed CRP in those years and 2005-06. All analyses were adjusted for blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), age, education, and community. Our findings extend prior research by suggesting that, broadly speaking, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination are associated with inflammation; however, this association is complex and varies for Black and White women and men. Black women reporting 1 or 2 experiences of discrimination had higher levels of CRP compared to Black women reporting no experiences of discrimination (β = 0.141, SE = 0.062, P discrimination and not independent of modifiable risks (smoking and obesity) in the final model. White women reporting 3 or more experiences of discrimination had significantly higher levels of CRP compared to White women reporting no experiences of discrimination independent of modifiable risks in the final model (β = 0.300, SE = 0.113, P racial/ethnic discrimination and CRP was not statistically significant among Black and White men reporting 1 or 2 experiences of discrimination. Further research in other populations is needed.

  14. Total design of participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    The idea of design as an art made not only for the people, but also by the people is an old dream going back at least to William Morris. It is, however, reappearing vigoriously in many kinds of design activism and grows out of the visions of a Total Design of society. The ideas of participation...... by Tim Brown can be compared to considerations by László Moholy-Nagy and Walter Gropuis on the training and education of active and capable citizens. This opens, though, some dilemmas to discuss: To what extend is the capability of creativity then a (pre)condition to be a citizen of the society wished...... for? To which degree should everyone be educated in ’design literacy’ to participate? Total design of participation is an artistic intervention in society and must be discussed in this utopian tradition....

  15. Total Synthesis of (-)-Conolutinine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiangyang; Jiang, Guangde; Xia, Zilei; Hu, Jiadong; Wan, Xiaolong; Gao, Jin-Ming; Lai, Yisheng; Xie, Weiqing

    2015-09-18

    The first enantioselective synthesis of (-)-conolutinine was achieved in 10 steps. The synthesis featured a catalytic asymmetric bromocyclization of tryptamine to forge the tricycle intermediate. Hydration of an alkene catalyzed by Co(acac)2 was also employed as a key step to diastereoselectively introduce the tertiary alcohol moiety. The absolute configuration of (-)-conolutinine was established to be (2S,5aS,8aS,13aR) based on this asymmetric total synthesis.

  16. Cervical Total Disc Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Basho, Rahul; Hood, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration of the cervical spine remains problematic for patients and surgeons alike. Despite advances in surgical techniques and instrumentation, the solution remains elusive. Spurred by the success of total joint arthroplasty in hips and knees, surgeons and industry have turned to motion preservation devices in the cervical spine. By preserving motion at the diseased level, the hope is that adjacent segment degeneration can be prevented. Multiple cervical disc...

  17. TOTAL PERFORMANCE SCORECARD

    OpenAIRE

    Anca ȘERBAN; Oana DUMITRAȘCU

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the evolution of the Balanced Scorecard from a measurement instrument to a strategic performance management tool and to highlight the advantages of implementing the Total Performance Scorecard, especially for Human Resource Management. The study has been accomplished using the methodology of bibliographic study and various secondary sources. Implementing the classical Balanced Scorecard indicated over the years, repeatedly failure. It can be indicated t...

  18. Total synthesis of teixobactin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kang; Sam, Iek Hou; Po, Kathy Hiu Laam; Lin, Du'an; Ghazvini Zadeh, Ebrahim H.; Chen, Sheng; Yuan, Yu; Li, Xuechen

    2016-08-01

    To cope with the global bacterial multidrug resistance, scientific communities have devoted significant efforts to develop novel antibiotics, particularly those with new modes of actions. Teixobactin, recently isolated from uncultured bacteria, is considered as a promising first-in-class drug candidate for clinical development. Herein, we report its total synthesis by a highly convergent Ser ligation approach and this strategy allows us to prepare several analogues of the natural product.

  19. Sobredentadura total superior implantosoportada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Orlando Rodríguez García

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso de un paciente desdentado total superior, rehabilitado en la consulta de implantología de la Clínica "Pedro Ortiz" del municipio Habana del Este en Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba, en el año 2009, mediante prótesis sobre implantes osteointegrados, técnica que se ha incorporado a la práctica estomatológica en Cuba como alternativa al tratamiento convencional en los pacientes desdentados totales. Se siguió un protocolo que comprendió una fase quirúrgica, procedimiento con o sin realización de colgajo y carga precoz o inmediata. Se presenta un paciente masculino de 56 años de edad, que acudió a la consulta multidisciplinaria, preocupado, porque se le habían elaborado tres prótesis en los últimos dos años y ninguna reunía los requisitos de retención que él necesitaba para sentirse seguro y cómodo con las mismas. El resultado final fue la satisfacción total del paciente, con el mejoramiento de la calidad estética y funcional.

  20. Development of racial-ethnic identity among First Nation children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corenblum, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Elements of racial-ethnic identity, often found among adolescents from racial-ethnic minority groups, have their origins in middle childhood and pre-adolescence. The present study explored the developmental trajectory of some of those components among Native Canadian children living on relatively remote First Nation communities. Children and young adolescents (N = 414,209 female) between the ages of 6-11 completed measures assessing their level of racial-ethnic identity, concrete operational thought, implicit and explicit self-esteem, implicit and explicit in-group attitudes, and the importance of their racial-ethnic identity each year for 5 years. Consistent with predictions from cognitive developmental theory, trajectory modeling revealed significant increases over time in explicit and implicit in-group attitudes, level of concrete operational thought and the importance of children's racial-ethnic identity. However, level of racial-ethnic identity remained unchanged over time. The results are discussed in terms of cognitive-developmental theory, and the influence of living in a racially homogeneous environment on the development of racial-ethnic identity among minority group children. Studies are also suggested for future research.