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  1. Major Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Latin America: A Comparison with the United States. The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirinos, Julio A.; Gómez, Luis F.; Perel, Pablo; Pichardo, Rafael; González, Angel; Sánchez, José R.; Ferreccio, Catterina; Aguilera, Ximena; Silva, Eglé; Oróstegui, Myriam; Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Pérez, Cynthia M.; Suárez, Erick; Ortiz, Ana P.; Rosero, Luis; Schapochnik, Noberto; Ortiz, Zulma; Ferrante, Daniel; Casas, Juan P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited knowledge on the prevalence and distribution of risk factors impairs the planning and implementation of cardiovascular prevention programs in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region. Methods and Findings Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, abnormal lipoprotein levels, obesity, and smoking were estimated from individual-level patient data pooled from population-based surveys (1998–2007, n = 31,009) from eight LAC countries and from a national survey of the United States (US) population (1999–2004) Age and gender specific prevalence were estimated and age-gender adjusted comparisons between both populations were conducted. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in LAC were 5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 3.4, 7.9), 20.2% (95% CI: 12.5, 31), and 53.3% (95% CI: 47, 63.4), respectively. Compared to LAC region’s average, the prevalence of each risk factor tended to be lower in Peru and higher in Chile. LAC women had higher prevalence of obesity and low HDL-cholesterol than men. Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were more prevalent in the US population than in LAC population (31 vs. 16.1%, 16.8 vs. 8.9%, and 36.2 vs. 26.5%, respectively). However, the prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol was higher in LAC than in the US (53.3 vs. 33.7%). Conclusions Major cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in LAC region, in particular low HDL-cholesterol. In addition, marked differences do exist in this prevalence profile between LAC and the US. The observed patterns of obesity-related risk factors and their current and future impact on the burden of cardiovascular diseases remain to be explained. PMID:23349785

  2. Major cardiovascular risk factors in Latin America: a comparison with the United States. The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jaime Miranda

    Full Text Available Limited knowledge on the prevalence and distribution of risk factors impairs the planning and implementation of cardiovascular prevention programs in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC region.Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, abnormal lipoprotein levels, obesity, and smoking were estimated from individual-level patient data pooled from population-based surveys (1998-2007, n=31,009 from eight LAC countries and from a national survey of the United States (US population (1999-2004 Age and gender specific prevalence were estimated and age-gender adjusted comparisons between both populations were conducted. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol in LAC were 5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 3.4, 7.9, 20.2% (95% CI: 12.5, 31, and 53.3% (95% CI: 47, 63.4, respectively. Compared to LAC region's average, the prevalence of each risk factor tended to be lower in Peru and higher in Chile. LAC women had higher prevalence of obesity and low HDL-cholesterol than men. Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were more prevalent in the US population than in LAC population (31 vs. 16.1%, 16.8 vs. 8.9%, and 36.2 vs. 26.5%, respectively. However, the prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol was higher in LAC than in the US (53.3 vs. 33.7%.Major cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in LAC region, in particular low HDL-cholesterol. In addition, marked differences do exist in this prevalence profile between LAC and the US. The observed patterns of obesity-related risk factors and their current and future impact on the burden of cardiovascular diseases remain to be explained.

  3. Ten major trends now emerging in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naisbitt, J.

    1978-01-01

    Using a special analytical procedure for tracking and assessing events reported in the nation's newspapers, the Center for Policy Process has identified ten emerging trends in the United States that are having a major impact on all our lives and on all businesses and industries--and especially on the electric utility industry. Although the trends may move in contradictory directions and have different degrees of significance, all have been carefully monitored for a considerable length of time. All are firmly established--and are not to be viewed as the momentary interests of certain radical elements of the population. The ten trends are: the fast-emerging clash between nuclear fuel and coal as an environmental health issue; displacement of racism and sexism by ''ageism'' as society's most prominent anti-discrimination preoccupation, and the complete elimination soon of mandatory retirement; in government and technology, the phenomenon of ''appropriate scale'' replacing economies of scale, emergence of single-issue political organizations; coming-of-age of the recycling ethic; emergence of ''access to capital'' as the new equity issue--the new rights issue; continuing shift from centralization to decentralization; movement of society in the dual directions of high technology/high touch; business' increasing involvement with the well-established accountability trend; and shift from a representative democracy to a participatory democracy--this profound change in American democracy actually began about a decade or so ago.

  4. Future forest aboveground carbon dynamics in the central United States: the importance of forest demographic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenchi Jin; Hong S. He; Frank R. Thompson; Wen J. Wang; Jacob S. Fraser; Stephen R. Shifley; Brice B. Hanberry; William D. Dijak

    2017-01-01

    The Central Hardwood Forest (CHF) in the United States is currently a major carbon sink, there are uncertainties in how long the current carbon sink will persist and if the CHF will eventually become a carbon source. We used a multi-model ensemble to investigate aboveground carbon density of the CHF from 2010 to 2300 under current climate. Simulations were done using...

  5. Professionalism in Public Relations Pedagogy: A Comparative Analysis of Public Relations Curricula among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong

    2012-01-01

    Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…

  6. Climatology and Meteorological Evolution of Major Wildfire Events over the Northeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph B. Pollina; Brian A. Colle; Joseph J. Charney

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a spatial and temporal climatology of major wildfire events, defined as >100 acres burned (>40.47 ha, where 1 ha = 2.47 acre), in the northeast United States from 1999 to 2009 and the meteorological conditions associated with these events. The northeast United States is divided into two regions: region 1 is centered over the higher terrain of...

  7. Major alternatives for government policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify and assess major alternatives for governmental policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management in the United States. The National Academy of Public Administration agreed to identify and evaluate alternatives for governmental policies, organizational structures, and actions in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management. It agreed to review present policies and practices in civilian nuclear reactor emergency management, to review selected experiences and practices of governmental agencies other than the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, and industries other than the nuclear power industry, and to identify alternatives to the present nuclear emergency system

  8. Soil Patterns Associated with the Major Geological Units of the Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Venter

    1986-11-01

    Full Text Available The dominant soil types of the Kruger National Park and their interrelationships with parent material, topography and climate are discussed. The geogenetic and topogenetic nature of the soils are manifested in the strong correlations between recurrent soil patterns, major geological units and terrain morphology. The soils are categorised into seven major classes on the basis of the parent material from which they developed. General soil patterns within the major classes are discussed.

  9. Sustainability of egg production in the United States--the policy and market context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mench, J A; Sumner, D A; Rosen-Molina, J T

    2011-01-01

    The US egg industry is being pressured from many directions to change its production practices, particularly to address concerns about hen welfare in conventional cage systems. Responding to similar pressures, in 1999, the European Union banned conventional laying cages starting in 2012. This now impending European ban has led to the development of several alternative housing systems. These include noncage systems like aviaries and modified (enriched or furnished) cages that include perches, areas in which the hens can forage and dustbathe, and nests. Understanding the European experience is valuable as the United States considers the future direction of the egg industry. In the United States, the proportion of eggs produced in alternative systems is small (less than 5% of output) but growing, in part due to market and political incentives for systems that provide hens with more behavioral freedom than conventional cages. Animal welfare, however, is only one element of a sustainable production system. Other elements include those related to public values, the environment, economics, worker health, and food safety and quality. Eggs are a primary source of animal protein globally, and the United States is the third largest producer of eggs in the world, behind China and the European Union. The national table egg flock comprises about 280 million hens housed in all regions but with approximately 60% of eggs produced in the 10 leading states. Adopting new housing systems will have substantial effects on costs and other aspects of egg production on both a regional and national scale, with some positive effects but also potential negative effects that need to be carefully considered. This paper discusses the US egg industry in the context of legislation and standards related to hen housing systems. It also addresses initiatives by retailers, nongovernmental organizations, and private certification organizations to shape production practices in the egg industry as well as

  10. Alcohol-impaired driving and its consequences in the United States: the past 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan F

    2006-01-01

    Progress in dealing with the alcohol-impaired driving problem in the United States during the past 25 years is addressed. Trends in various measures of the problem were tracked and a thorough review of the relevant literature conducted. In the 1980s and continuing into the early 1990s, major decreases occurred in alcohol-impaired driving and its consequences. The contribution of alcohol to fatal crashes dropped by 35-40% during this period. Two primary reasons for the decline appear to be the emergence of citizen activist groups that mobilized public support and attention to the problem, and the proliferation of effective laws. Since about 1995 the alcohol-impaired driving problem has stabilized at a reduced but still quite high level. Highway safety organizations and citizen activist groups have continued to highlight the problem, but its status as a social issue has diminished. We basically know what the primary target groups are, and we know measures that would work to reduce the problem if implemented more fully. We know that political leadership, state task forces, and media advocacy are important ingredients in addressing the problem. It is likely that a resurgence in citizen activism will be necessary to foster these elements and refocus the nation on the unfinished battle against alcohol-impaired driving. Alcohol-impaired driving is still a major problem that needs continuing attention.

  11. Family Planning Policy in the United States: The Converging Politics of Abortion and Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Abigail R.A.; Scott, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Following decades of mainstream bipartisan support, contraception has re-emerged as a controversial political issue in the United States. At the same time, opposition to abortion has intensified. State legislatures across the country have enacted highly visible policies limiting access to family planning. Perhaps the most striking example occurred in 2011 in Texas, when legislators instituted unprecedented requirements on abortion providers and cut public funding for contraception by two-thirds. Yet despite popular interpretations of this phenomenon as a simple byproduct of increasing partisan divisions, little is understood about the factors underlying such policy shifts. Study Design We fit Bayesian ideal-point models to analyze correlation patterns in record-vote data in the Texas House of Representatives in the 2003 and 2011 Legislatures. Both sessions had large Republican majorities and saw the passage of restrictive abortion bills, but they differed markedly with respect to public funding for contraception. Results We demonstrate that variation in voting on family-planning issues cannot be fully attributed to partisanship in either session. However, the politics of abortion and contraception have converged over time, and—at least for Democrats—the correlation between constituency characteristics and voting behavior on family-planning legislation is markedly higher in 2011 than in 2003. These shifts have been partly driven by legislators from high-poverty, majority Latino districts near the U.S.-Mexico border. Conclusions Recent dramatic shifts in family-planning policy go beyond simple partisan divisions. As the politics of abortion and contraception have converged, policies that are increasingly hostile to reproductive health and that disproportionately affect low-income minority women have emerged. PMID:26794846

  12. Family planning policy in the United States: the converging politics of abortion and contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Abigail R A; Scott, James G

    2016-05-01

    Following decades of mainstream bipartisan support, contraception has reemerged as a controversial political issue in the United States. At the same time, opposition to abortion has intensified. State legislatures across the country have enacted highly visible policies limiting access to family planning. Perhaps the most striking example occurred in 2011 in Texas, when legislators instituted unprecedented requirements on abortion providers and cut public funding for contraception by two thirds. Yet, despite popular interpretations of this phenomenon as a simple byproduct of increasing partisan divisions, little is understood about the factors underlying such policy shifts. We fit Bayesian ideal-point models to analyze correlation patterns in record-vote data in the Texas House of Representatives in the 2003 and 2011 Legislatures. Both sessions had large Republican majorities and saw the passage of restrictive abortion bills, but they differed markedly with respect to public funding for contraception. We demonstrate that variation in voting on family-planning issues cannot be fully attributed to partisanship in either session. However, the politics of abortion and contraception have converged over time, and - at least for Democrats - the correlation between constituency characteristics and voting behavior on family-planning legislation is markedly higher in 2011 than in 2003. These shifts have been partly driven by legislators from high-poverty, majority Latino districts near the US-Mexico border. Recent dramatic shifts in family-planning policy go beyond simple partisan divisions. As the politics of abortion and contraception have converged, policies that are increasingly hostile to reproductive health and that disproportionately affect low-income minority women have emerged. Recent shifts in family-planning policy restrict women's access to contraception and abortion, yet little research has examined why such shifts are occurring. This paper analyzes factors

  13. Seismic design criteria and their application to major hazard plant within the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderson, M.A.H.G.

    1982-12-01

    The nature of seismic motions and the implications are briefly described and the development of seismic design criteria for nuclear power plants in various countries is described including possible future developments. The seismicity of the United Kingdom is briefly reviewed leading to the present position on seismic design criteria for nuclear power plants within the United Kingdom. Damage from past destructive earthquakes is reviewed and the existing codes of practice and standards are described. Finally the effect of earthquakes on major hazard plant is discussed in general terms including the seismic analysis of a typical plant item. (author)

  14. Respiratory health equality in the United States. The American thoracic society perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celedón, Juan C; Roman, Jesse; Schraufnagel, Dean E; Thomas, Alvin; Samet, Jonathan

    2014-05-01

    Because the frequency of major risk factors for respiratory diseases (e.g., tobacco use) differs across demographic groups (defined by socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, health care access, occupation, or other characteristics), health disparities are commonly encountered in pediatric and adult pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine. As part of its policy on respiratory health disparities, the American Thoracic Society (ATS) Executive Committee created a Health Equality Subcommittee of the Health Policy Committee, with an initial mandate of defining respiratory health equality and, as a subsequent task, providing recommendations to the ATS leadership as to how our society may help attain such equality in the United States. After receiving input from the ATS assemblies and committees, the subcommittee developed this document on respiratory health equality. This document defines respiratory health disparities and respiratory health equality, and expands on a recent ATS and European Respiratory Society policy statement on disparities in respiratory health. Attainment of respiratory health equality requires the ending of respiratory health disparities, which can be achieved only through multidisciplinary efforts to eliminate detrimental environmental exposures while promoting a healthy lifestyle, implementing all components of high-quality health care (prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment), and conducting research that will lead to better prevention and management of respiratory diseases for everyone. The ATS recognizes that such efforts must include all stakeholders: members of society at large, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and other professional societies. The ATS urges all of its members and those of sister societies to work to achieve this laudable goal.

  15. Nonpoint and Point Sources of Nitrogen in Major Watersheds of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Larry J.

    1994-01-01

    Estimates of nonpoint and point sources of nitrogen were made for 107 watersheds located in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program study units throughout the conterminous United States. The proportions of nitrogen originating from fertilizer, manure, atmospheric deposition, sewage, and industrial sources were found to vary with climate, hydrologic conditions, land use, population, and physiography. Fertilizer sources of nitrogen are proportionally greater in agricultural areas of the West and the Midwest than in other parts of the Nation. Animal manure contributes large proportions of nitrogen in the South and parts of the Northeast. Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen is generally greatest in areas of greatest precipitation, such as the Northeast. Point sources (sewage and industrial) generally are predominant in watersheds near cities, where they may account for large proportions of the nitrogen in streams. The transport of nitrogen in streams increases as amounts of precipitation and runoff increase and is greatest in the Northeastern United States. Because no single nonpoint nitrogen source is dominant everywhere, approaches to control nitrogen must vary throughout the Nation. Watershed-based approaches to understanding nonpoint and point sources of contamination, as used by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program, will aid water-quality and environmental managers to devise methods to reduce nitrogen pollution.

  16. Nuclear engineering education in the United States: The first 50 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: This paper will discuss recent trends in the nuclear engineering education infrastructure in the United States. In the last several years political, economic and technical issues have been addressed and nuclear technology appears poised to resume growing again. It is in this new environment that there has been a confluence of industry, government and academic interests to see that nuclear engineering education retains its vitality and ability to provide technological leadership and a well-educated workforce. In order to understand the current situation it is important to give a brief historical perspective covering the six decades since the inception of 'Atoms for Peace' in 1953. The passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 established the Atomic Energy Commission and the declassification of much nuclear technology and scientific material. There was an understandable optimistic outlook as to the potential for nuclear technology in the areas of power, medicine and other industrial and scientific applications. There were commercial concepts for using nuclear energy to power ships, planes, rockets, and cars. But the must successful application, by far was in the area of electric power production. In only a few years demonstration nuclear power plants were built and the infamous quote - 'two cheap to meter' was reported. In the following decade much progress was made and commercial plant orders increased substantially in number and in size. There were going to light water reactors, gas cooled reactors, liquid metal fast reactors, reprocessing, waste buried in salt mines. There was going to be 'a 1000 reactors in the year 2000'. This was the picture in the United States in the 50's and 60's. And it was in this environment that nuclear engineering education was birthed and grew. The first nuclear engineering academic programs and university research reactors were established in the 1950's at such places as North Carolina State, MIT, Penn State and others

  17. The case for SAR as the major component of a hyperthermia treatment unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    A major problem facing clinical hyperthermia is the lack of a useful unit of treatment. Most attempts at a treatment unit have utilized some function of temperature and time. Having accepted the validity of such a hypothetical units, one is faced with the formidable problem of obtaining a three dimensional temperature profile so that thermal dose can be determined. A corollary is the desirability of obtaining uniform temperature in the treatment volume. Various studies suggest that a uniform SAR is a more desirable goal when radiotherapy is to be used in combination with hyperthermia. The synergy between radiation and hyperthermia is maximized in low pH regions of tumor which are presumably also hypoxic. These regions are poorly perfused, likely to heat readily, and are resistant to the cytotoxic effects of radiation alone. On the other hand, well perfused regions of tumor are likely sensitive to radiation, and benefit less from the combination treatment. Other studies have definitely shown that tissue temperatures in the range normally associated with desirable hyperthermia treatment result in severe vascular damage. This damage could be expected to unnecessarily compromise the effectiveness of radiotherapy. Models in the literature can be combined to verify these observations

  18. The independent nuclear state. The United States, Britain and the military atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.

    1983-01-01

    A chronological account and overview are presented of the 40-year history of British military research, development and production work in atomic energy. The United Kingdom's efforts in this field have always had close links with equivalent activities in the United States, and have often been conducted on a mutually co-operative basis. This book contains descriptions of the technical evolution of British nuclear weapon designs and production models, estimates of annual output figures for fissile material and weapon types, and indications of the nature of the weapon-testing programme. Decision-points are charted. The impact of the agreements with the United States, both upon weapon development and production programmes and upon stockpiling, is analysed, as well as their effects upon the nuclear submarine programme. The impact of later events upon Anglo-American relations is identified, together with the recent British attempts to move to a closer political association with Europe. The study concludes by evaluating the essential nature of four decades of United Kingdom military nuclear development, and identifying the practical limits imposed by past policies upon any attempt by a British government to implement a policy of unilateral nuclear disarmament. (author)

  19. Nickel release from earrings purchased in the united states: the San Francisco earring study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maibach, H.I.; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Nickel sensitization is frequent among US patients with dermatitis and in the general population. In Europe, decreasing prevalences of nickel sensitization are observed as a result of the European Union Nickel Directive. However, no directive exists in the United States. Objectives: We...... sought to examine nickel release from inexpensive earrings and discuss possible methods of reducing nickel exposure among consumers. Methods: A total of 34 different stores and artists were visited. A total of 277 earrings were purchased and examined with the dimethylglyoxitne (DMG) test. Results: DMG......-positive earrings were identified from local artists (69%) and tourist stores (42.9%) but also chain stores targeting young (24.1%) and mature (1.7%) women. No correlation between price and outcome of DMG testing was identified. Limitations. Our study does not reflect buying trends in the United States...

  20. Brazil and the United States: The Need for Strategic Engagement (Strategic Forum, Number 266, March 2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    If accurate, these astonishing numbers in themselves tell the story of Brazil’s explosive growth. 7 Embrapa is short for Empresa Brasileira de ...in the world. Geography. U.S. citizens think of Brazil as be- ing Rio de Janeiro and its beautiful beaches or as the Amazon, an endless jungle...United States www.ndu.edu/inss SF No. 266 3 and port systems lag. One study suggests that domestic transportation costs and port fees for soy, Brazil’s

  1. Analysis of long-term trends (1950–2009) in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient in major urban watersheds in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velpuri, N M; Senay, G B

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the long-term trends in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient in major urban watersheds in the United States. The seasonal Mann–Kendall trend test was performed on monthly precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient data from 1950 to 2009 obtained from 62 urban watersheds covering 21 major urban centers in the United States. The results indicate that only five out of 21 urban centers in the United States showed an uptrend in precipitation. Twelve urban centers showed an uptrend in runoff coefficient. However, six urban centers did not show any trend in runoff coefficient, and three urban centers showed a significant downtrend. The highest rate of change in precipitation, runoff and runoff coefficient was observed in the Houston urban watershed. Based on the results obtained, we also attributed plausible causes for the trends. Our analysis indicated that while a human only influence is observed in most of the urban watersheds, a combined climate and human influence is observed in the central United States. (letter)

  2. Trends in pesticide concentrations and use for major rivers of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Karen R.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Trends in pesticide concentrations in 38 major rivers of the United States were evaluated in relation to use trends for 11 commonly occurring pesticide compounds. Pesticides monitored in water were analyzed for trends in concentration in three overlapping periods, 1992–2001, 1997–2006, and 2001–2010 to facilitate comparisons among sites with variable sample distributions over time and among pesticides with changes in use during different periods and durations. Concentration trends were analyzed using the SEAWAVE-Q model, which incorporates intra-annual variability in concentration and measures of long-term, mid-term, and short-term streamflow variability. Trends in agricultural use within each of the river basins were determined using interval-censored regression with high and low estimates of use.

  3. Governmental public health in the United States: the implications of federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnock, Bernard J; Atchison, Christopher

    2002-01-01

    Governmental public health activities in the United States have evolved over time as a result of two forces: the nature and perceived importance of threats to the population's health and safety, and changing relationships among the various levels of government. Shifts toward a more state-centered form of federalism in the second half of the twentieth century weakened key aspects of the governmental public health enterprise, including its leadership and coordination, by the century's end. These developments challenge governmental public health responses to the new threats and increased societal expectations of the early twenty-first century.

  4. Re-launching nuclear energy in the United States: the last obstacles to be cleared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babinet, R.

    2006-10-01

    The author discusses the different important events, notably within the context of energy policy and in relationship with economical factors, which concern the nuclear sector and occurred within the past few years in the United States (since 2001). He describes the failure of the 'all-gas' strategy, the strengthening of the nuclear sector since 2001 (evolution of the stock availability, of operators, of production). He discusses the role of the federal State in the re-launching of nuclear energy by facilitating the licensing procedure for new reactors and by addressing the waste storage issue. He comments the adoption of the global bill on energy (EPAct 2005) and the freezing of the Yucca Mountain storage site. This last aspect promotes the interest in waste transmutation and in related programs, and the implementation of the GNEP (global nuclear energy partnership) which notably proposed an international approach to limit an uncontrolled proliferation of nuclear cycle technologies

  5. The politics of health mobilization in the United States: The promise and pitfalls of "disease constituencies".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Steven

    2016-09-01

    A critical review of recent literature on U.S. social movements concerned with matters of health and illness prompts reconsideration of the prevailing conception of such movements as necessarily isolated and particularistic. With a focus on disease-constituency-based mobilization-presently the most potent model of efficacious activism to be found in the domain of health and illness in the United States-I argue that such activism may tend in two directions: a specific response to an imminent disease threat, and a bridging of collective action frames and identities that can lead to connections across differences and broader mobilization. Case studies have demonstrated how patient activism has affected the management of illness, attitudes and practices of health professionals, research practices, processes of innovation, state policies, and corporate behavior. Through close analysis of patient group mobilization and its distinctive orientation toward knowledge and expertise, I argue that patient groups in practice may connect with or influence one another or a range of other forms of mobilization in relation to health, and I examine the "linkage mechanisms"-spillover, coalition, and frame amplification-by which this can occur. Rather than imagine a stark opposition between particularistic, single-issue health politics, on the one hand, and universalistic efforts to transform the meaning and practice of health and health care in the United States, on the other, I propose closer attention to the potentially Janus-faced character of many health movement organizations and the ways in which they may look either inward or outward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Admissions and Plebe Year Data as Indicators of Academic Success in Engineering Majors at the United States Naval Academy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kristof, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    This research analyzes the relationship between academic success in high school and at the freshman collegiate level and academic performance in engineering majors at the United States Naval Academy (USNA...

  7. Major dams of the United States, Geographic NAD83, USGS (2006) [dams00x020_USGS_2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This map layer portrays major dams of the United States, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. The map layer was created by extracting dams 50 feet or...

  8. The rise of pathophysiologic research in the United States: the role of two Harvard hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishler, Peter V

    2013-01-01

    Pathophysiologic research, the major approach to understanding and treating disease, was created in the 20th century, and two Harvard-affiliated hospitals, the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital and Boston City Hospital, played a key role in its development. After the Flexner Report of 1910, medical students were assigned clinical clerkships in teaching hospitals. Rockefeller-trained Francis Weld Peabody, who was committed to investigative, pathophysiologic research, was a critical leader in these efforts. At the Brigham, Harvard medical students observed patients closely and asked provocative questions about their diseases. Additionally, physicians returned from World War I with questions concerning the pathophysiology of wartime injuries. At the Boston City Hospital's new Thorndike Memorial Laboratory, Peabody fostered investigative question-based research by physicians. These physicians expanded pathophysiologic investigation from the 1920s. Post-war, Watson and Crick's formulation of the structure of DNA led shortly to modern molecular biology and new research approaches that are being furthered at the Boston Hospitals.

  9. Telehealth in older adults with cancer in the United States: The emerging use of wearable sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, John; Naeim, Arash

    2017-11-01

    As the aging and cancer populations in the world continue to increase, the need for complements to traditional geriatric assessments and the logical incorporation of fast and reliable telehealth tools have become interlinked. In the United States, studies examining the use of telehealth for chronic disease management have shown promising results in small groups. The implementation of health technology on a broader scale requires older adults to both accept and adapt such innovation into routine medical care. Though the commercial and recreational use of new technology has increased in older individuals, the transition into creating a smart and connected home that can interface with both patients and healthcare professionals is in its early phases. Current limitations include an inherent digital divide, as well as concerns regarding privacy, data volume, rapid change, cost and reimbursement. The emergence of low-cost, high-fidelity wearable sensors with a spectrum of clinical utility may be the key to increased use and adaptation by older adults. An opportunity to utilize wearable sensors for objective and real-time assessment of older patients with cancer for baseline functional status and treatment toxicity may be on the horizon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Checklist of vertebrates of the United States, the U.S. territories, and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Richard C.; McDiarmid, Roy W.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    1987-01-01

    On 30 January 1980 the Policy Group of the 1978 Interagency Agreement on Classifications and Inventory established a work group on fish and wildlife species names. The participating agencies were the Fish and Wildlife Service, Forest Service, Bureau of Land Management, Geological Survey, and Soil Conservation Service. The Fish and Wildlife Service was assigned the role of establishing and leading this work group in developing a national list of standard vertebrate species names that is up-to-date and accurate. The Association of Systematic Collections was contracted to develop the reference list. This publication is a revision of portions of the list (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals), including updating to the end of 1985. The geographic areas encompassed by this list are: the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii; the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Navassa Island; the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands (the Caroline Islands, Palau Islands, Marshall Islands, and northern Mariana Islands); and the U.S. Territories of American Samoa, Baker Island, Guam, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, the Johnston Islands, Kingman Reef, the Midway Islands, and Wake Islands. Canadian species that do not also occur in the United States have been included. This list includes the names of all Recent species known to occur, or to have occurred, in the geographic areas indicated above. No distinction is made between resident and migratory species or between those that occur regularly and those of casual or accidentally occurrence. The occurrence of all species listed is documented by specimen or photographic evidence. Zoo, aquarium, game park, and hunting preserve populations are not listed, nor are unestablished escapes from such populations. Species that are extinct are marked with a 1. Species whose only occurrence in an area is the result of introduction by man are marked with a 2. Species introduced into one area but native to another

  11. Managing the Ocean Resources of the United States: The Role of the Federal Marine Sanctuaries Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontecorvo, Guilio

    In 1969, the Straton Commission report provided a plan for the systematic development of a national policy on marine affairs. In subsequent years no such systematic approach to a coherent marine policy was undertaken. The de facto policy approach of the 1970s was a plethora of individual legislative acts which provided specific de jure rules, but which left administrators the complex problems of working out the administration of areas of overlapping authority, with conflicting or inconsistent goals and jurisdiction. The major acts of the 1970s, the Fishery Conservation a n d Management Act of 1976; Mammals and Non-Migratory Birds—The Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972; Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972; Endangered Species Act of 1973; Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972; and others, are clear indications of a national commitment to regulation of the markets for the output from the ocean sector. But while the need for intervention in markets was clear to legislators, the failure to employ a systematic approach and provide guidelines adequate to permit the rationalization of complex problems doomed the piecemeal approach to ocean policy to ever increasing administrative problems and ultimately to ineffective government programs.

  12. Groundwater availability in the United States: the value of quantitative regional assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Kevin F.; Reilly, Thomas E.; Cunningham, William L.

    2015-01-01

    The sustainability of water resources is under continued threat from the challenges associated with a growing population, competing demands, and a changing climate. Freshwater scarcity has become a fact in many areas. Much of the United States surface-water supplies are fully apportioned for use; thus, in some areas the only potential alternative freshwater source that can provide needed quantities is groundwater. Although frequently overlooked, groundwater serves as the principal reserve of freshwater in the US and represents much of the potential supply during periods of drought. Some nations have requirements to monitor and characterize the availability of groundwater such as the European Union’s Water Framework Directive (EPCEU 2000). In the US there is no such national requirement. Quantitative regional groundwater availability assessments, however, are essential to document the status and trends of groundwater availability for the US and make informed water-resource decisions possible now and in the future. Barthel (2014) highlighted that the value of regional groundwater assessments goes well beyond just quantifying the resource so that it can be better managed. The tools and techniques required to evaluate these unique regional systems advance the science of hydrogeology and provide enhanced methods that can benefit local-scale groundwater investigations. In addition, a significant, yet under-utilized benefit is the digital spatial and temporal data sets routinely generated as part of these studies. Even though there is no legal or regulatory requirement for regional groundwater assessments in the US, there is a logical basis for their implementation. The purpose of this essay is to articulate the rationale for and reaffirm the value of regional groundwater assessments primarily in the US; however, the arguments hold for all nations. The importance of the data sets and the methods and model development that occur as part of these assessments is stressed

  13. Institut Pasteur v. United States: the AIDS patent dispute, the Contract Disputes Act and the international exchange of scientific data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, H L

    1989-01-01

    In the case of Institut Pasteur v. United States, the Institut Pasteur (Pasteur) claimed that the National Cancer Institute (NCI) had breached express and implied contracts to share research on AIDS virus samples provided to NCI by Pasteur. NCI scientists allegedly used the samples to acquire information which allowed NCI to file patent applications for an AIDS blood test kit. The United States Claims Court dismissed the complaint by holding that the Institut Pasteur had not complied with certain administrative procedures required by the Contract Disputes Act before bringing its suit. The United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit reversed the decision of the Claims Court by holding that the disputed contracts did not fit within the scope of the Contract Disputes Act. Soon after the Court of Appeals decision, President Reagan and Prime Minister Chirac announced a settlement agreement whereby the lawsuit was to be dropped, American and French scientists were to share credit for having discovered the AIDS virus, and both parties to the suit were to share the patent rights for the AIDS blood test kit. This settlement suggest that international legal disputes involving urgent scientific and medical matters may require dispute resolution techniques that serve as alternatives to national courts.

  14. Factors Controlling Nitrogen Loadings in Major River Basins Across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Alexander, R. B.; Galloway, J. N.; Golden, H. E.; Moore, R. B.; Schwarz, G. E.; Harvey, J. W.; Gomez-Velez, J. D.; Scott, D.; Clune, J.

    2017-12-01

    Inputs of reactive nitrogen (all N species except for N2) have been increasing worldwide, largely due to human activities associated with food production and energy consumption via the combustion of fossil fuels and biofuels. Despite the obvious essential benefits of a plentiful supply of food and energy, the adverse consequences associated with the accumulation of N in the environment are large. Most of the N created by human activities is released to the environment, often with unintended negative consequences. The greater the inputs of N to the landscape, the greater the potential for negative effects - caused by greenhouse gas production, ground level ozone, acid deposition, and N overload; which in turn can contribute to climate change, degradation of soils and vegetation, acidification of surface waters, coastal eutrophication, hypoxia, habitat loss, and loss of stratospheric ozone. Here we present a contemporary inventory of reactive N inputs to major water regions in the United States, and discuss accounting methods for quantifying N sources and transport. Furthermore, we quantify loadings of N from terrestrial headwaters downstream to coastal estuaries and embayments. N delivery to downstream waters is influenced by nutrient sources as well as coupled hydrological and biogeochemical processes occurring along the river corridor (e.g., travel time distributions, denitrification, and storage) that scale with stream size and are affected by impoundments such as lakes and reservoirs. This underscores the need to account for the nonlinear interactions of aquatic transport processes with watershed nutrient sources, as well as cumulative effects, in developing efficient nutrient reduction strategies. Our work is useful as a benchmark of the current N situation against which future progress can be assessed in varying water regions of the country; amidst changing N inputs, policies, and management strategies. Our results stem from the EPA Integrated Nitrogen

  15. EnviroAtlas - Major Grains and Cotton by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the number of major grains grown, yield in tons, and area in hectares for several major grains and for cotton by 12-digit Hydrologic...

  16. Major Highway Lines, US, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Major Highways for the United States. The Major Highways layer contains Road Network features based on the Functional Class attribute value on each link...

  17. Pediatric Neglected Tropical Diseases in a Major Metropolitan Children's Hospital in the United States, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Leigh R; Palazzi, Debra L

    2016-12-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) diagnosed at Texas Children's Hospital between 2004 and 2013. Forty-three patients with an NTD were identified; 47% had never traveled outside of the United States. The results of this study highlight the importance of physician awareness of NTDs in children in the United States. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The United States' Second Major Theater of War: A Bridge Too Far?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Christie, R. A

    2000-01-01

    The United States National Security Strategy (NSS), as set forth by President William Jefferson Clinton in 1998, articulated the "Imperative for Engagement" abroad in order to remain secure at home in the aftermath of the "Cold War...

  19. Light water reactor (LWR) innovation needs in the United States: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology LWR innovation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golay, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    A major effort under way within the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Engineering School is focused on the contributions that technology innovation can make in revitalizing nuclear power in the United States. A principal component of this effort is a project to improve the designs of the next generation of light water reactors (LWRs) with emphasis on achieving improved capacity factors and safety, and reducing the construction duration. The motivation for this overall effort is to prevent the nuclear option from being unnecessarily lost by being available only in uneconomic configurations. In considering how to advance this effort, the authors focused on refining the designs of new reactors because this is the area where the greatest opportunities for improvements exist

  20. Ethos of independence across regions in the United States: the production-adoption model of cultural change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, Shinobu; Conway, Lucian Gideon; Pietromonaco, Paula R; Park, Hyekyung; Plaut, Victoria C

    2010-09-01

    Contemporary U.S. culture has a highly individualistic ethos. Nevertheless, exactly how this ethos was historically fostered remains unanalyzed. A new model of dynamic cultural change maintains that sparsely populated, novel environments that impose major threats to survival, such as the Western frontier in the United States during the 18th and 19th centuries, breed strong values of independence, which in turn guide the production of new practices that encourage self-promotion and focused, competitive work. Faced with few significant threats to survival, residents in traditional areas are likely to seek social prestige by adopting existing practices of other, higher status groups. Because of both the massive economic success of the frontier and the official endorsement of the frontier by the federal government, eastern residents of the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries may have actively adopted the frontier practices of independence, thus incorporating the frontier ethos of independence to form the contemporary U.S. national culture. Available evidence is reviewed, and implications for further research on cultural change are suggested. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. AN ANALYSIS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP ACROSS FIVE MAJOR NATIONALITY GROUPS IN THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES

    OpenAIRE

    QINGXIA TONG; DECLAN McCROHAN; MURAT SAKIR EROGUL

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates differences in entrepreneurial activity, attitudes, aspirations, connectivity and behavior among nascent entrepreneurs across five key nationality groups residing in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It also seeks to identify key differences between entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs' perceptions and attitudes toward entrepreneurship. More than 8000 adult residents were randomly surveyed as part of the GEM UAE studies conducted in 2006, 2007, 2009 and 2011. The findings ...

  2. Immigration transition and depressive symptoms: four major ethnic groups of midlife women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Chee, Eunice; Mao, Jun James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between immigration transition and depressive symptoms among 1,054 midlife women in the United States. This was a secondary analysis of the data from two national Internet survey studies. Questions on background characteristics and immigration transition and the Depression Index for Midlife Women were used to collect the data. The data were analyzed using inferential statistics including multiple regressions. Immigrants reported lower numbers of symptoms and less severe symptoms than nonimmigrants (p immigration status were significant predictors of depressive symptoms (R(2) =.01, p <.05).

  3. Estimated Human and Economic Burden of Four Major Adult Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, John M.; McGinnis, Justin J.; Tan, Litjen; Mercatante, Annette; Fortuna, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Low uptake of routinely recommended adult immunizations is a public health concern. Using data from the peer-reviewed literature, government disease-surveillance programs, and the US Census, we developed a customizable model to estimate human and economic burden caused by four major adult vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in 2013 in the United States, and for each US state individually. To estimate the number of cases for each adult VPD for a given population, we multiplied age-specific inci...

  4. Assessing flight safety differences between the United States regional and major airlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Broderick H.

    During 2008, the U.S. domestic airline departures exceeded 28,000 flights per day. Thirty-nine or less than 0.2 of 1% of these flights resulted in operational incidents or accidents. However, even a low percentage of airline accidents and incidents continue to cause human suffering and property loss. The charge of this study was the comparison of U.S. major and regional airline safety histories. The study spans safety events from January 1982 through December 2008. In this quantitative analysis, domestic major and regional airlines were statistically tested for their flight safety differences. Four major airlines and thirty-seven regional airlines qualified for the safety study which compared the airline groups' fatal accidents, incidents, non-fatal accidents, pilot errors, and the remaining six safety event probable cause types. The six other probable cause types are mechanical failure, weather, air traffic control, maintenance, other, and unknown causes. The National Transportation Safety Board investigated each airline safety event, and assigned a probable cause to each event. A sample of 500 events was randomly selected from the 1,391 airlines' accident and incident population. The airline groups' safety event probabilities were estimated using the least squares linear regression. A probability significance level of 5% was chosen to conclude the appropriate research question hypothesis. The airline fatal accidents and incidents probability levels were 1.2% and 0.05% respectively. These two research questions did not reach the 5% significance level threshold. Therefore, the airline groups' fatal accidents and non-destructive incidents probabilities favored the airline groups' safety differences hypothesis. The linear progression estimates for the remaining three research questions were 71.5% for non-fatal accidents, 21.8% for the pilot errors, and 7.4% significance level for the six probable causes. These research questions' linear regressions are greater than

  5. Major design issues of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    In addition to the stack, a fuel cell power generation unit requires fuel desulfurization and reforming, fuel and oxidant preheating, process heat removal, waste heat recovery, steam generation, oxidant supply, power conditioning, water supply and treatment, purge gas supply, instrument air supply, and system control. These support facilities add considerable cost and system complexity. Bechtel, as a system integrator of M-C Power`s molten carbonate fuel cell development team, has spent substantial effort to simplify and minimize these supporting facilities to meet cost and reliability goals for commercialization. Similiar to other fuels cells, MCFC faces design challenge of how to comply with codes and standards, achieve high efficiency and part load performance, and meanwhile minimize utility requirements, weight, plot area, and cost. However, MCFC has several unique design issues due to its high operating temperature, use of molten electrolyte, and the requirement of CO2 recycle.

  6. Cerebral angioplasty practice at major medical centers in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, S.; St Pierre, M.E.; Bertasio, B.

    2000-01-01

    Concern has been expressed recently regarding the proliferation of angioplasty and/or stenting of cerebral vessels. However, little is known about the volume of angioplasties being performed or the number of experienced interventionalists. A questionnaire was mailed to directors of accredited radiology residency programs in the United States, to define the level of expertise available at teaching hospitals in terms of angioplasty and/or stenting. Of 200 programs surveyed, 111 responded (56 %). Of 111 program directors 47 (42 %) indicated that cerebral angioplasty was being performed at their center. The greatest experience is currently for angioplasty of post-subarachnoid hemorrhage vasospasm (mean 16 procedures performed) and the least experience for dilation of basilar artery atherosclerosis (mean five procedures performed). The reported stroke and/or death rate in centers performing angioplasty of the extracranial carotid system is 1.5 %. Comparisons with other medical specialties (e. g., cardiologists, neurologists, neurosurgeons) are necessary to determine the full scope of extracranial neurovascular procedures being performed and the corresponding complication rates. (orig.)

  7. Book Review: McCoy, Alfred, Policing America’s Empire: The United States, the Philippines, and the Rise of the Surveillance State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Santino F. Regilme, Jr

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Book Review of the Monograph: McCoy, Alfred (2009, Policing America’s Empire: The United States, the Philippines, and the Rise of the Surveillance State, Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press ISBN 978-0-299-23414-0, 659 pages

  8. Assimilation into the literary mainstream? The classification of ethnic minority authors in newspaper reviews in the United States, the Netherlands and Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.L. Berkers (Pauwke); M.S.S.E. Janssen (Susanne); M.N.M. Verboord (Marc)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis article addresses to what extent literary critics in the United States, the Netherlands and Germany have drawn ethnic boundaries in their reviews of ethnic minority writers between 1983 and 2009 and to what extent these boundaries have changed in the course of ethnic minority

  9. Immigrant Health Inequalities in the United States: Use of Eight Major National Data Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight major federal data systems, including the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS, National Health Interview Survey (NHIS, National Survey of Children’s Health, National Longitudinal Mortality Study, and American Community Survey, were used to examine health differentials between immigrants and the US-born across the life course. Survival and logistic regression, prevalence, and age-adjusted death rates were used to examine differentials. Although these data systems vary considerably in their coverage of health and behavioral characteristics, ethnic-immigrant groups, and time periods, they all serve as important research databases for understanding the health of US immigrants. The NVSS and NHIS, the two most important data systems, include a wide range of health variables and many racial/ethnic and immigrant groups. Immigrants live 3.4 years longer than the US-born, with a life expectancy ranging from 83.0 years for Asian/Pacific Islander immigrants to 69.2 years for US-born blacks. Overall, immigrants have better infant, child, and adult health and lower disability and mortality rates than the US-born, with immigrant health patterns varying across racial/ethnic groups. Immigrant children and adults, however, fare substantially worse than the US-born in health insurance coverage and access to preventive health services. Suggestions and new directions are offered for improvements in health monitoring and for strengthening and developing databases for immigrant health assessment in the USA.

  10. Estimate of the Geothermal Energy Resource in the Major Sedimentary Basins in the United States (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esposito, A.; Porro, C.; Augustine, C.; Roberts, B.

    2012-09-01

    Because most sedimentary basins have been explored for oil and gas, well logs, temperatures at depth, and reservoir properties such as depth to basement and formation thickness are well known. The availability of this data reduces exploration risk and allows development of geologic exploration models for each basin. This study estimates the magnitude of recoverable geothermal energy from 15 major known U.S. sedimentary basins and ranks these basins relative to their potential. The total available thermal resource for each basin was estimated using the volumetric heat-in-place method originally proposed by (Muffler, 1979). A qualitative recovery factor was determined for each basin based on data on flow volume, hydrothermal recharge, and vertical and horizontal permeability. Total sedimentary thickness maps, stratigraphic columns, cross sections, and temperature gradient information was gathered for each basin from published articles, USGS reports, and state geological survey reports. When published data were insufficient, thermal gradients and reservoir properties were derived from oil and gas well logs obtained on oil and gas commission databases. Basin stratigraphy, structural history, and groundwater circulation patterns were studied in order to develop a model that estimates resource size, temperature distribution, and a probable quantitative recovery factor.

  11. Results from the first year as a major trauma radiology unit in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adiotomre, A.; Chopra, A.; Kirwadi, A.; Kotnis, N.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To record and analyse data from all facets of practice in the first year as a newly set-up major trauma centre radiology department. Materials and methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent whole-body computed tomography (WBCT) for suspected polytrauma over a 1 year period was performed. The mechanism, the time of day, the number of body parts injured, the type of injuries, and resulting surgical or radiological interventions were recorded. Also recorded was the time from the CT examination to the formal report. Where applicable, the consultant-verified reports were cross-referenced with the out-of-hours registrar reports to assess for discrepancies. Results: Two hundred and one patients underwent WBCT for suspected polytrauma. Sixty-four percent (128/201) of WBCT examinations were performed “out-of-hours”. Fifty-seven percent (115/201) were road traffic accidents (RTAs), 33% (66/201) were falls, and 6% (12/201) were assaults. At WBCT, 31% (63/201) had no injuries; 27% (54/201) had injury to one body area; 21% (43/201) had injury to two areas; and 20% (41/201) had injury to three or more areas. Nineteen percent (39/201) required urgent radiological or surgical intervention. The mean time from end-of-CT to a formal report was 27 min. There were discrepancies between consultant reports and registrar reports in 22% (31/142) of cases; 1% (2/142) led to a change in acute management. Conclusion: Based on our early experiences, nearly one-third of patients who undergo a WBCT scan for suspected polytrauma, will have no acute injury at WBCT. One-fifth of patients in our study required emergency surgical or radiological intervention for acute injuries found on WBCT. A low discrepancy rate was found between on-call registrar reports and the consultant-verified reports. - Highlights: • Almost one-third of patients with clinically suspected polytrauma had no acute injury at whole body CT. • One-fifth of clinically suspected polytrauma patients

  12. Epidemiology of Adult DSM-5 Major Depressive Disorder and Its Specifiers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Deborah S; Sarvet, Aaron L; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Saha, Tulshi D; Ruan, W June; Stohl, Malka; Grant, Bridget F

    2018-04-01

    No US national data are available on the prevalence and correlates of DSM-5-defined major depressive disorder (MDD) or on MDD specifiers as defined in DSM-5. To present current nationally representative findings on the prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, functioning, and treatment of DSM-5 MDD and initial information on the prevalence, severity, and treatment of DSM-5 MDD severity, anxious/distressed specifier, and mixed-features specifier, as well as cases that would have been characterized as bereavement in DSM-IV. In-person interviews with a representative sample of US noninstitutionalized civilian adults (≥18 years) (n = 36 309) who participated in the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III). Data were collected from April 2012 to June 2013 and were analyzed in 2016-2017. Prevalence of DSM-5 MDD and the DSM-5 specifiers. Odds ratios (ORs), adjusted ORs (aORs), and 95% CIs indicated associations with demographic characteristics and other psychiatric disorders. Of the 36 309 adult participants in NESARC-III, 12-month and lifetime prevalences of MDD were 10.4% and 20.6%, respectively. Odds of 12-month MDD were significantly lower in men (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.46-0.55) and in African American (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.54-0.68), Asian/Pacific Islander (OR, 0.6; 95% CI, 0.45-0.67), and Hispanic (OR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.62-0.78) adults than in white adults and were higher in younger adults (age range, 18-29 years; OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.48-3.55) and those with low incomes ($19 999 or less; OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.49-2.04). Associations of MDD with psychiatric disorders ranged from an aOR of 2.1 (95% CI, 1.84-2.35) for specific phobia to an aOR of 5.7 (95% CI, 4.98-6.50) for generalized anxiety disorder. Associations of MDD with substance use disorders ranged from an aOR of 1.8 (95% CI, 1.63-2.01) for alcohol to an aOR of 3.0 (95% CI, 2.57-3.55) for any drug. Most lifetime MDD cases were moderate (39.7%) or severe

  13. Prevention of deaths from harmful drinking in the United States: the potential effects of tax increases and advertising bans on young drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, William; Ebel, Beth E; McCarty, Carolyn A; Garrison, Michelle M; Christakis, Dimitri A; Rivara, Frederick P

    2006-03-01

    Harmful alcohol consumption is a leading cause of death in the United States. The majority of people who die from alcohol use begin drinking in their youth. In this study, we estimate the impact of interventions to reduce the prevalence of drinking among youth on subsequent drinking patterns and alcohol-attributable mortality. We first estimated the effect of public health interventions to decrease harmful drinking among youth from literature reviews and used life table methods to estimate alcohol-attributable years of life lost by age 80 years among the cohort of approximately 4 million U.S. residents aged 20 in the year 2000. Then, from national survey data on transitions in drinking habits by age, we modeled the impact of interventions on alcohol-attributable mortality. A tax increase and an advertising ban were the most effective interventions identified. In the absence of intervention, there would be 55,259 alcohol-attributable deaths over the lifetime of the cohort. A tax-based 17% increase in the price of alcohol of dollar 1 per six pack of beer could reduce deaths from harmful drinking by 1,490, equivalent to 31,130 discounted years of potential life saved or 3.3% of current alcohol-attributable mortality. A complete ban on alcohol advertising would reduce deaths from harmful drinking by 7,609 and result in a 16.4% decrease in alcohol-related life-years lost. A partial advertising ban would result in a 4% reduction in alcohol-related life-years lost. Interventions to prevent harmful drinking by youth can result in reductions in adult mortality. Among interventions shown to be successful in reducing youthful drinking prevalence, advertising bans appear to have the greatest potential for premature mortality reduction.

  14. Child Advocacy in the United States: The Work of the Children's Defense Fund. Innocenti Essays No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weill, James D.

    This essay provides an overview of the goals and activities of the Children's Defense Fund (CDF), an advocacy group headquartered in Washington, D.C. that works to improve the well-being of American children through systemic change and whose goal is to make it unacceptable for any child in the United States to grow up homeless, hungry, sick,…

  15. Using simulated historical time series to prioritize fuel treatments on landscapes across the United States: The LANDFIRE prototype project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Matthew Rollins; Zhi-Liang Zhu

    2007-01-01

    Canopy and surface fuels in many fire-prone forests of the United States have increased over the last 70 years as a result of modern fire exclusion policies, grazing, and other land management activities. The Healthy Forest Restoration Act and National Fire Plan establish a national commitment to reduce fire hazard and restore fire-adapted ecosystems across the USA....

  16. Latino Immigrant Students' School Experiences in the United States: The Importance of Family- School-Community Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Erin; Brabeck, Kalina

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the educational experiences of Latino immigrant students in the United States, from early childhood through postsecondary educational attainment. Utilizing a developmental-contextual perspective, we explain the various environmental, political, structural, and psychological challenges these students face, while…

  17. Major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from two continental-scale transects of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Garrett, Robert G.; Klassen, Rodney; Kilburn, James E.; Horton, John D.; King, Harley D.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Morrison, Jean M.

    2005-01-01

    This report contains major- and trace-element concentration data for soil samples collected from 265 sites along two continental-scale transects in North America. One of the transects extends from northern Manitoba to the United States-Mexico border near El Paso, Tex. and consists of 105 sites. The other transect approximately follows the 38th parallel from the Pacific coast of the United States near San Francisco, Calif., to the Atlantic coast along the Maryland shore and consists of 160 sites. Sampling sites were defined by first dividing each transect into approximately 40-km segments. For each segment, a 1-km-wide latitudinal strip was randomly selected; within each strip, a potential sample site was selected from the most representative landscape within the most common soil type. At one in four sites, duplicate samples were collected 10 meters apart to estimate local spatial variability. At each site, up to four separate soil samples were collected as follows: (1) material from 0-5 cm depth; (2) O horizon, if present; (3) a composite of the A horizon; and (4) C horizon. Each sample collected was analyzed for total major- and trace-element composition by the following methods: (1) inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES) for aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfur, tellurium, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, and zinc; (2) cold vapor- atomic absorption spectrometry for mercury; (3) hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry for antimony and selenium; (4) coulometric titration for carbonate carbon; and (5) combustion for total carbon and total sulfur.

  18. Associations Between Parenting Styles and Perceived Child Effortful Control Within Chinese Families in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, CY; Cheah, CSL; Lamb, Michael Ernest; Zhou, N

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the associations between parentally perceived child effortful\\ud control (EC) and the parenting styles of 122 Chinese mothers (36 first-generation Chinese\\ud immigrants in the United Kingdom, 40 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United States,\\ud and 46 Taiwanese mothers) of 5- to 7-year-old (M age = 5.82 years, SD = .805; 68 boys and 54\\ud girls) children. The findings showed significant cultural group differences in mothers’ reported\\ud authoritarian pare...

  19. Taxonomic classification of world map units in crop producing areas of Argentina and Brazil with representative US soil series and major land resource areas in which they occur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckle, H. F. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The most probable current U.S. taxonomic classification of the soils estimated to dominate world soil map units (WSM)) in selected crop producing states of Argentina and Brazil are presented. Representative U.S. soil series the units are given. The map units occurring in each state are listed with areal extent and major U.S. land resource areas in which similar soils most probably occur. Soil series sampled in LARS Technical Report 111579 and major land resource areas in which they occur with corresponding similar WSM units at the taxonomic subgroup levels are given.

  20. Bus crash severity in the United-States: The role of driver behavior, service type, road factors and environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    current study investigates the underlying risk factors of bus accident severity in the United States. A generalized ordered logit model is estimated in order to account for the ordered nature of severity, while allowing the violation of the proportional odds assumption across severity categories. Data...... for the analysis are retrieved from the General Estimates System (GES) database for the years 2005-2009. Results show that accident severity increases: (i) for young bus drivers under the age of 25; (ii) for drivers beyond the age of 55, and most prominently for drivers over 65 years old; (iii) for female drivers......Recent years have witnessed a growing interest in improving bus safety operations worldwide. While in the United States buses are considered relatively safe, the number of bus accidents is far from being negligible, triggering the introduction of the Motor-coach Enhanced Safety Act of 2011.The...

  1. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1960. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1960 - December 1960

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1961-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1960 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1960.

  2. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1962. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1962 - December 1962

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, Glenn T.

    1963-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1962 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1962.

  3. Index to the United States Atomic Energy Commission's Annual Report to Congress for 1959. Major activities in the atomic energy programs, January 1959 - December 1959

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCone, John A.

    1960-01-31

    This volume contains a name and subject index for the 1959 report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from January through December 1959.

  4. Associations Between Parenting Styles and Perceived Child Effortful Control Within Chinese Families in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Yu; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Lamb, Michael E.; Zhou, Nan

    2017-01-01

    The current study examined the associations between parentally perceived child effortful control (EC) and the parenting styles of 122 Chinese mothers (36 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom, 40 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United States, and 46 Taiwanese mothers) of 5- to 7-year-old (M age = 5.82 years, SD = .805; 68 boys and 54 girls) children. The findings showed significant cultural group differences in mothers’ reported authoritarian parenting style. Significant associations also emerged between mothers’ reports of their children’s EC and some parenting dimensions, although there were no cultural group differences in perceived child EC. Different patterns of associations between perceived child EC and parenting styles in these three groups also demonstrated heterogeneity within the Chinese population, and highlighted the need to consider differences between original and receiving societies when seeking to understand parenting and child development in different immigrant groups. PMID:29276309

  5. Associations Between Parenting Styles and Perceived Child Effortful Control Within Chinese Families in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Yu; Cheah, Charissa S L; Lamb, Michael E; Zhou, Nan

    2017-07-01

    The current study examined the associations between parentally perceived child effortful control (EC) and the parenting styles of 122 Chinese mothers (36 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom, 40 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United States, and 46 Taiwanese mothers) of 5- to 7-year-old ( M age = 5.82 years, SD = .805; 68 boys and 54 girls) children. The findings showed significant cultural group differences in mothers' reported authoritarian parenting style. Significant associations also emerged between mothers' reports of their children's EC and some parenting dimensions, although there were no cultural group differences in perceived child EC. Different patterns of associations between perceived child EC and parenting styles in these three groups also demonstrated heterogeneity within the Chinese population, and highlighted the need to consider differences between original and receiving societies when seeking to understand parenting and child development in different immigrant groups.

  6. Adolescent Tobacco Use in Urban Versus Rural Areas of the United States: The Influence of Tobacco Control Policy Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Robarts, Adam M T

    2017-07-01

    Adults and adolescents who reside in rural areas of the United States are traditionally more likely to be tobacco users. This urban-rural disparity remains largely unexplained and, more recently, it is unclear what impact the emergence of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has had on adolescent tobacco use in urban and rural areas. Our objective is to evaluate the influence of sociodemographics and tobacco control policy environments on adolescent tobacco use in urban versus rural areas, as well as to identify the effect of e-cigarettes on traditional patterns of urban-rural tobacco use. This study analyzes repeated cross-sectional data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey for the years 2011-2014. We estimate the associations between rural residence, cigarette taxes, tobacco advertisement exposure, and ease of access to tobacco with six tobacco use outcomes: current (past 30-day) use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, multiple tobacco products, and any tobacco. E-cigarette use among urban youths aged 11-17 years in the United States increased from .82% in 2011 to 8.62% in 2014 (p e-cigarettes. Our predictors account for approximately 40% of the difference in urban-rural cigarette use. Sociodemographics, cigarette taxes, and tobacco advertisement exposure are significant predictors of adolescent tobacco use in the United States but do not entirely explain urban-rural disparities. In addition, e-cigarettes appear to be rapidly changing traditional patterns of tobacco use, particularly in urban areas. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The United States, the Soviet Union/Russia and the strategic and military balance of power between 1989 and 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Fábio Bertonha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The international system has changed dramatically after the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of the USSR. These changes include economic, social and political aspects, as well as the strategic and military ones. This article discusses the changes in the world balance of power, regarding military and strategic aspects, in the period of almost thirty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall. The cases of the United States and the Soviet Union/Russian Federation will be specially addressed.

  8. Onset of posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression among refugees and voluntary migrants to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Crager, Mia; Baser, Ray E; Chu, Tracy; Gany, Francesca

    2012-12-01

    Although refugees are generally thought to be at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive episode (MDE), few studies have compared onset of PTSD and MDE between refugees and voluntary migrants. Given differences in migration histories, onset should differ pre- and postmigration. The National Latino and Asian American Survey (NLAAS) is a national representative, complex dataset measuring psychiatric morbidity, mental health service use, and migration history among Latino and Asian immigrants to the United States. Of the 3,260 foreign-born participants, 660 were refugees (a weighted proportion of 9.52%). Refugees were more likely to report a history of war-related trauma, but reports of other traumatic events were similar. Premigration onset of PTSD was statistically higher for refugees than voluntary migrants, odds ratio (OR) = 4.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) [2.01, 11.76], where postmigration onset for PTSD was not, OR = 0.61, 95% CI [0.29, 1.28]; a similar pattern was found for MDE, OR = 1.98, 95% CI [1.11, 3.51]; and OR = 1.02, 95% CI [0.65, 1.62], respectively. Although refugees arrive in host countries with more pressing psychiatric needs, onset is comparable over time, suggesting that postmigration refugees and voluntary migrants may be best served by similar programs. Copyright © 2012 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  9. Health Assimilation among Hispanic Immigrants in the United States: The Impact of Ignoring Arrival-cohort Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Tod G; Palermo, Tia; Green, Tiffany L

    2015-12-01

    A large literature has documented that Hispanic immigrants have a health advantage over their U.S.-born counterparts upon arrival in the United States. Few studies, however, have disentangled the effects of immigrants' arrival cohort from their tenure of U.S. residence, an omission that could produce imprecise estimates of the degree of health decline experienced by Hispanic immigrants as their U.S. tenure increases. Using data from the 1996-to-2014 waves of the March Current Population Survey, we show that the health (i.e., self-rated health) of Hispanic immigrants varies by both arrival cohort and U.S. tenure for immigrants hailing from most of the primary sending countries/regions of Hispanic immigrants. We also find evidence that acculturation plays an important role in determining the health trajectories of Hispanic immigrants. With respect to self-rated health, however, our findings demonstrate that omitting arrival-cohort measures from health assimilation models may result in overestimates of the degree of downward health assimilation experienced by Hispanic immigrants. © American Sociological Association 2015.

  10. Using simulated historical time series to prioritize fuel treatments on landscapes across the United States: The LANDFIRE prototype project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Robert E.; Rollins, Matthew; Zhu, Zhi-Liang

    2007-01-01

    Canopy and surface fuels in many fire-prone forests of the United States have increased over the last 70 years as a result of modern fire exclusion policies, grazing, and other land management activities. The Healthy Forest Restoration Act and National Fire Plan establish a national commitment to reduce fire hazard and restore fire-adapted ecosystems across the USA. The primary index used to prioritize treatment areas across the nation is Fire Regime Condition Class (FRCC) computed as departures of current conditions from the historical fire and landscape conditions. This paper describes a process that uses an extensive set of ecological models to map FRCC from a departure statistic computed from simulated time series of historical landscape composition. This mapping process uses a data-driven, biophysical approach where georeferenced field data, biogeochemical simulation models, and spatial data libraries are integrated using spatial statistical modeling to map environmental gradients that are then used to predict vegetation and fuels characteristics over space. These characteristics are then fed into a landscape fire and succession simulation model to simulate a time series of historical landscape compositions that are then compared to the composition of current landscapes to compute departure, and the FRCC values. Intermediate products from this process are then used to create ancillary vegetation, fuels, and fire regime layers that are useful in the eventual planning and implementation of fuel and restoration treatments at local scales. The complex integration of varied ecological models at different scales is described and problems encountered during the implementation of this process in the LANDFIRE prototype project are addressed.

  11. Estimated Human and Economic Burden of Four Major Adult Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, John M; McGinnis, Justin J; Tan, Litjen; Mercatante, Annette; Fortuna, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Low uptake of routinely recommended adult immunizations is a public health concern. Using data from the peer-reviewed literature, government disease-surveillance programs, and the US Census, we developed a customizable model to estimate human and economic burden caused by four major adult vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD) in 2013 in the United States, and for each US state individually. To estimate the number of cases for each adult VPD for a given population, we multiplied age-specific incidence rates obtained from the literature by age-specific 2013 Census population data. We then multiplied the estimated number of cases for a given population by age-specific, estimated medical and indirect (non-medical) costs per case. Adult VPDs examined were: (1) influenza, (2) pneumococcal disease (both invasive disease and pneumonia), (3) herpes zoster (shingles), and (4) pertussis (whooping cough). Sensitivity analyses simulated the impact of various epidemiological scenarios on the total estimated economic burden. Estimated US annual cost for the four adult VPDs was $26.5 billion (B) among adults aged 50 years and older, $15.3B (58 %) of which was attributable to those 65 and older. Among adults 50 and older, influenza, pneumococcal disease, herpes zoster, and pertussis made up $16.0B (60 %), $5.1B (19 %), $5.0B (19 %), and $0.4B (2 %) of the cost, respectively. Among those 65 and older, they made up $8.3B (54 %), $3.8B (25 %), $3.0B (20 %), and 0.2B (1 %) of the cost, respectively. Most (80-85 %) pneumococcal costs stemmed from nonbacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia (NPP). Cost attributable to adult VPD in the United States is substantial. Broadening adult immunization efforts beyond influenza only may help reduce the economic burden of adult VPD, and a pneumococcal vaccination effort, primarily focused on reducing NPP, may constitute a logical starting place. Sensitivity analyses revealed that a pandemic influenza season or change in size of the US elderly population

  12. Air pollution and early deaths in the United States. Part I: Quantifying the impact of major sectors in 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiazzo, Fabio; Ashok, Akshay; Waitz, Ian A.; Yim, Steve H. L.; Barrett, Steven R. H.

    2013-11-01

    Combustion emissions adversely impact air quality and human health. A multiscale air quality model is applied to assess the health impacts of major emissions sectors in United States. Emissions are classified according to six different sources: electric power generation, industry, commercial and residential sources, road transportation, marine transportation and rail transportation. Epidemiological evidence is used to relate long-term population exposure to sector-induced changes in the concentrations of PM2.5 and ozone to incidences of premature death. Total combustion emissions in the U.S. account for about 200,000 (90% CI: 90,000-362,000) premature deaths per year in the U.S. due to changes in PM2.5 concentrations, and about 10,000 (90% CI: -1000 to 21,000) deaths due to changes in ozone concentrations. The largest contributors for both pollutant-related mortalities are road transportation, causing ∼53,000 (90% CI: 24,000-95,000) PM2.5-related deaths and ∼5000 (90% CI: -900 to 11,000) ozone-related early deaths per year, and power generation, causing ∼52,000 (90% CI: 23,000-94,000) PM2.5-related and ∼2000 (90% CI: -300 to 4000) ozone-related premature mortalities per year. Industrial emissions contribute to ∼41,000 (90% CI: 18,000-74,000) early deaths from PM2.5 and ∼2000 (90% CI: 0-4000) early deaths from ozone. The results are indicative of the extent to which policy measures could be undertaken in order to mitigate the impact of specific emissions from different sectors - in particular black carbon emissions from road transportation and sulfur dioxide emissions from power generation.

  13. Firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas - United States, 2006-2007 and 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    Firearm homicides and suicides are a continuing public health concern in the United States. During 2009-2010, a total of 22,571 firearm homicides and 38,126 firearm suicides occurred among U.S. residents. This includes 3,397 firearm homicides and 1,548 firearm suicides among persons aged 10-19 years; the firearm homicide rate for this age group was slightly above the all-ages rate. This report updates an earlier report that provided statistics on firearm homicides and suicides in major metropolitan areas for 2006-2007, with special emphasis on persons aged 10-19 years in recognition of the importance of early prevention efforts. Firearm homicide and suicide rates were calculated for the 50 most populous U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) for 2009-2010 using mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) and population data from the U.S. Census Bureau. Comparison statistics were recalculated for 2006-2007 to reflect revisions to MSA delineations and population estimates subsequent to the earlier report. Although the firearm homicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained above the national rate during 2009-2010, more than 75% of these MSAs showed a decreased rate from 2006-2007, largely accounting for a national decrease. The firearm homicide rate for persons aged 10-19 years exceeded the all-ages rate in many of these MSAs during 2009-2010, similar to the earlier reporting period. Conversely, although the firearm suicide rate for large MSAs collectively remained below the national rate during 2009-2010, nearly 75% of these MSAs showed an increased rate from 2006-2007, paralleling the national trend. Firearm suicide rates among persons aged 10-19 years were low compared with all-ages rates during both periods. These patterns can inform the development and monitoring of strategies directed at reducing firearm-related violence.

  14. Methanogenic pathways of coal-bed gas in the Powder River Basin, United States: The geologic factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, Romeo M.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Stricker, Gary D.; Warden, Augusta; Ellis, Margaret S. [U.S. Geological Survey, Box 25046, MS 939, Denver, Colorado 80225 (United States)

    2008-10-02

    Coal-bed gas of the Tertiary Fort Union and Wasatch Formations in the Powder River Basin in Wyoming and Montana, U.S. was interpreted as microbial in origin by previous studies based on limited data on the gas and water composition and isotopes associated with the coal beds. To fully evaluate the microbial origin of the gas and mechanisms of methane generation, additional data for 165 gas and water samples from 7 different coal-bed methane-bearing coal-bed reservoirs were collected basinwide and correlated to the coal geology and stratigraphy. The C{sub 1}/(C{sub 2} + C{sub 3}) ratio and vitrinite reflectance of coal and organic shale permitted differentiation between microbial gas and transitional thermogenic gas in the central part of the basin. Analyses of methane {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}D, carbon dioxide {delta}{sup 13}C, and water {delta}D values indicate gas was generated primarily from microbial CO{sub 2} reduction, but with significant gas generated by microbial methyl-type fermentation (aceticlastic) in some areas of the basin. Microbial CO{sub 2} reduction occurs basinwide, but is generally dominant in Paleocene Fort Union Formation coals in the central part of the basin, whereas microbial methyl-type fermentation is common along the northwest and east margins. Isotopically light methane {delta}{sup 13}C is distributed along the basin margins where {delta}D is also depleted, indicating that both CO{sub 2}-reduction and methyl-type fermentation pathways played major roles in gas generation, but gas from the latter pathway overprinted gas from the former pathway. More specifically, along the northwest basin margin gas generation by methyl-type fermentation may have been stimulated by late-stage infiltration of groundwater recharge from clinker areas, which flowed through highly fractured and faulted coal aquifers. Also, groundwater recharge controlled a change in gas composition in the shallow Eocene Wasatch Formation with the increase of nitrogen and

  15. Relationship between Training Programs being Offered in State and Federal Penal Institutions and the Unfilled Job Openings in the Major Occupations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrence, John Thomas

    Excluding military installations, training programs in state and federal penal institutions were surveyed, through a mailed checklist, to test the hypotheses that (1) training programs in penal institutions were not related to the unfilled job openings by major occupations in the United States, and (2) that training programs reported would have a…

  16. Outcomes of care for 16,924 planned home births in the United States: the Midwives Alliance of North America Statistics Project, 2004 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyney, Melissa; Bovbjerg, Marit; Everson, Courtney; Gordon, Wendy; Hannibal, Darcy; Vedam, Saraswathi

    2014-01-01

    Between 2004 and 2010, the number of home births in the United States rose by 41%, increasing the need for accurate assessment of the safety of planned home birth. This study examines outcomes of planned home births in the United States between 2004 and 2009. We calculated descriptive statistics for maternal demographics, antenatal risk profiles, procedures, and outcomes of planned home births in the Midwives Alliance of North American Statistics Project (MANA Stats) 2.0 data registry. Data were analyzed according to intended and actual place of birth. Among 16,924 women who planned home births at the onset of labor, 89.1% gave birth at home. The majority of intrapartum transfers were for failure to progress, and only 4.5% of the total sample required oxytocin augmentation and/or epidural analgesia. The rates of spontaneous vaginal birth, assisted vaginal birth, and cesarean were 93.6%, 1.2%, and 5.2%, respectively. Of the 1054 women who attempted a vaginal birth after cesarean, 87% were successful. Low Apgar scores (home births in the United States, outcomes are congruent with the best available data from population-based, observational studies that evaluated outcomes by intended place of birth and perinatal risk factors. Low-risk women in this cohort experienced high rates of physiologic birth and low rates of intervention without an increase in adverse outcomes. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  17. Critical care management of major disasters: a practical guide to disaster preparation in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Shawn P; Niven, Alexander S; Reese, Jason M

    2012-02-01

    Recent events and regulatory mandates have underlined the importance of medical planning and preparedness for catastrophic events. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief summary of current commonly identified threats, an overview of mass critical care management, and a discussion of resource allocation to provide the intensive care unit (ICU) director with a practical guide to help prepare and coordinate the activities of the multidisciplinary critical care team in the event of a disaster.

  18. Prevalence and correlates of everyday discrimination among black Caribbeans in the United States: the impact of nativity and country of origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Mouzon, Dawne M; Keith, Verna M; Chae, David H; Chatters, Linda M

    2017-07-01

    Black Caribbeans in the United States have been the victims of major discrimination (e.g. unfairly fired, denied a promotion, denied housing). What is not known is the degree to which they also experience more routine forms of everyday discrimination such as receiving poor restaurant service, being perceived as dishonest, and being followed in stores. This paper investigates the distribution and correlates of everyday discrimination among a national sample of black Caribbeans in the U.S. This analysis used the black Caribbean sub-sample (n = 1,621) of the National Survey of American Life. Demographic and immigration status correlates of ten items from the Everyday Discrimination Scale were investigated: being treated with less courtesy, treated with less respect, receiving poor restaurant service, being perceived as not smart, being perceived as dishonest, being perceived as not as good as others, and being feared, insulted, harassed, or followed in stores. Roughly one out of ten black Caribbeans reported that, on a weekly basis, they were treated with less courtesy and other people acted as if they were better than them, were afraid of them, and as if they were not as smart. Everyday discrimination was more frequent for black Caribbeans who were male, never married, divorced/separated, earned higher incomes, and who were second or third generation immigrants. Black Caribbeans attributed the majority of the discrimination they experienced to their race. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide an in-depth investigation of everyday discrimination among the black Caribbean population. It provides the frequency, types and correlates of everyday discrimination reported by black Caribbeans in the United States. Understanding the frequency and types of discrimination is important because of the documented negative impacts of everyday discrimination on physical and mental health.

  19. Multi-Omics Research Trends in Sepsis: A Bibliometric, Comparative Analysis Between the United States, the European Union 28 Member States, and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelatos, Nikolaos; Satyamoorthy, Kapaettu; Levidou, Georgia; Bauer, Pia; Brand, Helmut; Kouskouti, Christina; Lehrach, Hans; Brand, Angela

    2018-03-01

    "-Omics" research is in transition with the recent rise of multi-omics technology platforms. Integration of "-omics" and multi-omics research is of high priority in sepsis, a heterogeneous syndrome that is widely recognized as a global health burden and a priority biomedical funding field. We report here an original study on bibliometric trends in the use of "-omics" technologies, and multi-omics approaches in particular, in sepsis research in three (supra)national settings, the United States, the European Union 28 Member States (EU-28), and China. Using a 5-year longitudinal bibliometric study design from 2011 to 2015, we analyzed the sepsis-related research articles in English language that included at least one or multi-omics technologies in publicly available form in Medline (free full texts). We found that the United States has had the lead (almost one-third of publications) in the inclusion of an "-omics" or multi-omics technology in sepsis within the study period. However, both China and the EU-28 displayed a significant increase in the number of publications that employed one or more types of "-omics" research (p < 0.005), while the EU-28 displayed a significant increase especially in multi-omics research articles in sepsis (p < 0.05). Notably, more than half of the multi-omics research studies in the sepsis knowledge domain had a university or government/state funding source. Among the multi-omics research publications in sepsis, the combination of genomics and transcriptomics was the most frequent (40.5%), followed by genomics and proteomics (20.4%). We suggest that the lead of the United States in the field of "-omics" and multi-omics research in sepsis is likely at stake, with both the EU-28 and China rapidly increasing their research capacity. Moreover, "triple omics" that combine genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics analyses appear to be uncommon in sepsis, and yet much needed for triangulation of systems science data. These observations

  20. Viable adenovirus vaccine prototypes: High-level production of a papillomavirus capsid antigen from the major late transcriptional unit

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Michael; DiFatta, Julie; Hoiczyk, Egbert; Schlegel, Richard; Ketner, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Safe, effective, orally delivered, live adenovirus vaccines have been in use for three decades. Recombinant derivatives of the live adenovirus vaccines may prove an economical alternative to current vaccines for a variety of diseases. To explore that possibility, we constructed a series of recombinants that express the major capsid protein (L1) of canine oral papillomavirus (COPV), a model for mucosal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Vaccination with virus-like particles (VLPs) composed ...

  1. Analysis of effects on plant performance by major measuring points in the secondary systems of Kori nuclear power plant units 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Woon; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jung Woon; Kim, Jung Taek; Chang, Soon Heung; Lee, Gwang Gu; Heo, Gyun Young; Lee, Sung Jin; Han, Kyu Hyun; Shin, Byung Soo

    2003-06-01

    In this study, correlation analysis was achieved for the major sensor position and the behavior of secondary system in Kori NPP unit 3, 4. Using the data from simulation model, the correlation between sensor position and electrical output, the correlation between sensor position and heat rate, and the correlation between different sensor positions were analyzed. On the basis of study results, a performance evaluation model was proposed, which can carry out secondary system performance diagnosis

  2. Physical functional outcome assessment of patients with major burns admitted to a UK Burn Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailes, Sarah T; Engelsman, Kayleen; Dziewulski, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Determining the discharge outcome of burn patients can be challenging and therefore a validated objective measure of functional independence would assist with this process. We developed the Functional Assessment for Burns (FAB) score to measure burn patients' functional independence. FAB scores were taken on discharge from ICU (FAB 1) and on discharge from inpatient burn care (FAB 2) in 56 patients meeting the American Burn Association criteria for major burn. We retrospectively analysed prospectively collected data to measure the progress of patients' physical functional outcomes and to evaluate the predictive validity of the FAB score for discharge outcome. Mean age was 38.6 years and median burn size 35%. Significant improvements were made in the physical functional outcomes between FAB 1 and FAB 2 scores (pburn patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  3. Research Productivity and Rankings of Anesthesiology Departments in Canada and the United States: The Relationship Between the h-Index and Other Common Metrics [RETRACTED].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunting, Alexandra C; Alavifard, Sepand; Walker, Benjamin; Miller, Donald R; Ramsay, Tim; Boet, Sylvain

    2018-03-05

    To evaluate the relative research productivity and ranking of anesthesiology departments in Canada and the United States, using the Hirsch index (h-index) and 4 other previously validated metrics. We identified 150 anesthesiology departments in Canada and the United States with an accredited residency program. Publications for each of the 150 departments were identified using Thomson's Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science, and the citation report for each department was exported. The bibliometric data were used to calculate publication metrics for 3 time periods: cumulative (1945-2014), 10 years (2005-2014), and 5 years (2010-2014). The following group metrics were then used to determine the publication impact and relative ranking of all 150 departments: h-index, m-index, total number of publications, sum of citations, and average number of citations per article. Ranking for each metric were also stratified by using a proxy for departmental size. The most common journals in which US and Canadian anesthesiology departments publish their work were identified. The majority (23 of the top 25) of top-ranked anesthesiology departments are in the United States, and 2 of the top 25 departments (University of Toronto; McGill University) are in Canada. There was a strong positive relationship between each of h-index, total number of publications, and the sum of citations (0.91-0.97; P productivity on most metrics. The most frequent journals in which US and Canadian anesthesiology departments publish are Anesthesiology, Anesthesia and Analgesia, and the Canadian Journal of Anesthesia. Our study ranked the Canadian and US anesthesiology departmental research productivity using the h-index applied to each department, total number of publications, total number of citations, and average number of citations. The strong relationship between the h-index and both the number of publications and number of citations of anesthesiology departments shows that the departments

  4. Energy Markets in the United States: The Influence of Politics, Regulations, and Markets on Energy Development in the Oil and Gas and Wind Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Karen Kay

    2011-12-01

    My dissertation focuses on the influence of politics, policies, and markets in determining oil and natural gas and wind energy development. In the first chapter, I examine the role of federal elected political influence and market factors in determining the acres of oil and natural gas leases issued on Bureau of Management (BLM) lands in the western United States between 1978 and 2008. I seek to determine if the political party and ideology of the federal political environment influence the number of acres that are leased and if there is disparate federal political influence in states that have a large amount of federal lands. Using a random effects Tobit model for a 17-state sample of the westernmost states in the contiguous United States, I find that more conservative federal political influence leads to additional leasing. The results are consistent across Senate committee leaders, Senate majority leadership, and the President's office. The further found that the influence of politics on leasing is not stronger in states with more federal lands. In the second chapter, I analyze the influence of state and federal political party changes and market factors on state oil and natural gas permitting. My findings, using a first-differenced empirical model for two samples, a 19-state sample, from 1990--2007, and a 14-state sample, from 1977--2007, indicate that the influence of state political party changes are trumped by economic factors. Oil and gas prices are the main drivers of permitting changes, while the state political party changes for the state legislatures and Governor's office are consistently not significant. In the third chapter I focus on the role of electricity markets and renewable energy regulation in wind development across the United States. My findings, using a random effects Tobit model with a 25-state sample, from 1994--2008, indicate that the implementation of state Renewables Portfolio Standards (RPS), the Federal Production Tax Credit (PTC

  5. Study concerning decommissioning of nuclear facilities overseen by the IAEA in the United States and major European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirashima, Shikazoh

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to know generally on the activities of decommissioning nuclear facilities in the IAEA, and to compare the regulation and finance concerning reactor decommissioning in European countries and the United States together with the decommissioning policy and the status of research and development. Recently also in Japan, attention has been paid to reactor decommissioning after the termination of operation, and the report by the Decommissioning Countermeasures Committee was published in March, 1981. In the IAEA, the investigation of Reactor decommissioning has been performed since 1973, and the meetings of the technical committee in 1975 and 1977, the international symposium in 1978, and the publication of ''Various factors concerning the decommissioning of inland nuclear facilities'' in 1980 were held. The regulation and finance concerning the decommissioning have been performed differently in each country, and the features of the main policy of decommissioning are indicated. In foreign countries, the measures of account for the decommissioning expenses have been already taken. In Japan, it is desirable to establish the technical standard for the decommissioning including legislation and finance. (Kako, I.)

  6. Profile of an HIV Testing and Counseling Unit in Bangladesh: Majority of New Diagnoses among Returning Migrant Workers and Spouses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunthia Zaidi Urmi

    Full Text Available Analysis of data from HIV testing and counseling (HTC services provides an opportunity to identify important populations for targeting of HIV prevention efforts. Our primary aim was to describe the demographics of clients presenting to HTC in Bangladesh, a low HIV prevalence country. Our secondary aim was to determine the risk factors for HIV positivity among returning migrant workers who were tested.We performed a cross-sectional study of data collected between 2002 and 2010 from the first HTC service established in Bangladesh, located in three large cities.8973 individuals attended HTC services, with 558 (6.2% of clients testing positive for HIV, including 33 children. The majority of those who tested positive were aged 25-44 (71%, male (70%, and married (68%. Key populations considered at increased risk of HIV, such as female sex workers, people who inject drugs, and males who have sex with males accounted for only 11% of adults who tested positive. Notably, 75% of adults testing positive had a history of migrant work or was the spouse of a migrant worker. In multivariable logistic regression of those with a migrant work history presenting for HTC, we found rural residence, working in the Middle East, and longer duration of migrant work to be independently associated with testing positive, and female gender and higher level of education to be negatively associated.These data suggest that in Bangladesh, in addition to targeting traditional key populations, HIV prevention efforts should also focus on migrant workers and their spouses.

  7. Social Determinants of Health in the United States: Addressing Major Health Inequality Trends for the Nation, 1935-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K; Daus, Gem P; Allender, Michelle; Ramey, Christine T; Martin, Elijah K; Perry, Chrisp; Reyes, Andrew A De Los; Vedamuthu, Ivy P

    2017-01-01

    This study describes key population health concepts and examines major empirical trends in US health and healthcare inequalities from 1935 to 2016 according to important social determinants such as race/ethnicity, education, income, poverty, area deprivation, unemployment, housing, rural-urban residence, and geographic location. Long-term trend data from the National Vital Statistics System, National Health Interview Survey, National Survey of Children's Health, American Community Survey, and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to examine racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, rural-urban, and geographic inequalities in health and health care. Life tables, age-adjusted rates, prevalence, and risk ratios were used to examine health differentials, which were tested for statistical significance at the 0.05 level. Life expectancy of Americans increased from 69.7 years in 1950 to 78.8 years in 2015. However, despite the overall improvement, substantial gender and racial/ethnic disparities remained. In 2015, life expectancy was highest for Asian/Pacific Islanders (87.7 years) and lowest for African-Americans (75.7 years). Life expectancy was lower in rural areas and varied from 74.5 years for men in rural areas to 82.4 years for women in large metro areas, with rural-urban disparities increasing during the 1990-2014 time period. Infant mortality rates declined dramatically during the past eight decades. However, racial disparities widened over time; in 2015, black infants had 2.3 times higher mortality than white infants (11.4 vs. 4.9 per 1,000 live births). Infant and child mortality was markedly higher in rural areas and poor communities. Black infants and children in poor, rural communities had nearly three times higher mortality rate compared to those in affluent, rural areas. Racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and geographic disparities were particularly marked in mortality and/or morbidity from cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, COPD, HIV/AIDS, homicide

  8. Negotiating Formal Membership in Mexico and the United States: The case of Federations of Mexican Hometown Associations in Los Angeles County

    OpenAIRE

    Noriega Gonzalez, Veronica

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on how Mexican Federations of HTAs have negotiated their formal membership in Mexico and the United States. In Mexico, migrants’ market citizenship opened the channels of communication between Federations of HTAs, and the Mexican government. Once those channels were established; HTA Federation leaders were able to negotiate their passage from market to formal membership. In the case of the United States, HTA Federations have advocated for a formal inclusion in the United St...

  9. Trends in pesticide use on soybean, corn and cotton since the introduction of major genetically modified crops in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupe, Richard H.; Capel, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUNDGenetically modified (GM) varieties of soybean, corn and cotton have largely replaced conventional varieties in the United States. The most widely used applications of GM technology have been the development of crops that are resistant to a specific broad-spectrum herbicide (primarily glyphosate) or that produce insecticidal compounds within the plant itself. With the widespread adoption of GM crops, a decline in the use of conventional pesticides was expected.RESULTSThere has been a reduction in the annual herbicide application rate to corn since the advent of GM crops, but the herbicide application rate is mostly unchanged for cotton. Herbicide use on soybean has increased. There has been a substantial reduction in the amount of insecticides used on both corn and cotton since the introduction of GM crops.CONCLUSIONSThe observed changes in pesticide use are likely to be the result of many factors, including the introduction of GM crops, regulatory restrictions on some conventional pesticides, introduction of new pesticide technologies and changes in farming practices. In order to help protect human and environmental health and to help agriculture plan for the future, more detailed and complete documentation on pesticide use is needed on a frequent and ongoing basis.

  10. The Cross-Cultural study of Emotional Expression in Japan and the United States : The Non-monolithic Nature of Individualism and Collectivism

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Isamu; Stephan, Cookie White; Stephan, Walter G.; Morrison, Shara L.

    1996-01-01

    In this study 3 hypotheses were tested concerning differences between the expression of emotions in collectivistic and individualistic cultures using samples from Japan and the United States. American participants anticipated feeling more comfortable expressing emotions that affirm independence but participants from Japan anticipated feeling equally comfortable expressing independent and interdependent emotions. Japanese participants anticipated feeling equally comfortable expressing emotions...

  11. Over- and Undercontrolled Referral Problems among Children and Adolescents from Thailand and the United States: The "Wat" and "Wai" of Cultural Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, John R.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared Thailand to United States in regard to children's psychological problems and corresponding clinic referral patterns. Overcontrolled problems (somaticizing, fearfulness, nervous movements, worrying) were reported more often for Thai than for American youth. Undercontrolled problems (disobedience, fighting, lying, arguing) were reported…

  12. Information Access in Rural Areas of the United States: The Public Library's Role in the Digital Divide and the Implications of Differing State Funding Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, individual states have different means of determining and distributing funding. This influences library service and access to information particularly as it pertains to critical Internet access. Funding and service trends have changed, especially as it relates to public libraries, with some modifications working to their…

  13. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: STATSGO Soil Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents estimated soil variables compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The variables included are cation exchange capacity, percent calcium carbonate, slope, water-table depth, soil thickness, hydrologic soil group, soil erodibility (k-factor), permeability, average water capacity, bulk density, percent organic material, percent clay, percent sand, and percent silt. The source data set is the State Soil ( STATSGO ) Geographic Database (Wolock, 1997). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  14. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Mean Annual R-factor, 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average annual R-factor, rainfall-runoff erosivity measure, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data are from Christopher Daly of the Spatial Climate Analysis Service, Oregon State University, and George Taylor of the Oregon Climate Service, Oregon State University (2002). The ERF1_2 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  15. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Nitrate (NO3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of Nitrate (NO3) for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of NO3 deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  16. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Total Inorganic Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized atmospheric (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of Total Inorganic Nitrogen for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of selected Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of Total Inorganic Nitrogen deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  17. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Normalized Atmospheric Deposition for 2002, Ammonium (NH4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the average normalized (wet) deposition, in kilograms per square kilometer multiplied by 100, of ammonium (NH4) for the year 2002 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of the Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). Estimates of NH4 deposition are based on National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) measurements (B. Larsen, U.S. Geological Survey, written. commun., 2007). De-trending methods applied to the year 2002 are described in Alexander and others, 2001. NADP site selection met the following criteria: stations must have records from 1995 to 2002 and have a minimum of 30 observations. The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  18. HIV infection and testing among Latino men who have sex with men in the United States: the role of location of birth and other social determinants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M Oster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the United States, Latino men who have sex with men (MSM are disproportionately affected by HIV. Latino MSM are a diverse group who differ culturally based on their countries or regions of birth and their time in the United States. We assessed differences in HIV prevalence and testing among Latino MSM by location of birth, time since arrival, and other social determinants of health. METHODS: For the 2008 National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System, a cross-sectional survey conducted in large US cities, MSM were interviewed and tested for HIV infection. We used generalized estimating equations to test associations between various factors and 1 prevalent HIV infection and 2 being tested for HIV infection in the past 12 months. RESULTS: Among 1734 Latino MSM, HIV prevalence was 19%. In multivariable analysis, increasing age, low income, and gay identity were associated with HIV infection. Moreover, men who were U.S.-born or who arrived ≥5 years ago had significantly higher HIV prevalence than recent immigrants. Among men not reporting a previous positive HIV test, 63% had been tested for HIV infection in the past 12 months; recent testing was most strongly associated with having seen a health care provider and disclosing male-male attraction/sexual behavior to a health care provider. CONCLUSIONS: We identified several social determinants of health associated with HIV infection and testing among Latino MSM. Lower HIV prevalence among recent immigrants contrasts with higher prevalence among established immigrants and suggests a critical window of opportunity for HIV prevention, which should prioritize those with low income, who are at particular risk for HIV infection. Expanding health care utilization and encouraging communication with health care providers about sexual orientation may increase testing.

  19. Utilisation of a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) for equestrian accidents in a regional major trauma network in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Carl; Crombie, Nick; Cormack, Stef; George, Arun; Wheaton, Steve

    2015-05-01

    The utilisation of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) in response to equestrian accidents has been an integral part of operations for many years throughout the UK. The recent establishment of major trauma networks in the UK has placed great emphasis on the appropriate tasking of HEMS units to cases where added benefit can be provided and the incidence of time critical injury in cases of equestrian accidents has been shown to be low. This study assesses the impact made on the utilisation of the different HEMS resources for cases of equestrian accidents within the West Midlands following the launch of the regional trauma network. We present a retrospective analysis of all equestrian accidents attended by Midlands Air Ambulance (MAA) between 1 April 2012 and 1 April 2013. Data were abstracted from the MAA operational database relating to mission activations/scene attendances; team configuration (physician led and Critical Care Paramedic (CCP) led); on-scene interventions; mission timings and patient conveyance by helicopter. A total of 114 activations involved equestrian accidents (6% of overall workload). The contribution of equestrian accidents to overall workload was similar for physician led and CCP-led (69/1069) platforms (5% vs. 6%, p=0.50). Only three patients (3%) required pre-hospital RSI during the period analysed and there were no recorded cases of ketamine administration for analgesia/conscious sedation. In approximately half of all scene attendances patients did not require any medication to be administered by the HEMS team. The vast majority of incidents occurred in rural locations with over 80% of patients conveyed to hospital by helicopter. The average mission time for scene attendances resulting in conveyance by helicopter was in excess of 90 min on both types of platform. There is a clear requirement for the design and implementation of informed and intelligent tasking models to respond to the need for assistance in equestrian accidents

  20. The Wallner Normal Fault: A new major tectonic structure within the Austroalpine Units south of the Tauern Window (Kreuzeck, Eastern Alps, Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesmeier, Gerit E. U.; Schuster, Ralf; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    The polymetamorphic Austroalpine Units of the Eastern Alps were derived from the northern Adriatic continental margin and have been significantly reworked during the Eoalpine intracontinental subduction. Several major basement/cover nappe systems, which experienced a markedly different tectono-metamorphic history, characterize the complex internal structure of the Austroalpine Units. This work describes a new major tectonic structure in the Kreuzeck Mountains, south of the famous Tauern Window - the Wallner Normal Fault. It separates the so called Koralpe-Wölz Nappe System in the footwall from the Drauzug-Gurktal Nappe System in the hanging wall. The Koralpe-Wölz Nappe System below the Wallner Normal Fault is dominated by monotonous paragneisses and minor mica schists, which are locally garnet bearing. Subordinated amphibolite bodies can be observed. The schistosity is homogeneously dipping steeply to the S and the partly mylonitic stretching lineation is typically moderately dipping to the ESE. The Alpine metamorphic peak reached eclogite facies further in the north and amphibolite facies in the study area. The metamorphic peak occurred in the Late Cretaceous followed by rapid cooling. The Drauzug-Gurktal Nappe System above the Wallner Normal Fault consists of various subunits. (i) Paragneisses and micaschists subunit (Gaugen Complex) with numerous quartz mobilisates are locally intercalated with amphibolites. Several millimeter large garnets together with staurolite and kyanite have been identified in thin sections. Even though the main striking direction is E-W, polyphase refolding resulted in strong local variations of the orientation of the main foliation. (ii) Garnet micaschists subunit (Strieden Complex) with garnets up to 15 mm are intercalated with up to tens of meters thick amphibolites. The lithologies are intensely folded with folding axes dipping moderately to the SSW and axial planes dipping steeply to the NW. (iii) A phyllites-marble subunit

  1. The effect of major adverse renal cardiovascular event (MARCE) incidence, procedure volume, and unit cost on the hospital savings resulting from contrast media use in inpatient angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuffel, Eric; McCullough, Peter A; Todoran, Thomas M; Brilakis, Emmanouil S; Palli, Swetha R; Ryan, Michael P; Gunnarsson, Candace

    2018-04-01

    To determine the net economic impact of switching from low-osmolar contrast media (LOCM) to iso-osmolar contrast media (IOCM; iodixanol) in patients undergoing inpatient coronary or peripheral angioplasty in the United States (US). A budget impact model (BIM) was developed from a hospital perspective. Nationally representative procedural and contrast media prevalence rates, along with MARCE (major adverse renal cardiovascular event) incidence and episode-related cost data were derived from Premier Hospital Data (October 2014 to September 2015). A previously estimated relative risk reduction in MARCE associated with IOCM usage (9.3%) was applied. The higher cost of IOCM was included when calculating the net impact estimates at the aggregate, hospital type, and per hospital levels. One-way (±25%) and probabilistic sensitivity analyses identified the model's most important inputs. Based on weighted analysis, 513,882 US inpatient angioplasties and 35,610 MARCE cases were estimated annually. Switching to an "IOCM only" strategy from a "LOCM only" strategy increases contrast media cost, but prevents 2,900 MARCE events. The annual budget impact was an estimated saving of $30.71 million, aggregated across all US hospitals, $6,316 per hospital, or $60 per procedure. Net savings were maintained across all univariate sensitivity analyses. While MARCE/event-free cost differential was the most important factor driving total net savings for hospitals in the Northeast and West, procedural volume was important in the Midwest and rural locations. Switching to an "IOCM only" strategy from a "LOCM only" approach yields substantial net global savings to hospitals, both at the national level and within hospital sub-groups. Hospital administrators should maintain awareness of the factors that are likely to be more influential for their hospital and recognize that purchasing on the basis of lower contrast media cost may result in higher overall costs for patients undergoing inpatient

  2. Assessment of the time-dependent need for stay in a high dependency unit (HDU) after major surgery by using data from an anesthesia information management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betten, Jan; Roness, Aleksander Kirkerud; Endreseth, Birger Henning; Trønnes, Håkon; Tyvold, Stig Sverre; Klepstad, Pål; Nordseth, Trond

    2016-04-01

    Admittance to a high dependency unit (HDU) is expensive. Patients who receive surgical treatment with 'low anterior resection of the rectum' (LAR) or 'abdominoperineal resection of the rectum' (APR) at our hospital are routinely treated in an HDU the first 16-24 h of the postoperative (PO) period. The aim of this study was to describe the extent of HDU-specific interventions given. We included patients treated with LAR or APR at the St. Olav University Hospital (Trondheim, Norway) over a 1-year period. Physiologic data and HDU-interventions recorded during the PO-period were obtained from the anesthesia information management system (AIMS). HDU-specific interventions were defined as the need for respiratory support, fluid replacement therapy >500 ml/h, vasoactive medications, or a need for high dose opioids (morphine >7.5 mg/h i.v.). Sixty-two patients were included. Most patients needed HDU-specific interventions during the first 6 h of the PO period. After this, one-third of the patients needed one or more of the HDU-specific interventions for shorter periods of time. Another one-third of the patients had a need for HDU-specific therapies for more than ten consecutive hours, primarily an infusion of nor-epinephrine. Most patients treated with LAR or APR was in need of an HDU-specific intervention during the first 6 h of the PO-period, with a marked decline after this time period. The applied methodology, using an AIMS, demonstrates that there is great variability in individual patients' postoperative needs after major surgery, and that these needs are dynamic in their nature.

  3. Diagnostic performance of major depression disorder case-finding instruments used among mothers of young children in the United States: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owora, Arthur H; Carabin, Hélène; Reese, Jessica; Garwe, Tabitha

    2016-09-01

    Growing recognition of the interrelated negative outcomes associated with major depression disorder (MDD) among mothers and their children has led to renewed public health interest in the early identification and treatment of maternal MDD. Healthcare providers, however, remain unsure of the validity of existing case-finding instruments. We conducted a systematic review to identify the most valid maternal MDD case-finding instrument used in the United States. We identified articles reporting the sensitivity and specificity of MDD case-finding instruments based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) by systematically searching through three electronic bibliographic databases, PubMed, PsycINFO, and EMBASE, from 1994 to 2014. Study eligibility and quality were evaluated using the Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy studies and Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies guidelines respectively. Overall, we retrieved 996 unduplicated articles and selected 74 for full-text review. Of these, 14 articles examining 21 different instruments were included in the systematic review. The 10 item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Postpartum Depression Screening Scale had the most stable (lowest variation) and highest diagnostic performance during the antepartum and postpartum periods (sensitivity range: 0.63-0.94 and 0.67-0.95; specificity range: 0.83-0.98 and 0.68-0.97 respectively). Greater variation in diagnostic performance was observed among studies with higher MDD prevalence. Factors that explain greater variation in instrument diagnostic performance in study populations with higher MDD prevalence were not examined. Findings suggest that the diagnostic performance of maternal MDD case-finding instruments is peripartum period-specific. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Lessons to be learned from the history of anatomical teaching in the United States: the example of the University of Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Although traditional departments of anatomy are vanishing from medical school rosters, anatomical education still remains an important part of the professional training of physicians. It is of some interest to examine whether history can teach us anything about how to reform modern anatomy. Are there lessons to be learned from the history of anatomical teaching in the United States that can help in the formulation of contents and purposes of a new anatomy? This question is explored by a review of US anatomical teaching with special reference to Franklin Paine Mall and the University of Michigan Medical School. An historical perspective reveals that there is a tradition of US anatomical teaching and research that is characterized by a zeal for reform and innovation, scientific endeavor, and active, student-driven learning. Further, there is a tradition of high standards in anatomical teaching through the teachers' engagement in scientific anatomy and of adaptability to new requirements. These traditional strengths can inform the innovation of modern anatomy in terms of its two duties--its duty to anatomy as a science and its duty toward anatomical education. Copyright 2010 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Family culture in mental health help-seeking and utilization in a nationally representative sample of Latinos in the United States: The NLAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Alice P; Morales, Eduardo S; Mays, Vickie M

    2014-07-01

    Considering the central role of familismo in Latino culture, it is important to assess the extent to which familismo affects mental health help-seeking. This study examined the role of behavioral familismo, the level of perceived family support, in the use of mental health services of Latinos in the United States. Data come from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), a representative household survey examining the prevalence of mental disorders and services utilization among Latinos and Asian Americans. Analyses were limited to Latino adults with a clinical need for mental health services, indexed by meeting DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for any mood, anxiety, or substance use disorder during the past 12 months (N = 527). One-third of Latinos with a clinical need used any type of service in the past year, including specialty mental health, general medical, and informal or religious services. High behavioral familismo was significantly associated with increased odds of using informal or religious services, but not specialty or medical services. Self-perceived need and social perceptions of need for care within close networks (i.e., told by family/friends to seek professional help) also were significant predictors of service use. These results carry important implications toward expansions of the mental health workforce in the informal and religious services settings.

  6. Economic performance of grid-connected photovoltaics in California and Texas (United States): The influence of renewable energy and climate policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaraman, Deepak; Moore, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Various public policies in the United States are providing financial incentives for installation and generation of electricity from renewable resources. This article examines the influence of investment subsidies, greenhouse gas (GHG) prices, and renewable energy credit (REC) prices on the economic performance of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. Our model integrates PV output, capacity-factor-based dispatch, and cost-benefit financial components to evaluate new PV installations in California and Texas. Relative to the base case, the benefit–cost ratio increases between 5–53% in California and 5–38% in Texas for the policy-derived cases of GHG and REC prices. The economic performance of PV is higher in California due to higher grid electricity prices and the profile of displaced marginal fuels. A sensitivity analysis demonstrates the electricity and GHG prices required to achieve profitability. A key element of the economic analysis demonstrates the importance of assessing the marginal fuels displaced by the PV system, not the average mix of displaced fuels, in terms of accurately monetizing the GHG abatement embodied in the displaced fuels. In California, for example, the discounted benefits derived from pollution abatement under the marginal displacement approach were 1.6–3.0 times higher than under the three average fuel mix cases. - Highlight: ► The effect of public policies on the economic performance of PV systems is analyzed. ► A PV output model, a dispatch model, and a cost-benefit model are integrated. ► The PV installations generally do not achieve positive profitability. ► A sensitivity analysis demonstrates the prices required to achieve profitability. ► The marginal fuels displaced by the PV system, not the average fuels, are relevant.

  7. Real-world experience of women using extended-cycle vs monthly-cycle combined oral contraception in the United States: the National Health and Wellness Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappi, Rossella E; Lete, Iñaki; Lee, Lulu K; Flores, Natalia M; Micheletti, Marie-Christine; Tang, Boxiong

    2018-01-18

    The real-world experience of women receiving extended-cycle combined oral contraception (COC) versus monthly-cycle COC has not been reported. Data were from the United States 2013 National Health and Wellness Survey. Eligible women (18-50 years old, premenopausal, without hysterectomy) currently using extended-cycle COC (3 months between periods) were compared with women using monthly-cycle COC. Treatment satisfaction (1 "extremely dissatisfied" to 7 "extremely satisfied"), adherence (8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale © ), menstrual cycle-related symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and health state utilities (Medical Outcomes Short Form Survey-36v2®), depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire), sleep difficulties, Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-General Health, and healthcare resource use were assessed using one-way analyses of variance, chi-square tests, and generalized linear models (adjusted for covariates). Participants included 260 (6.7%) women using extended-cycle and 3616 (93.3%) using monthly-cycle COC. Women using extended-cycle COC reported significantly higher treatment satisfaction (P = 0.001) and adherence (P = 0.04) and reduced heavy menstrual bleeding (P = 0.029). A non-significant tendency toward reduced menstrual pain (39.5% versus 47.3%) and menstrual cycle-related symptoms (40.0% versus 48.7%) was found in women using extended-cycle versus monthly-cycle COC. Significantly more women using extended-cycle COC reported health-related diagnoses, indicating preferential prescription for extended-cycle COC among women reporting more health problems. Consistent with this poorer health, more women using extended-cycle COC reported fatigue, headache, and activity impairment (P values cycle COC as a valuable treatment option with high satisfaction, high adherence, and reduced heavy menstrual bleeding.

  8. Assessing the Burden of Diabetes Mellitus in Emergency Departments in the United States: The National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asao, Keiko; Kaminski, James; McEwen, Laura N.; Wu, Xiejian; Lee, Joyce M.; Herman, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of three alternative methods to identify diabetes in patients visiting Emergency Departments (EDs), and to describe the characteristics of patients with diabetes who are not identified when the alternative methods are used. Research Design and Methods We used data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) 2009 and 2010. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of using providers’ diagnoses and diabetes medications (both excluding and including biguanides) to identify diabetes compared to using the checkbox for diabetes as the gold standard. We examined the characteristics of patients whose diabetes was missed using multivariate Poisson regression models. Results The checkbox identified 5,567 ED visits by adult patients with diabetes. Compared to the checkbox, the sensitivity was 12.5% for providers’ diagnoses alone, 20.5% for providers’ diagnoses and diabetes medications excluding biguanides, and 21.5% for providers’ diagnoses and diabetes medications including biguanides. The specificity of all three of the alternative methods was >99%. Older patients were more likely to have diabetes not identified. Patients with self-payment, those who had glucose measured or received IV fluids in the ED, and those with more diagnosis codes and medications, were more likely to have diabetes identified. Conclusions NHAMCS's providers’ diagnosis codes and medication lists do not identify the majority of patients with diabetes visiting EDs. The newly introduced checkbox is helpful in measuring ED resource utilization by patients with diabetes. PMID:24680472

  9. Current and Potential Support for Chronic Disease Management in the United States: The Perspective of Family and Friends of Chronically Ill Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosland, Ann-Marie; Heisler, Michele; Janevic, Mary; Connell, Cathleen; Langa, Kenneth M.; Kerr, Eve A.; Piette, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Family members and friends can be an important source of self-management support for older adults with chronic diseases. We characterized the U.S. population of potential and current “disease management supporters” for people with chronic illness who are ADL-independent, the help that supporters could provide, and barriers to increasing support. Methods Nationally-representative survey of U.S. adults (N=1,722). Results 44% of respondents (representing 100 million US adults) help a family member or friend with chronic disease management; another 9% (representing 21 million US adults) are willing to start. Most are willing to assist with key tasks such as medication use and communicating with providers, although they feel constrained by privacy concerns and a lack of patient health information. Discussion The majority of U.S. adults already help or would be willing to help one of their family members or friends with chronic illness care. Supporters' specific concerns could be addressed through innovative programs. PMID:23795624

  10. Affordability and availability of off-patent drugs in the United States-the case for importing from abroad: observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ravi; Bollyky, Thomas J; Cohen, Matthew; Ross, Joseph S; Kesselheim, Aaron S

    2018-03-19

    To evaluate whether off-patent prescription drugs at risk of sudden price increases or shortages in the United States are available from independent manufacturers approved in other well regulated settings around the world. Observational study. Off-patent drugs in the USA and approved by the Food and Drug Administration, up to 10 April 2017. Novel tablet or capsule prescription drugs approved by the FDA since 1939 that were no longer protected by patents or other market exclusivity and had up to three generic versions. Number of additional manufacturers that had obtained approval from any of seven non-US regulators with similar standards (European Medicines Agency (European Union), HealthCanada (Canada), Therapeutic Goods Association (Australia), Medsafe (New Zealand), Swissmedic (Switzerland), Medicines Control Council (South Africa), and the Israel Health Ministry). Association with drug characteristics including US orphan drug designation for drugs treating rare diseases, World Health Organization essential medicine designation, treatment area, drug product complexity (that is, with attributes that could complicate establishing bioequivalence or manufacturing), and total Medicaid spending in 2015. Of 170 eligible study drugs, more than half (109, 64%) had at least one manufacturer approved by a non-US regulator and 32 (19%) had four or more. Among 44 (26%) drugs with no FDA approved generic versions, 21 (48%) were available from at least one manufacturer approved by one of the seven non-US regulators, and two (5%) by four or more manufacturers. Across all drugs and regulators (including the FDA), 66 (39%) drugs were available from four or more total manufacturers. Of 109 drugs with at least one non-US regulator approved manufacturer, 12 (11%) were approved for patients with rare diseases and 29 (27%) were WHO designated essential medicines; only 12 (11%) were complex products that might be more complicated to import. The highest numbers of drugs were indicated

  11. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Artificial Drainage (1992) and Irrigation (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated area of artifical drainage for the year 1992 and irrigation types for the year 1997 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data sets were derived from tabular National Resource Inventory (NRI) data sets created by the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1995, 2000). Artificial drainage is defined as subsurface drains and ditches. Irrigation types are defined as gravity and pressure. Subsurface drains are described as conduits, such as corrugated plastic tubing, tile, or pipe, installed beneath the ground surface to collect and/or convey drainage. Surface drainage field ditches are described as graded ditches for collecting excess water. Gravity irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field by canals or pipelines open to the atmosphere; and water is distributed by the force of gravity down the field by: (1) A surface irrigation system (border, basin, furrow, corrugation, wild flooding, etc.) or (2) Sub-surface irrigation pipelines or ditches. Pressure irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field in pump or elevation-induced pressure pipelines, and water is distributed across the field by: (1) Sprinkle irrigation (center pivot, linear move, traveling gun, side roll, hand move, big gun, or fixed set sprinklers), or (2) Micro irrigation (drip emitters, continuous tube bubblers, micro spray or micro sprinklers). NRI data do not include Federal lands and are thus excluded from this dataset. The tabular data for drainage were spatially apportioned to the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD, Kerie Hitt, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2005) and the tabular data for irrigation were spatially apportioned to an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCDe, Nakagaki and others, 2007). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified

  12. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... providers do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  13. The risk of major and any (non-hip) fragility fracture after hip fracture in the United Kingdom : 2000-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson-Smith, D; Klop, C; Elders, P J M; Welsing, P M J; van Schoor, N; Leufkens, H G M; Harvey, N C; van Staa, T P; de Vries, F

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The risk of a subsequent major or any fracture after a hip fracture and secular trends herein were examined. Within 1 year, 2.7 and 8.4% of patients sustained a major or any (non-hip) fracture, which increased to 14.7 and 32.5% after 5 years. Subsequent fracture rates increased during

  14. R2 & NE: NAVTEQ 2011 Q3 Major Road Network for the United States, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands in SDC Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The MROADS layer contains the Major Roads network using NAVTEQ Functional Class=1,2,3,4, where 4 represents routes connecting minor towns or villages and collecting...

  15. An analysis of the public discourse about urban sprawl in the United States: Monitoring concern about a major threat to forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; Robert S. Potts; David P. Fan; Edward G. Goetz

    2005-01-01

    Urban sprawl has been identified as a serious threat to forests and other natural areas in the United States, and public concern about the impacts of sprawling development patterns has grown in recent years. The prominence of public concern about sprawl is germane to planners, managers, and policymakers involved in efforts to protect interface forests from urban...

  16. Characterization of major lithologic units underlying the lower American River using water-borne continuous resistivity profiling, Sacramento, California, June 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Lyndsay B.; Teeple, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The levee system of the lower American River in Sacramento, California, is situated above a mixed lithology of alluvial deposits that range from clay to gravel. In addition, sand deposits related to hydraulic mining activities underlie the floodplain and are preferentially prone to scour during high-flow events. In contrast, sections of the American River channel have been observed to be scour resistant. In this study, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, explores the resistivity structure of the American River channel to characterize the extent and thickness of lithologic units that may impact the scour potential of the area. Likely lithologic structures are interpreted, but these interpretations are non-unique and cannot be directly related to scour potential. Additional geotechnical data would provide insightful data on the scour potential of certain lithologic units. Additional interpretation of the resistivity data with respect to these results may improve interpretations of lithology and scour potential throughout the American River channel and floodplain. Resistivity data were collected in three profiles along the American River using a water-borne continuous resistivity profiling technique. After processing and modeling these data, inverted resistivity profiles were used to make interpretations about the extent and thickness of possible lithologic units. In general, an intermittent high-resistivity layer likely indicative of sand or gravel deposits extends to a depth of around 30 feet (9 meters) and is underlain by a consistent low-resistivity layer that likely indicates a high-clay content unit that extends below the depth of investigation (60 feet or 18 meters). Immediately upstream of the Watt Avenue Bridge, the high-resistivity layer is absent, and the low-resistivity layer extends to the surface where a scour-resistant layer has been previously observed in the river bed.

  17. Majority Group Members' Negative Reactions to Future Demographic Shifts Depend on the Perceived Legitimacy of Their Status: Findings from the United States and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outten, H Robert; Lee, Timothy; Costa-Lopes, Rui; Schmitt, Michael T; Vala, Jorge

    2018-01-01

    Using concepts from social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1979), we examined whether racial/ethnic majority group members' reactions to future demographic shifts is a function of the degree to which they perceive their ingroup's higher-status in society to be legitimate. In two studies, participants who varied in the degree to which they perceived their group's status to be legitimate were either exposed to real projections for 2060 (i.e., large decline in proportion of population that is the "majority" group), or fake projections for 2060-that resembled current figures (i.e., small decline). In Study 1, White Americans who perceived their status to be highly legitimate expressed greater intergroup threat, and negative feelings (anger and fear) toward minorities after exposure to projections with a large decline in the relative size of the White American population. In contrast, demographic shift condition had no effect on intergroup threat and negative feelings toward minorities among White Americans who perceived their status to be relatively illegitimate; negative feelings and threat remained low across both conditions. Similarly, in Study 2, ethnic Portuguese people in Portugal exposed to projections in which there was a large decline in the relative size of the ethnic Portuguese population experienced more intergroup threat and expressed a greater desire to engage in anti-immigration behaviors. The effect of demographic shift condition on intergroup threat and anti-immigration behaviors was stronger among ethnic Portuguese who perceived their status to be legitimate compared to ethnic Portuguese people who perceived their status to be relatively illegitimate. These results highlight that across different cultural contexts, majority group members' beliefs about the legitimacy of intergroup relations can affect their reactions to the prospect of increased diversity.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Intensive Care Units in Iran: ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 Emerges as the Major Clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudarzi, Mehdi; Goudarzi, Hossein; Sá Figueiredo, Agnes Marie; Udo, Edet E; Fazeli, Maryam; Asadzadeh, Mohammad; Seyedjavadi, Sima Sadat

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in different patient populations is a major public health concern. This study determined the prevalence and distribution of circulating molecular types of MRSA in hospitalized patients in ICU of hospitals in Tehran. A total of 70 MRSA isolates were collected from patients in eight hospitals. Antimicrobial resistance patterns were determined using the disk diffusion method. The presence of toxin encoding genes and the vancomycin resistance gene were determined by PCR. The MRSA isolates were further analyzed using multi-locus sequence, spa, SCCmec, and agr typing. The MRSA prevalence was 93.3%. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing revealed a high resistance rate (97.1%) to ampicillin and penicillin. The rate of resistance to the majority of antibiotics tested was 30% to 71.4%. Two isolates belonging to the ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 clone (MIC ≥ 8 μg/ml) had intermediate resistance to vancomycin. The majority of MRSA isolates (24.3%) were associated with the ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 clone; the other MRSA clones were ST859-SCCmec IV/t969 (18.6%), ST239-SCCmec III/t037 (17.1%), and ST291-SCCmec IV/t030 (8.6%). The circulating MRSA strains in Iranian hospitals were genetically diverse with a relatively high prevalence of the ST22-SCCmec IV/t790 clone. These findings support the need for future surveillance studies on MRSA to better elucidate the distribution of existing MRSA clones and detect emergence of new MRSA clones.

  19. Major Links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Tona

    1995-01-01

    Provides electronic mail addresses for resources and discussion groups related to the following academic majors: art, biology, business, chemistry, computer science, economics, health sciences, history, literature, math, music, philosophy, political science, psychology, sociology, and theater. (AEF)

  20. Major Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for major roads (interstates and trunk highways) found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. These roadways are current...

  1. Majority Group Members' Negative Reactions to Future Demographic Shifts Depend on the Perceived Legitimacy of Their Status: Findings from the United States and Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Robert Outten

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Using concepts from social identity theory (Tajfel and Turner, 1979, we examined whether racial/ethnic majority group members' reactions to future demographic shifts is a function of the degree to which they perceive their ingroup's higher-status in society to be legitimate. In two studies, participants who varied in the degree to which they perceived their group's status to be legitimate were either exposed to real projections for 2060 (i.e., large decline in proportion of population that is the “majority” group, or fake projections for 2060—that resembled current figures (i.e., small decline. In Study 1, White Americans who perceived their status to be highly legitimate expressed greater intergroup threat, and negative feelings (anger and fear toward minorities after exposure to projections with a large decline in the relative size of the White American population. In contrast, demographic shift condition had no effect on intergroup threat and negative feelings toward minorities among White Americans who perceived their status to be relatively illegitimate; negative feelings and threat remained low across both conditions. Similarly, in Study 2, ethnic Portuguese people in Portugal exposed to projections in which there was a large decline in the relative size of the ethnic Portuguese population experienced more intergroup threat and expressed a greater desire to engage in anti-immigration behaviors. The effect of demographic shift condition on intergroup threat and anti-immigration behaviors was stronger among ethnic Portuguese who perceived their status to be legitimate compared to ethnic Portuguese people who perceived their status to be relatively illegitimate. These results highlight that across different cultural contexts, majority group members' beliefs about the legitimacy of intergroup relations can affect their reactions to the prospect of increased diversity.

  2. Identification of the major yeasts isolated from high moisture corn and corn silages in the United States using genetic and biochemical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M C; Golt, C; Joerger, R D; Mechor, G D; Mourão, Gerson B; Kung, L

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify species of yeasts in samples of high moisture corn (HMC) and corn silage (CS) collected from farms throughout the United States. Samples were plated and colonies were isolated for identification using DNA analysis. Randomly selected colonies were also identified by fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and by physiological substrate profiling (ID 32C). For CS, Candida ethanolica, Saccharomyces bulderi, Pichia anomala, Kazachstania unispora, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the predominant yeasts. Pichia anomala, Issatchenkia orientalis, S. cerevisiae, and Pichia fermentans were the prevalent species in HMC. The 3 identification methods were in agreement at the species level for 16.6% of the isolates and showed no agreement for 25.7%. Agreement in species identification between ID 32C and DNA analysis, FAME and ID 32C, and FAME and DNA analysis was 41.1, 14.4, and 2.2%, respectively. Pichia anomala and I. orientalis were able to grow on lactic acid, whereas S. cerevisiae metabolized sugars (galactose, sucrose, and glucose) but failed to use lactic acid. The yeast diversity in CS and HMC varied due to type of feed and location. Differences in species assignments were seen among methods, but identification using substrate profiling generally corresponded with that based on DNA analysis. These findings provide information about the species that may be expected in silages, and this knowledge may lead to interventions that control unwanted yeasts. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Major determinants of survival and length of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit of newborns from women with premature preterm rupture of membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek Eken, Meryem; Tüten, Abdülhamit; Özkaya, Enis; Karatekin, Güner; Karateke, Ateş

    2017-08-01

    To assess the predictors of outcome in terms of length of stay in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and survival of neonates from women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). A population-based retrospective study including 331 singleton pregnant women with PPROM at 24-34 gestational weeks between January 2013 and December 2015 was conducted. Gestational age at delivery, birth weight, route of delivery, newborn gender, maternal age, oligohydramnios, premature retinopathy (ROP), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), sepsis, fetal growth retardation (FGR), intracranial hemorrhagia (ICH), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH), congenital cardiac disease (CCD), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), use of cortisol (betamethasone) and maternal complications including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and chorioamnionitis were used to predict neonatal outcomes in terms of length of stay in the NICU and survival. In linear regression analyses, birth weight, ROP, CCD, BPD, PDA, NEC and preeclampsia were significant confounders for length of stay in the NICU. Among them, birth weight was the most powerful confounder for prolongation of the NICU stay (t: -6.43; p Prematurity-related complications are the most important problems for which precautions should be taken. Therefore, premature deliveries should be avoided to prevent infection and to prolong the latent period in cases of PPROM in order to decrease prematurity-related outcomes.

  4. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin L. Warren; Brooks M. Burr; Stephen J. Walsh; Henry L. Bart; Robert C. Cashner; David A. Etnier; Byron J. Freeman; Bernard R. Kuhajda; Richard L. Mayden; Henry W. Robison; Stephen T. Ross; Wayne C. Starnes

    2000-01-01

    The Southeastern Fishes Council Technical Advisory Committee reviewed the diversity, distribution, and status of all native freshwater and diadromous fishes across 51 major drainage units of the Southern United States. The Southern United States supports more native fishes than any area of comparable size on the North American continent north of Mexico, but also has a...

  5. Explaining the Immigrant Health Advantage: Self-selection and Protection in Health-Related Factors Among Five Major National-Origin Immigrant Groups in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosmena, Fernando; Kuhn, Randall; Jochem, Warren C.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being newcomers, immigrants often exhibit better health relative to native-born populations in industrialized societies. We extend prior efforts to identify whether self-selection and/or protection explain this advantage. We examine migrant height and smoking levels just prior to immigration to test for self-selection; and we analyze smoking behavior since immigration, controlling for self-selection, to assess protection. We study individuals aged 20–49 from five major national origins: India, China, the Philippines, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. To assess self-selection, we compare migrants, interviewed in the National Health and Interview Surveys (NHIS), with nonmigrant peers in sending nations, interviewed in the World Health Surveys. To test for protection, we contrast migrants’ changes in smoking since immigration with two counterfactuals: (1) rates that immigrants would have exhibited had they adopted the behavior of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites in the NHIS (full —assimilation ); and (2) rates that migrants would have had if they had adopted the rates of nonmigrants in sending countries (no-migration scenario). We find statistically significant and substantial self-selection, particularly among men from both higher-skilled (Indians and Filipinos in height, Chinese in smoking) and lower-skilled (Mexican) undocumented pools. We also find significant and substantial protection in smoking among immigrant groups with stronger relative social capital (Mexicans and Dominicans). PMID:28092071

  6. Dating of major normal fault systems using thermochronology: An example from the Raft River detachment, Basin and Range, western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, M.L.; Snee, L.W.; Blythe, A.E.

    2000-01-01

    Application of thermochronological techniques to major normal fault systems can resolve the timing of initiation and duration of extension, rates of motion on detachment faults, timing of ductile mylonite formation and passage of rocks through the crystal-plastic to brittle transition, and multiple events of extensional unroofing. Here we determine the above for the top-to-the-east Raft River detachment fault and shear zone by study of spatial gradients in 40Ar/39Ar and fission track cooling ages of footwall rocks and cooling histories and by comparison of cooling histories with deformation temperatures. Mica 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages indicate that extension-related cooling began at ???25-20 Ma, and apatite fission track ages show that motion on the Raft River detachment proceeded until ???7.4 Ma. Collective cooling curves show acceleration of cooling rates during extension, from 5-10??C/m.y. to rates in excess of 70-100??C/m.y. The apparent slip rate along the Raft River detachment, recorded in spatial gradients of apatite fission track ages, is 7 mm/yr between 13.5 and 7.4 Ma and is interpreted to record the rate of migration of a rolling hinge. Microstructural study of footwall mylonite indicates that deformation conditions were no higher than middle greenschist facies and that deformation occurred during cooling to cataclastic conditions. These data show that the shear zone and detachment fault represent a continuum produced by progressive exhumation and shearing during Miocene extension and preclude the possibility of a Mesozoic age for the ductile shear zone. Moderately rapid cooling in middle Eocene time likely records exhumation resulting from an older, oppositely rooted, extensional shear zone along the west side of the Grouse Creek, Raft River, and Albion Mountains. Copyright 2000 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Major limitations to achieving "4 per 1000" increases in soil organic carbon stock in temperate regions: Evidence from long-term experiments at Rothamsted Research, United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulton, Paul; Johnston, Johnny; Macdonald, Andy; White, Rodger; Powlson, David

    2018-01-21

    We evaluated the "4 per 1000" initiative for increasing soil organic carbon (SOC) by analysing rates of SOC increase in treatments in 16 long-term experiments in southeast United Kingdom. The initiative sets a goal for SOC stock to increase by 4‰ per year in the 0-40 cm soil depth, continued over 20 years. Our experiments, on three soil types, provided 114 treatment comparisons over 7-157 years. Treatments included organic additions (incorporated by inversion ploughing), N fertilizers, introducing pasture leys into continuous arable systems, and converting arable land to woodland. In 65% of cases, SOC increases occurred at >7‰ per year in the 0-23 cm depth, approximately equivalent to 4‰ per year in the 0-40 cm depth. In the two longest running experiments (>150 years), annual farmyard manure (FYM) applications at 35 t fresh material per hectare (equivalent to approx. 3.2 t organic C/ha/year) gave SOC increases of 18‰ and 43‰ per year in the 23 cm depth during the first 20 years. Increases exceeding 7‰ per year continued for 40-60 years. In other experiments, with FYM applied at lower rates or not every year, there were increases of 3‰-8‰ per year over several decades. Other treatments gave increases between zero and 19‰ per year over various periods. We conclude that there are severe limitations to achieving the "4 per 1000" goal in practical agriculture over large areas. The reasons include (1) farmers not having the necessary resources (e.g. insufficient manure); (2) some, though not all, practices favouring SOC already widely adopted; (3) practices uneconomic for farmers-potentially overcome by changes in regulations or subsidies; (4) practices undesirable for global food security. We suggest it is more realistic to promote practices for increasing SOC based on improving soil quality and functioning as small increases can have disproportionately large beneficial impacts, though not necessarily translating into increased crop yield

  8. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory of...

  9. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust territories...

  10. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory of...

  11. Gender-based discrimination as reflected in the laws of urinary segregation: Comparing facilities in South Africa’s major cities with those in East Coast cities in the United States of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renier Steyn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International treaties, national legislation and local by-laws advocate the equal treatment of people of different genders, but there are still claims of gender-based discrimination. However, indicators of discrimination against women, including employment ratios and differences in income, show that great strides have been made in the recent past. These measures are, however, often biased. In this study a different, more exact and tangible method of detecting and describing discrimination is presented, based on the difference between the number of ablution facilities provided for each gender group in public spaces. Ablution facilities at airports, train stations and shopping centres in four major South African cities (N=128 were inspected. The same was done at six East Coast cities in the United States of America (USA; N=124. Medium to large differences in the respective number of facilities were found (eta2 .05 to .13 in South Africa, with women receiving fewer services than those for men. The same tendency was not found in the USA. These results suggest that, despite the progressive legislation and vigorous affirmative action applied in South Africa, South African women are still being discriminated against on a very concrete, tangible level.

  12. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Nutrient Application (Phosphorus and Nitrogen) for Fertilizer and Manure Applied to Crops (Cropsplit), 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated amount of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers applied to selected crops for the year 2002, compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data set is based on 2002 fertilizer data (Ruddy and others, 2006) and tabulated by crop type per county (Alexander and others, 2007). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified version of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) ERF1_2 and include enhancements to support national and regional-scale surface-water quality modeling (Nolan and others, 2002; Brakebill and others, 2011). Data were compiled for MRB_E2RF1 catchments for the conterminous United States covering New England and Mid-Atlantic (MRB1), South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee (MRB2), the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy (MRB3), the Missouri (MRB4), the Lower Mississippi, Arkansas-White-Red, and Texas-Gulf (MRB5), the Rio Grande, Colorado, and the Great basin (MRB6), the Pacific Northwest (MRB7) river basins, and California (MRB8).

  13. THE ECONOMIC SITUATION OF NEGROES IN THE UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Labor, Washington, DC.

    BY 1960, NEGROES CONSTITUTED 10.5 PERCENT OF THE POPULATION IN THE UNITED STATES. THE RECENT GREATER RATE OF POPULATION GROWTH AMONG NEGROES THAN AMONG WHITES RESULTS LARGELY FROM A DROP IN THE NEGRO DEATH RATE. IN 1900, ABOUT 90 PERCENT OF NEGROES LIVED IN THE SOUTH. ONLY 60 PERCENT WERE STILL IN THE SOUTH BY 1960, AND THE MAJORITY OF THEM WERE…

  14. 31 CFR 800.225 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 800.225 Section 800... TAKEOVERS BY FOREIGN PERSONS Definitions § 800.225 United States. The term United States or U.S. means the United States of America, the States of the United States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth...

  15. Re-launching nuclear energy in the United States: the last obstacles to be cleared; La relance de l'energie nucleaire aux Etats-Unis: les derniers obstacles a franchir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babinet, R.

    2006-10-15

    The author discusses the different important events, notably within the context of energy policy and in relationship with economical factors, which concern the nuclear sector and occurred within the past few years in the United States (since 2001). He describes the failure of the 'all-gas' strategy, the strengthening of the nuclear sector since 2001 (evolution of the stock availability, of operators, of production). He discusses the role of the federal State in the re-launching of nuclear energy by facilitating the licensing procedure for new reactors and by addressing the waste storage issue. He comments the adoption of the global bill on energy (EPAct 2005) and the freezing of the Yucca Mountain storage site. This last aspect promotes the interest in waste transmutation and in related programs, and the implementation of the GNEP (global nuclear energy partnership) which notably proposed an international approach to limit an uncontrolled proliferation of nuclear cycle technologies

  16. Insect control in socialist China and the corporate United States: the act of comparison, the tendency to forget, and the construction of difference in 1970s U.S.-Chinese scientific exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmalzer, Sigrid

    2013-06-01

    In 1975, a delegation of U.S. entomologists traveled to socialist China to observe Chinese insect control science. Their overwhelmingly positive reports highlighted in relief the pernicious effects of pesticide corporations on U.S. agriculture; some entomologists hoped this would goad the United States to catch up to China in environmentally sensible insect control practices. Of course, insect control in socialist China carried its own political baggage, some of which-for example, mass mobilization and self-reliance--the state made highly visible to visitors, and some of which--for example, harsh treatment of scientists--it sought to obscure. For both the U.S. and the Chinese participants, the act of comparison itself was of primary significance in the exchange, allowing them to construct socialist Chinese science as refreshingly different from U.S. science. At the same time, however, this construction of difference meant forgetting the much longer transnational history in which U.S. and Chinese entomology had been intertwined.

  17. Health-related quality of life of adolescent and young adult patients with cancer in the United States: the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ashley Wilder; Bellizzi, Keith M; Keegan, Theresa H M; Zebrack, Brad; Chen, Vivien W; Neale, Anne Victoria; Hamilton, Ann S; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Lynch, Charles F

    2013-06-10

    Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with cancer face numerous physical, psychosocial, and practical challenges. This article describes the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and associated demographic and health-related characteristics of this developmentally diverse population. Data are from the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience (AYA HOPE) study, a population-based cohort of 523 AYA patients with cancer, ages 15 to 39 years at diagnosis from 2007 to 2009. Comparisons are made by age group and with general and healthy populations. Multiple linear regression models evaluated effects of demographic, disease, health care, and symptom variables on multiple domains of HRQOL using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) and the Short-Form Health Survey 12 (SF-12). Overall, respondents reported significantly worse HRQOL across both physical and mental health scales than did general and healthy populations. The greatest deficits were in limitations to physical and emotional roles, physical and social functioning, and fatigue. Teenaged patients (ages 15 to 17 years) reported worse physical and work/school functioning than patients 18 to 25 years old. Regression models showed that HRQOL was worse for those in treatment, with current/recent symptoms, or lacking health insurance at any time since diagnosis. In addition, sarcoma patients, Hispanic patients, and those with high school or lower education reported worse physical health. Unmarried patients reported worse mental health. Results suggest that AYAs with cancer have major decrements in several physical and mental HRQOL domains. Vulnerable subgroups included Hispanic patients, those with less education, and those without health insurance. AYAs also experienced higher levels of fatigue that were influenced by current symptoms and treatment. Future research should explore ways to address poor functioning in this understudied group.

  18. Assessment of cost of innovation versus the value of health gains associated with treatment of chronic hepatitis C in the United States: The quality-adjusted cost of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younossi, Zobair M; Park, Haesuk; Dieterich, Douglas; Saab, Sammy; Ahmed, Aijaz; Gordon, Stuart C

    2016-10-01

    New direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy has dramatically increased cure rates for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), but has also substantially raised treatment costs. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the therapeutic benefit and net costs (i.e. efficiency frontier) and the quality-adjusted cost of care associated with the evolution of treatment regimens for patients with HCV genotype 1 in the United States. A decision-analytic Markov model. Published literature and clinical trial data. Life Time. Third-party payer. This study compared four approved regimens in treatment-naïve genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C patients, including pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PR), first generation triple therapy (boceprevir + PR and telaprevir + PR), second generation triple therapy (sofosbuvir + PR and simeprevir + PR) and all-oral DAA regimens (ledipasvir/sofosbuvir and ombitasvir + paritaprevir/ritonavir + dasabuvir ± ribavirin). Quality-adjusted cost of care (QACC). QACC was defined as the increase in treatment cost minus the increase in the patient's quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) when valued at $50,000 per QALY. All-oral therapy improved the average sustained virologic response (SVR) rate to 96%, thereby offsetting the high drug acquisition cost of $85,714, which resulted in the highest benefit based on the efficiency frontier. Furthermore, while oral therapies increased HCV drug costs by $48,350, associated QALY gains decreased quality-adjusted cost of care by $14,120 compared to dual therapy. When the value of a QALY was varied from $100,000 to $300,000, the quality adjusted cost of care compared to dual therapy ranged from - $21,234 to - $107,861, - $89,007 to - $293,130, - $176,280 to - $500,599 for first generation triple, second generation triple, and all-oral therapies, respectively. Primary efficacy and safety measurements for drug regimens were sourced from clinical trials data rather than a real

  19. China's rise as a major contributor to science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhang, Chunni; Lai, Qing

    2014-07-01

    In the past three decades, China has become a major contributor to science and technology. China now employs an increasingly large labor force of scientists and engineers at relatively high earnings and produces more science and engineering degrees than the United States at all levels, particularly bachelor's. China's research and development expenditure has been rising. Research output in China has been sharply increasing since 2002, making China the second largest producer of scientific papers after the United States. The quality of research by Chinese scientists has also been improving steadily. However, China's rise in science also faces serious difficulties, partly attributable to its rigid, top-down administrative system, with allegations of scientific misconduct trending upward.

  20. A critical review of the research literature on Six Sigma, Lean and StuderGroup's Hardwiring Excellence in the United States: the need to demonstrate and communicate the effectiveness of transformation strategies in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vest, Joshua R; Gamm, Larry D

    2009-07-01

    U.S. healthcare organizations are confronted with numerous and varied transformational strategies promising improvements along all dimensions of quality and performance. This article examines the peer-reviewed literature from the U.S. for evidence of effectiveness among three current popular transformational strategies: Six Sigma, Lean/Toyota Production System, and Studer's Hardwiring Excellence. The English language health, healthcare management, and organizational science literature (up to December 2007) indexed in Medline, Web of Science, ABI/Inform, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and ERIC was reviewed for studies on the aforementioned transformation strategies in healthcare settings. Articles were included if they: appeared in a peer-reviewed journal; described a specific intervention; were not classified as a pilot study; provided quantitative data; and were not review articles. Nine references on Six Sigma, nine on Lean/Toyota Production System, and one on StuderGroup meet the study's eligibility criteria. The reviewed studies universally concluded the implementations of these transformation strategies were successful in improving a variety of healthcare related processes and outcomes. Additionally, the existing literature reflects a wide application of these transformation strategies in terms of both settings and problems. However, despite these positive features, the vast majority had methodological limitations that might undermine the validity of the results. Common features included: weak study designs, inappropriate analyses, and failures to rule out alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, frequently absent was any attention to changes in organizational culture or substantial evidence of lasting effects from these efforts. Despite the current popularity of these strategies, few studies meet the inclusion criteria for this review. Furthermore, each could have been improved substantially in order to ensure the validity of the conclusions, demonstrate

  1. A critical review of the research literature on Six Sigma, Lean and StuderGroup's Hardwiring Excellence in the United States: the need to demonstrate and communicate the effectiveness of transformation strategies in healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamm Larry D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background U.S. healthcare organizations are confronted with numerous and varied transformational strategies promising improvements along all dimensions of quality and performance. This article examines the peer-reviewed literature from the U.S. for evidence of effectiveness among three current popular transformational strategies: Six Sigma, Lean/Toyota Production System, and Studer's Hardwiring Excellence. Methods The English language health, healthcare management, and organizational science literature (up to December 2007 indexed in Medline, Web of Science, ABI/Inform, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and ERIC was reviewed for studies on the aforementioned transformation strategies in healthcare settings. Articles were included if they: appeared in a peer-reviewed journal; described a specific intervention; were not classified as a pilot study; provided quantitative data; and were not review articles. Nine references on Six Sigma, nine on Lean/Toyota Production System, and one on StuderGroup meet the study's eligibility criteria. Results The reviewed studies universally concluded the implementations of these transformation strategies were successful in improving a variety of healthcare related processes and outcomes. Additionally, the existing literature reflects a wide application of these transformation strategies in terms of both settings and problems. However, despite these positive features, the vast majority had methodological limitations that might undermine the validity of the results. Common features included: weak study designs, inappropriate analyses, and failures to rule out alternative hypotheses. Furthermore, frequently absent was any attention to changes in organizational culture or substantial evidence of lasting effects from these efforts. Conclusion Despite the current popularity of these strategies, few studies meet the inclusion criteria for this review. Furthermore, each could have been improved substantially in order to

  2. 31 CFR 592.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 592.311 Section 592... § 592.311 United States. The term United States, when used in the geographic sense, means the several States, the District of Columbia, and any commonwealth, territory, or possession of the United States. ...

  3. 22 CFR 120.13 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false United States. 120.13 Section 120.13 Foreign... United States. United States, when used in the geographical sense, includes the several states, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the insular possessions of the United States, the District of Columbia, the...

  4. 75 FR 67019 - Presidential Determination on Major Illicit Drug Transit or Major Illicit Drug Producing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... and synthetic drugs including marijuana, MDMA, and methamphetamine are produced in Canada and... base, and crack cocaine, primarily from Bolivia; and marijuana. The United States recognizes Brazil's... high- potency marijuana that is trafficked to the United States. The frequent mixing of methamphetamine...

  5. United-States: the forefront of new nuclear technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, B.

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S. there are about 50 enterprises developing new concepts in the nuclear sector specially in power production (smaller reactors) and waste management. These enterprises require important technological and financial means to engage experts and build prototypes so U.S. authorities have developed a platform named GAIN (Gateway for Accelerated Innovation on Nuclear) for providing technological support and financing. The American Department of Energy (DoE) will keep on financing research in the nuclear sector. The American 2016 finance law provides a 9% increase for financing nuclear programmes. Research on Small Modular Reactors (SMR) with a power output ranging from 50 to 300 MW will be favored.

  6. How health service delivery guides the allocation of major trauma patients in the intensive care units of the inclusive (hub and spoke) trauma system of the Emilia Romagna Region (Italy). A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Annalisa; Gordini, Giovanni; Ventura, Chiara; Barozzi, Marco; Caspani, Maria Luisa Rita; Fabbri, Andrea; Ferrari, Anna Maria; Ferri, Enrico; Giugni, Aimone; Marino, Massimiliano; Martino, Costanza; Pizzamiglio, Mario; Ravaldini, Maurizio; Russo, Emanuele; Trabucco, Laura; Trombetti, Susanna; De Palma, Rossana

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate cross-sectional patient distribution and standardised 30-day mortality in the intensive care units (ICU) of an inclusive hub and spoke trauma system. Setting ICUs of the Integrated System for Trauma Patient Care (SIAT) of Emilia-Romagna, an Italian region with a population of approximately 4.5 million. Participants 5300 patients with an Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15 were admitted to the regional ICUs and recorded in the Regional Severe Trauma Registry between 2007 and 2012. Patients were classified by the Abbreviated Injury Score as follows: (1) traumatic brain injury (2) multiple injuriesand (3) extracranial lesions. The SIATs were divided into those with at least one neurosurgical level II trauma centre (TC) and those with a neurosurgical unit in the level I TC only. Results A higher proportion of patients (out of all SIAT patients) were admitted to the level I TC at the head of the SIAT with no additional neurosurgical facilities (1083/1472, 73.6%) compared with the level I TCs heading SIATs with neurosurgical level II TCs (1905/3815; 49.9%). A similar percentage of patients were admitted to level I TCs (1905/3815; 49.9%) and neurosurgical level II TCs (1702/3815, 44.6%) in the SIATs with neurosurgical level II TCs. Observed versus expected mortality (OE) was not statistically different among the three types of centre with a neurosurgical unit; however, the best mean OE values were observed in the level I TC in the SIAT with no neurosurgical unit. Conclusion The Hub and Spoke concept was fully applied in the SIAT in which neurosurgical facilities were available in the level I TC only. The performance of this system suggests that competition among level I and level II TCs in the same Trauma System reduces performance in both. The density of neurosurgical centres must be considered by public health system governors before implementing trauma systems. PMID:28965094

  7. Major facilitator superfamily porters, LacY, FucP and XylE of Escherichia coli appear to have evolved positionally dissimilar catalytic residues without rearrangement of 3-TMS repeat units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Västermark, Ake; Lunt, Bryan; Saier, Milton

    2014-01-01

    Based on alleged functional residue correspondences between FucP and LacY, a recent study has resulted in a proposed model of 3-TMS unit rearrangements [Madej et al.: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2013;110:5870-5874]. We rebut this theory, using 7 different lines of evidence. Our observations suggest that these two transporters are homologous throughout their lengths, having evolved from a common ancestor without repeat unit rearrangements. We exploit the availability of the high-resolution XylE crystal structures in multiple conformations including the inward-facing state to render possible direct comparisons with LacY. Based on a Δdistance map, we confirm the conclusion of Quistgaard et al. [Nat Struct Mol Biol 2013;20:766-768] that the N-terminal 6 TMS halves of these transporters are internally less mobile than the second halves during the conformational transition from the outward occluded state to the inward occluded state and inward occluded state to inward open state. These observations, together with those of Madej et al. [2013], lead to the suggestion that functionally equivalent catalytic residues involved in substrate binding and transport catalysis have evolved in dissimilar positions, but apparently often in similar positions in the putative 3-TMS repeat units, from a single structural scaffold without intragenic rearrangement. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) Porters, LacY, FucP and XylE of Escherichia coli Appear to have Evolved Positionally Dissimilar Catalytic Residues without Rearrangement of 3-TMS Repeat Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Västermark, Åke; Lunt, Bryan; Saier, Milton

    2014-01-01

    Based on alleged functional residue correspondences between FucP and LacY, a recent study has resulted in a proposed model of 3-TMS unit rearrangements [Madej et al., 2013]. We rebut this theory, using seven different lines of evidence. Our observations suggest that these two transporters are homologous throughout their lengths, having evolved from a common ancestor without repeat unit rearrangements. We exploit the availability of the high resolution XylE crystal structures in multiple conformations including the inward facing state to render possible direct comparisons with LacY. Based on a Δdistance map, we confirm the conclusion of Quistgaard et al. 2013 that the N-terminal 6 TMS halves of these transporters are internally less mobile than the second halves during the conformational transition from the outward occluded state to the inward occluded state and inward occluded state to inward open state. These observations, together with those of Madej et al., 2013, lead to the suggestion that functionally equivalent catalytic residues involved in substrate binding and transport catalysis have evolved in dissimilar positions, but apparently often in similar positions in the putative 3-TMS repeat units, from a single structural scaffold without intragenic rearrangement. PMID:24603210

  9. Risk of stroke/systemic embolism, major bleeding and associated costs in non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients who initiated apixaban, dabigatran or rivaroxaban compared with warfarin in the United States Medicare population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Alpesh; Keshishian, Allison; Trocio, Jeffrey; Dina, Oluwaseyi; Le, Hannah; Rosenblatt, Lisa; Liu, Xianchen; Mardekian, Jack; Zhang, Qisu; Baser, Onur; Vo, Lien

    2017-09-01

    To compare the risk and cost of stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and major bleeding between each direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) and warfarin among non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) patients. Patients (≥65 years) initiating warfarin or DOACs (apixaban, rivaroxaban, and dabigatran) were selected from the Medicare database from 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2014. Patients initiating each DOAC were matched 1:1 to warfarin patients using propensity score matching to balance demographics and clinical characteristics. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risks of stroke/SE and major bleeding of each DOAC vs. warfarin. Two-part models were used to compare the stroke/SE- and major-bleeding-related medical costs between matched cohorts. Of the 186,132 eligible patients, 20,803 apixaban-warfarin pairs, 52,476 rivaroxaban-warfarin pairs, and 16,731 dabigatran-warfarin pairs were matched. Apixaban (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31, 0.53) and rivaroxaban (HR = 0.72; 95% CI 0.63, 0.83) were significantly associated with lower risk of stroke/SE compared to warfarin. Apixaban (HR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.44, 0.58) and dabigatran (HR = 0.79; 95% CI 0.69, 0.91) were significantly associated with lower risk of major bleeding; rivaroxaban (HR = 1.17; 95% CI 1.10, 1.26) was significantly associated with higher risk of major bleeding compared to warfarin. Compared to warfarin, apixaban ($63 vs. $131) and rivaroxaban ($93 vs. $139) had significantly lower stroke/SE-related medical costs; apixaban ($292 vs. $529) and dabigatran ($369 vs. $450) had significantly lower major bleeding-related medical costs. Among the DOACs in the study, only apixaban is associated with a significantly lower risk of stroke/SE and major bleeding and lower related medical costs compared to warfarin.

  10. Some mechanistic requirements for major transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Peter

    2016-08-19

    Major transitions in nature and human society are accompanied by a substantial change towards higher complexity in the core of the evolving system. New features are established, novel hierarchies emerge, new regulatory mechanisms are required and so on. An obvious way to achieve higher complexity is integration of autonomous elements into new organized systems whereby the previously independent units give up their autonomy at least in part. In this contribution, we reconsider the more than 40 years old hypercycle model and analyse it by the tools of stochastic chemical kinetics. An open system is implemented in the form of a flow reactor. The formation of new dynamically organized units through integration of competitors is identified with transcritical bifurcations. In the stochastic model, the fully organized state is quasi-stationary whereas the unorganized state corresponds to a population with natural selection. The stability of the organized state depends strongly on the number of individual subspecies, n, that have to be integrated: two and three classes of individuals, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], readily form quasi-stationary states. The four-membered deterministic dynamical system, [Formula: see text], is stable but in the stochastic approach self-enhancing fluctuations drive it into extinction. In systems with five and more classes of individuals, [Formula: see text], the state of cooperation is unstable and the solutions of the deterministic ODEs exhibit large amplitude oscillations. In the stochastic system self-enhancing fluctuations lead to extinction as observed with [Formula: see text] Interestingly, cooperative systems in nature are commonly two-membered as shown by numerous examples of binary symbiosis. A few cases of symbiosis of three partners, called three-way symbiosis, have been found and were analysed within the past decade. Four-way symbiosis is rather rare but was reported to occur in fungus-growing ants. The model

  11. Factors Influencing Chinese Students' Decisions to Study in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Larry; Shen, Libi

    2016-01-01

    The central research question was: Why do Chinese students want to study in the United States? The participants were 20 Chinese students who studied in the U.S. Ten interview questions were used and data were processed in NVivo 10. Five major themes emerged from this study: (a) American culture benefits foreign perceptions of education in the…

  12. Development of a new USDA plant hardiness zone map for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Daly; M.P. Widrlechner; M.D. Halbleib; J.I. Smith; W.P. Gibson

    2012-01-01

    In many regions of the world, the extremes of winter cold are a major determinant of the geographic distribution of perennial plant species and of their successful cultivation. In the United States, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Plant Hardiness Zone Map (PHZM) is the primary reference for defining geospatial patterns of extreme winter cold for the...

  13. Native American Arts and Crafts of the United States. Bibliography 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Washington, DC.

    The selected readings listed in this annotated bibliography are suggested as an introduction to the varied arts and crafts created from prehistoric to modern times by Native American peoples of the United States. The publications are organized by culture area to encompass major media practiced by Native American artists and craftsmen of these…

  14. Intraspecific Variability of Rotylenchulus reniformis from Cotton-growing Regions in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Agudelo, Paula; Robbins, Robert T.; Stewart, James McD.; Szalanski, Allen L.

    2005-01-01

    Reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) is a major pest of cotton in the southeastern United States. The objective of this study was to examine the variation of reniform nematode populations from cotton-growing locations in the United States where it is prevalent. Multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis were used to determine the variability of morphology in males and immature females. Reproduction indices of populations were measured on selected soybean and cotton ge...

  15. Major Sport Venues

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Major Public Venues dataset is composed of facilities that host events for the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Indy Racing League, Major League...

  16. Major Depression Among Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depressive Episode Among Adolescents Data Sources Share Major Depression Definitions Major depression is one of the most ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...

  17. Nations United: The United Nations, the United States, and the Global Campaign Against Terrorism. A Curriculum Unit & Video for Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlihan, Christina; McLeod, Shannon

    This curriculum unit and 1-hour videotape are designed to help students understand the purpose and functions of the United Nations (UN) and explore the relationship between the United Nations and the United States. The UN's role in the global counterterrorism campaign serves as a case study for the unit. The students are asked to develop a basic…

  18. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele T Jay-Russell

    Full Text Available In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6% dog and 5 (4.9% coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2% dog and 33 (32% coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2% of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1% of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the

  19. Effect of major lifestyle risk factors, independent and jointly, on life expectancy with and without cardiovascular disease: results from the Consortium on Health and Ageing Network of Cohorts in Europe and the United States (CHANCES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Mark G; Cairns, Karen; O'Neill, Vikki; Lamrock, Felicity; Jørgensen, Torben; Brenner, Hermann; Schöttker, Ben; Wilsgaard, Tom; Siganos, Galatios; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Boffetta, Paolo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kee, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Seldom have studies taken account of changes in lifestyle habits in the elderly, or investigated their impact on disease-free life expectancy (LE) and LE with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Using data on subjects aged 50+ years from three European cohorts (RCPH, ESTHER and Tromsø), we used multi-state Markov models to calculate the independent and joint effects of smoking, physical activity, obesity and alcohol consumption on LE with and without CVD. Men and women aged 50 years who have a favourable lifestyle (overweight but not obese, light/moderate drinker, non-smoker and participates in vigorous physical activity) lived between 7.4 (in Tromsø men) and 15.7 (in ESTHER women) years longer than those with an unfavourable lifestyle (overweight but not obese, light/moderate drinker, smoker and does not participate in physical activity). The greater part of the extra life years was in terms of "disease-free" years, though a healthy lifestyle was also associated with extra years lived after a CVD event. There are sizeable benefits to LE without CVD and also for survival after CVD onset when people favour a lifestyle characterized by salutary behaviours. Remaining a non-smoker yielded the greatest extra years in overall LE, when compared to the effects of routinely taking physical activity, being overweight but not obese, and drinking in moderation. The majority of the overall LE benefit is in disease free years. Therefore, it is important for policy makers and the public to know that prevention through maintaining a favourable lifestyle is "never too late".

  20. Prospects after Major Trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. After patients survived major trauma, their prospects, in terms of the consequences for functioning, are uncertain, which may impact severely on patient, family and society. The studies in this thesis describes the long-term outcomes of severe injured patients after major trauma. In

  1. The EU's major electricity and gas utilities since market liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuelke, Christian

    2011-06-01

    A major change has taken place in the company structure of the European electricity and gas markets. Twenty years ago, national or regional monopolies dominated the markets and there was strictly no competition between utilities. But since the liberalization of EU energy markets began in the 1990's, companies like E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, and RWE have become European giants with activities in a large number of Member States. The advocates of market liberalization did not expect, or even intend, the emergence of a small number of large utilities that control an increasing part of the EU market. Some observers already claim that liberalization has led to an oligopoly with detrimental consequences for competition. Based on extensive background research, this book presents a fact-based analysis of the changes in the European utility sector since the 1990's. Case studies of the seven largest utilities illustrate how companies adapted their strategies to the changing market environment. The author underlines diverging choices and common trends like geographic expansion into new markets via mergers and acquisitions or diversification of business activities with the aim of using synergies between electricity and gas. Contents: Executive Summary. Introduction. Seven Case Studies of Changing Strategies of Major European Energy Utilities since Market Liberalization (E.ON, GDF Suez, EDF, Enel, RWE, Iberdrola, Vattenfall, Other European Utilities). Overview of Major National and Regional Electricity and Gas Market in the EU (Germany, France, United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Nordic, Belgium and the Netherlands, Central and Eastern Europe). Conclusions. Annex. Bibliography

  2. Teen Pregnancy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... United States: the contribution of abstinence and improved contraceptive use. Am J Public Health. 2007;97(1):150-6. Lindberg LD, Santelli JS, Desai, S. Understanding the Decline in Adolescent Fertility in the United States, 2007–2012. J ...

  3. Major operations and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development.

  4. A major safety overhaul

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A redefined policy, a revamped safety course, an environmental project... the TIS (Technical Inspection and Safety) Division has begun a major safety overhaul. Its new head, Wolfgang Weingarten, explains to the Bulletin why and how this is happening.

  5. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  6. Major operations and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the major operations and activities on the site. These operations and activities include site management, waste management, environmental restoration and corrective actions, and research and technology development

  7. 31 CFR 598.317 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 598.317 Section 598.317 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 598.317 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  8. 31 CFR 596.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 596.312 Section 596.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 596.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its...

  9. 31 CFR 538.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 538.314 Section 538.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 538.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  10. 31 CFR 543.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 543.310 Section 543.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 543.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  11. 31 CFR 542.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 542.310 Section 542.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  12. 31 CFR 548.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 548.310 Section 548.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  13. 31 CFR 546.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 546.310 Section 546.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  14. 31 CFR 594.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 594.313 Section 594.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 594.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  15. 31 CFR 588.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 588.310 Section 588.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 588.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  16. 31 CFR 536.315 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 536.315 Section 536.315 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 536.315 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  17. 31 CFR 544.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 544.310 Section 544.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 544.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  18. 31 CFR 545.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 545.313 Section 545.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... Definitions § 545.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.23 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1205.23 Section 1205.23 Agriculture... Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.23 United States. The term United States means the 50 states of the United States of America. Procedures ...

  20. 31 CFR 595.314 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 595.314 Section 595.314 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 595.314 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  1. 31 CFR 586.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 586.318 Section 586...) KOSOVO SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 586.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority...

  2. 31 CFR 537.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 537.318 Section 537.318 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  3. 31 CFR 597.318 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 597.318 Section 597... General Definitions § 597.318 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories, states, commonwealths, districts, and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or...

  4. 31 CFR 560.307 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 560.307 Section 560.307 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 560.307 United States. The term United States means the United States, including its territories and...

  5. 31 CFR 593.311 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 593.311 Section 593.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.311 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  6. 31 CFR 585.316 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 585.316 Section 585.316 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 585.316 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  7. 31 CFR 575.319 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 575.319 Section 575.319 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....319 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  8. 31 CFR 539.312 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 539.312 Section 539.312 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 539.312 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  9. 31 CFR 551.309 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 551.309 Section 551.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF....309 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  10. 7 CFR 1219.26 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1219.26 Section 1219.26 Agriculture..., AND INFORMATION Hass Avocado Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1219.26 United States. United States means collectively the several 50 States of the United States, the District of...

  11. 31 CFR 587.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 587.310 Section 587...) MILOSEVIC SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 587.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions, and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority...

  12. 31 CFR 541.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 541.310 Section 541.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 541.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its territories and possessions...

  13. 31 CFR 540.313 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 540.313 Section 540.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.313 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  14. 31 CFR 547.310 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States. 547.310 Section 547.310 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... General Definitions § 547.310 United States. The term United States means the United States, its...

  15. United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browne, Marjorie A

    2008-01-01

    A major issue facing the United Nations, the United States, and the 110th Congress is the extent to which the United Nations has the capacity to restore or keep the peace in the changing world environment...

  16. United Nations Peacekeeping: Issues for Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Browne, Marjorie A

    2007-01-01

    A major issue facing the United Nations, the United States, and the 110th Congress is the extent to which the United Nations has the capacity to restore or keep the peace in the changing world environment...

  17. Major international sport profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R; Stier, Bernhard; Luckstead, Eugene F

    2002-08-01

    Sports are part of the sociocultural fabric of all countries. Although different sports have their origins in different countries, many sports are now played worldwide. International sporting events bring athletes of many cultures together and provide the opportunity not only for athletic competition but also for sociocultural exchange and understanding among people. This article reviews five major sports with international appeal and participation: cricket, martial arts, field hockey, soccer, and tennis. For each sport, the major aspects of physiological and biomechanical demands, injuries, and prevention strategies are reviewed.

  18. Major New Initiatives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Major New Initiatives. Multi-party multi-rate video conferencing OOPS. Live Lecture OOPS. Rural ATM Machine Vortex. Finger print detection HP-IITM. Medical Diagnostic kit NeuroSynaptic. LCD projection system TeNeT. Web Terminal MeTeL Midas. Entertainment ...

  19. Major planning enquiries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, P

    1978-11-01

    This is a speech delivered by the U.K. Secretary of State for the Environment in Manchester (UK) on September 13th 1978. It outlines the Minister's views on the role and significance of major planning inquiries - such as that proposed to be held on the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor. (CDFR) (author).

  20. Major Biomass Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top Scientists, Industry and Government Leaders to Gather for Major Biomass Conference America, South America and Europe will focus on building a sustainable, profitable biomass business at the Third Biomass Conference of the Americas in Montreal. Scheduled presentations will cover all biomass

  1. Unity in Major Themes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Davis, Philip J.

    We describe and explain the desire, common among mathematicians, both for unity and independence in its major themes. In the dialogue that follows, we express our spontaneous and considered judgment and reservations; by contrasting the development of mathematics as a goal-driven process as opposed...

  2. Could the United States Afford to Lose a Major Port?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    58 vi ACRONYMS AMS Area Maritime Security BLEVE Boiling-Liquid Expanding-Vapor-Explosion CBP...explosives (a USS Cole style attack), rocket-propelled grenades, fire rockets and limpet mines that would convert an LNG tanker into a floating giant...liquid expanding-vapor-explosion ( BLEVE ) to flash the terrorist would need to bypass all the mechanical fail

  3. Both Europe's and the United States' electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matly, M.

    2006-01-01

    While the United States quickly had the largest electrical indus in the world, electrification in rural areas ended about thirty years after most European countries. Public intervention is a deciding factor in completing electrification, and the late involvement by the American authorities explains the gap. However it would be wrong to oppose in Europe and in the United States a motivated public sector and little involved private companies. In both continents indeed, major private and public urban distributors were almost not involved in rural electrification processes, where local players prevailed: local communities around Europe, small and medium size business in some European countries such as France, co-operative companies in the United States. Additionally, there is an essential difference between electrification in Europe and in the United States. The former does not provide much more than lighting and its success leaves few traces in popular memories; the latter includes many facilities and services, changes the lives of rural populations and is celebrated a such. Whereas the colonial venture keep European economies away from their domestic markets, while in the United States the urban market growth contents large companies, the American co-operative movement is right to believe in the existence of a large electrical equipment market among farmers then considered poor and behind. It even uses the market to complete a more profitable and less costly electrification. Electricity stories that offer food for the thoughts of Third World decision makers and power companies, when they entrust most rural electrification to their large urban companies and deny the existence of a real equipment market in their own rural world. (author)

  4. The United States, the United Nations, and the Legitimation of the Use of Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    powerful enough in its own right to impose its will in issues or in areas where its most powerful Members disagreed. These parochial interests began to...34 Realism is descriptive, not teleological (as is Rationalism) nor prescriptive (Revolutionism). [Ref. 8:pp. 18-24] 13 The three traditions provide a...a subset of international interests. The interests of a civitas maxima, definable and attainable, override any supposed parochial national interests

  5. Special Reports; Homeland Security and Information Management; The Development of Electronic Government in the United States: The Federal Policy Experience; Digital Rights Management: Why Libraries Should Be Major Players; The Current State and Future Promise of Portal Applications; Recruitment and Retention: A Professional Concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relyea, Harold C.; Halchin, L. Elaine; Hogue, Henry B.; Agnew, Grace; Martin, Mairead; Schottlaender, Brian E. C.; Jackson, Mary E.

    2003-01-01

    Theses five reports address five special issues: the effects of the September 11 attacks on information management, including homeland security, Web site information removal, scientific and technical information, and privacy concerns; federal policy for electronic government information; digital rights management and libraries; library Web portal…

  6. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1994 is the eighteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 24 major U.S. energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the United States and abroad.

  7. Four New Course Competencies for Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leuven, Jim

    1999-01-01

    Notes changes in the past decade in the field of public relations. Proposes four new required core competencies for all undergraduate public-relations majors in programs housed in journalism/mass-communication units. Articulates these regarding appropriate outcomes, pedagogies, and assessment methods. Notes special considerations for small,…

  8. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  9. Major advances in globalization and consolidation of the artificial insemination industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, D A

    2006-04-01

    The artificial insemination (AI) industry in the United States has gone through many consolidations, mergers, and acquisitions over the past 25 yr. There are 5 major AI companies in the United States today: 3 large cooperatives, 1 private company, and 1 public company. The latter 2 have majority ownership outside of the United States. The AI industry in the United States progeny-tests more than 1,000 Holstein young sires per year. Because healthy, mature dairy bulls are capable of producing well over 100,000 straws of frozen semen per year, only a relatively small number of bulls are needed to breed the world's population of dairy cows. Most AI companies in the United States do not own many, if any, females and tend to utilize the same maternal families in their breeding programs. Little differences exist among the selection programs of the AI companies in the United States. The similarity of breeding programs and the extreme semen-production capabilities of bulls have contributed to difficulties the AI companies have had in developing genetically different product lines. Exports of North American Holstein genetics increased steadily from the 1970s into the 1990s because of the perceived superiority of North American Holsteins for dairy traits compared with European strains, especially for production. The breeding industry moved towards international genetic evaluations of bulls in the 1990s, with the International Bull Evaluation Service (Interbull) in Sweden coordinating the evaluations. The extensive exchange of elite genetics has led to a global dairy genetics industry with bulls that are closely related, and the average inbreeding level for the major dairy breeds continues to increase. Genetic markers have been used extensively and successfully by the industry for qualitative traits, especially for recessive genetic disorders, but markers have had limited impact for quantitative traits. Selection emphasis continues to migrate away from production traits and

  10. Should investors diversify their portfolios with stocks from major trading countries? A comparative multivariate GARCH-DCC and wavelet correlation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dwihasri, Dhaifina; Masih, Mansur

    2015-01-01

    The existing literature have evaluated the performance of stock markets without taking into account the time-varying correlations and different investment horizons of the investors. The present paper attempts to investigate to what extent the Indonesian sharia stock returns can earn portfolio diversification benefits if they are trading with sharia stocks from its major trading partners (China, Japan, United States). The recent Multivariate GARCH Dynamic Conditional Correlation, the Continuou...

  11. The Ursa Major supercluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuch, N.J.

    1983-01-01

    An optical and a radio survey have been carried out. The optical observations consist of a spectroscopic survey in which redshift data for cluster galaxies and optical identifications of radio sources were obtained with the 98-inch Isaac Newton telescope at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and the 200-inch Hale telescope; the photographic survey in B, V and R colors was made with the 48-inch Schmidt telescope at Palomar. Some results on the galaxy distribution in the Ursa Major supercluster are briefly discussed. (Auth.)

  12. China’s rise as a major contributor to science and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Zhang, Chunni; Lai, Qing

    2014-01-01

    In the past three decades, China has become a major contributor to science and technology. China now employs an increasingly large labor force of scientists and engineers at relatively high earnings and produces more science and engineering degrees than the United States at all levels, particularly bachelor’s. China’s research and development expenditure has been rising. Research output in China has been sharply increasing since 2002, making China the second largest producer of scientific papers after the United States. The quality of research by Chinese scientists has also been improving steadily. However, China’s rise in science also faces serious difficulties, partly attributable to its rigid, top–down administrative system, with allegations of scientific misconduct trending upward. PMID:24979796

  13. ATLAS' major cooling project

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    In 2005, a considerable effort has been put into commissioning the various units of ATLAS' complex cryogenic system. This is in preparation for the imminent cooling of some of the largest components of the detector in their final underground configuration. The liquid helium and nitrogen ATLAS refrigerators in USA 15. Cryogenics plays a vital role in operating massive detectors such as ATLAS. In many ways the liquefied argon, nitrogen and helium are the life-blood of the detector. ATLAS could not function without cryogens that will be constantly pumped via proximity systems to the superconducting magnets and subdetectors. In recent weeks compressors at the surface and underground refrigerators, dewars, pumps, linkages and all manner of other components related to the cryogenic system have been tested and commissioned. Fifty metres underground The helium and nitrogen refrigerators, installed inside the service cavern, are an important part of the ATLAS cryogenic system. Two independent helium refrigerators ...

  14. Securing Major Events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeoef, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    When asked why the IAEA should provide nuclear security support to countries that organize large public events, Nuclear Security Officer Sophia Miaw answers quickly and without hesitation. ''Imagine any major public event such as the Olympics, a football championship, or an Expo. If a dirty bomb were to be exploded at a site where tens of thousands of people congregate, the radioactive contamination would worsen the effects of the bomb, increase the number of casualties, impede a rapid emergency response, and cause long term disruption in the vicinity,'' she said. Avoiding such nightmarish scenarios is the driving purpose behind the assistance the IAEA offers States that host major sporting or other public events. The support can range from a single training course to a comprehensive programme that includes threat assessment, training, loaned equipment and exercises. The type and scope of assistance depends on the host country's needs. ''We incorporate nuclear security measures into their security plan. We don't create anything new,'' Miaw said

  15. Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Grobler

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The treatment guideline draws on several international guidelines: (iPractice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association (APAfor the Treatment of Patients with Major Depressive Disorder, SecondEdition;[1](ii Clinical Guidelines for the Treatment of DepressiveDisorders by the Canadian Psychiatric Association and the CanadianNetwork for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT;[2](iiiNational Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE guidelines;[3](iv RoyalAustralian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists Clinical PracticeGuidelines Team for Depression (RANZCAP;[4](v Texas MedicationAlgorithm Project (TMAP Guidelines;[5](vi World Federation ofSocieties of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP Treatment Guideline forUnipolar Depressive Disorder;[6]and (vii British Association forPsychopharmacology Guidelines.[7

  16. 7 CFR 1221.32 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1221.32 Section 1221.32 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.32 United States. United States or U.S. means collectively the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of...

  17. 7 CFR 1216.30 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1216.30 Section 1216.30 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Peanut Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1216.30 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  18. 7 CFR 1218.22 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States. 1218.22 Section 1218.22 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Blueberry Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1218.22 United States. United States means collectively the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  19. Major economies Forum on energy and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Major Economies Forum is intended to facilitate an open dialogue among major developed and developing economies, help generate the political leadership necessary to achieve a successful outcome at the United Nations climatic change conference in Copenhagen, and advance the exploration of concrete initiatives and joint ventures that increase the supply of clean energy while cutting greenhouse gas emissions. The Forum's second preparatory meeting was held in Paris in May 2009, mainly focused on greenhouse gas emissions reduction actions and objectives, the diffusion of clean technologies, the financing of activities for climate protection and adaptation to climatic change impacts

  20. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  1. Racial Conflict in the United States: What Should Be Done? Grade Twelve. [Resource Unit V.] Project Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This is the fifth of seven resource units for a twelfth grade course on value conflicts and policy decisions. The topic for this unit is racial conflict in the United States. The introduction explains how this unit coincides with other units of the K-12 series which have treated intergroup relations. The objectives are listed as to…

  2. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  3. Judicial Process, Grade Eight. Resource Unit (Unit V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This resource unit, developed by the University of Minnesota's Project Social Studies, introduces eighth graders to the judicial process. The unit was designed with two major purposes in mind. First, it helps pupils understand judicial decision-making, and second, it provides for the study of the rights guaranteed by the federal Constitution. Both…

  4. Overview of nuclear export policies of major foreign supplier nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The United States faces increased competition from foreign nuclear suppliers, including West Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Canada, and possibly, in the near future, Japan. This general overview shows the differences and similarities in foreign nuclear supplier export requirements. It is based on summaries furnished by the Department of State covering the nuclear export policies and procedures of the major foreign supplier nations

  5. Weaving History through the Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Betty

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of including the study of the history of mathematics in the education of mathematics majors have been discussed at length elsewhere. Many colleges and universities now offer a History of Mathematics course for mathematics majors, for mathematics education majors, or for general credit. At Hood College, we emphasize our commitment to…

  6. Unit Manning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinniss, Mike

    2003-01-01

    .... This decision combines two crucial initiatives: first, transforming the Army from an individual soldier replacement system to a unit manning system that enhances cohesion and keeps trained soldiers, leaders, and commanders together longer, thereby...

  7. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  8. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non–STEM Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students—including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences—if any exist—between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non–STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non–STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non–STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non–STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non–STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse—with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills—than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. PMID:28798210

  9. Drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umanchik, N P; Demin, A V; Khrustalev, N N; Linnik, G N; Lovchev, S V; Rozin, M M; Sidorov, R V; Sokolov, S I; Tsaregradskiy, Yu P

    1981-01-01

    A drilling unit is proposed which includes a hydraulic lifter, hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump with valve distribution and sectional drilling pump with separators of the working and flushing fluid. In order to reduce metal consumption and the overall dimensions of the drilling unit, the working cavity of each cylinder of the hydraulic multiple-cylinder pump is equipped with suction and injection valves and is hydraulically connected to the working cavity by one of the sections of the drilling pump.

  10. 7 CFR 1220.129 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1220.129 Section 1220.129... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.129 State and United States. The terms State and United States include the 50 States of the United States of America, the District...

  11. Interdisciplinary Project Experiences: Collaboration between Majors and Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarkusky, Debra L.; Toman, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Students in computer science and information technology should be engaged in solving real-world problems received from government and industry as well as those that expose them to various areas of application. In this paper, we discuss interdisciplinary project experiences between majors and non-majors that offered a creative and innovative…

  12. Do Biology Majors Really Differ from Non-STEM Majors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotner, Sehoya; Thompson, Seth; Wright, Robin

    2017-01-01

    Recent calls to action urge sweeping reform in science education, advocating for improved learning for all students-including those majoring in fields beyond the sciences. However, little work has been done to characterize the differences-if any exist-between students planning a career in science and those studying other disciplines. We describe an attempt to clarify, in broad terms, how non-STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) majors differ from life sciences majors, and how they are similar. Using survey responses and institutional data, we find that non-STEM majors are not unilaterally science averse; non-STEM majors are more likely than biology majors to hold misconceptions about the nature of science, yet they are not completely ignorant of how science works; non-STEM majors are less likely than biology majors to see science as personally relevant; and non-STEM majors populations are likely to be more diverse-with respect to incoming knowledge, perceptions, backgrounds, and skills-than a biology majors population. We encourage science educators to consider these characteristics when designing curricula for future scientists or simply for a well-informed citizenry. © 2017 S. Cotner et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2017 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Unit labour costs, productivity and international competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ark, Bart van; Stuivenwold, Edwin; Ypma, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides international comparisons of relative levels of unit labour costs (ULC) for several OECD countries relative to the United States. The estimates are based on the Total Economy Database and the 60-Industry Database of the Groningen Growth and Development Centre (GGDC), and are also

  14. Teaching Annuities to Mathematics Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, James R.

    1980-01-01

    This article contains a sequence of topics from the mathematics of annuities presented in a way that can be used as a brief unit on business applications at the level of intermediate or college algebra. (Author/MK)

  15. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  16. Unconventional Internships for English Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Don H.

    After five years of research, the English department at St. Cloud (Minnesota) State University created an internship program for English majors. The philosophy behind the program is that the typical experience of the English major in college is excellent preparation for what the college graduate will be doing in most careers in business,…

  17. Do You Have Major Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Depression Do You Have Major Depression? Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Simple ... member may have major depression. —NIMH Types of Depression Just like other illnesses, such as heart disease, ...

  18. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 1. Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  19. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 5. Multinational Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  20. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 6. Foreign Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  1. Stenting of major airway constriction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaomei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlated issues in the stenting treatment of major airway constriction. Methods: Nineteen cases of major airway stenting procedure were studied retrospectively. The clinical choice of stents of different advantages or deficiencies were discussed. The importance of intravenous anesthesia supporting, life-parameters monitoring during the procedures and the prevention of complications were analysed. Results: Under intravenous and local anesthesia, 19 Wallstents had been successively placed and relieved 19 cases of major airway constrictions due to malignant or benign diseases (15 of tumors, 3 of tuberculosis, 1 of tracheomalacia). Intravenous anesthesia and life-parameters monitoring had made the procedures more safe and precise. Conclusions: Major airway stenting is an reliable method for relieving tracheobronchial stenosis; and intravenous anesthesia supporting and life-parameters monitoring guarantee the satisfactions of procedures

  2. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  3. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Physiographic Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This dataset represents the area of each physiographic province (Fenneman and Johnson, 1946) in square meters, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data are from Fenneman and Johnson's Physiographic Provinces of the United States, which is based on 8 major divisions, 25 provinces, and 86 sections representing distinctive areas having common topography, rock type and structure, and geologic and geomorphic history (Fenneman and Johnson, 1946). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins

  4. Liquid in the major incision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera Jaramillo, Diego Alberto; Ortega Jaramillo, Hector

    2003-01-01

    We present the case of a patient with spill pleural extending in the left major incision. In the chest thorax PA, we could observe one of the complex radiographic appearances that take the reconfiguration of fluid in this localization, being this appearance dependent of the patient's position. Some points are also discussed on the anatomy of the major incisions and some of their radiographic characteristics

  5. United States advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longenecker, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the United States, the advanced technologies have been applied to uranium enrichment as a means by which it can be assured that nuclear fuel cost will remain competitive in the future. The United States is strongly committed to the development of advanced enrichment technology, and has brought both advanced gas centrifuge (AGC) and atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) programs to a point of significant technical refinement. The ability to deploy advanced technologies is the basis for the confidence in competitive future price. Unfortunately, the development of advanced technologies is capital intensive. The year 1985 is the key year for advanced technology development in the United States, since the decision on the primary enrichment technology for the future, AGC or AVLIS, will be made shortly. The background on the technology selection process, the highlights of AGC and AVLIS programs and the way to proceed after the process selection are described. The key objective is to maximize the sales volume and minimize the operating cost. This will help the utilities in other countries supply low cost energy on a reliable, long term basis. (Kako, I.)

  6. Gender of Siblings and Choice of College Major

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Anelli; Giovanni Peri

    2013-01-01

    Find It(opens in a new window)|View at Publisher| Export | Download | Save to list | More... CESifo Economic Studies Volume 61, Issue 1, 2015, Pages 53-71 Gender of siblings and choice of college major (Article) Anelli, M.a , Peri, G.b a Department of Economics, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, United States b CESifo, Department of Economics, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA, United States View ...

  7. United States mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brobst, Donald A.; Pratt, Walden P.

    1973-01-01

    650 of the U.S. Bureau of Mines) ; indeed, we regard that book and the present volume as being complementary. In the examination of the geologic possibilities for finding new deposits-in many respects the principal innovative contributions of this volume-we asked the authors to frankly apply the limits of their ingenuity and not only to summarize current theories but also to express their own intuitive ideas, however speculative and unconventional they may seem, that have come from years of study devoted to the origin of mineral deposits. Readers will see that some authors have speculated more courageously than others. In any case, we believe readers will find all the chapters interesting, and many stimulating; and a few we believe can be frankly characterized as intellectually exciting. Most chapters include a section on prospecting techniques, and a summary of geologic or related problems on which the authors believe research might be most fruitful in the continuing efforts to find new resources. An integral part of the book is the bibliographic material cited at the conclusion of each chapter, in lieu of repetition of detailed descriptions already in print. Index and "spot" maps are not included in most chapters because they are available elsewhere, and in many cases with more detail than could possibly be included here. Maps showing the distribution of known deposits of many commodities in the United States are available in the Mineral Resource (MR) map series of the U.S. Geological Survey and in the National Atlas of the United States. The first three chapters deal not with resources of specific commodities but with general information that is pertinent to the study of mineral resources. In the introductory chapter we discuss the purposes of the book, the distinctions between reserves and various categories of resources, and some general conclusions drawn from our view of the book in its entirety. In the second chapter V. E. McKelvey discusses the problems of

  8. Microcontroller Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulaev, A.B.

    1994-01-01

    The general purpose micro controller unit based on 8-bit single-chip microcomputer of the MCS-51 family is described. The controller has the data and program memories, a serial interface and an external bus for functional I/O extensions. The controller consists of a microcomputer chip, up to 4 ROM-RAM chips and 10 SSI and MSI chips, and it measures 160x120 mm. Both hardware and software micro system debugging tools are described. (author). 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Major Decisions: Motivations for Selecting a Major, Satisfaction, and Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Krista M.; Stebleton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between students' motivations for choosing academic majors and their satisfaction and sense of belonging on campus. Based on a multi-institutional survey of students who attended large, public, research universities in 2009, the results suggest that external extrinsic motivations for selecting a major…

  10. Management of planned unit outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, W.

    1984-01-01

    Management of planned unit outages at the Bruno Leuschner Nuclear Power Plant is based on the experience gained with Soviet PWR units of the WWER type over a period of more than 50 reactor-years. For PWR units, planned outages concentrate almost exclusively on annual refuellings and major maintenance of the power plant facilities involved. Planning of such major maintenance work is based on a standardized basic network plan and a catalogue of standardized maintenance and inspection measures. From these, an overall maintenance schedule of the unit and partial process plans of the individual main components are derived (manually or by computer) and, in the temporal integration of major maintenance at every unit, fixed starting times and durations are determined. More than 75% of the maintenance work at the Bruno Leuschner Nuclear Power Plant is carried out by the plant's own maintenance personnel. Large-scale maintenance of every unit is controlled by a special project head. He is assisted by commissioners, each of whom is responsible for his own respective item. A daily control report is made. The organizational centre is a central office which works in shifts around the clock. All maintenance orders and reports of completion pass through this office; thus, the overall maintenance schedule can be corrected daily. To enforce the proposed operational strategy, suitable accompanying technical measures are required with respect to effective facility monitoring and technical diagnosis, purposeful improvement of particularly sensitive components and an increase in the effectiveness of maintenance work by special technologies and devices. (author)

  11. Personality, academic majors and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Anna; Thomsen, Dorthe Kirkegaard; Larsen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Personality–performance research typically uses samples of psychology students without questioning their representativeness. The present article reports two studies challenging this practice. Study 1: group differences in the Big Five personality traits were explored between students (N = 1067......) in different academic majors (medicine, psychology, law, economics, political science, science, and arts/humanities), who were tested immediately after university enrolment. Study 2: six and a half years later the students’ academic records were obtained, and predictive validity of the Big Five personality...... traits and their subordinate facets was examined in the various academic majors in relation to Grade Point Average (GPA). Significant group differences in all Big Five personality traits were found between students in different academic majors. Also, variability in predictive validity of the Big Five...

  12. Major disruption process in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Gen-ichi; Azumi, Masafumi; Tuda, Takashi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Tokuda, Shinji; Itoh, Kimitaka; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1981-11-01

    The major disruption in a cylindrical tokamak is investigated by using the multi-helicity code, and the destabilization of the 3/2 mode by the mode coupling with the 2/1 mode is confirmed. The evolution of the magnetic field topology caused by the major disruption is studied in detail. The effect of the internal disruption on the 2/1 magnetic island width is also studied. The 2/1 magnetic island is not enhanced by the flattening of the q-profile due to the internal disruption. (author)

  13. Formação docente nos Estados Unidos: aliança conservadora e seus conflitos na atual reforma educacional norte-americana Teacher education in the United States: the conservative alliance and its conflicts on the current educational reform in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Emílio Diniz-Pereira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é discutir o atual processo de reforma educacional nos Estados Unidos e da implantação de mudanças na formação docente desse país, à luz das análises dos professores Michael Apple e Kenneth Zeichner. A principal tese defendida neste texto é de que alianças conservadoras, percebidas por Apple e que vêm sendo estabelecidas na reforma da educação como um todo nos EUA, são mais complexas de serem reproduzidas na implementação de mudanças na formação docente desse país, conforme análise apresentada por Zeichner. Não é propósito deste texto fazer uma análise do tipo " educação comparada" com a reforma educacional e da formação de professores no Brasil. Todavia, o leitor poderá perceber uma série de semelhanças - e também diferenças - entre o que vem acontecendo no vizinho do norte e a realidade do nosso país.The goal of this article is to discuss the current educational reform in the United States and the implementation of changes on teacher education at this country, based upon Michael Apple's and Kenneth Zeichner's analyses. The core idea defended by this paper is that conservative alliances, as they have been portrayed by Apple, and which have been created during this educational reform in the US, are harder to be reproduced for the implementation of changes on its teacher education programs, as Zeichner has pointed out. This paper does not intend to present a sort of comparative education analysis with the current Brazilian educational and teacher education reforms. However, the reader of this paper might realize a set of similarities - and differences as well - between these two countries in terms of their educational and teacher education reforms.

  14. The Auto Industry. Grade Nine. Resource Unit (Unit IV). Project Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    Unit four of this curriculum plan for ninth grade social studies outlines a study of the automobile industry in the United States. Objectives state the desired generalizations, skills, and attitudes to be developed. A condensed outline of course content precedes expanded guidelines for teaching procedures and suggested resource materials. A…

  15. Major KEEP Findings, 1971 - 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamehameha Schools, Honolulu, HI. Kamehameha Early Education Project.

    This report lists the 34 major research findings from the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) for the years 1971-1975. Each finding is accompanied by a listing of KEEP technical reports and working papers which contain information relevant to that finding. Included among areas covered in the findings are: (1) student motivation, (2) teacher…

  16. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    Given a set P of n coloured points on the real line, we study the problem of answering range α-majority (or "heavy hitter") queries on P. More specifically, for a query range Q, we want to return each colour that is assigned to more than an α-fraction of the points contained in Q. We present a ne...

  17. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  18. Epidemiology of major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious health problem and will be the second leading cause of burden of disease worldwide by 2030. To be able to prevent MDD, insight into risk factors for the onset of MDD is of clear importance. On the other hand, if onset of MDD has occurred, one may argue

  19. Rediscovering Major N. Clark Smith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Reginald T.

    1985-01-01

    Historians of American music education have yet to recognize a Black music educator as important and worthy of observation. This article discusses a candidate--Major Nathaniel Clark Smith, a little-known Black music educator, composer of more than a hundred works, businessman, humanitarian, and teacher of numerous big-name jazz musicians. (RM)

  20. Endocrinopathies in thalassemia major patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, D. A.; Yunir, E. M.

    2018-03-01

    Advanced in chelation therapy and regular blood transfusion have marked improvements in the life expectancy of patients with thalassemia major, however these patients still have to deal with several complications. We report a 19-year-old male, presented with multiple endocrine complication-related thalassemia; hypogonadism, short stature, osteoporosis with history of fracture, and subclinical hypothyroid.

  1. Physics momentum 'stars' draw majors

    CERN Multimedia

    Lindström, I

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, the number of University of Arizona students declaring physics as their major has doubled, amid a national decline. According to a recent report by the National Task Force on Undergraduate Physics, it is the university's dedication to its undergraduate physics program which draws students in (1 page).

  2. Major Depression Can Be Prevented

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Ricardo F.; Beardslee, William R.; Leykin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    The 2009 Institute of Medicine report on prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders (National Research Council & Institute of Medicine, 2009b) presented evidence that major depression can be prevented. In this article, we highlight the implications of the report for public policy and research. Randomized controlled trials have shown…

  3. Dirichlet polynomials, majorization, and trumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Rajesh; Plosker, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Majorization and trumping are two partial orders which have proved useful in quantum information theory. We show some relations between these two partial orders and generalized Dirichlet polynomials, Mellin transforms, and completely monotone functions. These relations are used to prove a succinct generalization of Turgut’s characterization of trumping. (paper)

  4. Managemant of NASA's major projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, L. B.

    1973-01-01

    Approaches used to manage major projects are studied and the existing documents on NASA management are reviewed. The work consists of: (1) the project manager's role, (2) request for proposal, (3) project plan, (4) management information system, (5) project organizational thinking, (6) management disciplines, (7) important decisions, and (8) low cost approach.

  5. Solar unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, A M; Trushevskiy, S N; Tveryanovich, E V

    1982-01-01

    A solar unit is proposed which contains an inclined solar collector with supply and outlet pipelines, the first of which is connected to the source of a heat carrier, while the second is connected through the valve to the tank for collecting heated heat carrier equipped with a device for recovery. In order to improve the effectiveness of heating the heat carrier, it additionally contains a concentrator of solar radiation and a device for maintaining a level of the heat carrier in the collector in the zone of the focal spot of the concentrator, while the heat pipeline is connected to the source of the heat carrier with the help of a device for maintaining the level of the heat carrier.

  6. 7 CFR 1209.21 - State and United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false State and United States. 1209.21 Section 1209.21... Definitions § 1209.21 State and United States. (a) State means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. (b) United States means collectively the several States of...

  7. Distance majorization and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Eric C; Zhou, Hua; Lange, Kenneth

    2014-08-01

    The problem of minimizing a continuously differentiable convex function over an intersection of closed convex sets is ubiquitous in applied mathematics. It is particularly interesting when it is easy to project onto each separate set, but nontrivial to project onto their intersection. Algorithms based on Newton's method such as the interior point method are viable for small to medium-scale problems. However, modern applications in statistics, engineering, and machine learning are posing problems with potentially tens of thousands of parameters or more. We revisit this convex programming problem and propose an algorithm that scales well with dimensionality. Our proposal is an instance of a sequential unconstrained minimization technique and revolves around three ideas: the majorization-minimization principle, the classical penalty method for constrained optimization, and quasi-Newton acceleration of fixed-point algorithms. The performance of our distance majorization algorithms is illustrated in several applications.

  8. Neurobiology of Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Villanueva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We survey studies which relate abnormal neurogenesis to major depressive disorder. Clinically, descriptive gene and protein expression analysis and genetic and functional studies revised here show that individual alterations of a complex signaling network, which includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; the production of neurotrophins and growth factors; the expression of miRNAs; the production of proinflammatory cytokines; and, even, the abnormal delivery of gastrointestinal signaling peptides, are able to induce major mood alterations. Furthermore, all of these factors modulate neurogenesis in brain regions involved in MDD, and are functionally interconnected in such a fashion that initial alteration in one of them results in abnormalities in the others. We highlight data of potential diagnostic significance and the relevance of this information to develop new therapeutic approaches. Controversial issues, such as whether neurogenesis is the basis of the disease or whether it is a response induced by antidepressant treatments, are also discussed.

  9. Transfusion transmitted malaria in three major blood banks of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study estimates the risk of acquiring malaria from a single unit of blood in North of Pakistan. A prospective study was conducted to investigate transfusion transmitted malaria in three major blood banks of Peshawar, Pakistan. A total of 1558 (1534 males and 24 females) healthy volunteer blood donors were screened for ...

  10. Consumers with Major Depressive Disorder: Factors Influencing Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Haase, Eileen; Zeglin, Robert J.; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) was applied to study the factors that influence the intention of public rehabilitation placement professionals to place consumers with major depressive disorder (MDD) in jobs. A sample of 108 public rehabilitation placement professionals in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States completed the MDD…

  11. Cable Television: Technical Considerations in Franchising Major Market Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilnick, Carl

    The 1972 Federal Communications Commission's (FCC) regulations on cable television were intended to assist the penetration of cable television into the large metropolitan regions of the United States. In these major market areas, the task for developing an appropriate franchise is complicated by the changing functional nature of the cable systems…

  12. The Chemistry of Perfume: A Laboratory Course for Nonscience Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jennifer L.; Rumbaugh, Craig E.

    2012-01-01

    "The Chemistry of Perfume" is a lab-only course for nonscience majors. Students learn fundamental concepts of chemistry through the context of fragrance, a pervasive aspect of daily life. The course consists of laboratories pertaining to five units: introduction, extraction, synthesis, characterization, and application. The introduction unit…

  13. Termination unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeholt, Chresten [Frederiksberg, DK; Willen, Dag [Klagshamn, SE; Roden, Mark [Newnan, GA; Tolbert, Jerry C [Carrollton, GA; Lindsay, David [Carrollton, GA; Fisher, Paul W [Heiskell, TN; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann [Jaegerspris, DK

    2014-01-07

    This invention relates to a termination unit comprising an end-section of a cable. The end section of the cable defines a central longitudinal axis and comprising end-parts of N electrical phases, an end-part of a neutral conductor and a surrounding thermally insulation envelope adapted to comprising a cooling fluid. The end-parts of the N electrical phases and the end-part of the neutral conductor each comprising at least one electrical conductor and being arranged in the cable concentrically around a core former with a phase 1 located relatively innermost, and phase N relatively outermost in the cable, phase N being surrounded by the neutral conductor, electrical insulation being arrange between neighboring electrical phases and between phase N and the neutral conductor, and wherein the end-parts of the neutral conductor and the electrical phases each comprise a contacting surface electrically connected to at least one branch current lead to provide an electrical connection: The contacting surfaces each having a longitudinal extension, and being located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section of the cable. The branch current leads being individually insulated from said thermally insulation envelope by individual electrical insulators.

  14. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  15. The impact of major trauma network triage systems on patients with major burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamoglu, Metin; O'Connor, Edmund Fitzgerald; Bache, Sarah; Theodorakopoulou, Evgenia; Sen, Sankhya; Sherren, Peter; Barnes, David; Dziewulski, Peter

    2016-12-01

    Trauma is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Patients presenting with severe trauma and burns benefit from specifically trained multidisciplinary teams. Regional trauma systems have shown improved outcomes for trauma patients. The aim of this study is to determine whether the development of major trauma systems have improved the management of patients with major burns. A retrospective study was performed over a four-year period reviewing all major burns in adults and children received at a regional burns centre in the UK before and after the implementation of the regional trauma systems and major trauma centres (MTC). Comparisons were drawn between three areas: (1) Patients presenting before the introduction of MTC and after the introduction of MTC. (2) Patients referred from MTC and non-MTC within the region, following the introduction of MTC. (3) Patients referred using the urban trauma protocol and the rural trauma protocol. Following the introduction of regional trauma systems and major trauma centres (MTC), isolated burn patients seen at our regional burns centre did not show any significant improvement in transfer times, admission resuscitation parameters, organ dysfunction or survival when referred from a MTC compared to a non-MTC emergency department. There was also no significant difference in survival when comparing referrals from all hospitals pre and post establishment of the major trauma network. No significant outcome benefit was demonstrated for burns patients referred via MTCs compared to non-MTCs. We suggest further research is needed to ascertain whether burns patients benefit from prolonged transfer times to a MTC compared to those seen at their local hospitals prior to transfer to a regional burns unit for further specialist care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Frame complexity and the Financial Crisis: a comparison of the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany 2007-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinnijenhuis, J.; Schultz, F.; Oegema, D.

    2015-01-01

    Communicative complexity concerns the variety of issues and stakeholders (agenda complexity) and their associations (frame complexity) in the news. One issue may dominate news in crises (9/11, Katrina), but as soon as complexity recovers, uncertainty may decrease and the public mood may improve. The

  17. Major Oil Plays in Utah and Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Douglas A. Sprinkel; Roger L. Bon; Hellmut H. Doelling

    2003-12-31

    fractured and sealed by overlying argillaceous and non-fractured units. The best outcrop analogs for Twin Creek reservoirs are found at Devils Slide and near the town of Peoa, Utah, where fractures in dense, homogeneous non-porous limestone beds are in contact with the basal siltstone units (containing sealed fractures) of the overlying units. The shallow marine, Mississippian Leadville Limestone is a major oil and gas reservoir in the Paradox Basin of Utah and Colorado. Hydrocarbons are produced from basement-involved, northwest-trending structural traps with closure on both anticlines and faults. Excellent outcrops of Leadville-equivalent rocks are found along the south flank of the Uinta Mountains, Utah. For example, like the Leadville, the Mississippian Madison Limestone contains zones of solution breccia, fractures, and facies variations. When combined with subsurface geological and production data, these outcrop analogs can improve (1) development drilling and production strategies such as horizontal drilling, (2) reservoir-simulation models, (3) reserve calculations, and (4) design and implementation of secondary/tertiary oil recovery programs and other best practices used in the oil fields of Utah and vicinity. In the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin, optimal drilling, development, and production practices consist of: (1) owning drilling rigs and frac holding tanks; (2) perforating sandstone beds with more than 8 percent neutron porosity and stimulate with separate fracture treatments; (3) placing completed wells on primary production using artificial lift; (4) converting wells relatively soon to secondary waterflooding maintaining reservoir pressure above the bubble point to maximize oil recovery; (5) developing waterflood units using an alternating injector--producer pattern on 40-acre (16-ha) spacing; and (6) recompleting producing wells by perforating all beds that are productive in the waterflood unit. As part of technology transfer

  18. Attributes for NHDplus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Population Density, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMottem, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average population density, in number of people per square kilometer multiplied by 10 for the year 2000, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data set is the 2000 Population Density by Block Group for the Conterminous United States (Hitt, 2003). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 3 and 6. MRB3, covering the Great Lakes, Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Souris-Red-Rainy River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 4, 5

  19. Epidemiology of major depressive disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Stegenga, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a serious health problem and will be the second leading cause of burden of disease worldwide by 2030. To be able to prevent MDD, insight into risk factors for the onset of MDD is of clear importance. On the other hand, if onset of MDD has occurred, one may argue that different course patterns of MDD can be identified and that it is essential to examine their relationship to symptoms and function over time. Insight into these course patterns could assist in p...

  20. Aostra claims major oilsands breakthrough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Alberta Oil Sands Technology and Research Authority (Aostra) has completed a horizontal well in-situ steam injection project it calls a major breakthrough in commercially producing bitumen from the bast Athabasca oilsands deposit in Alberta. Aostra the its $71 million (Canadian) proof of concept pilot underground test facility (UTF) near Fort McMurray, achieved a 60% bitumen recovery rate, compared with less than 20% recovery typically achieved with Alberta bitumen. More than 100,000 bbl of bitumen was produced during the project

  1. Vanpooling: the three major approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, P.M.

    1979-08-01

    The manual provides technical assistance to existing or prospective vanpool sponsors. It is designed to help them promote vanpooling in its three major approaches: employer sponsored, third party sponsored, and driver owned and operated. The first chapter is an overview of vanpooling and a second chapter, on vanpool marketing, is addressed to ridesharing coordinators and others whose responsibilities include the promotion of vanpooling. Some fact sheets on the three approaches provide convenient summaries of the needs and opportunities of each approach and suggest solutions to practical problems likely to be encountered in starting new vanpool programs.

  2. Majority rule on heterogeneous networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambiotte, R

    2008-01-01

    We focus on the majority rule (MR) applied on heterogeneous networks. When the underlying topology is homogeneous, the system is shown to exhibit a transition from an ordered regime to a disordered regime when the noise is increased. When the network exhibits modular structures, in contrast, the system may also exhibit an asymmetric regime, where the nodes in each community reach an opposite average opinion. Finally, the node degree heterogeneity is shown to play an important role by displacing the location of the order-disorder transition and by making the system exhibit non-equipartition of the average spin

  3. Societal risk and major disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, C.F.

    1989-01-01

    A disaster can be defined as an event, or a series of events, in which a large number of people is adversely affected by a single cause. This definition includes man-made accidents, like that at Chernobyl, as well as the natural disasters that insurance companies are sometimes pleased to describe as Acts of God. In 1986 alone, 12,000 people died and 2.2 million were made homeless by 215 major accidents or disasters. The nature of risk is examined in this paper. (author)

  4. 37 CFR 1.412 - The United States Receiving Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Information § 1.412 The United States Receiving Office. (a) The United States Patent and Trademark Office is a Receiving Office only for applicants who are residents or nationals of the United States of America. (b) The... “United States Receiving Office” or by the abbreviation “RO/US.” (c) The major functions of the Receiving...

  5. Pediatric emergency department census during major sporting events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tommy Y; Barcega, Besh B; Denmark, T Kent

    2012-11-01

    Our study attempted to evaluate the effects of major sporting events on the census of a pediatric emergency department (ED) in the United States specifically related to the National Football League Super Bowl, National Basketball Association (NBA) Finals, and Major League Baseball World Series. We performed a retrospective data analysis of our pediatric ED census on the number of visits during major sporting events over a 5-year period. Data during the same period 1 week after the major sporting event were collected for comparison as the control. We evaluated the medians of 2-hour increments around the event start time. Subgroup analysis was performed for games involving the local sporting teams. Our results showed no significant difference in ED census during the sporting events, except in the post 6 to 8 hours of the NBA finals. Subgroup analysis of the Los Angeles Lakers showed the same significant findings in the post 6 to 8 hours of the NBA finals. No major difference in pediatric ED census is observed during the most major sporting events in the United States.

  6. Major Environmental Policy in 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hong Jin [Ministry Of Environment, Kwachon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    As a new millennium has started, there are active movements developing a basic paradigm of vision and policy over a nation-wide to prepare changes actively. For the environmental sector, it is possible to live in a pleasant environment if everyone prepare and work together like dealing with Y2K problem. With a goal of being an environmentally advanced country in the early new millennium, it is planned to improve a basic life environment such as water and air and to promote an advanced environmental management policy for showing results of its reform in 2000. Therefore, it examines environmental management circumstances and a direction of environmental policy first and it discusses more about major environmental policy related to petroleum industry. 7 tabs.

  7. Neuroticism in remitted major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders; Kristoffersen, Marius; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2015-01-01

    not been consistent. METHOD: We examined neuroticism, extraversion and perceived stress in 88 fully remitted depressed patients with a mean age of 60 years and with a history of hospitalization for major depressive disorder. Patients were divided into those with onset after and those with onset before 50......BACKGROUND: The personality trait of neuroticism is strongly related to depression, but depression is etiologically heterogeneous. Late-onset depression (LOD) may be more closely related to vascular factors, and previous studies of neuroticism in LOD versus early-onset depression (EOD) have...... age of onset and neuroticism was confirmed in analyses based on age of depression onset as a continuous variable. CONCLUSION: Neuroticism may be an etiological factor in EOD but not or less so in LOD. This finding contributes to the growing evidence for etiological differences between early- and late...

  8. A comparative analysis of leaving home in the United States, the Netherlands and West Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate how leaving the parental home differs between three countries with different welfare-state and housing systems: the USA, the Netherlands and West Germany. Using longitudinal survey data, we examine the transitions of leaving home to live with and without a partner. We find that, much more than in the European countries, union formation has become separated from leaving home in the USA. We also find a different impact of level of education and employment status on leaving-home patterns in the European countries with their social-welfare state system than in the US system in which market forces prevail. The differences are not just related to welfare-state systems but also to the sizes of the countries and the geographical dispersion of jobs and educational opportunities.

  9. Cross-cultural adjustment to the United States: The role of contextualized extraversion change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengqiao eLiu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Personality traits can predict how well sojourners and expatriates adjust to new cultures, but the adjustment process remains largely unexamined. Based on recent findings that reveal personality traits predict as well as respond to life events and experiences, this research focuses on within-person change in contextualized extraversion and its predictive validity for cross-cultural adjustment in international students who newly arrived in U.S. colleges. We proposed that the initial level as well as the rate of change in school extraversion (i.e., contextualized extraversion that reflects behavioral tendency in school settings will predict cross-cultural adjustment, withdrawal cognitions, and school satisfaction. Latent growth modeling of three-wave longitudinal surveys of 215 new international students (54% female, Mage = 24 years revealed that the initial level of school extraversion significantly predicted cross-cultural adjustment, (lower withdrawal cognitions, and satisfaction, while the rate of change (increase in school extraversion predicted cross-cultural adjustment and (lower withdrawal cognitions. We further modeled global extraversion and cross-cultural motivation as antecedents and explored within-person change in school extraversion as a proximal factor that affects adjustment outcomes. The findings highlight the malleability of contextualized personality, and more importantly, the importance of understanding within-person change in contextualized personality in a cross-cultural adjustment context. The study points to more research that explicate the process of personality change in other contexts.

  10. Cross-cultural adjustment to the United States: the role of contextualized extraversion change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengqiao; Huang, Jason L

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits can predict how well-sojourners and expatriates adjust to new cultures, but the adjustment process remains largely unexamined. Based on recent findings that reveal personality traits predict as well as respond to life events and experiences, this research focuses on within-person change in contextualized extraversion and its predictive validity for cross-cultural adjustment in international students who newly arrived in US colleges. We proposed that the initial level as well as the rate of change in school extraversion (i.e., contextualized extraversion that reflects behavioral tendency in school settings) will predict cross-cultural adjustment, withdrawal cognitions, and school satisfaction. Latent growth modeling of three-wave longitudinal surveys of 215 new international students (54% female, M age = 24 years) revealed that the initial level of school extraversion significantly predicted cross-cultural adjustment, (lower) withdrawal cognitions, and satisfaction, while the rate of change (increase) in school extraversion predicted cross-cultural adjustment and (lower) withdrawal cognitions. We further modeled global extraversion and cross-cultural motivation as antecedents and explored within-person change in school extraversion as a proximal factor that affects adjustment outcomes. The findings highlight the malleability of contextualized personality, and more importantly, the importance of understanding within-person change in contextualized personality in a cross-cultural adjustment context. The study points to more research that explicate the process of personality change in other contexts.

  11. Cross-cultural adjustment to the United States: the role of contextualized extraversion change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengqiao; Huang, Jason L.

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits can predict how well-sojourners and expatriates adjust to new cultures, but the adjustment process remains largely unexamined. Based on recent findings that reveal personality traits predict as well as respond to life events and experiences, this research focuses on within-person change in contextualized extraversion and its predictive validity for cross-cultural adjustment in international students who newly arrived in US colleges. We proposed that the initial level as well as the rate of change in school extraversion (i.e., contextualized extraversion that reflects behavioral tendency in school settings) will predict cross-cultural adjustment, withdrawal cognitions, and school satisfaction. Latent growth modeling of three-wave longitudinal surveys of 215 new international students (54% female, Mage = 24 years) revealed that the initial level of school extraversion significantly predicted cross-cultural adjustment, (lower) withdrawal cognitions, and satisfaction, while the rate of change (increase) in school extraversion predicted cross-cultural adjustment and (lower) withdrawal cognitions. We further modeled global extraversion and cross-cultural motivation as antecedents and explored within-person change in school extraversion as a proximal factor that affects adjustment outcomes. The findings highlight the malleability of contextualized personality, and more importantly, the importance of understanding within-person change in contextualized personality in a cross-cultural adjustment context. The study points to more research that explicate the process of personality change in other contexts. PMID:26579033

  12. Nitrogen Dioxide Trend over the United States: the View from the Ground, the View from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Lok N.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Krotkov, Nickolay A.

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) are decreasing over the US due to environmental policies and technological change. We use observations of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) columns from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite instrument and surface NO2 in-situ measurements from the air quality system (AQS) to quantify the trends, and to establish the relationship between the trends in tropospheric column and surface concentration. Both observations show substantial downward trends from 2005 to 2013, with an average reduction of 35 percent according to OMI and 38 percent according to AQS. The annual reduction rates are largest in 2005-2009: -6.2 percent per year and -7 percent per year observed by OMI and AQS, respectively. We examine various factors affecting the estimated trend in OMI NO2 columns and in-situ NO2 observations. An improved understanding of trend offers valuable insights about effectiveness of emission reduction regulations on state and federal level.

  13. Next-generation forest change mapping across the United States: the landscape change monitoring system (LCMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean P. Healey; Warren B. Cohen; Yang Zhiqiang; Ken Brewer; Evan Brooks; Noel Gorelick; Mathew Gregory; Alexander Hernandez; Chengquan Huang; Joseph Hughes; Robert Kennedy; Thomas Loveland; Kevin Megown; Gretchen Moisen; Todd Schroeder; Brian Schwind; Stephen Stehman; Daniel Steinwand; James Vogelmann; Curtis Woodcock; Limin Yang; Zhe. Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Forest change information is critical in forest planning, ecosystem modeling, and in updating forest condition maps. The Landsat satellite platform has provided consistent observations of the world’s ecosystems since 1972. A number of innovative change detection algorithms have been developed to use the Landsat archive to identify and characterize forest change. The...

  14. The revolution of shale oils in the United States. The business model is being tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    This report proposes an overview of LTO (Light Tight Oil or shale oil) production in the USA, and examines the consequences of oil price fall on its future level. The first part gives an assessment of five years of this revolution which follows the shale gas revolution. It addresses the most remarkable evolutions: spectacular development of production, decrease of oil imports, increase of oil product exports, and a move towards oil independence. The second part highlights some peculiarities of shale oils and of the resulting business model which is much different from the Exploration/Production model for conventional oil. It analyses the LTO economy and breakeven prices required for a continued investment. Technological advances which are at the basis of this revolution are addressed, and expected improvements on a short or medium term are described. The main financial indicators are then presented as the financial situation of LTO producers is a crucial factor for future investment levels. The last chapter reports the study of the impact of price decrease on capital expenditures (CAPEX) of American producers, and on the drilling activity. It seems that LTO production will resist to price decrease

  15. Urban forestry research in the United State: the state of art and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Gary W. Watson

    2001-01-01

    The proceedings include 15 papers presented during four group sessions at the IUFRO XXI World Congress held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during August 2000. Six papers were presented during two sessions organized by IUFRO Research Group (RG) 6.01.00 'Forest recreation, landscape and nature conservation'. The first of session was titled 'Integration of...

  16. Mid­west. Climate change impacts in the United States: The third national climate assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara C. Pryor; Donald Scavia; Charles Downer; Marc Gaden; Louis Iverson; Rolf Nordstrom; Jonathan Patz; G. Phillip. Robertson

    2014-01-01

    In the next few decades, longer growing seasons and rising carbon dioxide levels will increase yields of some crops, though those benefits will be progressively offset by extreme weather events. Though adaptation options can reduce some of the detrimental effects, in the long term, the combined stresses associated with climate change are expected to decrease...

  17. A letter from the United States: the romance of medicine--voyages and heroes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard V, Lee

    2009-03-01

    Becoming a physician is a lifelong journey, not merely the completion of medical school and postgraduate training. For those pedagogues that wish to train doctors as technicians the notion that there is something heroic and romantic in a physician's life is quaint, old fashioned, and out of date! In today's teaching hospitals virtual patients come via digital technology in computed x-ray and magnetic resonance images, automated laboratory test panels, electrophysiologic studies, and algorhythmic histories. Doctors have no need to leave their computer and increasingly doctors do not leave their computers for the bedside, the home, the neighborhood, or the country of their "patients". Contemporary doctors are in danger of losing their bedside clinical skills and with them go the role of physician as a wise, widely traveled human being knowledgeable about the rigors of inhospitable environs, the hardiness of the species, the despair of poverty, and the seductive dangers of wealth. There is similarity of this kind of physician to mythic heroes, and they still have stories to tell.

  18. Psychosocial implications of Thalassemia Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydinok, Yesim; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagihan; Yilmaz, Deniz; Solak, Ufuk

    2005-02-01

    Many causes including the chronicity of disease, burden of treatment modalities, morbidities, and the expectation of early death resulting from the disease complications, may lead to psychosocial burden in Thalassemia Major (TM) patients. A total of 38 patients with TM and their mothers were recruited to evaluate the psychosocial burden as well as to disclose whether the psychological status of the patients contribute to the compliance with the therapy or to the contrary. Demographic and disease variables were obtained. Child Behavior Check-list (CBCL) was completed by the mothers of the patients. A detailed psychiatric interview based on the 4th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual diagnostic criteria was performed for each patient. Symptom Distress Checklist 90 (SCL-90) scale was given to all mothers for evaluating their psychopathology. Although CBCL scores remained between the normal ranges, desferrioxamine mesylate (DFO)-compliant patients and the patients with lower ferritin values had significantly higher scores. A total of 24% of the patients had a psychiatric diagnosis including major depression, anxiety disorder, tic disorder, and enuresis nocturnal. The psychiatric diagnosis was significantly higher in the patients who were compliant with desferrioxamine compared with the non-compliant group (P = 0.007). The SCL-90 scores indicated that the mothers who had a child with good adherence to DFO had higher scale scores than the mothers with a poor adherent child. The increase risk of psychosocial and behavioral problems in thalassemics and their parents indicated the importance of a lifelong psychosocial support for the prevention of mental health issues. The patients and their parents, who were more conscious of the illness, were more worried but more compliant with the therapy and need stronger psychiatric support.

  19. Thalassaemia major and the heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Malcolm Walker

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Disorders of haemoglobin synthesis are the commonest monogenetic disorders worldwide. When first described, thalassaemia was universally fatal in childhood, but after the adoption of regular blood transfusion survival until early teenage and adulthood was to be expected. At that stage in the life of these affected individuals organ failure followed, due to accumulated iron, for which the human has no excretory capacity. Principal amongst the tissues affected by iron overload is the heart and even to the present day, heart disease accounts for the overwhelming majority of premature deaths in this population. Managing transfusion derived iron overload was the next hurdle for clinicians and the families of the patients. For nearly four decades the only available treatment was the demanding regime of parenteral chelation therapy, required on a daily basis, to achieve growth, development and survival with limited or no organ damage. Despite the adoption of these treatment strategies the outlook for thalassaemia patients remained poor, with a 30% to 40% mortality occurring between late teenage and 30 years of age, even in well organised health care systems, such as in the UK, where regular transfusion and desferioxamine treatment were readily available. This dreadful early mortality, largely as a consequence of myocardial iron overload, (1,2 is now improving so that in the UK and other developed nations, heart failure in thalassaemic patients has become uncommon and premature death a much rarer tragedy. This editorial reviews, from a personal viewpoint of a cardiologist involved in the care of these patients for the last 20 years, the progress in the management of the cardiovascular complications of thalassaemia major (TM, which has followed better techniques of identifying those thalassaemic individuals at greatest risk, improved chelation strategies making best use of the three chelating agents that are now available and improved co

  20. Traditional African Religion: A Resource Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, William E.

    This resource unit is based on research conducted by Lynn Mitchell and Ernest Valenzuela, experienced classroom teachers of African history and culture. The unit consists of an introduction by Mr. Garland and two major parts. Part I is an annotated bibliography of selected sources on various aspects of traditional African Religion useful in…

  1. How Do We Really Compute with Units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, B. H.

    2010-01-01

    The methods that we teach students for computing with units of measurement are often not consistent with the practice of professionals. For professionals, the vast majority of computations with quantities of measure are performed within programs on electronic computers, for which an accounting for the units occurs only once, in the design of the…

  2. Attributes for NHDPlus catchments (Version 1.1) for the conterminous United States: STATSGO soil characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents estimated soil variables compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The variables included are cation exchange capacity, percent calcium carbonate, slope, water-table depth, soil thickness, hydrologic soil group, soil erodibility (k-factor), permeability, average water capacity, bulk density, percent organic material, percent clay, percent sand, and percent silt. The source data set is the State Soil ( STATSGO ) Geographic Database (Wolock, 1997). The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee

  3. The Unitality of Quantum B-algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shengwei; Xu, Xiaoting; Qin, Feng

    2018-02-01

    Quantum B-algebras as a generalization of quantales were introduced by Rump and Yang, which cover the majority of implicational algebras and provide a unified semantic for a wide class of substructural logics. Unital quantum B-algebras play an important role in the classification of implicational algebras. The main purpose of this paper is to construct unital quantum B-algebras from non-unital quantum B-algebras.

  4. Teaching methods in the healthcare management major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Gergana G; Popov, Teodor N

    2009-01-01

    Organisation and management are factors of paramount importance in higher education for achieving higher quality of training, better professional adaptation, and more effective career pursuance of the students. The present study analyses the use of various teaching methods for the students in the major of Healthcare Management as they are employed in two medical universities. We conducted a detailed questionnaire survey which included the students in the Healthcare Management major in the Faculty of Public Health (FPH) at Sofia Medical University (SMU) and the Medical Faculty of Plovdiv Medical University (PMU). The students were surveyed for two consecutive academic years (2004/2005 and 2005/2006). The logical units of study were 198 students completing their baccalaureate programs in Healthcare Management: 145 (73.23+/-3.15%) in the FPH, SMU and 53 (26.77+/-3.15%) in the PMU (the greater number of students from the SMU was due to the greater number of students admitted into the Sofia Medical University). The technical units of study were the Faculty of Public Health in the Medical University in Sofia and the Medical faculty in the Medical University in Plovdiv. The survey was carried out using our own questionnaire form comprising 51 questions (open and closed), some of them allowing more than one answer. The collected sociological data were analysed using SPSS v. 13.0, and the diagrams were made using Microsoft Excel' 97. We used the alternative, non-parametric and graphic analyses to illustrate the processes and events at a level of significance P PMU and 26.32+/-1.91% for SMU). This format of teaching is also considered to be the easiest with regard to learning the study material by 22.75+/-3.25% of the PMU graduates and 27.56+/-2.38% of the SMU graduates. The PMU students regard seminars, individual work and discussions as the format that afford the easiest way to acquire knowledge (22.16+/-3.21%, 21.56+/-3.18%, (18.56+/-3.01%, respectively). The most

  5. One voice or different choice?: Vote defection of European Union member states in the United Nations General Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burmester, Nicolas; Jankowski, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Existing research suggests that European Union member states are increasingly able to act in concert in the United Nations General Assembly. Based on several hundred co-ordination meetings per year, the European Union ‘speaks with one voice’ on most of the resolutions voted upon in the United...... Nations General Assembly. However, little is known about instances where the European Union member states do not vote coherently. Three questions remain unanswered. First, which aspects affect deviating voting behaviour of European Union member states? Second, who are the most frequent defectors from...... the European Union’s majority position? Third, which voting blocs within the European Union can be identified? The article answers these questions in a quantitative design by controlling for domestic factors, issues of resolutions and the position of the United States. The results suggest that domestic aspects...

  6. 31 CFR 601.4 - Use of paper; interest-bearing securities of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PAPER FOR UNITED STATES CURRENCY AND OTHER SECURITIES § 601.4 Use of paper; interest-bearing securities of the United States. The existing distinctive papers shall be used for the printing of interest...

  7. Nuclear accidents. Three mile Island (United States)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duco, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the accident of Three Miles Island power plant which occurred the 28 march 1979 in the United States. The accident scenario, the consequences and the reactor core and vessel, after the accident, are analyzed. (A.L.B.)

  8. Tilecal meets two major milestones

    CERN Multimedia

    Cavalli-Sforza, M.

    Over the last two months the Tile Calorimeter passed not one but two major milestones. In early May, the last of the 64 modules that make up one of the two Extended Barrels arrived at CERN from IFAE-Barcelona, equipped with optical components and tested. And during the Overview Week in Clermont-Ferrand, the last of the 64 Barrel modules, mechanically assembled, arrived from JINR-Dubna. Just a brief reminder: the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter is composed of 3 cylinders ("barrels") of steel, scintillating tiles and optical fibers, altogether about 12 m long, with an outer diameter of 8.4 m, and weighing about 2700 tons. The central cavity will contain the Liquid Argon cryostats, and the whole calorimetry system will measure the direction and energy of jets produced at the LHC, as well as the missing transverse energy, which as everyone knows is one of the telltale signals of new and exciting physics. Each of the three cylinders is divided azimuthally into 64 modules - much like the slices of an orange. The modules ar...

  9. Reform of the United Kingdom judicial system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu-Horia MAICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The separation of powers in a state is an essential characteristic of every democratic country, a principle present in many constitutions, most notably that of the United States. The concept is imperfectly fulfilled in the United Kingdom, given that the executive (Ministers form part of the legislature and that part of the judiciary (Law Lords sit in the legislature. As a result, it was necessary to remove the constitutional anomaly that the highest court of appeal in the United Kingdom was situated within one of the chambers of Parliament.

  10. The United States Federal Monitoring and Assessment Centre and radiological database management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.G.

    1998-01-01

    In the spring of 1979, a series of events occurring at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power plant near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, resulted in severe core damage. Recognizing that state resources were insufficient to respond to the first major nuclear power plant emergency in the United States, the State of Pennsylvania asked the Federal Government for assistance. The United States Government undertook the preparation of a plan, which would co-ordinate all federal assets. The Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP) assigned unique responsibilities and authorities for responding to domestic radiological emergencies to each of 12 different federal agencies which form the FRERP. The overall data collection, analysis, and processing procedures within the FRMAC are overviewed. (author)

  11. UNITED KINGDOM: under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    While attempting bravely to sustain the legacy left by J.J. Thomson, Rutherford, Chadwick, Cockcroft, Blackett, Dirac and others earlier this century, the United Kingdom, one of the major contributors to CERN, has suffered in recent years from an erosion of the international purchasing power of the pound sterling. At the same time, the national scientific community has squabbled over the apportionment of the research cake. In recent years, the CERN budget has remained constant in real terms, but the pound has drifted steadily down. In 1984 one pound bought 3.15 Swiss francs, now it gets just over 2. The hypersensitivity which left calculations at the mercy of exchange rate hiccups was cushioned in 1988 by a new method of calculating national CERN contributions, introduced by Chris Llewellyn Smith, now the Laboratory's Director General, using less sensitive input data

  12. Taxation of United States general aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    injuries attributed to general aviation accidents in the United States, understanding the costs to society is of great importance. This chapter estimates the direct and indirect costs associated with general aviation accidents in the United States. The indirect costs are estimated via the human capital approach in addition to the willingness-to-pay approach. The average annual accident costs attributed to general aviation are found to be 2.32 billion and 3.81 billion (2006 US) utilizing the human capital approach and willingness-to-pay approach, respectively. These values appear to be fairly robust when subjected to a sensitivity analysis. These costs highlight the large societal benefits from accident and fatality reduction. The final chapter derives a second-best optimal aviation gasoline tax developed from previous general equilibrium frameworks. This optimal tax reflects both the lead pollution and accident externalities, as well as the balance between excise taxes and labor taxes to finance government spending. The calculated optimal tax rate is 4.07 per gallon, which is over 20 times greater than the current tax rate and 5 times greater than the Federal Aviation Administration proposed tax rate. The calculated optimal tax rate is also over 3 times greater than automobile gasoline optimal tax rates calculated by previous studies. The Pigovian component is 1.36, and we observe that the accident externality is taxed more severely than the pollution externality. The largest component of the optimal tax rate is the Ramsey component. At 2.70, the Ramsey component reflects the ability of the government to raise revenue aviation gasoline which is price inelastic. The calculated optimal tax is estimated to reduce lead emissions by over 10 percent and reduce accidents by 20 percent. Although unlikely to be adopted by policy makers, the optimal tax benefits are apparent and it sheds light on the need to reduce these negative externalities via policy changes.

  13. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 2. Iron, Steel and Aluminum Suppliers to the Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  14. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 7. Machine Tool Suppliers to the Automotive Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  15. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 4. North American Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  16. Detection and attribution of streamflow timing changes to climate change in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, H.G.; Das, T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Pierce, D.W.; Barnett, T.P.; Bala, G.; Mirin, A.; Wood, A.W.; Bonfils, Celine; Santer, B.D.; Nozawa, T.

    2009-01-01

    This article applies formal detection and attribution techniques to investigate the nature of observed shifts in the timing of streamflow in the western United States. Previous studies have shown that the snow hydrology of the western United States has changed in the second half of the twentieth century. Such changes manifest themselves in the form of more rain and less snow, in reductions in the snow water contents, and in earlier snowmelt and associated advances in streamflow "center" timing (the day in the "water-year" on average when half the water-year flow at a point has passed). However, with one exception over a more limited domain, no other study has attempted to formally attribute these changes to anthropogenic increases of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Using the observations together with a set of global climate model simulations and a hydrologic model (applied to three major hydrological regions of the western United States_the California region, the upper Colorado River basin, and the Columbia River basin), it is found that the observed trends toward earlier "center" timing of snowmelt-driven streamflows in the western United States since 1950 are detectably different from natural variability (significant at the p analysis, and it is the only basin that showed a detectable signal when the analysis was performed on individual basins. It should be noted that although climate change is an important signal, other climatic processes have also contributed to the hydrologic variability of large basins in the western United States. ?? 2009 American Meteorological Society.

  17. Malaria Surveillance - United States, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Kimberly E; Arguin, Paul M

    2017-05-26

    Malaria in humans is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium. These parasites are transmitted by the bite of an infective female Anopheles mosquito. The majority of malaria infections in the United States occur among persons who have traveled to regions with ongoing malaria transmission. However, malaria is occasionally acquired by persons who have not traveled out of the country through exposure to infected blood products, congenital transmission, laboratory exposure, or local mosquitoborne transmission. Malaria surveillance in the United States is conducted to identify episodes of local transmission and to guide prevention recommendations for travelers. This report summarizes cases in persons with onset of illness in 2014 and trends during previous years. Malaria cases diagnosed by blood film, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests are reported to local and state health departments by health care providers or laboratory staff. Case investigations are conducted by local and state health departments, and reports are transmitted to CDC through the National Malaria Surveillance System, National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System, or direct CDC consultations. CDC conducts antimalarial drug resistance marker testing on blood samples submitted by health care providers or local or state health departments. Data from these reporting systems serve as the basis for this report. CDC received reports of 1,724 confirmed malaria cases, including one congenital case and two cryptic cases, with onset of symptoms in 2014 among persons in the United States. The number of confirmed cases in 2014 is consistent with the number of confirmed cases reported in 2013 (n = 1,741; this number has been updated from a previous publication to account for delayed reporting for persons with symptom onset occurring in late 2013). Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae were identified in 66.1%, 13.3%, 5.2%, and 2.7% of cases, respectively

  18. Overview of Major Issues of Tax Treaties Law in Kosovo

    OpenAIRE

    Bedri Peci

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to analyze and find out the major issue of tax treaties law in Kosovo. In this analysis we have used the research method of case study. The results of research show that the legal framework for the elimination of double taxation, after 1999, initially started its establishment journey from the United Nations Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). Taking into consideration the specifications of the political status, the process for the establishment of the unilat...

  19. [Oromaxillofacial changes in thalassemia major].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mattia, D; Pettini, P L; Sabato, V; Rubini, G; Laforgia, A; Schettini, F

    1996-01-01

    Sixty patients (31 male and 29 female) with thalassemia major, aged between 6 and 26 years, 18 of which were splenectomized, were observed in this study evaluating the oro-maxillo-facial alterations and correlating them to transfusion indexes, serum ferritin levels, splenectomy and age. For each patient a haematologic and odontostomatologic card was filed with a view to report the medical and clinical history regarding: the haematologic picture, the prevention of caries and parodontal disease, the facies characteristics, the odonto-stomatologic examination, the orthodontic diagnosis, the skull X-rays and the orthopantomography. Poor oral hygiene as well as misknowledge of prevention were generally observed. All the patients showed carious lesions but most of them had never seen a dentist for therapy. The disharmonious growth of splanchnocranium, with the enlargement of the jaw and of its alveolar process, induced by the bone marrow hyperplasia, produced various and serious malocclusion stages (Angle's II class, deep bite, open bite), gnathologic alterations, hypodiaphanous paranasal sinuses and orbital hypertelorism, with a typical oriental-like facies. Malocclusion and the poor oral hygienic conditions determined the occurrence of marginal gingivitis, mainly localized at the level of the lower frontal teeth. In only 3 patients the oral mucous membrane was pale and atrophic. During this investigation agenesia and dental retention were reported in 30% and in 26% of the examined cases respectively, while no patients had supernumerary teeth. Tooth volume, position and shape abnormalities rarely occurred. Only in two patients was enamel hypoplasia described. The caries frequency greatly varied in number and in degree. Only five patients did not show any carious lesions. The caries index (DMF) for the permanent teeth calculated in all the 60 subjects was 5, 12 +/- 4.76. By utilizing Spearman's rank test the number of teeth with caries in the permanent dentition (DFM

  20. A Motivational Perspective on Mass Communication Students' Satisfaction with Their Major: Investigating Antecedents and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Ed; Hopp, Toby; Santana, Arthur D.; Stansberry, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    This study used self-determination theory (SDT) to investigate the motivations for selecting a major among mass communication and media majors at 18 colleges and universities across the United States. Specifically, 669 mass communication majors were queried on their intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for choosing a major, their degree of major…

  1. Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project--Migration Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, Minn. Dept. of Intergroup Education.

    The student booklet presents short chapters illustrating the migration unit of the Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project for secondary schools. Sixteen brief chapters describe migration, immigration, and emigration in the United States. The first six chapters offer first person accounts of immigrants from Norway, Korea, Egypt, Hitler's…

  2. 15 CFR 971.209 - Processing outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing outside the United States... THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Applications Contents § 971.209 Processing outside the United States. (a) Except as provided in this section...

  3. Major heat exchanger performance in Ontario Hydro-operated CANDU nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dueck, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The performance of heat exchangers is described in terms of their impact on the unit in the form of forced outages and deratings as well as incapability due to scheduled outages. Some major problems with heat exchangers are highlighted. (auth)

  4. Power systems simulations of the western United States region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzelmann, G.; Koritarov, V.; Poch, L.; Thimmapuram, P.; Veselka, T.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents a part of a broad assessment of energy-water-related issues in the western United States. The full analysis involved three Department of Energy national laboratories: Argonne National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. Argonne's objective in the overall project was to develop a regional power sector expansion forecast and a detailed unit-level operational (dispatch) analysis. With these two major analysis components, Argonne estimated current and future freshwater withdrawals and consumption related to the operation of U.S. thermal-electric power plants in the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) region for the period 2005-2025. Water is withdrawn and used primarily for cooling but also for environmental control, such as sulfur scrubbers. The current scope of the analysis included three scenarios: (1) Baseline scenario as a benchmark for assessing the adequacy and cost-effectiveness of water conservation options and strategies, (2) High nuclear scenario, and (3) High renewables scenario. Baseline projections are consistent with forecasts made by the WECC and the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in its Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) (EIA 2006a). Water conservation scenarios are currently limited to two development alternatives that focus heavily on constructing new generating facilities with zero water consumption. These technologies include wind farms and nuclear power plants with dry cooling. Additional water conservation scenarios and estimates of water use associated with fuel or resource extraction and processing will be developed in follow-on analyses.

  5. The Development of Critical Thinking Skills for Elementary Education Majors at Castleton State College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, Robert F.

    The document describes a practicum which developed a unit on critical thinking that applied Jerome Bruner's discovery-learning method and also incorporated the unit within the curricular requirements of elementary education majors at Castleton State College in Vermont. It is presented in five sections and an appendix. Section I provides…

  6. 28 CFR 0.190 - Changes within organizational units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes within organizational units. 0... JUSTICE Sections and Subunits § 0.190 Changes within organizational units. (a) The head of each Office... termination of major functions within his organizational unit as he may deem necessary or appropriate. In each...

  7. SI units in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, P S [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Div. of Radiation Protection

    1978-11-01

    The proposal of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements that the special units of radiation and radioactivity-roentgen, rad, rem and curie-be replaced by the International System (SI) of Units has been accepted by international bodies. This paper reviews the resons for introducing the new units and their features. The relation between the special units and the corresponding SI units is discussed with examples. In spite of anticipated difficulties, the commission recommends a smooth and efficient changeover to the SI units in ten years.

  8. Attributes for NHDPlus Catchments (Version 1.1) for the Conterminous United States: Mean Annual R-factor, 1971-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This data set represents the average annual R-factor, rainfall-runoff erosivity measure, compiled for every catchment of NHDPlus for the conterminous United States. The source data are from Christopher Daly of the Spatial Climate Analysis Service, Oregon State University, and George Taylor of the Oregon Climate Service, Oregon State University (2002), who developed spatially distributed estimates of R-factor for the period 1971-2000 for the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus Version 1.1 is an integrated suite of application-ready geospatial datasets that incorporates many of the best features of the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) and the National Elevation Dataset (NED). The NHDPlus includes a stream network (based on the 1:100,00-scale NHD), improved networking, naming, and value-added attributes (VAAs). NHDPlus also includes elevation-derived catchments (drainage areas) produced using a drainage enforcement technique first widely used in New England, and thus referred to as "the New England Method." This technique involves "burning in" the 1:100,000-scale NHD and when available building "walls" using the National Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD). The resulting modified digital elevation model (HydroDEM) is used to produce hydrologic derivatives that agree with the NHD and WBD. Over the past two years, an interdisciplinary team from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and contractors, found that this method produces the best quality NHD catchments using an automated process (USEPA, 2007). The NHDPlus dataset is organized by 18 Production Units that cover the conterminous United States. The NHDPlus version 1.1 data are grouped by the U.S. Geologic Survey's Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). MRB1, covering the New England and Mid-Atlantic River basins, contains NHDPlus Production Units 1 and 2. MRB2, covering the South Atlantic-Gulf and Tennessee River basins, contains NHDPlus

  9. Personalities and Pipelines: Exploring the Role of Personality in Student Self-Selection into STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Despite all the national efforts to increase STEM enrollment in the United States, the gap between the U.S. and other developed countries in terms of STEM graduates has widened over the last 20 years. Researchers have studied factors such as gender, race, high school GPA, and the student's socioeconomic status for their impact on STEM enrollment.…

  10. Majority to Minority: The Adjustment of Asian American Hawai'i Residents at Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Cheri Y. H.

    2015-01-01

    Within the United States, the model minority myth has contributed to empirically unsubstantiated misconceptions about Asian American college students. Although there is considerable research on college student adjustment and its role in persistence, literature focusing on the Asian American experience is lacking. Furthermore, the experience of…

  11. Islam, Etnicity and the State: the Balkans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ružica Čičak-Chand

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines Muslim identity in the context of interaction between religions and ethnic and national identities within the complex ethnic and religious network of the Balkans, and with a focus on Muslim minority communities in the individual states in the region. Although it proceeds from a historical background, emphasis is placed on contemporary conditions, especially after the fall of communism and the crisis in former Yugoslavia. The paper is based on the book Muslim Identity and the Balkan State, prepared by Hugh Poulton and Suha Taji Farouki and published in London in 1977. Apart from a valuable and interesting introduction in regard to defining the concept of “Muslim” and “Muslim community” in the Balkans, and also an indication of some of the specificities of Islam in this region, the book includes eleven separate studies, the majority of which deal with Muslim minority communities and their status in Balkan countries (Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia and Sandţak. The papers also deal with Turkey, as the country whose communities reside in some of the mentioned countries, as well as with the relations between Turkey and the Balkan countries. Besides analysing the historical causes leading to the formation of the Muslim communities, each author attempted to identify the main socio-economic, political and ethno-religious factors “responsible” for their position in the individual political communities in the Balkans. In this paper, the key aspects of the mentioned themes are reviewed, including particular comments on Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Kosovo and Macedonia.

  12. Why It Pays to Major in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Thomas; Assane, Djeto; Busker, Jared

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors use a large, recent, and accessible data set to examine the effect of economics major on individual earnings. They find a significant positive earnings gain for economics majors relative to other majors, and this advantage increases with the level of education. Their findings are consistent with Black, Sanders, and…

  13. 75 FR 31383 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ...-0009] RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects AGENCIES: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... current approach to evaluating and rating major capital investment projects (``New Starts'' and ``Small...'' to address identified transportation needs in the corridor without a major capital investment in new...

  14. Major Oil Plays In Utah And Vicinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Chidsey

    2007-12-31

    the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone, or a low-permeability zone at the top of the Nugget. The Nugget Sandstone thrust belt play is divided into three subplays: (1) Absaroka thrust - Mesozoic-cored shallow structures, (2) Absaroka thrust - Mesozoic-cored deep structures, and (3) Absaroka thrust - Paleozoic-cored shallow structures. Both of the Mesozoic-cored structures subplays represent a linear, hanging wall, ramp anticline parallel to the leading edge of the Absaroka thrust. Fields in the shallow Mesozoic subplay produce crude oil and associated gas; fields in the deep subplay produce retrograde condensate. The Paleozoic-cored structures subplay is located immediately west of the Mesozoic-cored structures subplays. It represents a very continuous and linear, hanging wall, ramp anticline where the Nugget is truncated against a thrust splay. Fields in this subplay produce nonassociated gas and condensate. Traps in these subplays consist of long, narrow, doubly plunging anticlines. Prospective drilling targets are delineated using high-quality, two-dimensional and three-dimensional seismic data, forward modeling/visualization tools, and other state-of-the-art techniques. Future Nugget Sandstone exploration could focus on more structurally complex and subtle, thrust-related traps. Nugget structures may be present beneath the leading edge of the Hogsback thrust and North Flank fault of the Uinta uplift. The Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone play in the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province has produced over 15 million barrels (2.4 million m{sup 3}) of oil and 93 billion cubic feet (2.6 billion m{sup 3}) of gas. Traps form on discrete subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity Twin Creek is extensively fractured. Hydrocarbons in Twin Creek reservoirs were generated from subthrust Cretaceous source rocks. The seals for the producing horizons are overlying argillaceous and clastic beds, and non-fractured units within the Twin Creek. The Twin Creek

  15. Management of Severe Perineal Injuries in Major Pelvic Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jangjoo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Significant perineal injuries and major pelvic fractures resulting from blunt trauma manifest a high-energy injury. Open pelvic fractures (with perineal injury are associated with higher mortality rates of 40 to 60 %. Methods: This study was a review of patients with multiple traumas comprising of major pelvic fracture and severe perineal injuries (Shahid Kamyab hospital in Mashhad from 2002- 2005. A total of 11 patients, with pelvic fracture and perineal injuries (injury to urethra and anal canal were entered in the study. The data was gathered by a checklist and analyzed with SPSS software. Results: The population under study included 11 patients (9 male, 2 female with a mean age of 35years. Cause of trauma in all patients was motor vehicle accidents. All of the patients in the first 6 hours of admission received at least 4 liters of serum ringer lactate and 3 units of packed cells. The mean of packed cell received was 8 units and one patient needed 21 units of packed cells. All of patients were taken to the operating room for diverting colostomy, distal rectal washout, cystostomy and radical debridment and irrigation of devitalized tissue. Good results were achieved in 9 patients and there was one case of mortality and one morbidity (ARF. Conclusion: Open pelvic fractures and perineal injuries are associated with higher mortality rates. Prompt diagnosis and proper treatment (reanimation, colostomy, cystostomy, debridment and irrigation is the key to success.

  16. Salient Beliefs in Majoring in Management Information Systems: An Elicitation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipidza, Wallace; Green, Gina; Riemenschneider, Cindy

    2016-01-01

    Research utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior to understand behavior should first elicit beliefs about the phenomenon from the target population. In order to understand the reasons why students choose to major or not major in Management Information Systems (MIS), we elicited beliefs from 136 students attending university in the United States…

  17. 7 CFR 600.9 - Major land resource area soil survey offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Major land resource area soil survey offices. 600.9 Section 600.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.9 Major land resource area soil survey offices. The United States is divide...

  18. 28 CFR 552.13 - X-ray, major instrument, fluoroscope, or surgical intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false X-ray, major instrument, fluoroscope, or... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT CUSTODY Searches of Housing Units, Inmates, and Inmate Work Areas § 552.13 X-ray, major... reasons only, with the inmate's consent. (b) The institution physician may authorize use of an X-ray for...

  19. The Occupational Aspirations and Expectations of College Students Majoring in Jazz Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devroop, Karendra

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the occupational aspirations and occupational expectations of college students majoring in jazz studies in the United States. Participants included the population of jazz studies majors (N = 211) at a large mid-southern university known for its prestigious and internationally recognized jazz program. A…

  20. Exporting Rambutan to United States: One Reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Zainuri Mohd Dzomir; Zainon Othman; Mohd Sidek Othman

    2011-01-01

    Rambutan is a one of commodity that are passed by United States of America authority to be market in that states. The main condition for the approval is the exporter must use irradiation technology as quarantine treatment to monitor the insects in there. United States of America's Agriculture Department (USDA-APHIS) has make early survey to the facilities involved in exporting process chain to overview Malaysia preparedness for this purpose. This paper work will discussed the possibility of this exporting implemented based on conditions rule by the USDA. (author)

  1. Non-linear Loudspeaker Unit Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of a 6½-inch loudspeaker unit are performed and compared with a displacement measurement. The non-linear loudspeaker model is based on the major nonlinear functions and expanded with time-varying suspension behaviour and flux modulation. The results are presented with FFT plots of thr...... frequencies and different displacement levels. The model errors are discussed and analysed including a test with loudspeaker unit where the diaphragm is removed....

  2. The Prototypical Majority Effect Under Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv-Mashinsky, Shiri; Undorf, Monika; Schwarz, Norbert

    2018-05-01

    Majority views are reported with greater confidence and fluency than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. This Prototypical Majority Effect (PME) was attributed generally to conformity pressure, but Koriat et al. showed that it can arise from the processes underlying decision and confidence independent of social influence. Here we examined the PME under conditions that differ in social influence. In Experiment 1, a robust PME emerged in the absence of information about the majority views, but the provision sof that information increased the choice of the majority view and magnified the PME. In Experiment 2, a PME emerged in a minority-biased condition that misled participants to believe that the majority view was the minority view, but the PME was stronger in a majority-biased condition. The results were discussed in terms of a dual-process view: The PME observed under social influence may contain externally driven and internally driven components.

  3. Teleneonatology: a major tool for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minton, Stephen; Allan, Mark; Valdes, Wesley

    2014-02-01

    Hospitals have, for centuries, maintained a central position in the health care system, providing care for critically ill patients. Despite being a cornerstone of health care delivery, we are witnessing the beginning of a major transformation in their function. There are several forces driving this transformation, including health care costs, shortage of health care professionals, volume of people with chronic diseases, consumerism, health care reform, and hospital errors. The neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Utah Valley Regional Medical Center in Provo, Utah, began an aggressive redesign/quality improvement effort in 1990. It became obvious that our care processes were designed for health care deliverers and not for the families. An ongoing revamp of our care delivery processes was undertaken using significant input from a parent focus meeting, parental interviews, and development of a parent-to-parent support group. As a result of this work, it became obvious we needed a new model to truly empower parents. The idea of "NICU is Home" was born. We elected to make a mind shift, not to focus on what families think, but rather on how they think. Web cams and other video apparatus have been used in a number of NICUs across the country. We decided our equipment requirements would need to include high-resolution cameras, full high-definition video recording, autofocus, audio microphones, automatic noise reduction, and automatic low-light correction. Our conferencing software needed to accommodate multiple users and have multiple-picture capabilities, low band width, and inexpensive technology. It was recognized that a single video camera feed was insufficient to adequately capture the desired amount of information. Verbal communication between parents and their babies' principal care providers is critical. Parents loved the idea of expanding the remote NICU web cam of their baby to a two-way physician-parent communication bedside monitor. Doctors at Utah Valley

  4. Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, M L

    2006-04-01

    Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by

  5. An assessment of Brazilian conservation units – a second look

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, José Augusto Leitão

    2012-01-01

    This is a second overview of the Brazilian conservation unit system for mid-2010. It updates author et al, 2009. It examines six dimensions of federal and state protected areas – age, numbers, types of units, absolute and average sizes, distribution by states and biomes, and degree of compliance with CBD-inspired goals. Major findings: (i) the system maintained a rapid growth rate; (ii) national parks and national forests are the most prominent units; (iii) distribution of units by region and...

  6. Major trends in nuclear and coal fired plants economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, P.H.; Frank, J.R.; Isacson, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    An in-depth analysis of nuclear plant performance in the United States and elsewhere raises basic questions as to the validity of the present pessimism as a guide for long-range policy. The sad story of the plants in trouble has obscured the good performance of the majority of nuclear power installations. Further, it appears that many of the root causes for the outstanding problems may be indigenous to the existing U.S. utility, regulatory, and financial structure, and not relevant to the long-range intrinsic values of nuclear power either in the United States or in other countries. On the other hand, many of the problems affecting coal fired plants, i.e., fuel supply, economics and pollution control appear to be more critical abroad rather than in the U.S. This paper will review these issues

  7. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  8. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  9. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your local affiliate Find your local affiliate United Cerebral Palsy United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) is a trusted resource for individuals with Cerebral Palsy and other disabilities and their networks. Individuals with ...

  10. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Providers, Emergency Consultations, and General Public. Contact Us Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  11. Apollo 15 mare units and their petrogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, A.A.

    1985-01-01

    Samples from 12 different mare sites were identified and classified among the Apollo 15 samples. The genesis of the Apollo 15 mare units is summarized given the general model of mare basalt source regions and of more basalt genesis derived from a synthesis of the major oxide/major mineral, compatible siderophile, and incompatible trace element data and isotopic ratios of the Rb/Sr and Sm/Nd systems

  12. MAJOR SOURCE OF NEW RADAR DATA FOR EXPLORATION RESEARCH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kover, Allan N.; Jones, John Edwin; Southworth, C. Scott

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a program to acquire high-quality, side-looking, airborne-radar (SLAR) imagery of selected areas of the United States. The program goals were to demonstrate the usefulness of SLAR imagery for geologic exploration and geoscience applications and to make radar data readily available to the public for additional research and economic applications. Considerable SLAR imagery has been acquired already since 1980 under a mandate from the U. S. Congress. The U. S. Geological Survey is actively engaged in demonstrating the usefulness of radar imagery, and since 1980 has started more than 50 studies addressing geologic, cartographic, and hydrologic applications. All of the radar-imagery products acquired by the USGS during 1980 and 1982 have been archived and are available for public sale.

  13. Optics in the United kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditchburn, R W

    1969-10-01

    Optics is interpreted to include x-ray optics, electronic optics, and short wave radiooptics as well as the more conventional visible, uv, and ir optics. Recent work in Britain on x-ray optics (applied to molecular biology), on scanning electron microscopy, and in radioastronomy (discovery of pulsars) is mentioned. In the optics of the visible and ir there is an increasing interest in over-all systems design. .The formation of large industrial units capable of carrying through major design program, requiring advanced mechanical and electronic design associated with new lens systems, is welcomed.

  14. Majorization arrow in quantum-algorithm design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latorre, J.I.; Martin-Delgado, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    We apply majorization theory to study the quantum algorithms known so far and find that there is a majorization principle underlying the way they operate. Grover's algorithm is a neat instance of this principle where majorization works step by step until the optimal target state is found. Extensions of this situation are also found in algorithms based in quantum adiabatic evolution and the family of quantum phase-estimation algorithms, including Shor's algorithm. We state that in quantum algorithms the time arrow is a majorization arrow

  15. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-23

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1989 is the thirteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies'') required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1989, as well as review of important trends.

  16. Performance profiles of major energy producers, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1991 is the fifteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 23 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. It also traces key developments affecting the financial performance of major energy companies in 1991, as well as reviews important trends. Financial information is reported by major lines of business including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report

  17. [United theory of aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubitsyn, A G

    2012-01-01

    In attempts to develop a means of life prolongation the humankind has created more than three hundred theories of the aging; each of them offers the original cause of aging. However, none of them has given practical result by now. The majority of the theories have now only historical interest. There are several different theories that are mainly under consideration currently. They are based on reliable, proven evidence: the free radical theory, the protein error theory, the replicative senescence theory, the theory of reparation weakening, the immunological theory, several versions of neuroendocrinal theories, and programmed aging theory. The theory presented here is based on conception that the life as the phenomenon represents many of the interconnected physical and chemical processes propelled by energy of the mitochondrial bioenergetical machine. Gradual degradation of all vital processes is caused by the programmed decrease in level of bioenergetics. This theory unites all existing theories of aging constructed on authentic facts: it is shown, that such fundamental phenomena accompanying aging process as the increase in level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the decrease in the general level of protein synthesis, the limitation of cellular dividing (Haiflick limit), decrease in efficiency of reparation mechanisms are caused by bioenergetics attenuation. Each of these phenomena in turn generates a number of harmful secondary processes. Any of the theories bases on one of these destructive phenomena or their combination. Hence, each of them describes one of sides of process of the aging initially caused by programmed decrease of level of bioenergetics. This united theory gives the chance to understand the nature of aging clock and explains a phenomenon of increase in longevity at the condition of food restriction. Failures of attempts to develop means from aging are explained by that the manipulations with the separate secondary phenomena of attenuation of

  18. Major depressive disorder and depressive symptoms in intermittent explosive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Gustavo C; Seger, Liliana; Grant, Jon E; Tavares, Hermano

    2018-04-01

    It is estimated that between 1.7 and 2.6 million people have had intermittent explosive disorder (IED) during their life in the United States alone. Co-occurring psychiatric disorders are very common in IED, being major depressive disorder arguably the most common. The objective of this study was to examine the clinical correlates of IED and depressive manifestations in 74 treatment-seeking subjects. After controlling for confounders, there were associations between major depressive disorder and severity of depressive symptoms, and (a) higher assault scores, (b) more severe hostile behavior and (c) worse social adjustment. Management of depressive symptoms may be an important for IED treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. China’s Evolving Nuclear Deterrent: Major Drivers and Issues for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    155 Implications for Extended Deterrence of Nuclear and Regional Political Stability . . . . . . . . . 159...Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 27, No. 3, August 1990. 4 Robert J. Powell, “Crisis Stability in the Nuclear Age,” American Political Science Review, Vol... instability and, potentially, rapid escalation. Regional crisis stability may be further undermined by nonstructural factors: Potential belligerents

  20. Ethnic Heritage Studies: German-American Profiles and Contributions--Major Figures. Experimental Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Talbott

    This teaching guide focuses on several prominent German-Americans and their contributions to American life, and provides some insights into German culture. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The project materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The…

  1. Reframing conceptual physics: Improving relevance to elementary education and sonography majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFazia, David Gregory

    This study outlines the steps taken to reframe the Waves and Periodicity unit within a conceptual physics course. Beyond this unit reframing process, this paper explores the activities that made up the reframed unit and how each was developed and revised. The unit was reframed to improve relevance of the activities to the Elementary Education and Diagnostic Medical Sonography majors who make up the bulk of the course roster. The unit was reframed around ten design principles that were built on best practices from the literature, survey responses, and focused interviews. These principles support the selection of a biology-integrated themed approach to teaching physics. This is done through active and highly kinesthetic learning across three realms of human experience: physical, social, and cognitive. The unit materials were designed around making connections to students' future careers while requiring students to take progressively more responsibility in activities and assessments. Several support strategies are employed across these activities and assessments, including an energy-first, guided-inquiry approach to concept scaffolding and accommodations for diverse learners. Survey responses were solicited from physics instructors experienced with this population, Elementary Education and Sonography program advisors, and curriculum design, learning strategies, and educational technology experts. The reframed unit was reviewed by doctoral-level science education experts and revised to further improve the depth and transparency with which the design principles reframe the unit activities. The reframed unit contains a full unit plan, lesson plans, and full unit materials. These include classroom and online activities, assessments, and templates for future unit and lesson planning. Additional supplemental materials are provided to support Elementary Education and Sonography students and program advisors and also further promote the reframed unit materials and design

  2. Equilibrium I: Principles. Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). Unit P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inner London Education Authority (England).

    This unit on the principles of equilibrium is one of 10 first year units produced by the Independent Learning Project for Advanced Chemistry (ILPAC). The unit consists of two levels. After a treatment of non-mathematical aspects in level one (the idea of a reversible reaction, characteristics of an equilibrium state, the Le Chatelier's principle),…

  3. Deciding on Science: An Analysis of Higher Education Science Student Major Choice Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen Wilson

    The number of college students choosing to major in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) in the United States affects the size and quality of the American workforce (Winters, 2009). The number of graduates in these academic fields has been on the decline in the United States since the 1960s, which, according to Lips and McNeil (2009), has resulted in a diminished ability of the United States to compete in science and engineering on the world stage. The purpose of this research was to learn why students chose a STEM major and determine what decision criteria influenced this decision. According to Ajzen's (1991) theory of planned behavior (TPB), the key components of decision-making can be quantified and used as predictors of behavior. In this study the STEM majors' decision criteria were compared between different institution types (two-year, public four-year, and private four-year), and between demographic groups (age and sex). Career, grade, intrinsic, self-efficacy, and self-determination were reported as motivational factors by a majority of science majors participating in this study. Few students reported being influenced by friends and family when deciding to major in science. Science students overwhelmingly attributed the desire to solve meaningful problems as central to their decision to major in science. A majority of students surveyed credited a teacher for influencing their desire to pursue science as a college major. This new information about the motivational construct of the studied group of science majors can be applied to the previously stated problem of not enough STEM majors in the American higher education system to provide workers required to fill the demand of a globally STEM-competitive United States (National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, & Institute of Medicine, 2010).

  4. Deploying Missile Defense: Major Operational Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bunn, M

    2004-01-01

    By October 2004, the United States will have begun initial deployment of a missile defense capability albeit a modest, limited, and not completely proven one to defend the homeland against a limited...

  5. Health Impacts of Air Pollution around Major Industrial Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed a literature review to investigate how epidemiological studies have been used to assess the health consequences of living in the vicinity of industries. 77 papers on the chronic effects of air pollution around major industrial areas were reviewed. Major health themes were cancers (27 studies, morbidity (25 studies, mortality (7 studies, and birth outcome (7 studies. Only 3 studies investigated mental health. While studies were available from many different countries, a majority of papers came from the United Kingdom, Italy, and Spain. Several studies were motivated by concerns from the population or by previous observations of an overincidence of cases. Geographical ecological designs were largely used for studying cancer and mortality, including statistical designs to quantify a relationship between health indicators and exposure. Morbidity was frequently investigated through cross-sectional surveys on the respiratory health of children. Few multicenter studies were performed. In a majority of papers, exposed areas were defined based on the distance to the industry and were located from 20 km from the plants. Improving the exposure assessment would be an asset to future studies. Criteria to include industries in multicenter studies should be defined.

  6. Imaging of the major salivary glands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzelius, Pia; Nielsen, Ming-Yuan; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The major salivary glands, submandibular, parotid and sublingual glands play an important role in preserving the oral cavity and dental health. Patients with problems of the major salivary glands may present with symptoms such as dry mouth, dysphagia and obstruction of duct, inflammation, severe...

  7. Work Values and College Major Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Michela; Lauriola, Marco; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    Our study sought to clarify the nature of the known individual differences in work values associated with academic college major choice, specifically the question whether these precede or follow the choice of an academic major. To rule out environmental influences during academic study, group differences in five value orientations were evaluated…

  8. Test for English Majors (TEM) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yan; Fan, Jinsong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the Test for English Majors (TEM) is to measure the English proficiency of Chinese university undergraduates majoring in English Language and Literature and to examine whether these students meet the required levels of English language abilities as specified in the National College English Teaching Syllabus for English Majors…

  9. 14 CFR Appendix B to Part 43 - Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... inspected. (d) For extended-range fuel tanks installed within the passenger compartment or a baggage... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recording of Major Repairs and Major... to Part 43—Recording of Major Repairs and Major Alterations (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b...

  10. Major salt beds of the Palo Duro and Dalhart Basins, Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    Major salt beds are defined as salt intervals at least 75 feet thick that contain no interbeds greater than 10 feet thick and include no more than 15 percent non-salt interbeds. Maps based on the interpretation of geophysical logs from hundreds of oil and gas exploration wells reveal seven major salt beds in the Palo Duro Basin and one major salt bed in the Dalhart Basin. The most extensive major salt beds are in the central and northern Palo Duro Basin, in the Upper San Andres Formation and the Lower San Andres Formation Units 4 and 5. Of these, the major salt bed within the Lower San Andres Formation Unit 4 is the most widespread and generally the thickest. 7 references, 15 figures, 2 tables

  11. Inching toward incrementalism: federalism, devolution, and health policy in the United States and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparer, Michael S; France, George; Clinton, Chelsea

    2011-02-01

    In the United States, the recently enacted Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 envisions a significant increase in federal oversight over the nation's health care system. At the same time, however, the legislation requires the states to play key roles in every aspect of the reform agenda (such as expanding Medicaid programs, creating insurance exchanges, and working with providers on delivery system reforms). The complicated intergovernmental partnerships that govern the nation's fragmented and decentralized system are likely to continue, albeit with greater federal oversight and control. But what about intergovernmental relations in the United Kingdom? What impact did the formal devolution of power in 1999 to Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland have on health policy in those nations, and in the United Kingdom more generally? Has devolution begun a political process in which health policy in the United Kingdom will, over time, become increasingly decentralized and fragmented, or will this "state of unions" retain its long-standing reputation as perhaps the most centralized of the European nations? In this article, we explore the federalist and intergovernmental implications of recent reforms in the United States and the United Kingdom, and we put forward the argument that political fragmentation (long-standing in the United States and just emerging in the United Kingdom) produces new intergovernmental partnerships that, in turn, produce incremental growth in overall government involvement in the health care arena. This is the impact of what can be called catalytic federalism.

  12. Mammography screening: A major issue in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autier, Philippe; Boniol, Mathieu

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer mortality is declining in most high-income countries. The role of mammography screening in these declines is much debated. Screening impacts cancer mortality through decreasing the incidence of number of advanced cancers with poor prognosis, while therapies and patient management impact cancer mortality through decreasing the fatality of cancers. The effectiveness of cancer screening is the ability of a screening method to curb the incidence of advanced cancers in populations. Methods for evaluating cancer screening effectiveness are based on the monitoring of age-adjusted incidence rates of advanced cancers that should decrease after the introduction of screening. Likewise, cancer-specific mortality rates should decline more rapidly in areas with screening than in areas without or with lower levels of screening but where patient management is similar. These two criteria have provided evidence that screening for colorectal and cervical cancer contributes to decreasing the mortality associated with these two cancers. In contrast, screening for neuroblastoma in children was discontinued in the early 2000s because these two criteria were not met. In addition, overdiagnosis - i.e. the detection of non-progressing occult neuroblastoma that would not have been life-threatening during the subject's lifetime - is a major undesirable consequence of screening. Accumulating epidemiological data show that in populations where mammography screening has been widespread for a long time, there has been no or only a modest decline in the incidence of advanced cancers, including that of de novo metastatic (stage IV) cancers at diagnosis. Moreover, breast cancer mortality reductions are similar in areas with early introduction and high penetration of screening and in areas with late introduction and low penetration of screening. Overdiagnosis is commonplace, representing 20% or more of all breast cancers among women invited to screening and 30-50% of screen

  13. Lessons to be Learned from Recent Biosafety Incidents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Shay; Yitzhaki, Shmuel; Shapira, Shmuel C

    2015-05-01

    During recent months, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced the occurrence of three major biosafety incidents, raising serious concern about biosafety and biosecurity guideline implementation in the most prestigious agencies in the United States: the CDC, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Federal Drug Administration (FDA). These lapses included: a) the mishandling of Bacillus anthracis spores potentially exposing dozens of employees to anthrax; b) the shipment of low pathogenic influenza virus unknowingly cross-contaminated with a highly pathogenic strain; and c) an inventory lapse of hundreds of samples of biological agents, including six vials of variola virus kept in a cold storage room for decades, unnoticed. In this review we present the published data on these events, report the CDC inquiry's main findings, and discuss the key lessons to be learnt to ensure safer scientific practice in biomedical and microbiological service and research laboratories.

  14. Meteorological Influences on the Seasonality of Lyme Disease in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean M.; Eisen, Rebecca J.; Monaghan, Andrew; Mead, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi infection) is the most common vector-transmitted disease in the United States. The majority of human Lyme disease (LD) cases occur in the summer months, but the timing of the peak occurrence varies geographically and from year to year. We calculated the beginning, peak, end, and duration of the main LD season in 12 highly endemic states from 1992 to 2007 and then examined the association between the timing of these seasonal variables and several meteorological variables. An earlier beginning to the LD season was positively associated with higher cumulative growing degree days through Week 20, lower cumulative precipitation, a lower saturation deficit, and proximity to the Atlantic coast. The timing of the peak and duration of the LD season were also associated with cumulative growing degree days, saturation deficit, and cumulative precipitation, but no meteorological predictors adequately explained the timing of the end of the LD season. PMID:24470565

  15. Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderam, Saswati; Kissin, Dmitry M; Crawford, Sara B; Folger, Suzanne G; Boulet, Sheree L; Warner, Lee; Barfield, Wanda D

    2018-02-16

    Since the first U.S. infant conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) was born in 1981, both the use of ART and the number of fertility clinics providing ART services have increased steadily in the United States. ART includes fertility treatments in which eggs or embryos are handled in the laboratory (i.e., in vitro fertilization [IVF] and related procedures). Although the majority of infants conceived through ART are singletons, women who undergo ART procedures are more likely than women who conceive naturally to deliver multiple-birth infants. Multiple births pose substantial risks for both mothers and infants, including obstetric complications, preterm delivery (state-specific information for the United States (including the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico) on ART procedures performed in 2015 and compares birth outcomes that occurred in 2015 (resulting from ART procedures performed in 2014 and 2015) with outcomes for all infants born in the United States in 2015. 2015. In 1995, CDC began collecting data on ART procedures performed in fertility clinics in the United States as mandated by the Fertility Clinic Success Rate and Certification Act of 1992 (FCSRCA) (Public Law 102-493 [October 24, 1992]). Data are collected through the National ART Surveillance System, a web-based data collection system developed by CDC. This report includes data from 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico). In 2015, a total of 182,111 ART procedures (range: 135 in Alaska to 23,198 in California) with the intent to transfer at least one embryo were performed in 464 U.S. fertility clinics and reported to CDC. These procedures resulted in 59,334 live-birth deliveries (range: 55 in Wyoming to 7,802 in California) and 71,152 infants born (range: 68 in Wyoming to 9,176 in California). Nationally, the number of ART procedures performed per 1 million women of reproductive age (15-44 years), a proxy measure of the ART utilization rate, was

  16. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations

  17. Inequalities theory of majorization and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Olkin, Ingram

    1980-01-01

    Although they play a fundamental role in nearly all branches of mathematics, inequalities are usually obtained by ad hoc methods rather than as consequences of some underlying ""theory of inequalities."" For certain kinds of inequalities, the notion of majorization leads to such a theory that is sometimes extremely useful and powerful for deriving inequalities. Moreover, the derivation of an inequality by methods of majorization is often very helpful both for providing a deeper understanding and for suggesting natural generalizations.Anyone wishing to employ majorization as a tool in applicati

  18. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine year-to-year developments in the operations of 26 major US energy companies on a corporate level and also by major line of energy business and by major functions within each line of business. The period covered is 1977 to 1979. Comparisons of income and investment flow are featured and related to functionally allocated net investment in place. The presentation seeks to identify similarities and dissimilarities in results across lines-of-business activity or by firm size

  19. Dixie Valley Bottoming Binary Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Dale [Terra-Gen Sierra Holdings, LLC, Reno, NV (United States)

    2014-12-21

    This binary plant is the first air cooled, high-output refrigeration based waste heat recovery cycle in the industry. Its working fluid is environmentally friendly and as such, the permits that would be required with a hydrocarbon based cycle are not necessary. The unit is largely modularized, meaning that the unit’s individual skids were assembled in another location and were shipped via truck to the plant site. The Air Cooled Condensers (ACC), equipment piping, and Balance of Plant (BOP) piping were constructed at site. This project further demonstrates the technical feasibility of using low temperature brine for geothermal power utilization. The development of the unit led to the realization of low temperature, high output, and environmentally friendly heat recovery systems through domestic research and engineering. The project generates additional renewable energy, resulting in cleaner air and reduced carbon dioxide emissions. Royalty and tax payments to governmental agencies will increase, resulting in reduced financial pressure on local entities. The major components of the unit were sourced from American companies, resulting in increased economic activity throughout the country.

  20. Pickering Unit 1 chemical cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smee, J.L.; Fiola, R.J.; Brennenstuhl, K.R.; Zerkee, D.D.; Daniel, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The secondary sides of all 12 boilers at Pickering Unit 1 were chemically cleaned in 1994 by the team of Ontario Hydro, B and W International (Cambridge, Ontario) and B and W Nuclear Technologies (Lynchburg, Virginia). A multi-step EPRI/SGOG process was employed in a similar manner to previous clearings at Units 5 and 6 in 1992 and 1993, respectively. A major innovation with the Unit 1 cleaning was the incorporation of a crevice cleaning step, the first time this had been done on Ontario Hydro plants. In addition, six boilers were cleaned in parallel compared to three at a time in previous Pickering cleanings. This significantly reduced cleaning time. A total of 6,770 kg of sludge was removed through direct chemical dissolution. It consisted of 66% iron/nickel oxides and 28% copper metal. A total of 1,600,000 L (420,000 US gallons) of liquid waste was produced. It was processed through the spent solvent treatment facility located at the Bruce Nuclear Power Development site. Visual inspection performed after the cleaning indicated that the crevices between the boiler tubes and the tube support structure were completely clear of deposit and the general condition of the tubing and lattice bars appeared to be in 'as new' condition. (author)

  1. Low cost balancing unit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golembiovsky, Matej; Dedek, Jan; Slanina, Zdenek

    2017-06-01

    This article deals with the design of a low-cost balancing system which consist of battery balancing units, accumulator pack units and coordinator unit with interface for higher level of battery management system. This solution allows decentralized mode of operation and the aim of this work is implementation of controlling and diagnostic mechanism into an electric scooter project realized at Technical university of Ostrava. In todays world which now fully enjoys the prime of electromobility, off-grid battery systems and other, it is important to seek the optimal balance between functionality and the economy side of BMS that being electronics which deals with secondary cells of batery packs. There were numerous sophisticated, but not too practical BMS models in the past, such as centralized system or standalone balance modules of individual cells. This article aims at development of standalone balance modules which are able to communicate with the coordinator, adjust their parameters and ensure their cells safety in case of a communication failure. With the current worldwide cutting cost trend in mind, the emphasis was put on the lowest price possible for individual component. The article is divided into two major categories, the first one being desing of power electronics with emphasis on quality, safety (cooling) and also cost. The second part describes development of a communication interface with reliability and cost in mind. The article contains numerous graphs from practical measurements. The outcome of the work and its possible future is defined in the conclusion.

  2. A multiplicity logic unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialkowski, J.; Moszynski, M.; Zagorski, A.

    1981-01-01

    The logic diagram principle of operation and some details of the design of the multiplicity logic unit are presented. This unit was specially designed to fulfil the requirements of a multidetector arrangement for gamma-ray multiplicity measurements. The unit is equipped with 16 inputs controlled by a common coincidence gate. It delivers a linear output pulse with the height proportional to the multiplicity of coincidences and logic pulses corresponding to 0, 1, ... up to >= 5-fold coincidences. These last outputs are used to steer the routing unit working with the multichannel analyser. (orig.)

  3. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  4. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1993 is the seventeenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments in energy markets, with particular reference to the 25 major US energy companies required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major liens of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, other energy operations, and nonenergy businesses. Financial and operating results are presented in the context of energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing corporate strategies and measuring the performance of ongoing operations both in the US and abroad. This year`s report analyzes financial and operating developments for 1993 (Part 1: Developments in 1993) and also reviews key developments during the 20 years following the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973--1974 (Part 2: Major Energy Company Strategies Since the Arab Oil Embargo). 49 figs., 104 tabs.

  5. Major Development Communication Paradigms and Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    major paradigms of development and communication practices on graphic ... mobilize, educate and persuade target audience to support human development ... facilitates the understanding of the themes, issues and facts of a campaign.

  6. Data Sets from Major NCI Initiaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Data Catalog includes links to data collections produced by major NCI initiatives and other widely used data sets, including animal models, human tumor cell lines, epidemiology data sets, genomics data sets from TCGA, TARGET, COSMIC, GSK, NCI60.

  7. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs

  8. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    This publication examines developments in the operations of the major US e energy-producing companies on a corporate level, by major line of business, by major function within each line of business, and by geographic area. In 1996, 24 companies filed Form EIA-28. The analysis and data presented in this report represents the operations of the Financial Reporting System companies in the context of their worldwide operations and in the context of the major energy markets which they serve. Both energy and nonenergy developments of these companies are analyzed. Although the focus is on developments in 1996, important trends prior to that time are also featured. Sections address energy markets in 1996; key financial developments; oil and gas exploration, development, and production; downstream petroleum in 1996; coal and alternative energy; and foreign direct investment in US energy. 30 figs., 104 tabs.

  9. April 2006. 32 Major Orthopaedic Procedures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-04-01

    Apr 1, 2006 ... Major Orthopaedic Procedures: 17 Year Trends. Biruk Lambisso Wamisho1 ... financial and logistic constraints with poor compliance of ... Modern orthopaedic surgery is very expensive. A highly ..... Case management. Tribury.

  10. Dynamics of Major Cereals Productivity in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaya Gairhe

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Cereal crops have played major roles in addressing food security issues in Nepal. In recent years there have been fluctuations in crop production and demands situations due to various reasons. Thus, the present study aims to analyze the dynamics of major cereals productivity in Nepal from 1995 to 2014. Focus group discussions were done in mid-hills and tarai of Nepal in 2015. Percentage change, compound growth rate, annual rate of change, coefficient of variation, instability index were calculated to analyze results. The result shows that the area, production and productivity of major cereals had an increasing trend over the study period. The major factors contributing on productivity increase in cereal crops were irrigation facilities, use of improved and hybrid seeds, chemical fertilizer and better technical knowhow among the farmers. For effective adoption of research outputs to improve the productivity emphasis should also be given on promotion of public private partnership (PPP in research and development.

  11. Major Benno Leesiku mälestuseks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Järelehüüe 2006. aastal surnud Kaitseliidu juhile, Eesti Laskurliidu asepresidendile ja võimlemistreenerite klubi Kartek presidendile major Benno Leesikule, kes oleks 17. jaanuaril 2010. aastal saanud 50-aastaseks

  12. Characterizing the epistemological development of physics majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gire

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Students in introductory physics courses are likely to have views about physics that differ from those of experts. However, students who continue to study physics eventually become experts themselves. Presumably these students either possess or develop more expertlike views. To investigate this process, the views of introductory physics students majoring in physics are compared with the views of introductory physics students majoring in engineering. In addition, the views of physics majors are assessed at various stages of degree progress. The Colorado learning attitudes about science survey is used to evaluate students’ views about physics, and students’ overall survey scores and responses to individual survey items are analyzed. Beginning physics majors are significantly more expertlike than nonmajors in introductory physics courses, and this high level of sophistication is consistent for most of undergraduate study.

  13. Coherence for vectorial waves and majorization

    OpenAIRE

    Luis, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    We show that majorization provides a powerful approach to the coherence conveyed by partially polarized transversal electromagnetic waves. Here we present the formalism, provide some examples and compare with standard measures of polarization and coherence of vectorial waves.

  14. Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 16, 2014 Researchers Realize Major Breakthrough in Understanding Endometriosis For a disease that affects an estimated 6 ... 10% of women, surprisingly little is known about endometriosis — a disorder that causes uterine tissue to grow ...

  15. Disturbances in equilibrium function after major earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Motoyasu; Endo, Nobutaka; Osada, Yoshihisa; Kim, Yoshiharu; Kuriyama, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Major earthquakes were followed by a large number of aftershocks and significant outbreaks of dizziness occurred over a large area. However it is unclear why major earthquake causes dizziness. We conducted an intergroup trial on equilibrium dysfunction and psychological states associated with equilibrium dysfunction in individuals exposed to repetitive aftershocks versus those who were rarely exposed. Greater equilibrium dysfunction was observed in the aftershock-exposed group under conditions without visual compensation. Equilibrium dysfunction in the aftershock-exposed group appears to have arisen from disturbance of the inner ear, as well as individual vulnerability to state anxiety enhanced by repetitive exposure to aftershocks. We indicate potential effects of autonomic stress on equilibrium function after major earthquake. Our findings may contribute to risk management of psychological and physical health after major earthquakes with aftershocks, and allow development of a new empirical approach to disaster care after such events.

  16. Spatial and seasonal patterns in urban influence on regional concentrations of speciated aerosols across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, J. L.; Schichtel, B. A.; Malm, W. C.; Pitchford, M.; Frank, N. H.

    2014-11-01

    Monthly, seasonal, and annual mean estimates of urban influence on regional concentrations of major aerosol species were computed using speciated aerosol data from the rural IMPROVE network (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency's urban Chemical Speciation Network for the 2008 through 2011 period. Aggregated for sites across the continental United States, the annual mean and one standard error in urban excess (defined as the ratio of urban to nearby rural concentrations) was highest for elemental carbon (3.3 ± 0.2), followed by ammonium nitrate (2.5 ± 0.2), particulate organic matter (1.78 ± 0.08), and ammonium sulfate (1.23 ± 0.03). The seasonal variability in urban excess was significant for carbonaceous aerosols and ammonium nitrate in the West, in contrast to the low seasonal variability in the urban influence of ammonium sulfate. Generally for all species, higher excess values in the West were associated with localized urban sources while in the East excess was more regional in extent. In addition, higher excess values in the western United States in winter were likely influenced not only by differences in sources but also by combined meteorological and topographic effects. This work has implications for understanding the spatial heterogeneity of major aerosol species near the interface of urban and rural regions and therefore for designing appropriate air quality management strategies. In addition, the spatial patterns in speciated mass concentrations provide constraints for regional and global models.

  17. Standardization of nuclear power plants in the United States: recent regulatory developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, B.Z.; Tourtellotte, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    On April 18, 1989, the United States (U.S.) Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) amended the regulations governing the process for licensing nuclear power plants in the United States to provide for issuance of early site permits, standard design certifications and combined construction permits and operating licenses for nuclear power reactors. The new regulations are designed to achieve early resolution of licensing issues and facilitate standardization of nuclear power plants in the United States. The program for design standardization is central to efforts mounted by the U.S. government and industry to ensure that there will be a next generation of nuclear power facilities in the U.S. The most significant changes are provisions for certification of standard designs and for issuance prior to start of construction of combined licenses which incorporate a construction permit and an operating license with conditions. Such certifications and combined licenses must contain tests, inspections and analyses, and acceptance criteria, which are necessary and sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that the facility has been constructed and will operate in accordance with the combined license. A number of significant implementation issues have arisen. In addition a major court case brought by several anti-nuclear groups is pending, challenging NRC authority to issue combined licenses. It is the goal of the U.S. nuclear industry to have the first of the next generation of standardized nuclear power plants ordered, licensed, constructed and on-line by the year 2000. (author)

  18. Major dealers' expert power in distribution channels

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Chinomona; Marius Pretorius

    2011-01-01

    The importance of major dealers' expertise in distribution channels and effects on exchange relations is widely acknowledged by many SMEs in Africa and yet there seem to be a paucity of research on this matter. To address this dearth, the current study attempts to examine the relationship between major dealers' expert power and SME manufacturers' channel cooperation and the mediating influence of their trust, relationship commitment and satisfaction. The conceptualized model and five hypothes...

  19. The pectoralis major footprint: An anatomical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antonio de Figueired

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the insertion of the pectoralis major tendon to the humerus, through knowledge of its dimensions in the coronal and sagittal planes. Methods: Twenty shoulders from 10 cadavers were dissected and the pectoralis major tendon insertion on the humerus was identified and isolated. The dimensions of its "footprint" (proximal to distal and medial to lateral borders and the distance from the top edge of the pectoralis major tendon to apex of the humeral head structures were measured. Results: The average proximal to distal border length was 80.8 mm (range: 70 -90 and the medial-to-lateral border length was 6.1 mm (5 -7. The average distance (and range from the apex of the pectoralis major tendon to the humeral head was 59.3 mm. Conclusions: We demonstrate that the insertion of the pectoralis major tendon is laminar, and the pectoralis major tendon has an average footprint height and width of 80.8 mm and 6.1 mm, respectively.

  20. 78 FR 53478 - Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ...] Proposed Information Collection; United States Park Police Personal History Statement AGENCY: National Park... about this IC, contact Major Scott Fear, United States Park Police, 1100 Ohio Drive SW., Washington, DC... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The United States Park Police (USPP) is a unit of the National Park Service...

  1. The usage of English phraseological units and their functions

    OpenAIRE

    RAKHIMOVA GUZAL YULDASHOVNA; ATAMURATOV DILSHOD ALIMBAYEVICH

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the units of phraseology and their major functions with examples which are complicated to understand. Besides, plenty of explanations of functions are stated here according to experienced scientists’ theories.

  2. AIR POLLUTION: Emissions from Older Electricity Generating Units

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... While fossil fuels-coal, natural gas, and oil-account for more than two thirds of our electricity, generating units that burn these fuels are major sources of airborne emissions that pose human...

  3. Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in Arusha City, Tanzania. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... findings, majority (84.6%) of the cow's enclosures were of poor hygiene.

  4. United States Earthquake Intensity Database, 1638-1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Earthquake Intensity Database is a collection of damage and felt reports for over 23,000 U.S. earthquakes from 1638-1985. The majority of...

  5. Status of the breeder fuel cycle in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the status and plans for the fast reactor fuel cycle in the United States. The United States is undertaking a complete reexamination of its entire breeder program strategy, and the direction of the new program is not yet clear. Studies in progress to examine the associated fuel cycle strategies as they relate to the overall emerging breeder strategy are described. The present status of and recent developments in the fuel cycle R and D programs are summarized

  6. Marketing Cyprus as a tourism destination for the United States: theory, marketing and public relations strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Yiannakis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a framework for segmenting Cyprus as a tourism destination and discusses ways for reaching various target markets in the United States. Prior research using multi-dimensional scaling demonstrates (Yiannakis & Gibson, 1988, 1992, 2002; Gibson 1994; Foo, McGuiggan & Yiannakis, 2004 that when tourists go on vacation they seek a balance among three fundamental or core push factors: familiarity-strangeness, structure-independence and stimulation tranquility. When the above are matched with various product categories (pull factors that represent what Cyprus has to offer (e.g., heritage/cultural tourism, escapist tourism, sport tourism, eco-tourism and the like, we are able to develop a targeted framework that can help us market Cyprus as a tourism destination to various markets in the United States. The authors also discuss some of the major selling points that make Cyprus attractive as a tourism destination and suggest how these may be employed in an overall strategy for reaching the relatively untapped markets of the United States. The authors make a number of recommendations involving new market exploration and discuss strategies for increasing the island's exposure through both marketing, as well as public relations activities. In closing, the authors recommend that in addition to economic impact studies Cyprus needs to assess the socio-cultural and environmental impacts of tourism on the island and its people. Such findings may help the tourism industry and the people of Cyprus determine the kind of tourism product they want, and the type of tourist they would prefer to attract to the island.

  7. A comparative study of Japan and United States nuclear enterprise: Industry structure and construction experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinman, G.W.; Lowinger, T.C.

    1987-01-01

    Both Japan and the United States have undertaken major programs to utilize nuclear power for central station electricity generation. Over the past 20 years, the Japanese have developed their own construction and government regulatory institutions and now have an essentially independent domestic nuclear power program. Nuclear construction and government oversight of nuclear power have developed somewhat differently in Japan and the United States, reflecting to some extent the two countries' different business and social cultures. In the United States the vendor and utility industries are much more fragmented than those in Japan, and construction projects are carried out on a more competitive basis. The Japanese industry operates through a few well-established consortia while the U.S. industry does not. Relations among the national government, the vendors, and the electric utilities tend to be cooperative in Japan while they are more adversarial in the Untied States. This paper discusses these topics in a framework of a comparative study of the countries' nuclear industries. Whether because of the factors mentioned above or for other reasons the success of nuclear power in Japan and the United States has differed dramatically in recent years. This paper compares the performance of the nuclear enterprise in these two countries in terms of the physical attributes of the plants themselves, the labor required to build them, and the construction times required. It also discusses the relationship between initial estimates of costs and schedules and actual results achieved. On all counts, recent Japanese performance has been better than in the United States

  8. Comparative Advantage, Exchange Rates, and Sectoral Trade Balances of Major Industrial Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen S. Golub

    1994-01-01

    This paper uses a Ricardian framework to clarify the role of microeconomic and macroeconomic factors governing the time-series and cross-sectional behavior of sectoral trade balances. Unit labor costs and trade balances are calculated for several sectors for the seven major industrial countries. The time-series and cross-sectional variation in sectoral unit labor costs is decomposed into relative productivity, wage differentials, and exchange rate variations. The main findings are that change...

  9. Neighbors United for Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Wayne W.; Corvin, Jaime; Virella, Irmarie

    2009-01-01

    Modeled upon the ecclesiastic community group concept of Latin America to unite and strengthen the bond between the Church and neighborhoods, a community-based organization created Vecinos Unidos por la Salud (Neighbors United for Health) to bring health messages into urban Latino neighborhoods. The model is based on five tenants, and incorporates…

  10. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to

  11. A Major in Science? Initial Beliefs and Final Outcomes for College Major and Dropout

    OpenAIRE

    Ralph Stinebrickner; Todd R. Stinebrickner

    2014-01-01

    Taking advantage of unique longitudinal data, we provide the first characterization of what college students believe at the time of entrance about their final major, relate these beliefs to actual major outcomes, and provide an understanding of why students hold the initial beliefs about majors that they do. The data collection and analysis are based directly on a conceptual model in which a student's final major is best viewed as the end result of a learning process. We find that students en...

  12. Auditing the standard of anaesthesia care in obstetric units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörch-Siddall, J; Corbitt, N; Bryson, M R

    2001-04-01

    We undertook an audit of 15 obstetric units in the north of England over a 10-month period to ascertain to what extent they conformed to the Obstetric Anaesthetists' Association 'Recommended Minimum Standards for Obstetric Anaesthetic Services' using a quality assurance approach. We demonstrated that all units conformed to the majority of standards but did not conform in at least one major and minor area.

  13. METRIC context unit architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    METRIC is an architecture for a simple but powerful Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC). Its speed comes from the simultaneous processing of several instruction streams, with instructions from the various streams being dispatched into METRIC's execution pipeline as they become available for execution. The pipeline is thus kept full, with a mix of instructions for several contexts in execution at the same time. True parallel programming is supported within a single execution unit, the METRIC Context Unit. METRIC's architecture provides for expansion through the addition of multiple Context Units and of specialized Functional Units. The architecture thus spans a range of size and performance from a single-chip microcomputer up through large and powerful multiprocessors. This research concentrates on the specification of the METRIC Context Unit at the architectural level. Performance tradeoffs made during METRIC's design are discussed, and projections of METRIC's performance are made based on simulation studies.

  14. Psychology Degree Beliefs and Stereotypes: Differences in the Perceptions of Majors and Non-Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinthaupt, Thomas M.; Hurst, Jennifer R.; Johnson, Quinn R.

    2016-01-01

    Very little research examines the beliefs and stereotypes students have about the discipline and major of psychology. Previous research has found that psychology majors report hearing a variety of such beliefs and stereotypes more often from their fellow students than from their family members. In the current study, psychology majors/minors and…

  15. Preoperation of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyo, Tadashi; Kurata, Satoshi

    1994-01-01

    Chubu Electric Power Co. finished preoperation of Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 4 in September, 1993. Although unit 4 has the same reactor design as unit 3, its rated electrical output (1,137MW) is 37MW more than that of unit 3. This increase was achieved mainly by adopting a Moisture Separater Heater in the turbine system. We started preoperation of unit 4 in November 1992 and performed various tests at electrical outputs of 20%, 50%, 75%, and 100%. We finished preoperation without any scram or other major problems and obtained satisfactory results for the functions and performance of the plant. This paper describes the major results of unit 4 preoperation. (author)

  16. Bipolar disorder: Evidence for a major locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, M.A.; Flodman, P.L. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Sadovnick, A.D.; Ameli, H. [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)] [and others

    1995-10-09

    Complex segregation analyses were conducted on families of bipolar I and bipolar II probands to delineate the mode of inheritance. The probands were ascertained from consecutive referrals to the Mood Disorder Service, University Hospital, University of British Columbia and diagnosed by DSM-III-R and Research Diagnostic Criteria. Data were available on over 1,500 first-degree relatives of the 186 Caucasian probands. The purpose of the analyses was to determine if, after correcting for age and birth cohort, there was evidence for a single major locus. Five models were fit to the data using the statistical package SAGE: (1) dominant, (2) recessive, (3) arbitrary mendelian inheritance, (4) environmental, and (5) no major effects. A single dominant, mendelian major locus was the best fitting of these models for the sample of bipolar I and II probands when only bipolar relatives were defined as affected (polygenic inheritance could not be tested). Adding recurrent major depression to the diagnosis {open_quotes}affected{close_quotes} for relatives reduced the evidence for a major locus effect. Our findings support the undertaking of linkage studies and are consistent with the analyses of the National Institutes of Mental Health (NIMH) Collaborative Study data by Rice et al. and Blangero and Elston. 39 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. The major tokamak distruption in cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeong Sik; Choi, Eun Ha; Choi, Duk In

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of the major disruption in tokamak plasma which involves the nonlinear interaction of tearing models is numerically studied in two and three dimensional formulations. In this study, it is found that in the two dimensional case with a flattened current density profile the magnetic islands of the m=2; n=1 mode do not saturate nonlinearly and but strongly interact with the limiter. Thus it is suggested that the helical perturbation of the m=2;n=1 mode plays the dominant role in the major disruption. We also show that the m=2;n=1 mode nonlinearly destablizes other tearing modes, especially the m=3;n=2 mode, from the nonlinear coupling of different helicities as also shown in other studies. The plasma extends across the plasma cross section, and the plasma core shifts inward along the major radius during the major disruption. The numerical result for the major disruption time measured using the nonlinear 3-D procedure for the initial value problem with PLT parameters is about 450 μsec which agrees reasonably well with the experimental value of 500 μsec. (Author)

  18. Evidence for Mojave-Sonora megashear-Systematic left-lateral offset of Neoproterozoic to Lower Jurassic strata and facies, western United States and northwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John H.

    2005-01-01

    Major successions as well as individual units of Neoproterozoic to Lower Jurassic strata and facies appear to be systematically offset left laterally from eastern California and western Nevada in the western United States to Sonora, Mexico. This pattern is most evident in units such as the "Johnnie oolite," a 1- to 2-m-thick oolite of the Neoproterozoic Rainstorm Member of the Johnnie Formation in the western United States and of the Clemente Formation in Sonora. The pattern is also evident in the Lower Cambrian Zabriskie Quartzite of the western United States and the correlative Proveedora Quartzite in Sonora. Matching of isopach lines of the Zabriskie Quartzite and Proveedora Quartzite suggests ???700-800 km of left-lateral offset. The offset pattern is also apparent in the distribution of distinctive lithologic types, unconformities, and fossil assemblages in other rocks ranging in age from Neoproterozoic to Early Jurassic. In the western United States, the distribution of facies in Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic strata indicates that the Cordilleran miogeocline trends north-south. A north-south trend is also suggested in Sonora, and if so is compatible with offset of the miogeocline but not with the ideas that the miogeocline wrapped around the continental margin and trends east-west in Sonora. An imperfect stratigraphic match of supposed offset segments along the megashear is apparent. Some units, such as the "Johnnie oolite" and Zabriskie-Proveedora, show almost perfect correspondence, but other units are significantly different. The differences seem to indicate that the indigenous succession of the western United States and offset segments in Mexico were not precisely side by side before offset but were separated by an area-now buried, eroded, or destroyed-that contained strata of intermediate facies. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  19. A national benchmarking survey of student counselling centres/units ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study further found that the majority of counselling centres/units had one or more staff members with specialised training in areas such as HIV/AIDS counselling, sexual abuse counselling and multicultural counselling. In 2007, these counselling centres/units saw on average 18 per cent of enrolled students as ...

  20. Performance profiles of major energy producers 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-13

    Performance Profiles of Major Energy Producers 1992 is the sixteenth annual report of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Financial Reporting System (FRS). The report examines financial and operating developments, with particular reference to the 25 major energy companies (the FRS companies) required to report annually on Form EIA-28. Financial information is reported by major lines of business, including oil and gas production, petroleum refining and marketing, and other energy operations. Domestic and international operations are examined separately in this report. The data are presented in the context of key energy market developments with a view toward identifying changing strategies of corporate development and measuring the apparent success of current ongoing operations.

  1. Major dealers' expert power in distribution channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Chinomona

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The importance of major dealers’ expertise in distribution channels and effects on exchange relations is widely acknowledged by many SMEs in Africa and yet there seem to be a paucity of research on this matter. To address this dearth, the current study attempts to examine the impact of major dealers’ expert power on SME manufacturers’ channel cooperation and the mediating influence of their trust, relationship commitment and satisfaction. The conceptualized model and five hypotheses are empirically validated using a sample of 452 manufacturing SMEs in Zimbabwe. The findings indicate that major dealers’ expert power may influence SME manufacturers’ trust, relationship commitment, relationship satisfaction and channel cooperation in a significant way. Managerial implications of the research findings are provided.

  2. Exercise for patients with major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Speyer, Helene; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    is to investigate the beneficial and harmful effects of exercise, in terms of severity of depression, lack of remission, suicide, and so on, compared with treatment as usual with or without co-interventions in randomized clinical trials involving adults with a clinical diagnosis of major depression. A meta......BACKGROUND: The lifetime prevalence of major depression is estimated to affect 17% of the population and is considered the second largest health-care problem globally in terms of the number of years lived with disability. The effects of most antidepressant treatments are poor; therefore, exercise...... has been assessed in a number of randomized clinical trials. A number of reviews have previously analyzed these trials; however, none of these reviews have addresses the effect of exercise for adults diagnosed with major depression. METHODS/DESIGN: The objective of this systematic review...

  3. Vital Interests, Virtual Threats: Reconciling International Law with Information Warfare and United States Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shawhan, Karl

    2001-01-01

    .... Nontraditional threats, however, pose asymmetric dilemmas for the United States. The increased U.S. military and economic reliance on information systems introduces new vulnerabilities not adequately protected by traditional kinetic force arms...

  4. Land use and beach closure 2004-2013 in the United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains the beach closure data and land use information around each beach in 2006 and 2011 in the United States. The original data are created by EPA...

  5. [Major breakthroughs in the medical treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirk, O.; Gerstoft, J.; Lundgren, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    The introduction of antiretroviral combination therapy for patients with HIV infection is described as an example of a breakthrough within the field of medical treatment. The background for the breakthrough and the phases thereof are described and for comparison, the circumstances of major breakt...... breakthroughs within other medical specialities are mentioned Udgivelsesdato: 2009/3/2......The introduction of antiretroviral combination therapy for patients with HIV infection is described as an example of a breakthrough within the field of medical treatment. The background for the breakthrough and the phases thereof are described and for comparison, the circumstances of major...

  6. Decision unit program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madjar, N.; Pastor, C.; Chambon, B.; Drain, D.; Giorni, A.; Dauchy, A.

    1981-01-01

    A decision unit has been built to simplify the electronic logic set-up in multi-detectors experiments. This unit, designed with fast memories used as decision making tables, replaces conventional logic modules. Nine inputs are provided for receiving the fast detector signals (charged particles, gammas, neutrons, ...). Fifteen independent outputs allow the identification of the choosen events among the 2 9 possible events. A CAMAC interface between the unit and the computer, or a manual control auxiliary module, is used to load, in the memory, the pattern of the choosen events [fr

  7. Smart Rocking Armour Units

    OpenAIRE

    Hofland, B.; Arefin, Syed Shamsil; van der Lem, Cock; van gent, Marcel

    2018-01-01

    This paper describes a method to measure the rocking motion of lab-scale armour units. Sensors as found in mobile phones are used. These sensors, data-storage and battery are all embedded in the model units, such that they can be applied without wires attached to them. The technique is applied to double-layer units in order to compare the results to the existing knowledge for this type of armour layers. In contrast to previous research, the gyroscope reading is used to determine the (rocking)...

  8. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... auction, which is the multi unit analogue of a second-price auction. Furthermore, we characterize these equilibria when valuations take a number of different forms: diminishing marginal valuations, increasing average valuations, and marginal valuations with single turning points...

  9. Major breakthrough in personal dust protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, J.

    2004-09-15

    With new studies highlighting one in every 20 miners developing 'black lung', USA labour, industry and government have joined forces to develop a solution. The rapid advance in Personal Dust Monitor (PDM) technology is a perfect example. The article reports a PDM, which is developed by the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, working in the partnership with the United Mine Workers of America, the Bituminous Coal Operators Association and the National Mining Association.

  10. International Charter `Space and Major Disasters' Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B. K.

    2017-12-01

    The International Charter aims at providing a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to national disaster authorities of countries affected by natural or man-made disasters. Each of the sixteen Member Agencies has committed resources to support the objectives of the Charter and thus helping to mitigate the effects of disasters on human life and property, getting critical information into the hands of the disaster responders so that they can make informed decisions in the wake of a disaster. The Charter Member Agencies work together to provide remotely sensed imagery to any requesting country that is experiencing a natural or man-made disaster. The Space Agencies contribute priority satellite taskings, archive retrievals, and map production, as well as imagery of the affected areas. The imagery is provided at no cost to the affected country and is made available for the immediate response phase of the disaster. The Charter also has agreements with Sentinel Asia to submit activation requests on behalf of its 30+ member countries and the United Nations Office of Outer Space Affairs (UN OOSA) and United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR)/ United Nations Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT) to submit activations on behalf of United Nations relief agencies such as UNICEF and UNOCHA. To further expand accessibility to the Charter Member Agency resources, the Charter has implemented the Universal Access initiative, which allows any country's disaster management authority to submit an application, attend a brief training session, and after successful completion, become an Authorized User able to submit activation requests without assistance from Member Agencies. The data provided by the Charter is used for many purposes including damage assessments, reference maps, evacuation route planning, search and rescue operations, decision maker briefings, scientific evaluations, and other response activities.

  11. Advancing high-speed rail policy in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This report builds on a review of international experience with high-speed rail projects to develop recommendations for a High-speed rail policy framework for the United States. The international review looked at the experience of Korea, Taiwan, Chin...

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Indian Gaming in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, William V.; Bunch, Rick L.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research on Indian gaming in South Dakota discovered very restrictive and unfavorable tribal-state compacts that appear to border on economic racism. This article expands this previous research by exploring the influence of tribal-state Indian gaming compacts for the Indian casinos located in the contiguous United States. The purpose is…

  13. 15 CFR 971.427 - Processing outside the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing outside the United States... THE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL RECOVERY PERMITS Issuance/Transfer: Terms, Conditions and Restrictions Terms, Conditions and Restrictions § 971.427 Processing...

  14. Investor perceptions of potential IFRS adoption in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leung, P.Y.E.; Joos, P.P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the stock market reaction to 15 events relating to IFRS adoption in the United States. The goal is to assess whether investors perceive the switch to IFRS as beneficial or costly. Our findings suggest that investors' reaction to IFRS adoption is more positive in cases where IFRS

  15. Future Directions for Urban Forestry Research in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Gary W. Watson

    2002-01-01

    Urban forestry research promises to continue to be an integral part of the growth and development of forestry in urban and urbanizing areas of the United States. The future is expected to bring increased emphasis on research in support of the care of trees and other plants, ecological restoration, and comprehensive and adaptive management across the landscape....

  16. Gender Sorting across K-12 Schools in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Mark C.; Conger, Dylan

    2013-01-01

    This article documents evidence of nonrandom gender sorting across K-12 schools in the United States. The sorting exists among coed schools and at all grade levels, and it is highest in the secondary school grades. We observe some gender sorting across school sectors and types: for instance, males are slightly underrepresented in private schools…

  17. Rank reduction of correlation matrices by majorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pietersz (Raoul); P.J.F. Groenen (Patrick)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper a novel method is developed for the problem of finding a low-rank correlation matrix nearest to a given correlation matrix. The method is based on majorization and therefore it is globally convergent. The method is computationally efficient, is straightforward to implement,

  18. Predicting Undergraduate Music Education Majors' Collegiate Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    In order for teachers to guide students in their preparation to be music majors, it would be useful to know those musical components that best predict overall collegiate success. The purpose of this study was to measure the relationship of predictor variables (Lessons, Music History, Music Theory, and Piano) to collegiate grade point average (GPA)…

  19. China English and ELT for English Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingjuan

    2008-01-01

    This paper is a general study of one of varieties of English--China English and its influence on English Language Teaching (ELT) for English majors. The status of English as an International language breaks the situation in which British English or American English is the sole standard. English becomes World Englishes, taking on a plural form,…

  20. Quality planning for major plant design modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulee, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reviews the approach and activities undertaken by Public Service Electric and Gas Company's (PSE and G's) nuclear quality assurance (QA) department to support major plant design modifications conducted during refueling outages at Salem Generating Station. It includes the planning and implementation of quality plans developed to provide both QA and quality control (QC) coverage of modification performed by contracted service organizations

  1. Core Requirements for the Economics Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Marie; Perry, John J.; Johnson, Bruce K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors are the first to describe the core economics curriculum requirements for economics majors at all American colleges and universities, as opposed to a sample of institutions. Not surprisingly, principles of economics is nearly universally required and implemented as a two-semester course in 85 percent of economics major…

  2. Minerals in thalassaemia major patients: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Zeynep; Genc, Gizem Esra; Gumuslu, Saadet

    2017-05-01

    Thalassaemia major (TM) is a hereditary blood disease characterised by reduced or absent production of beta globin chains. Erythrocyte transfusions are given to raise the haemoglobin level in patients with thalassaemia major. However, transfusions have been related to increased risk of iron overload and tissue damage related to excess iron. Both elevated oxidative stress due to iron overload and increased hemolysis lead to over utilisation of minerals required for antioxidant enzymes activities. Iron chelators have been used to prevent iron overload in thalassaemia major patients, but these chelators have the possibility of removing minerals from the body. Thalassaemia patients are more at risk for mineral deficiency because of increased oxidative stress and iron chelation therapies. Growth and maturational delay, cardiomyopathy, endocrinopathies and osteoporosis are the complications of thalassaemia. Minerals may play a particular role to prevent these complications. In the current review, we provide an overview of minerals including zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), selenium (Se), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in thalassaemia major patients. We, also, underline that some complications of thalassaemia can be caused by an increased need for minerals or lack of the minerals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongo, Tendai; Reed, April H.; O'Hara, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS) and Software Engineering (SE) majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic…

  4. Major and minor form of hereditary hyperekplexia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijssen, MAJ; Vergouwe, MN; van Dijk, JG; Rees, M; Frants, RR; Brown, P

    Hyperekplexia is a hereditary neurological disorder characterized by excessive startle responses. Within the disorder two clinical forms can be distinguished. The major form is characterized by continuous generalized stiffness in the first year of life and an exaggerated startle reflex, accompanied

  5. Peru: Affirmative Action for the Majority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, Susan C.

    This paper discusses affirmative action in Peru and considers what the government must do to solve the inferior status of the Indian majority. Ethnically and geographically diverse, Peru's population is said to be marked by inequities in wealth, education, and employment. The policies developed by Peruvian governments over the past 20 years to…

  6. Major commercial products from micro- and macroalgae

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Griffiths, M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Macro- and microalgae are used in a variety of commercial products with many more in development. This chapter outlines the major products, species used, methods of production, extraction, and processing as well as market sizes and trends. Foods...

  7. Acoustics for Music Majors-- A Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Perry F.

    1972-01-01

    Brief descriptions of several of the laboratory experiments which have been incorporated into an acoustics course for music majors. Includes vibratory motion and sound generation, nature, speed, and pitch of sound, spectrum analysis and electronic synthesis of musical sound and some conventional sound experiments. (Author/TS)

  8. Simulation of a major tokamak disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Monticello, D.A.; Rosenbluth, M.N.

    1977-08-01

    It is known that the internal tokamak disruption leads to a current profile which is flattened inside the surface where the safety factor equals unity. It is shown that such a profile can lead to m = 2 magnetic islands which grow to fill a substantial part of the tokamak cross section in a time consistent with the observations of the major disruption

  9. Exercise Attenuates the Major Hallmarks of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garatachea, Nuria; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Morán, María; Emanuele, Enzo; Joyner, Michael J.; Lucia, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Regular exercise has multi-system anti-aging effects. Here we summarize how exercise impacts the major hallmarks of aging. We propose that, besides searching for novel pharmaceutical targets of the aging process, more research efforts should be devoted to gaining insights into the molecular mediators of the benefits of exercise and to implement effective exercise interventions for elderly people. PMID:25431878

  10. Major and chronic diseases, report 2007.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giampaoli, S.; Oyen, H. van; Devillé, W.; Verschuuren, M.

    2008-01-01

    Blind spots in European health information On June 6th 2008 the European Commission has published the Major and Chronic Diseases Report 2007. This report describes the state of the art of health information in Europe on 13 prevalent chronic conditions. Large differences between the Member States of

  11. Identification of major sources controlling groundwater chemistry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study area Mettur forms an important industrial town situated NW of Salem district. The geology of the area is mainly composed of Archean crystalline metamorphic complexes. To iden- tify the major process activated for controlling the groundwater chemistry an attempt has been made by collecting a total of 46 ...

  12. Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification and Characterisation of Major Hydrocarbons in Thermally Degraded Low Density Polyethylene Films. ... There were alkanes, alkenes, halogenated alkanes, and very few aromatics in the liquid product and, the hydrocarbons were observed to range between C10 - C27. The FTIR and GC-MS results show the ...

  13. Exploring Pair Programming Benefits for MIS Majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April H. Reed

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pair programming is a collaborative programming practice that places participants in dyads, working in tandem at one computer to complete programming assignments. Pair programming studies with Computer Science (CS and Software Engineering (SE majors have identified benefits such as technical productivity, program/design quality, academic performance, and increased satisfaction for their participants. In this paper, pair programming is studied with Management Information Systems (MIS majors, who (unlike CS and SE majors taking several programming courses typically take only one programming course and often struggle to develop advanced programming skills within that single course. The researchers conducted two pair programming experiments in an introductory software development course for MIS majors over three semesters to determine if pair programming could enhance learning for MIS students. The program results, researchers’ direct observations, and participants’ responses to a survey questionnaire were analyzed after each experiment. The results indicate that pair programming appears to be beneficial to MIS students’ technical productivity and program design quality, specifically the ability to create programs using high-level concepts. Additionally, results confirmed increased student satisfaction and reduced frustration, as the pairs worked collaboratively to produce a program while actively communicating and enjoying the process.

  14. Atmospheric pollution from the major mobile telecommunication ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent of pollution from five major mobile telephone companies in Tanzania was investigated. These companies are Airtel, tIGO, Zantel, Sasatel and Vodacom. The parameters measured were the noise levels, NOx concentrations, and Particulate matter. The noise levels and exhaust gases were determined at 10 ...

  15. Reduced collagen accumulation after major surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, L N; Kallehave, F; Karlsmark, T

    1996-01-01

    .01)). This decline was significantly higher in the six patients who had a postoperative infection (median 3.02 (range -0.06 to 6.14) versus 0.36 (range -1.56 to 12.60) micrograms/cm, P = 0.02). This study shows that major surgery is associated with impairment of subcutaneous collagen accumulation in a test wound...

  16. Combining two major ATLAS inner detector components

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The semiconductor tracker is inserted into the transition radiation tracker for the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. These make up two of the three major components of the inner detector. They will work together to measure the trajectories produced in the proton-proton collisions at the centre of the detector when the LHC is switched on in 2008.

  17. Students Facing Poverty: The New Majority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suitts, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Low-income students are now a majority in U.S. public schools. Steve Suitts, formerly of the Southern Education Foundation, reviews statistics showing that the percentage of students in K-12 schools coming from low-income families has increased to 52 percent. Meanwhile, state funding for K-12 schools has increased much more modestly, so that…

  18. Migraine symptomatology and major depressive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Lannie; Penninx, Brenda; Nyholt, Dale R.; Distel, Marijn A.; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Smit, Johannes H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    Introduction and objective: Migraine and major depressive disorder (MDD) frequently co-occur, but it is unclear whether depression is associated with a specific subtype of migraine. The objective of this study was to investigate whether migraine is qualitatively different in MDD patients (N = 1816)

  19. Panthaleus major /Duges/ of cereals in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Maneva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Until recently, Penthaleus major (Dugès has not been recognized as an economically significant pest for the cereal crops. After climatic changes, its population began to grow and inflict damages around the world. The aim of this study was to investigate its distribution in Bulgaria and establish whether it presents a danger to the cereal crops. In the autumn of 2015 and the spring of 2016, a monitoring survey was conducted to establish Penthaleus major (Dugès with the cereal crops in Bulgaria. Over 60 sowed fields were investigated from all around the country. Samples were taken to identify the pest. It was established that Penthaleus major (Dugès inflicted harm to the wheat in north-eastern (12-14 mites per stem and south-eastern Bulgaria (6-8 mites per stem. Its density was under the threshold of economic harm. There was not found infestation of barley, rye, oat and triticale. On the field boundaries bordering the areas attacked by the mite were reported the following weeds: Capsella bursa pastoris (L. Medic, Descurania sophia (L. Welb. et Berth, Senecio spp., Sisymbrium orientale Torn., Taraxsacum officinale Weber, Anthemis spp., Bromus arvensis L., Eragrostis pilosa (L. P.B. Lolium temulentum L., which can be habitat for Penthaleus major (Dugès.

  20. Placebo and antidepressant treatment for major depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Esben

    2010-01-01

    Antidepressant medication is generally considered the primary treatment for major depressive disorders (MDD), but antidepressant treatment has recently approached a crisis with shrinking specific effects and growing placebo responses in current trials. The aim of the paper is to review the placebo...

  1. Recurrence in Major Depression: A Conceptual Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Scott M.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and research on major depression have increasingly assumed a recurrent and chronic disease model. Yet not all people who become depressed suffer recurrences, suggesting that depression is also an acute, time-limited condition. However, few if any risk indicators are available to forecast which of the initially depressed will or will not…

  2. Major Abdominal Surgical Complications : Innovative Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.S.A. ter Hoeve-Boersema (Simone)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractIn this thesis the focus was on three major complications after abdominal surgery: incisional hernia (IH), prolonged postoperative ileus (PPOI), and colorectal anastomotic leakage (CAL). The results were summarized in three parts: _Part 1_ focused on prediction and detection of

  3. The majority rule in a fuzzy environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, Javier

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, an axiomatic approach to rational decision making in a fuzzy environment is studied. In particular, the majority rule is proposed as a rational way for aggregating fuzzy opinions in a group, when such agroup is defined as a fuzzy set.

  4. Involvement of Leishmania donovani major surface glycoprotein ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The major surface glycoprotein gp63 of the kinetoplastid protozoal parasite Leishmania is implicated as a ligand mediating uptake of the parasite into, and survival within, the host macrophage. By expressing gp63 antisense RNA from an episomal vector in L. donovani promastigotes, gp63-deficient transfectants were ...

  5. Major ions in spitsbergen snow samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semb, A.; Braekkan, R.; Joranger, E.

    1984-01-01

    Chemical analysis of Spitsbergen snow cores sampled in spring 1983, reveals a spatial pattern consistent with orographic deposition of major anthropogenic pollutants with air movements from southeast towards northwest. The highest concentrations of pollutant species were found at an altitude of 700 metres above sea level, and are higher than for any other recorded snow samples from the Arctic

  6. Majorization in Euclidean Geometry and Beyond

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 466, 1 February (2015), s. 233-240 ISSN 0024-3795 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Majorization * Doubly stochastic matrix * Euclidean simplex * Star * Regular simplex * Volume of a simplex Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.965, year: 2015

  7. European Regulation on Major Shareholdings and Takeovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig; Clausen, Nis Jul

    2002-01-01

    Even though the rules on disclosure of major shareholdings in listed companies has been partly harmonised in the EU large difference remains. This is documented in the article and it is further debated whether these difference are acceptable, especially in light of the ongoing efforts to harmonise...

  8. 75 FR 39492 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 611 [Docket No. FTA-2010-0009] RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Public meetings on ANPRM. SUMMARY: This document announces the date, time, and location of an...

  9. 78 FR 1991 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... Administration 49 CFR Part 611 Major Capital Investment Projects; Notice of Availability of Proposed New Starts... Capital Investment Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY... capital investments seeking funding under the discretionary ``New Starts'' and ``Small Starts'' programs...

  10. 75 FR 33757 - Major Capital Investment Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 611 [Docket No. FTA-2010-0009] RIN 2132-AB02 Major Capital Investment Projects AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Public meetings on ANPRM. SUMMARY: This document announces the dates, times, and locations of...

  11. THE MAJOR COASTAL COMMUNITIES OF NORTH CAROLINA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Science Project, Beaufort, NC.

    IDENTIFIED IN THIS MARINE SCIENCE HANDBOOK ARE 5 MAJOR TYPES OF NATURAL HABITATS--(1) OPEN BEACH AND ANY OTHER SEAWARD-FACING, UNPROTECTED STRAND, (2) GROINS, JETTIES, PILINGS, AND ROCK BULKHEADS, (3) SAND AND/OR MUD FLAT, (4) SALT MARSH, AND (5) UPLAND COMMUNITIES. EACH HABITAT IS DESCRIBED IN TERMS OF TYPICAL PLANTS AND ANIMALS, ADAPTATIONS, AND…

  12. Preparing for major incidents in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.W. Wachira*

    2013-12-01

    This report provides a review of some of the major incidents in Kenya for the period 2000–2012, with the hope of highlighting the importance of developing an integrated and well-trained Ambulance and Fire and Rescue service appropriate for the local health care system.

  13. Sex segregation in undergraduate engineering majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzler, Elizabeth

    Gender inequality in engineering persists in spite of women reaching parity in college enrollments and degrees granted. To date, no analyses of educational sex segregation have comprehensively examined segregation within one discipline. To move beyond traditional methods of studying the long-standing stratification by field of study in higher education, I explore gender stratification within one field: engineering. This dissertation investigates why some engineering disciplines have a greater representation of women than other engineering disciplines. I assess the individual and institutional factors and conditions associated with women's representation in certain engineering departments and compare the mechanisms affecting women's and men's choice of majors. I use national data from the Engineering Workforce Commission, survey data from 21 schools in the Project to Assess Climate in Engineering study, and Carnegie Foundation classification information to study sex segregation in engineering majors from multiple perspectives: the individual, major, institution, and country. I utilize correlations, t-tests, cross-tabulations, log-linear modeling, multilevel logistic regression and weighted least squares regression to test the relative utility of alternative explanations for women's disproportionate representation across engineering majors. As a whole, the analyses illustrate the importance of context and environment for women's representation in engineering majors. Hypotheses regarding hostile climate and discrimination find wide support across different analyses, suggesting that women's under-representation in certain engineering majors is not a question of choice or ability. However, individual level factors such as having engineering coursework prior to college show an especially strong association with student choice of major. Overall, the analyses indicate that institutions matter, albeit less for women, and women's under-representation in engineering is not

  14. United States uranium enrichment policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    ERDA's uranium enrichment program policies governing the manner in which ERDA's enrichment complex is being operated and expanded to meet customer requirements for separative work, research and development activities directed at providing technology alternatives for future enrichment capacity, and establishing the framework for additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity to meet the domestic and foreign nuclear industry's growing demand for enrichment services are considered. The ERDA enrichment complex consists of three gaseous diffusion plants located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. Today, these plants provide uranium enrichment services for commercial nuclear power generation. These enrichment services are provided under contracts between the Government and the utility customers. ERDA's program involves a major pilot plant cascade, and pursues an advanced isotope separation technique for the late 1980's. That the United States must develop additional domestic uranium enrichment capacity is discussed

  15. Tax Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  16. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  17. UnitedHealth Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    UnitedHealth Group provides accessible and affordable services, improved quality of care, coordinated health care efforts, and a supportive environment for shared decision making between patients and their physicians.

  18. Operable Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  19. Flywheel and power unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, R.W.

    1992-10-28

    A power unit, e.g. for an electrically driven vehicle, incorporates a flywheel for storing kinetic energy and a battery for storing electrical energy. The battery is incorporated as a substantial part of the rotating mass of the flywheel. Preferably the unit further includes an electrical machine being a motor or generator or machine operable either as a motor or a generator for transferring energy between the battery and the flywheel and/or for the input or output of rotary energy therefrom or thereto. The motor may be used for powering the flywheel and may also operate in a regenerative mode for recharging the unit on de-acceleration of the vehicle. The unit of the invention may also be utilized as an electrical stored power source, e.g. wind or water driven. (author)

  20. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  1. UniTed

    OpenAIRE

    Harma, Eero

    2010-01-01

    UniTed on Teddy boy- tyylistä inspiroitunut kevät/kesä mallisto naisille.Mallistossa yhdistyy perinteinen teddy boy- vaatetus ja klassinen feminiinisyys, sekä menneisyys ja nykyisyys. Suunnittelun lähtökohtia olivat naisellisuus, tyylikkyys ja pyrkimys luoda nykyaikaista suunnittelua menneisyydestä lainaillen. United is a teddy boy- style inspired spring/summer collection for women. The collection combines traditional Teddy boy style with classical feminity and past with the present. The b...

  2. Freestanding midwifery unit versus obstetric unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Møller, Anna Margrethe; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

    2011-01-01

    low-risk women intending FMU birth and a matched control group of 839 low-risk women intending OU birth were included at the start of care in labour. OU women were individually chosen to match selected obstetric/socio-economic characteristics of FMU women. Analysis was by intention to treat. Main......Objective To compare perinatal and maternal morbidity and birth interventions in low-risk women giving birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMUs) and two obstetric units (OUs). Design A cohort study with a matched control group. Setting The region of North Jutland, Denmark. Participants 839...... women were significantly less likely to experience an abnormal fetal heart rate (RR: 0.3, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.5), fetal–pelvic complications (0.2, 0.05 to 0.6), shoulder dystocia (0.3, 0.1 to 0.9), occipital–posterior presentation (0.5, 0.3 to 0.9) and postpartum haemorrhage >500 ml (0.4, 0.3 to 0...

  3. Distortion product otoacoustic emissions in college music majors and nonmusic majors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Warner Henning

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence and absence of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs as well as DPOAE amplitudes were compared between college music majors and a control group of nonmusic majors. Participants included 28 music majors and 35 nonmusic majors enrolled at a university with ages ranging from 18-25 years. DPOAEs and hearing thresholds were measured bilaterally on all the participants. DPOAE amplitudes were analyzed at the following f2 frequencies: 1,187 Hz, 1,500 Hz, 1,906 Hz, 2,531 Hz, 3,031 Hz, 3812 Hz, 4,812 Hz, and 6,031 Hz. Significantly more music majors (7/28 than nonmusic majors (0/35 exhibited absent DPOAEs for at least one frequency in at least one ear. Both groups of students reported similar histories of recreational and occupational noise exposures that were unrelated to studying music, and none of the students reported high levels of noise exposure within the previous 48 h. There were no differences in audiometric thresholds between the groups at any frequency. At DPOAE f2 frequencies from 3,031 Hz to 6,031 Hz, nonsignificantly lower amplitudes of 2-4 dB were seen in the right ears of music majors versus nonmajors, and in the right ears of music majors playing brass instruments compared to music majors playing nonbrass instruments. Given the greater prevalence of absent DPOAEs in university music majors compared to nonmusic majors, it appears that early stages of cochlear damage may be occurring in this population. Additional research, preferably longitudinal and across multiple colleges/universities, would be beneficial to more definitively determine when the music students begin to show signs of cochlear damage, and to identify whether any particular subgroups of music majors are at a greater risk of cochlear damage.

  4. Synoptic comparison of major US and UK simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, D.B.; Oxenham, D.

    1994-07-01

    The six simulations considered include two from the United Kingdom: The United Kingdom Extended Air Defence Test Bed (UKEADTB) and the Air Defence Test Bed (ADTB). There are two from the Test Bed Product Office of the US Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC) in Huntsville, Alabama: The Extended Air Defense Test Bed (EADTB) and the Extended Air Defense Simulation (EADSIM). There are two from the National Test Facility in Colorado Springs, Colorado: The Test Planning Tool (TPT) and the Human in Control Test Bed (HICTB). A seventh, the Brilliant Eyes Simulator (BESim) -- an element simulation and a close family member of the system level TPT -- is included along with TPT by noting exceptions where necessary. The comparisons are designed to be compact and comprehensible, with no table occupying more than a single page. The present report is organized with the tables on the odd numbered pages and some commentary on the facing even numbered pages. While the effort reported is extensive, it needs to be further developed as planned as the Subpanel`s next major undertaking. Analogously with simulations themselves, there remains the question of validation or accreditation. Also analogously, these depend upon the question being served. That is, the responses reported here, while extensive and interesting, need to be explicitly reviewed in the light of any given serious application. Unfortunately, and again analogously with simulations, this accreditation can not be done in the abstract or once and for all.

  5. Perioperative factors associated with pressure ulcer development after major surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Postoperative pressure ulcers are important indicators of perioperative care quality, and are serious and expensive complications during critical care. This study aimed to identify perioperative risk factors for postoperative pressure ulcers. Methods This retrospective case-control study evaluated 2,498 patients who underwent major surgery. Forty-three patients developed postoperative pressure ulcers and were matched to 86 control patients based on age, sex, surgery, and comorbidities. Results The pressure ulcer group had lower baseline hemoglobin and albumin levels, compared to the control group. The pressure ulcer group also had higher values for lactate levels, blood loss, and number of packed red blood cell (pRBC) units. Univariate analysis revealed that pressure ulcer development was associated with preoperative hemoglobin levels, albumin levels, lactate levels, intraoperative blood loss, number of pRBC units, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, Braden scale score, postoperative ventilator care, and patient restraint. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, only preoperative low albumin levels (odds ratio [OR]: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.05–0.82; P pressure ulcer development. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to assess the predictive power of the logistic regression model, and the area under the curve was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.79–0.97; P pressure ulcer development after surgery. PMID:29441175

  6. Major Cardiac Events After Non-cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Gabriela; Lopes, Ana; Reis, Pedro; Carvalho, Vasco; Santos, Alice; Abelha, Fernando José

    2016-08-01

    Postoperative cardiovascular complications might be difficult to assess and are known to be associated with longer hospital stay and increased costs as well as higher morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictors for major cardiac events (MCE) after non-cardiac surgery. The study included 4398 patients who were admitted to the Surgical Intensive Care Unit between January 1, 2006 and July 19, 2013. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II score and simplified acute physiology score (SAPS II) were calculated, and all variables entered as parameters were evaluated independently. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the independent factors for MCE. A total of 107 people experienced MCE. The independent predictors for postoperative MCE were higher fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (odds ratio [OR] 38.97; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 10.81-140.36), history of ischemic heart disease (OR 3.38; 95 % CI 2.12-5.39), history of congestive heart disease (OR 2.39; 95 % CI 1.49-3.85), history of insulin therapy for diabetes (OR 2.93; 95 % CI 1.66-5.19), and increased SAPS II (OR 1.03; 95 % CI 1.01-1.05). Having a MCE was associated with a longer length of stay in the surgical intensive care unit (OR 1.01, 95 % CI 1.00-1.01). FiO2, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart disease, insulin therapy for diabetes, SAPS II, and length of stay in the surgical intensive care unit were independent predictors for MCE.

  7. Steam generator replacement in Bruce A Unit 1 and Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, R.S.

    2006-01-01

    The Bruce A Generating Station consists of four 900 MW class CANDU units. The reactor and Primary Heat Transport System for each Unit are housed within a reinforced concrete reactor vault. A large duct running below the reactor vaults accommodates the shared fuel handling system, and connects the four reactor vaults to the vacuum building. The reactor vaults, fuelling system duct and the vacuum building constitute the station vacuum containment system. Bruce A Unit 2 was shut down in 1995 and Bruce A Units 1, 3 and 4 were shutdown in 1997. Bruce A Units 3 and 4 were returned to service in late 2003 and are currently operating. Units 1 and 2 remain out of service. Bruce Power is currently undertaking a major rehabilitation of Bruce A Unit 1 and Units 2 that will extend the in-service life of these units by at least 25 years. Replacement of the Steam Generators (eight in each unit) is required; this work was awarded to SNC-Lavalin Nuclear (SLN). The existing steam drums (which house the steam separation and drying equipment) will be retained. Unit 2 is scheduled to be synchronized with the grid in 2009, followed by Unit 1 in 2009. Each Bruce A unit has two steam generating assemblies, one located above and to each end of the reactor. Each steam generating assembly consists of a horizontal cylindrical steam drum and four vertical Steam Generators. The vertical Steam Generators connect to individual nozzles that are located on the underside of the Steam Drum (SD). The steam drums are located in concrete shielding structures (steam drum enclosures). The lower sections of the Steam Generators penetrate the top of the reactor vaults: the containment pressure boundary is established by bellows assemblies that connect between the reactor vault roof slab and the Steam Generators. Each Steam Generators is supported from the bottom by a trapeze that is suspended from the reactor vault top structure. The Steam Generator Replacement (SGR) methodology developed by SLN for Unit 1

  8. The Role of Equivalence and Order Relations in the Development and Coordination of the Concepts of Unit Size and Number of Units in Selected Conservation Type Measurement Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Thomas P.

    The major purpose of this study was 1) to investigate the development of the concept of a unit of measure and the coordination of unit size and the number of units 2) to relate this development to the development of conservation and 3) to determine the role of equivalence and nonequivalence relations in certain conservation and measurement…

  9. Review of major plutonium pyrochemical technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, W.S.; Navratil, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    The past twenty years have seen significant growth in the development and application of pyrochemical technology for processing of plutonium. For particular feedstocks and specific applications, non-aqueous high-temperature processes offer key advantages over conventional hydrometallurgical systems. Major processes in use today include: (1) direct oxide reduction for conversion of PuO 2 to metal, (2) molten salt extraction for americium removal from plutonium, (3) molten salt electrorefining for Pu purification, and (4) hydriding to remove plutonium from host substrates. This paper reviews current major pyrochemical processes from the classical calcination-hydrofluorination-bomb reduction sequence through new techniques under development. Each process is presented and brief descriptions of production equipment are given. 47 references, 5 figures

  10. A student's guide to Einstein's major papers

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the physical universe underwent a revolution in the early twentieth century - evolving from the classical physics of Newton, Galileo, and Maxwell to the modern physics of relativity and quantum mechanics. The dominant figure in this revolutionary change was Albert Einstein. In a single year, 1905, Einstein produced breakthrough works in three areas of physics: on the size and the effects of atoms; on the quantization of the electromagnetic field; and on the special theory of relativity. In 1916 he produced a fourth breakthrough work, the general theory of relativity. A Student's Guide to Einstein's Major Papers focuses on Einstein's contributions, setting his major works into their historical context, and then takes the reader through the details of each paper, including the mathematics. This book helps the reader appreciate the simplicity and insightfulness of Einstein's ideas and how revolutionary his work was, and locate it in the evolution of scientific thought begun by the ancient...

  11. Major gene mutations and domestication of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashri, A.

    1989-01-01

    From the approximately 200,000 species of flowering plants known, only about 200 have been domesticated. The process has taken place in many regions over long periods. At present there is great interest in domesticating new species and developing new uses for existing ones in order to supply needed food, industrial raw materials, etc. It is proposed that major gene mutations were important in domestication; many key characters distinguishing cultivated from related wild species are controlled by one or very few major genes. The deliberate effort to domesticate new species requires at least the following: identification of needs and potential sources, establishment of suitable niches, choice of taxa to be domesticated, specification of the desired traits and key characters to be modified, as well as the potential role of induced mutations. (author). 14 refs

  12. Novel Augmentation Strategies in Major Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martiny, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Hypothesis The hypotheses of all the four included studies share the common idea that it is possible to augment the effect of antidepressant drug treatment by applying different interventions and with each intervention attain a clinically meaningful better effect compared to a control condition......, and with minor side effects, thus improving the short- and medium-term outcome in major depression. Procedures Study design The basic study design has been the double blind randomised controlled trial (RCT). In the light therapy study, all patients were treated with sertraline for the whole of the study duration...... open psychiatric wards. Only a few patients were re-cruited through advertisements (in the PEMF and Chronos studies). Inclusion criteria Inclusion criteria were major depression according to the DSM-IV, including a depressive episode as part of a bipolar disorder. For the PEMF study, treatment...

  13. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 3. Plastics, Glass and Fiberglass Suppliers to the Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study was to ...

  14. Rapanos v. United States & Carabell v. United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents associated with guidance for implementing the definition of waters of the United States under the Clean Water Act following the Rapanos v. United States, and Carabell v. United States Supreme Court decision.

  15. New way on designing majorant coincidence circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajdamaka, R.I.; Kalinnikov, V.A.; Nikityuk, N.M.; Shirikov, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    A new way of designing fast devices of combinatorial selection by the number of particles passing through a multichannel charged particle detector is decribed. The algorithm of their operation is based on modern algebraic coding theory. By application of analytical computational methods Boolean expressions can be obtianed for designing basic circuits for a large number of inputs. An example of computation of 15 inputs majorant coincidence circuit is considered

  16. Mechanical components: fabrication of major reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, S.

    1985-01-01

    The paper examines the validity of criticisms of quality assurance of mechanical plant and welded products within major reactor structures, taking into account experience gained on the AGR's. Various constructive recommendations are made aimed at furthering the objectives of quality assurance in the nuclear industry and making it more cost-effective. Current levels of quality related costs in the fabrication industry are provided as a basis for discussion. (U.K.)

  17. Information support for major public events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The unique capabilities of the IAEA illicit trafficking database is used to provide information on and assesment of illicit trafficking and other unauthorized activities involving nuclear and other radioactive materials to national authorities in charge of nuclear security of major public events. The information communicated to state parties cooperating with IAEA is on incidences confirmed to the agency on illicit trafficking of nuclear and other radioactive materials and also incidences reported in open sources which have not been confirmed.

  18. Major Brazilian gold deposits - 1982 to 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorman, Charles H.; DeWitt, Ed; Maron, Marcos A.; Ladeira, Eduardo A.

    2001-07-01

    Brazil has been a major but intermittent producer of gold since its discovery in 1500. Brazil led the world in gold production during the 18th and early 19th centuries. From the late 19th century to the late 20th century, total mining company and garimpeiro production was small and relatively constant at about 5 to 8 t/year. The discovery of alluvial deposits in the Amazon by garimpeiros in the 1970s and the opening of eight mines by mining companies from 1983 to 1990 fueled a major boom in Brazil's gold production, exceeding 100 t/year in 1988 and 1989. However, garimpeiro alluvial production decreased rapidly in the 1990s, to about 10 t/year by 1999. Company production increased about tenfold from about 4 t/year in 1982 to 40 t in 1992. Production from 1992 to the present remained relatively stable, even though several mines were closed or were in the process of closing and no new major mines were put into production during that period. Based on their production history from 1982-1999, 17 gold mines are ranked as major (>20 t) and minor (3-8 t) mines. From 1982-1999, deposits hosted in Archean rocks produced 66% of the gold in Brazil, whereas deposits in Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic rocks accounted for 19% and 15%, respectively. Deposits in metamorphosed sedimentary rocks, especially carbonate-rich rocks and carbonate iron-formation, yielded the great bulk of the gold. Deposits in igneous rocks were of much less importance. The Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes of Brazil largely lack base-metal-rich volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits, porphyry deposits, and polymetallic veins and sedimentary exhalative deposits. An exception to this is in the Carajás Mineral Province.

  19. Major depressive disorder in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Flemming M; Kessing, Lars V; Sørensen, Tine M

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) were at an increased risk of developing major depression compared with patients having other medical illnesses with a comparable degree of disability. METHOD: Case register linkage study of Danish Psychiatric Central Register...... was compared with the control groups. CONCLUSION: The findings support the hypothesis that depression in patients with PD is a consequence of brain dysfunction....

  20. Statistical mechanics of the majority game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, P; Marsili, M

    2003-01-01

    The majority game, modelling a system of heterogeneous agents trying to behave in a similar way, is introduced and studied using methods of statistical mechanics. The stationary states of the game are given by the (local) minima of a particular Hopfield-like Hamiltonian. On the basis of replica symmetric calculations, we draw the phase diagram, which contains the analogue of a retrieval phase. The number of metastable states is estimated using the annealed approximation. The results are confronted with extensive numerical simulations