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Sample records for uniting american families

  1. Differentiation and healthy family functioning of Koreans in South Korea, South Koreans in the United States, and White Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejin; Prouty, Anne M; Smith, Douglas B; Ko, Mei-Ju; Wetchler, Joseph L; Oh, Jea-Eun

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistent results have been found in prior research on the Bowen Family Systems Theory concept of differentiation of self and its application to individuals, couples, and families of different cultural backgrounds. In this regard, this study examined the impact of differentiation of self on healthy family functioning, family communication, and family satisfaction with 277 participants including South Koreans living in South Korea, South Korean-born citizens living in the United States, and White Americans living in the United States. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis identified the measurement invariance of a differentiation scale (DSI-R) used for the three study groups. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) found significant differences between White Americans and South Koreans with regard to the level of differentiation. Results of multigroup structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses found a significant association between differentiation of self and healthy family functioning across the three groups with the American group having significantly higher differentiation than the two South Korean groups." Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. © 2013 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  2. Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct,...

  3. An exploration of the impact of family background factors on the science achievement of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinder, Patrice J.

    Ogbu and Simons (1998) defined voluntary immigrants as individuals who chose to migrate to the United States (U.S.). Involuntary immigrants are defined as individuals whose ancestors were brought to the U.S. by force (Obgu & Simons, 1998). There have been recent reports indicating that voluntary immigrants are outperforming involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Williams, Fleming, Jones, & Griffin, 2007). There seems to be a trend in voluntary immigrants exhibiting a higher academic achievement pattern than involuntary immigrants (Fisher, 2005; Rong & Preissle, 1998; Williams et al., 2007). However, the reason for the groups' differences in achievement has not been extensively explored. The primary objective of this research study was to explore the impact of family background on the academic achievement patterns of Afro-Caribbean and African American students in the United States. The study utilized two research designs; a causal-comparative and a correlational design. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of eighty-seven high school students. Eighteen of the participants were Afro-Caribbean students, and sixty-seven were African American students. Chemistry test scores for the students were also provided. The results of the study indicated that Afro-Caribbean students outperformed African American students on the test of science achievement. The difference was statistically significant (t= 2.43, pparents and teachers of immigrant minority students. Additionally, the current researcher has offered several implications for future research on ethnicity, immigration pattern, parenting, and achievement.

  4. Korean Wife-American Husband Families in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Don Chang

    Many American servicemen have married Asian women and brought them to the United States. Asian wife-American husband families are unique compared to black-white or European-American marriages because they are both interracial and cross-cultural. Yet, few studies have been done to analyze their relationships and problems in adjusting to American…

  5. Korean Wife-American Husband Families in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Don Chang

    Many American servicemen have married Asian women and brought them to the United States. Asian wife-American husband families are unique compared to black-white or European-American marriages because they are both interracial and cross-cultural. Yet, few studies have been done to analyze their relationships and problems in adjusting to American…

  6. American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Account Find Members Benefits American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy 112 South Alfred Street Alexandria, ... Fax: (703) 838-9805 © 2002 - American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | ...

  7. American families: trends and correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davanzo, J; Rahman, M O

    1993-01-01

    Discussion focused on the nature of the roles of the family, a review of the major demographic changes (marriage, cohabitation, nonfamily households, remarriage, fertility, teenage pregnancy, and female employment) affecting the American family in the past decades, and the nature of the impact on women, men, and children. There were four major trends identified: 1) increased proportions of children living in single-parent families due to high rates of divorce and increased childbearing outside of marriage; 2) increased proportions of adults in nontraditional living arrangements; 3) increased female labor force participation during all stages of the life cycle; and 4) decreased proportions of children and increased proportions of older people out of total population due to declining mortality and fertility rates. Family formation arises out of childbearing and childrearing roles, the need for companionship and emotional support, and the opportunities for specialization and trade, and the economies of scale. The costs of family living may include the potential for disagreement, conflict, loss of privacy, and time and money. There were a number of reasons identified for not maintaining traditional families consisting of a married couple with children. The trends were for later age at marriage: 24.4 years in 1992 for women, increased cohabitation (almost 50% cohabiting prior to first marriage in 1985-86), decreased number of married couple households, and increased number of adults in non-family households. The divorce rate has risen over the past 100 years with peaks in the 1970s; the reasons were identified as increased baby boomers and new marriages, increased labor participation of women, and changes in gender roles. The stabilization and slight decline in rates may be due to a natural leveling, the likelihood of greater stability within new marriages, and the aging of the baby boomers. An anticipated increase in divorce rates in the future was also justified

  8. Custodial evaluations of Native American families: implications for forensic psychiatrists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Cheryl D; Norris, Donna M

    2010-01-01

    Native American children in the United States have been adopted by non-Indian families at rates that threaten the preservation of their Indian history, traditions, and culture. The Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), which established restrictive parameters that govern the placement of Native American children into foster care and adoptive homes, was ratified in an effort to keep American Indian families intact. This article addresses matters of importance to psychiatrists who conduct custody evaluations of Native American children and families. A summary of events that preceded enactment of the ICWA is given, along with guidelines for forensic psychiatrists who conduct foster and adoptive care evaluations of Native American children. We use clinical vignettes to illustrate how the ICWA informs the custody evaluation process as well as approaches to cultural concerns, including biases that forensic evaluators may encounter during these evaluations.

  9. New realities of the American family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlburg, D A; De Vita, C J

    1992-08-01

    The demographic, social, and economic characteristics of American families have changed dramatically over the past few decades. While the male breadwinner/female homemaker model was long traditionally typical,l contemporary families may be openly made up of single-parents, remarried couples, unmarried couples, stepfamilies, foster families, extended or multigenerational families, or 2 families within 1 household. Families are now most likely to have 3 or fewer children, a mother employed outside of the home, and a 50% chance of parental divorce before the children are grown. These trends are common not only in America, but in most industrialized nations around the world. In fact, family trends are so fluid that the US Census Bureau and workplace policy find it difficult to keep pace. This report presents and discusses social and demographic trends behind the ever-changing face of the American family. Households and types of families are further defined, as are the living arrangements of children, young adults, and the elderly. Marriage, divorce, and remarriage trends, age at marriage rates, and interracial marriage are then discussed. Next examined are declining family size, teenage parents, contraception and abortion, unwed mothers, and technological routes to parenthood. The changing roles of family members and family economic well-being are discussed in sections preceding closing comments on the outlook for the American family.

  10. African American Families Under Fire: Ethnographic Views of Family Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry, Beth; Klingner, Janette K.; Hart, Juliet

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the discrepancy between school personnel's negative stereotyping of African American families and the family information gleaned by ethnographic research. Using findings from a 3-year ethnographic study of the special education placement process in a culturally diverse urban school district, we describe the general…

  11. Influence of Family on Native American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    "Native American"* postsecondary education students encounter several barriers to academic persistence including cultural assimilation issues, limited access to career information services, and an individual sense of duty and responsibility to remain tied to traditional spiritual values and beliefs systems, joined with family pressure to…

  12. Influence of Family on Native American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    "Native American"* postsecondary education students encounter several barriers to academic persistence including cultural assimilation issues, limited access to career information services, and an individual sense of duty and responsibility to remain tied to traditional spiritual values and beliefs systems, joined with family pressure to…

  13. The Destruction of American Indian Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Steven, Ed.

    Responding to the need for a comprehensive source of information regarding the separation of American Indian children from their families, this book presents essays which: examine the Indian child-welfare crisis in contemporary, legal, and historical perspectives; document the human cost of the crisis to Indian parents, children, and communities;…

  14. Emotion socialization and ethnicity: an examination of practices and outcomes in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelen, Diana; Thomassin, Kristel

    2013-06-01

    The current review paper summarizes the literature on parental emotion socialization in ethnically diverse families in the United States. Models of emotion socialization have been primarily developed using samples of European American parents and children. As such, current categorizations of "adaptive" and "maladaptive" emotion socialization practices may not be applicable to individuals from different ethnic backgrounds. The review examines current models of emotion socialization, with particular attention paid to the demographic breakdown of the studies used to develop these models. Additionally, the review highlights studies examining emotion socialization practices in African American, Asian American, and Latin American families. The review is synthesized with summarizing themes of similarities and differences across ethnic groups, and implications for culturally sensitive research and practice are discussed.

  15. Native Americans: An Elementary Art Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Pat

    This elementary art unit, which exposes students to the art and culture of American Indian tribes, is divided into four sections. Each section deals with a geographical area and a tribe or tribes within that area. Background information precedes instructions for art projects related to specific tribes. The influence of the environment on culture…

  16. Family therapy with unmarried African American mothers and their adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D; Liddle, H A

    2001-01-01

    Almost two-thirds of African American births are to unmarried mothers, and these single parents are among the most economically vulnerable in the United States. The effects of chronic stressors such as poverty can compromise the ability of these mothers to parent effectively, particularly during the developmental period of adolescence, typically a stressful phase of parenting. This article describes a multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) approach to working with African American adolescents who have drug and/or behavior problems. It is maintained that addressing the intrapersonal functioning of African American single mothers is vital if they are to re-establish the attachment bonds necessary for the maintenance of essential parental influence in the lives of their adolescents. Through systematic attention to the parent as an individual, leading to a balance between self-care and care for others, parental supervision is more easily achieved and relational impasses between parent and adolescent more equitably resolved.

  17. Mothers' Self-Reported Emotional Expression in Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Linda; Kolmodin, Karen; Chen, Yinghe

    2008-01-01

    This study compared Mainland Chinese, Chinese American and European American mothers' self-reported emotional expression within the family. Mothers of 3-year-old European American (n = 40), Chinese American (n = 39) and Mainland Chinese (n = 36) children (n = 20 girls per group) completed the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ),…

  18. Acculturative family distancing (AFD) and depression in Chinese American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wei-Chin; Wood, Jeffrey J; Fujimoto, Ken

    2010-10-01

    Knowledge of acculturative processes and their impact on immigrant families remains quite limited. Acculturative family distancing (AFD) is the distancing that occurs between immigrant parents and their children and is caused by breakdowns in communication and cultural value differences. It is a more proximal and problem-focused formulation of the acculturation gap and is hypothesized to increase depression via family conflict. Data were collected from 105 Chinese American high school students and their mothers. Rasch modeling was used to refine the AFD measure, and structural equation modeling was used to determine the effects of AFD on youth and maternal depression. Findings indicate that greater AFD was associated with higher depressive symptoms and risk for clinical depression. Family conflict partially mediated this relation for youths, whereas for mothers, AFD directly increased risk for depression. Greater mother-child heritage enculturation discrepancies were associated with greater mother and child AFD. Mainstream acculturation discrepancies and language gaps between mothers and youths were not significantly associated with any of the primary outcome variables. Results highlight the need for better understanding of how AFD and other acculturation-gap phenomena affect immigrant mental health. They also underscore the need for prevention and intervention programs that target communication difficulties and intergenerational cultural value differences. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Cumulative Family Risk Factors on American Students' Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2016-01-01

    The relationships between cumulative family risk factors and American students' academic performance were examined in all 50 States and the District of Columbia. Data from the 2007 "American Community Survey" were used to ascertain the percent of birth to 18 year old children in the United States who experienced three or more risk…

  20. Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2001-01-01

    Following the terrorist attacks recently committed in the United States of America, and according to the recommendations of the Council of the European Union, the CERN staff observed 3 minutes of silence on Friday 14 September 2001 at 12h00, as a sign of deepest sympathy for all the victims and their families, and of solidarity with the American people

  1. The American family and mass communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish, R

    1963-08-01

    Initial attention is directed to how television -- the most typical as well as the most "mass" of the media -- appears to the broadcaster to fit into the fabric of society. This is followed by consideration of how this medium can be used more effectively in family life education. The basic social contribution derives from television's role as a mass medium that uses limited facilities (the air waves) for dissemination of its content, and inherent in television is the inherent need to serve the needs of a total society. If the sights of a society are to be raised by means of a mass medium, the society must 1st be brought to the medium. As long as there are free and alternative channels of communication, the actual influence on ideas which can be exerted by any 1 medium is very slight. The United States has chosen not to take the route of elite control of the products of communications media, preferring pluralism and diversity to orthodoxy. The 1st job of individuals who are concerned about better programming is to be selective as individuals and as families. The support of development and growth of educational television at local levels is urged. The primary objective of the family relations field in the context of the television phenomenon is the enrichment of relationships within the family unit through encouragement of healthy interpersonal attitudes and behavior. Television can be used as a medium for presenting materials which educate, inform, and encourage and to demonstrate what social agencies are doing to help people help themselves.

  2. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2012-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family support and CRC beliefs with African Americans patients. This may improve patient-provider shared decision-making satisfaction and CRC screening adherence among African American patients.

  3. Perception of Early Intervention Family Outcome: Inside Chinese-American Families Having Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Fang Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This study seeks to determine whether Chinese-American Families having a child with disabilities experience different needs and expected early intervention family outcomes from families from the mainstream culture. The Researcher used different qualitative research techniques to examine Chinese-American Families who have children with…

  4. Families' experiences of intensive care unit quality of care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Gerritsen, Rik T; Koopmans, Matty;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to adapt and provide preliminary validation for questionnaires evaluating families' experiences of quality of care for critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study took place in 2 European ICUs. Based on literature...... and qualitative interviews, we adapted 2 previously validated North American questionnaires: "Family Satisfaction with the ICU" and "Quality of Dying and Death." Family members were asked to assess relevance and understandability of each question. Validation also included test-retest reliability and construct...... validity. RESULTS: A total of 110 family members participated. Response rate was 87%. For all questions, a median of 97% (94%-99%) was assessed as relevant, and a median of 98% (97%-100%), as understandable. Median ceiling effect was 41% (30%-47%). There was a median of 0% missing data (0%-1%). Test...

  5. Families' experiences of intensive care unit quality of care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Gerritsen, Rik T; Koopmans, Matty

    2015-01-01

    and qualitative interviews, we adapted 2 previously validated North American questionnaires: "Family Satisfaction with the ICU" and "Quality of Dying and Death." Family members were asked to assess relevance and understandability of each question. Validation also included test-retest reliability and construct......PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to adapt and provide preliminary validation for questionnaires evaluating families' experiences of quality of care for critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study took place in 2 European ICUs. Based on literature...... validity. RESULTS: A total of 110 family members participated. Response rate was 87%. For all questions, a median of 97% (94%-99%) was assessed as relevant, and a median of 98% (97%-100%), as understandable. Median ceiling effect was 41% (30%-47%). There was a median of 0% missing data (0%-1%). Test...

  6. The Korean American family: adolescents versus parents acculturation to American culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjung; Wolpin, Seth

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this cross-sectional study was to describe acculturation and characteristics of Korean American families. Self-reports were gathered from 106 families (105 mothers, 98 fathers, 106 adolescents) in the Midwest. Mothers, fathers, and adolescents maintained Korean cultural and linguistic characteristics while adopting some American cultural and linguistic features. The adoption of American culture and English was more evident among adolescents than their parents. The association between Korean American parents' acculturation attitudes and their characteristics were consistent with the acculturation framework. This information may provide basic understanding for health care providers who care for Korean American families.

  7. Family Socialization and Educational Achievement in Two Cultures: Mexican-American and Anglo-American

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James G.; Evans, Francis B.

    1976-01-01

    This study examines variations in family socialization practices among Anglo American and Mexican Americans and the effect of these practices on achievement values, self concept and educational achievement. Data were collected from 102 junior high school students and their families. (Author/BW)

  8. Economic Stress, Parenting, and Child Adjustment in Mexican American and European American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parke, Ross D.; Coltrane, Scott; Duffy, Sharon; Buriel, Raymond; Dennis, Jessica; Powers, Justina; French, Sabine; Widaman, Keith F.

    2004-01-01

    To assess the impact of economic hardship on 111 European American and 167 Mexican American families and their 5th-grade (M age 11.4 years) children, a family stress model was evaluated. Structural equation analyses revealed that economic hardship was linked to indexes of economic pressure that were related to depressive symptoms for mothers and…

  9. The Relationship between Family Dynamics and Career Interests among Chinese Americans and European Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T. L.; Kao, Erika Ming-Chu; Lee, Szu-Hui

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the ethnic differences in family dynamics and career interests of European Americans and Chinese Americans and how these dynamics--cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict--influence one's career interests. Significant ethnic differences in career interests were found. The Chinese Americans' highest career…

  10. Effective promotion of breastfeeding among Latin American women newly immigrated to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman-Vitale, S; Murillo, E K

    1999-07-01

    Across the United States, advance practice nurses (APNs) are increasingly encountering recently immigrated Latin American populations. This article provides an overview of the situation of Latin Americans in the United States and discusses aspects of Latin American culture such as, respeto (respect), confianza (confidence), the importance of family, and the value of a personal connection. Strategies that will assist practitioners to incorporate culturally holistic principles in the promotion of breastfeeding among Latin American women who are new arrivals in the United States are described. If practitioners are to respond to the increasing numbers of Latin American women who need health care services, and also provide thorough, holistic health care then health care activities must be integrated with cultural competence.

  11. American Indians: Presenting Concerns and Considerations for Family Therapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker, Penny S.; Perry, Benjamin J.

    1998-01-01

    Provides marriage and family therapists with an overview of issues related to the treatment of clients of American-Indian descent. Discusses a rationale for studying the American-Indian population, presents concerns that therapists are likely to encounter, and identifies considerations when engaging in a therapeutic relationship with an…

  12. Extended family and friendship support and suicidality among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ann W; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Harry Owen; Lincoln, Karen D; Mitchell, Uchechi A

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between informal social support from extended family and friends and suicidality among African Americans. Logistic regression analysis was based on a nationally representative sample of African Americans from the National Survey of American Life (N = 3263). Subjective closeness and frequency of contact with extended family and friends and negative family interaction were examined in relation to lifetime suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to family and frequency of contact with friends were negatively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Subjective closeness to friends and negative family interaction were positively associated with suicide ideation and attempts. Significant interactions between social support and negative interaction showed that social support buffers against the harmful effects of negative interaction on suicidality. Findings are discussed in relation to the functions of positive and negative social ties in suicidality.

  13. The Ties That Bind. The Chinese American Family in Transnational Chinese Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Q.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341157899

    2014-01-01

    The primary research question raised in the thesis is how have films been able to construct the identity of ethnic Chinese in the United States? This question is addressed through three sub-questions. First, why is the family narrative so characteristic of films about Chinese Americans in

  14. The Ties That Bind. The Chinese American Family in Transnational Chinese Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Q.

    2014-01-01

    The primary research question raised in the thesis is how have films been able to construct the identity of ethnic Chinese in the United States? This question is addressed through three sub-questions. First, why is the family narrative so characteristic of films about Chinese Americans in transnatio

  15. A Demographer Looks Again at American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Paul C.

    1987-01-01

    Author discusses his own traditional marriage and family life, then looks at the pluralism in family types in present day America. Concludes that most young adults in the future will try to maintain a permanent first marriage and, if unsuccessful, will try even harder to have a successful second marriage. (NB)

  16. Acculturative Family Distancing (AFD) and Depression in Chinese American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Wei-Chin; Wood, Jeffrey J.; Fujimoto, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Knowledge of acculturative processes and their impact on immigrant families remains quite limited. Acculturative family distancing (AFD) is the distancing that occurs between immigrant parents and their children and is caused by breakdowns in communication and cultural value differences. It is a more proximal and problem-focused…

  17. Family, Religion, and Work among Arab American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazal Read, Jen'nan

    2004-01-01

    Using data from a national survey of 501 Arab American women, this study examines the extent to which family behavior mediates the influence of religion on women's labor force activity. Prior research on families has largely overlooked the role of religion in influencing women's labor force decisions, particularly at different stages of the life…

  18. A Study on Positive Aspects of American Family Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐睿; 熊行

    2015-01-01

    As we al know,education is more about imparting knowledge of how to think rather than dead and roten facts piled up in textbooks. Apart from formal education-schooling,family education also helps to shape the way we think and behave. Globaly speaking,American family education is comparatively more succesful than any other nations,which is wel-evidenced by its world-leading economy that primarily is fueled by its unparaleled technological and educational levels. According to my research,American family education realy builds its deserved succes upon its practice of individual focus,that is,enough consciousnes of treating children in a scientific way-human atention on brain development, psychological patern and identity cultivation of children. American family succeeds in its conformity to the brain development,psychological paterns and identity cultivation.

  19. Economic Pressure in African American Families: A Replication and Extension of the Family Stress Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Rand D.; Wallace, Lora Ebert; Sun, Yumei; Simons, Ronald L.; McLoyd, Vonnie C.; Brody, Gene H.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated applicability of family stress model of economic hardship for understanding economic influences on child development among African American families with a 10- or 11-year-old child. Found that economic hardship positively related to economic pressure in families, and to emotional distress of caregivers, which in turn damaged the…

  20. Stakeholder Perspectives on Barriers for Healthy Living for Low-income African American Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronnie Faye Jones

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. Objective: The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overweight or obese (BMI > 85 and their parents. An expert panel provided insights in developing culturally appropriate intervention strategies. Results: Child and parent focus group analysis revealed eleven barriers and no definitive facilitators for healthy eating and lifestyles. Parents reported confusion regarding what constitutes nutritional eating, varying needs of family members in terms of issues with weight, and difficulty in engaging the family in appropriate and safe physical activities; to name a few themes. Community experts independently suggested that nutritional information is confusing and, often, contradictory. Additionally, they recommended simple messaging and practical interventions such as helping with shopping lists, meal planning, and identifying simple and inexpensive physical activities.Conclusions: Childhood obesity in the context of low-resource families is a complex problem with no simple solutions. Culturally sensitive and family-informed interventions are needed to support low-income African American families in dealing with childhood obesity.

  1. Unit 1101: Language Varies by Place: American English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Center for Curriculum Development in English.

    This 11th-grade language unit focuses on dialectology, the regional variations of American English, and the causes for the differences and similarities in language usage in the United States. Issues surveyed in the unit are (1) the historical basis for dialect differences from the time of the early colonists, (2) current speech characteristics of…

  2. Parent-Adolescent Conflict in African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Olivenne D; McHale, Susan M

    2016-10-01

    Parent-adolescent conflict is frequent in families and has implications for youth adjustment and family relationships. Drawing on a family systems perspective, we examined mothers', fathers', and two adolescent-aged siblings' (50.5 % females) reports of parent-adolescent conflict in 187 African American families. Using latent profile analysis in the context of an ethnic homogeneous design, we identified three family types based on levels of and differences between parent and youth conflict reports: low conflict, father high conflict, and younger sibling high conflict. Compared to low conflict families, youth in younger sibling high conflict families reported more depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. The results for parents' acceptance revealed that, in comparison to low conflict families, older siblings in father high conflict families reported lower acceptance from mothers, and mothers in these families reported lower acceptance of their children; further, older siblings in younger sibling high conflict families reported less acceptance from fathers, and fathers in these families reported less acceptance of their children. Results underscore the significance of levels of and both differences between and direction of differences in parents' and youth's reports of their "shared" experiences, as well as the importance of examining the larger family contexts of dyadic parent-relationships.

  3. Sexual health communication within religious African-American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families.

  4. Family Role Structure and Food-Related Roles in Mexican-American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetley, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The cultural, behavioral, and sociopsychological dimensions of role structures were examined in this study of food-related roles of Mexican-American families (N=141 females interviewed) living in South Texas border communities. (DS)

  5. Parental depression, family functioning and obesity among African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melvin; Young, LaShun; Davis, Sheila P; Moll, George

    2008-01-01

    Obesity has reached an epidemic level in America (National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] 1999), and this epidemic is more acute for African Americans than for other groups of Americans. In this study, 44 parent-child dyads completed measurements of height, depression, and body fat composition. In addition, parents completed a demographic questionnaire, and instruments, which measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior, and cardiovascular risks. Several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity.

  6. 75 FR 75708 - American United Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... COMMISSION American United Life Insurance Company, et al.; Notice of Application November 30, 2010. AGENCY... securities. Applicants: American United Life Insurance Company (``AUL''), AUL American Unit Trust (``AUL.... Applicants: c/o Richard M. Ellery, Esq., American United Life Insurance Company, One American...

  7. Development of an empirical typology of African American family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Murray, Carolyn B

    2002-09-01

    This study empirically identified types of African American families. Adolescents (N = 111) were assessed on family functioning. With cluster analytic methods, 3 types of families were identified. The cohesive-authoritative type was above average on parental education and income, averaged about 2 children, exhibited a high quality of family functioning and high self-esteem in adolescents. The conflictive-authoritarian type had average parental education and income, an average of 2.7 children, exhibited controlling and rigid discipline, and placed a high emphasis on achievement. The defensive-neglectful type was predominately headed by single mothers with below average education and income and averaged about 3 children. Such families displayed chaotic family processes, and adolescents tended to suffer from low self-esteem. The typology exhibited good reliability. The implications of the typology are discussed.

  8. The Relationship between Family Environment and Parenting Style: A Preliminary Study of African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nancy E.

    1995-01-01

    The influence of parenting style on aspects of family environment was studied with 174 9th graders, 11th graders and college freshmen (96% African American). Findings demonstrate that types of parenting styles are significantly related to outcome measures of family environment as predicted. Implications of authoritative parenting among blacks are…

  9. Family Influences on the Career Development of African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Elaine Roundtree

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how families influence the career education and career awareness of African American students in grades K-3. Existing literature indicated that scholars have focused their attention on the career education of college level students and counselors working with students in high schools; however, research…

  10. Cultural and Contextual Influences on Parenting in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Roosa, Mark W.; Weaver, Scott R.; Nair, Rajni L.

    2009-01-01

    Family stress theory can explain associations between contextual stressors and parenting. The theory, however, has not been tested among Mexican Americans or expanded to include cultural-contextual risks. This study examined associations between neighborhood, economic, and acculturative stressors and parenting behaviors in a sample of 570…

  11. The Origins of African-American Family Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Steven

    1994-01-01

    Uses the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series to trace race differences in African American family structure between 1880 and 1980. Confirms a long-standing high incidence rate of single parenthood and children residing without their parents. Data also show blacks have had a consistently higher percentage of extended households than have whites.…

  12. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  13. Native American Career Education Unit. From Idea to Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    One of twelve instructional units in the Native American Career Education (NACE) program, this unit is intended to help Indian junior high school students understand the steps involved in making a product. Focus is on the subject areas of economics, lumber and furniture industries, and woodworking. The first two activities concern the nature of…

  14. Manual for Reducing Educational Unit Costs in Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centro Multinacional de Investigacion Educativa, San Jose (Costa Rica).

    Designed for educational administrators, this manual provides suggestions for reducing educational unit costs in Latin America without reducing the quality of the education. Chapter one defines unit cost concepts and compares the costs of the Latin American countries. Chapter two deals with the different policies which could affect the principal…

  15. Family dynamics in the United States, Finland and Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marjorie A; Elder, Jennifer H; Paavilainen, Eija; Joronen, Katja; Helgadóttir, Helga L; Seidl, Ann

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the dynamics of contemporary, postmodern families and how these relate to health is critically important to nurses and other health care providers throughout the world. Much can be learned by studying not only one's own culture but also other countries. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare family dynamics of families in the United States, Finland and Iceland. To date relatively little has been published related to families in these Nordic countries. Six family dimensions in Barnhill's Family Health Cycle served as the theoretical framework. Adult respondents (n = 567) purposively selected from varied community groups, completed the Family Dynamics Measure II (FDM II) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. Main findings from the three countries were positive family dynamics, with mutuality contributing the strongest factor to partially confirm the theoretical propositions in Barnhill's Family Health Cycle. Respondents from all countries reported (1) clear communication and flexibility that contribute to mutuality; (2) younger age of respondents and increased education that were associated with more positive family dynamics; and (3) larger families associated with more negative dynamics. Mixed reports occurred according to gender, with Nordic men tending to perceive some negative dimensions. Marriage was important for more positive family dynamics only in the United States. Families in the United States and in Iceland had in common more negative family dynamics during illnesses. Problems and changes affected mostly families in the United States. In general, families in Finland and Iceland had greater strengths than in the United States. This benchmark study offers information for health practitioners to assist families, as well as contribute to the improvement of family social policies, especially in the United States.

  16. Work, family, support, and depression: employed mothers in Israel, Korea, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Karen M; Ganginis Del Pino, Heather V; Yoo, Sung-Kyung; Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Han, Young-Joo

    2014-07-01

    Our research revealed differences in work-family constructs for employed mothers in 3 countries, Israel (N = 105), Korea (N = 298), and the United States (N = 305). Although levels of work-family conflict were comparable, the Korean women had the lowest levels of work-family enrichment compared with the Israeli and American mothers. Moreover, Korean women reported the most depression and the least support from both spouses and employers. Spousal support mediated the relationship between work-family conflict and depression for employed mothers in Israel, Korea, and the United States. As hypothesized by conservation of resources theory (Hobfoll, 1989, 1998, 2001), threat of resource loss (operationalized as work-family conflict) was related to depression more strongly than was resource gain (i.e., work-family enrichment).

  17. Explanatory style, family expressiveness, and self-esteem among Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, E M; Nagata, D K; Peterson, C

    1997-08-01

    Fifty-nine Asian American and 40 European American college students completed questionnaires measuring explanatory style, family expressiveness, and self-esteem. In both groups, a global explanatory style correlated with low self-esteem, but only among European Americans was an internal style associated with low self-esteem. The two groups differed in reported styles of family expressiveness, with Asian Americans indicating more emotional restraint. The participants who reported more negative submissiveness had a more global explanatory style, whereas those who reported more positive dominance had a less global explanatory style. An additional measure developed to assess attribution to collectivities did not distinguish the two groups. Results were discussed in terms of the cross-cultural generality of the learned helplessness reformulation.

  18. Indonesian and United States of American Economic Partnership Agreement Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajerin Tajerin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes fisheries trade effects from the implementation of Indonesian and the UnitedStates of American Economic Partnership Agreement (IUSEPA. The analysis is performed on theintegrated world trade databases owned by World Trade Organization, United Nations Conferenceon Trade and Development, and United Nations Statistics Division, using Wits software packagedeveloped by the World Bank. The result indicates that in the future, Indonesian government as aparty that will conduct bilateral economic partnership agreement with the United states, needs topropose or negotiate fishery import tariffs that imposed by the United States ranges from 0 to 7percent.Keywords: Bilateral economic agreement, fisheries, trade effect

  19. Family Spirituality and Family Health Among Korean-American Elderly Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suk-Sun; Kim-Godwin, Yeoun Soo; Koenig, Harold G

    2016-04-01

    Spirituality has been regarded as an individual and private matter; consequently, research on spirituality as a family phenomenon has been largely neglected. In addition, most published research has been focused on Western cultures. The purpose of this study was to explore the experience of family spirituality and how it influences health among Korean-American elderly couples who are the first generation to reside in the Southeastern USA. A thematic and interpretive data analysis method was used. Thirteen elderly couples (N = 26) participated in in-depth individual interviews in Korean with the primary author. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and then translated by two bilingual researchers with a background in Korean and American culture. Three main themes of family spirituality were identified: (1) family togetherness, (2) family interdependence, and (3) family coping. Also, participants reported that family spirituality strengthened family health by fostering family commitment, improving emotional well-being, developing new healthy behaviors, and providing healing experiences. This finding implies that healthcare providers need to assess family spiritual issues of elderly couples to maximize their strengths for coping with health problems. As our society becomes more culturally diverse, healthcare providers should seek to understand family spirituality from different cultural perspectives to develop a more holistic approach to care.

  20. Paternal Hostility and Maternal Hostility in European American and African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ed Y; Reeb, Ben T; Martin, Monica J; Gibbons, Frederick X; Simons, Ronald L; Conger, Rand D

    2014-06-01

    The authors examined the hypothesized influence of maternal and paternal hostility on youth delinquency over time. The investigation addressed significant gaps in earlier research on parental hostility, including the neglect of father effects, especially in African American families. Using prospective, longitudinal data from community samples of European American (n = 422) and African American (n = 272) 2-parent families, the authors examined the independent effects of paternal and maternal hostility on youth delinquency. The results indicated that paternal hostility significantly predicted relative increases in youth delinquent behaviors above and beyond the effects of maternal hostility; conversely, maternal hostility did not predict youth delinquency after controlling for paternal hostility. Multiple-group analyses yielded similar results for both ethnic groups and for boys and girls. These results underscore the importance of including both parents in research on diverse families. Neglecting fathers provides an incomplete account of parenting in relation to youth development.

  1. Workplace discrimination predicting racial/ethnic socialization across African American, Latino, and Chinese families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelskamp, Carolin; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-10-01

    Informed by Kohn and Schooler's (1969) occupational socialization framework, this study examined linkages between racial/ethnic minority mothers' perceptions of racial/ethnic discrimination in the workplace and adolescents' accounts of racial/ethnic socialization in the home. Data were collected from 100 mother-early adolescent dyads who participated in a longitudinal study of urban adolescents' development in the Northeastern United States, including African American, Latino, and Chinese families. Mothers and adolescents completed surveys separately. We found that when mothers reported more frequent institutional discrimination at work, adolescents reported more frequent preparation for bias messages at home, across racial/ethnic groups. Mothers' experiences of interpersonal prejudice at work were associated with more frequent cultural socialization messages among African American and Latino families. Chinese youth reported fewer cultural socialization messages when mothers perceived more frequent interpersonal prejudice at work. Findings are discussed in the context of minority groups' distinct social histories and economic status in the United States.

  2. The context of collecting family health history: examining definitions of family and family communication about health among African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tess; Seo, Joann; Griffith, Julia; Baxter, Melanie; James, Aimee; Kaphingst, Kimberly A

    2015-04-01

    Public health initiatives encourage the public to discuss and record family health history information, which can inform prevention and screening for a variety of conditions. Most research on family health history discussion and collection, however, has predominantly involved White participants and has not considered lay definitions of family or family communication patterns about health. This qualitative study of 32 African American women-16 with a history of cancer-analyzed participants' definitions of family, family communication about health, and collection of family health history information. Family was defined by biological relatedness, social ties, interactions, and proximity. Several participants noted using different definitions of family for different purposes (e.g., biomedical vs. social). Health discussions took place between and within generations and were influenced by structural relationships (e.g., sister) and characteristics of family members (e.g., trustworthiness). Participants described managing tensions between sharing health information and protecting privacy, especially related to generational differences in sharing information, fear of familial conflict or gossip, and denial (sometimes described as refusal to "own" or "claim" a disease). Few participants reported that anyone in their family kept formal family health history records. Results suggest family health history initiatives should address family tensions and communication patterns that affect discussion and collection of family health history information.

  3. Work–Family Trajectories and the Higher Cardiovascular Risk of American Women Relative to Women in 13 European Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hedel, Karen; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Avendaño, Mauricio; Sabbath, Erika L.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether less-healthy work–family life histories contribute to the higher cardiovascular disease prevalence in older American compared with European women. Methods. We used sequence analysis to identify distinct work–family typologies for women born between 1935 and 1956 in the United States and 13 European countries. Data came from the US Health and Retirement Study (1992–2006) and the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (2004–2009). Results. Work–family typologies were similarly distributed in the United States and Europe. Being a lone working mother predicted a higher risk of heart disease, stroke, and smoking among American women, and smoking for European women. Lone working motherhood was more common and had a marginally stronger association with stroke in the United States than in Europe. Simulations indicated that the higher stroke risk among American women would only be marginally reduced if American women had experienced the same work–family trajectories as European women. Conclusions. Combining work and lone motherhood was more common in the United States, but differences in work–family trajectories explained only a small fraction of the higher cardiovascular risk of American relative to European women. PMID:27310346

  4. Academic Growth Trajectories and Family Relationships among African American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M

    2014-12-01

    This study explored trajectories of African American youths' academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths' academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academic achievement compared to girls, but also experienced steeper declines in school self-esteem during adolescence. Changes in parent-adolescent relationship quality were linked to changes in academic functioning: Increases in conflict were related to decreases in GPA, school bonding, and school self-esteem and increases in warmth were related to increases in school bonding and school self-esteem.

  5. Parental depression, family functioning, and obesity among African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Melvin; Young, LaShun; Davis, Sheila P; Moll, George

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has reached an epidemic level in America (National Center for Health Statistics [NCHS] 1999), and this epidemic is more acute for African Americans than for other groups ofAmericans. In this study, 44 parent-child dyads completed measurements of height, weight, depression, and body fat composition. In addition, parents completed a demographic questionnaire, and instruments, which measured family functioning, parental psychopathology, child behavior, and cardiovascular risks. Several models emerged for predicting childhood and parental body mass index, parental depression, and child behavioral problems. Findings indicated a role for parental depression in childhood obesity. These findings are discussed in light of Bandura 's Social Cognitive Theory, and the family's role in childhood obesity.

  6. The effect of family structure on parents' child care time in the United States and the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Kalenkoski, Charlene Marie; Ribar, David C.; Stratton, Leslie Sundt

    2006-01-01

    We use time-diary data from the 2003 and 2004 American Time Use Surveys and the 2000 United Kingdom Time Use Study to estimate the effect of family structure on the time mothers and fathers spend on primary and passive child care and on market work, using a system of correlated Tobit equations and family structure equations. Estimates from these models indicate that single parents in both countries spend more time in child care than married or cohabiting parents. There are differences, howeve...

  7. Family matters: Familial support and science identity formation for African American female STEM majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ashley Dawn

    This research seeks to understand the experiences of African American female undergraduates in STEM. It investigates how familial factors and science identity formation characteristics influence persistence in STEM while considering the duality of African American women's status in society. This phenomenological study was designed using critical race feminism as the theoretical framework to answer the following questions: 1) What role does family play in the experiences of African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? 2) What factors impact the formation of science identity for African American women undergraduate STEM majors who attended two universities in the UNC system? Purposive sampling was used to select the participants for this study. The researcher conducted in-depth interviews with 10 African American female undergraduate STEM major from a predominantly White and a historically Black institution with the state of North Carolina public university system. Findings suggest that African American families and science identity formation influence the STEM experiences of the African American females interviewed in this study. The following five themes emerged from the findings: (1) independence, (2) support, (3) pressure to succeed, (4) adaptations, and (5) race and gender. This study contributes to the literature on African American female students in STEM higher education. The findings of this study produced knowledge regarding policies and practices that can lead to greater academic success and persistence of African American females in higher education in general, and STEM majors in particular. Colleges and universities may benefit from the findings of this study in a way that allows them to develop and sustain programs and policies that attend to the particular concerns and needs of African American women on their campuses. Finally, this research informs both current and future African American female

  8. "Our Family Business Was Education": Professional Socialization among Intergenerational African-American Teaching Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingus, Jeannine E.

    2008-01-01

    Teacher socialization is primarily examined as an institutional-based phenomenon, with particular focus on individuals' PK-12 schooling experiences, teacher education programs, or workplace-based socialization. This study situates professional socialization experiences of African-American teachers within teaching families, examining how culturally…

  9. Developing culturally competent marriage and family therapists: treatment guidelines for non-African-American therapists working with African-American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Roy A; Perry, Benjamin J; Bedell, Tina M

    2002-04-01

    To serve African-American families effectively, marriage and family therapists need to develop a level of cultural competence. This content analysis of the relevant treatment literature was conducted to examine the most common expert recommendations for family therapy with African Americans. Fifteen specific guidelines were generated, including orient the family to therapy, do not assume familiarity, address issue of racism, intervene multi-systemically, do home visits, use problem-solving focus, involve religious leader, incorporate the father, and acknowledge strengths. Conceptual and empirical support for each guideline is discussed, and conclusions are made regarding culturally competent therapy with African-American families.

  10. Biological risk in nursing care provided in family health units

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cardoso, Ana Carla Moreira; Figueiredo, Rosely Moralez de

    2010-01-01

    .... This exploratory and descriptive study characterizes the potential risk of biological exposure in procedures performed by nursing professionals in ten Family Health units in São Carlos-SP, Brazil...

  11. The politics of Latin American family-planning policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, J L

    1978-07-01

    In population planning in Latin America the programs are as successful as the government's support of family planning. Colombia is one of the few Latin American countries which has actively exhorted its populace to birth control. If the propensity for large families reflects a belief in the economic or social utility of children, instead of machismo, birthrates will fall with expanded social security and economic welfare programs. If birthrates are the result of machismo, new gender models stressing the positive rewards and social esteem to be gained through responsible parenthood would have to be taught to both adults and children. The position profamily planning in most Latin American countries is generally supported by the ministers, technocrats, corporations, businessmen, middle-class women, doctors, mass media, protestant congregations, and working-class women. Family planning is usually opposed by members of the armed forces, Catholic hierarchy, Catholic lay organizations, oligarchy, university students, leftist intellectuals, Marxist insurgents, Indian communities, and peasants. The portion of the total national populations encompassed by the groups composing the core combination, ideological bias, and stability group ranges from 50-60% in Argentina, Uruguay, and Venezuela to 10-20% in Central America, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Paraguay. Most groups are outside the policy-making process.

  12. Advance directives and the family: French and American perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Arias, David; Moutel, Grégoire; Aulisio, Mark P; Salfati, Alexandra; Coffin, Jean-Christophe; Rodríguez-Arias, J L; Calvo, L; Hervé, Christian

    2007-09-01

    Several studies have explored differences between North American and European doctor-patient relationships. They have focused primarily on differences in philosophical traditions and historic and socio-economic factors between these two regions that might lead to differences in behaviour, as well as divergent concepts in and justifications of medical practice. However, few empirical intercultural studies have been carried out to identify in practice these cultural differences. This lack of standard comparative empirical studies led us to compare differences between France and the USA regarding end-of-life decision making. We tested certain assertions put forward by bioethicists concerning the impact of culture on the acceptance of advance directives in such decisions. In particular, we compared North American and French intensive care professional's attitudes toward: 1) advance directives and 2) the role of the family in decisions to withhold or withdraw life-support.

  13. Perceptions of stakeholder groups about the participation of African American family forest landowners in federal landowner assistance programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puneet Dwivedi; Arundhati Jagadish; John Schelhas

    2016-01-01

    This study examines perceptions of three stakeholder groups (African American Family Forest Landowner, Government Agency, and Nonprofit) regarding federal landowner assistance programs in the southern United States by combining a SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, and threat) analysis with the AHP (analytical hierarchy process). Factors with the highest priority...

  14. Family cohesion, acculturation, maternal cortisol, and preterm birth in Mexican-American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz RJ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available R Jeanne Ruiz,1 Rita H Pickler,2 C Nathan Marti,3 Nancy Jallo41College of Nursing, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Patient Services, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 3Abacist Analytics, Austin, TX, USA; 4School of Nursing, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USAObjective: To examine the potential moderating effects of family cohesion and acculturation on the physiological stress response (cortisol as a predictor of preterm birth (PTB in pregnant Mexican-American women.Methods: The sample included 470 participants; 33 had preterm births. All participants were self-identified as Mexican-American. In this cross-sectional study, family cohesion was measured by a self-report questionnaire. Acculturation was measured by self-report questionnaire as well as by years in the United States and country of birth. Stress was measured by serum cortisol. All measures were obtained at 22—24 weeks gestation. Additional data including history of PTB were obtained from the health record. Data analysis was primarily conducted using logistic regression.Results: The relationship between stress and PTB was predicted by family cohesion (estimate/standard error [E/SE] = —2.46, P = 0.014 and acculturation (E/SE = 2.56, P = 0.011. In addition, there was an interaction between family cohesion and history of previous PTB (E/SE = —2.12, P = 0.035.Conclusion: Results indicate that the impact of cortisol on PTB is predicted by acculturation and family cohesion such that higher levels of cortisol in conjunction with higher levels of acculturation and lower levels of family cohesion are associated with increased risk of PTB. In addition, low family cohesion in combination with a history of PTB was associated with higher levels of PTB. Assessment of family cohesion, including problem solving, adherence to family decisions, family shared space, and activity, should be included as part of prenatal

  15. Let Them In: Family Presence during Intensive Care Unit Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Sarah J; Hopkins, Ramona O; Francis, Leslie; Chapman, Diane; Johnson, Joclynn; Johnson, Nathanael; Brown, Samuel M

    2016-07-01

    Families have for decades advocated for full access to intensive care units (ICUs) and meaningful partnership with clinicians, resulting in gradual improvements in family access and collaboration with ICU clinicians. Despite such advances, family members in adult ICUs are still commonly asked to leave the patient's room during invasive bedside procedures, regardless of whether the patient would prefer family to be present. Physicians may be resistant to having family members at the bedside due to concerns about trainee education, medicolegal implications, possible effects on the technical quality of procedures due to distractions, and procedural sterility. Limited evidence from parallel settings does not support these concerns. Family presence during ICU procedures, when the patient and family member both desire it, fulfills the mandates of patient-centered care. We anticipate that such inclusion will increase family engagement, improve patient and family satisfaction, and may, on the basis of studies of open visitation, pediatric ICU experience, and family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation, decrease psychological distress in patients and family members. We believe these goals can be achieved without compromising the quality of patient care, increasing provider burden significantly, or increasing risks of litigation. In this article, we weigh current evidence, consider historical objections to family presence at ICU procedures, and report our clinical experience with the practice. An outline for implementing family procedural presence in the ICU is also presented.

  16. Illicit drug use in seven Latin American countries: critical perspectives of families and familiars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline da; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa; Loyola, Cristina Maria Douat; Albarracín, Daniel Gonzalo Eslava; Diaz, Jorge; Funes, Gladys Magdalena Rodríguez; Hernández, Mabell Granados; Torres, Ruth Magdalena Gallegos; Rodriguez, Ruth Jakeline Oviedo

    2009-01-01

    This cross-sectional multi-centre study explored how family members and friends of illicit drug users perceived protective and risk factors, treatment facilities and policies and laws regarding illicit drug use. Family members and friends of illicit drug users were recruited in 10 urban health care outpatient units in 7 Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras and Mexico) to complete a questionnaire. The majority of the respondents chose psycho-social factors over genetic or biological explanations as causes of drug problems. Respondents felt that families and governments were responsible for preventing drug problems. Church/religious institutions were most often mentioned in the context of accessible treatment. When asked about access to treatment facilities, the majority said that there were not enough. Shame about drug use, cost, and limited treatment options were most often cited as barriers to treatment.

  17. Taxonomic Review of Classical and Current Literature on the Perennial American Family Forest Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. Straka

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental issues in American forest policy has been the small forest ownership problem. Early in the twentieth century, it was called the farm forestry problem, later, the nonindustrial private forest problem, and today, the family forest problem. Family forest owners are thought to manage their lands in a suboptimal manner resulting in low forest productivity relative to other ownership groups. This can lead to future timber supply problems. The exact nature of the problem, especially its social and economic basis, was a common subject of early forestry research studies. This article includes many of the major nonindustrial private forest or family forest studies, from early to current, and classifies them both by themes used by other authors and categories that relate to major research areas in the current literature. A major focus of this literature deals with promoting management on family forest holdings and possible land management incentives and disincentives. Natural trends in family forest ownership, like parcelization, also impact upon forest management opportunities. By developing a taxonomy that classifies these studies by research objective, methodology, owner motivation, and problem definition, this article serves to organize the family forest literature in a manner that provides a temporal framework for better understanding the historical motivation for and development of family forest research in the United States.

  18. Family eating and physical activity practices among African American, Filipino American, and Hispanic American families: Implications for developing obesity prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Sobong Porter

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Overweight and obesity among children and adults is well-documented as an escalating problem. The purpose of this study is to determine the blood pressure, self-esteem, and eating and physical activity practices among African Americans, Filipino Americans, and Hispanic Americans; and project implications for development of childhood obesity prevention programs. This descriptive study was conducted in a convenience sample of 110 mothers recruited in health clinics and community centers located in Southeast Florida: 19% African Americans, 26% Filipino Americans, and 55% Hispanic Americans. The data, collected via self-administered questionnaires and a guided interview (Family Eating and Activity Habits Questionnaire, Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale, Background Information Questionnaire, were analyzed via descriptive and inferential statistics with findings significant at p < .05. Results revealed differences and similarities in eating and activity practices between Filipinos and Blacks or Hispanics. Blood pressure and self-esteem did not differ by ethnicity; however, overweight mothers tended to have overweight children. The results point clearly to the importance of the mothers’ role modeling in eating and physical activity practices of families, reflecting the influence of mothers’ behaviors in children’s healthy behaviors, albeit family health. Given that mothers own physical exercise and eating habits could influence their children’s physical activity levels and food choices, a parental advice strategy could be disseminated directly to parents by health professionals. Study findings may raise public awareness of the increasing prevalence and consequences of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents, particularly among vulnerable ethnic groups. The findings provide a database for nurse practitioners and other health service providers for the development of culturally sensitive focused public health education programs to prevent

  19. Imprisoned by Empathy: Familial Incarceration and Psychological Distress among African American Men in the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tony N; Bell, Mary Laske; Patterson, Evelyn J

    2016-06-01

    The stress process model predicts that current incarceration of a family member should damage the health status of the inmate's relatives. We address this prediction with data from the National Survey of American Life, focusing exclusively on African American men (n = 1,168). In survey-adjusted generalized linear models, we find that familial incarceration increases psychological distress, but its effect attenuates ostensibly after controlling for other chronic strains. Familial incarceration remains statistically insignificant with the introduction of mastery and family emotional support and their respective interactions with familial incarceration. However, a statistical interaction between familial incarceration and former incarceration reveals that levels of psychological distress are significantly higher among never-incarcerated respondents whose family members are incarcerated but significantly lower among formerly incarcerated respondents whose family members are incarcerated. We conclude that familial incarceration's influence on black men's mental health status may be more complex than extant theory predicts.

  20. Navigating Racialized Contexts: The Influence of School and Family Socialization on African American Students' Racial and Educational Identity Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Shuntay Z.

    2013-01-01

    Within the United States, African American students experience school socialization that exposes them to racial segregation, economic stratification, and route learning masked as education. Consequently African American families are compelled to engage in socialization practices that buffer against the adverse influences of racism, oppression, and…

  1. The war at home: affective economics and transnationally adoptive families in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Rachael

    2011-01-01

    The question of how to best conduct post-placement interventions for transnationally adoptive families at risk of dissolution (legal annulment) is an emerging issue in the United States. The current popular trend for adoptive families to pursue biomedical post-placement interventions, despite a lack of proof that such interventions actually work to keep the adoptive family intact, suggests the need for a more phenomenological approach to understanding both adoptive parents’ and transnational adoptees’ post-placement experiences. This study examines the empirical experiences of adoptive families at risk of dissolution in the United States who attempt to define and navigate the path toward family stability after adopting. From the coding of this data set emerge some routes through and by which emotions circulate between adoptive parents and transnational adoptees through the family body and the family social. Particularly, it investigates one post-placement “affective economy” at work in which adoptive parents attempt, through the expression of particular forms of parental love, to align adoptees as subjects of the private, nuclear American family, while adoptees more often attempt to create space for more heterogeneous forms of family, ones that include birth parents and other kin-like relations in their countries of origin. Ultimately, it illuminates some vastly different and sometimes contradictory ways that adoptive parents and adoptees can interpret family through emotional lenses, ones that can prevent a smooth post-placement transition for adoption actors. An understanding of these differences and how they shape, and are shaped by, the post-placement affective economy within families at risk of dissolution may aid in locating indicators for adoption dissolution, and possibly, designing more effective post-placement interventions for families struggling in the aftermath of adoption. It may also help scholars begin to think about the construction and

  2. Asian Americans' family cohesion and suicide ideation: moderating and mediating effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel Wong, Y; Uhm, Soo Yun; Li, Peiwei

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between family cohesion and suicide ideation in a national, adult community sample of Asian Americans (N=2072). The data for this study were drawn from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first national epidemiological study of Asian Americans' mental health. The results indicate that family cohesion was negatively related to suicide ideation. In addition, English language proficiency moderated the relationship between family cohesion and suicide ideation. Family cohesion was related to lower odds of suicide ideation among low English proficiency Asian Americans. In contrast, family cohesion was not significantly related to suicide ideation among high English proficiency Asian Americans. Further, the findings are consistent with a model in which the relationship between family cohesion and suicide ideation was partially mediated by psychological distress. Practical implications for addressing suicide ideation among Asian Americans are discussed.

  3. Interdependent recovery of adults with schizophrenia: Asian American consumer perspectives of family involvement and influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karen Kyeunghae; Yamada, Ann-Marie; Kim, Min Ah; Dinh, Tam Q

    2015-09-01

    Family involvement is important in the recovery experience of culturally diverse adults with schizophrenia. However, little is known about the influence of family among consumers purported to have close family ties without regular contact. This study explored Asian American consumers' views about family relationships and participation in their recovery. Secondary analysis of qualitative data from a larger project was conducted to explore family related themes of 8 Asian Americans receiving services from recovery-focused programs in urban Southern California. Most consumers described their family support as adequate while simultaneously reporting limited family involvement. Asia-born and U.S.-born Asian consumers varied in describing family support, suggesting providers consider nativity in culturally responsive service delivery. Families need not be present to affect the perspectives of Asian Americans receiving recovery-oriented services. The extent of family influences on recovery, beyond the initial determination of current family contact, requires further exploration. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The Roles of Family, Culture, and Social Cognitive Variables in the Career Interests and Goals of Asian American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Kayi; Lent, Robert W

    2017-06-05

    Although family and cultural factors have been assumed to play important roles in the career development of Asian Americans, theory-driven research on this topic remains limited. We examined culturally relevant factors that may contribute to Asian Americans' consideration of fields in which they are overrepresented (e.g., science, technology, engineering) and underrepresented (e.g., education, social science). Drawing from social cognitive career theory, a culture-specific, social cognitive model of career interests and choice was tested in Holland's (1997) Investigative (I) and Social (S) themes. A sample of 802 Asian American undergraduates completed measures of family support, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interest, and career choice consideration in relation to both Holland themes. Two indicators of acculturation/enculturation (adherence to Asian values and generation status in the United States) were also obtained. The model accounted for a substantial amount of variance in Asian American college students' career consideration in both themes. Family support and acculturation played varying roles, depending on the Holland theme. For example, family support was linked to career choice consideration both directly (in the S theme) and indirectly, via other predictors (in both themes). Contrary to expectations, the acculturation variables did not moderate the relation of family support or interest to career consideration in either theme. We discuss the implications of these findings for efforts to understand and facilitate the career development of Asian American college students. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Redefining American Families: The Disparate Effects of IIRIRA's Automatic Bars to Reentry and Sponsorship Requirements on Mixed-Citizenship Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Lilly Lopez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With passage of the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act of 1996 (IIRIRA, the goal of discouraging illegal immigration and the legal immigration of the poor triumphed over the longstanding goal of family unity in US immigration policy. This shift resulted in policy changes that prevent some mixed-citizenship families from accessing family reunification benefits for the immigrant relatives of US citizens. Two specific elements of IIRIRA — (1 the three- and 10-year bars to reentry, and (2 the minimum income thresholds for citizen sponsors of immigrants — have created a hierarchy of mixed-citizenship families, enabling some to access all the citizenship benefits of family preservation and reunification, while excluding other, similar families from those same benefits. This article details these two key policy changes imposed by IIRIRA and describes their impact on mixed-citizenship couples seeking family reunification benefits in the United States. Mixed-citizenship couples seeking family reunification benefits do not bear the negative impacts of these two policies evenly. Rather, these policies disproportionately limit specific subgroups of immigrants and citizens from accessing family reunification. Low-income, non-White (particularly Latino, and less-educated American families bear the overwhelming brunt of IIRIRA’s narrowing of family reunification benefits. As a result, these policy changes have altered the composition of American society and modified broader notions of American national identity and who truly “belongs.” Most of the disparate impact between mixed-citizenship couples created by the IIRIRA would be corrected by enacting minor policy changes to (1 allow the undocumented spouses of US citizens to adjust their legal status from within the United States, and (2 include the noncitizen spouse’s income earning potential toward satisfying minimum income requirements.

  6. Family Instability and School Readiness in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Fomby, Paula

    2011-01-01

    I investigate the prevalence of family instability in the United Kingdom and its association with children's school readiness at age 5. Data are from three sweeps of the Millennium Cohort Study (2001–2007). Family instability is measured by mother's self-report of union status changes since her child's birth. Outcome measures include mother assessments of child behavior and standardized scores on cognitive assessments. Maternal education and household income explained the association of famil...

  7. Institutional Confidence in the United States: Attitudes of Secular Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Kasselstrand

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The First Amendment to the United States’ Constitution addresses freedom of religion and the separation of church and state. However, the historical influence of religion in laws, policies, and political representation have left secular individuals feeling excluded. At the same time, levels of confidence in social and political institutions in the United States are at an all-time low. This begs the question: Is there a relationship between secularity and confidence in various social and political institutions (e.g. the armed forces, churches, major companies, government, police, and political parties? This question is examined using data on the United States from the World Values Survey from 1995–2011. While controlling for a range of key demographics, the findings show a negative relationship between secularity and institutional confidence. More specifically, atheists and nonreligious individuals are less likely than those who are religious to have confidence in all six institutions. Based on previous literature and the empirical evidence presented in this study, we argue that overall lower levels of institutional confidence among secular Americans is an outcome of the exclusion of such individuals from American social life. Thus, it highlights the importance of addressing the stereotypes and prejudice that this minority group faces.

  8. Psychometric assessment of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit questionnaire in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David A; Ferrando-Vivas, Paloma; Wright, Stephen E; McColl, Elaine; Heyland, Daren K; Rowan, Kathryn M

    2017-04-01

    To establish the psychometric properties of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item (FS-ICU-24) questionnaire in the United Kingdom. The Family-Reported Experiences Evaluation study recruited family members of patients staying at least 24 hours in 20 participating intensive care units. Questionnaires were evaluated for nonresponse, floor/ceiling effects, redundancy, and construct validity. Internal consistency was evaluated with item-to-own scale correlations and Cronbach α. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were used to explore the underlying structure. Twelve thousand three hundred forty-six family members of 6380 patients were recruited and 7173 (58%) family members of 4615 patients returned a completed questionnaire. One family member per patient was included in the psychometric assessment. Six items had greater than 10% nonresponse; 1 item had a ceiling effect; and 11 items had potential redundancy. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach α, overall .96; satisfaction with care, .94; satisfaction with decision making, .93). The 2-factor solution was not a good fit. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that satisfaction with decision making encompassed 2 constructs-satisfaction with information and satisfaction with the decision-making process. The Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit 24-item questionnaire demonstrated good psychometric properties in the United Kingdom setting. Construct validity could be improved by use of 3 domains and some scope for further improvement was identified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. "Everyone Would Be around the Table": American Family Mealtimes in Historical Perspective, 1850-1960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinotto, Simone

    2006-01-01

    The ideal of the proper family mealtime, originally devised by the Victorian middle class, gained cultural hegemony in modern America, but with the partial exception of the 1950s, only a minority of American families could ever live by it.

  10. Intensive Care Unit death and factors influencing family satisfaction of Intensive Care Unit care

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Family satisfaction of Intensive Care Unit (FS-ICU) care is believed to be associated with ICU survival and ICU outcomes. A review of literature was done to determine factors influencing FS-ICU care in ICU deaths. Results: Factors that positively influenced FS-ICU care were (a) communication: Honesty, accuracy, active listening, emphatic statements, consistency, and clarity; (b) family support: Respect, compassion, courtesy, considering family needs and wishes, and emotional and...

  11. Parenting self-efficacy and parenting practices over time in Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumka, Larry E; Gonzales, Nancy A; Wheeler, Lorey A; Millsap, Roger E

    2010-10-01

    Drawing on social cognitive theory, this study used a longitudinal cross-lagged panel design and a structural equation modeling approach to evaluate parenting self-efficacy's reciprocal and causal associations with parents' positive control practices over time to predict adolescents' conduct problems. Data were obtained from teachers, mothers, and adolescents in 189 Mexican American families living in the southwest United States. After accounting for contemporaneous reciprocal relationships between parenting self-efficacy (PSE) and positive control, results indicated that parenting self-efficacy predicted future positive control practices rather than the reverse. PSE also showed direct effects on decreased adolescent conduct problems. PSE functioned in an antecedent causal role in relation to parents' positive control practices and adolescents' conduct problems in this sample. These results support the cross-cultural applicability of social cognitive theory to parenting in Mexican American families. An implication is that parenting interventions aimed at preventing adolescent conduct problems need to focus on elevating the PSE of Mexican American parents with low levels of PSE. In addition, future research should seek to specify the most effective strategies for enhancing PSE.

  12. Family Perspectives on Overall Care in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lissi; Rosenkranz, Susan J; Mularski, Richard A; Leo, Michael C

    Family members' perspectives about satisfaction with care provided in the intensive care unit (ICU) have become an important part of quality assessment and improvement, but national and international differences may exist in care provided and family perspectives about satisfaction with care. The purpose of the research was to understand family members' perspectives regarding overall care of medical patients receiving intensive care. Family members of medical patients who remained 48 hours or more in two adult ICUS at two healthcare institutions in the U.S. Pacific Northwest took part by responding to the Family Satisfaction with Care in the Intensive Care Unit survey. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify major categories and subcategories in their complimentary (positive) or critical (negative) responses to open-ended questions. The number of comments in each category and subcategory was counted. Of 138 responding family members, 106 answered the open-ended questions. The 281 comments were more frequently complimentary (n = 126) than critical (n = 91). Three main categories (competent care, communication, and environment) and nine subcategories were identified. Comments about the subcategory of emotional/interrelational aspects of care occurred most frequently and were more positive than comments about practical aspects of care. Findings were similar to those reported from other countries. Emotional/interrelational aspects of care were integral to family member satisfaction with care provided. Findings suggest that improving communication and decision-making, supporting family members, and caring for family loved ones as a person are important care targets. Initiatives to improve ICU care should include assessments from families and opportunity for qualitative analysis to refine care targets and assess changes.

  13. Anxiety reporting and culturally associated interpretation biases and cognitive schemas: a comparison of Mexican, Mexican American, and European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, R Enrique; Vernberg, Eric M; Sanchez-Sosa, Juan Jose; Riveros, Angelica; Mitchell, Montserrat; Mashunkashey, Joanna

    2004-06-01

    This study examined whether Mexican (n = 53), Mexican American (n = 50), and European American (n = 51) children differed in their reporting of anxiety symptoms and whether parental influence and specific cognitive schemas associated with Mexican culture were related to differences in anxiety reporting. As expected, Mexican and Mexican American children reported significantly more physiological and worry symptoms than the European American children. Mexican and Mexican American children endorsed collectivism as a cultural value more strongly than European American children, and the Mexican children evidenced greatest use of social strategies reflecting simpatia. In family discussions of ambiguous, potentially anxiety-arousing situations, Mexican and Mexican American parents verbalized a greater percentage of somatic interpretations than the European American parents. Results indicate potential linkages between cultural values, socialization practices, and anxiety reporting.

  14. Place of origin and violent disagreement among Asian American families: analysis across five States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong-Yi; Probst, Janice C; Moore, Charity G; Martin, Amy B; Bennett, Kevin J

    2011-08-01

    We examined the prevalence of and factors associated with violent and heated disagreements in the Asian American families, with an emphasis on place of birth differences between parent and child. Data were obtained from the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, limited to five states with the highest concentration of Asian-Americans (n = 793). Multivariable analysis used generalized logistic regression models with a three-level outcome, violent and heated disagreement versus calm discussion. Violent disagreements were reported in 13.7% of Asian-American homes and 9.9% of white homes. Differential parent-child place of birth was associated with increased odds for heated disagreement in Asian-American families. Parenting stress increased the likelihood of violent disagreements in both Asian-American and white families. Asian-American families are not immune to potential family violence. Reducing parenting stress and intervening in culturally appropriate ways to reduce generation differences should be violence prevention priorities.

  15. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-11-01

    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension.

  16. Family participation in intensive care unit rounds: Comparing family and provider perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Selena S; Roze des Ordons, Amanda; Soo, Andrea; Guienguere, Simon; Stelfox, Henry T

    2017-04-01

    To describe and compare intensive care unit (ICU) patient family member and provider experiences, preferences, and perceptions of family participation in ICU rounds. Cross-sectional survey of ICU family members and providers of patients admitted to 4 medical-surgical ICUs from September 2014 to March 2015. Surveys were completed by 63 (62%) family members and 258 (43%) providers. Provider respondents included physicians (9%), nurses (56%), respiratory therapists (24%), and other ICU team members (11%). Although 38% of providers estimated only moderate family member interest in participating in rounds, 97% of family members expressed high interest. Family members and providers reported listening (95% vs 96%; P=.594) and sharing information about the patient (82% vs 82%; P=.995) as appropriate roles for family members during rounds, but differed in their perceptions on asking questions (75% vs 86%; P=.043) and participating in decision making (36% vs 59%; P=.003). Compared with family members, providers were more likely to perceive family participation in rounds to cause family stress (7% vs 22%; P=.020) and confusion (0% vs 28%; PFamily members and providers share some perspectives on family participation in ICU rounds although other perspectives are discordant, with implications for communication strategies and collaborative decision making. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Protective factors within the family, and their role in fostering resiliency in African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, W J

    1997-01-01

    Violence has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, with African American males residing in urban areas bearing the brunt of this epidemic. The violence permeating our society emanates from a variety of societal ills, including poverty, racism, substance abuse and exposure to violence. Traditionally, methods of research on adolescent violence have focused on an identification of associated risk factors. The majority of African American adolescents living in communities with widespread and chronic violence grow up to be law-abiding citizens. The reason for this may be due to resiliency within these adolescents. Resiliency has been defined as the ability to experience adverse circumstances and successfully overcome them. Resiliency is enhanced through three mechanisms identified as protective factors: individual characteristics/traits; familial traits; and extrafamilial relationships. The risks faced may be altered, and even ameliorated, through the presence of these protective factors. The purpose of this paper is to identify protective factors within the family that foster resiliency. Protective factors within the family may be categorized as having three broad characteristics: caring and support, high expectations, and encouragement of participation and involvement for the adolescent.

  18. An Analysis of Adult-Child Conversation Patterns in Diverse African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Timothy F. J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines familial conversation patterns of African American families during evening meals, using a social interaction analysis. Found that family size had a pervasive impact on familial interaction, and that although mothers were the clear focus of mealtime interactions, the increased number of children necessitated that fathers take a more direct…

  19. Federal Support for Research on the Family: An American Political Quandary. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Robert K.

    The purpose of this paper is to indicate how the ambivalent posture of the government toward families has affected federal support of research on the family and studies of the family as educator. After an introductory section providing background information about American public policy, families, and education, the discussion centers on the…

  20. A Review of Childrearing in African American Single Mother Families: The Relevance of a Coparenting Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Deborah J.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Foster, Sarah E.; Sterrett, Emma; Chester, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    Clinical research on African American single mother families has focused largely on mother-child dyads, with relatively less empirical attention to the roles of other adults or family members who often assist with childrearing. This narrow definition of "family" fails to take into account the extended family networks which often provide support…

  1. Fun & Fit, Phase I: A Program for Overweight African American and Hispanic American Children from Low-Income Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meaney, Karen S.; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent

    2009-01-01

    Fun & Fit is a program designed to create positive physical activity experiences and to promote healthy lifestyle choices among overweight children from low-income African American and Hispanic American families. The program is a collaborative project between Texas Tech University and the Lubbock Independent School District funded through a…

  2. Nurses Empathy and Family Needs in the Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Moghaddasian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The patients’ families in intensive care units (ICUs experience excessive stress which may disrupt their performance in daily life. Empathy is basic to the nursing role and has been found to be associated with improved patient outcomes and greater satisfaction with care in patient and his/her family. However, few studies have investigated the nursing empathy with ICU patients. This study aimed to assess nursing empathy and its relationship with the needs, from the perspective of families of patients in ICU.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 418 subjects were selected among families of patients admitted to ICUs in Tabriz, Iran, by convenience sampling, from May to August 2012. Data were collected through Barrett-Lennard Relationship inventory (BLRI empathy scale and Critical Care Family Needs Intervention (CCFNI inventories and were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tests. Results: Findings showed that most of the nurses had high level of empathy to the patients (38.8%. There was also statistically significant relationship between nurses’ empathy and needs of patients’ families (p < 0.001. Conclusion: In this study we found that by increasing the nurse’s empathy skills, we would be able to improve providing family needs. Through empathic communication, nurses can encourage family members to participate in planning for the care of their patients. However, further studies are necessary to confirm the results.

  3. Nurses empathy and family needs in the intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddasian, Sima; Lak Dizaji, Sima; Mahmoudi, Mokhtar

    2013-09-01

    The patients' families in intensive care units (ICUs) experience excessive stress which may disrupt their performance in daily life. Empathy is basic to the nursing role and has been found to be associated with improved patient outcomes and greater satisfaction with care in patient and his/her family. However, few studies have investigated the nursing empathy with ICU patients. This study aimed to assess nursing empathy and its relationship with the needs, from the perspective of families of patients in ICU. In this cross-sectional study, 418 subjects were selected among families of patients admitted to ICUs in Tabriz, Iran, by convenience sampling, from May to August 2012. Data were collected through Barrett-Lennard Relationship inventory (BLRI) empathy scale and Critical Care Family Needs Intervention (CCFNI) inventories and were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tests. Findings showed that most of the nurses had high level of empathy to the patients (38.8%). There was also statistically significant relationship between nurses' empathy and needs of patients' families (p < 0.001). In this study we found that by increasing the nurse's empathy skills, we would be able to improve providing family needs. Through empathic communication, nurses can encourage family members to participate in planning for the care of their patients. However, further studies are necessary to confirm the results.

  4. Blau syndrome (familial granulomatous arthritis, iritis, and rash) in an african-american family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, I A; Moore, E C; Rabah, R; Bawle, E V

    2000-02-01

    Blau syndrome (familial granulomatous arthritis, iritis, and rash) was originally described in 1985, in 11 members of a family of Dutch ancestry. Inheritance is autosomal dominant. Several more Caucasian families have been described since. Skin and synovial biopsy specimens show noncaseating sarcoid like granulomas, but the lung is not involved as in classic sarcoidosis. This report describes 3 members of an African American family with Blau syndrome. It is important to differentiate this genetic disorder from other childhood arthritides, such as, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile spondyloarthropathies, and early-onset sarcoidosis, because of the need for genetic counseling, treatment and differing potential for selective involvement of other organs (eye, skin, and tendons/joints). All children of an affected individual have a 50% chance of inheriting the disease. Unaffected children do not have to be concerned about subsequent generations being affected. The response to conventional treatments used in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and to etanercept in our patients has not been satisfactory. Joint disease responds to corticosteroids, but these agents are not suitable for a disease that is lifelong. The eye involvement is aggressive and can lead to blindness. These patients need close follow-up by an ophthalmologist.

  5. A longitudinal study of family obligation and depressive symptoms among Chinese American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda P; Cookston, Jeffrey T

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this 2-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of Chinese American adolescents was to examine how family obligation behaviors and attitudes change over time; how gender, nativity, and birth order predict these trajectories; and whether family obligation relates to depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that family obligation behaviors decreased over the 2-year period but that family obligation attitudes were stable. Moreover, foreign-born adolescents reported higher levels of family obligation behavior than U.S.-born adolescents, and firstborn adolescents reported higher family obligation attitudes than laterborn adolescents. There were no gender differences in family obligation behaviors or attitudes. The findings also suggest that initial higher levels of family obligation were associated with subsequently fewer depressive symptoms. Finally, changes in family obligation behaviors related to changes in depressive symptoms over time such that increasing family obligation behaviors related to decreasing depressive symptoms. The results highlight the importance of understanding the role of family obligation to Chinese American adolescents' mental health.

  6. Informational support to family members of intensive care unit patients: the perspectives of families and nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaeeni, Mina; Farahani, Mansoureh A; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Mohammadi, Nooredin

    2014-09-25

    The receiving information about the patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit is classified among the most important needs of the family members of such patients. Meeting the informational needs of families is a major goal for intensive care workers. Delivering honest, intelligible and effective information raises specific challenges in the stressful setting of the intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this qualitative study was to explain perspectives of families of Intensive Care Unit patients and nurses about informational support. Using a conventional content analysis approach, semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants to explore their perspectives of providing informational support to families of ICU patients. A purposeful sampling method was used to recruit nineteen family members of thirteen patients hospitalized in the ICU and twelve nurses from three teaching hospitals. In general, 31 persons participated in this study. Data collection continued to achieve data saturation. A conventional content analysis of the data produced three categories and seven sub-categories. The three main categories were as followed, a) providing information, b) handling information and c) using information. Providing information had three sub-categories consisting of "receiving admission news", "receiving truthful and complete information" and receiving general information. Handling information had two sub-categories consisting "keeping information" and "gradual revelation". Lastly, using information has two sub-categories consisting of "support of patient" and "support of family members". The results of this study revealed perspectives of families of Intensive Care Unit patients and nurses about informational support. It also determines the nurses' need to know more about the influence of their supportive role on family's ICU patients informing. In addition, the results of present study can be used as a basis for further studies and for offering

  7. Trends in Themes of African American Family Research 1939-1989: A Synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lenwood G.

    1990-01-01

    Themes in research on African-American families between 1939 and 1989 are discussed, and the following recently developed themes are highlighted: (1) stress, (2) aging, (3) adoption, (4) prison, (5) polygamy, and (6) violence. Much more research is needed to provide better understanding of the African-American family. (SLD)

  8. Effects of Culturally Relevant Psychoeducation for Korean American Families of Persons with Chronic Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun-Kyung

    2004-01-01

    This study is to identify culturally relevant treatment methods and to assess the effects of family psychoeducational intervention for Korean Americans who had a family member with mental illness. 48 Korean Americans with children with mental illness were randomly assigned to either an experimental group program that provided culturally sensitive…

  9. African American Families on Autism Diagnosis and Treatment: The Influence of Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD…

  10. Acculturation, Behavioral Factors, and Family History of Breast Cancer among Mexican and Mexican-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodora, Jesse N; Cooper, Renee; Talavera, Gregory A; Gallo, Linda; Meza Montenegro, María Mercedes; Komenaka, Ian; Natarajan, Loki; Gutiérrez Millán, Luis Enrique; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Bondy, Melissa; Brewster, Abenaa; Thompson, Patricia; Martinez, María Elena

    2015-01-01

    Incidence rates for breast cancer are higher among Mexican-American (MA) women in the United States than women living in Mexico. Studies have shown higher prevalence of breast cancer risk factors in more acculturated than less acculturated Hispanic/Latinas in the United States. We compared the prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent. Data were collected from 1,201 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients living in Mexico (n = 581) and MAs in the United States (n = 620). MA participants were categorized into three acculturation groups (Spanish dominant, bilingual, and English dominant); women living in Mexico were used as the referent group. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer were assessed according to acculturation level, adjusting for age at diagnosis and education. In the adjusted models, bilingual and English-dominant MAs were significantly more likely to have a body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) or greater, consume more than one alcoholic beverage a week, and report having a family history of breast cancer than women living in Mexico. All three U.S. acculturation groups were significantly more likely to have lower total energy expenditure (≤533 kcal/d) than women in Mexico. English-dominant women were significantly less likely to ever smoke cigarettes than the Mexican group. Our findings add to the limited scientific literature on the relationships among acculturation, health behavior, and family history of breast cancer in Mexican and MA women. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Promoting Patient- and Family-Centered Care in the Intensive Care Unit: A Dissemination Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinpell, Ruth; Buchman, Timothy G; Harmon, Lori; Nielsen, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    Awareness of patient-centered and family-centered care research can assist clinicians to promote patient and family engagement in the intensive care unit. Project Dispatch (Disseminating Patient-Centered Outcomes Research to Healthcare Professionals) was developed to disseminate patient- and family-centered care research and encourage its application in clinical practice. The 3-year project involved the development of an interactive website platform, online educational programming, social media channels, a podcast and webcast series, and electronic and print media. The project's webpages received more than 5200 page views with over 4000 unique visitors from 36 countries. The podcast series has download numbers ranging from 35 596 for "Family Presence in the ICU" to 25 843 for "Improving Patient and Family satisfaction in the ICU" and 22 148 for "Family Satisfaction in the ICU." The project therefore successfully developed resources for critical care health care professionals to promote the patient- and family-centric perspective. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  12. The mediating role of parent-child bonding to prevent adolescent alcohol abuse among Asian American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meme; Kviz, Frederick J; Miller, Arlene M

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe unique culturally-based factors that may increase the vulnerability of Asian American adolescents to engage in alcohol use and abuse and the role of parent-child bonding as a protective factor. In particular, this paper addresses the interactions among acculturation, alcohol use, and parent-child bonding and the challenges Asian American families face in strengthening parent-child bonds. We begin by examining likely causes for alienation that occur as a result of immigration to the United States. We then present the cultural context of Asian American families that can also serve to create distance between parent and child, including the contrasting cultural orientations of individualism and collectivism, Asian traditional values, differences in Eastern and Western parenting styles, and intergenerational cultural dissonance. Next, we present a review of the research that has examined acculturation as a risk factor for alcohol use and abuse among Asian American adolescents, with special attention to the mediating role of parent-child bonding. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research on the risk and protective factors for adolescent substance abuse, as well as other risky health behaviors among the growing population of Asian Americans in the United States.

  13. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women

    OpenAIRE

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely...

  14. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  15. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  16. Family experience survey in the surgical intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twohig, Bridget; Manasia, Anthony; Bassily-Marcus, Adel; Oropello, John; Gayton, Matthew; Gaffney, Christine; Kohli-Seth, Roopa

    2015-11-01

    The experience of critical care is stressful for both patients and their families. This is especially true when patients are not able to make their own care decisions. This article details the creation of a Family Experience Survey in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) to capture and improve overall experience. Kolcaba's "Enhanced Comfort Theory" provided the theoretical basis for question formation, specifically in regards to the four aspects of comfort: "physical," "psycho-spiritual," "sociocultural" and "environmental." Survey results were analyzed in real-time to identify and implement interventions needed for issues raised. Overall, there was a high level of satisfaction reported especially with quality of care provided to patients, communication and availability of nurses and doctors, explanations from staff, inclusion in decision making, the needs of patients being met, quality of care provided to patients and cleanliness of the unit. It was noted that 'N/A' was indicated for cultural needs and spiritual needs, a chaplain now rounds on all patients daily to ensure these services are more consistently offered. In addition, protocols for doctor communication with families, palliative care consults, daily bleach cleaning of high touch areas in patient rooms and nurse-led progressive mobility have been implemented. Enhanced comfort theory enabled the opportunity to identify and provide a more 'broad' approach to care for patients and families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Historical, Socio-Cultural, and Conceptual Issues to Consider When Researching Mexican American Children and Families, and other Latino Subgroups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Buriel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order for the field of psychology in the United States to maintain its relevance and validity, it must become more inclusive in its theory and research of Latinos, who are now the largest "minority" group in the nation. In particular, due to immigration and birth rates, Mexican Americans are the largest and fastest growing segment of the Latino population. This paper addresses some of the most significant historical and socio-cultural factors contributing to the psychological nature and wellbeing of Mexican Americans. These factors should be understood and used to guide research and theory in order to make the discipline of psychology relevant for Mexican Americans. The concept of mestizaje is used to explain the biological and cultural mixing constituting the diverse origins of the Mexican people. Immigration to the U.S. is described in terms of selective socio-cultural variables giving rise to a diverse Mexican American culture that is resistant to complete assimilation. Within a U.S. context, the constructs of generational status, acculturation, and biculturalism are used to explain the socio-cultural adaptation of Mexican Americans. The special role of children in immigrant families as language and cultural brokers are also discussed, and used to explain the adjustment of Mexican American families.

  18. On the Outside Looking in: An African American Family's Experience in an Individualized Education Plan Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, Azure D. S.; Anderson, Sheri L.

    2012-01-01

    The current laws that mandate special education originated through the advocacy of families (Turnbull & Turnbull, 1990). Over the years, families have challenged the system to provide free and appropriate public educations for their children. We share, through qualitative measures, the experiences of one African American family and the…

  19. A Study on the Child-Rearing Pattern of American Family in Lizzie Mc-Guire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林清燕

    2015-01-01

    Development of globalization makes family education play a more important role in global competition. The child-rear-ing pattern is the reflection of family education. Therefore, the paper will research child-rearing pattern of American family in Lizzie McGuire.

  20. Assessment of family functioning in Caucasian and Hispanic Americans: reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Family Assessment Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Gregory A; McDonald, Elizabeth J; Connelly, Cynthia D; Newton, Rae R

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Family Assessment Device (FAD) among a national sample of Caucasian and Hispanic American families receiving public sector mental health services. A confirmatory factor analysis conducted to test model fit yielded equivocal findings. With few exceptions, indices of model fit, reliability, and validity were poorer for Hispanic Americans compared with Caucasian Americans. Contrary to our expectation, an exploratory factor analysis did not result in a better fitting model of family functioning. Without stronger evidence supporting a reformulation of the FAD, we recommend against such a course of action. Findings highlight the need for additional research on the role of culture in measurement of family functioning.

  1. African-American lesbian identity management and identity development in the context of family and community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Shannon J

    2011-01-01

    Don't Ask, Don't Tell is gaining attention in family studies literature as a cultural specific context to understand lesbian, gay, and bisexual visibility in African-American families and communities. This policy suggests that sexual minorities are accepted within African-American families and communities as long as they do not label themselves or acknowledge publicly that they engage in same-sex relationships. The narratives of two African-American lesbians (aged 26 and 27 years) are chronicled in the present study to reveal their lesbian identity development, lesbian identity management, and how they defined and navigated Don't Ask, Don't Tell. They encountered challenges and successes in a quest to find communities that would embrace and affirm their multiple marginalized identities. Their stories are offered as a point of entry to further inquiry concerning African-American lesbian visibility and identity proclamation within African-American families and communities.

  2. Elder abuse and neglect in African American families: informing practice based on ecological and cultural frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsford, Sheena R; Parra-Cardona, José Rubén; Schiamberg, Larry; Post, Lori A

    2011-01-01

    Despite the rapid growth of the elderly African American population in the U.S., elder abuse and neglect in African American families continue to be underdeveloped areas of study. This article presents an ecological and culturally informed framework for the study of elder abuse in African American populations. The model was developed based on Bronfenbrenner's Human Ecological Theory. The model identifies risk factors associated with different systems that have an influence on the lives of African American families. Cultural protective factors also are identified in the model. The model is intended to provide an understanding of elder abuse and neglect in African American families by considering the influence of contextual factors such as the legacy of slavery, social exclusion, and structural segregation and racism. Specific suggestions for practice are proposed according to cultural strengths of African American communities as well as the ecological premises of the model.

  3. Postanesthesia care unit visitation decreases family member anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Amy J; Deselms, JoAnn; Ruyle, Shelley; Morrissey-Lucas, Marcella; Kollar, Suzie; Cannon, Shelly; Schick, Lois

    2012-02-01

    Despite advocacy by professional nursing organizations, no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have evaluated the response of family members to a visit with an adult patient during a postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay. Therefore, the purpose of this RCT was to evaluate the impact of a brief PACU visitation on the anxiety of family members. The study was conducted in a phase I PACU of a large community-based hospital. Subjects were designated adult family members or significant others of an adult PACU patient who had undergone general anesthesia. A pretest-posttest RCT design was used. The dependent variable was the change in anxiety scores of the visitor after seeing his or her family member in the PACU. Student t test (unpaired, two tailed) was used to determine if changes in anxiety scores (posttest score-pretest score) were different for the PACU visit and no visit groups. A total of 45 participants were studied over a 3-month period, with N=24 randomly assigned to a PACU visit and N=21 assigned to usual care (no PACU visit). Participants in the PACU visit group had a statistically significant (P=.0001) decrease in anxiety after the visitation period (-4.11±6.4); participants in the usual care group (no PACU visit) had an increase in anxiety (+4.47±6.6). The results from this study support the value and importance of PACU visitation for family members.

  4. Effect of acculturation and mutuality on family loyalty among Mexican American caregivers of elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsueh-Fen S; An, Kyungeh

    2012-06-01

    Informal family care for elders is conventional in Mexican American communities despite increasing intergenerational gaps in filial values. In our study, we explored whether acculturation and dyadic mutuality, as perceived by Mexican American family caregivers, explain the caregivers' expectations of family loyalty toward elderly relatives. A nonexperimental, correlational design with convenience sampling was used in El Paso, Texas, from October 2007 to January 2008. Three bilingual promotoras collected data from 193 Mexican American adult caregivers of community-dwelling elders using three scales designed for Mexican Americans: the Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans II-Short Form, the Mutuality Scale, and the Expectations of Family Loyalty of Children Toward Elderly Relatives Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to analyze the data. Acculturation had a marginal effect (r = .21, p loyalty toward elderly relatives. There was no significant correlation between acculturation and mutuality (r = .05). Although Mexican American caregivers with strong Mexican orientation may have high expectations of family loyalty toward elderly relatives, mutuality exhibits more significant effects on expectations. Among Mexican Americans, mutuality between the caregiving dyad, as perceived by caregivers, may be a better predictor of filial values than caregivers' acculturation alone. It may be useful to incorporate the dual paradigm of acculturation and mutuality into immigrant family care for elderly relatives. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  5. Polygamy: A Futuristic Family Arrangement among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Joseph W.

    1976-01-01

    Using the case study approach which permits indepth analysis of the emergence, the maintenance and change of family relationships, it is found that one adaptation associated with one parent families is polygamy. (Author/AM)

  6. Mutation spectrum in South American Lynch syndrome families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez-Valentin, Mev; Nilbert, Mef; Wernhoff, Patrik;

    2013-01-01

    Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system.......Genetic counselling and testing for Lynch syndrome have recently been introduced in several South American countries, though yet not available in the public health care system....

  7. Serving Native American Children and Families: Considering Cultural Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson-Zanartu, Carol

    1996-01-01

    This article examines the different world views and belief systems, acculturation stress, school-home discontinuity, learning styles, communication patterns, and parent participation of Native American students. The assessment and evaluation of Native American students and culturally compatible service delivery models are also discussed. (CR)

  8. Family, caring and ageing in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Tony; Powell, Jason L

    2005-03-01

    This paper provides a critical exploration of the assumptions and narratives underpinning the development of social policy initiatives targeting caring relationships based upon family ties. Using a narrative approach attention is drawn to the ways in which family identities are open to a far greater range of negotiation than is assumed by policy. Drawing on the United Kingdom as a case example, questions are posed about intergenerational relations and the nature of late life citizenship. The comparatively recent invention of narratives supporting 'informal care' and the link with neo-liberal and 'third way' notions of active citizenship are explored. As is the failure of policy developments to take into account the diversity of care giving styles and the complexity of caring relationships. It is argued that the uneven and locally specific ways in which policy develops enables the co-existence of a complex range of narratives about family, caring and ageing which address diverse aspects of the family life of older people in often contradictory ways.

  9. The American Board of Family Medicine: New Tools to Assist Program Directors and Graduates Achieve Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakowski, Stanley M; Pugno, Perry A

    2017-01-01

    In this commentary we review the improvements in the pass rates for first-time American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) Certification Examination test takers in the context of new tools and resources for program directors against the backdrop of a changing accreditation system and increased competition for a relatively fixed number of graduate medical education positions in family medicine. While causality cannot be established between the strategic initiatives of the ABFM and higher pass rates, we can all celebrate the new tools and resources provided to residents and program directors, and the improved performance of family medicine graduates on the certification examination. © Copyright 2017 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  10. Intensive Care Unit death and factors influencing family satisfaction of Intensive Care Unit care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Salins

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Family satisfaction of Intensive Care Unit (FS-ICU care is believed to be associated with ICU survival and ICU outcomes. A review of literature was done to determine factors influencing FS-ICU care in ICU deaths. Results: Factors that positively influenced FS-ICU care were (a communication: Honesty, accuracy, active listening, emphatic statements, consistency, and clarity; (b family support: Respect, compassion, courtesy, considering family needs and wishes, and emotional and spiritual support; (c family meetings: Meaningful explanation and frequency of meetings; (d decision-making: Shared decision-making; (e end of life care support: Support during foregoing life-sustaining interventions and staggered withdrawal of life support; (f ICU environment: Flexibility of visiting hours and safe hospital environment; and (g other factors: Control of pain and physical symptoms, palliative care consultation, and family-centered care. Factors that negatively influenced FS-ICU care were (a communication: Incomplete information and unable to interpret information provided; (b family support: Lack of emotional and spiritual support; (c family meetings: Conflicts and short family meetings; (d end of life care support: Resuscitation at end of life, mechanical ventilation on day of death, ICU death of an elderly, prolonged use of life-sustaining treatment, and unfamiliar technology; and (e ICU environment: Restrictive visitation policies and families denied access to see the dying loved ones. Conclusion: Families of the patients admitted to ICU value respect, compassion, empathy, communication, involvement in decision-making, pain and symptom relief, avoiding futile medical interventions, and dignified end of life care.

  11. Intensive Care Unit death and factors influencing family satisfaction of Intensive Care Unit care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salins, Naveen; Deodhar, Jayita; Muckaden, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Family satisfaction of Intensive Care Unit (FS-ICU) care is believed to be associated with ICU survival and ICU outcomes. A review of literature was done to determine factors influencing FS-ICU care in ICU deaths. Results: Factors that positively influenced FS-ICU care were (a) communication: Honesty, accuracy, active listening, emphatic statements, consistency, and clarity; (b) family support: Respect, compassion, courtesy, considering family needs and wishes, and emotional and spiritual support; (c) family meetings: Meaningful explanation and frequency of meetings; (d) decision-making: Shared decision-making; (e) end of life care support: Support during foregoing life-sustaining interventions and staggered withdrawal of life support; (f) ICU environment: Flexibility of visiting hours and safe hospital environment; and (g) other factors: Control of pain and physical symptoms, palliative care consultation, and family-centered care. Factors that negatively influenced FS-ICU care were (a) communication: Incomplete information and unable to interpret information provided; (b) family support: Lack of emotional and spiritual support; (c) family meetings: Conflicts and short family meetings; (d) end of life care support: Resuscitation at end of life, mechanical ventilation on day of death, ICU death of an elderly, prolonged use of life-sustaining treatment, and unfamiliar technology; and (e) ICU environment: Restrictive visitation policies and families denied access to see the dying loved ones. Conclusion: Families of the patients admitted to ICU value respect, compassion, empathy, communication, involvement in decision-making, pain and symptom relief, avoiding futile medical interventions, and dignified end of life care. PMID:27076710

  12. Neighborhood Disorder and Children’s Antisocial Behavior: The Protective Effect of Family Support Among Mexican American and African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Rand D.; Conger, Katherine J.; Martin, Monica J.; Brody, Gene; Simons, Ronald; Cutrona, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a sample of 673 Mexican Origin families, the current investigation examined the degree to which family supportiveness acted as a protective buffer between neighborhood disorder and antisocial behavior during late childhood (i.e. intent to use controlled substances, externalizing, and association with deviant peers). Children’s perceptions of neighborhood disorder fully mediated associations between census and observer measures of neighborhood disorder and their antisocial behavior. Family support buffered children from the higher rates of antisocial behavior generally associated with living in disorderly neighborhoods. An additional goal of the current study was to replicate these findings in a second sample of 897 African American families, and that replication was successful. These findings suggest that family support may play a protective role for children living in dangerous or disadvantaged neighborhoods. They also suggest that neighborhood interventions should consider several points of entry including structural changes, resident perceptions of their neighborhood and family support. PMID:22089092

  13. Family Perspectives of Traumatically Brain-Injured Patient Pain Behaviors in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbyl, Brandy L; Gélinas, Céline

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral scales allow for the pain assessment of vulnerable critically ill patients who are unable to self-report. However, validity of the use of such scales is limited in traumatic brain injury patients with an altered level of consciousness as a result of the different way that these patients express pain. Family participation is considered as an important component of pain assessment for those unable to self-report, but research in this area is minimal so far. This study aimed to describe what behaviors family caregivers deemed relevant to pain for patients with a traumatic brain injury with an altered level of consciousness in the intensive care unit. Using a mixed-method descriptive design, semistructured interviews were conducted and behaviors' relevance was quantitatively rated by seven family caregivers of nonverbal patients with traumatic brain injury in the intensive care unit of a tertiary trauma center in Montreal, Canada. Family caregivers were able to provide rich descriptions of a number of behaviors they observed in their loved ones that were perceived to be relevant indicators of pain, such as muscle tension and key facial expressions and body movements. Several factors influenced how behaviors were interpreted by family, including personal medical beliefs and intimate knowledge of the patient's history. The pain behaviors determined by family caregivers can be useful in the pain assessment process of traumatic brain injury patients with an altered level of consciousness. Their input could also be helpful in further development of pain assessment tools. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mexican American Fathers’ Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members’ Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouter, Ann C.; Davis, Kelly D.; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    To examine the implications of fathers’ occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members’ psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the importance of acculturation as a moderator. Fathers’ income was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in highly acculturated families but not in less acculturated families. In contrast, fathers’ reports of workplace racism were positively associated with depressive symptoms in less acculturated families but not in more acculturated family contexts. These findings were consistent across all 4 family members, suggesting that the “long arm” of the jobs held by Mexican American fathers extends to mothers and adolescent offspring. PMID:18414596

  15. Developmental Processes in African American Families: An Application of McLoyd's Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievar, M. Angela; Luster, Tom

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with McLoyd's model of African American children's development, we examined the linkages among family income, maternal psychological distress, marital conflict, parenting, and children's outcomes in early and middle childhood, using a sample of 591 African American children from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Income…

  16. Using a Positive Psychology and Family Framework to Understand Mexican American Adolescents' College-Going Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vela, Javier C.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Gonzalez, Stacey Lee

    2017-01-01

    Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American adolescents' academic experiences. We used a quantitative, predictive design to explore how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, subjective happiness, hope, and family importance influenced 131 Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs. We used…

  17. Managing Family Conflict over Career Decisions: The Experience of Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Pei-Wen Winnie; Desai, Uttara; George, Login S.; San Filippo, Alyssa A.; Varon, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    Conflict over career decisions is a main source of intergenerational conflict among Asian American families. This qualitative study explored the topic using consensual qualitative research methodology in a sample of eight Asian Americans. Results indicated that participants experienced feelings of guilt and indebtedness due to conflicting values,…

  18. Long-Term Effects of the Strong African American Families Program on Youths' Alcohol Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Murry, Velma McBride; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective:This report extends earlier accounts by addressing the effects of the Strong African American Families (SAAF) program across 65 months. Two hypotheses were tested: (a) Rural African American youths randomly assigned to participate in SAAF would demonstrate lower rates of alcohol use than would control youths more than 5 years later, and…

  19. The importance of family factors and generation status: mental health service use among Latino and Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Janet; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Chen, Chih-Nan

    2013-07-01

    The present study utilized data from the National Latino and Asian American Study to examine ethnic and generational differences in family cultural conflict and family cohesion and how the effects of such family conflict and cohesion on lifetime service use vary by generation status for Latino Americans (n = 2,554) and Asian Americans (n = 2,095). Findings revealed that first-generation Asian Americans reported greater family cultural conflict than their Latino counterparts, but third-generation Latino Americans had higher family conflict than their Asian American counterparts. First-generation Latino and Asian Americans had the highest levels of family cohesion. Results from logistic regression analyses indicated that Latino Americans who reported higher family cultural conflict and lower family cohesion were more likely to use mental health services. For Asian Americans, family cultural conflict, but not family cohesion, was associated with service use. Relative to third-generation Asian Americans, second-generation Asian Americans with higher family cultural conflict were more likely to use mental health services. Given that cohesive familial bonds appear to discourage service use on the part of Latino Americans irrespective of generation status, further research is needed to ascertain the extent to which this tendency stems from greater reliance on family support as opposed to the stigma associated with mental health treatment. Mental health providers and treatment programs need to address the role of family cultural conflict in the lives of Asian Americans, particularly second generation, and Latino Americans across generations, because conflictual family ties may motivate help-seeking behaviors and reveal substantial underlying distress. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Developmental trajectories of African American adolescents' family conflict: differences in mental health problems in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A; Zimmerman, Marc A

    2014-04-01

    Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and psychopathology. As hypothesized, latent class growth analysis approximated 4 developmental trajectories of family conflict during high school for 681 African American adolescents (49% boys). Trajectory classes differed in anxiety, depressive symptoms, and violent behavior at age 20, supporting expectations that adolescents demonstrating elevated levels and atypical trajectories of family conflict in high school would report greater mental health problems as young adults. Family conflict jeopardizes African American adolescents' transition to young adulthood by contributing to mental health problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. African American families on autism diagnosis and treatment: the influence of culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna

    2015-10-01

    Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD professionals. Cultural caring meant families protected their child from harm including potential or actual distrustful encounters, and took action for their child and community to optimize their child's health and address the knowledge deficits of ASD within their community. Families and professionals believed cultural influences delayed families' receiving and seeking appropriate health care for the African American child with ASD affecting timely autism diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Outcome Evaluation of "Family Eats": An Eight-Session Web-Based Program Promoting Healthy Home Food Environments and Dietary Behaviors for African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Thompson, Debbe; Chen, Tzu-An

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a randomized clinical trial evaluating the eight-session "Family Eats" web-based intervention promoting healthy home food environments for African American families. African American families (n = 126) with 8- to 12-year-old children completed online baseline questionnaires and were randomized into…

  3. Outcome evaluation of Family Eats: An eight-session web-based program promoting healthy home food environments and dietary behaviors for African American families

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article presents the results of a randomized clinical trial evaluating the eight-session Family Eats web-based intervention promoting healthy home food environments for African American families. African American families (n=126) with 8- to 12-year-old children completed online baseline questio...

  4. Confronting Homelessness among American Families: Federal Programs and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWoody, Madelyn

    This book offers specific information on the wide range of federal prevention, emergency shelter, and family service programs available today that provide children and families who are homeless or at risk of homelessness with financial support, education, job training, nutritional services, and crisis funding. The chapters are: (1)…

  5. Parenting styles and child behavior in African American families of preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querido, Jane G; Warner, Tamara D; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-06-01

    Examined the relations between parenting styles and child behavior problems in African American preschool children. Participants were 108 African American female caregivers of 3- to 6-year-old children. Correlational analysis showed that parent-reported child behavior problems were associated with maternal education, family income, and parents' endorsement of authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, and permissive parenting. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the authoritative parenting style was most predictive of fewer child behavior problems. These results are consistent with previous findings with European American families and provide strong support for the cross-cultural validity of the authoritative parenting style.

  6. The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…

  7. Influence of Family Perceptions of Acting White on Acculturative Stress in African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 African American college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…

  8. Influence of Family Perceptions of Acting White on Acculturative Stress in African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Keisha V.; Lightfoot, Nicole L.; Castillo, Linda G.; Hurst, Morgan L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined family-oriented stressors on acculturative stress in 83 African American college students attending a predominately White university. Results showed that family pressure for participants not to acculturate, pressure to maintain ethnic group language, perception of Acting White, and acculturation level were related to higher…

  9. Understanding Chinese American Adolescents' Developmental Outcomes: Insights from the Family Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2010-01-01

    In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial, and job instability)…

  10. Family Violence: Psychological Consequences and Beliefs in Asian and Asian-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira; Heiple, Becky

    This study specifically explored the relationships among childhood trauma, long-term psychological consequences, beliefs about family violence, and gender role stereotypes in Asian and Asian American women. A prediction was made that childhood physical violence and witnessing family violence would create long-term negative symptoms; higher levels…

  11. The Effects of Family Structure on African American Adolescents' Marijuana Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…

  12. Mexican American Fathers' Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members' Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouter, Ann C.; Davis, Kelly D.; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    To examine the implications of fathers' occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members' psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the…

  13. An Adapted Brief Strategic Family Therapy for Gang-Affiliated Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, Avelardo; Cepeda, Alice; Parrish, Danielle; Horowitz, Rosalind; Kaplan, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the effectiveness of an adapted Brief Strategic Family Therapy (BSFT) intervention for gang-affiliated Mexican American adolescents and their parents. Methods: A total of 200 adolescents and their family caregivers were randomized to either a treatment or a control condition. Outcomes included adolescent substance…

  14. Friendship with an International Student: A Guide for New American Host Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Association for Foreign Student Affairs, Washington, DC.

    Advice for American families who host a foreign student is offered, with attention to culture shock, the first visit, stages of the student's adjustment, and mealtimes. It is suggested that both the host and foreign student can learn from the other. At first, the host family should speak slowly and clearly and be careful to avoid talking loud,…

  15. Monitoring knowledge among family, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual partnership characteristics of African American adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Riley J; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Rose, Eve; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2014-10-01

    Among 284 African American girls aged 14 to 17 years, frequent family monitoring knowledge was associated with a reduced likelihood of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and having a casual sex partner but was not associated with other partnership characteristics. Family monitoring may offer an additional STI prevention opportunity for this vulnerable population.

  16. Understanding Chinese American Adolescents' Developmental Outcomes: Insights from the Family Stress Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2010-01-01

    In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model's generalizability. Specifically, mothers' and fathers' reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial, and job instability)…

  17. Buffering Effects of a Family-Based Intervention for African American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen; Brown, Anita C.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the buffering effects of Adults in the Making (AIM), a family-centered preventive intervention, on the link between life stress and increases in risk behaviors among 347 rural, southern African Americans as they left high school. Of the families, 174 were assigned to the prevention condition and 173 to a control condition.…

  18. Working with Arab American Families: Culturally Competent Practice for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haboush, Karen L.

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of Arab descent residing within the United States currently number between 1.2 million and 3.9 million. These families are characterized by considerable diversity depending upon their nationality, religion, and extent of acculturation to both Western and Arab cultures. More recently, Arab families have immigrated to the United States…

  19. Breaking Barriers: An Asian-American Curriculum Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombach, Catherine; Tice, Natasha Florey

    A 10-day curriculum is presented for upper elementary grades to explore who is in power on the local, state, and federal levels; and to investigate why so few Asian Americans are in power; and to confront personal prejudices and break stereotypes about Asian Americans. The 10 days are devoted to the following: (1) distinguishing between prejudice…

  20. African American families' expectations and intentions for mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard; Dancy, Barbara L; Wiley, Tisha R A; Najdowski, Cynthia J; Perry, Sylvia P; Wallis, Jason; Mekawi, Yara; Knafl, Kathleen A

    2013-09-01

    A cross-sectional qualitative descriptive design was used to examine the links among expectations about, experiences with, and intentions toward mental health services. Individual face-to-face interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 32 African American youth/mothers dyads. Content analysis revealed that positive expectations were linked to positive experiences and intentions, that negative expectations were not consistently linked to negative experiences or intentions, nor were ambivalent expectations linked to ambivalent experiences or intentions. Youth were concerned about privacy breeches and mothers about the harmfulness of psychotropic medication. Addressing these concerns may promote African Americans' engagement in mental health services.

  1. Mexican American Fathers’ Occupational Conditions: Links to Family Members’ Psychological Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Crouter, Ann C.; Davis, Kelly D.; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    To examine the implications of fathers’ occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members’ psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the importance of acculturation as a moderator. Fathers’ income was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in highly acculturated families but not...

  2. Life Stress, Maternal Optimism, and Adolescent Competence in Single Mother, African American Families

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Although research demonstrates many negative family outcomes associated with single-parent households, little is known about processes that lead to positive outcomes for these families. Using 3 waves of longitudinal data, we examined how maternal dispositional optimism and life stressors are associated with parenting and child outcomes in 394 single mother African American families. Confirming prior research, we found that mothers' childhood adversities, current economic pressure, and interna...

  3. Working with African American clients: considering the "homeplace" in marriage and family therapy practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Linda M; Winn, Donna-Marie; Stevenson, Howard; Clark, Sherri Lawson

    2004-10-01

    In this article, we discuss perspectives on the "homeplace" that are important to consider in marriage and family therapy involving African American clients. The homeplace comprises individual and family processes that are anchored in a defined physical space that elicits feelings of empowerment, rootedness, ownership, safety, and renewal. Critical elements of the homeplace include social relationships that shape individuals' and families' sense of social and cultural identity. We draw on our ethnographic and clinical research with African American families in urban and rural settings to describe typical schisms between therapists and African American clients when communicating about the homeplace. We also explore the impact of homeplace disruptions on experiences of "yearning." Recommendations for integrating a homeplace perspective into therapy practices are provided.

  4. Patterns of family health history communication among older African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R; Yamasaki, Jill S; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Peterson, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined patterns of communication regarding family health history among older African American adults. The authors conducted 5 focus groups and 6 semi-structured interviews with African Americans aged 60 years and older (N = 28). The authors identified 4 distinct patterns of family health history communication: noncommunication, open communication, selective communication (communication restricted to certain people or topics), and one-way communication (communication not reciprocated by younger family members). In general, participants favored open family health history communication, often resulting from desires to change patterns of noncommunication in previous generations regarding personal and family health history. Some participants indicated that they were selective about what and with whom they shared health information in order to protect their privacy and not worry others. Others described family health history communication as one-way or unreciprocated by younger family members who appeared uninterested or unwilling to share personal and family health information. The communication patterns that the authors identified are consistent with communication privacy management theory and with findings from studies focused on genetic testing results for hereditary conditions, suggesting that individuals are consistent in their communication of health and genetic risk information. Findings may guide the development of health message strategies for African Americans to increase family health history communication.

  5. Selecting renal replacement therapies: what do African American and non-African American patients and their families think others should know? A mixed methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DePasquale Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known regarding the types of information African American and non-African American patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD and their families need to inform renal replacement therapy (RRT decisions. Methods In 20 structured group interviews, we elicited views of African American and non-African American patients with CKD and their families about factors that should be addressed in educational materials informing patients’ RRT selection decisions. We asked participants to select factors from a list and obtained their open-ended feedback. Results Ten groups of patients (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 68 individuals and ten groups of family members (5 African American, 5 non-African American; total 62 individuals participated. Patients and families had a range (none to extensive of experiences with various RRTs. Patients identified morbidity or mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms as important factors to address. Family members identified similar factors but also cited the effects of RRT decisions on patients’ psychological well-being and finances. Views of African American and non-African American participants were largely similar. Conclusions Educational resources addressing the influence of RRT selection on patients’ morbidity and mortality, autonomy, treatment delivery, and symptoms could help patients and their families select RRT options closely aligned with their values. Including information about the influence of RRT selection on patients’ personal relationships and finances could enhance resources’ cultural relevance for African Americans.

  6. Social Capital: Strengthening Mexican-American Families through Parenting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanez, Marcel; Devall, Esther; VanLeeuwen, Dawn M.

    2010-01-01

    Development of social capital was explored from a scientific evaluation of adult and teen parents (N = 102) who voluntarily participated in a parenting program. Most were unmarried, young, low-income, and Mexican-American. A strengths-based, culturally specific method was utilized to recruit and retain participants. After training, parents had…

  7. Between Inflation and Recession: A Literacy Unit on the American Economic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Sharon; And Others

    This four-week unit on the American economic system for secondary students is intended to be a basic literacy unit in economics and to serve as a "sampler kit" demonstrating how economics can be taught interestingly, imaginatively, and with intellectual honesty to the subject matter. The unit's goals for students include ability to list the major…

  8. Effectiveness of nursing interventions based on family needs on family satisfaction in the neurosurgery intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefi, Hojatollah; Afsaneh KARAMI; Moeini, Mahin; Ganji, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since the family is a social system, the impairment in each of its component members may disrupt the entire family system. One of the stress sources for families is accidents leading to hospitalization particularly in the intensive care unit (ICU). In many cases, the families’ needs in patient care are not met that cause dissatisfaction. Since the nurses spend a lot of time with patients and their families, they are in a good position to assess their needs and perform appropriate ...

  9. Coparenting experiences in African American families: an examination of single mothers and their nonmarital coparents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah; Parent, Justin

    2014-03-01

    African American youth from single-mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describes the experiences of 95 African American single mothers and their nonmarital coparents who participated in a study of African American single-mother families with an 11-16-year-old child. Specifically, the study examines: (a) the extent to which nonmarital coparents are involved in childrearing; (b) the relative levels of risk (i.e., depression, mother-coparent conflict) and protective (i.e., parenting) associated with maternal and coparent involvement; and (c) how similarly and/or differently coparent and mother variables operate with regard to youth externalizing problems. Findings reveal that a range of family members and other adults actively participate in childrearing in African American single-mother families, coparents do not differ from mothers on certain study variables (i.e., depression and mother-coparent conflict) but do for others (parenting), and coparent involvement is associated with youth adjustment in ways that are similar to our more established understanding of maternal involvement. The potential clinical implications of the findings are discussed and future research directions are highlighted.

  10. Life stress, maternal optimism, and adolescent competence in single mother, African American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Zoe E; Larsen-Rife, Dannelle; Conger, Rand D; Widaman, Keith F; Cutrona, Carolyn E

    2010-08-01

    Although research demonstrates many negative family outcomes associated with single-parent households, little is known about processes that lead to positive outcomes for these families. Using 3 waves of longitudinal data, we examined how maternal dispositional optimism and life stressors are associated with parenting and child outcomes in 394 single mother African American families. Confirming prior research, we found that mothers' childhood adversities, current economic pressure, and internalizing problems were associated with lower levels of maternal warmth and child management and with lower child school competence. Extending previous studies, we found that maternal optimism was a positive resource, predicting lower levels of maternal internalizing symptoms and higher levels of effective child management and moderating the impact of economic stress on maternal internalizing problems. These findings highlight the need for further investigation of processes and resources that promote positive outcomes for African American mother-headed families and single mother families in general.

  11. The mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between harsh parental practices and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in Hispanic American, African American, and European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Elif Dede; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L

    2015-07-01

    Using data from the add-on 5-year cohort of In-Home Longitudinal Study of preschool aged Children of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS), we examined the mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between positive and harsh maternal practices and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. The sample consisted of 1,922 low-income Hispanic American, African American, and European American families. For European Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression and hostility and children's externalizing behaviors were direct. Similarly, for Hispanic Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression, physical assault, and hostility and externalizing behaviors were direct, as was the link between maternal physical assault and internalizing behaviors. For African Americans, maternal warmth partially mediated the links between maternal hostility and physical assault and externalizing behaviors. However, the associations between psychological aggression and externalizing and internalizing behaviors were direct. The data are discussed with respect to similarities in cultural pathways of influence between harsh maternal treatment and children's behavioral difficulties across ethnic groups.

  12. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families.

  13. "We Keep the Education Goin' at Home All the Time": Family Literacy in Low-Income African American Families of Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin L.; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai

    2017-01-01

    Researchers have examined the impact of family on child literacy among low-income African American families and preschoolers considered to be at risk for not being ready for kindergarten. Quantitative studies identify family-parental variables associated with poorer literacy outcomes, whereas qualitative studies detail family practices that…

  14. Lessons learned in developing a culturally adapted intervention for African-American families coping with parental cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Maureen P; Kissil, Karni; Lynch, Laura; Harmon, La-Rhonda; Hodgson, Nancy

    2012-12-01

    Prior clinical research supports the effectiveness of cancer support groups for cancer patients and their families, yet African-American families continue to be underrepresented in cancer support groups and in cancer clinical research studies. In order to fill this gap, we developed and evaluated a culturally adapted family support group for African-American families coping with parental cancer. We encountered unexpected challenges in overcoming barriers to recruitment, partnering with oncology providers, and building trust with the African-American community and African-American families coping with parental cancer. We describe actions taken during the two phases of this study and lessons learned along the way about recruiting and engaging African-American families in cancer support group studies, partnering with oncology providers, networking with the African-American community, and the importance of demonstrating cultural sensitivity to overcome the understandable historical legacy of mistrust.

  15. A Comparative Study of Chinese Family Values and American Family Values Influenced by Mass Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小诗

    2014-01-01

    Different context of mass media between countries can be reflected on the view of family values. In this paper, the au-thor is taking family values as an example to explore the differences between China and America.It is come to a conclusion that mass media have a big influence on family values in both countries.The comparison of different family values also give an inspira-tion to the development of media industry in China.

  16. Family and Friend Influence on Urban-Dwelling American Indian Adolescent Girl's Sexual Risk Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftner, Melissa A

    2016-09-01

    Previous research with American Indian (AI) adolescent sexual risk behavior primarily focused on reservation-dwelling youth despite 70% of AIs living off Native lands. Using grounded theory methodology, I sampled 20 adolescent AI girls via talking circles and interviews to explore the perceptions of AI adolescent girls living in an urban, Midwest area about the influence of family and friends on their sexual behavior. Similar to research with other racial groups, participants cited their family and friends as a major influence. Five unique themes emerged related to family and friend influence. Urban-dwelling AI girls rely on their female family members and peers for information related to sex and receive varying messages from their networks of family and friends, which often overlap. AI youth have unique family groups yet have some similarities to other ethnic groups with regard to family and friend relationships that may allow for enhanced intervention development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  18. Parental experiences of racial discrimination and youth racial socialization in two-parent African American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil Smith, Shardé; Reynolds, Jamila E; Fincham, Frank D; Beach, Steven R H

    2016-04-01

    Parents experiencing racial discrimination are likely to transmit racial socialization messages to their children to protect them from future injustices. This study was conducted to better understand the role of parents' racial discrimination in their racial socialization practices for 2-parent African American families. Using a sample from the Promoting Strong African American Families (N = 322 couples) program, we examined the effects of experienced discrimination on one's own and one's partner's racial socialization practices with male (n = 154) and female (n = 168) offspring. Multiple-group actor-partner interdependence models showed that racial discrimination was associated with racial socialization practices. In addition, maternal experiences of discrimination had stronger relations to socialization messages relayed to daughters and greater paternal experiences of discrimination had stronger relations to socialization messages given to sons. This study demonstrates variability in how male and female children in African American families are socialized as a result of their parents' experiences with racial discrimination. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Testimony of the Project Director, Head Start Mental Health National Discretionary Grant on Behalf of the American Psychological Association before the United States Senate, Subcommittee on Children, Family Drugs and Alcoholism, Committee on Labor and Human Resources on the Subject of Mental Health for Head Start Children and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Mary Ann

    This report represents the testimony of Dr. Mary Ann Hutchison, Project Director of the mental health demonstration and research discretionary grant, "Strengthening Head Start Families: Reducing High Risk Through Mental Health Prevention/Intervention," who discusses the importance of reauthorization of Head Start's mental health…

  20. Cultural and Family Challenges to Managing Type 2 Diabetes in Immigrant Chinese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although Asians demonstrate elevated levels of type 2 diabetes, little attention has been directed to their unique cultural beliefs and practices regarding diabetes. We describe cultural and family challenges to illness management in foreign-born Chinese American patients with type 2 diabetes and their spouses. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was an interpretive comparative interview study with 20 foreign-born Chinese American couples (n = 40) living with type 2 diabetes. Multiple ...

  1. Foster family care from the Polish and American perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Gruca-Miąsik, Urszula

    2003-01-01

    When children are removed from their homes, they may be placed in a variety of settings. In many states in USA and provinces (voivodships) in Poland, foster family care has been the predominant form of substitute care for several decades (Chamberlin, Moreland and Reid 1992; Kolankiewicz 1998). Foster parents are usually licensed by the state or local authorities, indicating that their homes have been assessed for basic health and safety standards, and that the caregivers have ...

  2. A Qualitative Study of the Long Term Impact of Welfare Reform on Cambodian American Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Quintiliani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many Cambodian American families have struggled on the economic margins since their arrival to the U.S. in the 1980s. To raise families in poverty Cambodians created family survival strategies to buffer themselves against economic uncertainty and the vagaries of the social welfare system. They combine public assistance with formal and informal work activities of household members, including teenagers and young adults, to survive. With the passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996 or Welfare Reform, Cambodians lost vital economic resources. Based upon a longitudinal qualitative study from 1998-2007, this article looks back on how first generation Cambodian American household members adjusted to changes in welfare policy practices and how the loss of vital resources impacted the youth (15-19 years old coming of age in these families. The research findings and family case histories presented in this article illustrate the shared struggle of Cambodian family members in poverty. It reveals the significant challenges second generation Cambodian Americans face to achieve higher education goals when welfare policies systematically undercut family survival strategies.

  3. La Familia: Curriculum Unit. Latino Family Life Education Curriculum Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiella, Ana Consuelo

    This teaching guide comprises eight lessons designed to enhance the self-esteem of Latino students, grades 5 through 8, through the exploration of family, family traditions and values, and the affirmation of family strengths. Student objectives include the following: (1) define family; (2) describe similarities and differences among Latino…

  4. Family eating and physical activity practices among African American, Filipino American, and Hispanic American families: Implications for developing obesity prevention programs

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Sobong Porter

    2017-01-01

    Overweight and obesity among children and adults is well-documented as an escalating problem. The purpose of this study is to determine the blood pressure, self-esteem, and eating and physical activity practices among African Americans, Filipino Americans, and Hispanic Americans; and project implications for development of childhood obesity prevention programs. This descriptive study was conducted in a convenience sample of 110 mothers recruited in health clinics and community centers located...

  5. Intergenerational discrepancies of parental control among Chinese American families: Links to family conflict and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda P; Syed, Moin; Takagi, Miyuki

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated how discrepancies between adolescents' and parents' endorsement of parental control contribute to adolescent depressive symptoms. Family conflict was hypothesized to mediate the link between parent-adolescent discrepancies and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 166 pairs of Chinese American adolescents and their parents. The results indicated that, as predicted, greater discrepancies between adolescents and their parents on parental control related to greater adolescent depressive symptoms. Furthermore, adolescent's perceived degree of family conflict partially mediated this relation. Both parents and adolescents are changing and adapting to their cultural contexts; some in synchrony and some not. Identifying areas where parents and adolescents diverge concerning values, behaviors, and beliefs, is an important avenue to understanding Chinese American adolescents' mental health.

  6. Decline of African American Enlistment in the United States Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    be considered equal men. Racially motivated slander, bigotry, and condemnation of African Americans’ wartime service plagued the Army at the... workplace . The Vietnam Era Veterans’ Readjustment Assistance Act of 1974 was another program that assisted Vietnam Veterans in education and job placement...programs, which are now nearly extinct , gave priority to hiring of minorities and offering government contracts to African American businesses. Many

  7. Substance abuse and mental health issues within Native American grandparenting families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon, Sylvia I; Holmes, William M

    2013-01-01

    Substance abuse and mental health problems among Native Americans are associated with a variety of general health, social, and economic problems. This current study examined Native American grandparents who are raising their grandchildren and found that a child, parent, or grandparent had an alcohol or drug problem in 36% of families. Substance abuse on the part of a parent was correlated with the reasons grandparents were raising their grandchildren. Native American grandparents raising grandchildren cope with a variety of challenges and receive little state-funded assistance or help from others.

  8. Mexican American Adolescents’ Family Caregiving: Selection Effects and Longitudinal Associations With Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    East, Patricia L.; Weisner, Thomas S

    2009-01-01

    One hundred ten Mexican American adolescents (12 – 17 years) who provide infant care for their older sisters were studied to determine the effects of family caregiving responsibilities on adolescents’ adjustment. Controlling for prior adjustment and family context factors, providing many hours of caregiving predicted an increase in youths’ school absences and disciplinary problems. Frequent conflict surrounding caregiving was associated with increased stress and depression and lower school gr...

  9. Understanding Chinese American Adolescents’ Developmental Outcomes: Insights From the Family Stress Model

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2010-01-01

    In this brief report, we investigated whether the Family Stress Model could be replicated with a sample of Chinese American families. Path analyses with 444 adolescents and their parents provided support for the model’s generalizability. Specifically, mothers’ and fathers’ reports of economic status (i.e., income, financial and job instability) were associated with parents’ economic stress. Economic stress and economic status were related to parental depressive symptoms, which, in turn, were ...

  10. 19 CFR 148.88 - Certain representatives to and officers of the United Nations and the Organization of American...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... United Nations and the Organization of American States. 148.88 Section 148.88 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS... members of the staff of the United Nations and the Organization of American States, and their personal... United Nations member nation as the principal resident representative to the United Nations of...

  11. Culture- and Immigration-Related Stress Faced by Chinese American Families with a Patient Having Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Winnie W

    2016-07-01

    The impact of culture and immigration on the experience of Chinese American families with a member having schizophrenia is explored within the frameworks of family systems and stress and coping. This qualitative study was conducted within an intervention study of family psychoeducation using therapists' session notes from 103 family sessions and 13 relatives' group sessions from nine patients and 19 relatives. The high stigma attached to mental illness leading to social isolation, and families' devotion to caregiving exacerbated caregiver burden. Taboo against discussing dating and sexuality and the consideration of arranged marriages caused unique stress. The insecurity as immigrants and shortage of bilingual services were related to greater enmeshment within these families. Implications on research methodology and practice are discussed.

  12. A Significant Number of Charter Diplomates Participate in American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) Maintenance of Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, James C

    2015-01-01

    Considerable controversy about the value of participating in Maintenance of Certification has recently arisen within the medical community. Despite this controversy, large numbers of family physicians certified by the American Board of Family Medicine participate in Maintenance of Certification for Family Physicians. Surprisingly, a small but significant number of charter diplomats--those initially certified by the American Board of Family Medicine at its founding--are engaged in the process.

  13. African-American attitudes towards United States immigration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, J

    1998-01-01

    In the growing US debate over immigration policy since the 1980s, it is often argued that immigration must be restricted in order to protect Black Americans from competition with newly arrived immigrants. Findings are reported upon Black Americans' attitudes toward immigration policy. An extensive review of more than 50 Black newspapers and magazines, from January 1994 to June 1996, uncovered attitudes both in favor of and against restricting immigration. The majority of articles in the Black press on immigration, however, were nonrestrictionist. The Black political leadership is also against restricting immigration. Furthermore, a review of the 14 most recent national opinion polls on immigration available to the Roper Center for Public Opinion Research as of July 1996 found that while many Blacks favor restricting immigration, all US Blacks should not be characterized as restrictionist, especially when compared with Whites. Historical attitudes among US Blacks dating back to before the abolition of slavery are discussed.

  14. American Service: New National Service for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    11 save significant public funding years later.27 Other practical examples include “ literacy programs, cleaning up blighted neighborhoods, [and...alumni and, ironically, immigrants are now virtually the only Americans who experience a sense of citizenship earned rather than simply received.”33...which President Roosevelt signed into law.58 Concerned about the war in Europe , President Roosevelt authorized the first peacetime conscription in the

  15. Generational status and family cohesion effects on the receipt of mental health services among Asian Americans: findings from the National Latino and Asian American Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Van M; Holck, Peter; Gee, Gilbert C

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the relative strengths of generational status and family cohesion effects on current use of mental health services (past 12 months) among Asian Americans. We conducted a secondary data analysis with data from the National Latino and Asian American Study, 2002 to 2003, restricted to Asian American respondents (n=2087). The study's outcome was current use (past 12 months) of any mental health services. Respondents included Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, and other Asian Americans. Multivariate analyses suggest no significant interaction exists between second- versus first-generation Asian Americans and family cohesion. The impact of generational status on mental health service use was significant for third- or later-generation Asian Americans (versus first-generation Asian Americans) and varied with family cohesion score. Family cohesion and generational status both affect the likelihood of Asian Americans to seek mental health services. Our findings also highlight the need for primary care and other providers to consistently screen for mental health status particularly among first-generation Asian Americans. Mental health service programs should target recent immigrants and individuals lacking a strong family support system.

  16. Enhancing recruitment of African-American families into genetic research: lessons learned from Project SuGar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruill, Ida J

    2010-09-01

    Despite some recruitment success in biomedical research among minorities, participation by African-American families into research, specifically genetic research, is lower than Caucasian families (Bowen and Penchaszadeh Community Genet 11:189-190, 2008). Such low participation rates by African-Americans prevent the exploration of specific ethnic differences in patterns of diseases and diminish the identification of specific disease risks among ethnic groups (Bowen and Penchaszadeh Community Genet 11:189-190, 2008). Although African-Americans are heterogeneous, few studies exist to describe effective recruitment strategies across diverse African-American populations, and even fewer studies share effective strategies for the enrollment of African-American families into genetic research. A process evaluation of recruitment strategies used by Project SuGar (a community-based genetic research study focusing on families affected by type 2 diabetes) to enroll African-American families into genetic research was conducted. Our goal was to enroll 400 affected African-American families, and our results yielded 672 families, (n=672). Our success can be attributed to the formation of a Citizen Advisory Committee, recruitment style, flexible protocol, and formal agreement with community health centers. We found that African-American families will participate in research and that providing tangible benefits to the community and utilizing a sense of patience can enhance positive recruitment results. Data from this study may be used to recruit geographically isolated families into genetic research.

  17. Causes and impacts of the deportation of Central American immigrants from the United States to Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, the number of immigrants deported from the United States to Mexico based on an order of removal has hearly doubled. Not all migrants removed to Mexico are Mexican citizens, some are Central America citizens. This article, usins qualitative methods that includes in-depth interviews with 75 Central American migrants who were deported from the United States, examines the causes and impacts of the deportation of Central American immigrants from United States to Mexico and concludes that these deportations led to increase in violence in Mexico.

  18. Culture-Based Considerations in Programming for Stuttering Intervention with African American Clients and Their Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tommie L., Jr.; Crowe, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a clinical service delivery model for use with African-American children who stutter and their families. The model emphasizes the clinical importance of culture-based factors such as myths, oral presentation styles, narrative discourse styles, and cognitive learning styles, as well as rules for interaction and turn-taking. (Author/DB)

  19. On My Own: Mexican American Women, Self-Sufficiency, and the Family Support Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina

    The Focus Study, conducted by the National Council of La Raza's Poverty Project, used structured discussions by focus groups to examine Mexican American women's opinions, needs, and attitudes as they relate to the implementation of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA). FSA's primary objective is to move people off welfare through education, training,…

  20. Bridging the Acculturation Gap: Parent-Child Relationship Quality as a Moderator in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Thomas J.; Parke, Ross D.; Kim, Young; Coltrane, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the degree to which disparities in parent and child acculturation are linked to both family and child adjustment. With a sample of 1st- and 2nd-generation Mexican American children, acculturation and parent-child relationship quality at 5th grade, and parent-child conflict, child internalizing, and child externalizing at 7th…

  1. Mothers' and Fathers' Racial Socialization in African American Families: Implications for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Burton, Linda M.; Davis, Kelly D.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Swanson, Dena P.

    2006-01-01

    Mothers' and fathers' cultural socialization and bias preparation with older (M=13.9 years) and younger (M=10.31 years) siblings were studied in 162 two-parent, African American families. Analyses examined whether parental warmth and offspring age and gender were linked to parental practices and whether parents' warmth, spouses' racial…

  2. Parent-Child Cultural Orientations and Child Adjustment in Chinese American Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H.; Hua, Michelle; Zhou, Qing; Tao, Annie; Lee, Erica H.; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on children's and…

  3. Parental Influence on Children's Talent Development: A Case Study with Three Chinese American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Echo H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development through a specific perspective of several Chinese American families with gifted children. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the parents, and research questions focused on the daily practice of parenting and parents' beliefs…

  4. Longitudinal Links between Contextual Risks, Parenting, and Youth Outcomes in Rural African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyeon; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma McBride

    2003-01-01

    Collected longitudinal data from rural, African American, single mother-headed families with young adolescents to examine longitudinal links between contextual risks, parenting, and youth outcome. Accumulated risks related to lower levels of the competence-promoting parenting practices that were linked directly with youth outcomes via youth…

  5. Examining Relationships between Ethnic Identity, Family Environment, and Psychological Outcomes for African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Jalika; Harris-Britt, April; Walker-Barnes, Chanequa

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic identity has been linked to a number of healthy psychological outcomes for African American adolescents. The levels of conflict and cohesion in the family environment have also been found to be predictive of adolescent mental health. This study examined whether the ethnic identity and levels of conflict and cohesion in the family…

  6. On My Own: Mexican American Women, Self-Sufficiency, and the Family Support Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina

    The Focus Study, conducted by the National Council of La Raza's Poverty Project, used structured discussions by focus groups to examine Mexican American women's opinions, needs, and attitudes as they relate to the implementation of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA). FSA's primary objective is to move people off welfare through education, training,…

  7. Case Studies of African American Families: Self-Reports of Ethnically Diverse Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbley, Aretha Faye; Wimberly, Cynthia; Berg, Rachelle; Rouson, Leon; Wilkins, Erica

    2011-01-01

    Using the lessons learned from mistakes made in their earlier clinical work with African American families, through the lens of Multicultural Counseling and Therapy theory, these culturally diverse practitioners use reflections from their counseling experiences to offer clinicians a people-responsive, diversity-sensitive framework and provide…

  8. Earthquake Impact on Miami Haitian Americans: The Role of Family/Social Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrea; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Schmitz, Susan; Hausmann, Vicky; Shultz, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who are indirectly exposed to disasters may be affected psychologically. The impact of the 2010 Haiti earthquake reverberated throughout the Haitian American community in Miami, Florida. Many within the community held strong transnational family and friendship bonds to their homeland. We examined associations between indicators of…

  9. Head Start Combats Baby Bottle Tooth Decay Among Native American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Margaret G.; Stubbs, Phyllis E.

    1987-01-01

    Presents current developments concerning nursing bottle caries--"baby bottle tooth decay"--and spotlights a program funded by Head Start to reduce the prevalence of these painful and disfiguring, but preventable, children's dental diseases among American Indians and Alaska Native families. (Author/BB)

  10. Earthquake Impact on Miami Haitian Americans: The Role of Family/Social Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrea; Marcelin, Louis Herns; Schmitz, Susan; Hausmann, Vicky; Shultz, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals who are indirectly exposed to disasters may be affected psychologically. The impact of the 2010 Haiti earthquake reverberated throughout the Haitian American community in Miami, Florida. Many within the community held strong transnational family and friendship bonds to their homeland. We examined associations between indicators of…

  11. Pityriasis Rotunda: A Case Report of Familial Disease in an American-Born Black Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowitz, Emily G.; Natow, Allen J.

    2016-01-01

    Pityriasis rotunda is an uncommon dermatosis with an unusual geographic and racial distribution. The skin disorder is characterized by sharply defined, perfectly circular, scaly patches with no inflammatory changes. Notably, it may be associated with underlying malignancy or chronic infection. We report an uncommon familial case in an American-born female. PMID:27065844

  12. Reasoning about Family Honour among Two Generations of Hindu Indian-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Adam

    2012-01-01

    To investigate reasoning about family honour, 128 first generation (mean age = 27.2 years) and second generation Hindu Indian-American adults (mean age = 24.7 years) were presented hypothetical scenarios in which male or female protagonists defied common Hindu customs (e.g., arranged marriage, intra-religion marriage and premarital sexual…

  13. Un dia en la vida: The Everyday Activities of Young Children from Central American Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Nicole; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the everyday activities of young children from low-income Central American (CA) immigrant families. From the perspective that everyday activities propel children's development of culturally and contextually valued behaviours and skills, 48 mothers were interviewed regarding the activities that are available…

  14. Arab Americans with Disabilities and Their Families: A Culturally Appropriate Approach for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khateeb, Jamal M.; Al Hadidi, Muna S.; Al Khatib, Amal J.

    2014-01-01

    The authors present a brief introduction to Americans of Arab descent and a brief overview of Arab culture. Then, culturally appropriate counseling considerations related to family, attitudes toward disability, religion, communication, acculturation, help-seeking behaviors, and stereotypes are highlighted. In the last section, the authors provide…

  15. Family Friendly Libraries vs. the American Library Association: A Test of Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinsburg, Jane D.

    1997-01-01

    To protect children from material it considers harmful, Family Friendly Libraries (FFL) seeks to limit access to information in public libraries. This article describes the conflict between the FFL and the American Library Association (ALA). Provides an overview of censorship and U.S. legislative history, presents the FFL position and the ALA…

  16. Parent-Child Cultural Orientations and Child Adjustment in Chinese American Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H.; Hua, Michelle; Zhou, Qing; Tao, Annie; Lee, Erica H.; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Direct and indirect/mediated relations of (a) children's and parents' cultural orientations and (b) parent-child gaps in cultural orientations to children's psychological adjustment were examined in a socioeconomically diverse sample of 258 Chinese American children (age = 6-9 years) from immigrant families. Parents reported on…

  17. Preferred child body size and parental underestimation of child weight in Mexican-American families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To determine whether parents who prefer a heavier child would underestimate their child's weight more than those who prefer a leaner child. Methods: Participants were Mexican-American families (312 mothers, 173 fathers, and 312 children ages 8-10) who were interviewed and had height and w...

  18. Pityriasis Rotunda: A Case Report of Familial Disease in an American-Born Black Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G. Lefkowitz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis rotunda is an uncommon dermatosis with an unusual geographic and racial distribution. The skin disorder is characterized by sharply defined, perfectly circular, scaly patches with no inflammatory changes. Notably, it may be associated with underlying malignancy or chronic infection. We report an uncommon familial case in an American-born female.

  19. Parenting Practices and Child Adjustment in Different Types of Households: A Study of African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Leslie Gordon; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Brody, Gene; Cutrona, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    This article uses a sample of 867 African American households to investigate differences in parenting practices and child outcomes by type of household. Results indicate that mothers provide similar levels of parenting regardless of family structure. Secondary caregivers, however, show a great deal of variation in quality of parenting. Fathers and…

  20. Un dia en la vida: The Everyday Activities of Young Children from Central American Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Nicole; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article was to explore the everyday activities of young children from low-income Central American (CA) immigrant families. From the perspective that everyday activities propel children's development of culturally and contextually valued behaviours and skills, 48 mothers were interviewed regarding the activities that are available…

  1. Head Start Combats Baby Bottle Tooth Decay Among Native American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Margaret G.; Stubbs, Phyllis E.

    1987-01-01

    Presents current developments concerning nursing bottle caries--"baby bottle tooth decay"--and spotlights a program funded by Head Start to reduce the prevalence of these painful and disfiguring, but preventable, children's dental diseases among American Indians and Alaska Native families. (Author/BB)

  2. Family-Level Factors and African American Children's Behavioral Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Colombo, Gia; Hong, Jun Sung; Coard, Stephanie Irby

    2015-01-01

    Background: Considerable prior research targeting African American children has focused on the pervasiveness of problematic behavior and negative risk factors associated with their development, however the influence of family on better behavioral health outcomes has largely been ignored. Objective: The purpose of this review is to examine…

  3. Family and Religious Antecedents of Civic Involvement in Middle Class African American Late Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron

    2005-01-01

    We examined family and religiousspiritual antecedents and correlates of current and intended civic involvement in 76 middle class African American late adolescents (M = 18.43 years) who had been followed longitudinally for 3 years. Adolescents' spirituality/religiosity and mothers' current involvement influenced the overall ratings and more…

  4. Predictors of Coparenting Relationship Quality in African American Single Mother Families: An Ecological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterrett, Emma; Jones, Deborah J.; Forehand, Rex; Garai, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Nonmarital coparents, or adults who assist mothers with childrearing, play a significant role in the lives of African American single mothers and their children. Yet relatively little research has examined correlates of the quality of the coparenting relationship in these families. Using a broad ecological framework, the current study examined…

  5. Mechanisms of Family Impact on African American Adolescents' HIV-Related Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Steven M.; Brody, Gene H.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Chen, Yi-fu; Grange, Christina M.; Simons, Ronald L.; Gerrard, Meg; Cutrona, Carolyn E.

    2011-01-01

    A longitudinal model that tested mediating pathways between protective family processes and HIV-related behavior was evaluated with 195 African American youth. Three waves of data were collected when the youth were 13, 15, and 19 years old. Evidence of mediation and temporal priority were assessed for 3 constructs: academic engagement, evaluations…

  6. Relations among parental acceptance and control and children's social adjustment in Chinese American and European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsinger, Carol S; Jose, Paul E

    2009-06-01

    Parental acceptance and control are the 2 dimensions of parenting that have been investigated most; however, little is known about their cross-cultural expressions. This longitudinal study examined acceptance, control, and R. Chao's indigenous Chinese notion of control--chiao shun (training)--in 35 immigrant Chinese American (CA) and 38 European American (EA) families. Data were collected when children were in preschool and kindergarten (T1); first and second grades (T2); and third and fourth grades (T3). Within couples, CA mothers and fathers reported similar levels of acceptance and control, whereas EA mothers and fathers did not. CA fathers' and mothers' and EA mothers' acceptance and control exerted a positive influence on their children's psychological adjustment. CA fathers' training negatively predicted their children's problem behaviors 4 years later. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. 77 FR 62137 - German-American Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... A Proclamation United by dreams of freedom, opportunity, and better lives for their families... German-American Day. I encourage all Americans to learn more about the history of German Americans and...

  8. Real Number of Children and Conjugal Interaction in French Urban Families: A Comparison with American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Andree; Feyrabend, Francoise Lautman

    1969-01-01

    Paper presented at the 33rd annual session of the Groves Conference on Marriage and the Family, Puerto Rico, April, 1967 and at the annual meeting of the Canadian sociological and anthropological association, Ottawa, June, 1967.

  9. More than Kissing Babies? Current Child and Family Policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Francine H., Ed.; Davies, Margery W., Ed.

    Meant to orient a broad audience to basic issues of child and family policy in the United States today, this book includes an overview of the recent history of child and family policy in the United States, an exploration of several political economic conditions underlying changes in these policies, case studies of selected local, state and federal…

  10. Individual, demographic, and family correlates of romantic attachments in a group of American young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Thomas W; Holman, Thomas B; Grandy, Shannon R; Blake, Whitney W

    2008-12-01

    Relationship avoidance and anxiety scores were obtained for 590 American young adults (M age = 23.1 yr.). Canonical correlation yielded two orthogonal patterns between the avoidance and anxiety scores with individual, demographic, and family variables. Relationship avoidance was most parsimoniously related to unresolved issues with one's family of origin, having been sexually abused, and being male (canonical correlation = .33). Relationship anxiety was most parsimoniously related to unresolved issues with one's family of origin, lack of personal income, having a strong libido, being young, and being female (canonical correlation = .25). Relationship avoidance was also correlated with not having affectionate and available parents, not having a secure and loving family, high parental conflict, low parental education and income, not having grown up with both parents, family violence, and low libido. Relationship anxiety was also correlated with low personal education. Marital status, ethnicity, and religious denomination were unrelated to either construct.

  11. Get Your Education: Family Support for African-American College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sledge, Lanita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On predominately Caucasian campuses, African Americans face the common hardships of college life and the strain of racism and discrimination. Often these students have fewer support systems that encourage them to accomplish their higher education goals. When issues arise for these students, turning to family members they trust is usually the first response. This literature review offers an examination of current research on family socioeconomic status, structure, emotional, financial, social, and academic support for African American students in a four-year college/university. Ultimately, family involvement throughout the student’s life and constant support during higher education increases the chances of persistence, while strengthening the student’s resolve to help others in the community.

  12. Characteristics and correlates of sibling relationships in two-parent African American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M; Whiteman, Shawn D; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Crouter, Ann C

    2007-06-01

    The authors studied sibling relationships of African American youths and family and youth characteristics linked to sibling dynamics. Participants were fathers, mothers, and 2 siblings (M = 14.04 and M = 10.34 years of age) from 172 working-middle class 2-parent families. Cluster analyses of data collected in home interviews revealed 3 sibling relationship types: positive, negative, and distant. Parent education was lower, parent religiosity higher, and parent-child relationships more positive in the positive group; maternal discrimination experiences were higher in the negative group; youth ethnic identity was stronger in the positive group; and youth depression and risky behavior were higher in the negative group. The findings target sociocultural factors to consider in interventions for African American families.

  13. The work-family interface in the United States and Singapore: conflict across cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galovan, Adam M; Fackrell, Tamara; Buswell, Lydia; Jones, Blake L; Hill, E Jeffrey; Carroll, Sarah June

    2010-10-01

    This article examines the work-family interface in a cross-cultural comparison between two nationally representative samples from the United States (n = 1,860) and Singapore (n = 1,035) with emphasis on work-family conflict. Family-to-work conflict was negatively related to marital satisfaction in both Singapore and the United States, although the effect was stronger in the United States. Similarly, family-to-work conflict was positively related to job satisfaction in the United States but was negatively related in Singapore. As expected, schedule flexibility was negatively related to depression in the United States, but in Singapore the relationship was positive. These findings suggest that theoretical relationships in the work-family interface developed in the more culturally individualistic West may need to be adapted when studying populations in the more collectivist East.

  14. Family Quality of Life from the Perspectives of Individual Family Members: A Korean-American Family and Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Joo Young; Turnbull, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Beginning in the mid-to-late 1980s, the focus on individual quality of life expanded to family quality of life (FQOL) in the field of intellectual disabilities. However, few studies examined FQOL for families who have children with hearing loss. Furthermore, most studies focused on mothers' perceptions of FQOL. The purpose of this study is to…

  15. Success of Family Company: Critical Evidence from the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Petlina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article The purpose of the paper is to define the point of family company’s success. The object of research is family business as an economical phenomenon. There is a double subject of this study: firstly, to find out the main resources, from which information about successful companies can be detected and, secondly, to analyze one big family company as case study for identification its key success factors. Methodology/methods The article was prepared on the basis of general theoretical scientific methods, in particular analysis, synthesis, analogy, comparison, generalizations, deduction and methods of expert estimates. In the first phase secondary research of scientific literature and electronic resources about the paper topic was conducted. On the base of that result, the primary research was conduct, which is based on analysis of family company E. & J. Gallo Winery. Based on the received information, the key success factors were identified. The sources of the research are internet web-pages of the company, articles about company in famous Czech business magazines and scientific journals form Emerald database, reports of company and financial data from Amadeus database and The Global Family Business Index. Scientific aim The aim of scientific research is to improve the understanding of family company’s success from the perspective of difficulties faced by family company. Findings The results of this study allowed the finding of a main point for the family company’s success based on review of key sources about successful family companies. In addition, activity of E. & J. Gallo Winery was analyzed as the case study for critical evidence that phenomenon. Conclusions This study has contributed to the theoretical body of family business research providing an important first step to gaining insights into the family company’s success and its key factors which influence effective functioning of family company.

  16. Interprofessional collaboration and family member involvement in intensive care units: emerging themes from a multi-sited ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Scott; McMillan, Sarah E; Kachan, Natasha; Paradis, Elise; Leslie, Myles; Kitto, Simon

    2015-05-01

    This article presents emerging findings from the first year of a two-year study, which employed ethnographic methods to explore the culture of interprofessional collaboration (IPC) and family member involvement in eight North American intensive care units (ICUs). The study utilized a comparative ethnographic approach - gathering observation, interview and documentary data relating to the behaviors and attitudes of healthcare providers and family members across several sites. In total, 504 hours of ICU-based observational data were gathered over a 12-month period in four ICUs based in two US cities. In addition, 56 semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a range of ICU staff (e.g. nurses, doctors and pharmacists) and family members. Documentary data (e.g. clinical guidelines and unit policies) were also collected to help develop an insight into how the different sites engaged organizationally with IPC and family member involvement. Directed content analysis enabled the identification and categorization of major themes within the data. An interprofessional conceptual framework was utilized to help frame the coding for the analysis. The preliminary findings presented in this paper illuminate a number of issues related to the nature of IPC and family member involvement within an ICU context. These findings are discussed in relation to the wider interprofessional and health services literature.

  17. Zoning, accessory dwelling units, and family caregiving: issues, trends, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebig, Phoebe S; Koenig, Teresa; Pynoos, Jon

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the relationship between zoning regulations and co-residential family caregiving in the United States. It first provides an overview of U.S. housing policies, especially zoning. We then describe major changes in family structure and composition in the United States with their implications for caregiving and discuss how multigenerational housing options, particularly accessory dwelling units (ADUs) in single-family homes, can help support family caregiving. After an overview of zoning policies and actions that inhibit ADU production, we document current trends, incorporating information from a small non-random study of ADU activity we conducted in 2004. Finally, we present recommendations for promoting more multigenerational housing as a supplement to other family support programs (e.g., dependent care assistance, family caregiver payments) and as a source of affordable, supportive housing for those families choosing co-residence as their eldercare solution.

  18. [The family background of bulimic women. An intercultural comparison of Austrian and American students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth, B; Hudson, J I; Pope, H G

    1995-01-01

    Although various familial factors have been thought to influence the development and outcome of bulimia nervosa, no cross-cultural studies have examined familial factors in this disorder. To provide more data in this area, we compared 33 female college students with bulimia nervosa in Innsbruck (Austria), and 33 female college students with bulimia nervosa in Boston (USA), on several aspects of family background. These indices includes weight history and diet behavior of family members; psychiatric disorders among family members; intrafamilial relationships; types of and attitudes toward upbringing; sexual attitudes among family members; and experiences of physical and sexual abuse during childhood. We found few significant differences between the two groups on these indices. However, American bulimic women reported their family members to be more overweight, significantly more likely to be on a diet, and more likely to display a lifetime diagnosis of major depression than the family members of Austrian bulimic women. The findings of this study add to the literature and family background in bulimia nervosa, and suggest several avenues for future research for crosscultural studies in this area.

  19. Cultural Adaptation, Parenting and Child Mental Health Among English Speaking Asian American Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Calzada, Esther; Cheng, Sabrina; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2016-09-09

    Contrary to the "model minority" myth, Asian American children, especially those from low-income immigrant families, are at risk for both behavioral and emotional problems early in life. Little is known, however, about the underlying developmental mechanisms placing Asian American children at risk, including the role of cultural adaptation and parenting. This study examined cultural adaptation, parenting practices and culture related parenting values and child mental health in a sample of 157 English speaking Asian American immigrant families of children enrolled in early childhood education programs in low-income, urban neighborhoods. Overall, cultural adaptation and parenting cultural values and behaviors were related to aspects of child mental health in meaningful ways. Parents' cultural value of independence appears to be especially salient (e.g., negatively related to behavior problems and positively related to adaptive behavior) and significantly mediates the link between cultural adaptation and adaptive behavior. Study findings have implications for supporting Asian American immigrant families to promote their young children's mental health.

  20. An Examination of the Relationship between Acculturation Level and PTSD among Central American Immigrants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Sarita Marie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between acculturation level and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence in Central American immigrants in the United States. Central American immigrants represent a population that is a part of the Latino/Hispanic Diaspora in the United States. By the year 2050 the United States…

  1. Resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi among seedlings from backcross families of hybrid american chestnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven N. Jeffers; Inga M. Meadows; Joseph B. James; Paul H. Sisco

    2012-01-01

    American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marsh.) Borkh.) once was a primary hardwood species in forests of the eastern United States. Sometime during the late 18th century, it is speculated that Phytophthora cinnamomi, which causes Phytophthora root rot (PRR) on many woody plant species, was introduced to the southeast region of...

  2. Considerations for School Psychologists Working with Arab American Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Anisa N.

    2011-01-01

    There are an estimated three million Arab Americans in the United States, with 25% of the population under the age of 18. Given this significant population, it is likely that some school psychologists come across children from Arab backgrounds during their career. Many school psychologists, however, may not be aware of the unique cultural…

  3. A family nursing educational intervention supports nurses and families in an adult intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenberger, Sandra K; Sanders, Marita

    2016-11-01

    The family experience of critical illness is filled with distress that may have a lasting impact on family coping and family health. A nurse can become a source of comfort that helps the family endure. Yet, nurses often report a lack of confidence in communicating with families and families report troubling relationships with nurses. In spite of strong evidence supporting nursing practice focused on the family, family nursing interventions often not implemented in the critical care setting. This pilot study examined the influence of an educational intervention on nurses' attitudes towards and confidence in providing family care, as well as families' perceptions of support from nurses in an adult critical care setting. An academic-clinical practice partnership used digital storytelling as an educational strategy. A Knowledge to Action Process Framework guided this study. Results of pre-intervention data collection from families and nurses were used to inform the educational intervention. A convenience sample of family members completed the Iceland Family Perceived Support Questionnaire (ICE-FPSQ) to measure perception of support provided by nurses. Video, voice, and narrative stories of nurses describing their experiences caring for family members during a critical illness and family members' experiences with a critically ill family member also guided education plans. When comparing the pre and post results of the Family Nurse Practice Scale (FNPS), nurses reported increased confidence, knowledge, and skill following the educational intervention. Qualitative data from nurses reported satisfaction with the educational intervention. Findings suggest that engaging nurses in educational opportunities focused on families while using storytelling methods encourages empathic understandings. Academic-clinician teams that drive directions show promise in supporting families and nurses in critical care settings. Plans are moving forward to use this study design and methods in

  4. Mapping of a blood pressure QTL on chromosome 17 in American Indians of the strong heart family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Nora; Tao, Ran; Liu, Lan; Rutherford, Sue; Haack, Karin; Almasy, Laura; Göring, Harald Hh; Laston, Sandra; Lee, Elisa T; Best, Lyle G; Fabsitz, Richard; Cole, Shelley A; North, Kari E

    2014-11-11

    Blood pressure (BP) is a complex trait, with a heritability of 30 to 40%. Several genome wide associated BP loci explain only a small fraction of the phenotypic variation. Family studies can provide an important tool for gene discovery by utilizing trait and genetic transmission information among relative-pairs. We have previously described a quantitative trait locus at chromosome 17q25.3 influencing systolic BP in American Indians of the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). This locus has been reported to associate with variation in BP traits in family studies of Europeans, African Americans and Hispanics. To follow-up persuasive linkage findings at this locus, we performed comprehensive genotyping in the 1-LOD unit support interval region surrounding this QTL using a multi-step strategy. We first genotyped 1,334 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 928 individuals from families that showed evidence of linkage for BP. We then genotyped a second panel of 306 SNPs in all SHFS participants (N = 3,807) for genes that displayed the strongest evidence of association in the region, and, in a third step, included additional genotyping to better cover the genes of interest and to interrogate plausible candidate genes in the region. Three genes had multiple SNPs marginally associated with systolic BP (TBC1D16, HRNBP3 and AZI1). In BQTN analysis, used to estimate the posterior probability that any variant in each gene had an effect on the phenotype, AZI1 showed the most prominent findings (posterior probability of 0.66). Importantly, upon correction for multiple testing, none of our study findings could be distinguished from chance. Our findings demonstrate the difficulty of follow-up studies of linkage studies for complex traits, particularly in the context of low powered studies and rare variants underlying linkage peaks.

  5. Family members' informal roles in end-of-life decision making in adult intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jill R; Schmitt, Madeline; Baggs, Judith Gedney; Norton, Sally A; Dombeck, Mary T; Sellers, Craig R

    2012-01-01

    To support the process of effective family decision making, it is important to recognize and understand informal roles that various family members may play in the end-of-life decision-making process. To describe some informal roles consistently enacted by family members involved in the process of end-of-life decision making in intensive care units. Ethnographic study. Data were collected via participant observation with field notes and semistructured interviews on 4 intensive care units in an academic health center in the mid-Atlantic United States from 2001 to 2004. The units studied were a medical, a surgical, a burn and trauma, and a cardiovascular intensive care unit. Health care clinicians, patients, and family members. Informal roles for family members consistently observed were primary caregiver, primary decision maker, family spokesperson, out-of-towner, patient's wishes expert, protector, vulnerable member, and health care expert. The identified informal roles were part of families' decision-making processes, and each role was part of a potentially complicated family dynamic for end-of-life decision making within the family system and between the family and health care domains. These informal roles reflect the diverse responses to demands for family decision making in what is usually a novel and stressful situation. Identification and description of these informal roles of family members can help clinicians recognize and understand the functions of these roles in families' decision making at the end of life and guide development of strategies to support and facilitate increased effectiveness of family discussions and decision-making processes.

  6. Family-Centered Care in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Concept Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Tahereh; Hadian Shirazi, Zahra; Sabet Sarvestani, Raheleh; Moattari, Marzieh

    2014-01-01

    Background: The concept of family- centered care in neonatal intensive care unit has changed drastically in protracted years and has been used in various contexts differently. Since we require clarity in our understanding, we aimed to analyze this concept. Methods: This study was done on the basis of developmental approach of Rodgers’s concept analysis. We reviewed the existing literature in Science direct, PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Iran Medex databases from 1980 to 2012. The keywords were family-centered care, family-oriented care, and neonatal intensive care unit. After all, 59 out of 244 English and Persian articles and books (more than 20%) were selected. Results: The attributes of family-centered care in neonatal intensive care unit were recognized as care taking of family (assessment of family and its needs, providing family needs), equal family participation (participation in care planning, decision making, and providing care from routine to special ones), collaboration (inter-professional collaboration with family, family involvement in regulating and implementing care plans), regarding family’s respect and dignity (importance of families’ differences, recognizing families’ tendencies), and knowledge transformation (information sharing between healthcare workers and family, complete information sharing according to family learning style). Besides, the recognized antecedents were professional and management-organizational factors. Finally, the consequences included benefits related to neonate, family, and organization. Conclusion: The findings revealed that family centered-care was a comprehensive and holistic caring approach in neonatal intensive care. Therefore, it is highly recommended to change the current care approach and philosophy and provide facilities for conducting family-centered care in neonatal intensive care unit.  PMID:25349870

  7. Economic pressure and health and weight management behaviors in African American couples: A family stress perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Catherine W; Arnold, Amy Laura; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Wickrama, K A S; Bryant, Chalandra M

    2015-05-01

    This study extends the family stress model by examining the influence of economic pressure on health and weight management behaviors mediated by depressive symptoms and spousal support among 506 African American married couples. The actor-partner interdependence model accounted for the interdependent nature of relationships. Findings support the family stress model; yet pathways differed slightly for husbands and wives. Economic pressure directly influenced depressive symptoms and spousal support. Spousal support was a buffer against poor health and weight management behaviors for husbands, while depressive symptoms exacerbated poor health and weight management behaviors for wives. These mechanisms have implications for practitioners who promote African American couples' well-being. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Mother-Adolescent Language Proficiency and Adolescent Academic and Emotional Adjustment Among Chinese American Families

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents’ and mothers’ self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth’s academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescen...

  9. Parenting Stress, Perceived Parenting Behaviors, and Adolescent Self-Concept in European American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Putnick, Diane L.; Bornstein, Marc H.; Hendricks, Charlene; Painter, Kathleen M.; Suwalsky, Joan T. D.; Collins, W. Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses whether the stresses associated with parenting a child are indirectly related to adolescent self-concept through parenting behaviors. We examined longitudinal associations among mothers’ and fathers’ parenting stress at age 10, children’s perceptions of parenting at age 10, and adolescents’ self-concept at age 14 in 120 European American families. Mothers’ and fathers’ parenting stress was related to children’s perceptions of acceptance and psychologically controlling beha...

  10. Neighborhood characteristics, parenting styles, and children's behavioral problems in Chinese American immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra; Tao, Annie; Chen, Stephen H

    2014-04-01

    Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated children's behavioral problems. Path analysis was conducted to test two hypotheses: (a) parenting styles mediate the relations between neighborhood characteristics and children's behavioral problems, and (b) children's behavioral problems mediate the relations between neighborhood and parenting styles. We found that neighborhood Asian concentration was positively associated with authoritarian parenting, which in turn was associated with Chinese American children's higher externalizing and internalizing problems (by parents' reports). In addition, neighborhood economic disadvantage was positively related to children's externalizing problems (by parents' reports), which in turn predicted lower authoritative parenting. The current results suggest the need to consider multiple pathways in the relations among neighborhood, family, and child adjustment, and they have implications for the prevention and intervention of behavioral problems in Chinese American children.

  11. Family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination among Asian American male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Meifen; Yeh, Christine Jean; Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien; Carrera, Stephanie; Su, Jenny C

    2013-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine under what situation (i.e., when individuals used more or less family support) and for whom (i.e., those with high or low self-esteem) perceived racial discrimination would or would not have a significant positive association with psychological distress. A total of 95 Asian American male college students completed an online survey. A hierarchical regression analysis indicated a significant 3-way interaction of family support, self-esteem, and perceived racial discrimination in predicting psychological distress after controlling for perceived general stress. A simple effect analysis was used to explore the nature of the interaction. When Asian American male college students used more family support to cope with racial discrimination, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high or low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when more family support was used, the 2 slopes for high and low self-esteem were not significantly different from each other. Conversely, when they used less family support, the association between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress was not significant for those with high self-esteem, but was significantly positive for those with low self-esteem. The result from the simple interaction indicated that, when less family support was used, the slopes for high and low self-esteem were significantly different. The result suggested that low use of family support may put these male students with low self-esteem at risk for psychological distress. Limitations, future research directions, and clinical implications were discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. WILLIAM MCDOUGALL, AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGIST: A RECONSIDERATION OF NATURE-NURTURE DEBATES IN THE INTERWAR UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Anne C

    2016-09-01

    The British-born psychologist William McDougall (1871-1938) spent more than half of his academic career in the United States, holding successive positions after 1920 at Harvard and Duke universities. Scholarly studies uniformly characterize McDougall's relationship with his New World colleagues as contentious: in the standard view, McDougall's theory of innate drives clashed with the Americans' experimentation into learned habits. This essay argues instead that rising American curiosity about inborn appetites-an interest rooted in earlier pragmatic philosophy and empirically investigated by interwar scientists-explains McDougall's migration to the United States and his growing success there. A review of McDougall's intellectual and professional ties, evolving outside public controversy, highlights persistent American attention to natural agency and complicates arguments voiced by contemporaries in favor of nurture.

  13. United States versus Mexican Perceptions of the Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Joel D.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Surveys U.S. and Mexican managerial attitudes concerning the impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) process on the United States. Discusses differences in Mexican and U.S. attitudes concerning NAFTA and a number of socioeconomic concerns. (SR)

  14. United Airlines Voted 'Best North American Airline' for Fifth Consecutive Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Discerning frequent travelers in Asia have voted United Airlines the" Best North American Airline" for the fifth consecutive year in Business Traveller AsiaPacific's 2005 annual travel awards. Each year, the magazine polls frequent travelers to learn their opinions on airlines and services. Results are verified and compiled by an independent market research company :TNS-Hong Kong.

  15. Transnational Stakeholders: Latin American Migrant Transnationalism and Civic Engagement in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ricardo; Felix, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    In the current period of international migration there is no consensus among analysts regarding the relationship between immigrant transnationalism and civic engagement in the United States. Focusing mainly on the transnational behaviors of Latin American migrants, three views predominate: critics argue that immigrant transnationalism hinders…

  16. The Arab American Way: The Success Story of an American Family from a Syrian Village in Global Diaspora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Escher

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is possible to encounter people who are able to trace their roots back to Arab countries in almost every nation of the “New World.” That also includes approximately four million citizens of the United States, who live primarily in large metropolitan areas and in the eastern part of the country. Taking a large family and the associated clan of this group as an example, it is possible to show how Arab migrants, dispersed all over the globe, associate the different underlying conditions in countries of democratic America.

  17. Young African-American multigenerational families in poverty: quality of mothering and grandmothering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase-Lansdale, P L; Brooks-Gunn, J; Zamsky, E S

    1994-04-01

    Parenting practices (problem-solving and disciplinary styles) in a sample of 99 young, low-income, African-American multigenerational families were examined, using home-based observations of grandmothers and young mothers (mean age at first birth: 18.3; range = 13.3 to 25.5), interacting separately with 3-year-old children. A risk and resilience approach was applied in studying African-American families' behavior in harsh social contexts, and included a consideration of the role of kin, shared child rearing between mothers and grandmothers, coresidence, and adolescent parenthood. Mothers and grandmothers did not differ in the mean level of the quality of their parenting practices. Similarly, few significant correlations in parenting quality across generations were evident, and these primarily involved negative dimensions of parenting between younger childbearers and grandmothers. No main effect of mothers' age at first birth on mothers' parenting was found. In contrast, there was a main effect of grandmother coresidence on both mothers' and grandmothers' parenting, which was negative. Moreover, the interaction between coresidence and mothers' age at first birth indicated that multigenerational families most likely to provide positive parenting were those where older mothers did not reside with the grandmother. Yet, in families with very young mothers, coresiding grandmothers showed higher quality of parenting than did non-coresiding grandmothers.

  18. Religious socialization in African American families: the relative influence of parents, grandparents, and siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Ian A; Goodwin, Lucas J; Kirkinis, Katherine; Mattis, Jacqueline S

    2014-12-01

    The family is the principal context for religious and spiritual socialization. Although religion remains a central force in the lives of most African Americans, research has failed to explore the role and impact of family on religious socialization within this population. This study addresses that gap in the literature by (1) exploring adults' perceptions of the influence of their parents, grandparents, and siblings on their religious and spiritual lives, and (2) examining the extent to which those perceptions are associated with subjective religiosity, subjective spirituality, religious importance, and commitment to religious socialization among a community sample of urban-residing African American adults in the Midwest and Northeast (N = 319). Findings revealed that, on average, parents, grandparents, and siblings positively influenced adults' religious commitment and values. However, mothers had the greatest positive influence on these outcomes. Religious commitment and values were differentially associated with family members as a function of the generation and gender of the family member. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. Family predictors of disease management over one year in Latino and European American patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesla, Catherine A; Fisher, Lawrence; Skaff, Marilyn M; Mullan, Joseph T; Gilliss, Catherine L; Kanter, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Family context is thought to influence chronic disease management but few studies have longitudinally examined these relationships. Research on families and chronic illness has focused almost exclusively on European American families. In this prospective study we tested a multidimensional model of family influence on disease management in type 2 diabetes in a bi-ethnic sample of European Americans and Latinos. Specifically, we tested how baseline family characteristics (structure, world view, and emotion management) predicted change in disease management over one year in 104 European American and 57 Latino patients with type 2 diabetes. We found that emotion management predicted change in disease management in both groups of patients as hypothesized, while family world view predicted change in both ethnic groups but in the predicted direction only for European Americans. Examining family context within ethnic groups is required to elucidate unique cultural patterns. Attending to culturally unique interpretations of constructs and measures is warranted. The import of family emotion management, specifically conflict resolution, in disease management deserves further study to support clinical intervention development. Examining multiple domains of family life and multidimensional health outcomes strengthens our capacity to develop theory about family contexts and individual health.

  20. Family members' lived experience in the intensive care unit: a phemenological study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKiernan, Margaret

    2012-01-31

    AIM: To describe the lived experience of family members of patients in the intensive care unit. BACKGROUND: Admission of a critically ill relative to an intensive care unit causes anxiety and stress to family members. Nursing care is initially focused on maintaining the physiological stability of the patient and less on the needs and concerns of family members. Understanding how families make sense of this experience may help nurses focus on the delivery of family centred care. METHODOLOGY: A phenomenological method was used to describe the lived experiences of family members of patients in an intensive care unit. In-depth interviews were conducted with six family members and analysed using qualitative thematic analysis. RESULTS: Four main themes emerged from the data: the need to know, making sense of it all, being there with them and caring and support. Family members needed honest information about the patient\\'s progress and outcome to make the situation more bearable for them. Making sense of the situation was a continuous process which involved tracking and evaluating care given. Being with their relative sustained their family bond and was a way to demonstrate love and support. Caring reassurance provided by the nurses enabled a sense of security. Support was needed by family members to assist them in coping. CONCLUSION: The research provided an insight into how family members viewed the impact of the admission and how they subsequently found ways of dealing with the situation. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Using a holistic approach to nursing assessment and care delivery in intensive care necessitates that nurses interact with and care for family members of patients. Development of a philosophy of family centred care is necessary, with formal assessment of families to take place soon after admission and an appropriate plan of care drawn up at this time.

  1. Communicating with Chinese American families in the NICU using the Giger and Davidhizar transcultural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Having an infant admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) can be a frightening experience for parents. However, it can be even more frightening for them when they are from a different culture and speak a different language than the health care team. Hence, a nurse needs to be culturally competent in order to provide proper care to a multicultural society. The purpose of this article is to describe how NICU nurses can communicate with one such culture, the Chinese American, the largest Asian group in the United States. A transcultural nursing model will be described to use as a guide to help the nurse. The culture, Chinese Americans, will be described to help nurses provide culturally competent care. Research studies will be presented so the reader can develop an understanding of how parents of Chinese descent perceive the care they receive. Interventions and recommendations will be presented on how to enhance communication between the nurses and this cultural group.

  2. The roles of respect for parental authority and parenting practices in parent-child conflict among African American, Latino, and European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Sara Villanueva; Graber, Julia A; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2008-02-01

    In this study, the authors examined whether parent-child conflict during the middle childhood years varied among families characterized as having different cultural traditions regarding issues of respect for parental authority and parenting practices. The sample included 133 African American, European American, and Latina girls (M age = 8.41 years) and their mothers. African American and Latina girls showed significantly more respect for parental authority than did European American girls. Furthermore, African American and Latina mothers reported significantly more intense arguments when respect was low than did European American mothers. Higher levels of discipline and better communication by mothers were both associated with reports of lower frequency of conflict; ethnicity did not moderate this association. Thus, respect for authority was most salient to group differences in conflict.

  3. Interaction of science and diplomacy: Latin American, the United States and nuclear energy, 1945-1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, R.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear programs in Argentina and Brazil can be traced to August 1945 when their scientific communities articulated responses to the atomic bombings of Japan. They culminated in attempts to develop independent nuclear programs, sharply opposed by the United States, during the nationalist governments of Juan Peron and Getulio Vargas. This dissertation, based on primary sources from the three nations, analyzes these programs and the American responses. Latin America entered the nuclear age attempting to control natural resources, to improve scientific establishments, and to appraise Latin American-United States relations. Despite some clear warnings about nuclear dangers, the new form of energy was seen as the solution to industrial problems, poverty, and outside political interference. International opposition, which may have included nuclear threats from the United States, blocked Argentina's first attempt in 1947. After 1948, Peron wanted a nuclear program for cheap energy and prestige. The qualifications of the Brazilian scientists gave more substance to their program. The program originated in August, 1945, but assumed national proportion with the government of Vargas in 1951. Lack of American cooperation forced Vargas to establish a secret program with Germany. American troops intervened taking over the German equipment already completed. The final collapse came about with Vargas' suicide in August, 1954.

  4. Parenting Behavior, Health, and Cognitive Development among Children in Black Immigrant Families: Comparing the United States and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Margot

    2012-01-01

    Racial disparities in child development in the United States are significant, with a particularly pronounced disadvantage among Black children. This report focuses on the development of children of Black immigrants, comparing against the outcomes for their peers in native-born and other immigrant families. The report also compares children in the…

  5. Enhancing recruitment of African-American families into genetic research: lessons learned from Project SuGar

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Despite some recruitment success in biomedical research among minorities, participation by African-American families into research, specifically genetic research, is lower than Caucasian families (Bowen and Penchaszadeh Community Genet 11:189–190, 2008). Such low participation rates by African-Americans prevent the exploration of specific ethnic differences in patterns of diseases and diminish the identification of specific disease risks among ethnic groups (Bowen and Penchaszadeh Community G...

  6. Economic Stress and Cortisol Among Postpartum Low-Income Mexican American Women: Buffering Influence of Family Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Shannon L; Luecken, Linda J; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6-week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress.

  7. Family planning and contraceptive decision-making by economically disadvantaged, African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Eric J; Collier, Charlene; Hayes, Laura; Curry, Leslie A; Fraenkel, Liana

    2013-08-01

    Significant racial disparities exist in the US unplanned pregnancy rate. We conducted a qualitative study using the theory of planned behavior as a framework to describe how low-income, African-American women approach family planning. Structured focus groups were held with adult, low-income, nonpregnant, African-American women in Connecticut. Data were collected using a standardized discussion guide, audio-taped and transcribed. Four independent researchers coded the transcripts using the constant comparative method. Codes were organized into overarching themes. Contraceptive knowledge was limited, with formal contraceptive education often occurring after sexual debut. Attitudes about contraception were overtly negative, with method effectiveness being judged by the presence of side effects. Family and friends strongly influence contraceptive decisions, while male partners are primarily seen as a barrier. Contraceptive pills are perceived as readily accessible, although compliance is considered a barrier. Contraception education should occur before sexual debut, should involve trusted family and community members and should positively frame issues in terms of achieving life goals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An Integrated Framework for Effective and Efficient Communication with Families in the Adult Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Jennifer B; Arnold, Robert M; Scheunemann, Leslie P; White, Douglas B

    2017-06-01

    The increased focus on patient and family-centered care in adult intensive care units (ICUs) has generated multiple platforms for clinician-family communication beyond traditional interdisciplinary family meetings (family meetings)-including family-centered rounds, bedside or telephone updates, and electronic family portals. Some clinicians and administrators are now using these platforms instead of conducting family meetings. For example, some institutions are moving toward using family-centered rounds as the main platform for clinician-family communication, and some physicians rely on brief daily updates to the family at the bedside or by phone, in lieu of family meetings. We argue that although each of these platforms is useful in some circumstances, there remains an important role for family meetings. We outline five goals of clinician-family communication-establishing trust, providing emotional support, conveying clinical information, understanding the patient as a person, and facilitating careful decision making-and we examine the extent to which various communication platforms are likely to achieve the goals. We argue that because no single platform can achieve all communication goals, an integrated strategy is needed. We present a model that integrates multiple communication platforms to effectively and efficiently support families across the arc of an ICU stay. Our framework employs bedside/telephone conversations and family-centered rounds throughout the admission to address high informational needs, along with well-timed family meetings that attend to families' emotions as well as patients' values and goals. This flexible model uses various communication platforms to achieve consistent, efficient communication throughout the ICU stay.

  9. Family reunification or point-based immigration system? The case of the United States and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    López Real, Joel

    2011-01-01

    While the immigration policy in the United States is mainly oriented to family reunification, in Australia, Canada and the United Kingdom. it is a points-based immigration system which main objective is to attract high skilled immigrants. This paper compares both immigration policies through the transition for the United States and Mexico. I find that: (i) the point system increases the average years of the immigrants by 3.5 years; (ii) the Mexican immigrants suffer a 10% reduction in their e...

  10. Mother-adolescent language proficiency and adolescent academic and emotional adjustment among Chinese American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lisa L; Benner, Aprile D; Lau, Anna S; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the role of adolescents' and mothers' self-reports of English and heritage language proficiency in youth's academic and emotional adjustment among 444 Chinese American families. Adolescents who were proficient in English tended to exhibit higher reading achievement scores, math achievement scores, and overall GPA. Mothers who were English proficient tended to have children with higher academic achievement and fewer depressive symptoms. Results also indicated that adolescents' heritage language maintenance was associated with positive adjustment, particularly amongst foreign-born youth and for youth whose parents were highly proficient in the heritage language. Mother-adolescent match in heritage language proficiency was related to higher math achievement scores and overall GPA. Additionally, higher heritage language proficiency was associated with fewer depressive symptoms for foreign-born but not U.S.-born youth. Overall, the findings suggest that proficiency in both the English and heritage language may confer advantages to Chinese American youth.

  11. The APOBEC Protein Family: United by Structure, Divergent in Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Jason D; Bennett, Ryan P; Smith, Harold C

    2016-07-01

    The APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like) family of proteins have diverse and important functions in human health and disease. These proteins have an intrinsic ability to bind to both RNA and single-stranded (ss) DNA. Both function and tissue-specific expression varies widely for each APOBEC protein. We are beginning to understand that the activity of APOBEC proteins is regulated through genetic alterations, changes in their transcription and mRNA processing, and through their interactions with other macromolecules in the cell. Loss of cellular control of APOBEC activities leads to DNA hypermutation and promiscuous RNA editing associated with the development of cancer or viral drug resistance, underscoring the importance of understanding how APOBEC proteins are regulated.

  12. Deaf Families with Children Who Have Cochlear Implants: Perspectives and Beliefs on Bilingualism in American Sign Language and English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchiner, Julie Cantrell

    2012-01-01

    This study examines Deaf parents with children who have cochlear implants on their beliefs and perspectives of bilingualism in American Sign Language and English using complementary mixed methods through surveys and follow-up interviews. Seventeen families participated in the survey and eight families continued their participation in semi-formal…

  13. Developmental Trajectories of African American Adolescents' Family Conflict: Differences in Mental Health Problems in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Stoddard, Sarah A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2014-01-01

    Family conflict is a salient risk factor for African American adolescents' mental health problems. No study we are aware of has estimated trajectories of their family conflict and whether groups differ in internalizing and externalizing problems during the transition to young adulthood, a critical antecedent in adult mental health and…

  14. Self-Esteem among Vietnamese American Adolescents: The Role of Self-Construal, Family Cohesion, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Brian Trung

    2005-01-01

    This prospective study examined whether interdependent self-construal (collectivism), independent self-construal (individualism), family cohesion, and social support would predict levels of self-esteem among Vietnamese American adolescents. Standardized self-report measures of family cohesion, social support, and self-esteem, as well as a measure…

  15. Feasibility of an 8-week African American Web-based Pilot Program Promoting Healthy Eating Behaviors: Family Eats

    Science.gov (United States)

    To assess log-on rates and change in mediating variables achieved from a web-based nutrition intervention for African American families, a parent and 9- to 12-year-old daughter (n=67 families) completed questionnaires measuring dietary change mediating variables. Overall log-on rate was 59%. Signifi...

  16. 77 FR 61761 - Announcement of the Award of a Single-Source Grant to the Native American Fatherhood and Families...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Announcement of the Award of a Single-Source...: Administration for Native Americans, ACF, HHS. ACTION: Announcement of the award of a single-source grant to... communities and partnering with mothers to provide happy and safe families. Statutory Authority: This program...

  17. Self-Esteem among Vietnamese American Adolescents: The Role of Self-Construal, Family Cohesion, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Brian Trung

    2005-01-01

    This prospective study examined whether interdependent self-construal (collectivism), independent self-construal (individualism), family cohesion, and social support would predict levels of self-esteem among Vietnamese American adolescents. Standardized self-report measures of family cohesion, social support, and self-esteem, as well as a measure…

  18. Determinants of Parental Monitoring and Preadolescent Sexual Risk Situations among African American Families Living in Urban Public Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptiste, Donna R.; Tolou-Shams, Marina; Miller, Scott R.; Mcbride, Cami K.; Paikoff, Roberta L.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated determinants of parental monitoring and the association between parental monitoring and preadolescent sexual risk situations among low-income, African American families living in urban public housing. Preadolescents and their parents or caregivers who participated in a longitudinal study of familial and contextual influences on…

  19. Family-focused physical activity, diet and obesity interventions in African-American girls: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, D J; Adams-Wynn, A W; DiSantis, K I; Kumanyika, S

    2013-01-01

    Obesity interventions that involve family members may be effective with racial/ethnic minority youth. This review assessed the nature and effectiveness of family involvement in obesity interventions among African-American girls aged 5-18 years, a population group with high rates of obesity. Twenty-six databases were searched between January 2011 and March 2012, yielding 27 obesity pilot or full-length prevention or treatment studies with some degree of family involvement and data specific to African-American girls. Interventions varied in type and level of family involvement, cultural adaptation, delivery format and behaviour change intervention strategies; most targeted parent-child dyads. Some similarities in approach based on family involvement were identified. The use of theoretical perspectives specific to African-American family dynamics was absent. Across all studies, effects on weight-related behaviours were generally promising but often non-significant. Similar conclusions were drawn for weight-related outcomes among the full-length randomized controlled trials. Many strategies appeared promising on face value, but available data did not permit inferences about whether or how best to involve family members in obesity prevention and treatment interventions with African-American girls. Study designs that directly compare different types and levels of family involvement and incorporate relevant theoretical elements may be an important next step. © 2012 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2012 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  20. Husband's level of drinking and egalitarianism in Mexican-American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz, M L

    1996-05-01

    This study examines the relationship between husband's level of drinking and his participation in traditionally defined female household duties. A quantity/frequency index of alcohol consumption was used to compare husband's drinking level with participation in child care, household cleaning, buying groceries, and cooking as a measure of egalitarianism in Mexican-American family households. Results show that husbands who abstain from alcohol participate in two of the household duties, cleaning and cooking, at significantly higher levels than either infrequent or frequent drinkers.

  1. Implementing a Conditional Cash Transfer Program in Two American Cities: Early Lessons from Family Rewards 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechausay, Nadine; Miller, Cynthia; Quiroz-Becerra, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, New York City launched the first test of a conditional cash transfer program in the United States. Called Family Rewards, the program sought to break the intergenerational cycle of poverty by offering cash assistance to poor families to reduce immediate hardship, but conditioned this assistance on families' efforts to improve their…

  2. Uniting the family of jets of single cavitation bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Tinguely, Marc; Kobel, Philippe; Dorsaz, Nicolas; Farhat, Mohamed

    2016-11-01

    Micro-jets are high-speed liquid jets that are produced when a cavitation bubble experiences a non-spherical collapse. Such jets may be driven by any anisotropy in the liquid, such as those induced by near surfaces, gravity, pressure gradients in flows or shock waves. Here we unify this diverse family of micro-jets by describing their dynamics with a single anisotropy parameter ζ >= 0 that represents a dimensionless version of the liquid momentum at the collapse point. We observe, experimentally and numerically, that the dimensionless jet parameters describing the jet speed, jet impact time, bubble displacement, bubble volume at jet impact and vapor-jet volume, all reduce to functions of ζ. Consequently, a measurement of a single parameter, such as the bubble displacement, may be used to estimate any other parameter, such as the jet speed. The jets are phenomenologically categorized into three visually distinct regimes: weak jets that hardly pierce the bubble, intermediate jets that pierce the bubble late during the collapse, and strong jets that pierce the bubble at an early stage of the collapse. In the weak and intermediate jet regimes, that is, when ζ < 0 . 1 , the dimensionless jet parameters scale as simple power laws of ζ independently of the jet driver. Swiss National Science Foundation, University of Western Australia Research Collaboration Award, European Space Agency.

  3. The Economy, Families and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The recession has impacted American families and the schools their children attend like nothing in recent memory. Many families continue to struggle with the impact of joblessness. The number of homeless children and youth is staggering. Families struggle with access to health care, growing hunger and greater instability in the family unit.…

  4. Perceptions of discrimination among Mexican American families of seriously ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Betty; Larson, Judith; Contro, Nancy; Cabrera, Ana P

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes Mexican American family members' descriptions of perceived discrimination by pediatric health care providers (HCPs) and the families' reactions to the HCPs' discriminatory conduct. A retrospective, grounded theory design guided the overall study. Content analysis of interviews with 13 participants from 11 families who were recruited from two children's hospitals in Northern California resulted in numerous codes and revealed that participants perceived discrimination when they were treated differently from other, usually white, families. They believed they were treated differently because they were Mexican, because they were poor, because of language barriers, or because of their physical appearance. Participants reported feeling hurt, saddened, and confused regarding the differential treatment they received from HCPs who parents perceived "should care equally for all people." They struggled to understand and searched for explanations. Few spoke up about unfair treatment or complained about poor quality of care. Most assumed a quiet, passive position, according to their cultural norms of respecting authority figures by being submissive and not questioning them. Participants did not perceive all HCPs as discriminatory; their stories of discrimination derived from encounters with individual nurses or physicians. However, participants were greatly affected by the encounters, which continue to be painful memories. Despite increasing efforts to provide culturally competent palliative care, there is still need for improvement. Providing opportunities for changing HCPs' beliefs and behaviors is essential to developing cultural competence.

  5. Gender Dynamics in Mexican American Families: Connecting Mothers', Fathers', and Youths' Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chun Bun; McHale, Susan M; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2012-07-01

    Study goals were to examine the conditions under which congruent and incongruent patterns of parents' division of household labor and gender role attitudes emerged, and the implications of these patterns for youth gender development. Questionnaire and phone diary data were collected from mothers, fathers, and youths from 236 Mexican American families in the southwestern US. Preliminary cluster analysis identified three patterns: Traditional divisions of labor and traditional attitudes, egalitarian divisions of labor and egalitarian attitudes, and an incongruent pattern, with a traditional division of labor but egalitarian attitudes. MANOVAs, and follow-up, mixed- and between-group ANOVAs, revealed that these groups of families differed in parents' time constraints, socioeconomic resources, and cultural orientations. Mothers in the congruent egalitarian group worked more hours and earned higher incomes as compared to mothers in the congruent traditional and incongruent groups, and the emergence of the incongruent group was grounded in within-family, inter-parental differences in work hours and incomes. Parents' patterns of gendered practices and beliefs were linked to their youths' housework participation, time with mothers versus fathers, and gender role attitudes. Youths in the congruent traditional group had more traditional gender role attitudes than those in the congruent egalitarian and incongruent groups, and gender atypical housework participation and time with parents were only observed in the congruent egalitarian group. Findings demonstrate the utility of a within-family design to understand complex gendered phenomena, and highlight the multidimensional nature of gender and the importance of contextualizing the study of ethnic minorities.

  6. Socioeconomic stress and academic adjustment among Asian American adolescents: the protective role of family obligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L; Supple, Andrew J; Gonzalez, Laura M

    2013-06-01

    Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and interactive effects at two time points in the same sample of Asian American adolescents-early high school (N = 180 9th-10th graders; 60 % female) and 2 years later in late high school (N = 156 11th-12th graders; 87% of original sample). Results suggest that socioeconomic stress is indeed associated with poor academic adjustment, measured broadly through self-reported GPA, importance of academic success, and educational aspirations and expectations. Family obligation was positively related to adjustment, and also was found to buffer the negative effects of socioeconomic stress, but only during adolescents' later high school years. Adolescents reporting more family obligation experienced less of the negative effects of financial stress on academic outcomes than those reporting lower obligation. Cultural and developmental implications are discussed in light of these direct and moderating effects.

  7. Maternal resources, parenting, and dietary patterns among rural African American children in single-parent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E Juanita; McBride Murry, Velma; Brody, Gene; Parker, Veronica

    2002-01-01

    A correlation study was designed to test the hypothesis that maternal education, perceived family resources, and the importance of family routines would be related to children's dietary patterns. Additionally, the study examined the hypothesis that dietary patterns would be associated with children's cognitive and physical abilities. The sample for this study included 159 African American single-mother families with a 6- to 9-year-old child living in rural areas, most of whom lived in poverty. Children's eating patterns were assessed using a self-report questionnaire administered to the mother in an interview format. Children's cognitive ability was measured by several subscales from the Woodcock Johnson Psycho-Educational Instrument and the Harter Perceived Competence Scale for children. For male children, the mother's higher education was related to more adequate eating patterns at home, and more perceived family resources were related to the likelihood of taking vitamin supplements. For female children, greater milk intake was positively related to cognitive outcomes, including applied problem, passage comprehension, calculation, synonym identification, antonym identification, and quantitative concept scores. Milk intake was clearly related to more optimal cognitive development. The results of this study support the literature related to the importance of nutrition for cognitive and physical abilities in children.

  8. Parental rejection of homosexuals in a family primary health care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Casas Patiño

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To know the frequency of parental rejection in homosexual patients in a family primary health care unit. Methods: A descriptive study carried out by the application of the Family Rejection instrument by Lozano-Díaz (2010 to 39 parents of homosexual patients assigned to the Family Medicine Unit no 195 in Chalco, Mexico. The non-probabilistic convenience sample was obtained in family medicine consultations and appointments with the parents of patients recognized as homosexuals were arranged with the help of social workers. Results: 1 The worst negative attitude towards homosexuality was observed in the fathers; 2 There was a great feeling of family dishonor to have a homosexual son or daughter; 3 It was considered very unpleasant to have sexual preference for the same sex; 4 Marriages were not accepted between same-sex couples. Conclusions: It is possible to state that the parental rejection of homosexuals was considerably high in the group investigated. It is noteworthy that these patients need to be addressed not only individually, but also with their families. The search for non-biomedical alternatives can provide an opportunity for the acceptance of homosexual expression, reducing discrimination within the family unit, and hence in social environments.

  9. Family First: The Development of an Evidence- Based Family Intervention for Increasing Participation in Psychiatric Clinical Care and Research in Depressed African American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Breland-Noble, Alfiee M.; Bell, Carl; NICOLAS, GUERDA

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have documented health disparities for African American and other youth of color in the area of mental health. In accordance with calls for the development of innovative methods for use in reducing these disparities, the purpose of this article is to describe the development of an evidence-based intervention targeting the use of psychiatric clinical care by African American families. The authors summarize current research in the areas of perceived and demonstrated bias in the prov...

  10. "So we would all help pitch in:" The family literacy practices of low-income African American mothers of preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, Robin L; Hamilton, Megan-Brette; Coba-Rodriguez, Sarai

    2015-01-01

    The development of emergent literacy skills are important for the development of later literacy competencies and affect school readiness. Quantitative researchers document race- and social class-based disparities in emergent literacy competence between low-income African American and middle-income White children. Some researchers suggest that deficits in parenting practices account for limited literacy skills among low-income African American children. A small body of qualitative research on low-income African American families finds that despite economic challenges, some African American families were actively engaged in promoting child literacy development. Using qualitative interviews that emphasize family strengths, we add to this small body of research to highlight positive family practices obscured in many quantitative analyses that concentrate on family shortcomings. Specifically, we examine in-home literacy practices and child literacy development with a sample of low-income African American mothers (families) of preschoolers. Key findings include identification of various literacy activities promoting child literacy development and inclusion of multiple family members assisting in literacy activities. These findings add to substantive discussions of emergent literacy and resilience. Insights from the qualitative interviews also provide culturally-sensitive recommendations to childhood educators and speech-language pathologists (SLP) who work with low-income African American families and children. Reader should recognize that (1) there is not a 'right' phenotype and therefore not a right form of environmental input and (2) that context matters (at both the level of the cell and the individual organism). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a Culturally Appropriate, Home-Based Nutrition and Physical Activity Curriculum for Wisconsin American Indian Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L. LaRowe, PhD

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We designed an obesity prevention intervention for American Indian families called Healthy Children, Strong Families using a participatory approach involving three Wisconsin tribes. Healthy Children, Strong Families promotes healthy eating and physical activity for preschool children and their caregivers while respecting each community’s cultural and structural framework. Academic researchers, tribal wellness staff, and American Indian community mentors participated in development of the Healthy Children, Strong Families educational curriculum. The curriculum is based on social cognitive and family systems theories as well as on community eating and activity patterns with adaptation to American Indian cultural values. The curricular materials, which were delivered through a home-based mentoring model, have been successfully received and are being modified so that they can be tailored to individual family needs. The curriculum can serve as a nutrition and physical activity model for health educators that can be adapted for other American Indian preschool children and their families or as a model for development of a culturally specific curriculum.

  12. Family Perceptions of Intensive Care Unit Nurses' Roles: A Greek Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliarou, Maria; Gerogianni, Georgia; Babatsikou, Fotoula; Kotrotsiou, Evaggelia; Zyga, Sofia

    2014-01-13

    This study was done in order to examine the role of the nurse in families with critically ill patients as perceived by family members. A descriptive design was conducted with 93 family members aged 18-53 years from a 6-bed intensive care unit in a Greek Hospital. An anonymous self-completed questionnaire recording demographic data and the questionnaire Family members perception of nurses behavioral role expectation/enactment scale of Hickey and Lewandowski was used. Parametric statistic tests were used to examine the research questions. Intensive care unit (ICU) patients' family members expect nurses to make them feel they can ask whatever they want whenever they want, placing great emphasis on communicating with one another and on participating in decision making to the progress of patient care. The age seems to correlate with the expectation from nurse to meet the role of training on how to handle the patient. Nurses did well with regard to meeting family members' expectations. Most family members assessed positively the role of ICU nurse confirming the need for communication, and clear support of families.

  13. Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment: Longitudinal Associations in Two-Parent African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Shawn D; Solmeyer, Anna R; McHale, Susan M

    2015-11-01

    Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants were consecutively-born siblings [at Time 1, older siblings averaged 14.03 (SD = 1.80) years of age, 48 % female; younger siblings averaged 10.39 (SD = 1.07) years of age, 52 % female] and two parents from 189 African American families. Data were collected via annual home interviews for 3 years. A series of multi-level models revealed that sibling positivity and sibling negativity declined across adolescence, with no significant differences by sibling dyad gender constellation. Controlling for age-related changes as well as time-varying parent-adolescent relationship qualities, changes in sibling negativity, but not positivity, were positively related to changes in adolescents' depressive symptoms and risky behaviors. Like parent-adolescent relationships, sibling relationships displayed some distancing across adolescence. Nevertheless, sibling negativity remained a uniquely important relational experience for African American adolescents' adjustment.

  14. Parental feeding practices in Mexican American families: initial test of an expanded measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tschann Jeanne M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although obesity rates are high among Latino children, relatively few studies of parental feeding practices have examined Latino families as a separate group. Culturally-based approaches to measurement development can begin to identify parental feeding practices in specific cultural groups. This study used qualitative and quantitative methods to develop and test the Parental Feeding Practices (PFP Questionnaire for use with Mexican American parents. Items reflected both parent’s use of control over child eating and child-centered feeding practices. Methods In the qualitative phase of the research, 35 Latino parents participated in focus groups. Items for the PFP were developed from focus group discussions, as well as adapted from existing parent feeding practice measures. Cognitive interviews were conducted with 37 adults to evaluate items. In the quantitative phase, mothers and fathers of 174 Mexican American children ages 8–10 completed the PFP and provided demographic information. Anthropometric measures were obtained on family members. Results Confirmatory factor analyses identified four parental feeding practice dimensions: positive involvement in child eating, pressure to eat, use of food to control behavior, and restriction of amount of food. Factorial invariance modeling suggested equivalent factor meaning and item response scaling across mothers and fathers. Mothers and fathers differed somewhat in their use of feeding practices. All four feeding practices were related to child body mass index (BMI percentiles, for one or both parents. Mothers reporting more positive involvement had children with lower BMI percentiles. Parents using more pressure to eat had children with lower BMI percentiles, while parents using more restriction had children with higher BMI percentiles. Fathers using food to control behavior had children with lower BMI percentiles. Conclusions Results indicate good initial validity and

  15. The Obstacles against Nurse-Family Communication in Family-Centered Care in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: a Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Hadian Shirazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Communication is one of the key principles in Family-Centered Care (FCC. Studies have shown some drawbacks in communication between families and nurses. Therefore, the present study aimed to recognize the obstacles against nurse-family communication in FCC in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted on 8 staff nurses in 2 NICUs affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences selected through purposive sampling. The data were collected using 8 deep semi-structured interviews and 3 observations. Then, they were analyzed through inductive content analysis. Results: Data analysis resulted in identification of 3 main categories and 7 subcategories. The first category was organizational factors with 2 subcategories of educational domain (inadequate education, lack of a system for nursing student selection, and poor professionalization and clinical domain (difficult working conditions, lack of an efficient system for ongoing education and evaluation, and authoritarian management. The second category was familial factors with socio-cultural, psychological, and economic subcategories. The last category was the factors related to nurses with socio-cultural and psycho-physical subcategories.Conclusion: Identification of the obstacles against nurse-family communication helps managers of healthcare systems to plan and eliminate the challenges of effective communication. Besides, elimination of these factors leads to appropriate strategies in NICUs for effective application of FCC.

  16. The toy library service at Honeylands Family Support Unit: an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rub, S

    1987-01-01

    Toy libraries have become a favoured way of providing a service to families in which there is a mentally handicapped child. The purpose of this study was to gain information about how parents valued the service provided by the toy library at Honeylands Family Support Unit. Parents expressed a great deal of satisfaction with the service. Suggestions are made as to how it could be further improved and about the desirability of it being extended to school-aged children.

  17. The Healthy Children, Strong Families intervention promotes improvements in nutrition, activity and body weight in American Indian families with young children

    OpenAIRE

    Tomayko, Emily J.; Prince, Ronald J; Cronin, Kate A.; Adams, Alexandra K

    2016-01-01

    Objective American Indian children of pre-school age have disproportionally high obesity rates and consequent risk for related diseases. Healthy Children, Strong Families was a family-based randomized trial assessing the efficacy of an obesity prevention toolkit delivered by a mentor v. mailed delivery that was designed and administered using community-based participatory research approaches. Design During Year 1, twelve healthy behaviour toolkit lessons were delivered by either a community-b...

  18. Mediation with Families in Separation and Divorce in the United Kingdom: Links with Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Margaret

    1988-01-01

    Gives a brief account of recent developments in matrimonial law related to divorce, custody, and visitation to the children of divorcing couples. Discusses the development of mediation, its organizational structure, and its place within the context of the legal system of the United Kingdom. Outlines the principles of conciliation. (Author/ABL)

  19. Measurement of Family-centered care perception and parental stress in a neonatal unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Simphronio Balbino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the effects of the implementation of the Patient and Family-Centered Care Model on parents and healthcare perceptions and parental stress. Method: a quasi-experimental study developed in a neonatal unit of a university hospital in the municipality of São Paulo, Brazil, with the implementation of this model of care. Data collection were performed by two sample groups, one using non-equivalent groups of parents, and another using equivalent groups of healthcare professionals. The instruments Perceptions of Family-Centered Care-Parent Brazilian Version, Perceptions of Family-Centered Care-Staff Brazilian Version and Parental Stress Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, were applied to 132 parents of newborns hospitalized and to 57 professionals. Results: there was a statistically significant improvement in the perceptions of the parents in most items assessed (p ≤0,05 and for the staff in relation to the family welcome in the neonatal unit (p = 0.041 and to the comprehension of the family's experience with the infant´s hospitalization (p = 0,050. There was a reduction in the average scores of parental stress, with a greater decrease in the Alteration in Parental Role from 4,2 to 3,8 (p = 0,048. Conclusion: the interventions improved the perceptions of parents and healthcare team related to patient and family-centered care and contributed to reducing parental stress.

  20. A multilocus molecular phylogeny of the endemic North American camel spider family Eremobatidae (Arachnida: Solifugae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Paula E; Graham, Matthew R; Prendini, Lorenzo; Brookhart, Jack O

    2015-11-01

    Camel spiders (Solifugae) are a diverse but poorly studied order of arachnids. No robust phylogenetic analysis has ever been carried out for the order or for any family within the Solifugae. We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the endemic North American family Eremobatidae Kraepelin, 1899, the first such analysis of a family of Solifugae. We use a multi-locus exemplar approach using DNA sequences from partial nuclear (28S rDNA and Histone H3) and mitochondrial (16S rRNA and Cytochrome c Oxidase I) gene loci for 81 ingroup exemplars representing all genera of Eremobatidae and most species groups within the genera Eremobates Banks, 1900, Eremochelis Roewer, 1934, and Hemerotrecha Banks, 1903. Maximum Likelihood and two Bayesian analyses consistently recovered the monophyly of Eremobatidae, Eremorhax Roewer, 1934 and Eremothera Muma, 1951 along with a group comprising all subfamily Eremobatinae Kraepelin, 1901 exemplars except Horribates bantai Muma, 1989 and a group comprising all Eremocosta Roewer, 1934 exemplars except Eremocosta acuitalpanensis (Vasquez and Gavin, 2000). The subfamily Therobatinae Muma, 1951 and the genera Chanbria Muma, 1951, Hemerotrecha, Eremochelis, and Eremobates were polyphyletic or paraphyletic. Only the banksi group of Hemerotrecha was monophyletic; the other species groups recognized within Eremobates, Eremochelis, and Hemerotrecha were paraphyletic or polyphyletic. We found no support for the monophyly of the subfamily Therobatinae. A time-calibrated phylogeny dated the most recent common ancestor of extant eremobatids to the late Eocene to early Miocene, with a mean estimate in the late Oligocene (32.2 Ma).

  1. CNGA3 mutations in two United Arab Emirates families with achromatopsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Yachna; Kohl, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Achromatopsia results from mutations in one of three genes: cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, alpha-3 (CNGA3); cyclic nucleotide-gated channel, beta-3 (CNGB3); and guanine nucleotide-binding protein, alpha-transducing activity polypeptide 2 (GNAT2). We report the responsible mutations in two United Arab Emirates families who have this autosomal recessive disease. Methods Clinical examinations were performed in seven patients from three nuclear families. Molecular genetic testing for common CNGA3 and CNGB3 mutations was undertaken using standard protocols. Results All patients were extremely light sensitive and had reduced visual acuity and no color perception. Fundus examinations did not show any visible abnormalities. After further pedigree analysis, two of the families were found to be linked through the paternal line. Two mutations in CNGA3 were identified: Arg283Trp and Gly397Val. Family A, the larger pedigree, had one branch in which two sisters and one brother were homozygous for the Gly397Val mutation and another branch in which a brother and sister were compound heterozygous for both aforenamed mutations. Family B, however, only had two brothers who were homozygous for the Arg283Trp mutation. Conclusions Achromatopsia in these two United Arab Emirates families results from two different mutations in CNGA3. Two branches of the same pedigree had individuals with both homozygous and compound heterozygous disease, demonstrating a complex molecular pathology in this large family. PMID:18636117

  2. Decreased Mexican and Central American labor migration to the United States in the context of the crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Luis Hernández Suárez

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the migration of Mexican and Central American workers to the United States, based on the theory of imperialism and underdevelopment, especially as regards the absolute surplus...

  3. Digital Geologic Map of the American Camp Unit and vicinity, Washington (NPS, GRD, GRE, SAJH, SJIS digital map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Digital Geologic Map of the American Camp Unit and vicinity, Washington is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.2 layer (.LYR) files, two ancillary...

  4. Perspectives:The Strength of a People: Exploring the Impact of History and Culture on African American Families Who Are Homeless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Tabitha; Diamond-Berry, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    The authors share their perspective on how the history of African American's in the U.S., and an awareness of the role of African cultural traditions, can provide insight on working effectively with African American families.

  5. Positive family relationships and religious affiliation as mediators between negative environment and illicit drug symptoms in American Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mansoo; Stiffman, Arlene R

    2010-07-01

    The present study tests how positive family relationships and religious affiliation mediate between negative familial and social environments, and adolescent illicit drug abuse/dependence symptoms. The theoretical framework is based on an integration of two theories: the ecological model of human development (Bronfenbrenner, 1979) and the social development model (Hawkins & Weis, 1985). We used a stratified random sample of 401 American Indian adolescents. A path analysis tested the integrative theoretical model. Findings showed that positive family relationships mediated the negative impact of addicted family members, violence victimization, and negative school environment on illicit drug abuse/dependence symptoms. Religious affiliation mediated the negative effect of deviant peers on positive family relationships. Intervention and prevention efforts may benefit from promoting positive family relationships and religious affiliation to reduce the impact of complex familial and social problems on illicit drug symptoms.

  6. African American women's experience of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The design of effective behavioral interventions to prevent HIV infection among African American women requires a more complete understanding of the context and circumstances that precipitate infection with the virus. A descriptive study was designed to explore African American women's experiences of infection with HIV in the rural southeastern United States. Ten women living with HIV participated in interviews. All were infected through sex with a man or men; three had engaged in high-risk activities associated with HIV infection including sex trading; seven described themselves as at low risk for infection related to serial monogamy, no injection drug use, and no history of addiction. Participants reported that desire for intimacy coupled with inaccurate risk appraisal of sex partners contributed to their infection. These results provide insight into the role of intimacy in sexual risk taking. Inquiry into how women can be assisted to protect themselves in the context of intimate relationships may improve interventions to prevent HIV.

  7. Filling Gaps in the Acculturation Gap-Distress Model: Heritage Cultural Maintenance and Adjustment in Mexican-American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H; Yuen, Cynthia; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    The acculturation gap-distress model purports that immigrant children acculturate faster than do their parents, resulting in an acculturation gap that leads to family and youth maladjustment. However, empirical support for the acculturation gap-distress model has been inconclusive. In the current study, 428 Mexican-American adolescents (50.2 % female) and their primary caregivers independently completed questionnaires assessing their levels of American and Mexican cultural orientation, family functioning, and youth adjustment. Contrary to the acculturation gap-distress model, acculturation gaps were not associated with poorer family or youth functioning. Rather, adolescents with higher levels of Mexican cultural orientations showed positive outcomes, regardless of their parents' orientations to either American or Mexican cultures. Findings suggest that youths' heritage cultural maintenance may be most important for their adjustment.

  8. Toward Family and Community: Mental Retardation Services in Massachusetts, New England, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, David; Hemp, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Current trends in mental retardation services in Massachusetts were investigated using the New England region, the state of Michigan, and the United States as comparative frames of reference. Massachusetts' movement toward reducing reliance on state institutions, reallocating funding, and developing community services and family support is…

  9. Parenting stress, perceived parenting behaviors, and adolescent self-concept in European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnick, Diane L; Bornstein, Marc H; Hendricks, Charlene; Painter, Kathleen M; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Collins, W Andrew

    2008-10-01

    This study assesses whether the stresses associated with parenting a child are indirectly related to adolescent self-concept through parenting behaviors. We examined longitudinal associations among mothers' and fathers' parenting stress at age 10, children's perceptions of parenting at age 10, and adolescents' self-concept at age 14 in 120 European American families. Mothers' and fathers' parenting stress was related to children's perceptions of acceptance and psychologically controlling behavior, and psychologically controlling behavior (and lax control for fathers) was related to adolescent self-concept. We further examined which domains of parenting stress and perceived parenting behaviors were associated with adolescents' scholastic competence, social acceptance, physical appearance, and behavioral conduct. Parenting stress was related to specific parenting behaviors, which were, in turn, related to specific domains of self-concept in adolescence. Parenting stress appears to exert its effects on early adolescent self-concept indirectly through perceived parenting behavior.

  10. Satisfaction Domains Differ between the Patient and Their Family in Adult Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ge; Sim, Pei Zhen; Ting, Kit Cheng; Yoo, Jeffrey Kwang Sui; Wang, Qing Li; Mascuri, Raudhah Binte Haji Mohamad; Ong, Venetia Hui Ling; Phua, Jason; Kowitlawakul, Yanika

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients' and family's satisfaction data from the Asian intensive care units (ICUs) is lacking. Objective. Domains between patient and family satisfaction and contribution of each domain to the general satisfaction were studied. Method. Over 3 months, adult patients across 4 ICUs staying for more than 48 hours with abbreviated mental test score of 7 or above and able to understand English and immediate family members were surveyed by separate validated satisfaction questionnaires. Results. Two hundred patients and 194 families were included in the final analysis. Significant difference in the satisfaction scores was observed between the ICUs. Patients were most and least satisfied in the communication (4.2 out of 5) and decision-making (2.9 out of 5) domains, respectively. Families were most and least satisfied in the relationship with doctors (3.9 out of 5) and family's involvement domains (3.3 out of 5), respectively. Domains contributing most to the general satisfaction were the illness management domain for patients (β coefficient = 0.44) and characteristics of doctors and nurses domain for family (β coefficient = 0.45). Discussion. In an Asian ICU community, patients and families differ in their expectations and valuations of health care processes. Health care providers have difficult tasks in attending to these different domains. PMID:28044138

  11. Satisfaction Domains Differ between the Patient and Their Family in Adult Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Song, Ge; Sim, Pei Zhen; Ting, Kit Cheng; Yoo, Jeffrey Kwang Sui; Wang, Qing Li; Mascuri, Raudhah Binte Haji Mohamad; Ong, Venetia Hui Ling; Phua, Jason; Kowitlawakul, Yanika

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients' and family's satisfaction data from the Asian intensive care units (ICUs) is lacking. Objective. Domains between patient and family satisfaction and contribution of each domain to the general satisfaction were studied. Method. Over 3 months, adult patients across 4 ICUs staying for more than 48 hours with abbreviated mental test score of 7 or above and able to understand English and immediate family members were surveyed by separate validated satisfaction questionnaires. Results. Two hundred patients and 194 families were included in the final analysis. Significant difference in the satisfaction scores was observed between the ICUs. Patients were most and least satisfied in the communication (4.2 out of 5) and decision-making (2.9 out of 5) domains, respectively. Families were most and least satisfied in the relationship with doctors (3.9 out of 5) and family's involvement domains (3.3 out of 5), respectively. Domains contributing most to the general satisfaction were the illness management domain for patients (β coefficient = 0.44) and characteristics of doctors and nurses domain for family (β coefficient = 0.45). Discussion. In an Asian ICU community, patients and families differ in their expectations and valuations of health care processes. Health care providers have difficult tasks in attending to these different domains.

  12. Caregiver criticism, help-giving, and the burden of schizophrenia among Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Bianca T; Ullman, Jodie; Krick, Tracy Wang; Alcántara, Darcy; Kopelowicz, Alex; López, Steven R

    2017-09-01

    This study tested an attribution model of help-giving in family caregivers of persons with schizophrenia as it relates to caregivers' reported burden. We hypothesized (a) that caregivers' attributions of their ill relatives' responsibility for their symptoms would be associated with more negative and less positive affective reactions, (b) that affective reactions would be related to perceptions of administered support, and (c) that support would in turn predict greater burden. We examined 60 family caregivers of Mexican origin living in Southern California. Mexican Americans were chosen because of their high degree of contact with their ill relative, thereby facilitating the examination of help-giving and burden. Contrary to past studies, caregivers' attributions and affective stance were assessed independently, the former based on self-report and the latter based on codes drawn from the Camberwell Family Interview. Caregiver burden was assessed at baseline and one year later. Path analyses showed partial support for the attribution model of help-giving. Specifically, attributions of responsibility negatively predicted caregiver's warmth, which in turn predicted more administered support. Contrary to hypotheses, attributions were not associated with caregiver criticism, and criticism was positively related to administered support. In addition, caregiver support was not related to burden at either baseline or a year later. Criticism was a significant predictor of burden at follow-up through burden at baseline. The emotional stance of caregivers predicts burden independent of the help they provide. Caregiver criticism not only predicts negative patient outcomes but can predict negative caregiver outcomes as well. Positive clinical implications In family treatment, it is important to address caregiver criticism not only because of its relationship to poor clinical outcomes of ill relatives but also because of its relationship to greater caregiver burden. Integrating a

  13. Families on adult intensive care units: Are they really satisfied? A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla Fortunatti, Cristóbal; Rojas Silva, Noelia

    2017-08-24

    Family satisfaction in intensive care units (ICU) is of increasing relevance for family-centred cared. The objective of this review was to explore the characteristics of studies that have used questionnaires to measure the satisfaction of family members of ICU patients. A literature review was performed for studies evaluating family satisfaction in the ICU, independent of design. The following data were obtained for each selected article: publication year, country of origin, design, number of family members, instrument for family satisfaction, instrument score range, response rate, moment at which satisfaction was evaluated, and average level of reported satisfaction. The following databases were systematically searched: PubMed, CINAHL, ProQuest Nursing, ProQuest Social Science, ProQuest Psychology, Science Direct, PsycINFO, LILACS, and Scielo. Thirty-seven articles met inclusion criteria, showing high levels of family satisfaction. Among these, nine different questionnaires were identified. In 31.6% of the studies, family satisfaction was evaluated during the ICU stay, whereas 36.9% did not report the evaluation moment. The mean response rate was 65.5%, and response rates greater than 70% were found only in 28.2% of the studies. High satisfaction levels among family members of ICU patients must be contextualised in light of questionnaire heterogeneity, low response rates, and variability in the moment at which family satisfaction is evaluated. The creation of methodological standards for evaluating and reporting family satisfaction could facilitate comparing results between investigations in this field. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic Profiles of Obesity in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qi; Zhu, Yun; Best, Lyle G; Umans, Jason G; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Jones, Dean P; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a typical metabolic disorder resulting from the imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. American Indians suffer disproportionately high rates of obesity and diabetes. The goal of this study is to identify metabolic profiles of obesity in 431 normoglycemic American Indians participating in the Strong Heart Family Study. Using an untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we detected 1,364 distinct m/z features matched to known compounds in the current metabolomics databases. We conducted multivariate analysis to identify metabolic profiles for obesity, adjusting for standard obesity indicators. After adjusting for covariates and multiple testing, five metabolites were associated with body mass index and seven were associated with waist circumference. Of them, three were associated with both. Majority of the obesity-related metabolites belongs to lipids, e.g., fatty amides, sphingolipids, prenol lipids, and steroid derivatives. Other identified metabolites are amino acids or peptides. Of the nine identified metabolites, five metabolites (oleoylethanolamide, mannosyl-diinositol-phosphorylceramide, pristanic acid, glutamate, and kynurenine) have been previously implicated in obesity or its related pathways. Future studies are warranted to replicate these findings in larger populations or other ethnic groups.

  15. Giving information to family members of patients in the intensive care unit: Iranian nurses' ethical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Mansoureh A; Gaeeni, Mina; Mohammadi, Nooreddin; Seyedfatemi, Naima

    2014-01-01

    Receiving information related to patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit is among the most important needs of the family members of such patients. When health care professionals should decide whether to be honest or to give hope, giving information becomes an ethical challenge We conducted a research to study the ethical approaches of Iranian nurses to giving information to the family members of patients in the intensive care units. This research was conducted in the intensive care units of three teaching hospitals in Iran. It employed a qualitative approach involving semi-structured and in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 12 nurses to identify the ethical approaches to giving information to family members of the intensive care unit patients. A conventional content analysis of the data produced two categories and five subcategories. The two categories were as follows: a) informational support, and b) emotional support. Informational support had 2 subcategories consisting of being honest in giving information, and providing complete and understandable information. Emotional support in giving information had 3 sub-categories consisting of gradual revelation, empathy and assurance. Findings of the study indicated that ethical approaches to giving information can be in the form of either informational support or emotional support, based on patients' conditions and prognoses, their families' emotional state, the necessity of providing a calm atmosphere in the ICU and the hospital, and other patients and their families' peace. Findings of the present study can be used as a basis for further studies and for offering ethical guidelines in giving information to the families of patients hospitalized in the ICU.

  16. A short form of the neonatal intensive care unit family needs inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabete Alves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The identification of parental needs in Neonatal Intensive Care Units is essential to design and implement family-centered care. This article aims to validate the Neonatal Intensive Care Units Family Needs Inventory for the Portuguese population, and to propose a Short Form. METHODS: A linguistic adaptation of the Neonatal Intensive Care Units Family Needs Inventory, a self-report scale with 56-items, was performed. The instrument was administered to 211 parents of infants hospitalized in all level III Neonatal Intensive Care Units in the North of Portugal, 15-22 days after admission (July of 2013-June of 2014. The number of items needed to achieve reliability close to 0.8 was calculated using by the Spearman-Brown formula. The global goodness of fit of the scale was evaluated using the comparative fit index. Construct validity was assessed through association of each dimension score with socio-demographic and obstetric characteristics. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis revealed two dimensions, one focused on parents' needs and another on the infant's needs. To compose the Short Form Inventory, items with ceiling effect were eliminated and 22 items were submitted to confirmatory analysis, which supported the existence of two dimensions (CFI = 0.925. The Short Form showed a high degree of reliability (alpha ≥ 0.76. Less educated and older parents more frequently attributed a significantly higher importance to parent-centered needs, while parents of multiples revealed a tendency to value infant-centered needs. CONCLUSIONS: The Short Form of the Neonatal Intensive Care Units Family Needs Inventory is a brief, simple, and valid instrument with a high degree of reliability. Further studies are needed to explore associations with practices of family-centered care.

  17. [Family in the waiting room of an intensive care unit revealed feelings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frizon, Gloriana; do Nascimento, Eliane Regina Pereira; Bertoncello, Kátia Cilene Godinho; Martinse, Josiane de Jesus

    2011-03-01

    This is a qualitative study that aims to understand the feelings of relatives of patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). The study was conducted in the ICU of a large general hospital in the western region of Santa Catarina. The data collection occurred in 2009 with a semi structured interview to eighteen families. For data treatment the collective subject discourse was used. Reports emerged of two items related to feelings: hospitalization in the ICU and while waiting to enter the unit. The analysis revealed feelings as pain, anguish, sadness, helplessness,fear, despair, anxiety and expectation infinite. It is hoped that these results may assist in the training of professionals, to host the family and its insertion in the ICU environment as an element to be integrated into nursing care, through actions welcoming, helping them to cope with hospitalization of a relative in a critical unit.

  18. Oversight on Community Services Administration, Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment, and Adoption Opportunities, and Native American Programs Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Aging, Family and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    Oversight hearings were conducted on April 23, 1981 in reference to social service block grants for the Community Services Administration, child abuse prevention and treatment and adoption programs, and Native American Programs Act. Testimonies for support of block grants advocated ability of States to decide how program resources can best be…

  19. Prevalence and treatment of eating disorders among Hispanics/Latino Americans in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Marisol; Ohrt, Tara K; Hoek, Hans W

    2016-11-01

    We reviewed the recent literature on prevalence rates, and application of evidence-based treatments for eating disorders among Hispanics/Latinos residing in the United States. Lifetime prevalence rates of anorexia nervosa are lower among Hispanic/Latinos than non-Hispanic Whites. There are comparable rates of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder (BED) among Hispanic/Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites. BED is the most common eating disorder among Hispanic/Latinos. Evidence-based treatments have begun to be implemented with Hispanics/Latinos. The core concepts of cognitive behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa and BED apply to this population. Culture-specific adaptations include strengthening the collectivistic framework within an individualistic treatment, psychoeducation of immediate and extended family, and adjustment of meal plans that incorporated cultural foods. There are more similarities than differences in the prevalence of eating disorders across Hispanics/Latinos and non-Hispanic Whites. However, the social context such as immigration status and acculturation is important to consider in the development of eating disorders. In addition, the Westernization of Latin America may change the future relationship of immigration status and development of eating disorder within the United States. Overall, cultural adaptations of evidence-based treatments involved the inclusion of family within treatment, acculturation-related issues, and managing family conflicts that arise because of the changes in eating patterns.

  20. Assessment of satisfaction with care among family members of survivors in a neuroscience intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, David Y; Yagoda, Daniel; Perrey, Hilary M; Tehan, Tara M; Guanci, Mary; Ananian, Lillian; Currier, Paul F; Cobb, J Perren; Rosand, Jonathan

    2014-04-01

    Many prior nursing studies regarding family members specifically of neuroscience intensive care unit (neuro-ICU) patients have focused on identifying their primary needs. A concept related to identifying these needs and assessing whether they have been met is determining whether families explicitly report satisfaction with the care that both they and their loved ones have received. The objective of this study was to explore family satisfaction with care in an academic neuro-ICU and compare results with concurrent data from the same hospital's medical ICU (MICU). Over 38 days, we administered the Family Satisfaction-ICU instrument to neuro-ICU and MICU patients' families at the time of ICU discharge. Those whose loved ones passed away during ICU admission were excluded. When asked about the respect and compassion that they received from staff, 76.3% (95% CI [66.5, 86.1]) of neuro-ICU families were completely satisfied, as opposed to 92.7% in the MICU (95% CI [84.4, 101.0], p = .04). Respondents were less likely to be completely satisfied with the courtesy of staff if they reported participation in zero formal family meeting. Less than 60% of neuro-ICU families were completely satisfied by (1) frequency of physician communication, (2) inclusion and (3) support during decision making, and (4) control over the care of their loved ones. Parents of patients were more likely than other relatives to feel very included and supported in the decision-making process. Future studies may focus on evaluating strategies for neuro-ICU nurses and physicians to provide better decision-making support and to implement more frequent family meetings even for those patients who may not seem medically or socially complicated to the team. Determining satisfaction with care for those families whose loved ones passed away during their neuro-ICU admission is another potential avenue for future investigation.

  1. Intelligibility of American English vowels and consonants spoken by international students in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2014-04-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to examine the intelligibility of English consonants and vowels produced by Chinese-native (CN), and Korean-native (KN) students enrolled in American universities. METHOD 16 English-native (EN), 32 CN, and 32 KN speakers participated in this study. The intelligibility of 16 American English consonants and 16 vowels spoken by native and nonnative speakers of English was evaluated by EN listeners. All nonnative speakers also completed a survey of their language backgrounds. RESULTS Although the intelligibility of consonants and diphthongs for nonnative speakers was comparable to that of native speakers, the intelligibility of monophthongs was significantly lower for CN and KN speakers than for EN speakers. Sociolinguistic factors such as the age of arrival in the United States and daily use of English, as well as a linguistic factor, difference in vowel space between native (L1) and nonnative (L2) language, partially contributed to vowel intelligibility for CN and KN groups. There was no significant correlation between the length of U.S. residency and phoneme intelligibility. CONCLUSION Results indicated that the major difficulty in phonemic production in English for Chinese and Korean speakers is with vowels rather than consonants. This might be useful for developing training methods to improve English intelligibility for foreign students in the United States.

  2. Determining Family Needs on an Oncology Hospital Unit Using Interview, Art, and Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catlin, Anita; Ford, Marilee; Maloney, Carrie

    2016-04-01

    A movement worldwide, and specifically new to our hospital, is the implementation of Patient- and Family-Centered Care. We were unsure, however, what the needs were of our patients' families. This triangulated study, on a 28-bed oncology unit, studied family members at the bedside. We asked family members what their needs were in a three-step process (open-ended interview, use of the Draw a Bridge art therapy technique, and the Family Inventory of Needs survey). Nineteen interviews revealed needs for physical comfort, emotional support, cultural sensitivity, recognition of help provided by family members and improved pain management. Art therapy revealed the stress of caregiving and helped to uncover unmet needs for interviewers to explore. The FIN identified that care at home after discharge was a major worry. Knowledge of family members' needs while a loved one is in the hospital allows for planning and provision of modalities to assist them in their caregiving. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. THE UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON THE RIGHTS OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES IN CANADIAN AND AMERICAN JURISPRUDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Malhotra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I explore the still evolving jurisprudence with respect to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities [CRPD] in Canada and the United States. I argue that the Canadian disability rights movement has always been open to insights from international law. Although the 1990 passage of the landmark Americans with Disabilities Act [ADA] has had an impact internationally as other countries enact similar legislation, the CRPD, which the United States Senate has yet to ratify, has played a marginal role to date in American courts. It remains to be seen if a more robust judicial dialogue can be fostered between the CRPD and domestic courts in both countries. Dans le présent document, j’explore la jurisprudence toujours en évolution au sujet de l’application de la Convention relative aux droits des personnes handicapées [CDPH] au Canada et aux États‑Unis. Je soutiens que le mouvement canadien de défense des droits des handicapés a toujours été ouvert aux points de vue émanant du droit international. Bien que l’adoption, en 1990, de la loi clé intitulée Americans with Disabilities Act [ADA] ait eu des répercussions à l’échelle internationale, puisque d’autres pays ont adopté des lois similaires, la CDPH, que le Sénat américain n’a pas encore ratifiée, a joué un rôle marginal jusqu’à maintenant devant les tribunaux américains. Il reste à déterminer s’il est possible de promouvoir un dialogue judiciaire plus vigoureux entre les organes qui appliquent la CDPH et les tribunaux nationaux des deux pays.

  4. The Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect: A Focus on the Mexican American Family. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (2nd, San Antonio, Texas, September 8-10, 1982).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Angelina Moreno

    The 26 papers focus on child abuse issues affecting the Mexican American family. The keynote address notes various issues in child abuse and neglect among Mexican Americans. Three papers discuss Mexican American families in transition, adjustment of the family into the Mexican American barrio and vice versa, and the effects of sexual assault on…

  5. Validation of a Multidimensional Assessment of Parenting Styles for Low-Income African-American Families with Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coolahan, Kathleen; McWayne, Christine; Fantuzzo, John; Grim, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Examined the construct and concurrent validity of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire-Head Start (PBQ-HS) with low-income African-American families with preschoolers, and whether parenting styles differed by caregiver characteristics. Derived Active-Responsive, Active-Restrictive, and Passive-Permissive parenting dimensions; the last differed…

  6. Toward a Unified Theory of Depression among Urban African American Youth: Integrating Socioecologic, Cognitive, Family Stress, and Biopsychosocial Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammack, Phillip L.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews theories of depression relevant to research on African American adolescents (socioecologic, cognitive, family stress, and biopsychosocial), asserting that all four emphasize the role of oppression in urban black youth's development and that an integrated theory would assume this underlying construct as its core focus. Presents a…

  7. Variations in Parenting and Adolescent Outcomes among African American and Latino Families Living in Low-Income, Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Cherlin, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Drawing from social disorganization theory, this study examined how perceived neighborhood conditions modified associations between parenting and delinquency, depressive symptoms, and school problem behavior among more than 800 African American and Latino 10- to 14-year-olds participating in Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study.…

  8. Dietary Intakes of Urban, High Body Mass Index, African American Children: Family and Child Dietary Attributes Predict Child Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…

  9. Mother--Child and Father--Child Emotional Expressiveness in Mexican-American Families and Toddlers' Peer Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Eric W.; Caldera, Yvonne M.; Rivera, Mitzie

    2013-01-01

    The present investigation explored the association of mother--child and father--child emotional expressiveness during toddlerhood to children's prosocial and aggressive behaviour with peers. Data were collected from 62 Mexican-American families with toddlers (29 females, 33 males) during a home visit. Children's peer interactions were also…

  10. Statistically-Estimated Tree Composition for the Northeastern United States at Euro-American Settlement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Paciorek

    Full Text Available We present a gridded 8 km-resolution data product of the estimated composition of tree taxa at the time of Euro-American settlement of the northeastern United States and the statistical methodology used to produce the product from trees recorded by land surveyors. Composition is defined as the proportion of stems larger than approximately 20 cm diameter at breast height for 22 tree taxa, generally at the genus level. The data come from settlement-era public survey records that are transcribed and then aggregated spatially, giving count data. The domain is divided into two regions, eastern (Maine to Ohio and midwestern (Indiana to Minnesota. Public Land Survey point data in the midwestern region (ca. 0.8-km resolution are aggregated to a regular 8 km grid, while data in the eastern region, from Town Proprietor Surveys, are aggregated at the township level in irregularly-shaped local administrative units. The product is based on a Bayesian statistical model fit to the count data that estimates composition on the 8 km grid across the entire domain. The statistical model is designed to handle data from both the regular grid and the irregularly-shaped townships and allows us to estimate composition at locations with no data and to smooth over noise caused by limited counts in locations with data. Critically, the model also allows us to quantify uncertainty in our composition estimates, making the product suitable for applications employing data assimilation. We expect this data product to be useful for understanding the state of vegetation in the northeastern United States prior to large-scale Euro-American settlement. In addition to specific regional questions, the data product can also serve as a baseline against which to investigate how forests and ecosystems change after intensive settlement. The data product is being made available at the NIS data portal as version 1.0.

  11. Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be credentialed by the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy (AAMFT). Family therapy is often short term. ... challenging situations in a more effective way. References Marriage and family therapists: The friendly mental health professionals. American Association ...

  12. Perceptions of family history and genetic testing and feasibility of pedigree development among African Americans with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettey, Christina M; McSweeney, Jean C; Stewart, Katharine E; Price, Elvin T; Cleves, Mario A; Heo, Seongkum; Souder, Elaine

    2015-02-01

    Pedigree development, family history, and genetic testing are thought to be useful in improving outcomes of chronic illnesses such as hypertension (HTN). However, the clinical utility of pedigree development is still unknown. Further, little is known about the perceptions of African Americans (AAs) of family history and genetic testing. This study examined the feasibility of developing pedigrees for AAs with HTN and explored perceptions of family history and genetic research among AAs with HTN. The US Surgeon General's My Family Health Portrait was administered, and 30-60 min in-person individual interviews were conducted. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze pedigree data. Interview transcripts were analyzed with content analysis and constant comparison. Twenty-nine AAs with HTN were recruited from one free clinic (15 women, 14 men; mean age 49 years, standard deviation (SD) 9.6). Twenty-six (90%) reported their family history in sufficient detail to develop a pedigree. Perceptions of family history included knowledge of HTN in the family, culturally influenced family teaching about HTN, and response to family history of HTN. Most participants agreed to future genetic testing and DNA collection because they wanted to help others; some said they needed more information and others expressed a concern for privacy. The majority of AAs in this sample possessed extensive knowledge of HTN within their family and were able to develop a three-generation pedigree with assistance. The majority were willing to participate in future genetic research. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  13. Children in planned lesbian families: a cross-cultural comparison between the United States and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, H.M.W.; Gartrell, N.K.; van Balen, F.; Peyser, H.; Sandfort, T.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 78 planned lesbian families in the United States were compared with 74 planned lesbian families in the Netherlands. Children were interviewed about disclosure to peers about living in a lesbian family and about their experiences of homophobia; mothers filled out the Child Behavior

  14. Family history and disease outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease: A comparison between China and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Qi; Hu, Jun; Al Kazzi, Elie S; Akhuemonkhan, Eboselume; Zhi, Min; Gao, Xiang; de Paula Pessoa, Raquel Holand; Ghazaleh, Sami; Cornelius, Tuhina; Sabunwala, Suhel Abbas; Ghadermarzi, Shadi; Tripathi, Kartikeya; Lazarev, Mark; Hu, Pin-Jin; Hutfless, Susan

    2016-11-06

    To investigate the differences in family history of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and clinical outcomes among individuals with Crohn's disease (CD) residing in China and the United States. We performed a survey-based cross-sectional study of participants with CD recruited from China and the United States. We compared the prevalence of IBD family history and history of ileal involvement, CD-related surgeries and IBD medications in China and the United States, adjusting for potential confounders. We recruited 49 participants from China and 145 from the United States. The prevalence of family history of IBD was significantly lower in China compared with the United States (China: 4.1%, United States: 39.3%). The three most commonly affected types of relatives were cousin, sibling, and parent in the United States compared with child and sibling in China. Ileal involvement (China: 63.3%, United States: 63.5%) and surgery for CD (China: 51.0%, United States: 49.7%) were nearly equivalent in the two countries. The lower prevalence of familial clustering of IBD in China may suggest that the etiology of CD is less attributed to genetic background or a family-shared environment compared with the United States. Despite the potential difference in etiology, surgery and ileal involvement were similar in the two countries. Examining the changes in family history during the continuing rise in IBD may provide further insight into the etiology of CD.

  15. Living With an American Family: A Guide for Vietnamese Youth. (Song Trong Mot Gia Dinh Hoa Ky: Cam nang cho thieu nien Viet Nam.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Dale; And Others

    This booklet was written for Vietnamese adolescents who are living with American families. The booklet describes, in both Vietnamese and English, the structure and mores of American family and social life. Concerns common to teenagers are also discussed. Among the topics addressed are: school; typical weekdays and weekends; forms of address;…

  16. The Spanish Version of the Mutuality Scale: evidence for the cultural equivalence of mutuality in Mexican American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Janice D; Escandón, Socorro; Stewart, Barbara J; Archbold, Patricia G

    2008-10-01

    Mutuality, the positive quality of the relationship between the family caregiver and care receiver, is an important variable in family care for frail older adults. It has been shown to be associated with lower levels of caregiver strain and higher levels of caregiving rewards. However, the concept and measure of mutuality were developed with non-Hispanic White samples. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of an instrument-the Spanish Version of the Mutuality Scale. We determined for Mexican American families: (a) the functional equivalence of mutuality, (b) a comparative descriptive framework for mutuality, and (c) the language equivalence of the Mutuality Scale and the Spanish Version of the Mutuality Scale. Evaluating mutuality levels for Mexican American older adults and caregivers, especially in view of their strong cultural norm of familism, is essential.

  17. Cardiovascular risk in Gullah African Americans with high familial risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: project SuGAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kelly J; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Spruill, Ida; Teklehaimanot, Abeba A; Garvey, W Timothy; Sale, Michèle; Fernandes, Jyotika

    2014-10-01

    To determine the prevalence of cardiovascular disease, levels of cardiovascular risk factors, and extent of preventive care in Gullah African Americans with a high familial risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Between 1995 and 2003, 1321 Gullah African Americans with a high prevalence of diabetes mellitus from the South Carolina Sea Islands consented to and enrolled in the Sea Islands Genetic African American Registry (Project SuGAR). A cross-sectional analysis of cardiometabolic risk, preventive care, and self-reported cardiovascular disease was conducted. Cardiometabolic risk factor levels were high and vascular disease was prevalent. Among the subjects with diabetes mellitus, the mean disease duration was 10.5 years; approximately one-third reported reduced vision or blindness; and >80% reported numbness, pain, or burning in their feet. Preventive diabetes care was limited, with level of cardiovascular risk in this population but also the pathophysiological mechanisms central to ancestral differences in cardiometabolic risk in the broader African American population.

  18. [Work process of the nurse who works in child care in family health units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Wesley Dantas; Collet, Neusa; Reichert, Altamira Pereira da Silva; de Sá, Lenilde Duarte

    2011-01-01

    This is a qualitative research, which purpose was to analyse the working process of nurse in child care actions in family health units. Nurses are the subjects and empirical data was achieved by the means of participant observation, and interviews. Data analysis followed thematic analysis fundaments. Results reveal that working process organization of nurses still remains centered in proceedings with an offert of assistance based in client illness, showing obstacles to puericulture practice in health basic attention.

  19. Family Annualized Cost of Leaving: The Household as the Decision Unit in Military Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    history of occupational choice theory as it relates to military retention, and then review the economic literature with specific reference to family...from this individual utility maximization framework. Occupational choice theory -- the analysis of which job the individual will choose -- has also...location and risks. It is occupational choice theory , with the individual as the unit of analysis, that has been applied to the military retention

  20. Chinese-American and European-American Mothers and Infants: Cultural Influences in the First Three Months of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Joan F.

    This study explores cultural influences in the first three months of life by comparing the daily experiences of first generation Chinese-American and European-American infants whose parents were born in the United States. The study focused on 10 Chinese-American and 10 European-American families whose mothers were recruited during the third…

  1. Are There Common Familial Influences for Major Depressive Disorder and an Overeating-Binge Eating Dimension in both European-American and African-American Female Twins?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munn-Chernoff, Melissa A.; Grant, Julia D.; Agrawal, Arpana; Koren, Rachel; Glowinski, Anne L.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Duncan, Alexis E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although prior studies have demonstrated that depression is associated with an overeating-binge eating dimension (OE-BE), phenotypically, little research has investigated whether familial factors contribute to the co-occurrence of these phenotypes, especially in community samples with multiple racial/ethnic groups. We examined the extent to which familial (i.e., genetic and shared environmental) influences overlapped between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and OE-BE in a population-based sample and whether these influences were similar across racial/ethnic groups Method Participants included 3226 European-American (EA) and 550 African-American (AA) young adult women from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study. An adaptation of the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) was administered to assess lifetime DSM-IV MDD and OE-BE. Quantitative genetic modeling was used to estimate familial influences between both phenotypes; all models controlled for age. Results The best-fitting model, which combined racial/ethnic groups, found that additive genetic influences accounted for 44% (95% CI: 34%, 53%) of the MDD variance and 40% (25%, 54%) for OE-BE, with the remaining variances due to non-shared environmental influences. Genetic overlap was substantial (rg = .61 [.39, .85]); non-shared environmental influences on MDD and OE-BE overlapped weakly (re = .26 [.09, .42]) Discussion Results suggest that common familial influences underlie MDD and OE-BE, and the magnitude of familial influences contributing to the comorbidity between MDD and OE-BE is similar between EA and AA women. If racial/ethnic differences truly exist, then larger sample sizes may be needed to fully elucidate familial risk for comorbid MDD and OE-BE across these groups. PMID:24659561

  2. Risky Business and the American Climate Prospectus: Economic Risks of Climate Change in the United States"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, K.; Houser, T.; Kopp, R. E., III; Hsiang, S. M.; Larsen, K.; Jina, A.; Delgado, M.; Muir-Wood, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Rising, J.; Mastrandrea, M.; Wilson, P. S.

    2014-12-01

    The United States faces a range of economic risks from global climate change - from increased flooding and storm damage, to climate-driven changes in crop yields and labor productivity, to heat-related strains on energy and public health systems. The Risky Business Project commissioned a groundbreaking new analysis of these and other climate risks by region of the country and sector of the economy. The American Climate Prospectus (ACP) links state-of-the-art climate models with econometric research of human responses to climate variability and cutting edge private sector risk assessment tools, the ACP offers decision-makers a data driven assessment of the specific risks they face. We describe the challenge, methods, findings, and policy implications of the national risk analysis, with particular focus on methodological innovations and novel insights.

  3. Native American depopulation, reforestation, and fire regimes in the Southwest United States, 1492-1900 CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Matthew J; Farella, Joshua; Roos, Christopher I; Stack, Adam; Martini, Sarah; Swetnam, Thomas W

    2016-02-01

    Native American populations declined between 1492 and 1900 CE, instigated by the European colonization of the Americas. However, the magnitude, tempo, and ecological effects of this depopulation remain the source of enduring debates. Recently, scholars have linked indigenous demographic decline, Neotropical reforestation, and shifting fire regimes to global changes in climate, atmosphere, and the Early Anthropocene hypothesis. In light of these studies, we assess these processes in conifer-dominated forests of the Southwest United States. We compare light detection and ranging data, archaeology, dendrochronology, and historical records from the Jemez Province of New Mexico to quantify population losses, establish dates of depopulation events, and determine the extent and timing of forest regrowth and fire regimes between 1492 and 1900. We present a new formula for the estimation of Pueblo population based on architectural remains and apply this formula to 18 archaeological sites in the Jemez Province. A dendrochronological study of remnant wood establishes dates of terminal occupation at these sites. By combining our results with historical records, we report a model of pre- and post-Columbian population dynamics in the Jemez Province. Our results indicate that the indigenous population of the Jemez Province declined by 87% following European colonization but that this reduction occurred nearly a century after initial contact. Depopulation also triggered an increase in the frequency of extensive surface fires between 1640 and 1900. Ultimately, this study illustrates the quality of integrated archaeological and paleoecological data needed to assess the links between Native American population decline and ecological change after European contact.

  4. Suicidality and depression among african american adolescents: the role of family and peer support and community connectedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlin, Samantha L; Molock, Sherry Davis; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2011-01-01

    Rates of suicide are increasing among African American adolescents and pose a significant public health concern. One area that has received little attention is the relationship between various types of social support and suicide, and the extent to which support moderates the relationship between depressive symptoms and suicidality. A total of 212 African American adolescents completed in-school surveys on three types of social support: family support, peer support, and community connectedness. The survey also addressed depressive symptoms and suicidality, as measured by reasons for living, a cognitive measure of suicide risk. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to examine direct and moderating relationships between types of social support and suicidality. The results indicated that increased family support and peer support are associated with decreased suicidality, and peer support and community connectedness moderated the relationship between depressive symptoms and suicidality. Over a third of the variability in reasons for living was predicted by family support, peer support, and community connectedness. Implications for research and preventative interventions for African American adolescents are discussed. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  5. Acculturation Conflict, Cultural Parenting Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Parenting Competence in Asian American and Latino/a Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Glatz, Terese; Buchanan, Christy M

    2016-11-11

    Parents from immigrant backgrounds must deal with normative parenting demands as well as unique challenges associated with acculturation processes. The current study examines the independent and interactive influences of acculturation conflict and cultural parenting self-efficacy (PSE; e.g., parents' confidence in instilling heritage, American, and bicultural values in their children) on perceptions of general parenting competence. Using data from 58 Asian American and 153 Latin American parents of children in grades 6-12, ethnic differences were also explored. Results suggest that lower acculturation conflict is associated with higher perceptions of general parenting competence for both Asian and Latin American parents. Higher cultural PSE is associated with higher perceived general parenting competence for Latino/a parents only. One significant interaction was found, and only for Asian Americans, whereby the negative association between acculturation conflict and perceptions of parenting competence was weaker for those who felt efficacious in transmitting heritage messages. Results are discussed in light of clinical implications and the need for further recognition and study of culturally relevant factors and frameworks among families from immigrant backgrounds. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  6. Assessing Family-of-Origin Functioning in Mexican American Adults: Retrospective Application of the Family Environment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negy, Charles; Snyder, Douglas K.

    2006-01-01

    Although both theoretical and empirical literature suggests that individuals' family-of-origin experiences affect subsequent relationship functioning as adults, few studies have examined the appropriateness of family assessment techniques when applied retrospectively for use in either theory development or clinical applications. This study…

  7. Validity and reliability of Turkish version of family satisfaction in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tastan, Sevinc; Iyigun, Emine; Ayhan, Hatice; Kılıckaya, Oguz; Yılmaz, Ali Abbas; Kurt, Ercan

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the quality of care that is provided in intensive care units, needs and satisfaction of the patient relatives must also be considered. The aim of the study is to test the Turkish version of the Family Satisfaction in the Intensive Care Unit (FS-ICU-24) Survey, which was developed by Heyland et al. This study was planned and applied as a methodological study. Survey was conducted in the intensive care units of a military education and research hospital and a medical faculty hospital, department of anaesthesia and reanimation in the capital city Ankara of Turkey. Sample of the survey was composed of 120 participants. Cronbach's alpha value for the FS-ICU-24 general internal consistency in this study was calculated as 0.95 for total scale. In this study, the Turkish version of the FS-ICU-24 was found to be reliable and valid with Turkish population.

  8. End of Life in a Haitian American, Faith-Based Community: Caring for Family and Communal Unity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Susan Charlotte; Gordon, Shirley C

    This article presents two models resulting from a grounded theory study of the end-of-life decision-making process for Haitian Americans. Successful access to this vulnerable population was achieved through the faith-based community. The first model describes this faith-based community of Haitian Americans. The second model describes the process used by families in this community who must make end-of-life healthcare decisions. Implications for nursing practice and caring science include a need to improve the congruence between the nursing care provided at this vulnerable time and the cultural values of a population.

  9. Expectations and needs of persons with family members in an intensive care unit as opposed to a general ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, K R; Tenholder, M F

    1993-04-01

    The positive effect of family support on the outcome from serious illness that requires intensive care has been recognized by clinicians for decades. We have all seen that family visitation and an intensive care environment more similar to that of a general ward (sunlight, radio, television) can benefit patients with psychosis related to intensive care. The severity of illness of the individual patient exerts a powerful stress on the family unit, but it has been difficult to measure this effect. We used a 40-question family needs survey with a degree of importance scale to compare the intensive care unit (ICU) with the general ward in terms of impact on the family. Five needs were found to discriminate these two environments. The family members of patients in an ICU considered it very important (1) for staff to give directions on what to do at the bedside, (2) to receive more support from their own family unit, (3) to have a place to be alone as a family unit in the hospital, (4) to be informed in advance of any transfer plan, and (5) to have flexibility in the time allowed for visitation. Family members are willing to accept decreased visitation time if the physicians and nurses can equate this decrease with the complexity of care in the ICU. The results of this survey have helped us modify and individualize our approach based on family expectations especially when patients are transferred from the general ward to the ICU or from the ICU to the ward.

  10. Racial and Ethnic Socialization in Later Generations of a Mexican American Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Reyes, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Later-generation Mexican American (third or more) experience diminishing educational gains compared with second-generation Mexican Americans. Positive racial and ethnic socialization (RES) and ethnic identity can facilitate strong academic performance. Using the oral histories of 18 third- and fourth-generation Mexican Americans in the same…

  11. Historical Trauma among Urban American Indians: Impact on Substance Abuse and Family Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechelt, Shelly A.; Gryczynski, Jan; Johnson, Jeannette L.; Caldwell, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Historical trauma theory suggests that many American Indians are still affected by the cultural losses and injustices endured by previous generations. The current study examines historical trauma in an urban American Indian sample using validated measures of historical loss and associated symptoms (N = 120). Urban American Indians reported high…

  12. Historical Trauma among Urban American Indians: Impact on Substance Abuse and Family Cohesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechelt, Shelly A.; Gryczynski, Jan; Johnson, Jeannette L.; Caldwell, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Historical trauma theory suggests that many American Indians are still affected by the cultural losses and injustices endured by previous generations. The current study examines historical trauma in an urban American Indian sample using validated measures of historical loss and associated symptoms (N = 120). Urban American Indians reported high…

  13. Increasingly heterogeneous ages at first birth by education in Southern-European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes: A seven-country comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendall, Michael; Aracil, Encarnacion; Bagavos, Christos; Couet, Christine; DeRose, Alessandra; DiGiulio, Paola; Lappegard, Trude; Robert-Bobée, Isabelle; Rønsen, Marit; Smallwood, Steve; Verropoulou, Georgia

    2010-01-01

    Family-policy regimes unfavourable to combining employment with motherhood have been claimed to increase socio-economic differentials in fertility as combining employment and motherhood has become more normative. This claim has to date been explored mainly in reference to ‘liberal’ Anglo-American regimes. Comparing education differentials in age at first birth among native-born women of 1950s and 1960s birth cohorts in seven countries representing three regime types, we find persistence in early first births among low-educated women not only in Britain and the United States but also in Greece, Italy, and Spain. Shifts towards later first births, however, were more extreme in Southern Europe and involved to some extent women at all education levels. The educationally-heterogeneous changes in age patterns of first births seen in the Southern European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes contrast with educationally-homogeneous changes across birth cohorts seen in the study’s two ‘universalistic’ countries, Norway and France. PMID:20954097

  14. Evaluation of retention protocols among members of the American Association of Orthodontists in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Michael C.; Kluemper, George Thomas; Hartsfield, James K.; Fardo, David; Nash, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little research has been conducted to evaluate protocols and trends in orthodontic retention. The purpose of this study was to identify the general retention protocols used by orthodontists in the United States. Additionally, our goal was to identify trends in these orthodontic retention protocols by evaluating how they have changed over the past 5 years and how they might continue to change in the next 5 years. Methods The study was conducted via a 36-question electronic survey (REDCap, Nashville, Tenn) with branching logic on certain questions. The survey was sent to all 9143 practicing members of the American Association of Orthodontists in the United States, and 1632 (18%) responded. Results and Conclusions Mean retention protocols of the surveyed population showed predominant use of Hawley or vacuum-formed retainers in the maxillary arch and fixed retention in the mandibular arch. For both arches, there is a current shift away from Hawley retainers and toward vacuum-formed retainers and fixed retention. Respondents who extract fewer teeth reported increased use of fixed retention in the maxillary (P = 0.041) and mandibular (P = 0.003) arches. Respondents who extract fewer teeth and use removable retainers were more likely to tell their patients to wear their retainers at night for the rest of their lives (P = 1.63 × 10−6). PMID:21967939

  15. A Comprehensive Analysis of Common and Rare Variants to Identify Adiposity Loci in Hispanic Americans: The IRAS Family Study (IRASFS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Gao

    Full Text Available Obesity is growing epidemic affecting 35% of adults in the United States. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified numerous loci associated with obesity. However, the majority of studies have been completed in Caucasians focusing on total body measures of adiposity. Here we report the results from genome-wide and exome chip association studies focusing on total body measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI, percent body fat (PBF and measures of fat deposition including waist circumference (WAIST, waist-hip ratio (WHR, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT in Hispanic Americans (nmax = 1263 from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS. Five SNPs from two novel loci attained genome-wide significance (P<5.00x10-8 in IRASFS. A missense SNP in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1 was associated with WAIST (rs34218846, MAF = 6.8%, PDOM = 1.62x10-8. This protein is postulated to play an important role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis as demonstrated in cell and knock-out animal models. Four correlated intronic SNPs in the Zinc finger, GRF-type containing 1 gene (ZGRF1; SNP rs1471880, MAF = 48.1%, PDOM = 1.00x10-8 were strongly associated with WHR. The exact biological function of ZGRF1 and the connection with adiposity remains unclear. SNPs with p-values less than 5.00x10-6 from IRASFS were selected for replication. Meta-analysis was computed across seven independent Hispanic-American cohorts (nmax = 4156 and the strongest signal was rs1471880 (PDOM = 8.38x10-6 in ZGRF1 with WAIST. In conclusion, a genome-wide and exome chip association study was conducted that identified two novel loci (IDH1 and ZGRF1 associated with adiposity. While replication efforts were inconclusive, when taken together with the known biology, IDH1 and ZGRF1 warrant further evaluation.

  16. Mother-adolescent conflict in African American and European American families: the role of corporal punishment, adolescent aggression, and adolescents' hostile attributions of mothers' intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon-Lewis, Carol; Lindsey, Eric W; Frabutt, James M; Chambers, Jessica Campbell

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined mothers' use of corporal punishment and adolescents' aggression as predictors of mother-youth conflict during early adolescence. Particular attention was given to the potential mediating role that adolescents' hostile attributions of intent (HAI) regarding mothers' behavior might play in connections between corporal punishment, youth aggression, and mother-adolescent conflict for European American (EA) and African American (AA) youth. Data were collected from 268 12- to 14-year-olds (154 European American; 114 African American; 133 girls; 135 boys) and their mothers over a period of 2 years. Questionnaires completed by both mothers and adolescents were used to assess maternal corporal punishment and adolescent aggression, and interviews concerning hypothetical situations were used to assess adolescent HAI in year one. In both year one and year two mother-adolescent conflict was observed in a laboratory interaction session. Data revealed that adolescent HAI mediated the link between maternal corporal punishment and mother-adolescent conflict for EA, but not AA youth. Adolescents' HAI mediated the link between adolescent aggression and mother-adolescent conflict for both EA and AA families.

  17. The Family Spirit trial for American Indian teen mothers and their children: CBPR rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullany, Britta; Barlow, Allison; Neault, Nicole; Billy, Trudy; Jones, Tanya; Tortice, Iralene; Lorenzo, Sherilynn; Powers, Julia; Lake, Kristin; Reid, Raymond; Walkup, John

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale, design, methods and baseline results of the Family Spirit trial. The goal of the trial is to evaluate the impact of the paraprofessional-delivered "Family Spirit" home-visiting intervention to reduce health and behavioral risks for American Indian teen mothers and their children. A community based participatory research (CBPR) process shaped the design of the current randomized controlled trial of the Family Spirit intervention. Between 2006 and 2008, 322 pregnant teens were randomized to receive the Family Spirit intervention plus Optimized Standard Care, or Optimized Standard Care alone. The Family Spirit intervention is a 43-session home-visiting curriculum administered by American Indian paraprofessionals to teen mothers from 28 weeks gestation until the baby's third birthday. A mixed methods assessment administered at nine intervals measures intervention impact on parental competence, mother's and children's social, emotional and behavioral risks for drug use, and maladaptive functioning. Participants are young (mean age = 18.1 years), predominantly primiparous, unmarried, and challenged by poverty, residential instability and low educational attainment. Lifetime and pregnancy drug use were ~2-4 times higher and ~5-6 times higher, respectively, than US All Races. Baseline characteristics were evenly distributed between groups, except for higher lifetime cigarette use and depressive symptoms among intervention mothers. If study aims are achieved, the public health field will have new evidence supporting multi-generational prevention of behavioral health disparities affecting young American Indian families and the utility of indigenous paraprofessional interventionists in under-resourced communities.

  18. Understanding how organized youth sport maybe harming individual players within the family unit: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Corliss N; Fortier, Michelle; Post, Courtney; Chima, Karam

    2014-10-01

    Within the United States, close to 45 million youths between the ages of 6 and 18 participate in some form of organized sports. While recent reviews have shown the positive effects of youth sport participation on youth health, there are also several negative factors surrounding the youth sport environment. To date, a comprehensive review of the negative physical and psychological effects of organized sport on youth has not been done and little to date has documented the effect organized sport has on other players within a family, particularly on parents and siblings. Therefore the purpose of this paper is to conduct a review of papers on the negative effects of organized sport on the youth athlete and their parents and siblings. Articles were found by searching multiple databases (Physical Education Index and Sociology, Psychology databases (Proquest), SPORTDiscus and Health, History, Management databases (EBSCOhost), Science, Social Science, Arts and Humanities on Web of Science (ISI), SCOPUS and Scirus (Elsevier). Results show the darker side of organized sport for actors within the family unit. Ideas for future research are drawn and recommendations are made to optimize the youth sport experience and family health.

  19. Family satisfaction with patient care in critical care units in Pakistan: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahtisham, Younas; Subia, Parveen; Gideon, Victor

    2016-11-23

    To assess family satisfaction with care provided to patients in critical care units in Islamabad. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 11 medical and surgical critical care units at two private hospitals in Islamabad, Pakistan. The purposive sample consisted of 323 immediate family members and other relatives and friends (referred to as family members in this article) of 323 patients admitted to the critical care units for at least 24 hours. The revised Critical Care Family Satisfaction Survey was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. A total of 149/323 (46%) family members were 'very satisfied' with the honesty (openness) of staff in explaining the patient's condition, and 137/323 (42%) family members were 'very satisfied' with the nurses' availability to speak to them. A total of 143/323 (44%) family members were 'satisfied' with the honesty (openness) of staff in explaining the patient's condition, and 131/323 (41%) were 'satisfied' with the nurses' availability to speak to them. A few family members (21/323, 6%) were 'very dissatisfied' with the flexibility of the visiting hours and a few (20/323, 6%) were 'very dissatisfied' with the noise level in the critical care units. Some family members (38/323, 12%) were 'not satisfied' with the flexibility of the visiting hours, and some (18/323, 6%) were 'not satisfied' with the noise level in the critical care units. The majority of family members (244/323, 75%) were 'satisfied' or 'very satisfied' that their relatives' needs were being met in the critical care units. However, qualitative data indicate that most family members wanted greater involvement in decision making. These findings should be considered by staff working in critical care settings to ensure high-quality patient care.

  20. HIV-Related Sexual Risk among African American Men Preceding Incarceration: Associations with Support from Significant Others, Family, and Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatsworth, Ashley M; Scheidell, Joy D; Wohl, David A; Whitehead, Nicole E; Golin, Carol E; Judon-Monk, Selena; Khan, Maria R

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated the association between social support received from significant others, family, and friends and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among African American men involved in the criminal justice system. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study among African American men released from prison in North Carolina (N = 189). During the baseline (in-prison) survey, we assessed the amount of support men perceived they had received from significant others, family, and friends. We measured associations between low support from each source (well-being during community re-entry, while supporting and strengthening relationships with a significant other in particular may help reduce sex risk. Studies should evaluate the protective effects of distinct support sources to avoid masking effects of support and to best understand the influence of social support on health.

  1. A rite of passage approach designed to preserve the families of substance-abusing African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitier, V L; Niliwaambieni, M; Rowe, C L

    1997-01-01

    This article approaches the treatment of addicted African American women in ways drawn from traditional African culture. While the modern African American woman is clearly not the same as her continental African foremother, the reality of her life is still predicated on the basis of her culture and her material wealth or lack of it. The approach recommended here, a rite of passage, derives from the belief that the value orientations drawn from the African wisdom of the ages offers the best way to work with families to recover both sobriety and a powerful understanding and repossession of culture that will help to ensure not only sobriety but also ways of holding together and rebuilding the families of today and the future.

  2. Fish faunal provinces of the conterminous United States of America reflect historical geography and familial composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Hoagstrom, Christopher W; Schaefer, Jacob F; Kreiser, Brian R

    2016-08-01

    Although the conterminous USA has a long history of ichthyological exploration, the description of biogeographical provinces has been ad hoc. In this study we quantitatively determined fish faunal provinces and interpreted them in the context of the geological history of North America. We also evaluated influences of major river basin occupancy and contemporary environmental factors on provincial patterns. Our data set comprised 794 native fishes, which we used to generate a presence and absence matrix for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) four-digit hydrologic units. Three nested data sets were analysed separately: primary freshwater families, continental freshwater families (including primary and secondary families) and all freshwater families (including primary, secondary and peripheral families). We used clustering analysis to delimit faunal breaks and one-way analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) to determine significance among clusters (i.e. provinces). We used an indicator-species analysis to identify species that contributed most to province delineations and a similarity-percentage (SIMPER) analysis to describe the relative influence of representatives from each category (i.e. primary, secondary, peripheral) on provincial boundaries. Lastly, we used a parsimony redundancy analysis to determine the roles of historical (i.e. major river basin) and contemporary environmental factors in shaping provinces. Analysis of the nested data sets revealed lessening provincial structure with inclusion of more families. There were 10 primary freshwater provinces, 9 continental freshwater provinces and 7 all freshwater provinces. Major basin occupancy, but not contemporary environmental factors, explained substantial variance in faunal similarities among provinces. However, provincial boundaries did not conform strictly to modern river basins, but reflected river-drainage connections of the Quaternary. Provinces represent broad-scale patterns of endemism and provide a starting point

  3. Chinese American immigrant parents' emotional expression in the family: Relations with parents' cultural orientations and children's emotion-related regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Stephen H; Zhou, Qing; Main, Alexandra; Lee, Erica H

    2015-10-01

    The present study examined 2 measures of Chinese American immigrant parents' emotional expression in the family context: self-reported emotional expressivity and observed emotional expression during a parent-child interaction task. Path analyses were conducted to examine the concurrent associations between measures of emotional expression and (a) parents' American and Chinese cultural orientations in language proficiency, media use, and social affiliation domains, and (b) parents' and teachers' ratings of children's emotion-related regulation. Results suggested that cultural orientations were primarily associated with parents' self-reported expressivity (rather than observed emotional expression), such that higher American orientations were generally associated with higher expressivity. Although parents' self-reported expressivity was only related to their own reports of children's regulation, parents' observed emotional expression was related to both parents' and teachers' reports of children's regulation. These results suggest that self-reported expressivity and observed emotional expression reflect different constructs and have differential relations to parents' cultural orientations and children's regulation.

  4. Two-year outcomes of a randomized, family-based substance use prevention trial for Asian American adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lin; Schinke, Steven P

    2013-09-01

    Asian Americans have been largely ignored in the prevention outcome literature. In this study, we tested a parent-child program with a sample of Asian American adolescent girls and their mothers, and evaluated the program's efficacy on decreasing girls' substance use and modifying risk and protective factors at individual, family, and peer levels. A total of 108 Asian American mother-daughter dyads recruited through online advertisements and from community service agencies were randomly assigned to an intervention arm (n = 56) or to a test-only control arm (n = 52). The intervention consisted of a nine-session substance abuse prevention program, delivered entirely online. Guided by family interaction theory, the prevention program aimed to strengthen the quality of girls' relationships with their mothers while increasing girls' resilience to resist substance use. Intent-to-treat analyses showed that at 2-year follow-up, intervention-arm dyads had significantly higher levels of mother-daughter closeness, mother-daughter communication, maternal monitoring, and family rules against substance use compared with the control-arm dyads. Intervention-arm girls also showed sustained improvement in self-efficacy and refusal skills and had lower intentions to use substances in the future. Most important, intervention-arm girls reported fewer instances of alcohol and marijuana use and prescription drug misuse relative to the control-arm girls. The study suggests that a culturally generic, family-based prevention program was efficacious in enhancing parent-child relationships, improving girls' resiliency, and preventing substance use behaviors among Asian American girls. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Estimation and application of indicator values for common macroinvertebrate genera and families of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, D.M.; Meador, M.R.; Moulton, S.R.; Ruhl, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tolerance of macroinvertebrate taxa to chemical and physical stressors is widely used in the analysis and interpretation of bioassessment data, but many estimates lack empirical bases. Our main objective was to estimate genus- and family-level indicator values (IVs) from a data set of macroinvertebrate communities, chemical, and physical stressors collected in a consistent manner throughout the United States. We then demonstrated an application of these IVs to detect alterations in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages along gradients of urbanization in New England and Alabama. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create synthetic gradients of chemical stressors, for which genus- and family-level weighted averages (WAs) were calculated. Based on results of PCA, WAs were calculated for three synthetic gradients (ionic concentration, nutrient concentration, and dissolved oxygen/water temperature) and two uncorrelated physical variables (suspended sediment concentration and percent fines). Indicator values for each stress gradient were subsequently created by transforming WAs into ten ordinal ranks based on percentiles of values across all taxa. Mean IVs of genera and families were highly correlated to road density in Alabama and New England, and supported the conclusions of independent assessments of the chemical and physical stressors acting in each geographic area. Family IVs were nearly as responsive to urbanization as genus IVs. The limitations of widespread use of these IVs are discussed.

  6. [Intimate partner violence and family dysfunction among Mexican women seen a Primary Care Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambriz-Mora, M I; Zonana-Nacach, A; Anzaldo-Campos, M C

    2015-01-01

    To assess the prevalence and risk factors for intimate-partner violence (IPV) in women who attended a Family Medicine Unit in Tijuana, Mexico. A total of 297 women were interviewed and evaluated using two validated scales: violence and severity index and family APGAR to assess family functioning and IPV respectively. The mean age (± SD) was 40.6±13.8 years, and 120 (40.4%) women had suffered IPV: 47 (15.8%) psychological violence; 31 (10.4%) sexual violence; 77 (25.9%) physical violence, and in 19 (6.4%) there were actions that threatened the lives of women. The most common causes of domestic violence were women who reported that their partner had been jealous, or suspicion from friends (37.4%). Twenty two (7.4%) of the women with domestic violence reported that they had sought help. The prevalence of IPV was high and associated with the education level of the couple and family functioning. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. [The profile of fragility and associated factors among the elderly registered in a Family Health Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Patrícia Honório Silva; Fernandes, Marcos Henrique; Casotti, Cezar Augusto; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Carneiro, José Ailton Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    The scope of this study was to identify the profile of fragility and associated factors among the elderly registered in a Family Health Unit. It involved an observational, exploratory, household -based and cross-sectional study conducted with 139 elderly individuals. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire requesting the following information: personal history, family and self-reported diseases, socio-demographic information, level of physical activity, behavior variables, number of falls in the last year, depressive symptoms, unintentional weight loss and fatigue. Anthropometric measurements (weight and height) were also taken and the body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Descriptive analyses and Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were performed, with a significance level of p fragility among the elderly was: frail (16.9%), pre-frail (61.8%) and non-frail (21.3%), respectively. The fragility profile was associated with: age (p factors associated with this syndrome.

  8. Native American depopulation, reforestation, and fire regimes in the Southwest United States, 1492–1900 CE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, Matthew J.; Farella, Joshua; Roos, Christopher I.; Stack, Adam; Martini, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Native American populations declined between 1492 and 1900 CE, instigated by the European colonization of the Americas. However, the magnitude, tempo, and ecological effects of this depopulation remain the source of enduring debates. Recently, scholars have linked indigenous demographic decline, Neotropical reforestation, and shifting fire regimes to global changes in climate, atmosphere, and the Early Anthropocene hypothesis. In light of these studies, we assess these processes in conifer-dominated forests of the Southwest United States. We compare light detection and ranging data, archaeology, dendrochronology, and historical records from the Jemez Province of New Mexico to quantify population losses, establish dates of depopulation events, and determine the extent and timing of forest regrowth and fire regimes between 1492 and 1900. We present a new formula for the estimation of Pueblo population based on architectural remains and apply this formula to 18 archaeological sites in the Jemez Province. A dendrochronological study of remnant wood establishes dates of terminal occupation at these sites. By combining our results with historical records, we report a model of pre- and post-Columbian population dynamics in the Jemez Province. Our results indicate that the indigenous population of the Jemez Province declined by 87% following European colonization but that this reduction occurred nearly a century after initial contact. Depopulation also triggered an increase in the frequency of extensive surface fires between 1640 and 1900. Ultimately, this study illustrates the quality of integrated archaeological and paleoecological data needed to assess the links between Native American population decline and ecological change after European contact. PMID:26811459

  9. 77 FR 12102 - In the Matter of: American United Gold Corporation, AMS Homecare Inc., Aucxis Corp., and CYOP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of: American United Gold Corporation, AMS Homecare Inc., Aucxis Corp., and CYOP... current and accurate information concerning the securities of AMS Homecare Inc. because it has not...

  10. Los Arboles Hablan: A Spanish Language Curriculum Unit Based on the Study of Latin American Rain Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuman, John P.

    "Los Arboles Hablan," a video-based curriculum that promotes the learning of Spanish as a second language through study of the Latin American rain forests is described. The 12-session unit was designed for use at the middle school level and integrates science, social science, and environmental education with content focusing on the…

  11. ITALIAN LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE EFFORTS IN THE UNITED STATES AND THE TEACHER OF ITALIAN IN AMERICAN HIGH SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FISHMAN, JOSHUA A.

    A STRONG INFLUENCE ON THE NATURE OF ITALIAN INSTRUCTION TODAY IN THE UNITED STATES IS THE FACT THAT ITALO-AMERICANS SHOW LESS ORGANIZED INTEREST IN THEIR LANGUAGE THAN DO OTHER ETHNIC GROUPS, AS EVIDENCED BY COMPARING NEWSPAPER PUBLICATIONS IN DIFFERENT MOTHER TONGUES, RADIO LANGUAGE PROGRAMS, AND LANGUAGE MAINTENANCE ASSOCIATIONS WHERE, IN EACH…

  12. Mathematical Contributions of the Mayas, Aztecs & Incas: A Native American Curriculum Unit for Middle and High School. NATAM XIX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodola, Janet

    Written to fulfill the requirements for a University of Minnesota College of Education off-campus Indian education course for public school teachers, this Native American curriculum unit for middle and high school reflects the mathematical achievements of the Maya, Aztec, and Inca Indians. The number systems, notation, and calendar techniques of…

  13. An Analysis of the Treatment of Corporate Influence on Government by United States History and American Government High School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on an investigation to explore the possibility that ideology might be expressed in the treatment of corporate influence on federal government by social studies textbooks. Two textbooks were examined in the study--United States history and American government. Corporate influence involves activities that affect election and…

  14. Threads of Change in 19th Century American Literature: A Language Arts Unit for Grades 7-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossett, Becky F.; And Others

    This unit of study for junior-high level high-ability language arts students explores five themes in 19th century American history through literature of the times: romanticism, transcendentalism, abolitionism, industrialism, and feminism. Each of the five "isms" has its own "literature box" that contains appropriate documents…

  15. Inter-American studies and the reconfiguration of United States hegemony

    OpenAIRE

    Canelo, Maria José

    2012-01-01

    The past decades witnessed the flourishing of Inter-American Studies. Beyond the self-centeredness of the nation-based framework, Inter-American Studies is regarded as the spearhead methodology of American Studies and a timely response to both the transnational turn and the call for a more humble and politically engaged American Studies. Yet, many Latin American intellectuals show suspicion over this ‘new’ academic move and the authority it claims over the ‘other Americas.’ Because American S...

  16. The medical officer of health, the social worker, and the problem family, 1943 to 1968: the case of family service units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, P

    1998-12-01

    It has sometimes been assumed that the Report of the Seebohm Committee on the Local Authority and Allied Personal Social Services of 1968 and subsequent Local Authority (Social Services) Reorganization signalled a reduction in the influence of Medical Officers of Health in the care of poor and disorganized families and an increase in that of social workers. This article considers the role of Medical Officers of Health in the care of such families in the period after the Second World War, and their relationship with one of the key voluntary social work agencies in the field, Pacifist Service Units/Family Service Units. By examining the shift in responsibility from public health doctors to social workers and using the Bristol Family Service Unit as a case study, it argues that in many areas the Children and Young Persons Act of 1963 was used formally to transfer responsibility for such families to the Children's Departments and that the process was complete before the Seebohm Committee reported in 1968. It also suggests that those families in difficulty who remained the responsibility of the Public Health Department, and who were thought to have increased in number during the course of the 1960s, presented health visitors and public health doctors with a different range of problems, although they continued to be labelled problem families.

  17. Latin American Art Music in the Music History Curriculum: Taking Stock in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Hess

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay surveys the teaching of Latin American art music in U.S. post-secondary education from the 1930s to the present. After a rush of enthusiasm during the Good Neighbor period (World War II, decades of indifference set in. After 2000, an increasing number of instructors began either (1 teaching the art music of Latin America in courses dedicated to all types of Latin America music or (2 incorporating the subject into existing courses on Western art music. Yet many instructors still omit Latin American art music, as do certain authors. In this essay, I question such a stance. Not only does Latin American art music offer a window into Latin American culture but it can help counteract persistent stereotypes about Latin America, a perspective that is all the more critical in light of recent demographic trends in the United States and recent political developments.

  18. The effect of intensive care unit environments on nurse perceptions of family presence during resuscitation and invasive procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    In a growing number of requests, family members are asking for proximity to their family member during resuscitation and invasive procedures. The objective of this study was to measure the impact of intensive care unit environments on nurse perception of family presence during resuscitation and invasive procedures. The study used a descriptive survey design with nurses from 9 intensive care units using the Family Presence Self-confidence Scale for resuscitation/invasive procedures that measures nurses' perception of self-confidence and Family Presence Risk-Benefit Scale for resuscitation and invasive procedures that measures nurses' perception of risks/benefits related to managing resuscitation and invasive procedures with family present. There were 207 nurses who responded: 14 male and 184 female nurses (9 missing data), with mean age of 41 ± 11 years, with a mean of 15 years in critical care practice. The environments were defined as surgical (n = 68), medical (n = 43), pediatric/neonatal (n = 34), and mixed adult medical/surgical (n = 36) intensive care units. There were significant differences in self-confidence, with medical and pediatric intensive care unit nurses rating more self-confidence for family presence during resuscitation (F = 7.73, P care unit nurses rating lower risk and higher benefit for resuscitation (F = 7.73, P care unit nurses. Further education and support may be needed in the surgical and mixed intensive care units. Evidence-based practice guidelines that are family centered can define the procedures and resources for family presence, to ultimately promote professional practice.

  19. [Guiding patients' family members through an intensive care unit: difficulties of lack of systematization?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, C I; Santini, L; da Silva, V E

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the problematic situation experienced by nurses at the moment of guiding the relatives of patients in an ICU. Therefore, seven (7) nurses who worked in this unit, which belonged to a general, public and training hospital in the city of São Paulo, were interviewed. The results have shown that the period of guiding brings anxiety and stress to the nurses, originated by the critical patient's condition, as well by the deficiency of conduts and in the systematization of this activity in the unit. Based on the results it was proposed the creation of na assistance plan. That includes the guiding to the family and the elaboration of a written instrument of orientation.

  20. Pattern of alcohol use by users of a family health unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Gomes Sanches Verardino

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the context of drugs, alcoholism is one of the major problems in public health. Objective: To identify the pattern of consumption of alcoholic beverages by users of a Family Health Unit in São Paulo state during reception. Method: Exploratory cross-sectionalstudy of quantitative methodology with the use of Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT in 100 adult users of a Primary Health Care network. Descriptive statistical analysis was carried out. Results: Of the total sample, (74% were women, (85% made use of alcoholic beverages at low risk, and (19% were young adults; binge drinking was reported by a minority of the interviewees. The Catholics in the sample (42% reported never using alcohol excessively, followed by the Evangelicals with 22%. Conclusions: Health professionals need to have knowledge of the alcohol consumption pattern of the residents from the territory of their unit, so that they can develop prevention and health promotion programs.

  1. Improving medical student intensive care unit communication skills: a novel educational initiative using standardized family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin, Scott; Rho, Lisa; Wisnivesky, Juan P; Nierman, David M

    2006-09-01

    To determine whether intensive care unit (ICU) communication skills of fourth-year medical students could be improved by an educational intervention using a standardized family member. Prospective study conducted from August 2003 to May 2004. Tertiary care university teaching hospital. All fourth-year students were eligible to participate during their mandatory four-week critical care medicine clerkship. The educational intervention focused on the initial meeting with the family member of an ICU patient and included formal teaching of a communication framework followed by a practice session with an actor playing the role of a standardized family member of a fictional patient. At the beginning of the critical care medicine rotation, the intervention group received the educational session, whereas students in the control group did not. At the end of each critical care medicine rotation, all students interacted with a different standardized family member portraying a different fictional scenario. Sessions were videotaped and were scored by an investigator blinded to treatment assignment using a standardized grading tool across four domains: a) introduction; b) gathering information; c) imparting information; and d) setting goals and expectations. A total of 106 (97% of eligible) medical students agreed to participate in the study. The total mean score as well as the scores for the gathering information, imparting information, setting goals, and expectations domains for the intervention group were significantly higher than for the control group (p communication skills of fourth-year medical students can be improved by teaching and then practicing a framework for an initial ICU communication episode with a standardized family member.

  2. "American" or "Multiethnic"? Family Ethnic Identity among Transracial Adoptive Families, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Children's Self-Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinderhughes, Ellen E.; Zhang, Xian; Agerbak, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a model of ethnic-racial socialization (E-RS; Pinderhughes, 2013), this study examined hypothesized relations among parents' role variables (family ethnic identity and acknowledgment of cultural and racial differences), cultural socialization (CS) behaviors, and children's self-perceptions (ethnic self-label and feelings about…

  3. Asian Americans in Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnow, Stanley; Yoshihara, Nancy

    This booklet is a detailed primer on the Asian American experience in the United States covering history, family and acculturation, education, culture and the arts, economics, discrimination and violence, and politics. An introduction reviews some basic demographics and looks at racial issues in light of the riots in Los Angeles (California) in…

  4. Running in Place: How American Families are Faring in a Changing Economy and an Individualistic Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Nicholas; Nord, Christine Winquist

    The reasons given for the apparent decline in family well-being include weakened family values, poor parenting, detrimental behavior of parents and young people, and social and economic forces in the larger society that make it difficult for families to perform their functions well. So great is the concern that some observers are convinced that…

  5. Running in Place: How American Families are Faring in a Changing Economy and an Individualistic Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zill, Nicholas; Nord, Christine Winquist

    The reasons given for the apparent decline in family well-being include weakened family values, poor parenting, detrimental behavior of parents and young people, and social and economic forces in the larger society that make it difficult for families to perform their functions well. So great is the concern that some observers are convinced that…

  6. Mexican American Adolescents' Family Obligation Values and Behaviors: Links to Internalizing Symptoms across Time and Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telzer, Eva H.; Tsai, Kim M.; Gonzales, Nancy; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Family obligation is an important aspect of family relationships among families from Mexican backgrounds and can have significant implications for adolescents' well-being. Prior research and theory regarding youths' obligations offer conflicting hypotheses about whether it is detrimental or beneficial for adolescents' well-being. In the current…

  7. Bluetongue disease and seroprevalence in South American camelids from the northwestern region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Andrew J; Stanton, James B; Evermann, James F; Fry, Lindsay M; Ackerman, Melissa G; Barrington, George M

    2015-03-01

    In late summer/early fall of 2013, 2 South American camelids from central Washington were diagnosed with fatal bluetongue viral disease, an event which is rarely reported. A 9-year-old intact male llama (Lama glama), with a 1-day history of anorexia, recumbency, and dyspnea before death. Abundant foam discharged from the mouth and nostrils, and the lungs were severely edematous on postmortem examination. Histologically, there was abundant intra-alveolar edema with fibrin. Hemorrhage and edema disrupted several other organs. Bluetongue viral RNA was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and serotype 11 was identified by sequencing a segment of the VP2 outer capsid gene. Approximately 1 month later, at a site 150 miles north of the index case, a 2-year-old female alpaca with similar, acutely progressive clinical signs was reported. A postmortem examination was performed, and histologic lesions from the alpaca were similar to those of the llama, and again serotype 11 was detected by PCR. The occurrence of bluetongue viral infection and disease is described in the context of seasonal Bluetongue virus activity within the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada.

  8. The Relation between Maternal and Child Depression in Mexican American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Marissa; McCarty, Carolyn; Cauce, Ana Mari; Robins, Richard W.; Widaman, Keith F.; Conger, Rand D.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to better understand possible pathways that lead to a relatively high incidence of depressive symptoms among Mexican American youth, an interpersonal stress model of depression was tested using a community sample of 674 Mexican American mothers and their 5th grade children. Structural equation analyses revealed that maternal…

  9. Work Socialization and Adolescents' Work-Related Values in Single-Mother African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokawa, Teru; McLoyd, Vonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined African American mothers' work socialization messages in relation to adolescents' work-related values. Moderation effects of mother-adolescent relation quality on the linkage between maternal socialization messages and adolescents' outcomes were also examined. Participants were 245 single African American mothers and their…

  10. The Republic of Mexico and the United States of America: The Mexican-American War -- In Retrospect. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminar Abroad 1996 (Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Pablo Hill

    The unit is intended as part of a world cultures curriculum taught at the 10th grade level. The lessons include: (1) "Mexico in Brief"; (2) "The Mexican American War 1846-1848"; and (3) "History and Educational Status of Americans of Mexican Descent (Chicanos) in the Southwest." Additional resources and a 32-item bibliography accompany the unit.…

  11. [Diabetic foot risk in patients with type II diabetes mellitus in a family medicine unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Godínez, S A; Zonana-Nacach, A; Anzaldo-Campos, M C; Muñoz-Martínez, J A

    2014-01-01

    To determine the risk of diabetic foot in patients with type II diabetes mellitus (DM) seen in a Family Medicine Unit. The study included type II DM patients with a disease duration ≥ 5 years seen in a Family Medicine Unit, Tijuana, Mexico, during September-December 2011. Neuropathy was assessed with the Diabetic Neuropathy Symptom questionnaire, and pressure sensation using a 10-g Semmes-Weinstein monofilament. A patient had a high risk of diabetic foot if there was sensitivity loss, foot deformities, and non-palpable pedal pulses. We studied 205 patients with an average (± SD) age and DM duration of 59 ± 10 years and 10.7 ± 6.7 years, respectively. Ninety one patients (44%) had a high risk of developing diabetic foot, and it was associated with; an education of less than 6 years (OR 2.3; 95%CI: 1-1-4.1), DM disease duration ≥ 10 years (OR 5.1; 95%CI: 2.8-9.4), female gender (OR 2.0; 95%CI: 1.1-3.6), monthly familiar income diabetic neuropathy, since they have a high risk of diabetic foot. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  12. Internal structure of Family Health Units: access for people with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Kaisy Pereira; Costa, Tatiana Ferreira da; Medeiros, Thayris Mariano de; Fernandes, Maria das Graças Melo; França, Inácia Sátiro Xavier de; Costa, Kátia Nêyla de Freitas Macêdo

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the internal structure of Family Health Units in relation to the access of people with physical and/or sensory disabilities. It is a descriptive, exploratory, population-based research, held in Family Health Units of the municipality of João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil. For the collection of data, a checklist based on Technical Standard 9050 was used. For the analysis, the descriptive and exploratory analysis of the data and the Chi-square test were applied. As a result, of the 90 buildings evaluated, only 47.8% have a wheelchair ramp, of these 30.0% have maximum slope and 32.2% have anti-slip flooring. In 28.9% access happens through a staircase without handrail and in 6.7% through a staircase with handrail, 6.7% of these with anti-slip flooring. And only 17.8% of sliding doors have lowered tracks. We concluded that it must be recognized that public policies and institutions do not correspond to the need of these people, and it is necessary to reformulate this form of care and reorganize health services.

  13. Twenty american families' stories of adaptation: adoption of children from Russian and Romanian institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Deanna; Lyness, Anne Prouty

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand how 20 families have adapted after adopting children between the ages of 3 and 5 years from eastern European institutions. The researcher visited a Romanian orphanage and then interviewed 20 families about their experiences with the adoption process and with family adaptation postadoption. Several themes emerged from the parents' stories regarding their search for support and resources to aid in parenting their children. Family therapists who are interested in working with families who adopt internationally from institutional settings can learn from the stories of parents.

  14. Balancing digital information-sharing and patient privacy when engaging families in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Samuel M; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Francis, Leslie; Halamka, John; Rozenblum, Ronen; Rubin, Eileen; Sarnoff Lee, Barbara; Sugarman, Jeremy; Turner, Kathleen; Vorwaller, Micah; Frosch, Dominick L

    2016-09-01

    Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) may lack decisional capacity and may depend on proxy decision makers (PDMs) to make medical decisions on their behalf. High-quality information-sharing with PDMs, including through such means as health information technology, could improve communication and decision making and could potentially minimize the psychological consequences of an ICU stay for both patients and their family members. However, alongside these anticipated benefits of information-sharing are risks of unwanted disclosure of sensitive information. Approaches to identifying the optimal balance between access to digital health information to facilitate engagement and protecting patient privacy are urgently needed. We identified eight themes that should be considered in balancing health information access and patient privacy: 1) potential benefits to patients from PDM data access; 2) potential harms to patients from such access; 3) the moral status of families within the patient-clinician relationship; 4) the scope of relevant information provided to PDMs; 5) issues around defining PDMs' authority; 6) methods for eliciting and documenting patient preferences about their family's information access; 7) the relevance of methods for ascertaining the identity of PDMs; and 8) the obligations of hospitals to prevent privacy breaches by PDMs. We conclude that PDMs should typically have access to health information from the current episode of care when the patient is decisionally impaired, unless the patient has previously expressed a clear preference that PDMs not have such access.

  15. Status and progress of family health in Latin America and the Caribbean: the Ibero-American Confederation of Family Medicine (ICPM perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inez Padula Anderson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the XXI century, much of humanity does not have access to comprehensive health care, or even basic equitable health care. If studies show that countries with organized health systems based on a qualified and inclusive model of Primary Health Care (PHC and family physicians as permanent staff are achieving unquestionable results, why a large part of the countries with lower socio-economic development have not committed strongly to implement an efficient reform of their health systems based on PHC and family medicine (FM? These issues are at the core of the Latin American Confederation of Family Medicine’s concerns, an international non-profit organization composed of national associations of countries of FM from Latin America, Spain and Portugal. Its primary mission is to drive the implementation of a proper PHC system in all countries of the region and to ensure that family medicine, as a specialty, is considered critical to health systems, thereby transforming it into a public policy.

  16. Food Safety Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors of Native American Families with Young Children: A Mixed Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasin-Marty, Kara; Ritter-Gooder, Paula; Albrecht, Julie A

    2016-12-01

    Children are at increased risk for foodborne illness due to underdeveloped immune system. Limited research has been reported on food safety knowledge of Native American families with children 10 years of age and younger. This study was conducted to determine the food safety knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the main food preparer in these families by collecting quantitative and qualitative data simultaneously in a mixed method approach. A food safety knowledge survey created using FightBAC!(™) concepts was administered prior to focus groups discussions held in Native American communities using a script based upon the Health Belief Model. Quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS. Qualitative data were coded by three reviewers independently and then compared jointly for themes. Over three fourths of participants (n = 102) were female with an average age of 38.3 years. Over one half of participants were unemployed (54 %), lived on reservations (54 %), and 86 % had a high school degree or higher level of education. The following four themes emerged from the eight focus groups (n = 66): food can make one sick, I am not in control when others handle food, I know how to safely prepare foods for my family, and I do not have time or best equipment (for food safety). Mixed method analysis revealed that participants were aware of the severity and susceptibility for foodborne illness but were confident in preparing foods safely for their family. A food safety education program for Native American food preparers with young children is needed to prevent foodborne illness (FBI) in this population and promote safe food handling practice.

  17. [Single-family rooms for neonatal intensive care units impacts on preterm newborns, families, and health-care staff. A systematic literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servel, A-C; Rideau Batista Novais, A

    2016-09-01

    The quality of the environment is an essential point in the care of preterm newborns. The design of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) (open-bay, single-patient room, single-family room) directly affects both the preterm newborns and their caregivers (parents, healthcare staff). The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the impact of single-family rooms on the preterm newborn, its parents, and the staff. Single-family rooms improve outcome for the preterm newborn, with increasing parental involvement and better control of the environment (fewer inappropriate stimulations such as high levels of noise and illumination). This kind of NICU design also improves parental and staff satisfaction.

  18. Sociocultural Influences on Gambling and Alcohol Use Among Native Americans in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Silver Wolf Adelv Unegv Waya, David A; Welte, John W; Barnes, Grace M; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O; Spicer, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Gambling opportunities on and near Native American lands have increased in recent decades; yet there is a lack of research examining the patterns of problem gambling and alcohol abuse among Native Americans in the US. Traditional Native American cultural identity may be a protective factor for problem gambling and alcohol abuse among Native Americans. Telephone interviews were conducted with 415 Native American adults aged 18 years and older across the US. The past-year prevalence of gambling among Native Americans is similar to the rate for non-Native Americans in the US (80 vs. 77%). However, Native Americans have over twice the rate of problem gambling as the US sample (18 vs. 8%). Although Native Americans have a lower rate of past-year alcohol use than the US population (47 vs. 68%), they have a somewhat higher rate of alcohol abuse than their US counterparts (5.5 vs. 4.3%). Logistic regression analysis, with problem gambling as the dependent variable, revealed that lower socioeconomic status is significantly associated with an increased odds of problem gambling for Native Americans. Counter to the hypothesis, the higher the score on the Native American orientation, the higher the odds of being a problem gambler. Further, living by the "White way of life" was associated with a decreased odds of being a problem gambler; and perceived gambling convenience was associated with an increased odds of being a problem gambler. None of the Native American factors was significant in predicting alcohol abuse. These findings highlight the need for further investigation into the influence of cultural factors on Native American gambling.

  19. Using family history and health risk behaviors to determine predictors of depressive symptoms in Central American immigrant mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiegue, Ann H; Lyon, Debra E; Meyers, Melanie F

    2013-06-01

    In this study, depressive symptomatology in Central American immigrant mothers with adolescent daughters living in the USA was explored. Using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Short Scale, the Family History Scale, an Acculturation Scale, and the core section of the Youth Conduct Disorder scale from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 101 Central American mothers were analyzed to identify predictors of depressive symptoms. Over one-third of the participants had depressive symptoms. There were no significant findings for acculturation as a predictor of depressive symptoms. Predictors that related to depressive symptomatology were a positive family history of depression, marital status (divorced), and having a daughter engaged in health risk behaviors. Clinicians working with mothers from Central America should consider risk of depression, whether there is a family history of depression; and additional stresses, such as the health risk behaviors of adolescents. Unprecedented levels of immigration around the world underscore the importance of meeting the healthcare needs of culturally-diverse groups.

  20. American Indian and Alaska native aboriginal use of alcohol in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, P J

    1996-01-01

    Alcohol beverages prior to White contact originated with the Mayan and the Aztec Nations and spread to the American Indians of the Southwest. Surprisingly, there are a number of accounts of alcohol use among other American Indians and Alaska Natives. Beverages were limited to wine and beer, and included: balche, pulque, and "haren a pitahaya" wines, tulpi beer and other beverages. White contact brought dramatic shifts in the use and function of alcoholic beverages in American Indian and Alaska Native societies.

  1. The Economic and Family Context of Philosophical Autobiography: Acting ‘As-If’ for American Buddenbrooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine A. James

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the project of philosophical autobiography, using two different perspectives. On the one hand, the societal, economic, and family contexts of William James are addressed, and connected a modern academic context of business ethics research, marketing and purchasing decision making, and the continuing financial crisis. The concepts of “stream of consciousness” and “acting as-if” are connected to recent literature on William James. On the other hand, the significance of family context, and the possible connection between the William James family and the author, is addressed through shared family narratives interspersed throughout the paper.

  2. Americans with Wings—Air show institution in the United States%Americans with Wings——Air show institution in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张步云

    2016-01-01

    Wright Brother's first flying machine's flight in 1903 declared the advent of aviation age. Further stimulated by two world wars, aviation technologies have become the most advanced ones among human's manufacturing industries. In order to feed the industries' demand for human intelligence, various interactions between aviation staff and other social members were developed. Consequently, certain kind of aviation culture has been cultivating. In this paper, the author will make an introduction of aviation culture in the United States, and focus on the most representative content of that culture, the air show institution in United States.

  3. Respiratory health equality in the United States. The American thoracic society perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedón, Juan C; Roman, Jesse; Schraufnagel, Dean E; Thomas, Alvin; Samet, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    Because the frequency of major risk factors for respiratory diseases (e.g., tobacco use) differs across demographic groups (defined by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, health care access, occupation, or other characteristics), health disparities are commonly encountered in pediatric and adult pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine. As part of its policy on respiratory health disparities, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) Executive Committee created a Health Equality Subcommittee of the Health Policy Committee, with an initial mandate of defining respiratory health equality and, as a subsequent task, providing recommendations to the ATS leadership as to how our society may help attain such equality in the United States. After receiving input from the ATS assemblies and committees, the subcommittee developed this document on respiratory health equality. This document defines respiratory health disparities and respiratory health equality, and expands on a recent ATS and European Respiratory Society policy statement on disparities in respiratory health. Attainment of respiratory health equality requires the ending of respiratory health disparities, which can be achieved only through multidisciplinary efforts to eliminate detrimental environmental exposures while promoting a healthy lifestyle, implementing all components of high-quality health care (prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment), and conducting research that will lead to better prevention and management of respiratory diseases for everyone. The ATS recognizes that such efforts must include all stakeholders: members of society at large, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and other professional societies. The ATS urges all of its members and those of sister societies to work to achieve this laudable goal.

  4. Cancer among American Indians and Alaska Natives in the United States, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Charles L; Espey, David K; Wingo, Phyllis A; Kaur, Judith S; Wilson, Robin Taylor; Swan, Judith; Miller, Barry A; Jim, Melissa A; Kelly, Janet J; Lanier, Anne P

    2008-09-01

    Cancer incidence rates vary among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations and often differ from rates among non-Hispanic whites (NHWs). However, the misclassification of race for AI/AN cancer cases in central cancer registries may have led to underestimates of the AI/AN cancer burden in previous reports. Cases diagnosed during 1999 through 2004 were identified from population-based cancer registries in the United States. Age-adjusted rates were calculated for the 25 most common sites for AI/ANs and NHWs. To minimize the misclassification of race, cancer registry records were linked with patient registration files from the Indian Health Service (IHS). Analyses were restricted to Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties and were stratified by IHS region. In CHSDA counties, cancer incidence rates among AI/ANs varied widely by region, whereas rates among NHWs did not. For all cancer sites combined, AI/AN rates were higher than NHW rates among both males and females in the Northern and Southern Plains, and among Alaska Native Females; AI/AN rates were lower than NHW rates in the Southwest, the Pacific Coast, and the East. Lung cancer and colorectal cancer rates for AI/ANs exceeded rates for NHWs in Alaska and the Northern Plains. Rates for stomach, gallbladder, kidney, and liver cancer were higher among AI/ANs than among NHWs overall, in Alaska, in the Plains regions, and in the Southwest. Regional differences in cancer incidence rates among AI/AN populations were not obvious from nationwide data and highlighted opportunities for cancer control and prevention. It is unlikely that such differences are explained by race misclassification.

  5. Drought Prediction over the United States Using the North American Multi Model Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, K. C.; Lettenmaier, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    We analyzed the skill of drought forecasts over the United States based on drought indices derived from the hydroclimate forecasts from the North American Multi model ensemble (NMME). The test period is from 1982-2010 and forecasts are initialized from the beginning of January, April, July and October. We analyzed the forecast skill of drought indices such as the 6-month standardized precipitation index (SPI6), monthly mean soil moisture percentiles (SMP) and the 3-month standardized runoff index (SRI3). The soil moisture and runoff were obtained by drive the Variable Infiltration Capacity land model with forcing derived from the NMME members (NMME_VIC). Drought indices from each member were computed and they were put into percentiles determined from all members in the training period at a given lead. We then formed an ensemble grand mean by averaging all indices together and determined the concurrence measure which is the extent to which all different members agree. We find that : 1) The grand mean has higher skill than individual member; 2) During winter, forecasts are skillful in the regimes where the initial conditions dominant contributions to skill, the agreement between the grand mean and members are above 70-80% . At high leads, the concurrence measure drops to 50-60%, even when forecasts are unskillful. 3) During summer, forecast skill is low and concurrence measure drops to 10-30%, 4). The skill of drought forecasts is regionally and seasonally dependent. The NMME_VIC forecasts tend to over forecast drought events with large false alarm rate. After lead-1, the low thread score indicates no skill. The forecast errors will be analyzed to determine the origin of forecast skill.

  6. Parenting in 2 Worlds: Effects of a Culturally Adapted Intervention for Urban American Indians on Parenting Skills and Family Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulis, Stephen S; Ayers, Stephanie L; Harthun, Mary L; Jager, Justin

    2016-08-01

    Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W) is a culturally grounded parenting intervention that addresses the distinctive social and cultural worlds of urban American Indian (AI) families. P2W was culturally adapted through community-based participatory research in three urban AI communities with diverse tribal backgrounds. This paper reports the immediate outcomes of P2W in a randomized controlled trial, utilizing data from 575 parents of AI children (ages 10-17). Parents were assigned to P2W or to the comparison group, an informational family health curriculum, Healthy Families in 2 Worlds (HF2W). Both the P2W and HF2W curricula consisted of 10 workshops delivered weekly by AI community facilitators. Pretests were administered at the first workshop and a post-test at the last workshop. Tests of the efficacy of P2W versus HF2W on parenting skills and family functioning were analyzed with pairwise t tests, within intervention type, and by baseline adjusted path models using FIML estimation in Mplus. Intervention effect sizes were estimated with Cohen's d. Participants in P2W reported significant improvements in parental agency, parenting practices, supervision and family cohesion, and decreases in discipline problems and parent-child conflict. Compared to HF2W, P2W participants reported significantly larger increases in parental self-agency and positive parenting practices, and fewer child discipline problems. Most of these desired program effects for P2W approached medium size. Culturally adapted parenting interventions like P2W can effectively strengthen parenting practices and family functioning among urban AI families and help address their widespread need for targeted, culturally grounded programs.

  7. Shared Decision Making in Intensive Care Units: An American College of Critical Care Medicine and American Thoracic Society Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Alexander A.; Davidson, Judy E.; Morrison, Wynne; Danis, Marion; White, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Shared decision-making (SDM) is endorsed by critical care organizations, however there remains confusion about what SDM is, when it should be used, and approaches to promote partnerships in treatment decisions. The purpose of this statement is to define SDM, recommend when SDM should be used, identify the range of ethically acceptable decision-making models, and present important communication skills. Methods The American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) and American Thoracic Society (ATS) Ethics Committees reviewed empirical research and normative analyses published in peer-reviewed journals to generate recommendations. Recommendations approved by consensus of the full Ethics Committees of ACCM and ATS were included in the statement. Main Results Six recommendations were endorsed: 1) Definition: Shared decision-making is a collaborative process that allows patients, or their surrogates, and clinicians to make health care decisions together, taking into account the best scientific evidence available, as well as the patient’s values, goals, and preferences. 2) Clinicians should engage in a SDM process to define overall goals of care (including decisions regarding limiting or withdrawing life-prolonging interventions) and when making major treatment decisions that may be affected by personal values, goals, and preferences. 3) Clinicians should use as their “default” approach a SDM process that includes three main elements: information exchange, deliberation, and making a treatment decision. 4) A wide range of decision-making approaches are ethically supportable including patient- or surrogate-directed and clinician-directed models. Clinicians should tailor the decision-making process based on the preferences of the patient or surrogate. 5) Clinicians should be trained in communication skills. 6) Research is needed to evaluate decision-making strategies. Conclusions Patient and surrogate preferences for decision-making roles regarding value

  8. Socioeconomic Stress and Academic Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents: The Protective Role of Family Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and…

  9. Socioeconomic Stress and Academic Adjustment among Asian American Adolescents: The Protective Role of Family Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Andrews, Kandace; Stein, Gabriela L.; Supple, Andrew J.; Gonzalez, Laura M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic stress has long been found to place youth at risk, with low family income conferring disadvantages in adolescents' school achievement and success. This study investigates the role of socioeconomic stress on academic adjustment, and pinpoints family obligation as a possible buffer of negative associations. We examined direct and…

  10. Parenting and Child Health: A Study of Low-Income Hispanic and African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievar, M. Angela; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini

    2011-01-01

    Children in low-income and ethnic minority families are more likely to be in poor health, which may impact physical and economic well-being in adulthood. This study explored how maternal depression and parenting efficacy were associated with child health outcomes in a sample of minority low-income families (N = 311). Results demonstrate that…

  11. Soft technologies as generating satisfaction in users of a Family Health Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Mara Neves Ferri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study had the purpose to evaluate the quality of the health service provided at a Family Health Unit (FHU, with emphasis on user satisfaction, based on soft technologies. Furthermore, this study also aimed to analyze the aspects of health care that generated user satisfaction or dissatisfaction regarding attachment, accountability, providing solutions, expectations, relationship, comfort, and access, and to identify recommendations for local interventions. The authors made a general characterization of the population seen at the studied service, and then selected the subjects. The study used a qualitative approach. Data were collected in semi-structured interviews, and ordered using the Collective Subject Discourse (CSD method. The analysis reveals the importance that service users assign to the soft technologies, but also shows the need to reduce the waiting time for medical consultations and referrals, and to obtain access to medication and dental care at the same location. These factors generated great dissatisfaction among users.

  12. [Quality planning of Family Health Units using Quality Function Deployment (QFD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpato, Luciana Fernandes; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi

    2010-08-01

    Quality is an indispensible requirement in the health field, and its pursuit is necessary in order to meet demands by a population that is aware of its rights, as part of the essence of good work relations, and to decrease technological costs. Quality thus involves all parties to the process (users and professionals), and is no longer merely an attribute of the health service. This study aimed to verify the possibility of quality planning in the Family Health Units, using Quality Function Deployment (QFD). QFD plans quality according to user satisfaction, involving staff professionals and identifying new approaches to improve work processes. Development of the array, called the House of Quality, is this method's most important characteristics. The results show a similarity between the quality demanded by users and the quality planned by professionals. The current study showed that QFD is an efficient tool for quality planning in public health services.

  13. Cigarette Smoking among African American Youth from Single Mother Homes: Examining the Roles of Maternal Smoking and Positive Parenting within an Extended Family Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Sarah E.; Zalot, Alecia A.; Jones, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    The current study examined the main and interactive effects of three family context variables, maternal smoking, positive parenting behavior, and the quality of the mother's relationship with another adult or family member who assists with parenting (i.e., coparent), and adolescent smoking among African American youth from single mother homes. The…

  14. Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family and home environment are important in shaping the dietary patterns of children, yet research among low-income, minority groups is limited. We examined ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental practices among 706 low-income African-American and Hispanic families of pre...

  15. Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low-income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The family and home environment are important in shaping the dietary patterns of children, yet research among low-income, minority groups is limited. We examined ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental practices among 706 low-income, African-American and Hispanic families of pre...

  16. Meaning-Less Differences: Exposing Fallacies and Flaws in "The Word Gap" Hypothesis That Conceal a Dangerous "Language Trap" for Low-Income American Families and Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, John

    2017-01-01

    The present article compares and contrasts linguistic findings from longitudinal studies of low-income Americans derived from evidence of recorded family speech interactions. Hart and Risley (1995) employed research assistants who spent 1 hour per month observing language usage among families from different socioeconomic backgrounds in their homes…

  17. GNE mutations in an American family with quadriceps-sparing IBM and lack of mutations in s-IBM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Olavo M; Raju, Raghavan; Dalakas, Marinos C

    2002-12-10

    Analysis for GNE mutations was performed in an American, non-Iranian Jewish, family with quadriceps-sparing inclusion body myopathy (QS-IBM) and in 11 patients with sporadic IBM (s-IBM). Two novel nonallosteric site missense mutations were found in the QS-IBM kinship. No mutations were identified in s-IBM patients. After 8 years of follow-up and severe disease progression, the quadriceps muscle in the QS-IBM patient remains strong despite subclinical involvement documented with repeat MRI and muscle biopsy.

  18. Intelligibility of American English Vowels and Consonants Spoken by International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Su-Hyun; Liu, Chang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the intelligibility of English consonants and vowels produced by Chinese-native (CN), and Korean-native (KN) students enrolled in American universities. Method: 16 English-native (EN), 32 CN, and 32 KN speakers participated in this study. The intelligibility of 16 American English consonants and 16…

  19. The African Americanization of menthol cigarette use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Phillip S

    2004-02-01

    Today, over 70% of African American smokers prefer menthol cigarettes, compared with 30% of White smokers. This unique social phenomenon was principally occasioned by the tobacco industry's masterful manipulation of the burgeoning Black, urban, segregated, consumer market in the 1960s. Through the use of television and other advertising media, coupled with culturally tailored images and messages, the tobacco industry "African Americanized" menthol cigarettes. The tobacco industry successfully positioned mentholated products, especially Kool, as young, hip, new, and healthy. During the time that menthols were gaining a large market share in the African American community, the tobacco industry donated funds to African American organizations hoping to blunt the attack on their products. Many of the findings in this article are drawn from the tobacco industry documents disclosed following the Master Settlement Agreement in 1998. After a short review of the origins and growth of menthols, this article examines some key social factors that, when considered together, led to disproportionate use of mentholated cigarettes by African Americans compared with other Americans. Unfortunately, the long-term impact of the industry's practice in this community may be partly responsible for the disproportionately high tobacco-related disease and mortality among African Americans generally and African American males particularly.

  20. Native American Children, Youth, and Families. Part 3. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session (Albuquerque, NM, January 10, 1986).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    As part of a weeklong investigation into conditions among Native American families and children, the House of Representatives Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families met to hear testimony from tribal leaders, parents, young adults, and service providers from reservations and pueblos in New Mexico and Colorado. Topics include unemployment…

  1. Facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management in urban African Americans: perspectives of patients and family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flynn SJ

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Sarah J Flynn,1,2 Jessica M Ameling,1,2 Felicia Hill-Briggs,1–3 Jennifer L Wolff,4,5 Lee R Bone,1,3 David M Levine,1,4 Debra L Roter,3 LaPricia Lewis-Boyer,1,2 Annette R Fisher,6 Leon Purnell,6 Patti L Ephraim,2,7 Jeffrey Barbers,1,2 Stephanie L Fitzpatrick,1,2 Michael C Albert,1,8 Lisa A Cooper,1,2 Peter J Fagan,9,10 Destiny Martin,1 Hema C Ramamurthi,1,2 L Ebony Boulware1,2,7 1Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 6Community and Provider Advisory Board, Johns Hopkins Center to Eliminate Cardiovascular Health Disparities, Baltimore, MD, USA; 7Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 8Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; 9Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 10Johns Hopkins HealthCare LLC, Glen Burnie, MD, USA Introduction: We aimed to inform the design of behavioral interventions by identifying patients’ and their family members’ perceived facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management. Materials and methods: We conducted focus groups of African American patients with hypertension and their family members to elicit their views about factors influencing patients’ hypertension self-management. We recruited African American patients with hypertension (n = 18 and their family members (n = 12 from an urban, community-based clinical

  2. 45 CFR 400.209 - Claims involving family units which include refugees who have been in the United States more than...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... refugees who have been in the United States more than 36 months. 400.209 Section 400.209 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Federal Funding...

  3. Costs borne by families of children hospitalized in a pediatric intensive care unit: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Bossuat, Christine; Perrin, Eliane; Cotting, Jacques

    2006-12-23

    Hospitalisation of a child in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) involves major stress for parents. They wish to stay at their child's bedside while at the same time giving the usual attention to their other children. The resultant out-of-pocket expenses have rarely been studied. Over a 6-month period all the families of children hospitalised in our PICU for more than 4 days, speaking French and insured by our social security system, were eligible for inclusion. Participation was proposed only after diagnosis, treatment and prognosis had been determined. Costs were retrieved from a diary list of customised items and computed as the amount in excess of usual expenses until the end of the hospital stay. 117 children were hospitalised in our PICU for a total of 131 stays. The families of 16 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. One dropped out after a week at the parents' request. The children's age was 2.9 +/- 3.8 years and 67% were male. The majority had malformations (53%) or infections (33%). The total length of stay was 49 +/- 51 days, of which 24 +/- 41 were spent in the PICU. On average, parents spent CHF 86 +/- 31 every day, mainly on travel and meals. Over the entire hospital stay their expenses amounted to CHF 4,078 +/- 4,552. Direct out-of-pocket expenses for parents of children hospitalised in the PICU are considerable. Improvement in the social security system may be necessary to address this issue.

  4. The American “You Probably Know”: On Chomsky, United States, and the Failed States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arup K. CHATTERJEE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alleged by his detractors “Cold War Geopolitics” was verily a formative ground of Chomsky’s analyses, nevertheless, his work is a recycling of a set historical methodology, which has yet to be fully understood. It is characteristically convenient to perceive Chomsky’s contribution to the American Empire Project as being in succession to the American legacy of dissension to and distanciation from political and cultural hegemony. It is ironic that such a stance of subversion of hegemonic laws and the natural universal exceptionalism of America comes from the chief positivist of linguistics. In other words, reading Chomsky will be more challenging once his oeuvre is classified under modern ‘integralist’ history, furthermore even as postcolonial theory. Neither has Noam Chomsky nor his activities in the recent American Empire Project enabled policy advisers to ascertain methods to democratically sustain a “political system made up of subcultures.” While both The American Empire Project and Chomsky seek to restore the Edenic veneer to America the latter’s discipline ranges to far beyond the borders of his nation. It is this fibre of individualism and universalism that makes him only more American. Several writings by Chomsky begin by reaffirm the idyllic and unprecedented American influence of the post-War era, and ending in the wake of changing world demography of political alignments the American Gestalt history reflects in the psychic anxiety of the American Empire Project of the expanding frontiers America is faced with as an outcome of its own political misdemeanour. Failed States and the Chomskyan American Empire Project domesticate U.S. politics, infusing its blood-ridden history into the (collective political unconscious of the middle class urbanite’s brunch-settee ethic, with the refurbishment of American innocence in a natural teleology. It is the catalyst to ignite civil leisure with social revolution.

  5. Imported family models? Cohabitation patterns of Latin American women in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara CORTINA TRILLA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, international immigration flows have undergone a dramatic growth in Spain. In this particular context, the purpose of this article is to analyze whether Latin American female migrants residing in Spain largely maintain nuptial and reproductive patterns from their countries of origin. To analyze the prevalence of consensual unions we use three different databases: the Spanish Immigration Survey, the Spanish Labour Force Survey and birth records, all of them corresponding to 2007 and collected by the Spanish Statistical Institute. The study documents the high prevalence of consensual unions among Latin American migrants. Regarding the socio-demographic factors influencing cohabitation, our results show important similarities between Spanish and Latin American women, except for educational attainment.

  6. Association of Demanding Kin Relations With Psychological Distress and School Achievement Among Low-Income, African American Mothers and Adolescents: Moderating Effects of Family Routine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ronald D

    2016-12-01

    Association of demanding kin relations and family routine with adolescents' psychological distress and school achievement was assessed among 200 low-income, African American mothers and adolescents. Demanding kin relations were significantly associated with adolescents' psychological distress. Family routine was significantly related to adolescents' school achievement. Demanding kin relations were negatively associated with school achievement for adolescents from families low in routine, but unrelated to achievement for adolescents in families high in routine. Additional research is needed on poor families and their social networks. © 2015 The Author. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2015 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  7. Systemic approach in rural administration: Study of the family production unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson R. Paz Stamberg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on understanding the rationality of production management and available resources in agricultural production unit (UPA, identifying its main technical and socioeconomic characteristics in order to make a diagnosis to subsidize the rural manager in decision making.This study was part of the extension project approved in the Institutional Incentive Extension Program of the Farroupilha Federal Institute (Brazil, prioritizing as object of study a family UPA in the municipality of Santo Antônio das Missões/RS/Brazil, being conducted between October-November 2014.As methodological procedure a survey was done with qualitative and quantitative data, such as natural resources, utilized agricultural area, herd, plant, machinery and equipment, availability of labor force and yields of the various cultivation subsystems, breeding and processing. This data was organized in a spreadsheet, which identifies the adopted production system and its main technical and socioeconomic characteristics. As proposed, technical and managerial intervention in the production system, proposed strategically to enhance milk production opposed to the soybean production, considering its high contribution in relation to the value added per unit area.Key Words: Rural Administration - Production management - Systemic approach.

  8. HEART UK statement on the management of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Michael; Rees, Alan; Datta, Dev; Thompson, Gilbert; Capps, Nigel; Ferns, Gordon; Ramaswami, Uma; Seed, Mary; Neely, Dermot; Cramb, Robert; Shoulders, Carol; Barbir, Mahmoud; Pottle, Alison; Eatough, Ruth; Martin, Steven; Bayly, Graham; Simpson, Bill; Halcox, Julian; Edwards, Ray; Main, Linda; Payne, Jules; Soran, Handrean

    2016-12-01

    This consensus statement addresses the current three main modalities of treatment of homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (HoFH): pharmacotherapy, lipoprotein (Lp) apheresis and liver transplantation. HoFH may cause very premature atheromatous arterial disease and death, despite treatment with Lp apheresis combined with statin, ezetimibe and bile acid sequestrants. Two new classes of drug, effective in lowering cholesterol in HoFH, are now licensed in the United Kingdom. Lomitapide is restricted to use in HoFH but, may cause fatty liver and is very expensive. PCSK9 inhibitors are quite effective in receptor defective HoFH, are safe and are less expensive. Lower treatment targets for lipid lowering in HoFH, in line with those for the general FH population, have been proposed to improve cardiovascular outcomes. HEART UK presents a strategy combining Lp apheresis with pharmacological treatment to achieve these targets in the United Kingdom (UK). Improved provision of Lp apheresis by use of existing infrastructure for extracorporeal treatments such as renal dialysis is promoted. The clinical management of adults and children with HoFH including advice on pregnancy and contraception are addressed. A premise of the HEART UK strategy is that the risk of early use of drug treatments beyond their licensed age restriction may be balanced against risks of liver transplantation or ineffective treatment in severely affected patients. This may be of interest beyond the UK.

  9. Family medicine: its core principles and impact on patient care and medical education in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimbo, Masahito

    2004-06-01

    The specialty of family medicine arose out of a combination of American public and professional concerns regarding fragmentation of health care and was intended to foster a type of physician with a scope of clinical competence that would allow the patient, not the disease, to be the focus. Family physicians serve as the patient's personal physician and provide entry to the health care system, provide comprehensive care, maintain continuing responsibility for the patient including necessary coordination of care and referral, and provide care appropriate to the patient's physical, emotional, and social needs in the context of family and community. The specialty is currently second only to internal medicine in size, and makes a significant contribution to patient care and medical education. As family medicine looks to the future, some of its challenges include continuing to attract medical students to the specialty, refine research themes, and gain further acceptance in academic medical centers.

  10. FAMILY UNIT PRODUCTION AS ALTERNATIVE TO IMPROVE THE ETHNIC YAQUI FOOD SECURITY IN VICAM, SONORA, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guillermo Ramírez-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The family production unit is a strategy that has Ethnicity Yaqui population for food production at low cost and thus achieve the food sovereignty. This work was carried out in Vicam, where 41 surveys were applied to household which were selected through cooperation of their occupants. The main results indicate that food sovereignty concept is unknow from daily life population in the region; partly, because food production in the region is reduced; besides weather, market and social factors that prevent it. In addition, the family production unit is not a common element among families. However, there are some homes with some spaces, although small ones, for food production and families obtain, in certain seasons, some grains and some vegetables.

  11. Korean-American Entrepreneurs. CELCEE Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung

    For many Korean Americans, the American dream of building a better future in the United States for their families is realized through a focus on entrepreneurship. Their formula for entrepreneurial success is simple and effective: (1) identifying a business opportunity; and (2) working hard to turn the opportunity into a business success. Korean…

  12. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi's Discrete Typing Units in a cohort of Latin American migrants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Perez, Angela; Poveda, Cristina; Ramírez, Juan David; Norman, Francesca; Gironés, Núria; Guhl, Felipe; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Fresno, Manuel; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-05-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. This is an endemic disease in the Americas, but increased migration to Europe has made it emerge in countries where it was previously unknown, being Spain the second non endemic country in number of patients. T. cruzi is a parasite with a wide genetic diversity, which has been grouped by consensus into 6 Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) affecting humans. Some authors have linked these DTUs either to a specific epidemiological context or to the different clinical presentations. Our main objective was to describe the T. cruzi DTUs identified from a population of chronically infected Latin American migrants attending a reference clinic in Madrid. 149 patients meeting this condition were selected for the study. Molecular characterization was performed by an algorithm that combines PCR of the intergenic region of the mini exon-gene, the 24Sα and 18S regions of rDNA and the variable region of the satellite DNA. A descriptive analysis was performed and associations between geographical/clinical data and the different DTUs were tested. DTUs could be determined in 105 out of 149 patients, 93.3% were from Bolivia, 67.7% were women and median age was 35 years (IQR 29-44). The most common DTU found was TcV (58; 55.2%), followed by TcIV (17; 16.2%), TcII (10; 9.5%) and TcI (4; 3.8%). TcIII and TcVI were not identified from any patient, and 15.2% patients presented mixed infections. In addition, we determined DTUs after treatment in a subset of patients. In 57% patients had different DTUs before and after treatment. DTUs distribution from this study indicates active transmission of T. cruzi is occurring in Bolivia, in both domestic and sylvatic cycles. TcIV was confirmed as a cause of chronic human disease. The current results indicate no correlation between DTU and any specific clinical presentation associated with Chagas disease, nor with geographical origin. Treatment with benznidazole does not always clear T. cruzi

  13. Intergenerational Experiences of Discrimination in Chinese American Families: Influences of Socialization and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Aprile D.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2009-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we investigated the mechanisms by which Chinese American parents' experiences of discrimination influenced their adolescents' ethnicity-related stressors (i.e., cultural misfit, discrimination, attitudes toward education). We focused on whether parents' ethnic-racial socialization practices and perpetual foreigner…

  14. Pretending to Be Japanese: Artistic Play in a Japanese-American Church and Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Courtney T.

    2008-01-01

    With high rates of out-marriage and dwindling need for bilingual worship, Japanese-American churches face a critical question: "Why retain the Japanese part of our identity?" This article explores how one layperson (Naomi Takahashi Goto) draws from her experience as an artist, teacher, and mother to help her congregation answer this question.…

  15. Discrimination Concerns and Expectations as Explanations for Gendered Socialization in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future,…

  16. Transitions to Engagement among Low-Income Cohabiting African American Couples: A Family Perspective for Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    With passage of the Welfare Reform Law of 1996, various national, state, and local programs were created to encourage marriage, particularly among low-income African American cohabiting couples with children. However, policy makers know little about the deterrents to marriage for members of this group. More specifically, there is a lack of data…

  17. Myth as History, History as Myth: Family and Church Among Italo-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passi, Michael M.

    1975-01-01

    Asserts that the history of white ethnics has been written far too long as the story of disorganization and disintegration. Argues that the themes of rebirth and creativity should be explored, discarding the myth of the American as a new man emerging after stripping away Old World traditions and institutions. (Author/RJ)

  18. A Strengths-Based Parenting Intervention with Low-Income African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheely-Moore, Angela I.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2010-01-01

    With the propensity of African American children at higher risk for academic success due to their disproportionate rate of school discipline problems compared to their peers, school counselors are challenged to provide culturally and developmentally responsive services for this population. This article provides a brief rationale for the use of a…

  19. Associations between Individual and Family Level Characteristics and Parenting Practices in Incarcerated African American Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modecki, Kathryn L.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the reported parenting practices of fifty incarcerated African American fathers. Fathers were interviewed using hypothetical vignettes adapted from the Parenting Dimensions Inventory (PDI) and received scores on two parenting practices: responsive and restrictive. Father's individual level (education and length of time spent…

  20. Family and Sociodemographic Predictors of School Readiness among African American Boys in Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Claire E.; Cameron, Claire E.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.; Grissmer, David

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999, were used to examine the relation between parenting, sociodemographic characteristics, and school readiness among (N = 1,136) African American boys in kindergarten. Parenting was defined as parenting style (i.e., warmth and control), home learning…

  1. Family-Level Factors, Depression, and Anxiety among African American Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Coard, Stephanie Irby; Patton, Desmond Upton; Young, Shelton; Giles, Sasha; Nolen, Marlon

    2017-01-01

    Background: The reported prevalence of depression and anxiety among African American children and adolescents and their negative sequalae suggest a need to further explore factors that may be protective of depression and anxiety among this population. Objective: The aim of this review was to examine empirical studies that focus on the association…

  2. Family-Level Factors, Depression, and Anxiety among African American Children: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Tyreasa; Rose, Theda; Coard, Stephanie Irby; Patton, Desmond Upton; Young, Shelton; Giles, Sasha; Nolen, Marlon

    2017-01-01

    Background: The reported prevalence of depression and anxiety among African American children and adolescents and their negative sequalae suggest a need to further explore factors that may be protective of depression and anxiety among this population. Objective: The aim of this review was to examine empirical studies that focus on the association…

  3. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder among Asian American Families: Challenges in Assessment and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Andy V.

    2013-01-01

    Studies addressing assessment and treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have primarily been focused on Caucasian populations, although a growing number of studies have included ethnic minority populations, particularly Hispanic and African American children. Findings regarding the relationship between ADHD diagnosis and race…

  4. Fusion or Familialism: A Construct Problem in Studies of Mexican American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Judith C.; Prince, Jonathan D.; Velez, Judith

    2004-01-01

    This study was an investigation of intergenerational relationships related to the individuation process as reported by Mexican (N = 2,388) and European American (N = 2,907) adolescents. The primary aim was to examine the construct within theories of adolescent development that emotional separation in parent-adolescent relationships is an inherent…

  5. With All My Relations: Counseling American Indians and Alaska Natives within a Familial Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Faith G.

    2011-01-01

    Statistics show that two thirds of American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) live outside of tribal areas, and 50% of those individuals who seek counseling services will not use tribal resources. There is a strong likelihood that counselors will have the opportunity to provide services to AI/AN clients. The review of the academic literature…

  6. Middle-Class African American Families' Expectations for Adolescents' Behavioural Autonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daddis, Christopher; Smetana, Judith

    2005-01-01

    Timetables for adolescents' behavioural autonomy were examined using a modified version of Feldman and Quatman's (1988) teen timetable measure with 73 middle-class African American middle adolescents (M age = 14.96 years, SD = 1.29) and their parents (73 mothers and 44 fathers), who were followed longitudinally for 3 years. African American…

  7. Adolescent-Parent Conflict in Middle-Class African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Cheryl; Smetana, Judith

    1999-01-01

    Examined conflicts between middle-class African American preadolescents/early adolescents and their parents. Found that conflicts were relatively frequent, of low intensity, and occurred over issues such as the adolescent's room, chores, activity choices, and homework. Early adolescents rated conflicts as more intense than preadolescents. Mothers'…

  8. Work Characteristics and Fathers' Vocabulary to Infants in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancsofar, Nadya; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Odom, Erika C.

    2013-01-01

    Fathers' vocabulary to infants has been linked in the literature to early child language development, however, little is known about the variability in fathers' language behavior. This study considered associations between fathers' work characteristics and fathers' vocabulary among a sample of employed African American fathers of 6-month-old…

  9. Discrimination Concerns and Expectations as Explanations for Gendered Socialization in African American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Fatima; Mandara, Jelani

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination concerns and parental expectations were examined as mediators of the relations between gender and parenting practices among 796 African American mothers of 11- to 14-year-olds from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study. Mothers of sons had more concerns about racial discrimination impacting their adolescents' future,…

  10. ocial representation of family support for diabetic patients in users of a family medicine unit in Chalco, State of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rodríguez Torres

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE The goal of this study is to compare and interpret the meaning of family support for diabetic patients and their families using social representations according to a structural approach of Abric’s theory. METHODS The study was carried out in a Family Medicine Center of the Chalco Municipality in Mexico State. The population studied comprised ten diabetic patient-family pairs. The first part of the study was a simple word association test that aimed to find terms or statements related to the concept of “family support”, as well as its frequency of appearance and range of association. Once the terms or statements were obtained, they were categorized according to their “support” capabilities. A semi-structured interview for each category was conducted as well as a graphic analysis of Friedman’s meanings. The discourse of diabetic patients was compared to that of the families in order to find similarities and differences. RESULTS Evocation of terms was done in the first part of the study, and it was found that the emotional domain was central to the discourse. However, in the second part of the study, when categorization and analysis of discourse is performed, there are differences in the centrality of terms and statements. The family tends to center in the active domain, whereas the patient centers in the emotional domain. CONCLUSIONS This study brings up the emotional needs of the patient as essential components of support efforts. This promotes reflection about changing strategies in the design of public healthcare programs in that they may include family support from the viewpoint of otherness.

  11. [Social representation of family support for diabetic patients in users of a family medicine unit in Chalco, State of Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alejandra; Camacho, Esteban Jaime; Escoto, María Del Consuelo; Contreras, Georgina; Casas, Donovan

    2014-08-27

    The goal of this study is to compare and interpret the meaning of family support for diabetic patients and their families using social representations according to a structural approach of Abric's theory. The study was carried out in a Family Medicine Center of the Chalco Municipality in Mexico State. The population studied comprised ten diabetic patient-family pairs. The first part of the study was a simple word association test that aimed to find terms or statements related to the concept of "family support", as well as its frequency of appearance and range of association. Once the terms or statements were obtained, they were categorized according to their "support" capabilities. A semi-structured interview for each category was conducted as well as a graphic analysis of Friedman's meanings. The discourse of diabetic patients was compared to that of the families in order to find similarities and differences. Evocation of terms was done in the first part of the study, and it was found that the emotional domain was central to the discourse. However, in the second part of the study, when categorization and analysis of discourse is performed, there are differences in the centrality of terms and statements. The family tends to center in the active domain, whereas the patient centers in the emotional domain. This study brings up the emotional needs of the patient as essential components of support efforts. This promotes reflection about changing strategies in the design of public healthcare programs in that they may include family support from the viewpoint of otherness.

  12. Lack of Association between SLC30A8 Variants and Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican American Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SLC30A8 encodes zinc transporter 8 which is involved in packaging and release of insulin. Evidence for the association of SLC30A8 variants with type 2 diabetes (T2D is inconclusive. We interrogated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs around SLC30A8 for association with T2D in high-risk, pedigreed individuals from extended Mexican American families. This study of 118 SNPs within 50 kb of the SLC30A8 locus tested the association with eight T2D-related traits at four levels: (i each SNP using measured genotype approach (MGA; (ii interaction of SNPs with age and sex; (iii combinations of SNPs using Bayesian Quantitative Trait Nucleotide (BQTN analyses; and (iv entire gene locus using the gene burden test. Only one SNP (rs7817754 was significantly associated with incident T2D but a summary statistic based on all T2D-related traits identified 11 novel SNPs. Three SNPs and one SNP were weakly but interactively associated with age and sex, respectively. BQTN analyses could not demonstrate any informative combination of SNPs over MGA. Lastly, gene burden test results showed that at best the SLC30A8 locus could account for only 1-2% of the variability in T2D-related traits. Our results indicate a lack of association of the SLC30A8 SNPs with T2D in Mexican American families.

  13. NACSN, note 67--Application for revision of Articles 36 and 37, Lithodemic units of the North American stratigraphic code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Robert M.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Duguet, Manuel; Ferrusquia-Villafranca, Ismael

    2015-01-01

    Currently the North American Stratigraphic Code, (NACSN 2005, Article 37) sets restrictions on the use of the term “complex” for lithodemic units. With exceptions for “volcanic complex” and “structural complex,” a complex must consist of more than one genetic class of rock (i.e., sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic). Thus, the use of the term “complex” to describe masses of intrusive rocks is not allowed. Asimilar restriction is also included in a recent British Geological Survey proposal for using lithodemic units to classify igneous rocks (Gillespie et al. 2008).Currently the North American Stratigraphic Code, (NACSN 2005, Article 37) sets restrictions on the use of the term “complex” for lithodemic units. With exceptions for “volcanic complex” and “structural complex,” a complex must consist of more than one genetic class of rock (i.e., sedimentary, igneous or metamorphic). Thus, the use of the term “complex” to describe masses of intrusive rocks is not allowed. Asimilar restriction is also included in a recent British Geological Survey proposal for using lithodemic units to classify igneous rocks (Gillespie et al. 2008).

  14. A family of rare earth molybdenum bronzes: Oxides consisting of periodic arrays of interacting magnetic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneemeyer, L.F. [Department of Chemistry, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ 07043 (United States); Siegrist, T., E-mail: tsiegrist@fsu.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Besara, T. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Lundberg, M. [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Sun, J. [Department of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, FAMU-FSU College of Engineering, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6056 (United States); Singh, D.J. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6056 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The family of rare earth molybdenum bronzes, reduced ternary molybdates of composition LnMo{sub 16}O{sub 44,} was synthesized and a detailed structural study carried out. Bond valence sum (BVS) calculations clearly show that the molybdenum ions in tetrahedral coordination are hexavalent while the electron count in the primitive unit cell is odd. Yet, measurements show that the phases are semiconductors. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of samples containing several different rare earth elements was measured. These measurements verified the presence of a 6.5 K magnetic phase transition not arising from the rare earth constituent, but likely associated with the unique isolated ReO{sub 3}-type Mo{sub 8}O{sub 36} structural subunits in this phase. To better understand the behavior of these materials, electronic structure calculations were performed within density functional theory. Results suggest a magnetic state in which these structural moieties have an internal ferromagnetic arrangement, with small ~1/8 μ{sub B} moments on each Mo. We suggest that the Mo{sub 8}O{sub 36} units behave like pseudoatoms with spin 1/2 derived from a single hole distributed over the eight Mo atoms that are strongly hybridized with the O atoms of the subunit. Interestingly, while the compound is antiferromagnetic, our calculations suggest that a field-stabilized ferromagnetic state, if achievable, will be a narrow band half-metal. - Graphical abstract: LnMo{sub 16}O{sub 44} phases comprise corner sharing tetrahedral and octahedral molybdenum ions. The MoO{sub 6} octahedra form Mo{sub 8}O{sub 36} units that are well separated and act like pseudo-atoms, accommodating 11 electrons each. - Highlights: • Single crystal X-ray diffraction refinements of LnMo{sub 16}O{sub 44} single crystals for Ln=Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb, Dy and Ho. • DFT calculations based on LaMo{sub 16}O{sub 44}. • [Mo{sub 8}O{sub 36}] units behaving as superatoms with a net magnetic moment of 1 µ

  15. Status of Family Support Services and Spending in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L.; Braddock, David; Hemp, Richard; Rizzolo, Mary C.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of data on family support services and spending for individuals with developmental disabilities presents information on cash subsidy payments, respite care, and other family support. A graph shows U.S. spending for family support, 1986-1998. Additional tables break down subsidy spending for family support services by state in 1998 and…

  16. Challenges Faced by Military Families: Perceptions of United States Marine Corps School Liaisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Keith R.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    The global war on terror has placed a number of stressful demands on service members and their families. Although the military offers a wide range of services and supports to military families, not all families are willing or able to use them. For example, geographically dispersed families can find it challenging to connect with military support…

  17. Challenges Faced by Military Families: Perceptions of United States Marine Corps School Liaisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Keith R.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2013-01-01

    The global war on terror has placed a number of stressful demands on service members and their families. Although the military offers a wide range of services and supports to military families, not all families are willing or able to use them. For example, geographically dispersed families can find it challenging to connect with military support…

  18. Eating fruits and vegetables. An ethnographic study of American and French family dinners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer-Sadlik, Tamar; Morgenstern, Aliyah; Peters, Chloe; Beaupoil, Pauline; Caët, Stéphanie; Debras, Camille; le Mené, Marine

    2015-06-01

    The French eat more fruits and vegetables than Americans and have lower rates of childhood obesity. This ethnographic study compares various aspects of meal environment in sixteen households in LA, California and Paris, France, and offers insights on the relationship between local practices and preferences and children's consumption of fruits and vegetables. Our analysis of video-recorded naturalist data reveals that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is linked to the cultural organization of dinner--what, when and how food is served--and to local beliefs about children's eating practices. We also found that the French model for dinnertime prioritizes the eating of fruits and vegetables more than the American model does. We propose that local eating models should be taken into account in research on childhood obesity and in prevention programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The emergence of computer science instructional units in American colleges and universities (1950--1975): A history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Susan Elaine

    The purpose and scope of this dissertation is to investigate the origins and development of academic computer science units in American higher education and examine the intent and structure of their curricula. Specifically the study examines selected undergraduate and graduate curricula that developed from 1950 to 1975. This dissertation examines several of the earliest academic units formed and the issues surrounding their formation. This study examines some of the variety of courses and programs that existed among the early computer science programs. The actual titles of the units varied but they shared a common overreaching goal to study computers. The departments formed in various methods and some units were a subset of other departments. Faculties of these new units were often comprised of faculty members from various other disciplines. This dissertation is an exploration of the connections between a variety of diverse institutions and the new computer science discipline that formed from these early academic roots. While much has been written about the history of hardware and software development and the individual pioneers in the relatively new computer science discipline, the history of the academic units was documented primarily based on individual institutions. This study uses a wider lens to examine the patterns of these early academic units as they formed and became computer science units. The successes of these early pioneers resulted in a proliferation of academic computer programs in the following decades. The curricular debates continue as the number and purposes of these programs continue to expand. This dissertation seeks to provide useful information for future curricular decisions by examining the roots of the academic computer science units.

  20. Beyond Immigrant Status: Book-Sharing in Low-Income Mexican-American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Maria; Pérez-Granados, Deanne R.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Huffman, Lynne C.

    2017-01-01

    Data from a sample (n = 145) of low-income Mexican-American mothers and their toddlers (9-26 months) were used to explore the prevalence of high-frequency book-sharing (?3 days/week) and its association with maternal immigrant status (Mexico-born vs US-born), as well as other demographic and psychosocial factors. Mexico-born mothers were more…

  1. Sibling Relationships and Adolescent Adjustment: Longitudinal Associations in Two-Parent African American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteman, Shawn D.; Solmeyer, Anna R.; McHale, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Sibling relationships have been described as love-hate relationships by virtue of their emotional intensity, but we know little about how sibling positivity and negativity operate together to affect youth adjustment. Accordingly, this study charted the course of sibling positivity and negativity from age 10 to 18 in African American sibling dyads and tested whether changes in relationship qualities were linked to changes in adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Participants ...

  2. Processes Linking Social Class and Racial Socialization in African American Dual-Earner Families

    OpenAIRE

    Crouter, Ann C.; Baril, Megan E.; Davis, Kelly; McHale, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the links between social class, occupational self-direction, self-efficacy, and racial socialization in a sample of 128 two-parent African American couples raising adolescents. A series of multivariate, multilevel models revealed that mothers’ SES was connected to self-efficacy via its association with occupational self-direction; in turn, self-efficacy partially explained the association between occupational self-direction and racial socialization. The link between maternal self-...

  3. A qualitative study of family healthy lifestyle behaviors of Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant fathers and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Barbara J; Navuluri, Neelima; Winkler, Paula; Vale, Shruthi; Finley, Erin

    2014-04-01

    This study qualitatively examines contrasting parental decision-making styles about family food choices and physical activities as well as willingness to change behaviors among Mexican-American and Mexican immigrant mothers and fathers of school-aged children. Twelve sex-specific focus groups were held in English or Spanish in 2012. Qualitative analysis informed by grounded theory examined parenting styles (ie, authoritative, authoritarian, or permissive), barriers to healthy lifestyle, and parents' stage of change about healthy lifestyles. One third of the 33 participating couples were born in Mexico. The majority of mothers and fathers described being permissive and allowing unhealthy food choices, and a minority of mothers reported more authoritarian approaches to promoting a healthier diet for their children. Mothers were more permissive than fathers about family physical activities and less engaged in these activities. Most mothers and fathers described only contemplating a healthier diet and more physical activity, while wanting their children to have a healthier lifestyle. These data suggest that clinicians need to assess and address differential parental roles when promoting a healthy lifestyle for children. Clinicians should also adopt culturally competent approaches to overcome barriers to parental engagement in diverse aspects of a healthy family lifestyle.

  4. Racial Integration and Learners from Limited Income Families--An Essay for American Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, James B.

    The challenge of educating learners from limited-income families, combined with the challenge of racial integration in the schools, is discussed in this essay. Some learning problems among impoverished children are attributed to segregation, prejudice, and the class-caste system. The inadequacies of segregated schools serving minority groups as…

  5. Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attitudes in Chinese American Families: Interplay of Socioeconomic Status and Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yishan; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of parents' educational attitudes on adolescents' educational attitudes and identified antecedents (i.e., parent education, family income, and parent acculturation), consequences (i.e., academic achievement and engagement), and a potential moderator (i.e., adolescent acculturation) of the transmission…

  6. The Influence of Acculturation on Family Functioning among Hispanic Americans in a Bicultural Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jorge I; Hosch, Harmon M.

    It has been observed that the process of acculturation is a potential source of stress. The population of El Paso-Ciudad Juarez border region of Texas and Mexico can be considered as highly vulnerable to the influence of acculturative stress on family functioning. An empirical study was conducted to investigate the relationship between…

  7. Family and Cultural Predictors of Depression among Samoan American Middle and High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Christine J.; Borrero, Noah E.; Tito, Patsy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated family intergenerational conflict and collective self-esteem as predictors of depression in a sample of 128 Samoan middle and high school students. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed that each independent variable significantly contributed to an overall model that accounted for 13% of the variance in depression.…

  8. Neighborhood & Family Effects on Learning Motivation among Urban African American Middle School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Damiya; Graham, Camelia; Severtson, Stevan Geoffrey; Furr-Holden, C. Debra; Latimer, William

    2012-01-01

    Motivational theorists in psychology have moved away from individual-based approaches to socio-cognitive and socio-ecological models to explain student engagement and motivation for learning. Such approaches consider, for example, the influence of family and neighborhood environments as important constructs in youth behavior. In this study, links…

  9. Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attitudes in Chinese American Families: Interplay of Socioeconomic Status and Acculturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yishan; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of parents' educational attitudes on adolescents' educational attitudes and identified antecedents (i.e., parent education, family income, and parent acculturation), consequences (i.e., academic achievement and engagement), and a potential moderator (i.e., adolescent acculturation) of the transmission…

  10. Facts for Families from the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry [1991].

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Washington, DC.

    Nine fact sheets relevant to children's emotional well-being are presented in this document. The first fact sheet, "Teenagers with Eating Disorders" focuses on anorexia nervosa and bulimia. The second fact sheet, "Children and Grief" describes age-related responses to death, and ways of coping with a death in a family that…

  11. The Experience of Sexual Risk Communication in African American Families Living with HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    Mother-daughter communication plays an influential role in adolescent development. The impact of maternal HIV infection on family communication is not clear. This study explores how living with HIV impacts sexual risk communication between mothers and daughters and whether maternal HIV status influences adolescent choices about engagement in HIV…

  12. Performance on the American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) certification examination: are superior test-taking skills alone sufficient to pass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Thomas R; Royal, Kenneth D; Puffer, James C

    2011-01-01

    Certification examinations used by American specialty boards have been the sine qua non for demonstrating the knowledge sufficient for attainment of board certification in the United States for more than 75 years. Some people contend that the examination is predominantly a test of superior test-taking skills rather than of family medicine decision-making ability. In an effort to explore the validity of this assertion, we administered the American Board of Family Medicine (ABFM) Certification to examinees who had demonstrated proficiency in taking standardized tests but had limited medical knowledge. Four nonphysician experts in the field of measurement and testing were administered one version of the 2009 ABFM certification examination. Scaled scores were calculated for each examinee, and psychometric analyses were performed on the examinees responses to examination items and compared with the performance of physicians who took the same examination. The minimum passing threshold for the examination was a scaled score of 390, corresponding to 57.7% to 61.0% of questions answered correctly, depending on the version of the examination. The 4 nonphysician examinees performed poorly, with scaled scores that ranged from 20 to 160 (mean, 87.5; SD, 57.4). The number of questions answered correctly ranged from 24.0% to 35.1% (mean, 29.2%; SD, 0.05%). Rasch analyses of the examination items revealed that the nonphysician examinees were more likely to use guessing strategies in an effort to answer questions correctly. Distracter analysis suggest near-complete randomness in the nonphysician responses. Though all 4 nonphysician examinees performed better than would have been predicted by chance alone, none performed well enough to even fall within 8 SE below the passing thresholds; their performance was far below that of almost all physicians who completed the examination. Given that the nonphysicians relied heavily on the identifying cues in the phrasing of items and the

  13. Families' experiences of intensive care unit quality of care : Development and validation of a European questionnaire (euroQ2)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Hanne Irene; Gerritsen, Rik T.; Koopmans, Matty; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Curtis, Jared Randall; Ording, Helle

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study is to adapt and provide preliminary validation for questionnaires evaluating families' experiences of quality of care for critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and methods: This study took place in 2 European ICUs. Based on literature a

  14. A combined genome-wide linkage and association approach to find susceptibility loci for platelet function phenotypes in European American and African American families with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Alexander F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inability of aspirin (ASA to adequately suppress platelet aggregation is associated with future risk of coronary artery disease (CAD. Heritability studies of agonist-induced platelet function phenotypes suggest that genetic variation may be responsible for ASA responsiveness. In this study, we leverage independent information from genome-wide linkage and association data to determine loci controlling platelet phenotypes before and after treatment with ASA. Methods Clinical data on 37 agonist-induced platelet function phenotypes were evaluated before and after a 2-week trial of ASA (81 mg/day in 1231 European American and 846 African American healthy subjects with a family history of premature CAD. Principal component analysis was performed to minimize the number of independent factors underlying the covariance of these various phenotypes. Multi-point sib-pair based linkage analysis was performed using a microsatellite marker set, and single-SNP association tests were performed using markers from the Illumina 1 M genotyping chip from deCODE Genetics, Inc. All analyses were performed separately within each ethnic group. Results Several genomic regions appear to be linked to ASA response factors: a 10 cM region in African Americans on chromosome 5q11.2 had several STRs with suggestive (p-value -4 and significant (p-value -5 linkage to post aspirin platelet response to ADP, and ten additional factors had suggestive evidence for linkage (p-value -4 to thirteen genomic regions. All but one of these factors were aspirin response variables. While the strength of genome-wide SNP association signals for factors showing evidence for linkage is limited, especially at the strict thresholds of genome-wide criteria (N = 9 SNPs for 11 factors, more signals were considered significant when the association signal was weighted by evidence for linkage (N = 30 SNPs. Conclusions Our study supports the hypothesis that platelet phenotypes in

  15. Sexual victimization and family violence among urban African American adolescent women: do violence cluster profiles predict partner violence victimization and sex trade exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.

  16. [The representation of alcoholic beverages consumption for adolescents in a Family Health Unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Sinara de Lima; Ferriani, Maria das Graças Carvalho; Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Gomes, Romeu; Souza, Tatiana Costa

    2010-05-01

    Alcoholic beverages consumption by adolescents is a global problem with repercussion on different social sectors. However, the reasons that cause this behavior are still little studied. This qualitative research aimed to understand the socially constructed representations of adolescents about the consumption of alcoholic beverages, in a Family Health Unit in the city of Feira de Santana, state of Bahia, Brazil. Subjects were twenty-one adolescents of both genders. Observation, focus groups and semi-structured interviews were used for data collection, followed by interpretation of meanings as data analysis. Results showed that this practice represents "to drink much", which is close to the concept of binge drinking and "to be in the group", evidencing the socializing character of drinking. It also means a rite of passage. Among the factors that influence this representation, adults' attitudes to alcohol, especially the father and media, are highlighted. It is concluded that this substance represents a symbolic capital, with contradictions regarding the issue, precariousness of protective factors and existence of vulnerability factors. Rethinking adolescent-targeted and alcohol-related public policies is needed.

  17. Factors that Influence Career Choice among Native American and African American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett-Smith, Keisha K.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for research in the area of career choice of minority students in the United States. This descriptive study examined the factors that may influence Native American and African American high school students' career choices. These factors include such variables as parental educational level, family composition, and potential grade…

  18. The African-American Family in Slavery and Emancipation, by Wilma Dunaway: Review Essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Bush

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This is an explosive book, iconoclastic, myth-shattering, and profound. But it is also fine tuned and rich in detail, the work of a master (no pun intended craftswoman. You have simply got to read this book. Wilma Dunaway has issued a provocative rebuttal to those who have argued that slaveholders rarely broke-up enslaved African families; that slaves were adequately fed, clothed, and sheltered; and that slave health or death risks were no greater than those experienced by white adults. According to Dunaway these weaknesses in much scholarly research stem from a flawed view of the slave family, scholarly neglect of small plantations, limited analysis of Upper South enslavement, and academic exaggeration of slave agency. Dunaway’s study relies largely on her analysis of slave narratives.

  19. American Sign Language and Contemporary Deaf Studies in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Timothy

    1986-01-01

    Major works on the history, structure, and teaching of American Sign Language (ASL) in the last quarter-century are reviewed, and studies of the culture of the deaf are outlined. Research on the linguistic nature of ASL is highlighted, and some attention is given to British Sign Language. (Author/MSE)

  20. Teaching America's Past to Our Newest Americans: Immigrant Students and United States History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Kerry A.; Martell, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    At one high school outside of Boston, most students look forward to their daily American history class. They love their teacher's regular pop culture references and arrive ready to participate in the lively and contentious debates. Yet, despite Almira's fondness for the teacher and deep commitment to academic success, this class causes her more…

  1. Coresidence and Resistance: Strategies for Survival among Undocumented Mexicans and Central Americans in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Leo R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines variation in coresidence among undocumented Mexican and Central American immigrants in San Diego (California). Proposes that by creatively forming and reforming coresident groups, undocumented immigrants use social organization strategically and effectively as a resource to assist them in their struggle to live and work in the United…

  2. Efficacy of HIV/STI behavioral interventions for heterosexual African American men in the United States: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Kirk D; Crepaz, Nicole; Lyles, Cynthia M; Marshall, Khiya J; Aupont, Latrina W; Jacobs, Elizabeth D; Liau, Adrian; Rama, Sima; Kay, Linda S; Willis, Leigh A; Charania, Mahnaz R

    2012-07-01

    This meta-analysis estimates the overall efficacy of HIV prevention interventions to reduce HIV sexual risk behaviors and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among heterosexual African American men. A comprehensive search of the literature published during 1988-2008 yielded 44 relevant studies. Interventions significantly reduced HIV sexual risk behaviors and STIs. The stratified analysis for HIV sexual risk behaviors indicated that interventions were efficacious for studies specifically targeting African American men and men with incarceration history. In addition, interventions that had provision/referral of medical services, male facilitators, shorter follow-up periods, or emphasized the importance of protecting family and significant others were associated with reductions in HIV sexual risk behaviors. Meta-regression analyses indicated that the most robust intervention component is the provision/referral of medical services. Findings indicate that HIV interventions for heterosexual African American men might be more efficacious if they incorporated a range of health care services rather than HIV/STI-related services alone.

  3. Girlhood in America: An Encyclopedia. Volumes 1 and 2. The American Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman-Brunell, Miriam, Ed.

    Girls, who used to be second-class citizens, are now coming into their own. Still, girls' lives, their experiences, and their roles in the social, cultural, economic, and political history of the United States have been widely overlooked. This reference encyclopedia presents more than 100 signed articles by 98 high-profile interdisciplinary…

  4. Empowering family members in end-of-life care decision making in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Annette M

    2009-01-01

    Critical care nurses are often faced with working with families during the end-of-life care of a loved one. Often there is indecisiveness in family members of critically ill patients when faced with making these difficult decisions. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe origins of indecisiveness in family members of critically ill patients who are faced with end-of-life care decisions. Strategies to empower family members during this crucial time are also discussed.

  5. Japanese Bereaved Family Members' Perspectives of Palliative Care Units and Palliative Care: J-HOPE Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Satomi; Miyashita, Mitsunori; Morita, Tatsuya; Sato, Kazuki; Shoji, Ayaka; Chiba, Yurika; Miyazaki, Tamana; Tsuneto, Satoru; Shima, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    The study purpose was to understand the perspectives of bereaved family members regarding palliative care unit (PCU) and palliative care and to compare perceptions of PCU before admission and after bereavement. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted, and the perceptions of 454 and 424 bereaved family members were obtained regarding PCU and palliative care, respectively. Family members were significantly more likely to have positive perceptions after bereavement (ranging from 73% to 80%) compared to before admission (ranging from 62% to 71%). Bereaved family members who were satisfied with medical care in the PCU had a positive perception of the PCU and palliative care after bereavement. Respondents younger than 65 years of age were significantly more likely to have negative perceptions of PCU and palliative care.

  6. The opportunity costs of informal elder-care in the United States: new estimates from the American Time Use Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chari, Amalavoyal V; Engberg, John; Ray, Kristin N; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2015-06-01

    To provide nationally representative estimates of the opportunity costs of informal elder-care in the United States. Data from the 2011 and 2012 American Time Use Survey. Wage is used as the measure of an individual's value of time (opportunity cost), with wages being imputed for nonworking individuals using a selection-corrected regression methodology. The total opportunity costs of informal elder-care amount to $522 billion annually, while the costs of replacing this care by unskilled and skilled paid care are $221 billion and $642 billion, respectively. Informal caregiving remains a significant phenomenon in the United States with a high opportunity cost, although it remains more economical (in the aggregate) than skilled paid care. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  7. Diabetes-specific genetic effects on obesity traits in American Indian populations: the Strong Heart Family Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Barbara V

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body fat mass distribution and deposition are determined by multiple environmental and genetic factors. Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and type 2 diabetes. We previously identified evidence for genotype-by-diabetes interaction on obesity traits in Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS participants. To localize these genetic effects, we conducted genome-wide linkage scans of obesity traits in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes, and in the combined sample while modeling interaction with diabetes using maximum likelihood methods (SOLAR 2.1.4. Methods SHFS recruited American Indians from Arizona, North and South Dakota, and Oklahoma. Anthropometric measures and diabetes status were obtained during a clinic visit. Marker allele frequencies were derived using maximum likelihood methods estimated from all individuals and multipoint identity by descent sharing was estimated using Loki. We used variance component linkage analysis to localize quantitative trait loci (QTLs influencing obesity traits. We tested for evidence of additive and QTL-specific genotype-by-diabetes interactions using the regions identified in the diabetes-stratified analyses. Results Among 245 diabetic and 704 non-diabetic American Indian individuals, we detected significant additive gene-by-diabetes interaction for weight and BMI (P P Conclusion These results suggest distinct genetic effects on body mass in individuals with diabetes compared to those without diabetes, and a possible role for one or more genes on chromosome 1 in the pathogenesis of obesity.

  8. American Indian grand families: a qualitative study conducted with grandmothers and grandfathers who provide sole care for their grandchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Suzanne L; Day, Angelique G; Byers, Lisa G

    2010-12-01

    A qualitative study was conducted to determine the rationale for 31 American Indian grandparents' who provide sole care of their grandchildren, the impact of historical trauma on their decision making process in accessing services, the value of American Indian Child Welfare policies in addressing care issues, and custody status of the grand families. Indian Outreach Workers, Community Health Representatives, Elder Program Directors, and tribal community leaders were key in the recruitment of participants. The grandparents were informed of the purpose of the study and participated in face-to-face, paper and pencil, individual interviews. The subjects included 29 grandmothers and two grandfathers; age 43-86 years, with 20 who lived off reservation land and 11 who lived on reservation land in Michigan. A phenomenological approach of the "world of the lived experience" informed the design of the study. The researchers recorded the subjects' responses via field notes, conducted a comparison of responses to assess internal reliability, and entered the responses into the qualitative data analysis Nvivo program. Findings included; (1) reasons for providing sole care of grandchildren (2) stressors and rewards of providing sole care (3) grandparents decisions affected by historical traumas which focused on the boarding school issues and the removal of children from their homes due to cultural differences causing a reluctance to seek and access national and state programs (4) grandparents preference was to seek and access services provided by their Tribal Nations, and/or American Indian urban agencies (5) most lacked legal custodial status which is an indicator the grandparents' may have benefited from knowledge of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA).

  9. Family functioning as a mediator between neighborhood conditions and children's health: evidence from a national survey in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yingling; Chen, Qian

    2012-06-01

    This study examines whether the associations between neighborhood conditions and children's health can be indirect and operate through aspects of family functioning. We use data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health in the United States with the interviewed parents/guardians as the only source of the data. Our study sample includes 53,023 children aged between 6 and 17 years. Using structural equation modeling, we test both direct and indirect relationships between a family functioning index, a general indicator of children's health status, and three neighborhood factors: neighborhood physical resources, environmental threats, and collective efficacy. Covariates in the analysis include gender, age, income, race, family structure, parental education, and health insurance coverage. All the three neighborhood factors show direct associations with children's general health status, as well as indirect associations mediated by aspects of family functioning. Among the three neighborhood factors, collective efficacy and environmental threats are found to have much stronger associations with children's general health than physical resources. When designing health-promoting neighborhoods for children and families, it may be more efficient for urban planners and health professionals to focus on community programs that reduce environmental stressors and foster neighborhood cohesion than programs that solely improve physical infrastructure. This study also verifies that aspects of family functioning mediate the associations between neighborhood conditions and children's health. It is recommended that both family and neighborhood are critical points for child health intervention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of Filial Responsibility, Ethnicity, and Acculturation Among Japanese American Family Caregivers of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2017-03-01

    Challenges of filial caregiving practices by 1st-generation immigrants due to differences in caregiving values between their home and host countries are well documented. This study explored the filial responsibility of later generation Japanese American caregivers of older adults. Acculturation and filial responsibility were measured using the Suinn-Lew Asian Self Identity Acculturation scale and Filial Values Index, respectively. A qualitative interview guide was developed using Gordon's assimilation theory, and 21 caregivers ( M age = 68 years, 86% female, seven in each generation) were interviewed. Despite the 3rd-generation caregivers' high acculturation level, their filial responsibility scores remained high. Qualitative interviews also revealed later generation caregivers' strong filial responsibility and continued caregiving involvement. Unexpectedly, caregivers' own future expectancy of care included placement in mainstream residential facilities rather than ethnic-specific settings. Findings point to the need to develop caregiver services that consider later generation caregivers' culture and level of assimilation.

  11. United States Security Assistance Training of Latin American Militaries: Intentions and Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Guatemalan efforts were in opposition to subversion of the Partido Guatemalteco de Trabajo (PGT), or the communist party. The PGT had received some...Training School Noncommissioned Officer Organization of American States Partido Guatemalteco de Trabajo (Guatemalan Communist Party) Peace Keeping...los Derechos Humanos en Colombia y el Papel del Gobierno y las Fuerzas Armadas para su Defensa," Military Review. (Hispanic Edition) 60-82. (April

  12. United States Army Counter Partisan Operations in Northern Virginia During the American Civil War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    24 Stephen A. Carney, The Occupation of Mexico: May 1846-July 1848, The U.S. Army Campaigns of the Mexican-American War. U.S. Army Center for...48 Anthony J. Joes, America and Guerrilla Warfare (Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2004), 55. 49 Stephen C. Neff, Justice in Blue and...Resource, 2002. Bonan, Gordon B. Edge of Mosby’s Sword: The Life of Lieutenant Colonel William Henry Chapman . Carbondale: Southern Illinois University

  13. Epidemiology of Ehrlichiosis and Anaplasmosis among American Indians in the United States, 2000–2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folkema, Arianne M.; Holman, Robert C.; Dahlgren, F. Scott; Cheek, James E.; McQuiston, Jennifer H.

    2012-01-01

    Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis infections among American Indians (AIs) have never been specifically examined, despite high rates of other tick-borne rickettsial diseases among AIs. The epidemiology of ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis among AIs was analyzed using the National Electronic Telecommunications System for Surveillance (NETSS), Case Report Forms (CRFs), and Indian Health Service (IHS) inpatient and outpatient visits. The 2000–2007 average annual ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis incidence among AIs reported to NETSS was almost 4-fold lower (4.0/1,000,000) than that using IHS data (14.9). American Indian cases reported from CRFs had a higher proportion of hospitalization (44%) compared with IHS (10%). American Indian incidence of ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis was higher and showed a different age and geographical distribution than other races. These results highlight the need to improve collaboration between the ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis surveillance systems for AIs so as to develop interventions that target the unique epidemiology and mitigate the burden of disease among this high-risk population. PMID:22826495

  14. [Prenatal care and birth weight: an analysis in the context of family health basic units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Dixis Figueroa; Rocha, Ana Carolina Dantas; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão

    2013-08-01

    To characterize prenatal care and to evaluate the association of its adequacy with maternal, socioeconomic and environmental sanitation characteristics, as well as the influence of these factors on the birth weight of the children. The eligible population for the study consisted of all women who had children during 2009 and lived in the city of Queimadas at the time of data collection. Information was collected with a questionnaire applied to the mothers in Family Health Basic Units or in their residence. The prenatal care adequacy index (outcome variable) was defined as adequate when the mother attended six or more prenatal visits and began monitoring during the first trimester of pregnancy (inadequate prenatal care and a multiple linear regression model was used to estimate the effect of adequacy of prenatal care and maternal, socioeconomic and environmental sanitation variables on birth weight. The statistical program used was Rv2.10.0, with the level of significance set at p prenatal care. After adjustment for other predictors, maternal age of 19 years or less remained as an explanatory variable of inadequate prenatal care (OR 4.27, 95%CI 1.10 - 15.89). Even after controlling for variables, child's birth weight was negatively associated with water supply from a well/spring and burnt/buried garbage, accounting for weight reductions of the order of 563.8, 262.0 and 951.9 g, respectively. Adequate prenatal care can alleviate the influence of socioeconomic disparities related to health care. Even in this situation, teenage mothers are more likely to receive inadequate prenatal care and low birth weight is favored by improper sanitation conditions (such as water supply and garbage disposal).

  15. Basic real immunization coverage for the first year of life in a Family Health Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Magalhães Villela Carneiro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate basic immunization coverage for the first year of life in a family health unit in Maceio, Alagoas, Brazil. Methods: it was a cross-sectional study. Sixty six children from 12 to 24 months old were included. All parents or answerable persons for the children undergone to an interview. Additional data were collected from immunization cards for each child. Basic immunization coverage was considered complete when children received immunization on adequate age and intervals. Categorical variables were disposed in proportions. Mean and standard deviation were calculated for numeral variables. Differences between appropriate and inappropriate vacinal coverage groups were measured through Pearson’s qui-square (p < 0.05. Results: We obtained a sample of 66 children, of whom 24,2% (n = 16 completed the basic immunization schedule. The average number of residents was 4,7 ± 1,8, while the averege number of siblngs was 1,0 ± 1,0. It was found that 75,8% (n = 50 of children were part of the C2 or D. The average age of the person responsible was 30,53 ± 11 ranging from 16 to 62 years. Conclusion: The coverage for each of vaccines was always greater than the coverage for theentire scheme. It was found that a significant portion of children in this research did not receive all recommended doses, at ages appropriate and corret intervals. Therefore, the init needs to improve it’s technical procedures, and administrative in order to ensure full immunization coverage in due course.

  16. Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low-income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skala, Katherine; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Evans, Alexandra; Hedberg, Ann-Marie; Dave, Jayna; Sharma, Shreela

    2012-12-01

    The family and home environment are important in shaping the dietary patterns of children, yet research among low-income, minority groups is limited. We examined ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental practices among 706 low-income, African-American and Hispanic families of preschoolers. Questionnaires measured the access and availability of various foods in the home, parental practices, and meal consumption behaviors. Mixed model logistic regression and ANCOVA were used to assess ethnic differences. Unhealthy foods were available for both groups. Hispanic families were more likely to have fresh vegetables (AOR = 2.9, P ≤ 0.001), fruit (AOR = 2.0, P = 0.004), and soda available (AOR = 1.40, P = 0.001) compared to African-Americans. African-Americans families were more likely to restrict (AOR = 0.63, P ≤ 0.001) and reward with dessert (AOR = 0.69, P ≤ 0.001). Hispanic families consumed more family meals together (P = 0.003) and less meals in front of the television (P ≤ 0.006). Health promotion interventions should consider the behavioral differences between ethnicities.

  17. Extended family and friendship support networks are both protective and risk factors for major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms among African-Americans and black Caribbeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chae, David H; Lincoln, Karen D; Chatters, Linda M

    2015-02-01

    This study explores relationships between lifetime and 12-month Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) major depressive disorder (MDD), depressive symptoms, and involvement with family and friends within a national sample of African-American and Black Caribbean adults (n = 5191). MDD was assessed using the DSM-IV World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview and depressive symptoms were assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression subscale and the K6. Findings indicated that among both populations, close supportive ties with family members and friends are associated with lower rates of depression and MDD. For African-Americans, closeness to family members was important for both 12-month and lifetime MDD, and both family and friend closeness were important for depressive symptoms. For Caribbean Blacks, family closeness had more limited associations with outcomes and was directly associated with psychological distress only. Negative interactions with family (conflict, criticisms), however, were associated with higher MDD and depressive symptoms among both African-Americans and Black Caribbeans.

  18. Homosexuality, Religion, and the Family: The Effects of Religion on Americans' Appraisals of the Parenting Abilities of Same-Sex Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Andrew L

    2017-03-23

    While a growing body of research focuses on Americans' attitudes toward same-sex couples as parents, very few include measures of religion and those that do fail to capture its multidimensional nature. Furthermore, many past studies rely on convenience samples of college students, or samples gathered outside the United States. Multivariate analyses of the 2012 General Social Survey-a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States-reveal that a slim majority of Americans still do not believe same-sex couples can parent as well as male-female couples and the religious beliefs, behaviors, and affiliations of Americans are significantly and at times differentially associated with appraisals of same-sex couples' parenting abilities. It appears that while religion is generally associated with more negative appraisals of the parenting abilities of same-sex couples, it is not uniformly so. Americans' immediate religious and cultural context can shape their appraisals of homosexuality in diverse ways.

  19. Characteristics of Mexican American Elders Admitted to Skilled Nursing Facilities in the United States: Data from the Hispanic EPESE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espino, David V.; Angel, Jaqueline L.; Wood, Robert C.; Finely, M. Rosina; Ye, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the current study is to describe the factors associated with Mexican American elders who have spent time in a SNF compared to those who have not in the Southwestern United States. Design Data were collected on the Mexican American elders who reported a SNF stay within 10 years of baseline. Participants A probability sample of 3050 Mexican American elders from five Southwestern states followed from 1993 to 2005 were examined. Measures Variables examined included socio-demographics, language of interview, disabilities with Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADLs), Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), selfreported health, cognitive status and depression. Results A total of 78 (3.9%) out of 2020 subjects resided in SNF’s. Using univariate analyses older age, English-language interview, poorer cognitive status, and functional disabilities were independently associated with Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) admissions. Logistic regression analyses controlling for age reveal that SNF patients were older (OR =1.08, p=0.001), have an ADL disability (OR=4.94, p<0.001), scored in the Geriatric Depression Scale depressed range (OR=2.72, p=0.001) and were more likely to interview in English (OR=1.95, p=0.042), when compared to community counterparts. Conclusions Mexican American elders resided in a SNF at some point in the previous ten years were older and more likely to be functionally impaired. They also were more likely to prefer English as their primary language indicating they were more likely to agree to a SNF stay than their Spanish speaking counterparts. PMID:23352979

  20. Empowering Head Start African American and Latino Families: Promoting Strengths-Based Parenting Characteristics through Child Parent Relationship Training--An Evidence-Based Group Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheely-Moore, Angela I.; Ceballos, Peggy L.

    2011-01-01

    With the tendency of low-income African American and Latino children identified at-risk for school readiness and school success compared to their early-childhood counterparts, Head Start personnel are challenged to examine the role of family strengths in the promotion of academic success for these populations. This article provides a rationale for…