WorldWideScience

Sample records for united states-mexico transboundary

  1. Five-year interim report of the United States-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Program: 2007--2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary aquifers are an essential, and in many cases, singular source of water for United States – Mexico border communities, particularly in arid regions. Declining water levels, deteriorating water quality, and increasing use of groundwater resources by municipal, industrial, and agricultural water users on both sides of the international border have raised concerns about the long-term availability of this supply. Water quantity and quality are determining and limiting factors that ultimately control agriculture, future economic development, population growth, human health, and ecological conditions along the border. Knowledge about the extent, depletion rates, and quality of transboundary aquifers, however, is limited and, in some areas, completely absent. The U.S. – Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act (Public Law 109-448), referred to in this report as “the Act,” was signed into law by the President of the United States on December 22, 2006, to conduct binational scientific research to systematically assess priority transboundary aquifers and to address water information needs of border communities. The Act authorizes the Secretary of the Interior, through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), to collaborate with the States of Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas through their Water Resources Research Institutes (WRRIs) and with the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), stakeholders, and Mexican counterparts to provide new information and a scientific foundation for State and local officials to address pressing water-resource challenges along the U.S. – Mexico border.

  2. Pensando en Cynthia y su Hermana: Educational Implications of United States-Mexico Transnationalism for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Edmund T.; Zuniga, Victor; Garcia, Juan Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    We use 3 brief educational biographies of students in Mexico who have previously attended public school in the United States to introduce this literature review on United States-Mexico transnational students. This article is also the first of several planned articles stemming from a currently ongoing, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y…

  3. Pensando en Cynthia y su Hermana: Educational Implications of United States-Mexico Transnationalism for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Edmund T.; Zuniga, Victor; Garcia, Juan Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    We use 3 brief educational biographies of students in Mexico who have previously attended public school in the United States to introduce this literature review on United States-Mexico transnational students. This article is also the first of several planned articles stemming from a currently ongoing, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y…

  4. Adolescent Worlds and Literacy Practices on the United States-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Piedra, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This article presents partial results of an ethnographic study about literacy practices among adolescents living near the United States-Mexico border. The students became involved in literacy practices with their friends and family at home. These practices were related to the adolescents' interests in popular culture such as reading magazines or…

  5. United States/Mexico electricity exchanges. [History, incentives, and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    As a result of the agreement between the respective presidents, a joint study was undertaken to analyze the possibilities of increasing the international electricity exchange between the two countries. Responsibility for this undertaking was assigned to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and to the Direccion de Energia de Mexico (DEM) through the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Representatives from Mexico and the US were chosen from the regional utilities along the border between the two countries and made up working groups that particiated in the study. With the support of both governments, and a high degree of cooperation between the two countries, work on the study was completed within fourteen months The completion of the study has been a major step in broadening the base of bilateral energy relations. the study highlights the opportunities for increased electricity exchanges, which could increase cooperation along the common border. Expansion of electricity interchange could offer substantial economic benefit to both countries, both directly and indirectly. Direct benefits include increased reliability of electric power and cost savings through economies of scale and diversity of peak demand patterns. Indirect benefits include improved economic and employment opportunities, especially in the border areas of both countries. This report provides background on the history of past exchanges and the characteristics of the US and Mexico electric systems, a summary of opportunities and incentives, and suggestions for procedures to remove obstacles and constraints.

  6. United States-Mexico electricity transfers: Of alien electrons and the migration of undocumented environmental burdens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandara, A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This article intends to set forth the necessity for reform in the United States policy and procedures regarding approval of power transfers between the United States and Mexico. In order to do this, the article will review the history of electrical power transfers between the United States and Mexico (Part II), analyze recent regulatory changes in the United States and Mexico which may result in increased power exports to Mexico (Part III), evaluate the extent to which the present permit and authorization system in the United States considers the increased environmental burden of such power transfers (Part IV), and, where appropriate, propose some procedural and policy reforms that could take into account the environmental burdens generated by the production of power destined for transfer across the United States-Mexico border (Part V).

  7. Disturbance and climate change in United States/Mexico borderland plant communities: a state-of-the-knowledge review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy R. McPherson; Jake F. Weltzin

    2000-01-01

    This review evaluates the effects and importance of disturbance and climate change on plant community dynamics in the United States/Mexico borderlands region. Our primary focus is on knowledge of physiognomic-level change in grasslands and woodlands of southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. Changes in vegetation physiognomy have broad implications for...

  8. CHIPS: Monitoring Colonias along the United States-Mexico border in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. The expansion of colonias in the United States-Mexico border region can be traced to the rapid growth associated with the Mexican Border Industrial Program during the 1960s. This rapid population growth created a lack of affordable housing, causing new migrants in the United States to purchase rural homestead lots through a contract-for-deed program from land developers. Because of the need to keep prices affordable and the absence of effective land-use controls, these homesteads expanded into rural subdivisions, commonly called colonias, without proper infrastructure. Colonias have been identified in the four U.S. border states, with Texas having designated the majority, which numbered over 1,400 colonias in 2001. Because the region is binationally interconnected economically, politically, and socially, the phenomenon of colonias in the United States is a transborder issue.

  9. Children's mental health and collective violence: a binational study on the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Marie; Puertas, Hector; Caratachea, Raúl; Avila, Carmen; Atluru, Aparna; Briones, David; Vargas, Cecilia de

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the risk effects of poverty and exposure to collective violence attributed to organized crime on the mental health of children living on the United States-Mexico border. A repeated, cross-sectional study measured risk effects by comparing scores of psychosocial and behavioral problems among children and adolescents living on the border in the United States or Mexico in 2007 and 2010. Patients living in poverty who responded once to the Pictorial Child Behavior Checklist (P+CBCL) in Spanish were randomly selected from clinics in El Paso, Texas, United States (poverty alone group), and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico (poverty plus violence group). Only children of Hispanic origin (Mexican-American or Mexican) living below the poverty level and presenting at the clinic for nonemergency visits with no history of diagnosed mental, neurological, or life-threatening disease or disability were included. Exposure to collective violence and poverty seemed to have an additive effect on children's mental health. Children exposed to both poverty and collective violence had higher problem scores, as measured by the P+CBCL, than those exposed to poverty alone. It is important to consider that children and adolescents exposed to collective violence and poverty also have fewer chances to receive treatment. Untreated mental health problems predict violence, antisocial behaviors, and delinquency and affect families, communities, and individuals. It is crucial to address the mental health of children on the border to counteract the devastating effects this setting will have in the short term and the near future.

  10. CHIPS: A New Way to Monitor Colonias Along the United States-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Humberson, Delbert G.

    2007-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. Colonia residents live in poverty and lack adequate health care, potable water, and sanitation systems. These conditions create substantial health risks for colonias and surrounding communities. By 2001, more than 1,400 colonias were identified in Texas. Cooperation with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Offices of the Texas Attorney General, Secretary of State, and the Texas Water Development Board has allowed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to improve colonia Geographic Information System (GIS) boundaries and develop the Colonia Health, Infrastructure, and Platting Status tool (CHIPS). Together, the GIS boundaries and CHIPS aid the Texas government in prioritizing the limited funds that are available for infrastructure improvement. CHIPS's report generator can be tailored to the needs of the user, providing either broad or specific output. For example, a congressman could use CHIPS to list colonias with wastewater issues in a specific county, whereas a health researcher could list all colonias without clinical access. To help cities along the United States-Mexico border manage issues related to colonias growth, CHIPS will become publicly available in an Internet-enabled GIS as part of a cooperative study between the USGS, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica.

  11. Transboundary Influences on Ozone Pollution in the United States: Present Conditions and Future Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Sager, P.; Wang, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Park, R. J.

    2007-12-01

    The GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model (v7-02-01) with 1° x1° horizontal resolution over North America is used to investigate the influence of transboundary pollution from Canada and Mexico on surface ozone in the United States. We conduct a series of 4 simulations for present day conditions: (1) a standard simulation with 2001 anthropogenic emissions worldwide, (2) with zero U.S. anthropogenic emissions, (3) with zero anthropogenic emission in North America (Canada, U.S. and Mexico), and (4) with 2006 East Asian emissions and no emission in North America. For future projections, we repeat (1)-(3) with a 2020 worldwide emissions inventory, in addition to a run with U.S. Power plant emissions switched off. The standard simulation is evaluated with observations for U.S. regions most sensitive to transboundary pollution (northeast for Canada, southwest for Mexico). Monthly mean ozone enhancements from transboundary pollution are in the 5-10 ppb range for these regions in June-August, but can exceed 30 ppbv under conditions when ozone is above the U.S. air quality standard (84 ppbv). Unlike intercontinental pollution influence which mainly contributes to the ozone background and is depleted during regional smog episodes, transboundary pollution influence from Canada and Mexico is highly variable and can contribute significantly to these episodes.

  12. Potential effects of the United States-Mexico border fence on wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Aaron D; Epps, Clinton W; Cain, James W; Clark, Matt; Krausman, Paul R; Morgart, John R

    2010-02-01

    Security infrastructure along international boundaries threatens to degrade connectivity for wildlife. To explore potential effects of a fence under construction along the U.S.-Mexico border on wildlife, we assessed movement behavior of two species with different life histories whose regional persistence may depend on transboundary movements. We used radiotelemetry to assess how vegetation and landscape structure affect flight and natal dispersal behaviors of Ferruginous Pygmy-Owls (Glaucidium brasilianum), and satellite telemetry, gene-flow estimates, and least-cost path models to assess movement behavior and interpopulation connectivity of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana). Flight height of Pygmy-Owls averaged only 1.4 m (SE 0.1) above ground, and only 23% of flights exceeded 4 m. Juvenile Pygmy-Owls dispersed at slower speeds, changed direction more, and had lower colonization success in landscapes with larger vegetation openings or higher levels of disturbance (p < or = 0.047), which suggests large vegetation gaps coupled with tall fences may limit transboundary movements. Female bighorn sheep crossed valleys up to 4.9 km wide, and microsatellite analyses indicated relatively high levels of gene flow and migration (95% CI for F(ST)=0.010-0.115, Nm = 1.9-24.8, M =10.4-15.4) between populations divided by an 11-km valley. Models of gene flow based on regional topography and movement barriers suggested that nine populations of bighorn sheep in northwestern Sonora are linked by dispersal with those in neighboring Arizona. Disruption of transboundary movement corridors by impermeable fencing would isolate some populations on the Arizona side. Connectivity for other species with similar movement abilities and spatial distributions may be affected by border development, yet mitigation strategies could address needs of wildlife and humans.

  13. Trace metal concentrations and lead isotopic composition in surface waters of the Northeast Pacific along the United States - Mexico boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. (Inst. of Marine Science, Santa Cruz, CA (United States))

    1990-01-09

    To evaluate the magnitude of heavy metal contamination along the United States - Mexico boundary, trace metal concentrations (Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe, and Zn) and lead isotopic composition ([sup 204]Pb, [sup 206]Pb, [sup 207]Pb, and [sup 208]Pb) were measured along four surface water transects across the continental shelf off the Baja California Coast. The stations were located between 2 to 45 km offshore, including both coastal and open ocean locations. All the metal distributions along the transects were characterized by offshore concentration gradients. The highest trace metal concentrations occurred in coastal waters in association with high salinities and nutrient concentrations. There was also a longshore gradient in trace metal concentrations. Trace element concentrations were lower in the southern locations than along the United States - Mexico boundary, and were comparable to typical open ocean values. The relative enrichment of metals in surface waters off the northern part of Baja California was primarily associated with advection/upwelling processes, not with anthropogenic inputs. Mass balance calculations indicated that about 1% of Cd and 13% of Zn were from urban discharges. The low metal levels measured in coastal waters off the central part of Baja California were attributed to the intrusion of open ocean waters, based on hydrographic data, satellite images and lead isotopic compositions.

  14. Clinical manifestations and endoscopic findings of amebic colitis in a United States-Mexico border city: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Rhonda; Cooper, Chad J; Ramirez-Vega, Ruben; Huerta-Alardin, Ana; Boman, Darius; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2015-12-14

    Invasive amebiasis is not frequently seen in the United States. It is associated with considerable morbidity in patients residing in or traveling to endemic areas. We report a case series of patients with amebic colitis in a United States-Mexico border city to alert physicians to the varied clinical manifestations. Nine patients were diagnosed with amebic colitis. Mean age was 56 (38-83), 6 were males, and all were Hispanic. Common symptoms were diarrhea (56 %), hematochezia (33 %) and abdominal bloating (11 %). The diagnosis of amebic colitis was established in the following ways: 8 patients by colonoscopy with biopsy, 1 by surgery for colonic obstruction. The diagnosis of amebic colitis was confirmed in 8 patients (89 %) by amebic trophozoites present in histopathologic sections. One patient was diagnosed with amebic colitis based upon clinical symptoms, colitis on colonoscopy and visualization of amebic trophozoites on stool examination. In the 8 patients in whom colonoscopy was done, 6 (75 %) had inflammation with rectosigmoid involvement and 5 (62.5 %) had ulcerations. Infection resolved after treatment with metronidazole in most patients; however, one patient developed a liver abscess and another had a colonic perforation and later developed a liver abscess. The occurrence of amebic colitis in this United States-Mexico border city hospital population was low, but in some cases potentially life-threatening. Physicians should be alert to the less common presentations of amebic colitis, such as overt gastrointestinal bleeding, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, and the incidental finding of association with colon cancer, or a surgical abdomen. Rectosigmoid involvement was typically found on colonoscopy.

  15. 77 FR 18296 - Notice of U.S. Hosting of 2012-2013 United States-Mexico Binational Bridges and Border Crossings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of U.S. Hosting of 2012-2013 United States-Mexico Binational Bridges and Border Crossings Meetings; Executive Order 11423, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs; Department of State....

  16. Hyperendemic Cryptosporidium and Giardia in households lacking municipal sewer and water on the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, Thomas; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Graham, Jay; Galindo, Adriana; Avitia, Raquel; Cardenas, Victor

    2002-06-01

    This study identified differences in the epidemiology of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infection for low-income populations residing on the United States-Mexico border. Participation included 77 households in three communities lacking adequate municipal water and sewage services. The household was the unit of analysis and sampling was from household biosolid waste from newly installed composting toilets. The proportion of households positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium was high, 82% and 70%, respectively, and this was in contrast to the few households (14%) reporting at least one individual with diarrhea symptoms. This finding indicated that most of the participant families were chronically infected but asymptomatic. In the multivariate analysis, there was a statistically significant protective effect for Cryptosporidium in those households that purified drinking water but not for Giardia. Those households with children less than five years of age were 1.3 times at risk for Giardia infection. Our findings highlighted differences in the transmission mode of these two pathogens and underscore the need for interventions addressing hygiene, water supply, and sanitation.

  17. Black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from vehicles in the United States-Mexico border region: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kerry; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn; Quintero Núñez, Margarito; Vazquez, F Adrian; Collins, Kimberly; Barud-Zubillaga, Alberto

    2006-03-01

    The investigators developed a system to measure black carbon (BC) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission factors during roadside sampling in four cities along the United States-Mexico border, Calexico/Mexicali and El Paso/Juarez. The measurement system included a photoacoustic analyzer for BC, a photoelectric aerosol sensor for particle-bound PAHs, and a carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer. When a vehicle with measurable emissions passed the system probe, corresponding BC, PAH, and CO2 peaks were evident, and a fuel-based emission factor was estimated. A picture of each vehicle was also recorded with a digital camera. The advantage of this system, compared with other roadside methods, is the direct measurement of particulate matter components and limited interference from roadside dust. The study revealed some interesting trends: Mexican buses and all medium-duty trucks were more frequently identified as high emitters of BC and PAH than heavy-duty trucks or passenger vehicles. In addition, because of the high daily mileage of buses, they are good candidates for additional study. Mexican trucks and buses had higher average emission factors compared with U.S. trucks and buses, but the differences were not statistically significant. Few passenger vehicles had measurable BC and PAH emissions, although the highest emission factor came from an older model passenger vehicle licensed in Baja California.

  18. United States-Mexico border crossing: experiences and risk perceptions of undocumented male immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Lawrence A; McEwen, Marylyn M; Keim, Samuel M

    2010-02-01

    Undocumented immigrants crossing the US-Mexico border face many hazards as they attempt to enter the United States, including heat and cold injury, dehydration, and wild animal encounters. In the Tucson sector of the US-Mexico border, there are over 100 deaths a year from heat-related injuries alone. Public awareness campaigns have been undertaken to disseminate information on the dangers inherent in crossing. Little is known, however, about the ways in which undocumented immigrants actually receive information regarding the risks of crossing the border, how such information impacts their preparation for crossing or how the journey itself effects their motivation to cross again in the future. A qualitative descriptive method was used to describe and analyze information from adult males who had attempted to illegally cross the US-Mexico Border and had recently been returned to Mexico. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and responses were classified into several broad themes. Interviews were conducted and analyzed iteratively until thematic saturation was achieved. The responses validated the established risks as being commonplace. A total of eight (8) male undocumented immigrants participated in the interviews. Individuals sought information prior to crossing from the media, their families and friends, and acquaintances in border towns. They did not appear to value any particular information source over any other. New areas of risk were identified, such as traveling with others who might have new or existing medical problems. There was also substantial concern for the family unit as both a source of inspiration and motivation. The family emerged as an additional at-risk unit due to the destabilization and financial strain of having one of its members leave to attempt to immigrate to the US for work. While many planned to cross again, the majority of the men in our sample had no intention of seeking permanent residence in the US, instead planning to work and

  19. Increasing cervical cancer screening in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Beti; Vilchis, Hugo; Moran, Crystal; Copeland, Wade; Holte, Sarah; Duggan, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic women living on the United States-México border experience health disparities, are less likely to access cervical cancer screening services, and have a higher rate of cervical cancer incidence compared to women living in nonborder areas. Here we investigate the effects of an intervention delivered by community health workers (CHWs, known as lay health educators or Promotores de Salud in Spanish) on rates of cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women who were out of compliance with recommended screening guidelines. Hispanic women out of compliance with screening guidelines, attending clinics in southern New Mexico, were identified using medical record review. All eligible women were offered the intervention. The study was conducted between 2009 and 2011, and data were analyzed in 2012. Setting/participants--162 Hispanic women, resident in New Mexico border counties, aged 29-80 years, who had not had a Pap test within the past 3 years. Intervention--a CHW-led, culturally appropriate, computerized education intervention. Main outcome measures--the percentage of women who underwent cervical cancer screening within 12 months of receiving the intervention. Change in knowledge of, and attitudes toward cervical cancer and screening as assessed by a baseline and follow-up questionnaire. 76.5% of women had a Pap test after the intervention. Women displayed increased knowledge about cervical cancer screening and about HPV. A culturally appropriate promotora-led intervention is successful in increasing cervical cancer screening in at-risk Hispanic women on the United States-México border. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  20. Preliminary United States-Mexico border watershed analysis, twin cities area of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Laura Margaret; Gray, Floyd; Castaneda, Mario; Bultman, Mark; Bolm, Karen Sue

    2002-01-01

    The United States - Mexico border area faces the challenge of integrating aspects of its binational physical boundaries to form a unified or, at least, compatible natural resource management plan. Specified geospatial components such as stream drainages, mineral occurrences, vegetation, wildlife, and land-use can be analyzed in terms of their overlapping impacts upon one another. Watersheds have been utilized as a basic unit in resource analysis because they contain components that are interrelated and can be viewed as a single interactive ecological system. In developing and analyzing critical regional natural resource databases, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal and non-governmental agencies have adopted a ?watershed by watershed? approach to dealing with such complicated issues as ecosystem health, natural resource use, urban growth, and pollutant transport within hydrologic systems. These watersheds can facilitate the delineation of both large scale and locally important hydrologic systems and urban management parameters necessary for sustainable, diversified land-use. The twin border cities area of Nogales, Sonora and Nogales, Arizona, provide the ideal setting to demonstrate the utility and application of a complete, cross-border, geographic information systems (GIS) based, watershed analysis in the characterization of a wide range of natural resource as well as urban features and their interactions. In addition to the delineation of a unified, cross-border watershed, the database contains sewer/water line locations and status, well locations, geology, hydrology, topography, soils, geomorphology, and vegetation data, as well as remotely sensed imagery. This report is preliminary and part of an ongoing project to develop a GIS database that will be widely accessible to the general public, researchers, and the local land management community with a broad range of application and utility.

  1. Characterizing tuberculosis genotype clusters along the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B J; Moonan, P K

    2014-03-01

    We examined the growth of tuberculosis (TB) genotype clusters during 2005-2010 in the United States, categorized by country of origin and ethnicity of the index case and geographic proximity to the US-Mexico border at the time of TB diagnosis. Nationwide, 38.9% of cases subsequent to Mexico-born index cases were US-born. Among clusters following US-born Hispanic and US-born non-Hispanic index cases, respectively 29.2% and 5.3% of subsequent cluster members were Mexico-born. In border areas, the majority of subsequent cases were Mexico-born following US-born Hispanic (56.4%) and US-born non-Hispanic (55.6%) index cases. These findings suggest that TB transmission commonly occurs between US-born and Mexico-born persons. Along the US-Mexico border, prioritizing TB genotype clusters following US-born index cases for investigation may prevent subsequent cases among both US-born and Mexico-born persons.

  2. Population-based survey of taeniasis along the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton Behravesh, C; Mayberry, L F; Bristol, J R; Cardenas, V M; Mena, K D; Martínez-Ocaña, J; Flisser, A; Snowden, K F

    2008-06-01

    Taenia solium and T. saginata are zoonotic tapeworms of substantial medical and economic importance. Although human taeniasis is widely recognised as an endemic problem in Mexico, its presence in the United States is poorly understood. The first population-based study to estimate the prevalence of human infection with Taenia tapeworms along the Texas-Mexico border has recently been conducted. Households were interviewed in the Texan city of El Paso and in the neighbouring Ciudad Juárez, in Mexico. Faecal samples from household members were then checked for Taenia eggs by flotation and/or for Taenia copro-antigens in an ELISA. The overall prevalence of taeniasis in this border region was found to be 3% but, compared with the residents of Juárez, El Paso residents were 8.6-fold more likely to be tapeworm carriers. The interviews revealed some important differences between the two study sites, particularly the more frequent use of anthelminthic drugs on the Mexican side of the border. These findings have implications in terms of the planning of effective health-education campaigns to decrease the prevalence of taeniasis in the human populations along the Texas-Mexico border.

  3. Quantitative Detection of Hepatitis A Virus and Enteroviruses Near the United States-Mexico Border and Correlation with Levels of Fecal Indicator Bacteria▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gersberg, Richard M.; Rose, Michael A.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Dhar, Arun K.

    2006-01-01

    For decades, untreated sewage flowing northward from Tijuana, Mexico, via the Tijuana River has adversely affected the water quality of the recreational beaches of San Diego, California. We used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure the levels of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enteroviruses in coastal waters near the United States-Mexico border and compared these levels to those of the conventional fecal indicators, Escherichia coli and enterococci. Over a 2-year period from 2003 to ...

  4. Acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits among Hispanics in United States-Mexico border communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Suad; Brown, Cynthia J; Pagán, José A; Díaz, Violeta

    2010-09-01

    To explore the relationship between acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits in the largely Hispanic populations living in underserved communities in the United States of America along the U.S.-Mexico border. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2006 to June 2008 using survey data from the Alliance for a Healthy Border, a program designed to reduce health disparities in the U.S.-Mexico border region by funding nutrition and physical activity education programs at 12 federally qualified community health centers in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. The survey included questions on acculturation, diet, exercise, and demographic factors and was completed by 2,381 Alliance program participants, of whom 95.3% were Hispanic and 45.4% were under the U.S. poverty level for 2007. Chi-square (χ2) and Student's t tests were used for bivariate comparisons between acculturation and dietary and physical activity measures. Linear regression and binary logistic regression were used to control for factors associated with nutrition and exercise. Based on univariate tests and confirmed by regression analysis controlling for sociodemographic and health variables, less acculturated survey respondents reported a significantly higher frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and healthier dietary habits than those who were more acculturated. Adjusted binary logistic regression confirmed that individuals with low language acculturation were less likely to engage in physical activity than those with moderate to high acculturation (odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.59-0.95). Findings confirmed an association between acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits and supported the hypothesis that acculturation in border community populations tends to decrease the practice of some healthy dietary habits while increasing exposure to and awareness of the importance of other healthy behaviors.

  5. Breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among Hispanic women living near the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño, Tomas; Castle, Philip E; Harris, Robin; Estrada, Antonio; García, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    Hispanic women who reside in low-resource settings are especially at risk for nonparticipation in cancer screening programs. The purpose of this study was to assess characteristics that influence breast and cervical cancer screening among older Hispanic women living along the United States-Mexico border. A cross-sectional study of women aged ≥50 years (n = 504) residing in Yuma County, Arizona, were randomly selected for interviews. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify determinants of compliance with mammography and Pap smear use. Women who received a recommendation from a clinician to get both mammography and Pap smears were more likely to receive a mammogram within the past year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0-8.9) compared to women who received no recommendation. Likewise, women who received both recommendations were more likely to receive a Pap smear within the past 3 years (AOR 9.7, 95% CI 4.6-20.7) compared to women who received no recommendation. Other factors, such as current health insurance and a visit with their healthcare provider in the past year, were also associated with getting a mammogram within 1 year or Pap smear within 3 years. Enabling characteristics were significantly associated with breast and cervical cancer screening use compared to predisposing and need characteristics among older Hispanic women residing near the U.S.-Mexico border. Clinician recommendation of both mammograms and Pap smears and opportunistic clinic visits to medical providers may increase breast and cervical cancer screening coverage and reduce the burden of these two cancers in this high-risk population.

  6. Canada-United States-Mexico Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadán-Diehl, Cristina; Safdie, Margarita; Rodin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Childhood obesity is an important public health problem that affects countries in the Americas. In 2014, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Member States agreed on a Plan of Action for the Prevention of Obesity in Children and Adolescents in an effort to address the impact of this disorder in the Americas region. The interventions laid out in this regional plan are multi-faceted and require multi-sectoral partnerships. Building on a strong history of successful trilateral collaboration, Canada, Mexico, and the United States formed a partnership to address the growing epidemic of childhood obesity in the North American region. This collaborative effort, known as the Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative, is the first initiative in the region to address chronic noncommunicable diseases by bringing together technical and policy experts, with strong leadership and support from the secretaries and ministers of health. The Initiative's goals include increasing levels of physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior through 1) increased social mobilization and citizen engagement, 2) community- based outreach, and 3) changes to the built (man-made) environment. This article describes the background and development process of the Initiative; specific goals, activities, and actions achieved to date; and opportunities and next steps. This information may be useful for those forming other partnerships designed to address childhood obesity or other complex public health challenges in the region. RESUMEN La obesidad infantil es un problema de salud pública importante que afecta a los países de las Américas. En el 2014, los Estados Miembros de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) acordaron un Plan de acción para la prevención de la obesidad en la niñez y la adolescencia con el fin de hacer frente a las repercusiones de este trastorno en la Región de las Américas. Las intervenciones que componen este plan regional son multifacéticas y

  7. Improving Pediatric Cancer Care Disparities Across the United States-Mexico Border: Lessons Learned from a Transcultural Partnership between San Diego and Tijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, Paula; Fuller, Spencer; Rivera, Rebeca; Beyda, David; Ribeiro, Raul C; Roberts, William

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the 5-year survival rate for children with acute leukemia in Baja California, Mexico was estimated at 10% (vs. 88% in the United States). In response, stakeholders at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Rady Children's Hospital San Diego, and the Hospital General de Tijuana (HGT) implemented a transcultural partnership to establish a pediatric oncology program. The aim was to improve clinical outcomes and overall survival for children in Baja California. An initial needs assessment evaluation was performed and a culturally sensitive, comprehensive, 5-year plan was designed and implemented. After six years, healthcare system accomplishments include the establishment of a fully functional pediatric oncology unit with 60 new healthcare providers (vs. five in 2007). Patient outcome improvements include a rise in 5-year survival for leukemia from 10 to 43%, a rise in new cases diagnosed per year from 21 to 70, a reduction in the treatment abandonment rate from 10% to 2%, and a 45% decrease in the infection rate. More than 600 patients have benefited from this program. Knowledge sharing has taken place between teams at the HGT and Rady Children's Hospital San Diego. Further, one of the most significant outcomes is that the HGT has transitioned into a regional referral center and now mentors other hospitals in Mexico. Our results show that collaborative initiatives that implement long-term partnerships along the United States-Mexico border can effectively build local capacity and reduce the survival gap between children with cancer in the two nations. Long-term collaborative partnerships should be encouraged across other disciplines in medicine to further reduce health disparities across the United States-Mexico border.

  8. The integration of water quality into transboundary allocation agreements Lessons from the southwestern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Lynne Lewis

    2000-01-01

    There is now a fairly substantial literature that addresses transboundary water allocation both at the international and interstate level. However, most of this literature deals almost exclusively with the question of allocation and ignores quality considerations. At the same time, there is a growing literature on trans boundary pollution control and upstream/downstream externalities. What is missing is an attempt to integrate quality consideration into allocation agreements. This paper exami...

  9. Empowerment and continuous improvement in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India: predicting fit on the basis of the dimensions of power distance and individualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, C; Probst, T M; Martocchio, J J; Drasgow, F; Lawler, J J

    2000-10-01

    Although variations in national cultures predominate as explanation for the belief that universal approaches to management do not exist, there have been few reports of systematic studies. Data from employees of a single firm with operations in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India were used to test the fit of empowerment and continuous improvement practices with national culture. Using the theoretical constructs of individualism-collectivism and power distance, the authors predicted that the practices would be more congruent in some cultures than in others and that value congruence would result in job satisfaction. Using structural equations modeling, the authors found that empowerment was negatively associated with satisfaction in India but positively associated in the other 3 samples. Continuous improvement was positively associated with satisfaction in all samples. Substantive, theoretical, and methodological implications are discussed.

  10. Monitoring Colonias Development along the United States-Mexico Border: A Process Application using GIS and Remote Sensing in Douglas, Arizona, and Agua Prieta, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Donelson, Angela J.; Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Lam, Alven H.; Osborn, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have developed a joint project to create Internet-enabled geographic information systems (GIS) that will help cities along the United States-Mexico border deal with issues related to colonias. HUD defines colonias as rural neighborhoods in the United States-Mexico border region that lack adequate infrastructure or housing and other basic services. They typically have high poverty rates that make it difficult for residents to pay for roads, sanitary water and sewer systems, decent housing, street lighting, and other services through assessment. Many Federal agencies recognize colonias designations and provide funding assistance. It is the intention of this project to empower Arizona-Sonora borderland neighborhoods and community members by recognizing them as colonias. This recognition will result in eligibility for available economic subsidies and accessibility to geospatial tools and information for urban planning. The steps to achieve this goal include delineation of colonia-like neighborhoods, identification of their urbanization over time, development of geospatial databases describing their infrastructure, and establishment of a framework for distributing Web-based GIS decision support systems. A combination of imagery and infrastructure information was used to help delineate colonia boundaries. A land-use change analysis, focused on urbanization in the cities over a 30-year timeframe, was implemented. The results of this project are being served over the Internet, providing data to the public as well as to participating agencies. One of the initial study areas for this project was the City of Douglas, Ariz., and its Mexican sister-city Agua Prieta, Sonora, which are described herein. Because of its location on the border, this twin-cities area is especially well suited to international manufacturing and commerce, which has, in turn, led to an uncontrolled spread of

  11. Quantitative Detection of Hepatitis A Virus and Enteroviruses Near the United States-Mexico Border and Correlation with Levels of Fecal Indicator Bacteria▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersberg, Richard M.; Rose, Michael A.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Dhar, Arun K.

    2006-01-01

    For decades, untreated sewage flowing northward from Tijuana, Mexico, via the Tijuana River has adversely affected the water quality of the recreational beaches of San Diego, California. We used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure the levels of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enteroviruses in coastal waters near the United States-Mexico border and compared these levels to those of the conventional fecal indicators, Escherichia coli and enterococci. Over a 2-year period from 2003 to 2005, a total of 20 samples were assayed at two sites during both wet and dry weather: the surfzone at the mouth of the Tijuana River and the surfzone near the pier at Imperial Beach (IB), California (about 2 km north of the mouth of the Tijuana River). HAV and enterovirus were detected in 79 and 93% of the wet-weather samples, respectively. HAV concentrations in these samples ranged from 105 to 30,771 viral particles/liter, and enterovirus levels ranged from 7 to 4,417 viral particles/liter. The concentrations of HAV and enterovirus were below the limit of detection for all dry weather samples collected at IB. Regression analyses showed a significant correlation between the densities of both fecal bacterial indicators and the levels of HAV (R2 > 0.61, P 0.70, P < 0.0001), a finding that supports the use of conventional bacterial indicators to predict the levels of these viruses in recreational marine waters. PMID:16980430

  12. Quantitative detection of hepatitis a virus and enteroviruses near the United States-Mexico border and correlation with levels of fecal indicator bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersberg, Richard M; Rose, Michael A; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Dhar, Arun K

    2006-12-01

    For decades, untreated sewage flowing northward from Tijuana, Mexico, via the Tijuana River has adversely affected the water quality of the recreational beaches of San Diego, California. We used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure the levels of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enteroviruses in coastal waters near the United States-Mexico border and compared these levels to those of the conventional fecal indicators, Escherichia coli and enterococci. Over a 2-year period from 2003 to 2005, a total of 20 samples were assayed at two sites during both wet and dry weather: the surfzone at the mouth of the Tijuana River and the surfzone near the pier at Imperial Beach (IB), California (about 2 km north of the mouth of the Tijuana River). HAV and enterovirus were detected in 79 and 93% of the wet-weather samples, respectively. HAV concentrations in these samples ranged from 105 to 30,771 viral particles/liter, and enterovirus levels ranged from 7 to 4,417 viral particles/liter. The concentrations of HAV and enterovirus were below the limit of detection for all dry weather samples collected at IB. Regression analyses showed a significant correlation between the densities of both fecal bacterial indicators and the levels of HAV (R2>0.61, P0.70, P<0.0001), a finding that supports the use of conventional bacterial indicators to predict the levels of these viruses in recreational marine waters.

  13. Using GIS to assess priorities of infrastructure and health needs of colonias along the United States-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, J.W.; Humberson, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border setdements in the United. States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. Colonia residents live in poverty and lack adequate health care, potable water, and sanitation systems. These conditions create substantial health risks for themselves and surrounding communities. By 2001, more than 1,400 colonias were identified in Texas. Cooperation with several Federal and Texas state agencies has allowed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to improve colonia Geographic Information System (GIS) boundaries and develop the Colonia Health, Infrastructure, and Platting Status tool (CHIPS). Together, the GIS boundaries and CHIPS aid the Texas government in prioritizing the limited funds that are available for infrastructure improvement. CHIPS's report: generator can be tailored, to the needs of the user, providing either broad or specific output. CHIPS is publicly available on the U.S. Geological Survey Border Environmental Health Initiative website at http://borderhealth.cr. usgs.gov.

  14. Development of a United States-Mexico Emissions Inventory for the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Hampden; Knipping, Eladio M; Vukovich, Jeffrey M

    2005-05-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study was commissioned to investigate the sources of haze at Big Bend National Park in southwest Texas. The modeling domain of the BRAVO Study includes most of the continental United States and Mexico. The BRAVO emissions inventory was constructed from the 1999 National Emission Inventory for the United States, modified to include finer-resolution data for Texas and 13 U.S. states in close proximity. The first regional-scale Mexican emissions inventory designed for air-quality modeling applications was developed for 10 northern Mexican states, the Tula Industrial Park in the state of Hidalgo, and the Popocatépetl volcano in the state of Puebla. Emissions data were compiled from numerous sources, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (now Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), the Eastern Research Group, the Minerals Management Service, the Instituto Nacional de Ecología, and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografía y Informática. The inventory includes emissions for CO, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, particulate matter (PM) < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, and PM < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter. Wind-blown dust and biomass burning were not included in the inventory, although high concentrations of dust and organic PM attributed to biomass burning have been observed at Big Bend National Park. The SMOKE modeling system was used to generate gridded emissions fields for use with the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model modified with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (CMAQ-MADRID). The compilation of the inventory, supporting model input data, and issues encountered during the development of the inventory are documented. A comparison of the BRAVO emissions

  15. Blood pressure control, hypertension, awareness, and treatment in adults with diabetes in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; He, Guozhong; Stoddard, Pamela; Schillinger, Dean

    2010-09-01

    To determine prevalence of blood pressure control, hypertension, hypertension awareness, and antihypertensive treatment among adults (> 18 years old) with diabetes living in the border region between the United States of America and Mexico, and to explore variation in those variables between all adults on the Mexican side of the border ("Mexicans") and three groups on the U.S. side of the border ("all U.S. adults," "U.S.-born Hispanics," and "Mexican immigrants"). Using data from Phase I (February 2001-October 2002) of the U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project, a prevalence study of type 2 diabetes and its risk factors, age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension-related variables was calculated for the sample (n = 682) and differences between the border groups were examined through logistic regression. Less than one-third of the sample had controlled blood pressure (hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg), and hypertension awareness and treatment were inadequate. After adjusting for demographics, body mass index, and access to health care, there were no differences in blood pressure control, hypertension, hypertension awareness, or treatment between Mexicans and both U.S. adults and Mexican immigrants. However, compared to Mexicans and Mexican immigrants, U.S.-born Hispanics, particularly younger individuals, had the lowest rates of blood pressure control (17.3%) and the highest rates of coexisting hypertension (54.8%). Compared to Mexicans, U.S.-born Hispanics had lower odds of controlled blood pressure (odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.95) and greater odds of hypertension (OR 3.75, 95% CI 1.51-9.29) and hypertension awareness (OR 6.19, 95% CI 1.46-26.15). Co-occurrence of diabetes and hypertension is a major public health problem among U.S.-Mexico border residents. The low rate of blood pressure control among various border groups, especially younger U.S.-born Hispanics, suggests that initiatives should aggressively target blood

  16. Canada--United States Transboundary PM Science Assessment: A Report by the Canada-U.S. Air Quality Committee, Subcommittee 2: Scientific Cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-12-01

    The Canada-US Air Quality Agreement addresses the primary pollutants responsible for acid rain, as well as the commitment of the United States and Canada to consult on, and develop the means to address other transboundary air pollution issues, including particulate matter (PM). The Subcommittee on Scientific Cooperation was given the responsibility to summarize existing knowledge on the transboundary transport of particulate matter and their precursors between Canada and the USA by identifying the extent of the problem, the impact of emission reduction scenarios on PM levels, and by describing the sources and characteristics of PM and PM precursors. This report by the Subcommittee contains findings on ambient levels of PM, data analyses, and the application of modelling tools in both Canada and the United States. The following is a list of the major topics dealt with: (1) Foundation for the Transboundary PM issue in North America; (2) Ambient Observations in Border Regions; (3) Emissions; (4) Air Quality Model Applications; and (5) Relationship between Sources of Ambient Levels of PM. An appendix contains a review of various air quality model performances. 100 refs., 7 tabs., 102 figs.

  17. Transboundary air pollution in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, D.; Reid, N.; De Brou, G.; Bloxam, R. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-06-01

    This report examines the role of transboundary air pollution from an Ontario perspective, specifically the impacts of smog associated with both ground level ozone and fine particulate matter coming from the United States. Measurements and computer modeling have provided compelling evidence regarding the impact of transboundary pollution in Ontario. This paper presents an assessment of the human health and economic costs associated with transboundary air pollution. It also examines the impact of Ontario's emissions on other jurisdictions and reviews emission control programs, and initiatives and agreements that are being undertaken or considered to address these transboundary problems. Particular attention is given to the impacts of mercury and acid deposition. The report concludes that unique features exist in the regional climate that lead to elevated episodic conditions of poor air quality over southern Ontario. Transboundary transport of pollution is a very significant source of regionally elevated air quality levels in Ontario. Furthermore, there is an urgency to address the unacceptable health impacts and environmental consequences. 29 refs., 13 tabs., 33 figs., 1 app.

  18. Effects of Ocean Climate on Transboundary Movement of Coastal Pelagic Resources Between the EEZs of Mexico and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, T. R.; Garcia, J.; Sanchez, C.; Lo, N. C.; Charter, R.

    2007-05-01

    Interannual to multidecadal changes in ocean climate directly impact access to transboundary coastal pelagic resources between fisheries operating in U.S. and Mexican waters. This study provides a preliminary analysis of the scale of year-to-year shifts in the distribution of the Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) with data from 2002 and 2003. One of the purposes of this initiative is to provide a template for collaborative research to guide regional policy development for responsible and sustainable utilization of the shared resource. This work is based on coordinated quarterly ocean surveys run by Mexican (the IMECOCAL program=Investigaciones Mexicanas de la Corriente de California) and U.S. scientists (the CalCOFI program=California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations) allowing us to evaluate the annual state of the pelagic ecosystem from northern California to southern Baja California. The subject of this study is the "subarctic stock" of the Pacific sardine which is centered off California in the U.S. and extends southwards to the region off central Baja California. Estimates of sardine biomass in U.S. and Mexican waters, based on the rates of egg production measured during the IMECOCAL and CalCOFI surveys of April 2002 and April 2003, show order of magnitude differences in the relative proportions of biomass in the Mexican EEZ that is associated with the contrasts in ocean climate resulting from the regional effects of El Niño during April 2003. Results indicate a significant northward shift of the sardine stock off Mexico during 2003: we estimate that approximately 20 percent of the total biomass of the stock was located in the Mexican EEZ during spring of 2002 while the shift in ocean climate resulted in the presence of only 2 percent of the biomass of the stock in Mexican waters during April, 2003. A second, more southerly sardine stock extended from southern to central Baja California in April, 2003, but it was out of reach of the fleet

  19. Factors Influencing the Impacts on Security of Manning Military Posts on the United States-Mexico Border from 1865 to 1916

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    town. Additionally, the Yucatan Peninsula declared itself independent and neutral in regards to the war. Following the loss at Buena Vista Santa Anna...across the southern United States by railroad to Agua Prieta to rout some 6,500 forces of Villa’s feared División del Norte. Once again Wilson’s...support worked. The Agua Prieta battle ended Villa’s ability to mass forces. His ability to influence Mexicans, however, had yet to peak. Fed up with the

  20. Nonfuel mineral resources in the United States-Mexico border region; a progress report on information available from the Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations (CIMRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, G.J.; Page, N.J.; Staude, J.G.; Bolm, K.S.; Carbonaro, M.M.; Gray, Floyd; Long, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    The exploitation of minerals has played a significant role in population growth and development of the U.S.Mexico border region. Recent proposed changes in regulations related to mining in the United States and changes in mining and investment regulations in Mexico have led to increased mineral exploration and development in Mexico, especially in the border region. As a preliminary step in the study of the mineral industry of this area, the Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations (CIMRI) of the U.S. Geological Survey has compiled mine and occurrence data for nonfuel minerals in the border region. Analysis of this information indicates that a wide variety of metallic and industrial mineral commodities are present which can be used in agriculture, infrastructure, environmental improvement, and other industries. Therefore, mining will continue to play a significant role in the economy of this region.

  1. Soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in El Paso, Texas: analysis of a potential problem in the United States/Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Roche, Roberto J; Lee, Wen-Yee; Campos-Díaz, Sandra I

    2009-04-30

    Ultrasonic extraction followed by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption inline coupled with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) was used to perform a comprehensive determination of soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in El Paso, Texas. The method provided good sensitivity and faster processing time for the analysis. The total PAHs in El Paso soil ranged from 0.1 to 2225.5 microg kg(-1). Although the majority of PAH concentrations did not exceed the soil screening levels regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the existence of PAHs in this ecosystem is ubiquitous. Naphthalene were found in 100% of the soil samples; while the heavy PAHs (five- and six-ring) were not often detected and mostly remained in closer proximity to industrial areas and major traffic points. The results ruled out the possibility of petroleum refining as the significant source of local soil-borne PAH contamination, but they suggested that the PAHs found in El Paso soil were closely linked to human activities and possible other industrial processes.

  2. Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posada-Villa Jose

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Methods Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426, Colombia (n = 5,782 and the United States (USA; n = 8,228. The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO users across these surveyed populations. Results The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004 and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001. Conclusions This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that

  3. Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiestas, Fabian; Radovanovic, Mirjana; Martins, Silvia S; Medina-Mora, Maria E; Posada-Villa, Jose; Anthony, James C

    2010-03-23

    Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426), Colombia (n = 5,782) and the United States (USA; n = 8,228). The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO) users across these surveyed populations. The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004) and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001). This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that might make cannabis-related social and legal problems more

  4. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele T Jay-Russell

    Full Text Available In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6% dog and 5 (4.9% coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2% dog and 33 (32% coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2% of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1% of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the

  5. International Boundary United States Mexico Minute 315

    Data.gov (United States)

    International Boundary & Water Commission — This dataset was created to provide resource managers, public officials, researchers, and the general public with ready access to the location of the international...

  6. Identifying and characterizing transboundary aquifers along the Mexico-US border: An initial assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rosario; Lopez, Victoria; Eckstein, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The transboundary nature of water dividing Mexico and the United States (U.S.) transforms the entire border region into an instrument of cooperation, a source of conflict, a national security issue, and an environmental concern. Reasonable data collection and research analysis have been conducted for surface waters by joint governmental institutions and non-governmental bodies. However, with the exception of the U.S. Transboundary Assessment Act Program (TAAP) (focusing on the Hueco Bolson, Mesilla Bolson, San Pedro and Santa Cruz aquifers), there is no comparable research, institutional development, or assessment of transboundary groundwater issues on the frontier. Moreover, data collection and methodologies vary between the two countries, there is no broadly accepted definition of the transboundary nature of an aquifer, and available legal and policy frameworks are constrained by non-hydrological considerations. Hence, there is a conceptual and institutional void regarding transboundary groundwater resources between Mexico and the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to bridge this void and characterize transboundary aquifers on the Mexico-US border. It reviews existing international frameworks for identifying hydrological and social criteria that characterize an aquifer as transboundary. It then assesses data from both countries to propose where and which aquifers could be considered transboundary. Finally, the paper proposes an agenda for assessing Mexico-US transboundary aquifers as a means for improving groundwater management in the border region.

  7. Nash Equilibria of Transboundary Pollution Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folmer, H.; Mouche, van P.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    We reconsider the Nash equilibrium existence and uniqueness problem for transboundary pollution games. There is special attention for the equilibrium set E for effective compact transboundary pollution games with continuous strictly concave production functions, continuous convex damage cost functio

  8. Transboundary aquifers along the Canada–USA border: Science, policy and social issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rivera, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Study region: Canada–USA border. Study focus: Since 2005, Canada has followed international developments in transboundary groundwater issues in cooperation with its southern neighbor the United States (USA...

  9. Research into fisheries equity and fairness—addressing conservation burden concerns in transboundary fisheries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanich, Q.; Campbell, B.; Bailey, M.L.; Molenaar, E.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation and management of transboundary fisheries must account for diverse national interests while adopting compromises necessary to develop and implement robust conservation and management measures. The United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement requires states to ensure that conservation and manag

  10. Transboundary water justice: a combined reading of literature on critical transboundary water interaction and "justice", for analysis and diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, M.; Warner, J.F.; Mirumachi, N.; Matthews, N.; McLaughlin, K.

    2014-01-01

    By reviewing and blending two main bodies of research (critical transboundary water interaction analysis and centuries of thought on social justice) this paper seeks to improve international transboundary water interaction analysis and diplomacy. Various implications for transboundary analysis and d

  11. Transboundary brand: European and Ukrainian experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tykhomyrova Yevheniya Borysivna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a study of the concept "cross-border brand" and the analysis of the formation of cross-border branding practices in transboundary territory of Europe and Ukraine. Today the cross-border territories united by common economic, social, cultural and political life strive to be transformed into a brand. That is why the issues related to their positioning and branding are of great importance. According to the author cross-border / inter-regional brand, an intangible asset of cross-border cooperation, which provides the promotion of the interests of cross-border areas, both inside and outside the cross-border. In recent years, such brands as part of Euroregions are being formed with the participation of many European countries.

  12. African swine fever : transboundary diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-L. Penrith

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available African swine fever (ASF is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs that causes up to 100 % mortality, for which there is no vaccine. It is caused by a unique DNA virus that is maintained in an ancient cycle between warthogs and argasid ticks, making it the only known DNA arbovirus. ASF has a high potential for transboundary spread, and has twice been transported from Africa to other continents - Europe and subsequently the Caribbean and Brazil (1957, 1959 and the Caucasus (2007. It is also a devastating constraint for pig production in Africa. Research at Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute has made and is making important contributions to knowledge of this disease, focusing on the cycle in warthogs and tampans and transmission from that cycle to domestic pigs, resistance to its effects in domestic pigs, and the molecular genetic characterisation and epidemiology of the virus.

  13. Large transboundary watersheds: Climate, water and streams of thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulwarty, R. S.

    2001-05-01

    Water is a "fugitive" resource in the sense that it flows naturally from one place to another, from one reserve to another (e.g., groundwater to surface), and from one physical state (solid, liquid and gas) to another. Thus "trans-boundary" can mean many things including: transitions from wet to arid zones, from upstream to downstream, from one country or province to the next etc. The Convention on the Protection and Use of Transboundary Watercourses and International Lakes (1992) defines "transboundary waters" to mean "any surface or ground waters which mark, cross or are located on the boundaries between two or more states". Emerging issues in water resources emanate from three categories of problems; (1) transboundary water availability; (2) transboundary groundwater allocation, management, and conservation; and (3) transboundary water quality. Transboundary fluctuations and changes in river flow can be attributed to (1) climate variations and change on several timescales, and, (2) physical and biological transformations of basin hydrology including increased storage, diversions, and landscape changes. Researchers and practitioners have identified numerous factors underlying international disputes involving river flows, including: the variability and uncertainty of supply, interdependencies among users, increasing over-allocation and rising costs, the increasing vulnerability of water quality and aquatic ecosystems to human activities, ways and means of supplying safe water facilities, and the mobilization of financial resources for water development and management. Many of these issues derive from general concerns in water resources management. How these concerns are met is strongly shaped by the choice of the spatial unit within which studies and management actions are conducted, by the way problems have been defined and changed over time, and by who benefits from defining problems in a particular way. In the following discussion the scales of human activities

  14. Forecasting urban growth across the United States-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Feller, M.; Phillip, Guertin D.

    2009-01-01

    The sister-city area of Nogales, Arizona, and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, is known collectively as Ambos (both) Nogales. This area was historically one city and was administratively divided by the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. These arid-lands have limited and sensitive natural resources. Environmental planning can support sustainable development to accommodate the predicted influx of population. The objective of this research is to quantify the amount of predicted urban growth for the Ambos Nogales watershed to support future planning for sustainable development. Two modeling regimes are explored. Our goal is to identify possible growth patterns associated with the twin-city area as a whole and with the two cities modeled as separate entities. We analyzed the cross-border watershed using regression analysis from satellite images from 1975, 1983, 1996, and 2002 and created urban area classifications. We used these classifications as input to the urban growth model, SLEUTH, to simulate likely patterns of development and define projected conversion probabilities. Model results indicate that the two cities are undergoing very different patterns of change and identify locations of expected growth based on historical development. Growth in Nogales, Arizona is stagnant while the urban area in Nogales, Sonora is exploding. This paper demonstrates an application that portrays how future binational urban growth could develop and affect the environment. This research also provides locations of potential growth for use in city planning.

  15. Countering Violence Along the United States - Mexico Border: Thinking Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Account JIATF-S Joint Interagency Task Force South NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NAZTF National Arrival Zone Task Force NDCS...consultation and coordination with the Departments of State and Defense; and 4. Work closely with the governments of Canada and Mexico to enhance North...included within the broader enterprise, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ). 39 CHAPTER 7 MÉRIDA INITIATIVE This chapter

  16. Conflicting policy beliefs and informational complexities in designing a transboundary enforcement monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandran, Remi; Hoppe, Robert; Vries, W.T.; Georgiadou, Yola

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a crowd sourced geospatial decision support system to monitor wildlife crime, in 2005, a team of scientists at the United Nations University (UNU) designed a GIS-based transboundary monitoring system, called Wildlife Enforcement Monitoring System (WEMS). The tool was intende

  17. Conflicting policy beliefs and informational complexities in designing a transboundary enforcement monitoring system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandran, R.; Chandran, Remi; Hoppe, Robertus; Vries, W.T.; Georgiadou, P.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Recognizing the need for a crowd sourced geospatial decision support system to monitor wildlife crime, in 2005, a team of scientists at the United Nations University (UNU) designed a GIS-based transboundary monitoring system, called Wildlife Enforcement Monitoring System (WEMS). The tool was

  18. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tari¤ reduction on the op- timal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the dist

  19. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the disto

  20. Transboundary movements of genetically modified organisms and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transboundary movements of genetically modified organisms and the ... of posing untold and undiscovered threats to human beings and other living organisms. ... use of living modified organisms (LMOs) such as genetically engineered plants, animals, and microbes were at last being catered for, albeit leaving aside the ...

  1. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the

  2. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tari¤ reduction on the op- timal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the

  3. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the disto

  4. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tari¤ reduction on the op- timal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the dist

  5. A Methodology to Assess the Water Energy Food Ecosystems Nexus in Transboundary River Basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia de Strasser

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The “nexus” is a potentially very appropriate approach to enhance resource efficiency and good governance in transboundary basins. Until now, however, evidence has been confined to isolated case studies and the nexus approach remains largely undefined. The methodology presented in this paper, developed for preparing a series of nexus assessments of selected river basins under the Water Convention of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE, is a timely contribution to this ongoing debate. The nexus assessment of a transboundary basin has the objective of identifying trade-offs and impacts across sectors and countries and to propose possible policy measures and technical actions at national and transboundary levels to reduce intersectoral tensions. This is done jointly with policy makers and local experts. Compared to an Integrated Water Resource Management approach, the water energy food ecosystems nexus approach concurrently considers multiple sectors and their evolution. This offers the opportunity to better involve key economic sectors—energy and agriculture in particular—in the dialogue over transboundary water resource uses, protection and management.

  6. Transboundary Resources, Consent and Customary Law - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Dutfield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This brief commentary focuses on the unresolved access and benefit sharing (ABS challenges of transboundary resources and situations where getting prior informed consent is not possible. In the absence of the global mechanism envisaged by the Nagoya Protocol, satisfactory ABS deals can still be struck but these are unlikely to be either common or effective in generating substantial benefits for the indigenous peoples. The commentary closes by underlining the moral imperative of ensuring that traditional knowledge and genetic resource users comply with the laws and customary practices established by indigenous groups rather than simply impose their own norms. However, there are many legal and conceptual obstacles to be overcome first.

  7. Hotspots within the Transboundary Selenga River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimov, Nikolay; Lychagin, Mikhail; Chalov, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    Gathering the efficient information on water pollution of transboundary river systems remains the crucial task in international water management, environmental pollution control and prevention health problems. Countries, located in the low parts of the river basins, depend on the water strategy and water use in the adjacent countries, located upstream. Surface water pollution is considered to be the most serious problem, facing the above-mentioned countries. Large efforts in terms of field measurement campaigns and (numerical) transport modeling are then typically needed for relevant pollution prediction and prevention. Russian rivers take inflow from 8 neighboring countries. Among them there are 2 developing economies - People Republic of China and Mongolia, which are located in water-scarce areas and thus solve their water-related problems through the consumption of international water. Negative change of water runoff and water quality in the foreign part of transboundary river is appeared inside Russian territory with more or less delay. The transboundary river system of Selenga is particularly challenging, being the biggest tributary of Lake Baikal which is the largest freshwater reservoir in the world. Selenga River contributes about 50 % of the total inflow into Baikal. It originates in the mountainous part of Mongolia and then drains into Russia. There are numerous industries and agricultural activities within the Selenga drainage basin that affect the water quality of the river system. Absence of the single monitoring system and predictive tools for pollutants transport in river system requires large efforts in understanding sources of water pollution and implemented data on the relevant numerical systems for the pollution prediction and prevention. Special investigations in the Selenga river basin (Mongolia and Russia) were done to assess hot spots and understand state-of-the art in sediment load, water chemistry and hydrobiology of transboundary systems

  8. Quantifying the Impact of a Transboundary Streamflow Agreement on Groundwater Resources in the US High Plains Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deines, J.; Hyndman, D. W.; Kendall, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Many groundwater aquifers in important agricultural areas are exploited beyond their sustainable limits. Groundwater overuse can reduce streamflow across political boundaries, leading to transboundary management challenges. Although conflicts over transboundary water resources do arise, these conflicts can also prompt improved aquifer management. Portions of the Republican River Basin, which overlies the High Plains Aquifer in the central United States, have been under court-ordered groundwater restrictions to meet interstate streamflow requirements since 2004, following the 2002 Kansas v. Nebraska and Colorado Supreme Court case. We examined the impacts of these restrictions on groundwater levels, pumping volume, agricultural productivity, and streamflow in the Nebraska portion of the basin to assess how transboundary agreements can affect groundwater sustainability in agricultural systems. We synthesized available data for 1990-2014 to analyze trends before and after restrictions went into effect in 2004. After controlling for climate covariates, we found that restrictions reduced pumping volumes in the study area, resulting in increased streamflow across the Nebraska-Kansas border. Furthermore, restrictions appear to have reversed the declining trend in groundwater storage. Notably, this reversal contrasts with continuing decline in the unrestricted Kansas portion of the basin, suggesting the court-ordered restrictions have altered the sustainability trajectory of this region. The impacts of pumping restrictions on regional agricultural yields and productivity are examined. Our analysis of this system suggests that by setting external limits on resource use, enforceable transboundary water agreements can stimulate sustainable groundwater management and counter local incentives for overextraction.

  9. Transboundary EIA in the Barents Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koivurova, Timo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines how transboundary environmental impact assessment (TEIA is organised in an area where international borders are close to each other, that is, in North Calotte/Kola Peninsula. It shows that a dense set of international legal obligations requires the region’s states to undertake TEIA. The paper examines the important question how TEIA can be done in an ideal manner in the region via the available best practise documents, such as the Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment in the Arctic document adopted by the predecessor of the Arctic Council, the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy. Our argument is that best practises can be used in evaluating how individual cases are undertaken, such as the TEIA over the so-called Kaunisvaara project located in Pajala municipality (northern Sweden, close to the Finnish border (chapter 4. Our conclusion is that TEIA should be undertaken by the region’s nation-states by applying the main international TEIA convention, the so-called Espoo Convention, but also by adhering to the best practise documents that give guidance how to perform a TEIA in Arctic conditions.

  10. Transboundary natural gas sales and North American Free Trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzienkowski, J.S. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-12-31

    During the last 25 years American natural gas producers have seen wide fluctuations in gas supply, demand and price, and changes in the transboundary natural gas sales regulations have added to the instability. The history of such changes is outlined, and the impact of free trade agreements is discussed. Such agreements may significantly limit the power of the executive branch to restrict natural gas imports with a contracting nation. Topics include: FERC control of transportation and rate design of imported gas; foreign regulatory schemes for the explortation of natural gas; free trade agreements and transboundary natural gas sales; Energy Policy Act of 1992.

  11. Transboundary water resources governance: institutional fragilities in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda MELLO SANT’ANNA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, the concept of governance rose to prominence in the literature regarding transboundary waters, as well as the international cooperation among riparian States. This article seeks to determine the fragilities in the governance of the major transboundary water resources in South America: the Amazon and La Plata River Basins. In spite of the current international agreements, including those regarding infrastructure development and supranational organizations, water governance presents fragilities related to institutional problems, lack of social participation and dif?culties in structuring a common project of development.

  12. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in southern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples of 429 sheep from 4 farms in 2 geographical regions in Oaxaca State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT); 99 (23.1%) of the 429 sh...

  13. High prevalance of Toxoplasma Gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca state, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondi...

  14. South Asia transboundary water quality monitoring workshop summary report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betsill, Jeffrey David; Littlefield, Adriane C.; Luetters, Frederick O.; Rajen, Gaurav

    2003-04-01

    The Cooperative Monitoring Center (CMC) promotes collaborations among scientists and researchers in several regions as a means of achieving common regional security objectives. To promote cooperation in South Asia on environmental research, an international working group made up of participants from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and the United States convened in Kathmandu, Nepal, from February 17-23,2002. The workshop was held to further develop the South Asia Transboundary Water Quality Monitoring (SATWQM) project. The project is sponsored in part by the CMC located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico through funding provided by the US. Department of State, Regional Environmental Affairs Office, American Embassy, Kathmandu, Nepal, and the National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Office of Nonproliferation and National Security. This report summarizes the SATWQM project, the workshop objectives, process and results. The long-term interests of the participants are to develop systems for sharing regional environmental information as a means of building confidence and improving relations among South Asian countries. The more immediate interests of the group are focused on activities that foster regional sharing of water quality data in the Ganges and Indus River basins. Issues of concern to the SATWQM network participants include studying the impacts from untreated sewage and industrial effluents, agricultural run-off, salinity increases in fresh waters, the siltation and shifting of river channels, and the environmental degradation of critical habitats such as wetlands, protected forests, and endangered aquatic species conservation areas. The workshop focused on five objectives: (1) a deepened understanding of the partner organizations involved; (2) garnering the support of additional regional and national government and non-government organizations in South Asia involved in river water quality monitoring; (3) identification

  15. Transboundary water interaction II: the influence of 'soft' power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, M.; Mirumachi, N.; Warner, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to broaden the analysis of transboundary water interaction, by examining and interpreting the influence of ‘soft’ power therein. The ‘soft’ power of persuasion is understood to be exercised through discursive and to a lesser extent ideational means, and is interpreted in terms of

  16. Hydropolitics and Conflict Management in Transboundary River Basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mianabadi, H.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis set out to develop methodologies that promote cooperation, peace and development instead of conflict and violence in transboundary water resources management. In particular, its objectives were the following: o To examine and understand the complexity of water systems and water conflict

  17. Evaluation of transboundary environmental issues in Central Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Corporate Planning and Strategic Business Development Div.; Kapustka, L.A.; Williams, B.A.; Meganck, R.A.; Garrison, J.G. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States); Glicken, J. [Ecological Planning and Toxicology, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hostetler, C.J.; Lawrence, S. [Columbia Environmental Services, Inc., Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Central Europe has experienced environmental degradation for hundreds of years. The proximity of countries, their shared resources, and transboundary movement of environmental pollution, create the potential for regional environmental strife. The goal of this project was to identify the sources and sinks of environmental pollution in Central Europe and evaluate the possible impact of transboundary movement of pollution on the countries of Central Europe. In meeting the objectives of identifying sources of contaminants, determining transboundary movement of contaminants, and assessing socio-economic implications, large quantities of disparate data were examined. To facilitate use of the data, the authors refined mapping procedures that enable processing information from virtually any map or spreadsheet data that can be geo-referenced. Because the procedure is freed from a priori constraints of scale that confound most Geographical Information Systems, they have the capacity to generate new projections and apply sophisticated statistical analyses to the data. The analysis indicates substantial environmental problems. While transboundary pollution issues may spawn conflict among the Central European countries and their neighbors, it appears that common environmental problems facing the entire region have had the effect of bringing the countries together, even though opportunities for deteriorating relationships may still arise.

  18. Transboundary water interaction II: the influence of 'soft' power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitoun, M.; Mirumachi, N.; Warner, J.F.

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to broaden the analysis of transboundary water interaction, by examining and interpreting the influence of ‘soft’ power therein. The ‘soft’ power of persuasion is understood to be exercised through discursive and to a lesser extent ideational means, and is interpreted in terms of co

  19. On Cleaner Technologies in a Transboundary Pollution Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benchekroun, H.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2009-01-01

    We show that in a non-cooperative transboundary pollution game, a cleaner technology (i.e., a decrease in the emission to output ratio) induces each country to increase its emissions and ultimately can yield a higher level of pollution and reduce social welfare.

  20. Hydropolitics and Conflict Management in Transboundary River Basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mianabadi, H.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis set out to develop methodologies that promote cooperation, peace and development instead of conflict and violence in transboundary water resources management. In particular, its objectives were the following: o To examine and understand the complexity of water systems and water conflict

  1. Recueil des legislations linguistiques dans le monde. Tome VI: La Colombie, les Etats-Unis, le Mexique, Porto Rico at les traites internationaux (Record of World Language-Related Legislation. Volume VI: Colombia, the United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and International Treaties).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Jacques, Ed.; Maurais, Jacques, Ed.

    The volume is one of a series of six listing language-related legislation around the world. It contains the texts, in French, of laws of Colombia, the United States federal and some state governments (California, Florida, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and New York), Mexico, and Puerto Rico, and those relating to international…

  2. Dividing the waters: An empirical analysis of interstate compact allocation of transboundary rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David L.; Moore, Michael R.

    2011-06-01

    Legal scholars and jurists have identified several criteria (e.g., hydrology, climate, population, and historical water use) to guide equitable allocation of transboundary rivers among riparian claimants. Are these criteria used in practice, such that a quantitative pattern emerges from actual water-sharing agreements regarding factors affecting allocations? To address this, we study interstate compacts, the principal mechanism for allocating the waters of transboundary rivers within the United States. We develop a georeferenced data set and construct variables representing conditions in state-based watersheds of 14 rivers at the times of compact ratification. A state's water allocation share of a compact serves as the dependent variable, and a set of explanatory variables is derived from legal and political theories. We estimate allocation shares using both ordinary least squares (OLS) and bootstrap regressions, and we apply two alternative specifications of the factors affecting compact allocations, one with and one without political variables. Estimated coefficients on variables for land area, population, prior water use, riparian position, and Congressional committee chair are statistically significant in the OLS regressions. The preferred OLS specification, which includes political variables, provides a good fit (R2 = 0.84). We also find that OLS and bootstrap regressions have a similar ability to predict state allocation shares. We discuss how the results could be used as a reference point in negotiations over new compacts or international river treaties and as a basis to identify existing compacts with statistical outliers.

  3. The importance of trans-boundary contributions to elevated smog levels in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, D.; Fraser, D.; Kiely, P.; Cheng, C.; De Brou, G.; Reid, N. [Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON (Canada). Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch

    2004-07-01

    The state of air quality in Ontario is often linked to distinct weather patterns that affect the lower Great Lakes area. Smog levels vary from one year to another due to transboundary contributions during warm south to southwesterly airflow conditions. It was noted that a significant proportion of Ontario's smog is a result of transfrontier pollution from neighbouring industrial and urbanized areas in the United States. Ozone and fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) are both elevated during the summer. Episodes of PM{sub 2.5} smog occur much less often during the winter and are associated mostly with stagnant conditions and local build-up of pollutants. Although the impact of transboundary smog is prevalent in southwestern Ontario, the Georgian Bay area has recorded higher levels of pollutants in Michigan and Lake Huron. This occurs mostly during the summer when the flow of polluted air crosses northern Michigan and Lake Huron before entering into Ontario.

  4. Advances in the Knowledge of Transboundary Aquifers Shared by Canada and the USA, through the UNESCO's IHP ISARM Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.

    2015-12-01

    Canada's involvement in the UNESCO IHP ISARM initiative prompted an accrued analysis on the knowledge and state of transboundary aquifers located along the Canada-USA border. As a result, 10 Transboundary Aquifer Systems (TAS) were identified and some have been assessed in cooperation with the United States. This study is a review of the current state of the 10 TAS. Documentation of scientifically-based knowledge on TAS is an important step in identifying potential issues in policies that might be adopted to address shared water-resource issues. The newly acquired hydrological insights for this very long international border emphasizes the need for more scientific data, widespread communication and information sharing between Canadian and American organizations, and a more clearly defined governments' role to manage groundwater at the international level. The study reviews the legal frameworks and summarises the current scientific knowledge for the TAS with respect to the hydrologic and geologic framework as well as some of the major drivers for supply and demand. It also describes the links, approach and relevance of studies on the TAS to the UN Law of Transboundary Aquifers and on how these might fit in the ISARM's regional strategy for the assessment and management of the TAS. Clear communication, shared knowledge and common objectives in the management of TAS will prepare the countries for future negotiations and cooperative binational programs. Encouraged by the ISARM approach of the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO, Canada is now looking forward to playing a key regional role in improving water management, facilitating transboundary water sharing, and enhancing water research and data sharing in future relations between these two nations.

  5. Diplostomiasis in cultured and wild tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Guerrero State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante-González, Juan; García-Varela, Martín; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín; Guerrero, Salvador Gil

    2009-09-01

    This paper is a comparative study of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum) compactum (Lutz, 1928) in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linneo) from two fish farms and two nearby coastal lagoons in Guerrero state, Mexico. The higher infections levels in cultured tilapia than wild tilapia is attributed to higher fish densities in the culture systems and higher abundance of the snail Biomphalaria cf. havanensis (Pteiffer), first intermediate host of this parasite in freshwater and brackish water systems.

  6. Legal aspects of transboundary movements of spent catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuttke, J. [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Long years of world-wide effort to control transboundary movements of waste, espe-cially waste exports from industrial states to developing countries have led to the establishment of a comprehensive regulatory system, comprised of international, European and national laws that are often revised and modified. The Federal Republic of Germany is a Party State to the Basel Convention and the OECD as well as a Member State of the European Union. (orig.)

  7. Transboundary Water Resources in Southern Africa: Conflict or cooperation?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patrick, MJ

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available to explain why states might choose cooperation over conflict where a critical shared resource could limit future development potential. KEYWORDS hydropolitical complex; water wars; southern African development community; river basin management... the management of the various transboundary river basins that form the hydrological foundation of the SADC economy. This observation is remarkable given the known history of intense conflict that was as- sociated with the ColdWar-era in southern Africa...

  8. Science for informed decision: A 3D unified conceptual model of the Milk River Transboundary Aquifer (Alberta-Montana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, A.; Pétré, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Milk River transboundary aquifer straddles southern Alberta (Canada) and northern Montana (United States), in a semi-arid region considered water short. This confined sandstone aquifer is a source for municipal supply and agricultural uses on the Canadian side, as well as for secondary oil recovery on the US-side of the border. The extensive use of this resource since the mid 1950's has led to a dramatic drop in the water level in some places and concerns about the durability of the resource have risen. The Milk River aquifer has been the object of many studies during the 20th century; however most of them were limited by the USCanada border, preventing a sound understanding of the global dynamics of the aquifer. The objectives of this transboundary study are to better understand the dynamics of the Milk River aquifer, following its natural limits, in order to make recommendations for a sustainable management and its good governance by the two international jurisdictions, as recommended in the UNGA resolution 63/124 on the Law of Transboundary Aquifers. Since 2009, the Milk River transboundary aquifer is part of the inventory of UNESCO ISARM-Americas initiative, which encourages riparian states to work cooperatively toward mutually beneficial and sustainable aquifer development However, the use of this shared resource is not ruled by any international agreement or convention between the USA and the Canada. Stakeholders from the two countries have been involved, at various levels of jurisdictions (municipal, provincial, state, federal) to establish a strong cooperation. In these contexts, models can constitute useful tools for informed decisions. In the case of the Milk River aquifer, models could support scientists and managers from both countries in avoiding potential tensions linked to the water shortage context in this region. Models can determine the conditions of overexploitation and provide an assessment of a sustainable yield. A unified conceptual model

  9. Transboundary water conflict resolution mechanisms: toward convergence between theory and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayia, Ahmed; Madani, Kaveh

    2016-04-01

    Transboundary waters are expected be one of the biggest challenges for human development over the next decades. The growing global water scarcity and interdependence among water-sharing countries have created tensions over shared water resources around the world. Therefore, interest in studying transboundary water conflict resolution has grown over the last decades. This research focuses on transboundary water resources conflict resolution mechanisms. A more a specific concern is to explore the mechanisms of allocating of transboundary water resources among riparian states. The literature of transboundary water resources conflict has brought various approaches for allocating of transboundary water resources among riparian countries. Some of these approaches have focused on the negotiation process, such the Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR). Other approaches have analysed the economic dimension of transboundary water disputes, in an attempt to identify optimal economic criteria for water allocation, such as the "social planner" approach and the "water market" approach. A more comprehensive approach has been provided by game theory that has brought together the economic and political dimensions of the water dispute management. The study attempts to provide a map for the relation between theory and practice in the field of transboundary water conflict resolution. Therefore, it explores the approaches that have been used to analyse real transboundary water disputes management. Moreover, it examines the approaches that have been suggested in literature as mechanisms of transboundary water conflict resolution. Finally, it identifies the techniques that have been used in practice to solve transboundary water conflicts and attempts to evaluate the sustainability of the resulting regulatory institutional arrangements.

  10. Domestic Trauma and Adult Education on the United States-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Andres; Mein, Erika

    2010-01-01

    While there are increasing efforts to address the problem of domestic violence and trauma in the justice, health care, and social service systems, the adult education system still lags behind. The inattention to this issue in adult education is particularly troubling because these programs often play a significant role in the lives of women who…

  11. Re-Framing the United States/Mexico Border Violence Situation: Strategic Campaign Planning in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Brands 2009, 15). This sentiment helps drug organizations perpetuate the cycle of corruption in government. The Final Line of Operation orients around...a DTO now known as La Familia . The group was initially aligned with the Gulf Cartel, then turned vigilante, intent on cleaning up the Mexican state...22 October 2009, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holdren announced the arrest of 303 La Familia members nationwide. The two-day takedown culminated

  12. Modeling complex dispersed energy and clean water systems for the United States/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Hugo Francisco Lopez

    As world population grows, and its technology evolves, the demand for electricity inexorably increases. Until now most of this electricity has been produced via fossil fuels, non-renewable energy resources that are irreversibly deteriorating our environment. On the economical aspect it does not get any better. Let's not forget market rules, the higher the demand and lower the offer, the higher the price we will have to pay. Oil is an excellent example. Some countries try to solve this situation with Pharaohnic projects, i.e. investing absurd amounts of money in 'green electricity' building monstrous dams to power equally monstrous hydroelectric power plants. The only problem with this is that it is not green at all---it does have an enormous environmental impact---it is extremely complicated and expensive to implement. It is important to point out, that this research project does not try to solve world's thirst for electricity. It is rather aimed to help solve this problematic at a much lower scale---it should be considered as an extremely small step in the right direction. It focuses on satisfying the local electricity needs with renewable, non-contaminating and locally available resources. More concisely, this project focuses on the attainment and use of hydrogen as an alternate energy source in El Paso/Juarez region. Clean technology is nowadays available to produce hydrogen and oxygen, i.e. the photoelectrolysis process. Photovoltaic cells coupled with electrolytic devices can be used to produce hydrogen and oxygen in a sustainable manner. In this research, simulation models of hybrid systems were designed and developed. They were capable to compare, predict and evaluate different options for hydrogen generation. On the other hand, with the produced hydrogen from the electrolysis process it was possible to generate electricity through fuel cells. The main objectives of the proposed research were to define how to use the resources for the attainment of hydrogen and distribution of it in El Paso/Juarez region. More precisely, the goals were the conversion of brines and waste-waters to hydrogen via electrolysis, and the generation of electricity through fuel cells. Thereafter, the specific objectives were to (1) design a simulation model for hydrogen generation, (2) design and simulate a model of photovoltaic (PV) array capable to generate the required energy for the process, (3) simulate fuel cells in order to be used as electricity power supply in remote houses, and (4) simulate a complete remote house hybrid system. The results of this research gave us information about the feasibility of high-volume hydrogen generation with the diverse resources of the region. On the other hand, this research has shown the alternatives of local energy generation, and efficiency of a remote house hybrid system located in El Paso/Juarez area. Experiences obtained from this research will also provide information for future investigations in the field of alternate energy sources, in order to get a clean environment through sustainable development.

  13. 78 FR 70281 - United States-Mexico High Level Economic Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ..., and Innovation (1) Workforce Development; (2) Joint Investment Promotion; (3) Travel and Tourism; (4) Economic Development along the Border as well as a Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy; (5) Effective use of the North American Development Bank; (6) Partnership on Advanced Manufacturing;...

  14. The relatedness of HIV epidemics in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sanjay R; Delport, Wayne; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Espitia, Stephen; Patterson, Thomas; Pond, Sergei Kosakovsky; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Smith, Davey M

    2010-12-01

    Phylogeography can improve the understanding of local and worldwide HIV epidemics, including the migration of subepidemics across national borders. We analyzed HIV-1 sequences sampled from Mexico and San Diego, California to determine the relatedness of these epidemics. We sampled the HIV epidemics in (1) Mexico by downloading all publicly available HIV-1 pol sequences from antiretroviral-naive individuals in GenBank (n = 100) and generating similar sequences from cohorts of injection drug users and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico (n = 27) and (2) in San Diego, California by pol sequencing well-characterized primary (n = 395) and chronic (n = 267) HIV infection cohorts. Estimates of population structure (F(ST)), genetic distance cluster analysis, and a cladistic measure of migration events (Slatkin-Maddison test) were used to assess the relatedness of the epidemics. Both a test of population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.06; p cluster analysis identified 72 clusters (two or more sequences), with two clusters containing both Mexican and San Diego sequences (permutation p Mexico are distinct. Larger epidemiological studies are needed to quantify the magnitude and associations of cross-border mixing.

  15. Special Interests and Transnational Relations in Agricultural Trade: Implications for United States-Mexico Relations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Batiz Echevarria *... N 9E2.ci. 19. "Se apelara a los convenios y recomendaciones internacionales sobre comercio exterior, para la solucion del...Sinaloa y La Asociacion de Agricultores del Rio Culiacan al C. Profesor Juan Gil Preciado, Secretario de Agricultura y Ganaderia:.I. en relacion a las...General en Sinaloa, SAG, 12 junio de 1969. 32. Ibid. 33. Embajador Lic. Hugo B. Margain to Antonio Carrillo Flores, Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores

  16. Domestic Trauma and Adult Education on the United States-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Andres; Mein, Erika

    2010-01-01

    While there are increasing efforts to address the problem of domestic violence and trauma in the justice, health care, and social service systems, the adult education system still lags behind. The inattention to this issue in adult education is particularly troubling because these programs often play a significant role in the lives of women who…

  17. United States-Mexico cross-border health insurance initiatives: Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Laugesen, Miriam; Caban, Mabel; Rosenau, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    While U.S. health care reform will most likely reduce the overall number of uninsured Mexican-Americans, it does not address challenges related to health care coverage for undocumented Mexican immigrants, who will remain uninsured under the measures of the reform; documented low-income Mexican immigrants who have not met the five-year waiting period required for Medicaid benefits; or the growing number of retired U.S. citizens living in Mexico, who lack easy access to Medicare-supported services. This article reviews two promising binational initiatives that could help address these challenges-Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico; discusses their prospective applications within the context of U.S. health care reform; and identifies potential challenges to their implementation (legal, political, and regulatory), as well as the possible benefits, including coverage of uninsured Mexican immigrants, and their integration into the U.S. health care system (through Salud Migrante), and access to lower-cost Medicare-supported health care for U.S. retirees in Mexico (Medicare in Mexico).

  18. Emergency Prevention System (EMPRES) for transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases. The EMPRES-livestock: an FAO initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, Valdir Roberto; Vargas Terán, Moisés

    2004-10-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) decided that the Organization should be focusing on the goal of enhancing world food security and the fight against transboundary animal diseases and plant pests. A mandate was obtained from the Governing Council and Conference to establish two new Special Programmes to address these fundamental issues. The first is the Special Programme on Food Security and the second is the Emergency Prevention System against transboundary animal and plant pests and diseases (EMPRES). EMPRES has two components, created after 1994 by a new policy of the Director-General of the FAO to better direct the FAO: the plant pest component focuses on the desert locust, whereas the animal diseases component focuses primarily on rinderpest but also on other epidemic diseases (e.g., contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, foot-and-mouth disease, peste de petit ruminants). For the program as a whole, a high-level EMPRES Steering Committee was established. This is chaired by the FAO Director-General and consists of the heads of key departments (Assistant Directors-General) and Divisional Directors. For the animal diseases component (hereafter referred to as EMPRES-Livestock Programme), FAO established a management unit within its Animal Health Service (AGAH), that is, the Infectious Diseases-EMPRES Group, to be responsible for implementation, including liaison with the Joint FAO-International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Division in Vienna for some of the functions suballocated there. This paper briefly describes FAO EMPRES Livestock, its vision, its mission, and its activities to assist FAO developing member countries and regions in improving the ability of veterinary services to reduce the risks of introduction and/or dissemination of transboundary animal disease, by preventing, controlling, and eradicating those diseases, assisting countries in building their own surveillance/early warning systems, establishing contingency plans

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2013-02-01

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in southern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples of 429 sheep from 4 farms in 2 geographical regions in Oaxaca State, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT); 99 (23.1%) of the 429 sheep had positive MAT titers: 1:25 in 35, 1:50 in 18, 1:100 in 7, 1:200 in 1, 1:400 in 3, 1:800 in 10, 1:1,600 in 5, and 1:3,200, or higher, in 20. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection varied with management, breed of sheep, and location. It was significantly higher in sheep raised under semi-intensive (grazed on cultivated pasture and hay) conditions than in those raised under semi-extensive conditions (grazed on communal natural grass land). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in mixed-breed sheep than in pure breeds. Sheep raised in temperate climate in municipalities at 1,560-1,600 m above sea level (Central Valley region) had a significantly higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than those raised in semiarid and warm-humid climates in municipalities at 1,020-1,080 m of altitude (Cañada region) (29.8% vs. 7.1%, respectively). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

  20. Resilience in Transboundary Water Governance: the Okavango River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia O. Green

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available When the availability of a vital resource varies between times of overabundance and extreme scarcity, management regimes must manifest flexibility and authority to adapt while maintaining legitimacy. Unfortunately, the need for adaptability often conflicts with the desire for certainty in legal and regulatory regimes, and laws that fail to account for variability often result in conflict when the inevitable disturbance occurs. Additional keys to resilience are collaboration among physical scientists, political actors, local leaders, and other stakeholders, and, when the commons is shared among sovereign states, collaboration between and among institutions with authority to act at different scales or with respect to different aspects of an ecological system. At the scale of transboundary river basins, where treaties govern water utilization, particular treaty mechanisms can reduce conflict potential by fostering collaboration and accounting for change. One necessary element is a mechanism for coordination and collaboration at the scale of the basin. This could be satisfied by mechanisms ranging from informal networks to the establishment of an international commission to jointly manage water, but a mechanism for collaboration at the basin scale alone does not ensure sound water management. To better guide resource management, study of applied resilience theory has revealed a number of management practices that are integral for adaptive governance. Here, we describe key resilience principles for treaty design and adaptive governance and then apply the principles to a case study of one transboundary basin where the need and willingness to manage collaboratively and iteratively is high - the Okavango River Basin of southwest Africa. This descriptive and applied approach should be particularly instructive for treaty negotiators, transboundary resource managers, and should aid program developers.

  1. New approach to monitor transboundary particulate pollution over northeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Park

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new approach to more accurately monitor and evaluate transboundary particulate matter (PM pollution is introduced based on aerosol optical products from Korea's geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI. The area studied is northeast Asia including eastern parts of China, the Korean peninsula and Japan, where GOCI has been monitoring since June 2010. The hourly multi-spectral aerosol optical data that were retrieved from GOCI sensor onboard geostationary satellite COMS (Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite through Yonsei aerosol retrieval algorithm were first presented and used in this study. The GOCI-retrieved aerosol optical data are integrated with estimated aerosol distributions from US EPA Models-3/CMAQ v4.5.1 model simulations via data assimilation technique, thereby making the aerosol data spatially continuous and available even for cloud contamination cells. The assimilated aerosol optical data are utilized to provide quantitative estimates of transboundary PM pollution from China to the Korean peninsula and Japan. For the period of 1 April to 31 May 2011 this analysis yields estimates that AOD as a proxy for surface-level PM2.5 or PM10 during long-range transport events increased by 117–265% compared to background average AOD at the four AERONET sites in Korea, and average AOD increases of 121% were found when averaged over the entire Korean peninsula. The paper demonstrates that the use of multi-spectral AOD retrievals from geostationary satellites can improve estimates of transboundary PM pollution. Such data will become more widely available later this decade when new sensors such as GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer and GOCI-2 are scheduled to be launched.

  2. New Approach to Monitor Transboundary Particulate Pollution over Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M. E.; Song, C. H.; Park, R. S.; Lee, Jaehwa; Kim, J.; Lee, S.; Woo, J. H.; Carmichael, G. R.; Eck, Thomas F.; Holben, Brent N.; Lee, S. S.; Song, C. K.; Hong, Y. D.

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to more accurately monitor and evaluate transboundary particulate matter (PM) pollution is introduced based on aerosol optical products from Korea's Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI). The area studied is Northeast Asia (including eastern parts of China, the Korean peninsula and Japan), where GOCI has been monitoring since June 2010. The hourly multi-spectral aerosol optical data that were retrieved from GOCI sensor onboard geostationary satellite COMS (Communication, Ocean, and Meteorology Satellite) through the Yonsei aerosol retrieval algorithm were first presented and used in this study. The GOCI-retrieved aerosol optical data are integrated with estimated aerosol distributions from US EPA Models-3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality) v4.5.1 model simulations via data assimilation technique, thereby making the aerosol data spatially continuous and available even for cloud contamination cells. The assimilated aerosol optical data are utilized to provide quantitative estimates of transboundary PM pollution from China to the Korean peninsula and Japan. For the period of 1 April to 31 May, 2011 this analysis yields estimates that AOD as a proxy for PM2.5 or PM10 during long-range transport events increased by 117-265% compared to background average AOD (aerosol optical depth) at the four AERONET sites in Korea, and average AOD increases of 121% were found when averaged over the entire Korean peninsula. This paper demonstrates that the use of multi-spectral AOD retrievals from geostationary satellites can improve estimates of transboundary PM pollution. Such data will become more widely available later this decade when new sensors such as the GEMS (Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer) and GOCI-2 are scheduled to be launched.

  3. Sharing water and benefits in transboundary river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to solve disputes among riparian countries and to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit-sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived not only as efficient, but also as equitable in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature mainly describes what is meant by the term benefit sharing in the context of transboundary river basins and discusses this from a conceptual point of view, but falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study, we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. We describe a methodology in which (i) a hydrological model is used to allocate scarce water resources, in an economically efficient manner, to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges is equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users in an amount determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, thus based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. With the proposed benefit-sharing mechanism, the efficiency-equity trade-off still exists, but the extent of the imbalance is reduced because benefits are maximized and redistributed according to a key that has been collectively agreed upon by the participants. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The described technique not only ensures economic efficiency, but may

  4. Transboundary High School Air Quality Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, I. [Cascadia AirNET, Bellingham, WA (United States)

    2004-04-07

    A study was conducted to determine why the air quality in the Cascadia bioregion is declining. The Cascadia bioregion extends from the Alaska border in northern British Columbia to the northern coast of California and is bounded by the Pacific Ocean and the Cascade Mountains. The region shares resources such as air, water, soil migration, wildlife, human power, flora, and aquatic life. It has one of the fastest growing populations in Canada and the United States. AirNet is a school-based program that was established to promote environmental cooperation between the two countries and to increase citizen understanding and participation in protecting air quality and biodiversity. The objective of AirNet is to increase trans-border cooperation by non-governmental organizations, governments, scientists, citizens and educational facilities. AirNet shares biomonitoring data world-wide. The 5 components of the AirNet program are: (1) a teacher training workshop, (2) classroom presentations by AirNet staff on general air quality issues, (3) a presentation on lichen classification and identification, (4) a field trip with AirNet personnel to gather biomonitoring data, and (5) a follow-up field trip to use the PAX Air Quality Analyzer which analyzes biomonitoring data for carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ozone, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and particulates. PAX can also analyze wind speed, wind direction, temperature, humidity and barometric pressure. Results from a lichen study at Port Moody High School in British Columbia indicated high levels of sulphur dioxide in areas of lichen absence. In response, the students requested that the industrial facility upwind from the area cover its solid sulphur piles. The study raised awareness of bioindicators for air and applied student Internet knowledge and capability to real-life science. tabs., figs.

  5. Beyond the Transboundary River: Issues of Riparian Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhi, P. K.; Sankhua, R. N.

    2013-11-01

    The issues of riparian countries sharing transboundary waters spans decades, and has been greatly strengthened by its collaboration with partner agencies. International cooperation on shared water resources is critical, especially in water scarce regions experiencing the impacts of over-consumption and pollution. Where, river basins are transboundary, this requires regular and structured consultation, coordination and cooperation among all states sharing the catchment. Rapid and unsustainable development of river basins and their wetlands has led to the disruption of natural hydrological cycles. In many cases this has resulted in greater frequency and severity of flooding, drought and pollution. Appropriate transnational planning, protection and allocation of water to wetlands are essential to avoid disaster and enable these ecosystems to continue to provide important goods and services to local communities. Integrated river basin management takes into account policies and measures for the multifunctional use of rivers on a catchment scale and associated institutional changes. The implementation of these involves a number of steps such as definition of aim, construction of conceptual model, selection of variables, comparison with selection criteria, database assessment, and indicator selection division of tasks and responsibilities for river basin management with regard to the development of indicators, data collection, and their application in decision-making. This work presents issues pertaining to the pressure to the river, the state of the river ecosystem, the impact to goods and services provided by the river, and the societal response.

  6. 3D geological modelling and geothermal mapping - the first results of the transboundary Polish - Saxon project "TransGeoTherm"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozdrój, Wiesław; Kłonowski, Maciej; Mydłowski, Adam; Ziółkowska-Kozdrój, Małgorzata; Badura, Janusz; Przybylski, Bogusław; Russ, Dorota; Zawistowski, Karol; Domańska, Urszula; Karamański, Paweł; Krentz, Ottomar; Hofmann, Karina; Riedel, Peter; Reinhardt, Silke; Bretschneider, Mario

    2014-05-01

    TransGeoTherm is a common project of the Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute Lower Silesian Branch (Lead Partner) and the Saxon State Agency for Environment, Agriculture and Geology, co-financed by the European Union (EU) under the framework of the Operational Programme for Transboundary Co-operation Poland-Saxony 2007-2013. It started in October 2012 and will last until June 2014. The main goal of the project is to introduce and establish the use of low temperature geothermal energy as a low emission energy source in the Saxon-Polish transboundary project area. The numerous geological, hydrogeological and geothermal data have been gathered, analysed, combined and interpreted with respect to 3D numerical modelling and subsequently processed with use of the GOCAD software. The resulting geological model covers the transboundary project area exceeding 1.000 km2 and comprises around 70 units up to the depth of about 200 metres (locally deeper) below the terrain. The division of the above units has been based on their litho-stratigraphy as well as geological, hydrogeological and geothermal settings. The model includes two lignite deposits: Berzdorf deposit in Saxony-mined out and already recultivated and Radomierzyce deposit in Poland - documented but still not excavated. At the end of the modelling procedure the raster data sets of the top, bottom and thickness of every unit will be deduced from the 3D geological model with a gridsize of 25 by 25 metres. Based on the geothermal properties of the rocks and their groundwater content a specific value of geothermal conductivity will be allocated to each layer of every borehole. Thereafter for every section of a borehole, belonging to a certain unit of the 3D geological model, a weighted mean value will be calculated. Next the horizontal distribution of these values within every unit will be interpolated. This step / procedure has to be done for all units. As a result of further calculations a series

  7. [Natural contamination with mycotoxins in forage maize and green coffee in Nayarit State (Mexico)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, M de L; Marin, S; Ramos, A J

    2001-09-01

    The presence of mycotoxins in forage maize (zearalenone, fumonisin B1, T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol) and green coffee (ochratoxin A) from Nayarit State (Mexico) has been studied. All maize samples analyzed showed fumonisin B1 contamination, with an average concentration of 2,541 microg/kg. Fifteen percent of the samples contained zearalenone, with an average concentration of 1,610 microg/kg. Only one sample showed T-2 toxin contamination (7 microg/kg), and no diacetoxyscirpenol was detected. Sixty-seven per cent of green coffee samples were contaminated with ochratoxin A, with an average concentration of 30.1 microg/kg. This is the first study about mycotoxins developed in Nayarit and it has shown that mycotoxin contamination is a real problem in both foodstuffs studied.

  8. Transboundary study of the Milk River aquifer (Canada, USA): geological, conceptual and numerical models for the sound management of the regional groundwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétré, Marie-Amélie; Rivera, Alfonso; Lefebvre, René

    2016-04-01

    The Milk River transboundary aquifer straddles southern Alberta (Canada) and northern Montana (United States), a semi-arid and water-short region. The extensive use of this regional sandstone aquifer over the 20th century has led to a major drop in water levels locally, and concerns about the durability of the resources have been raised since the mid-1950. Even though the Milk River Aquifer (MRA) has been studied for decades, most of the previous studies were limited by the international border, preventing a sound understanding of the aquifer dynamics. Yet, a complete portrait of the aquifer is required for proper management of this shared resource. The transboundary study of the MRA aims to overcome transboundary limitations by providing a comprehensive characterization of the groundwater resource at the aquifer scale, following a three-stage approach: 1) The development of a 3D unified geological model of the MRA (50,000 km2). The stratigraphic framework on both sides of the border was harmonized and various sources of geological data were unified to build the transboundary geological model. The delineation of the aquifer and the geometry and thicknesses of the geological units were defined continuously across the border. 2) Elaboration of a conceptual hydrogeological model by linking hydrogeological and geochemical data with the 3D unified geological model. This stage is based on a thorough literature review and focused complementary field work on both sides of the border. The conceptual model includes the determination of the groundwater flow pattern, the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties, a groundwater budget and the definition of the groundwater types. Isotopes (3H, 14C, 36Cl) were used to delineate the recharge area as well as the active and low-flow areas. 3) The building of a 3D numerical groundwater flow model of the MRA (26,000 km2). This model is a transposition of the geological and hydrogeological conceptual models. A pre

  9. Coordination of environmental policy for transboundary environmental problems?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoel, M.

    1996-01-01

    In order to reach a Pareto optimal outcome with transboundary environmental problems, there must be some kind of international agreement. One possibility would be an international agreement focusing directly on emissions in each country. Given such an agreement, an important issue is whether one should supplement the agreement with some kind of policy coordination, or if the choice of environmental policies should be left for each country to decide for itself. The present paper shows that under ``ideal`` conditions, policies need not be coordinated across countries. Such ideal conditions include, among other things, that all markets, including the labour market, are competitive. However, if one has imperfect competition in goods markets, or unemployment, it may be desirable to let an international environmental agreement not only specify emission levels, but also the policy mix between emission taxes and direct regulation. 16 refs.

  10. Cultural Politics and Transboundary Resource Governance in the Salish Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma S. Norman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the cultural politics of water governance through the analysis of a new governing body created by indigenous leaders in the Pacific Northwest of North America – The Coast Salish Aboriginal Council. This paper investigates how the administrative structures and physical boundaries of water governance are both socially constructed and politically mobilised. The key moments explored in this article are closely linked to the power dynamics constituted through postcolonial constructions of space. Inclusion of cultural politics of scale will, arguably, provide a more nuanced approach to the study of transboundary environmental governance. This has important implications for the study of natural resource management for indigenous communities, whose traditional homelands are often bifurcated by contemporary border constructions.

  11. Mercury in products - a source of transboundary pollutant transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munthe, J.; Kindbom, K. [Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize current knowledge on product-related emissions of mercury to air on a European scale, and to estimate the contribution from mercury contained in products, to the total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air and transboundary transport of mercury in Europe. Products included in this study are batteries, measuring and control instruments, light sources and electrical equipment, all intentionally containing mercury. The main result of this study is that product-related emission of mercury can contribute significantly to total emissions and transboundary transport of mercury in the European region and that measures to limit the use of mercury in products can contribute to an overall decrease of the environmental input of mercury in Europe. It is concluded that: -Mercury contained in products may be emitted to air during consumption, after disposal when incinerated or when volatilized from landfill. Mercury may also be emitted to air during recycling of scrap metal or when accumulated (stored) in society. -The amount of mercury consumed in batteries and in measuring and control instruments had decreased since the late 1980`s. The total use of mercury in light sources and electrical equipment has not changed significantly during the same time period. The contribution to total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to air in Europe in the mid 1990`s is estimated to be: for batteries 4%; for measuring and control instruments 3%; for lighting and electrical equipment 11%. -Mercury in products leads to significant wet deposition input in Scandinavia. The relative amount of the total deposition flux attributable to products is estimated to be 10-14% 26 refs, 4 figs, 10 tabs

  12. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations sati...

  13. Management of trans-boundary water resources: comparing Russian and American experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Lanko Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on a comparative analysis of Russia and US’s experience of participation in international cooperation in the field of trans-boundary water management. The author showcases the work of Russian-Estonian Commission for Protection and Rational Use of Trans-Boundary Waters and the US-Canadian International Joint Commission. The Russian-Estonian Commission works in accordance with the principle of intergovernmentalism, whereas transnationalism is the founding principle of the ...

  14. TRANSBOUNDARY HAZE POLLUTION IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Yordan Gunawan

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades the Southeast Asia Countries have been affected by haze pollution which is caused by human activities in burning land/forest for plantation and/or agriculture. Indonesia is one of the major sources of the haze pollution in the region. The pollution does not stop at national borders only, but also causing transboundary pollution to the neighboring countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. As a reaction of this environmental crisis, ASEAN Agreement on transboundary Haze Pollut...

  15. Transboundary Groundwater Body Karavanke/Karawanken Between Austria and Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brencic, M.; Poltnig, W.

    2009-04-01

    low water discharge measurements followed this stage. Samples were taken for basic chemistry and stable isotope determination of water as well as some more sophisticated analyses (e.g. isotope analyses of noble gases) in the area of mineral waters appearance. Important part of investigations was production and compilation of new geological map based on older published and unpublished geological maps from both sides of the state border. This map represented background for the definition of hydrogeological and other detailed and specific maps (e.g. risk potential and vulnerability maps). Based on these results basic hydrological balance of the area was calculated, identification of cross border flow was performed and finally protection measures were suggested. A large part of Karavanke/Karawanken is built from karstified carbonate rocks of limestone and dolomite with underlying Paleozoic limestones. The largest part of karstified rocks lies in the area of North Karavanke/Karawanken, the Košuta unit and the Kamnik-Savinja Alps. About 3600 springs were recorded in the area of Karavanke/Karawanken on both sides of the Austrian-Slovenian state border from 1990 to 2002. For each spring, water flow, electrical conductivity and water temperature were determined. Mostly the springs have a small water flow. Only some very large springs flowing from a karstic aquifer were found to have a recharge area extending across the state border. In 2004 based on the bilateral agreement between Republic of Slovenia and Republic of Austria the common transboundary groundwater body Karavanke/Karawanken was defined. The body is defined according to the Water Framework Directive requirements and extends to the area of the main border ridge. It is divided on areas, where prevails the surface water outflow, which depends only on the surface form and areas, where groundwater outflow is present. Within the area of common water body of the Karavanke/Karawanken five cross-border aquifers were

  16. Local evolution of pyrethroid resistance offsets gene flow among Aedes aegypti collections in Yucatan State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Beaty, Meaghan; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Denham, Steven; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Beaty, Barry; Eisen, Lars; Black, William C

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4). Previous studies have shown that Ae. aegypti in Mexico have a high effective migration rate and that gene flow occurs among populations that are up to 150 km apart. Since 2000, pyrethroids have been widely used for suppression of Ae. aegypti in cities in Mexico. In Yucatan State in particular, pyrethroids have been applied in and around dengue case households creating an opportunity for local selection and evolution of resistance. Herein, we test for evidence of local adaptation by comparing patterns of variation among 27 Ae. aegypti collections at 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene para known to confer knockdown resistance, three in detoxification genes previously associated with pyrethroid resistance, and eight in putatively neutral loci. The SNPs in para varied greatly in frequency among collections, whereas SNPs at the remaining 11 loci showed little variation supporting previous evidence for extensive local gene flow. Among Ae. aegypti in Yucatan State, Mexico, local adaptation to pyrethroids appears to offset the homogenizing effects of gene flow.

  17. Local Evolution of Pyrethroid Resistance Offsets Gene Flow Among Aedes aegypti Collections in Yucatan State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Beaty, Meaghan; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Denham, Steven; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Beaty, Barry; Eisen, Lars; Black, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1–4). Previous studies have shown that Ae. aegypti in Mexico have a high effective migration rate and that gene flow occurs among populations that are up to 150 km apart. Since 2000, pyrethroids have been widely used for suppression of Ae. aegypti in cities in Mexico. In Yucatan State in particular, pyrethroids have been applied in and around dengue case households creating an opportunity for local selection and evolution of resistance. Herein, we test for evidence of local adaptation by comparing patterns of variation among 27 Ae. aegypti collections at 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene para known to confer knockdown resistance, three in detoxification genes previously associated with pyrethroid resistance, and eight in putatively neutral loci. The SNPs in para varied greatly in frequency among collections, whereas SNPs at the remaining 11 loci showed little variation supporting previous evidence for extensive local gene flow. Among Ae. aegypti in Yucatan State, Mexico, local adaptation to pyrethroids appears to offset the homogenizing effects of gene flow. PMID:25371186

  18. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens in Durango State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; González-Salazar, A M; Alvarado-Esquivel, D; Ontiveros-Vázquez, F; Vitela-Corrales, J; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-04-01

    Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 519 chickens in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Two groups (A, B) of chickens were sampled. Group A chickens (n  =  51) were raised in backyards in 7 municipalities in 3 geographical regions in Durango State. Group B chickens were raised in farms in the Mexican States of Sinaloa (n  =  289) and Nayarit (n  =  179) but slaughtered in 2 abattoirs in Durango City. Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 36 (6.9%) of 519 chickens, with MAT titers of 1∶25 in 22, 1∶50 in 8, 1∶100 in 2, 1∶200 in 3, and 1∶400 in 1. Seroprevalence of T. gondii increased significantly with age and was significantly higher in Group A chickens than in Group B chickens. In Group A chickens, a 25.5% seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was found. Seropositive chickens were found in all 7 municipalities sampled. In Group B chickens, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 4.9%. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in chickens in Durango State, Mexico.

  19. Report: transboundary hazardous waste management. part II: performance auditing of treatment facilities in importing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tien-Chin; Ni, Shih-Piao; Fan, Kuo-Shuh; Lee, Ching-Hwa

    2006-06-01

    Before implementing the self-monitoring model programme of the Basel Convention in the Asia, Taiwan has conducted a comprehensive 4-year follow-up project to visit the governmental authorities and waste-disposal facilities in the countries that import waste from Taiwan. A total of nine treatment facilities, six of which are reported in this paper, and the five countries where the plants are located were visited in 2001-2002. France, Belgium and Finland primarily handled polychlorinated biphenyl capacitors, steel mill dust and metal waste. The United States accepted metal sludge, mainly electroplating sludge, from Taiwan. Waste printed circuit boards, waste wires and cables, and a mixture of waste metals and electronics were the major items exported to China. Relatively speaking, most treatment plants for hazardous waste paid close attention to environmental management, such as pollution control and monitoring, site zoning, system management regarding occupational safety and hygiene, data management, permits application, and image promotion. Under the tight restrictions formulated by the central environment agency, waste treatment plants in China managed the environmental issues seriously. For example, one of the treatment plants had ISO 14001 certification. It is believed that with continuous implementation of regulations, more improvement is foreseeable. Meanwhile, Taiwan and China should also continuously enhance their collaboration regarding the transboundary management of hazardous waste.

  20. Devastating Transboundary Impacts of Sea Star Wasting Disease on Subtidal Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecino-Latorre, Diego; Eisenlord, Morgan E.; Turner, Margaret; Yoshioka, Reyn; Harvell, C. Drew; Pattengill-Semmens, Christy V.; Nichols, Janna D.

    2016-01-01

    Sea star wasting disease devastated intertidal sea star populations from Mexico to Alaska between 2013–15, but little detail is known about its impacts to subtidal species. We assessed the impacts of sea star wasting disease in the Salish Sea, a Canadian / United States transboundary marine ecosystem, and world-wide hotspot for temperate asteroid species diversity with a high degree of endemism. We analyzed roving diver survey data for the three most common subtidal sea star species collected by trained volunteer scuba divers between 2006–15 in 5 basins and on the outer coast of Washington, as well as scientific strip transect data for 11 common subtidal asteroid taxa collected by scientific divers in the San Juan Islands during the spring/summer of 2014 and 2015. Our findings highlight differential susceptibility and impact of sea star wasting disease among asteroid species populations and lack of differences between basins or on Washington’s outer coast. Specifically, severe depletion of sunflower sea stars (Pycnopodia helianthoides) in the Salish Sea support reports of major declines in this species from California to Alaska, raising concern for the conservation of this ecologically important subtidal predator. PMID:27783620

  1. Reversing course: Germany`s response to the challenge of transboundary air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprinz, D.F.; Wahl, A.

    1998-03-01

    Perhaps like no other country, Germany has radically changed its policies towards regulating air pollution in the European context. Acting originally as a dragger in the 1970s to regulate transboundary air pollutants due to pessimism about the relationship between causes and effects, Germany responded very decisively to its own damage assessment in the early 1980s. In particular the adverse effects to forests (`Waldsterben` or forest decline) led to the formulation of strict air pollution regulations in the domestic context, efforts to spread the regulatory system within the European Union, and activities within the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe to foster stronger, continent-wide emission reductions. Using three conceptual models (rational actor, domestic politics, and social learning), we show that Germany deviated strongly from the ideal policy cycle consisting of (i) domestic policy formulation, (ii) international negotiations, as well as (iii) implementation and compliance with the provisions of international environmental agreements. Both national policy-making as well as partial implementation have been well on the way towards compliance even before Germany entered international negotiations on substantive protocols. Therefore, one may conclude from this country study that push countries may use the results of their national policy processes to influence the policy of other countries. (orig.)

  2. Transboundary air pollution in Asia: Model development and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tracey

    2001-12-01

    This work investigates transboundary air pollution in Asia through atmospheric modeling and public policy analysis. As an example of models actively shaping environmental policy, the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe (LRTAP) is selected as a case study. The LRTAP Convention is the only mulit- lateral air pollution agreement to date, and results from the RAINS integrated assessment model were heavily used to calculate nationally differentiated emission ceilings. Atmospheric chemistry and transport are included in RAINS through the use of transfer coefficients (or ``source-receptor relationships'') relating pollutant transfer among European nations. Following past work with ATMOS to simulate sulfur species in Asia, here ATMOS is developed to include odd-nitrogen. Fitting with the linear structure of ATMOS and the emphasis on computational efficiency, a simplified chemical scheme developed for use in the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Global Chemical Transport Model (GFDL GCTM) is adopted. The method solves for the interconversions between NOx, HNO3, and PAN based on five reaction rates stored in look-up tables. ATMOS is used to calculate source-receptor relationships for Asia. Significant exchange of NOy occurs among China, North and South Korea, and Japan. On an annual average basis, China contributes 18% to Japan's total nitrate deposition, 46% to North Korea, and 26% to South Korea. Nitrate deposition is an important component of acidification (along with sulfate deposition), contributing 30-50% to the acid burden over most of Japan, and more than 50% to acid deposition in southeast Asia, where biomass burning emits high levels of NOx. In evaluating the policy-relevance of results from the ATMOS model, four factors are taken into account: the uncertainty and limitations of ATMOS, the environmental concerns facing Asia, the current status of the scientific community in relation to regional air pollution in the region, and

  3. Natural attenuation of mining pollutants in the transboundary Save River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meck, M. L.; Masamba, W. R. L.; Atlhopheng, J.; Ringrose, S.

    The objective of the study was to investigate the role played by the natural environment in protecting the transboundary Save River from the impacts of metals derived from phosphate mining at Dorowa. The study is a follow up study from a previous one that noted that there is natural attenuation at Dorowa. Water and sediment samples were collected in the Save River and the streams that drain the Dorowa dumps. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze the cations (Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, Cu 2+, Co 2+, Fe 2+, Ni 2+, Zn 2+, Pb 2+, Sn 2+, Mn 2+, Cd 2+) in the samples. Major anions Cl -, SO42- and NO3- were analyzed by standard chromatography whilst CO32- and HCO3- were determined by titration. pH was measured on site. Geochemical modeling of the water composition was conducted with Visual Minteq. The results show that natural attenuation is being achieved through precipitation of solids from the water and subsequent deposition onto the sediments. Six of the metals are almost completely precipitated (Cu 99.99%, Fe 99.39%, Ni 91.24%, Pb 99.87%, Sn 99.99% and Zn 88.66%). However Mn, Co and Cd remain in solution. Thus the natural environment is protecting the Save River which is a transboundary river from the impacts of mining through precipitation of the metals. Users downstream of Dorowa mine are therefore not being affected by mining pollution. This study demonstrates that besides being a legitimate and important user of water, the natural environment can also play a significant role in protecting water quality by attenuating metals naturally. By analyzing costs incurred in several places where alternative methods are employed to remediate metal related pollution the study concludes that natural remediation at Dorowa is saving the nation in environmental costs. Therefore the paper advocates for appreciation of the role that the natural environment plays in protecting ecosystems from the impact of human developments and environmental costs

  4. Proceedings of a USGS Workshop on Facing Tomorrow's Challenges Along the U.S.-Mexico Border - Monitoring, Modeling, and Forecasting Change Within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Hirsch, Derrick D.; Ward, A. Wesley

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO THE WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS Competition for water resources, habitats, and urban areas in the Borderlands has become an international concern. In the United States, Department of Interior Bureaus, Native American Tribes, and other State and Federal partners rely on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide unbiased science and leadership in the Borderlands region. Consequently, the USGS hosted a workshop, ?Facing Tomorrow?s Challenges along the U.S.-Mexico Border,? on March 20?22, 2007, in Tucson, Ariz., focused specifically on monitoring, modeling, and forecasting change within the Arizona-Sonora Transboundary Watersheds

  5. The role of the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate in the development of vaccines and diagnostics for Transboundary Animal Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, M; Coats, M; Brake, D; Fine, J

    2013-01-01

    The development of countermeasures to support an effective response to Transboundary Animal Diseases (TAD) poses a challenge on a global scale and necessitates the coordinated involvement of scientists from government, industry and academia, as well as regulatory entities. The Agricultural Defense Branch under the Chemical and Biological Defense Division (CBD) of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) supports this important mission within the United States. This article provides an overview of the Agricultural Defense Branch's vaccine and diagnostic TAD project.

  6. Isla Hispaniola: A trans-boundary flood risk mitigation plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandimarte, Luigia; Brath, Armando; Castellarin, Attilio; Baldassarre, Giuliano Di

    It is sadly known that over the past decades Isla Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic) has been exposed to the devastating passage of several hurricanes and tropical storms. Territories that are economically weak and extremely poor in terms of natural resources have been shaken by severe flood events that caused the loss of thousands of human lives, displacement of people and damage to the environment. On May 24th 2004, the flooding of the trans-boundary river Soliette killed over 1000 Haitian and Dominican people, wiping out villages and leaving behind desolation and poverty. After this catastrophic flood event, the General Direction for Development and Cooperation of the Italian Department of Foreign Affairs funded through the Istituto Italo-Latino Americano (IILA, www.iila.org) an international cooperation initiative (ICI), coordinated and directed by the University of Bologna. The ICI involved Haitian and Dominican institutions and was twofold: (a) institutional capacity building on flood risk management and mitigation measures and policies; (b) hydrological and hydraulic analysis of the May 2004 flood event aimed at formulating a suitable and affordable flood risk mitigation plan, consisting of structural and non-structural measures.

  7. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes from grazing beef cattle in Campeche State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz-Lagunes, Abel; González-Garduño, Roberto; López-Arellano, Maria Eugenia; Ramírez-Valverde, Rodolfo; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; García-Muñiz, Guadalupe; Ramírez-Vargas, Gabriel; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Torres-Hernández, Glafiro

    2015-08-01

    Production of beef cattle is one of the most important economic activities in Mexico. However, anthelmintic resistance (AR) has affected animal productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of AR in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of beef cattle in Candelaria Municipality of Campeche State, Mexico. Sixty-five-month-old beef calves were selected for the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and the inhibition of egg hatch (IEH) assay. These parameters were determined using albendazole (benzimidazole, BZ), ivermectin (IVM, Macrocyclic lactone, ML) and levamisole (LEV, imidazothiazole, IMZ). Allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) confirmed polymorphisms at codon 200 of isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene of Haemonchus placei. The results showed 32 % IVM toxicity by FECRT, indicating problems of AR in the GIN population. In contrast, BZ and LEV showed 95 and 100 % toxicity, respectively, against GIN from infected beef calves. The infective larvae (L3) of Cooperia, Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum were identified before anthelmintic treatment, and Cooperia L3 larvae were identified after treatment with IVM. The IEH assays had lethal dose 50 (LD50) of 187 nM to BZ, confirming the ovicidal effect of BZ. In contrast, the LD50 for LEV and IVM were 3.3 and 0.4 mM, respectively. The results obtained by AS-PCR confirmed two DNA fragments of 250 and 550 bp, corresponding to the resistant and susceptible alleles in the H. placei population. The nematode Cooperia showed AR against IVM, while the toxicity effect of BZ against GIN with both FECRT and IEH was confirmed.

  8. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in Veracruz State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Romero-Salas, Dora; García-Vázquez, Zeferino; Crivelli-Diaz, Margarita; Barrientos-Morales, Manuel; Lopez-de-Buen, Lorena; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs has epidemiological concern for its contributing role in human infections. We determined seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 402 domestic pigs raised in backyards in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT; cut off 1:25); 182 (45.3%) of the 402 pigs were seropositive with MAT titers of 1:25 in 28, 1:50 in 22, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 30, 1:400 in 35, 1:800 in 23, 1:1,600 in 11, and 1:3,200 or higher in 15. Seropositive pigs were found in 137 (53.3%) of 257 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity in pigs was associated with tropical-humid climate (OR = 4.32; 95% CI 1.47-12.62; P = 0.007) of the raising municipalities, feeding with leftovers (OR = 2.83; 95% CI 1.01-7.91; P = 0.04), storing pig food in the owner's home (OR = 2.39; 95% CI 1.09-5.22; P = 0.02), and free ranging (OR = 3.48; 95% CI 1.49-8.15; P = 0.003). Results indicate that backyard pigs in Veracruz have the highest seroprevalence of T. gondii infection obtained by MAT in pigs studied in Mexico so far. The correlates of T. gondii infection found in the present study may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against T. gondii infection in pigs. Results also remark the risk of T. gondii infection in humans by ingestion of raw or undercook pork in Mexico.

  9. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-12-01

    Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca State, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 58 (17.2%) of the 337 backyard pigs with MAT titers of 1:25 in 10, 1:50 in 12, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 6, 1:400 in 6, 1:800 in 3, and 1:1,600 in 3. Seropositive pigs were found in 39 (37.9%) of 103 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in backyard pigs varied with age, gender, geographic region, climate, and altitude. High seroprevalence was found in pigs ≥ 9-mo-old (40%), in females (40%), in pigs from the Istmo region (33.3%), and in those raised in a tropical climate (65%). Seroprevalence was higher (24.5%) in pigs raised at 100-660 m above sea level than in those at 20-60 m of altitude (14.2%). With respect to farm pigs, only 1 (0.5%, MAT titer 1:100) of 188 pigs from 5 farms was positive for anti- T. gondii antibodies. The results affirm that the management system (outdoor vs. indoor system with biosecurity) is a key factor in the epidemiology of porcine toxoplasmosis. Because there is no national system of determining the T. gondii infection status at the time of slaughter, precautions should be taken while handling pig carcasses, and all pork should be cooked thoroughly before human consumption.

  10. "拓展亚洲国际河流跨境水与生态安全合作"国际学术研讨会在大理召开%International Workshop on "Expanding Trans-boundary Cooperation for Water and Environment Security in Asia's International Rivers"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katri Makkonen; 赵歆

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Workshop on "Expanding Transboundary Cooperation for Water and Environment Security in Asia's International Rivers" was held on December 10-14, 2005, Dali, Yunnan, China. It was organized by Tsinghua University, the World Bank Institute (WBI), the United Nations University (UNU) and Asian International Rivers Center (AIRC). A total of over 60 scholars from the USA, Canada, Australia, Finland, Japan, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, India, Sri Lanka, Iran and China participated in this workshop. The topics include seeking reasonable utilization and sustainable conflict resolutions related to transboundary water resources, and transboundary eco-security maintenance; expanding cooperation between Asia and the rest of the world on international river issues, identifying potential opportunities; and possibility of a common research agenda for addressing environment changes in Mekong River Basin.

  11. TRANSBOUNDARY HAZE POLLUTION IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF INTERNATIONAL LAW OF STATE RESPONSIBILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordan Gunawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades the Southeast Asia Countries have been affected by haze pollution which is caused by human activities in burning land/forest for plantation and/or agriculture. Indonesia is one of the major sources of the haze pollution in the region. The pollution does not stop at national borders only, but also causing transboundary pollution to the neighboring countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. As a reaction of this environmental crisis, ASEAN Agreement on transboundary Haze Pollution was signed. The Agreement recognizes that transboundary haze pollution which resulted from land and/or forest fires should be mitigated through concerted national efforts and international cooperation. As of June 2013, all the ASEAN countries, except Indonesia, have ratified the agreement. However Indonesia hopes to ratify the haze agreement by 2015. The study is normative legal reserach with Statute Approach and Case Approach. By using the qualitative descriptive method, this study will discribe the ransboundary haze pollution in details which could be seen in some international laws concerning law of state responsibility as for Draft Articles on State Responsibility and 1997 ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution. The result shows that Indonesia needs to do the action, not onlyin term of how to combat the forest fires with the deployment of personnel from ASEAN, but also preventing issue of it, namely by making the rule of law which effectively penalize the forest burning. Most of these problems can be overcome only if Indonesia ratified the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution.

  12. Assessing the benefits of Transboundary Protected Areas: a questionnaire survey in the Americas and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallum, Jamie W; Vasilijević, Maja; Cuthill, Innes

    2015-02-01

    There are more than 3000 protected areas (PAs) situated on or near international boundaries, and amongst them there is an increasing trend towards the establishment of transboundary cooperation initiatives. Proponents of Transboundary PAs (TBPAs) highlight the potential for biodiversity protection through spatial, management and socio-economic benefits. However, there have been few formal studies that assess these benefits. It is possible that the relaxation of boundary controls to optimise transboundary connectivity may increase the risk of impacts from invasive species or illegal human incursion. We sought to investigate the validity of these proposed benefits and potential risks through a questionnaire survey of 113 PAs, of which 39 responded and met our inclusion criteria. 82% felt that transboundary cooperation has benefits for biodiversity and, across PAs, the self-reported level of transboundary communication was positively associated with some improved spatial, management and socio-economic benefits. However, 26% of PAs reported that they never communicated with their internationally adjoining protected area, indicating unrealised potential for greater gains.

  13. The Water-Energy-Food Nexus and the Transboundary Context: Insights from Large Asian Rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Keskinen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The water-energy-food nexus is a topical subject for research and practice, reflecting the importance of these sectors for humankind and the complexity and magnitude of the challenges they are facing. While the nexus as a concept is not yet mature or fully tested in practice, it has already encouraged a range of approaches in a variety of contexts. This article provides a set of definitions recognizing three perspectives that see the nexus as an analytical tool, governance framework and as an emerging discourse. It discusses the implications that an international transboundary context brings to the nexus and vice versa. Based on a comparative analysis of three Asian regions—Central Asia, South Asia and the Mekong Region—and their related transboundary river basins, we propose that the transboundary context has three major implications: diversity of scales and perspectives, importance of state actors and importance of politics. Similarly, introducing the nexus as an approach in a transboundary context has a potential to provide new resources and approaches, alter existing actor dynamics and portray a richer picture of relationships. Overall, the significance of water-energy-food linkages and their direct impacts on water allocation mean that the nexus has the potential to complement existing approaches also in the transboundary river basins.

  14. Marine Spatial Planning in a Transboundary Context: Linking Baja California with California's Network of Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Arafeh-Dalmau

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is acknowledged that an effective path to globally protect marine ecosystems is through the establishment of eco-regional scale networks of MPAs spanning across national frontiers. In this work we aimed to plan for regionally feasible networks of MPAs that can be ecologically linked with an existing one in a transboundary context. We illustrate our exercise in the Ensenadian eco-region, a shared marine ecosystem between the south of California, United States of America (USA, and the north of Baja California, Mexico; where conservation actions differ across the border. In the USA, California recently established a network of MPAs through the Marine Life Protection Act (MLPA, while in Mexico: Baja California lacks a network of MPAs or a marine spatial planning effort to establish it. We generated four different scenarios with Marxan by integrating different ecological, social, and management considerations (habitat representation, opportunity costs, habitat condition, and enforcement costs. To do so, we characterized and collected biophysical and socio-economic information for Baja California and developed novel approaches to quantify and incorporate some of these considerations. We were able to design feasible networks of MPAs in Baja California that are ecologically linked with California's network (met between 78.5 and 84.4% of the MLPA guidelines and that would represent a low cost for fishers and aquaculture investors. We found that when multiple considerations are integrated more priority areas for conservation emerge. For our region, human distribution presents a strong gradient from north to south and resulted to be an important factor for the spatial arrangement of the priority areas. This work shows how, despite the constraints of a data-poor area, the available conservation principles, mapping, and planning tools can still be used to generate spatial conservation plans in a transboundary context.

  15. Water and Benefit Sharing in Transboundary River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoon, D.; Tilmant, A.; Herrmann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Growing water scarcity underlies the importance of cooperation for the effective management of river basins, particularly in the context of international rivers in which unidirectional externalities can lead to asymmetric relationships between riparian countries. Studies have shown that significant economic benefits can be expected through basin-wide cooperation, however, the equitable partitioning of these benefits over the basin is less well studied and tends to overlook the importance of stakeholder input in the definition of equitability. In this study, an institutional arrangement to maximize welfare and then share the scarcity cost in a river basin is proposed. A river basin authority plays the role of a bulk water market operator, efficiently allocating bulk water to the users and collecting bulk water charges which are then equitably redistributed among water users. This highly regulated market restrains the behaviour of water users to control externalities and to ensure basin-wide coordination, enhanced efficiency, and the equitable redistribution of the scarcity cost. The institutional arrangement is implemented using the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The importance of this arrangement is that it can be adopted for application in negotiations to cooperate in trans-boundary river basins. The benefit sharing solution proposed is more likely to be perceived as equitable because water users help define the sharing rule. As a result, the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as it would be if existing rules, such as bankruptcy rules or cooperative game theory solutions, are applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness. Results of the case study show that the sharing rule is predictable. Water users can expect to receive between 93.5% and 95% of their uncontested benefits (benefits that they expect to receive if water was not rationed), depending on the hydrologic scenario.

  16. A Regional Strategy for the Assessment and Management of Transboundary Aquifer Systems in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, R. T.; Rivera, A.; Tujchneider, O.; Guillén, C.; Campos, M.; Da Franca, N.; May, Z.; Aureli, A.

    2015-12-01

    The UNESCO-IHP ISARM-Americas technical committee has developed a regional strategy for the assessment and management of transboundary aquifer systems in the Americas as part of their ongoing cooperative assistance to help neighboring countries sustain water resources and reduce potential conflict. The fourth book in the series of publications sponsored by UNESCO and OAS documents this strategy. The goal of this strategy is the collective understanding, developing, managing, and protecting of the transboundary aquifers in the Americas This strategy includes technical, social, and governance recommendations for an integrated resource management of groundwater based on flexible arrangements that not only manage but also demand social participation in solving problems, consider changes in land use and water use and promote the increase of water sustainability for all transboundary neighbors. The successful implementation of this strategy starts with sharing information of the status and use of land and water as well as intergovernmental partnerships to link science and policy with existing instruments for managing the water resources. International organizations such as UNESCO and OAS also can help facilitate the development of transboundary agreements and establish cooperation on transboundary aquifers between neighbors. The UNESCO-IHP ISARM-Americas technical committee has been successful in creating a network of partners from 24 countries and in translating existing aquifer knowledge into a meaningful strategy for the American hemisphere. The strategy aims to explain and develop the role of science and the informed-decision approach. Examples from North and South America show how the process has begun to develop for selected transboundary aquifers. These include the Milk River basin between the US and Canada, the Rio Grande and Colorado River basins between the US and Mexico, and the Guarani River basin in South America.

  17. Epidemiological study of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in a rural village in Yucatan state, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Fraser, A; Allan, J C; Dominguez-Alpizar, J L; Argaez-Rodriguez, F; Craig, P S

    1999-01-01

    A survey to detect human taeniasis and cysticercosis was conducted in a community in Yucatan state, Mexico, an area endemic for Taenia solium. Information on the environmental, demographic and risk factors associated with transmission of T. solium within the community was recorded on questionnaires. Although no Taenia eggs or proglottides were found in the initial faecal samples collected from each of the 475 subjects, the results of a capture-ELISA for T. solium coproantigen were positive for 10 of the subjects (of both genders and various ages). After treatment with niclosamide, proglottides were detected in purge samples from seven of these 10 subjects. The prevalence of parasitologically confirmed taeniasis was therefore 1.5% (seven in 475). The other three ELISA-positive cases delayed supplying faecal material post-treatment, and it is nuclear whether they had expelled proglottides before providing the samples. All 10 ELISA-positive subjects became ELISA-negative after treatment. Seroprevalence of human cysticercosis, based on the detection in immunoblots of antibodies to antigens of 8- and 26-kDa from a crude saline extract of T. solium metacestodes, was 3.7% (i.e. five positives out of 134 subjects). None of the seropositive cases demonstrated clinical symptoms of infection. Again, the positive cases were of both genders and various ages. Although tongue palpation indicated that 17 (23%) of 75 pigs kept within the community had T. solium cysticercosis, the results of immunoblotting demonstrated antibodies to the 8- and/or 26-kDa antigens of T. solium in 26 (35%). The pigs allowed to roam throughout the community were far more likely to have cysticercosis than those kept in pens (odds ratio = 42, with a 95% confidence interval of 5.05-920.2; P taeniasis and cysticercosis included the eating of infected pork and close proximity to a carrier of T. solium. The main risk factor identified for porcine cysticercosis was free-range husbandry, permitting access to

  18. Control of Pollutants in the Trans-Boundary Area of Taihu Basin, Yangtze Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on pollution control in the trans-boundary area of Taihu Basin. Considering the unique characteristics of the river network in the study area, a new methodology of pollution control is proposed aiming at improving the water quality in the trans-boundary area and reducing conflicts between up and downstream regions. Based on monitoring data and statistical analysis, important trans-boundary cross sections identified by the regional government were selected as important areas for consideration in developing management objectives; using a 1-D mathematicmodel and an effective weight evaluation model, the trans-boundary effective control scope (TECS of the study area was identified as the scope for pollutant control; the acceptable pollution load was then estimated using an established model targeting bi-directional flow. The results suggest that the water environmental capacity for chemical oxygen demand (COD, in order to guarantee reaching the target water quality standard in the TECS, is 160,806 t/year, and amounts to 16,098 t/year, 3493 t/year, and 39,768 t/year for ammonia nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, respectively. Our study method and results have been incorporated into the local government management project, and have been proven to be useful in designing a pollution control strategy and management policy.

  19. Daily and hourly chemical impact of springtime transboundary aerosols on Japanese air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, T.; Kojima, T.; Amato, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Rosa, J. de la; Calzolai, G.; Nava, S.; Chiari, M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Gibbons, W.

    2013-01-01

    The regular eastward drift of transboundary aerosol intrusions from the Asian mainland into the NW Pacific region has a pervasive impact on air quality in Japan, especially during springtime. Analysis of 24-h filter samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and

  20. Transboundary air pollution in East/Southeast Asia and geostationary measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, K.; Kasai, Y.; Sagi, K.; Hayashida, S.; Irie, H.; Kanaya, Y.; Miyazaki, K.; Takigawa, M.; Noguchi, K.; Kondo, Y.; Koike, M.; Akimoto, H.

    2009-12-01

    Accompanying with recent development of industry and economy in countries in Eastern/Southern/Southeastern Asia, emissions of air pollutants have been increasing significantly. Long-range, transboundary transport of these pollutants probably affects the atmospheric environment and the regional climate in this region. In Japan, although concentrations of ozone precursors have been decreasing in 1990s-2000s, surface ozone concentration has been gradually increasing and photochemical smog sometimes occurs not only in urban regions but also in remote areas. One of the causes of this ozone increase is considered to be transboundary transport of polluted air masses in East Asia. Geostationary (GEO) satellite observation of air pollutants over Asia is expected to contribute to understanding the photochemical and transport processes as well as the spatial and temporal variation of their emissions in this region. It can play crucial rolls for monitoring and predicting the transboundary pollution events. In this talk, some examples of transboundary pollution in East and Southeast Asia will be presented, and the detection possibility of these pollution events from GEO satellite will be discussed. Possible improvement of the model prediction of these pollution events by assimilating GEO satellite data will be also presented.

  1. Marine Environmental Protection and Transboundary Pipeline Projects: A Case Study of the Nord Stream Pipeline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lott, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The Nord Stream transboundary submarine pipeline, significant for its impact on the EU energy policy, has been a heav- ily debated issue in the Baltic Sea region during the past decade. This is partly due to the concerns over the effects that the pipeline might have on the Baltic Sea as a particular

  2. Chasing the Spillovers: Locating Protected Areas in a Trans-Boundary Fishery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.; Janmaat, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) can positively impact upon marine biodiversity and fisheries returns. Increased fish densities inside MPAs can positively affect catches outside these areas. We examine MPA placement in a transboundary fishery when nations are, and are not, cooperative. We apply a diffe

  3. The impacts of CO2 capture on transboundary air pollution in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, J.M.; van Harmelen, T.; van Horssen, A.; van Gijlswijk, R.; Ramirez-Ramirez, A.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Turkenburg, W.C.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this research is to develop a first assessment of the impacts of the implementation of CO2 capture technologies in the Dutch power sector on the transboundary air pollution (SO2,NOX,NH3,NMV OC,PM10 and PM2.5) levels in 2020. Results show that for the power sector SO2 emissions will be

  4. The impacts of CO2 capture on transboundary air pollution in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, J.; Harmelen, T. van; Horssen, A. van; Gijlswijk, R. van; Ramirez, A.; Faaij, A.; Turkenburg, W.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this research is to develop a first assessment of the impacts of the implementation of CO2 capture technologies in the Dutch power sector on the transboundary air pollution (SO2,NOX,NH3,NMV OC,PM10 and PM2.5) levels in 2020. Results show that for the power sector SO2 emissions will be v

  5. Water stress in global transboundary river basins : Significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H A; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has n

  6. Assessing Management Regimes in Transboundary River Basins: Do They Support Adaptive Management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Interwies

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available River basin management is faced with complex problems that are characterized by uncertainty and change. In transboundary river basins, historical, legal, and cultural differences add to the complexity. The literature on adaptive management gives several suggestions for handling this complexity. It recognizes the importance of management regimes as enabling or limiting adaptive management, but there is no comprehensive overview of regime features that support adaptive management. This paper presents such an overview, focused on transboundary river basin management. It inventories the features that have been claimed to be central to effective transboundary river basin management and refines them using adaptive management literature. It then collates these features into a framework describing actor networks, policy processes, information management, and legal and financial aspects. Subsequently, this framework is applied to the Orange and Rhine basins. The paper concludes that the framework provides a consistent and comprehensive perspective on transboundary river basin management regimes, and can be used for assessing their capacity to support adaptive management.

  7. Daily and hourly chemical impact of springtime transboundary aerosols on Japanese air quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreno, T.; Kojima, T.; Amato, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Rosa, J. de la; Calzolai, G.; Nava, S.; Chiari, M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Gibbons, W.

    2013-01-01

    The regular eastward drift of transboundary aerosol intrusions from the Asian mainland into the NW Pacific region has a pervasive impact on air quality in Japan, especially during springtime. Analysis of 24-h filter samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and M

  8. Water stress in global transboundary river basins : Significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H A; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has

  9. Evolution, opportunity and challenges of transboundary water and energy problems in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lidan; Zhou, Haiwei; Xia, Ziqiang; Huang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Central Asia is one of the regions that suffer the most prominent transboundary water and energy problems in the world. Effective transboundary water-energy resource management and cooperation are closely related with socioeconomic development and stability in the entire Central Asia. Similar to Central Asia, Northwest China has an arid climate and is experiencing a water shortage. It is now facing imbalanced supply-demand relations of water and energy resources. These issues in Northwest China and Central Asia pose severe challenges in the implementation of the Silk Road Economic Belt strategy. Based on the analysis of water and energy distribution characteristics in Central Asia as well as demand characteristics of different countries, the complexity of local transboundary water problems was explored by reviewing corresponding historical problems of involved countries, correlated energy issues, and the evolution of inter-country water-energy cooperation. With references to experiences and lessons of five countries, contradictions, opportunities, challenges and strategies for transboundary water-energy cooperation between China and Central Asia were discussed under the promotion of the Silk Road Economic Belt construction based on current cooperation conditions.

  10. Research Agenda for Understanding Transboundary Ecosystem Changes and Eco-security in Southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The longitudinal range-gorge region (LRGR) in Southwestern China, characterized by longitudinal mountain ranges and deep valleys,includes the basins of four major international rivers:, the Yuanjiang-Red, Lancang Mekong, Nujiang Salween and Irrawaddy. This region is classified as one of the world's biodiversity hotspots, and provides an important ecological and economic corridor linking China and Southeast Asian countries. Over the past half century, it has served as a resource base for timber and minerals needed to fuel economic development, which resulted in rapid and drastic changes in ecosystem and species diversity. Proposed and ongoing development programs, such as China's Great Western Development campaign, Greater Mekong Subregional Economic Cooperation (GMS)and China-ASEAN free trade zone development ("10+1"), threaten to bring unprecedented disturbance to the region's ecosystems. Present and emerging threats to eco-security have caught tremendous attention worldwide. Therefore, studies on such problems are critical for enhancing ecosystem health and transboundary eco-security.This paper indicates several multi-disciplinary and cross-sector studies on transboundary resources in this region that will meet three major national needs: 1) identifying core scientific issues of ecological development and infrastructure construction in high plateau and mountainous areas for the Western Development campaign; 2) developing maintenance mechanisms and control methodologies for transboundary eco-security and resource base development; 3) providing scientific grounds for multi-lateral diplomacy, trade and economic cooperation, and conflict resolution as part of China's opening-up to south Asia. The key subjects to be solved include dynamics and major drive forces of this area, ecological effects caused by major projects construction, and transboundary eco-security and its controlling. The research projects proposed in this article will develop theories on ecosystem

  11. Countries at Risk: Heightened Human Security Risk to States With Transboundary Water Resources and Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, J. C.; Sullivan, G. S.; Paola, C.; Starget, A.; Watson, J. E.; Hwang, Y. J.; Picucci, J. A.; Choi, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Countries at Risk project is a global assessment of countries with transboundary water resources that are at risk for conflict because of high human security instability. Building upon Basins at Risk (BAR) research, our team used updated Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database georeferenced social and environmental data, quantitative data from global indices, and qualitative data from news media sources. Our assessment considered a combination of analyzing 15 global indices related to water or human security to identify which countries scored as highest risk in each index. From this information, we were able to assess the highest risk countries' human security risk by using a new human security measurement tool, as well as comparing this analysis to the World Bank's Fragile States Index and the experimental Human Security Index. In addition, we identified which countries have the highest number of shared basins, the highest percentage of territory covered by a transboundary basin, and the highest dependency of withdrawal from transboundary waters from outside their country boundaries. By synthesizing these social and environmental data assessments, we identified five countries to analyze as case studies. These five countries are Afghanistan, China, Iraq, Moldova, and Sudan. We created a series of 30 maps to spatial analyze the relationship between the transboundary basins and social and environmental parameters to include population, institutional capacity, and physical geography by country. Finally, we synthesized our spatial analysis, Human Security Key scores, and current events scored by using the BAR scale to determine what aspects and which basins are most at risk with each country in our case studies and how this concerns future global water resources.

  12. Transboundary aquifers: the response of international law and legal voids in Central America; Acuiferos transfronterizos: respuestas desde el derecho internacional y vacios en Centroamerica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeglin, N.

    2012-11-01

    Central America is one of the regions of the world that will suffer the impact of climate change much more than others. The adoption of clear rules on the use of transboundary aquifers and on the need to preserve these groundwater reservoirs from serious pollution by the various states in the region is absolutely essential. Despite the lack of any bilateral or regional frameworks to rule on this issue, many general regulations have been adopted within the international framework of the United Nations that are applicable to shared surface and groundwater resources as well as to transboundary aquifers. The case of the Las Crucitas project in Costa Rica, halted by domestic tribunals thanks to the decisive action of its civilian society, reflects a clear lack of technical information concerning aquifers in Costa Rica, and probably in many other states in the region, despite the very valuable efforts being undertaken by the OAS and UNESCO under the aegis of the ISARM project for the Latin American region.

  13. Binational Dengue Outbreak Along the United States-Mexico Border - Yuma County, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson M; Lopez, Benito; Adams, Laura; Gálvez, Francisco Javier Navarro; Núñez, Alfredo Sánchez; Santillán, Nubia Astrid Hernández; Plante, Lydia; Hemme, Ryan R; Casal, Mariana; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge; Acevedo, Veronica; Ernst, Kacey; Hayden, Mary; Waterman, Steve; Gomez, Diana; Sharp, Tyler M; Komatsu, Kenneth K

    2016-05-20

    Dengue is an acute febrile illness caused by any of four dengue virus types (DENV-1-4). DENVs are transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes (1) and are endemic throughout the tropics (2). In 2010, an estimated 390 million DENV infections occurred worldwide (2). During 2007-2013, a total of three to 10 dengue cases were reported annually in Arizona and all were travel-associated. During September-December 2014, coincident with a dengue outbreak in Sonora, Mexico, 93 travel-associated dengue cases were reported in Arizona residents; 70 (75%) cases were among residents of Yuma County, which borders San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora, Mexico. San Luis Río Colorado reported its first case of locally acquired dengue in September 2014. To investigate the temporal relationship of the dengue outbreaks in Yuma County and San Luis Río Colorado and compare patient characteristics and signs and symptoms, passive surveillance data from both locations were analyzed. In addition, household-based cluster investigations were conducted near the residences of reported dengue cases in Yuma County to identify unreported cases and assess risk for local transmission. Surveillance data identified 52 locally acquired cases (21% hospitalized) in San Luis Río Colorado and 70 travel-associated cases (66% hospitalized) in Yuma County with illness onset during September-December 2014. Among 194 persons who participated in the cluster investigations in Yuma County, 152 (78%) traveled to Mexico at least monthly during the preceding 3 months. Four (2%) of 161 Yuma County residents who provided serum samples for diagnostic testing during cluster investigations had detectable DENV immunoglobulin M (IgM); one reported a recent febrile illness, and all four had traveled to Mexico during the preceding 3 months. Entomologic assessments among 105 households revealed 24 water containers per 100 houses colonized by Ae. aegypti. Frequent travel to Mexico and Ae. aegypti colonization indicate risk for local transmission of DENV in Yuma County. Public health officials in Sonora and Arizona should continue to collaborate on dengue surveillance and educate the public regarding mosquito abatement and avoidance practices. Clinicians evaluating patients from the U.S.-Mexico border region should consider dengue in patients with acute febrile illness and report suspected cases to public health authorities.

  14. Great Blunders?: The Great Wall of China, the Berlin Wall, and the Proposed United States/Mexico Border Fence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerbein, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the Great Wall of China and the Berlin Wall which reveals that both grew from unique political, historical, geographical, cultural, and economic circumstances. The purpose of this article is to provide new arguments for a debate that all too often has been waged with emotions, polemics, and misinformation. The…

  15. Food, eating and body image in the lives of low socioeconomic status rural Mexican women living in Queretaro State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Riko; Ronquillo, Dolores; Caamaño, Maria C; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schubert, Lisa; Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga; Long, Kurt Z

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research using semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were used to explore how women from low socioeconomic rural households in Queretaro State, Mexico perceived and reacted to their obesogenic environment. Reduced availability of healthy food options and household financial constraints along with reduced agency of women in this setting were factors that limited women's ability to access and consume diets consistent with the promotion of good health. The cultural values that emphasised obesity as a desirable state for women and the women's social networks that promoted these values were also identified as playing a role in reinforcing certain behaviours. Public health advocates wanting to design interventions in such settings need to be sensitive to the cultural as well as the environmental context described for rural Mexican women.

  16. Knowledge about useful entomofauna in the county of La Purísima Palmar de Bravo, Puebla State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Zetina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen species of edible insects belonging to 15 families of six orders of Insecta were recorded in the county of La Purísima Palmar de Bravo in Puebla State, Mexico. They had the following taxonomic distribution among the different families: Lygaeidae, Pentatomidae, Membracidae, Cercopidae, Psocidae, Melolonthidae, Curculionidae, Cossidae, Megathymidae, Pyralidae, Geometridae and Apidae, all with a single recorded species; the families Acrididae, Formicidae and Vespidae with two species in each family. The latter were the most abundant families, and Hymenoptera was the most salient order with five species. Three species were reported as new registers of edible insects for Mexico and also for the world. The nutritive value of insects in terms of macro and micronutrients is discussed.

  17. Transboundary Secondary Organic Aerosol in the Urban Air of Fukuoka, Japan

    CERN Document Server

    Irei, Satoshi; Hara, Keiichiro; Hayashi, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Studies providing quantitative information regarding secondary organic aerosol (SOA), the least understood subject in atmospheric chemistry, are important to evaluating secondary transboundary pollution. To obtain quantitative information of long-range transported SOA in the air of Fukuoka, we conducted simultaneous field studies during December 2010 and March 2012 at a rural site in northern Kyushu and at an urban site in Fukuoka City. During the studies, we collected airborne particulate matter (PM) on filters and extracted the low-volatile water soluble organic carbon (LV-WSOC) component, which is possibly dominated by SOA, from the filter samples and analyzed it to determine the carbon concentration and stable carbon isotope ratio. Under the assumption that the LV-WSOC at Fukuoka had both transboundary and local origins, we then applied end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) to the stable carbon isotope ratio data from both sites to estimate the fraction of LV-WSOCs from these origins in the Fukuoka air. Indep...

  18. Transboundary air pollution in Europe. Part 1: Emissions, dispersions and trends of acidifying and eutrophying agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Erik [ed.

    1997-12-31

    This report was prepared for the twenty first session of the Steering body of EMEP (Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long Range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe). It gives an overview of the major aims of Norwegian Meteorological Institute, the basic modelling and meteorological tools, the status of the emission data, the trends in transboundary transport and deposition of sulphur and nitrogen since 1980, and the latest transboundary flows of sulphur and nitrogen, in both the 150 km and the 50 km grid. Complete source receptor matrices are now available in the 50 km grid derived from the multi-layer eulerian model. The new 50 km data constitutes a basis for further assessments of acidifying air pollution in the 50 km grid by subsidiary bodies under the Convention of Long Range Transport of Air Pollution. 63 refs., 42 figs., 18 tabs.

  19. Pathogenic landscape of transboundary zoonotic diseases in the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores Esteve-Gasent

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus, and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only millions of people live in this transboundary region but also a substantial movement of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border, along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  20. Water stress in global transboundary river basins: significance of upstream water use on downstream stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka, M.; Wada, Y.; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analysed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world’s transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. We found that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  1. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico-US Border Along the Rio Grande.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas-Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico-US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders.

  2. Water Stress in Global Transboundary River Basins: Significance of Upstream Water Use on Downstream Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, H.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; Mirumachi, N.; Porkka,M.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, M.

    2016-01-01

    Growing population and water demand have increased pressure on water resources in various parts of the globe, including many transboundary river basins. While the impacts of upstream water use on downstream water availability have been analyzed in many of these international river basins, this has not been systematically done at the global scale using coherent and comparable datasets. In this study, we aim to assess the change in downstream water stress due to upstream water use in the world's transboundary river basins. Water stress was first calculated considering only local water use of each sub-basin based on country-basin mesh, then compared with the situation when upstream water use was subtracted from downstream water availability. Wefound that water stress was generally already high when considering only local water use, affecting 0.95-1.44 billion people or 33%-51% of the population in transboundary river basins. After accounting for upstream water use, stress level increased by at least 1 percentage-point for 30-65 sub-basins, affecting 0.29-1.13 billion people. Altogether 288 out of 298 middle-stream and downstream sub-basin areas experienced some change in stress level. Further, we assessed whether there is a link between increased water stress due to upstream water use and the number of conflictive and cooperative events in the transboundary river basins, as captured by two prominent databases. No direct relationship was found. This supports the argument that conflicts and cooperation events originate from a combination of different drivers, among which upstream-induced water stress may play a role. Our findings contribute to better understanding of upstream-downstream dynamics in water stress to help address water allocation problems.

  3. Communication Strategy of Transboundary Air Pollution Findings in a US-Mexico Border XXI Program Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, Shaibal

    2002-01-01

    From 1996 to 1997, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission (TNRCC) conducted an air quality study known as the Lower Rio Grande Valley Transboundary Air Pollution Project (TAPP). The study was a US-Mexico Border XXI program project and was developed in response to local community requests on a need for more air quality measurements and concerns about the health impact of local air pollutants; this included concerns about emissions from border-dependent industries in Mexico, known as maquiladoras. The TAPP was a follow-up study to environmental monitoring done by EPA in this area in 1993 and incorporated scientific and community participation in development, review of results, and public presentation of findings. In spite of this, critical remarks were leveled by community activists against the study's preliminary "good news" findings regarding local air quality and the influence of transboundary air pollution. To resolve these criticisms and to refine the findings to address these concerns, analyses included comparisons of daily and near real-time measurements to TNRCC effects screening levels and data from other studies along with wind sector analyses. Reassessment of the data suggested that although regional source emissions occurred and outliers of elevated pollutant levels were found, movement of air pollution across the border did not appear to cause noticeable deterioration of air quality. In spite of limitations stated to the community, the TAPP was presented as establishing a benchmark to assess current and future transboundary air quality in the Valley. The study has application in Border XXI Program or other air quality studies where transboundary transport is a concern since it involved interagency coordination, public involvement, and communication of scientifically sound results for local environmental protection efforts.

  4. Public concerns about transboundary haze: a comparison of Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Public concerns about environmental problems create narrative structures that influence policy by allocating roles of blame, responsibility, and appropriate behavior. This paper presents an analysis of public concerns about transboundary haze resulting from forest fires in Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia for crises experienced in 1997, 2005 and 2013. The source of the information is content analysis of 2231 articles from representative newspapers in each country. The study shows that newsp...

  5. Pathogenic Landscape of Transboundary Zoonotic Diseases in the Mexico–US Border Along the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve-Gassent, Maria Dolores; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.; Romero-Salas, Dora; Feria-Arroyo, Teresa P.; Patino, Ramiro; Castro-Arellano, Ivan; Gordillo-Pérez, Guadalupe; Auclair, Allan; Goolsby, John; Rodriguez-Vivas, Roger Ivan; Estrada-Franco, Jose Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Transboundary zoonotic diseases, several of which are vector borne, can maintain a dynamic focus and have pathogens circulating in geographic regions encircling multiple geopolitical boundaries. Global change is intensifying transboundary problems, including the spatial variation of the risk and incidence of zoonotic diseases. The complexity of these challenges can be greater in areas where rivers delineate international boundaries and encompass transitions between ecozones. The Rio Grande serves as a natural border between the US State of Texas and the Mexican States of Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas. Not only do millions of people live in this transboundary region, but also a substantial amount of goods and people pass through it everyday. Moreover, it occurs over a region that functions as a corridor for animal migrations, and thus links the Neotropic and Nearctic biogeographic zones, with the latter being a known foci of zoonotic diseases. However, the pathogenic landscape of important zoonotic diseases in the south Texas–Mexico transboundary region remains to be fully understood. An international perspective on the interplay between disease systems, ecosystem processes, land use, and human behaviors is applied here to analyze landscape and spatial features of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, Hantavirus disease, Lyme Borreliosis, Leptospirosis, Bartonellosis, Chagas disease, human Babesiosis, and Leishmaniasis. Surveillance systems following the One Health approach with a regional perspective will help identifying opportunities to mitigate the health burden of those diseases on human and animal populations. It is proposed that the Mexico–US border along the Rio Grande region be viewed as a continuum landscape where zoonotic pathogens circulate regardless of national borders. PMID:25453027

  6. An agent-based modeling approach for determining corn stover removal rate and transboundary effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jianbang; Langeveld, J W A; Smith, C T

    2014-02-01

    Bioenergy production involves different agents with potentially different objectives, and an agent's decision often has transboundary impacts on other agents along the bioenergy value chain. Understanding and estimating the transboundary impacts is essential to portraying the interactions among the different agents and in the search for the optimal configuration of the bioenergy value chain. We develop an agent-based model to mimic the decision making by feedstock producers and feedstock-to-biofuel conversion plant operators and propose multipliers (i.e., ratios of economic values accruing to different segments and associated agents in the value chain) for assessing the transboundary impacts. Our approach is generic and thus applicable to a variety of bioenergy production systems at different sites and geographic scales. We apply it to the case of producing ethanol using corn stover in Iowa, USA. The results from the case study indicate that stover removal rate is site specific and varies considerably with soil type, as well as other factors, such as stover price and harvesting cost. In addition, ethanol production using corn stover in the study region would have strong positive ripple effects, with the values of multipliers varying with greenhouse gas price and national energy security premium. The relatively high multiplier values suggest that a large portion of the value associated with corn stover ethanol production would accrue to the downstream end of the value chain instead of stover producers.

  7. Management of Trans-boundary Water Resources: Comparing Russian and American Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanko Dmitry

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a comparative analysis of Russia and US’s experience of participation in international cooperation in the field of trans-boundary water management. The author showcases the work of Russian-Estonian Commission for Protection and Rational Use of Trans-Boundary Waters and the US-Canadian International Joint Commission. The Russian-Estonian Commission works in accordance with the principle of intergovernmentalism, whereas transnationalism is the founding principle of the International Joint Commission in North America. Though the Russian-Estonian Commission is more efficient in water quality improvement in its area of responsibility, it is early still to claim that intergovernmental cooperation is more effective than transnational cooperation. However, it gives a reason to question the conclusions of the proponents of transnationalism in the international relations theory, who claim that the latter is more efficient. Practical significance of this paper is in the proposed recommendations for further modernization of international cooperation in the field of trans-boundary water management.

  8. An Agent-Based Modeling Approach for Determining Corn Stover Removal Rate and Transboundary Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Jianbang; Langeveld, J. W. A.; Smith, C. T.

    2014-02-01

    Bioenergy production involves different agents with potentially different objectives, and an agent's decision often has transboundary impacts on other agents along the bioenergy value chain. Understanding and estimating the transboundary impacts is essential to portraying the interactions among the different agents and in the search for the optimal configuration of the bioenergy value chain. We develop an agent-based model to mimic the decision making by feedstock producers and feedstock-to-biofuel conversion plant operators and propose multipliers (i.e., ratios of economic values accruing to different segments and associated agents in the value chain) for assessing the transboundary impacts. Our approach is generic and thus applicable to a variety of bioenergy production systems at different sites and geographic scales. We apply it to the case of producing ethanol using corn stover in Iowa, USA. The results from the case study indicate that stover removal rate is site specific and varies considerably with soil type, as well as other factors, such as stover price and harvesting cost. In addition, ethanol production using corn stover in the study region would have strong positive ripple effects, with the values of multipliers varying with greenhouse gas price and national energy security premium. The relatively high multiplier values suggest that a large portion of the value associated with corn stover ethanol production would accrue to the downstream end of the value chain instead of stover producers.

  9. Investigating Incursion of Transboundary Pollution into the Atmosphere of Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Masud Rana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of particulate matter (PM in Dhaka, Bangladesh, during November 2013 to April 2014 were found 7-8 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO guideline value. Probability of contribution of transboundary sources to this PM pollution was investigated through different approaches. Ninety-six-hour backward trajectories with every 3-hour interval were computed and clustered into 06 groups based on angle distance matrix. Probabilities of individual cluster to be associated with different ranges of coarse and fine particles were studied. Gazipur station near Dhaka city was found to have 68% probability of receiving PM10 concentration higher than 150 μg/m3 when air masses followed the route of Middle East through the Himalayan valley to the station. This channel was identified as the main route of PM transport to Bangladesh during dry season. Transboundary source-regions were spotted by concentration weighted trajectory (CWT method and also by the monthly average aerosol optical depths (AOD over South Asia. North-western Indian regions, Nepal and its neighboring areas, and Indian state of West Bengal were identified as the most probable zones that might have contributed to PM pollution in Gazipur, Dhaka. November to January was the high time the station had experienced fine particles from those transboundary regions.

  10. Frequent Questions on International Agreements on Transboundary Shipments of Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Answers FAQs such as How does the OECD control the shipment of hazardous waste between Member countries? Where do I find the green and amber lists of waste? Why hasn't the United States ratified the Basel Convention?

  11. Curbing transboundary air pollution : protecting health through legal action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, D.; Campbell, M.; Clark, K.; Ursitti, F.

    2005-03-01

    Concerns regarding coal-fired power plants in North America were addressed in this report with particular reference to facilities in the United States that negatively impact the air quality and the health of residents in the City of Toronto. Aging coal-fired plants in the United States generate more pollutant emissions per unit of electricity produced than coal-fired plants in Ontario and as such, contribute to smog, acid rain and global warming. They also contribute to the contamination of fish through deposition and biotransformation of mercury in the aquatic ecosystem. Toronto's concerns also stem from actions to extend the life of several plants in the United States without investing in modern pollution control technology, an action that contradicts the requirements of the United States Clean Air Act, and which is contrary to Ontario's commitment to phase out coal-fired electricity production. Lawsuits have been filed against power plants that failed to install pollution control technology. The City of Toronto was granted Friend of the Court status in the United States court deliberating on the case involving the American Electric Power (AEP) Corporation and its contravention of the Clean Air Act. The next phase of legal proceedings will be to determine the remedy should the court find AEP in violation of the Act. The outcome of this court case could result in improvements in Toronto's air quality. The proposed United States Clear Skies legislation, however, may also delay reductions of pollutant emissions from coal-fired power plants until 2018. 12 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs., 3 appendices.

  12. Three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model of the Rio Grande transboundary region of New Mexico and Texas, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2017-09-08

    As part of a U.S. Geological Survey study in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, a digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model was constructed for the Rio Grande transboundary region of New Mexico and Texas, USA, and northern Chihuahua, Mexico. This model was constructed to define the aquifer system geometry and subsurface lithologic characteristics and distribution for use in a regional numerical hydrologic model. The model includes five hydrostratigraphic units: river channel alluvium, three informal subdivisions of Santa Fe Group basin fill, and an undivided pre-Santa Fe Group bedrock unit. Model input data were compiled from published cross sections, well data, structure contour maps, selected geophysical data, and contiguous compilations of surficial geology and structural features in the study area. These data were used to construct faulted surfaces that represent the upper and lower subsurface hydrostratigraphic unit boundaries. The digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model is constructed through combining faults, the elevation of the tops of each hydrostratigraphic unit, and boundary lines depicting the subsurface extent of each hydrostratigraphic unit. The framework also compiles a digital representation of the distribution of sedimentary facies within each hydrostratigraphic unit. The digital three-dimensional hydrogeologic model reproduces with reasonable accuracy the previously published subsurface hydrogeologic conceptualization of the aquifer system and represents the large-scale geometry of the subsurface aquifers. The model is at a scale and resolution appropriate for use as the foundation for a numerical hydrologic model of the study area.

  13. A new conceptual model for quantifying transboundary contribution of atmospheric pollutants in the East Asian Pacific rim region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, I-Chien; Lee, Chon-Lin; Huang, Hu-Ching

    2016-03-01

    Transboundary transport of air pollution is a serious environmental concern as pollutant affects both human health and the environment. Many numerical approaches have been utilized to quantify the amounts of pollutants transported to receptor regions, based on emission inventories from possible source regions. However, sparse temporal-spatial observational data and uncertainty in emission inventories might make the transboundary transport contribution difficult to estimate. This study presents a conceptual quantitative approach that uses transport pathway classification in combination with curve fitting models to simulate an air pollutant concentration baseline for pollution background concentrations. This approach is used to investigate the transboundary transport contribution of atmospheric pollutants to a metropolitan area in the East Asian Pacific rim region. Trajectory analysis categorized pollution sources for the study area into three regions: East Asia, Southeast Asia, and Taiwan cities. The occurrence frequency and transboundary contribution results suggest the predominant source region is the East Asian continent. This study also presents an application to evaluate heavy pollution cases for health concerns. This new baseline construction model provides a useful tool for the study of the contribution of transboundary pollution delivered to receptors, especially for areas deficient in emission inventories and regulatory monitoring data for harmful air pollutants.

  14. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D.; Barber, David S.; Betsill, J. David; Littlfield, Adriane C.; Mohagheghi, Amir H.; Shanks, Sonoya T.; Yuldashev, Bekhzad; Salikhbaev, Umar; Radyuk, Raisa; Djuraev, Akram; Djuraev, Amwar; Vasilev, Ivan; Tolongutov, Bajgabyl; Valentina, Alekhina; Solodukhin, Vladimir; Pozniak, Victor

    2002-04-02

    The transboundary nature of water resources demands a transboundary approach to their monitoring and management. However, transboundary water projects raise a challenging set of problems related to communication issues, and standardization of sampling, analysis and data management methods. This manual addresses those challenges and provides the information and guidance needed to perform the Navruz Project, a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. This manual provides guidelines for participants on sample and data collection, field equipment operations and procedures, sample handling, laboratory analysis, and data management. Also included are descriptions of rivers, sampling sites and parameters on which data are collected. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through an internet web site, and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. Overall, the project addresses three main goals: to help increase capabilities in Central Asian nations for sustainable water resources management; to provide a scientific basis for supporting nuclear transparency and non-proliferation in the region; and to help reduce the threat of conflict in Central Asia over water resources, proliferation concerns, or other factors.

  15. Prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in landrace and mixed breed pigs slaughtered in Baja California Sur State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Vazquez-Morales, Renata Fabiola; Colado-Romero, Edgar Eusebio; Guzmán-Sánchez, Ramiro; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-03-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 308 domestic pigs slaughtered in La Paz, Baja California Sur State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Forty (13%) of the 308 pigs were seropositive with MAT titers of 1:25 in 16, 1:50 in 5, 1:100 in 4, 1:200 in 5, 1:400 in 3, 1:800 in 3, 1:1600 in 2, and 1:3200 in 2. Multivariate analysis of pigs' characteristics showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was negatively associated with mixed breed (OR = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.003-0.26; P = 0.001). Other variables including sex, type of raising, and municipality did not show an association with T. gondii seropositivity by multivariate analysis. The frequency of high antibody titers (≥1:400) was significantly higher (P Landrace pigs than mixed breed pigs. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs for slaughter in Baja California Sur State is low compared with seroprevalences reported in pigs in other Mexican states. Landrace pigs demonstrated higher seroprevalence rates and antibody levels than mixed breed pigs. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in pigs raised in a desert climate.

  16. Microstructural and geochronology data of the Coacoyulillo-Intzcuinatoyac sector rocks, Guerrero state, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo Bautista, G.; Hernandez, T.; Elías, M.; Solari, L.

    2013-12-01

    Oaxaca. Within the study area, two magmatic pulses were observed, consisting in undeformed pegmatite dikes (60 Ma concordant U-Pb zircon analysis), and even younger gabbroic-dioritic dikes. The stratigraphic configuration of the region, exposed structures, ages and microscopic characteristics of the studied rocks show a geological history associated with the origin and evolutionary development of the Xolapa Complex and Chapolapa Formation. Both lithostratigraphic units have an origin linked to a magmatic continental arc. They were subsequently metamorphosed according to their crustal depth, being the Xolapa Complex the unit with a higher metamorphic grade (amphibolite facies) in comparison to the Chapolapa Formation (green schist facies). Simultaneously to the metamorphic stage a normal fault was developed, which exhumed the Xolapa Complex, put into contact both Xolapa and Chapolapa crustal levels and developed rocks with mylonitic textures.

  17. Spatial analysis techniques applied to uranium prospecting in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa de la Garza, Octavio R.; Montero Cabrera, María Elena; Sanín, Luz H.; Reyes Cortés, Manuel; Martínez Meyer, Enrique

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the distribution of uranium minerals in Chihuahua, the advanced statistical model "Maximun Entropy Method" (MaxEnt) was applied. A distinguishing feature of this method is that it can fit more complex models in case of small datasets (x and y data), as is the location of uranium ores in the State of Chihuahua. For georeferencing uranium ores, a database from the United States Geological Survey and workgroup of experts in Mexico was used. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of maximum entropy techniques to obtain the mineral's potential distribution. For this model were used 24 environmental layers like topography, gravimetry, climate (worldclim), soil properties and others that were useful to project the uranium's distribution across the study area. For the validation of the places predicted by the model, comparisons were done with other research of the Mexican Service of Geological Survey, with direct exploration of specific areas and by talks with former exploration workers of the enterprise "Uranio de Mexico". Results. New uranium areas predicted by the model were validated, finding some relationship between the model predictions and geological faults. Conclusions. Modeling by spatial analysis provides additional information to the energy and mineral resources sectors.

  18. Epidemiologic investigation of tuberculosis in a Mexican population from Chihuahua State, Mexico: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittoor, Geetha; Arya, Rector; Farook, Vidya S; David, Randy; Puppala, Sobha; Resendez, Roy G; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E; Leal-Berumen, Irene; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Bastarrachea, Raul A; Curran, Joanne E; Dhandayuthapani, Subramanian; Gonzalez, Lupe; Blangero, John; Crawford, Michael H; Vlasich, Esteban M; Escobedo, Luis G; Duggirala, Ravindranath

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and its co-morbid conditions have become a burden on global health economies. It is well understood that susceptibility of the host to TB infection/disease is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. The aims of this pilot case-control study are to characterize the sociodemographic and environmental factors related to active TB disease (TB/case) and latent TB infection (LTBI/control) status, and to identify risk factors associated with progression from LTBI to TB. We recruited 75 cases with TB (mean age=46.3y; females=41%) and 75 controls with LTBI (mean age=39.0y; females=37%), from the Mestizo population of Cuidad Juárez, Mexico. In addition to the determination of case/control status, information on environmental variables was collected (e.g., socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, substance abuse, nutritional status, household demographics, medical histories and presence of type 2 diabetes [T2DM]). The data were analyzed to identify the environmental correlates of TB and LTBI using univariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Following multivariate logistic regression analysis, TB was associated with poor nutrition, T2DM, family history of TB, and non-Chihuahua state of birth. These preliminary findings have relevance to TB control at the Mexico-United States border, and contribute to our future genetic study of TB in Mexicans.

  19. Alternative analysis of the transboundary air pollution problems in Northeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won

    The recently increasing industrialization and urbanization in Northeast Asia has led to a large volume of air pollutants being emitted in this region. The growth rate of the total emissions is still increasing alarmingly. China has been the major contributor to the total emissions of air pollutants in Northeast Asia. Westerly winds, a unique regional meteorological phenomenon, prevail throughout the year, and the long- range transport of air pollutants is propelled by those winds. As a result, nations in Northeast Asia are very concerned about potential problems with long-range transport of air pollutants from foreign sources. This is because air pollutants emitted from one nation's ground facilities and mobile sources travel hundreds or even thousands of miles by the effects of air pressure and wind drift, and can bring damage to other nations' ecosystems and human health. For example, Korea is located in the eastern part of the region and it can be significantly affected by the air pollutants transported from China. This dissertation research deals with the transboundary air pollution problem between China and Korea. Among many problems related to transboundary air pollution, this study concentrates on the following two issues: (1)Firstly, the negative consequences of transboundary air pollution from China at industrial sites in Korea; and (2)Secondly, the prediction of the future impact of China's sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions on the air quality in Korea. The results of the case study in Chapter 3 show evidence of the negative impacts of the transboundary air pollution in Korea. The production loss in Korea is an example of the negative impact brought about by transboundary movement of Chinese air pollutants. The runs of the computer aided simulation model in Chapter 4 show projected emission trends in China and Korea until the year 2010. The simulation results show that the total amount of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions in China and

  20. Contributions of trans-boundary transport to summertime air quality in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiarui; Li, Guohui; Cao, Junji; Bei, Naifang; Wang, Yichen; Feng, Tian; Huang, Rujin; Liu, Suixin; Zhang, Qiang; Tie, Xuexi

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, the WRF-CHEM model is used to evaluate the contributions of trans-boundary transport to the air quality in Beijing during a persistent air pollution episode from 5 to 14 July 2015 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), China. Generally, the predicted temporal variations and spatial distributions of PM2.5 (fine particulate matter), O3 (ozone), and NO2 are in good agreement with observations in BTH. The WRF-CHEM model also reproduces reasonably well the temporal variations of aerosol species compared to measurements in Beijing. The factor separation approach is employed to evaluate the contributions of trans-boundary transport of non-Beijing emissions to the PM2.5 and O3 levels in Beijing. On average, in the afternoon during the simulation episode, the local emissions contribute 22.4 % to the O3 level in Beijing, less than 36.6 % from non-Beijing emissions. The O3 concentrations in Beijing are decreased by 5.1 % in the afternoon due to interactions between local and non-Beijing emissions. The non-Beijing emissions play a dominant role in the PM2.5 level in Beijing, with a contribution of 61.5 %, much higher than 13.7 %, from Beijing local emissions. The emission interactions between local and non-Beijing emissions enhance the PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing, with a contribution of 5.9 %. Therefore, the air quality in Beijing is generally determined by the trans-boundary transport of non-Beijing emissions during summertime, showing that the cooperation with neighboring provinces to mitigate pollutant emissions is key for Beijing to improve air quality.

  1. A market-based approach to share water and benefits in transboundary river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjoon, Diane; Tilmant, Amaury; Herrmann, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The equitable sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins is necessary to reach a consensus on basin-wide development and management activities. Benefit sharing arrangements must be collaboratively developed to be perceived as efficient, as well as equitable, in order to be considered acceptable to all riparian countries. The current literature falls short of providing practical, institutional arrangements that ensure maximum economic welfare as well as collaboratively developed methods for encouraging the equitable sharing of benefits. In this study we define an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a method developed through stakeholder involvement. In this methodology (i) a hydro-economic model is used to efficiently allocate scarce water resources to water users in a transboundary basin, (ii) water users are obliged to pay for water, and (iii) the total of these water charges are equitably redistributed as monetary compensation to users. The amount of monetary compensation, for each water user, is determined through the application of a sharing method developed by stakeholder input, based on a stakeholder vision of fairness, using an axiomatic approach. The whole system is overseen by a river basin authority. The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The technique ensures economic efficiency and may lead to more equitable solutions in the sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins because the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as would be the case if existing methods, such as game theory, were applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness.

  2. Overview of the perceived risk of transboundary pig diseases in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japhta M. Mokoele

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pig production is one of the most important animal agricultural activities in South Africa, and plays a definite role in providing food security for certain population groups in the country. As with all animal production systems, it is subject to the risk of outbreak of transboundary diseases. In the present overview, evaluations of the perceived risk of selected transboundary animal diseases of pigs, as collated from the willing participants from the provincial veterinary services of South Africa, are presented. A scenario tree revealed that infected but undetected pigs were the greatest perceived threat. The provincial veterinary services, according to participants in the study, face certain difficulties, including the reporting of disease and the flow of disease information amongst farmers. Perceived strengths in surveillance and disease monitoring include the swiftness of sample despatch to the national testing laboratory, as well as the ease of flow of information between the provincial and national agricultural authorities. The four factors were identified that were perceived to most influence animal health-service delivery: transport, access, livestock policy and resources. African swine fever was perceived to be the most important pig disease in South Africa. Because the decentralisation of veterinary services in South Africa was identified as a potential weakness, it is recommended that national and provincial veterinary services need to work together and interdependently to achieve centrally controlled surveillance systems. Regionally-coordinated surveillance activities for certain transboundary diseases were identified as needing priority for the southern African region. It is proposed that an emergency preparedness document be made available and regularly revised according to the potential risks identified on a continuous basis for South Africa.

  3. Cooperative and adaptive transboundary water governance in Canada's Mackenzie River Basin: status and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Morris

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canada's Mackenzie River Basin (MRB is one of the largest relatively pristine ecosystems in North America. Home to indigenous peoples for millennia, the basin is also the site of increasing resource development, notably fossil fuels, hydroelectric power resources, minerals, and forests. Three provinces, three territories, the Canadian federal government, and Aboriginal governments (under Canada's constitution, indigenous peoples are referred to as "Aboriginal" have responsibilities for water in the basin, making the MRB a significant setting for cooperative, transboundary water governance. A framework agreement that provides broad principles and establishes a river basin organization, the MRB Board, has been in place since 1997. However, significant progress on completing bilateral agreements under the 1997 Mackenzie River Basin Transboundary Waters Master Agreement has only occurred since 2010. We considered the performance of the MRB Board relative to its coordination function, accountability, legitimacy, and overall environmental effectiveness. This allowed us to address the extent to which governance based on river basin boundaries, a bioregional approach, could contribute to adaptive governance in the MRB. Insights were based on analysis of key documents and published studies, 19 key informant interviews, and additional interactions with parties involved in basin governance. We found that the MRB Board's composition, its lack of funding and staffing, and the unwillingness of the governments to empower it to play the role envisioned in the Master Agreement mean that as constituted, the board faces challenges in implementing a basin-wide vision. This appears to be by design. The MRB governments have instead used the bilateral agreements under the Master Agreement as the primary mechanism through which transboundary governance will occur. A commitment to coordinating across the bilateral agreements is needed to enhance the prospects for

  4. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders;

    In 2007 HELCOM launched a plan for transboundary management of the Baltic Sea. This plan, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), aims amongst other things, to reduce eutrophication in the different regions of the Baltic Sea by reducing incoming nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins...... difficult to achieve, and that additional abatement measures are likely to be required to fulfil these targets. The minimised total cost of delivering the achievable load reductions across the 9 Baltic littoral countries is estimated to be 4.69 billion Euros, annually, with substantial differences...

  5. The key indicators of transboundary water apportionment based on international laws and cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yan; HE Daming; LI Yungang

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary water,more competitive utilization and uncertain availability under the globalization trend,the issue of its apportionment which directly impacts national benefits of each riparian state is becoming one of the important topics in the world.Water is scarce in China,the most important upstream state in Asia,and this task has to be thought over in the coming future.Based on “International Freshwater Treaties Database” (1820-2007) by Oregon State University,and publications and reports on transboundary water utilization and management since 1999,28 indicators of water apportionment adopted in 49 international treaties and cases in 1864-2002 are divided into 6 types,the spatial and temporal characteristics of the adopted indicators are analyzed in order to find the key indicator(s) of transboundary water apportionment.The major results include:the major adopted indicators,have significant differences among 5 regions/continents,the indicators at rank first and second place in the developed region (North America and Europe) according to the adopted times are “keeping minimum water flow” and “mean annual runoff”,but in the developing region (Asia,Africa and South America),the ranking order of the above two indicators is reversed; the major adopted indicators in the watersheds with insufficient water are “mean annual runoff”and “keeping minimum water flow”,the ones in the watersheds with sufficient water are “keeping minimum water flow” and “maximum water intake”; the international treaties signed from the first phase to the fourth phase,the developing process shows a progress of “fewer-increasing a lot-decreasing rapidly-equation basically”,the regional distribution of the treaties shifts mainly from the developed region to the developing one,especially to Asia and Africa; the major adopted indicators shifts from “keeping minimum water flow” and “mean annual runoff” in 1864-1945,to “keeping minimum water flow” and

  6. Border Security Fencing and Wildlife: The End of the Transboundary Paradigm in Eurasia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, John D C; Trouwborst, Arie; Boitani, Luigi; Kaczensky, Petra; Huber, Djuro; Reljic, Slaven; Kusak, Josip; Majic, Aleksandra; Skrbinsek, Tomaz; Potocnik, Hubert; Hayward, Matt W; Milner-Gulland, E J; Buuveibaatar, Bayarbaatar; Olson, Kirk A; Badamjav, Lkhagvasuren; Bischof, Richard; Zuther, Steffen; Breitenmoser, Urs

    2016-06-01

    The ongoing refugee crisis in Europe has seen many countries rush to construct border security fencing to divert or control the flow of people. This follows a trend of border fence construction across Eurasia during the post-9/11 era. This development has gone largely unnoticed by conservation biologists during an era in which, ironically, transboundary cooperation has emerged as a conservation paradigm. These fences represent a major threat to wildlife because they can cause mortality, obstruct access to seasonally important resources, and reduce effective population size. We summarise the extent of the issue and propose concrete mitigation measures.

  7. Water Awareness Strategy for Sinaloa State, Mexico, as a Tool to Mitigate the Imbalance of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Miguel-Rodriguez, A.

    2013-05-01

    education unit; developing and distributing educational materials; creation of a State Government webpage and establishing a network of trainers and promoters. The following items were agreed at the workshop: Mission - To be promoters of good water management, through interdisciplinary programs and innovation to provide knowledge about the proper use and care of water, ensuring a sustainable future for Sinaloa; Vision- To be the most committed and recognized state for the actions taken in water conservation and efficient use through the use of technology, knowledge and participatory processes; Objective- in three years reach at least 20% of the population, generating positive changes in customs, habits and behaviors in consumption and water management; and Specific objectives - helping to reduce total water consumption by 15% over three years and minimize the actual cost of providing water; report timely and effectively to the public about water scarcity, the cost of providing it, the need for payment, responsible use and its economic, health, social and environmental; education and communication programs to promote water culture; foster teamwork of the agencies involved in water management; and optimize the resources available to deliver the PCA.

  8. A multi-tracer approach to delineate groundwater dynamics in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Quezadas, Juan; Heilweil, Victor M.; Cortés Silva, Alejandra; Araguas, Luis; Salas Ortega, María del Rocío

    2016-07-01

    Geochemistry and environmental tracers were used to understand groundwater resources, recharge processes, and potential sources of contamination in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico. Total dissolved solids are lower in wells and springs located in the basin uplands compared with those closer to the coast, likely associated with rock/water interaction. Geochemical results also indicate some saltwater intrusion near the coast and increased nitrate near urban centers. Stable isotopes show that precipitation is the source of recharge to the groundwater system. Interestingly, some high-elevation springs are more isotopically enriched than average annual precipitation at higher elevations, indicating preferential recharge during the drier but cooler winter months when evapotranspiration is reduced. In contrast, groundwater below 1,200 m elevation is more isotopically depleted than average precipitation, indicating recharge occurring at much higher elevation than the sampling site. Relatively cool recharge temperatures, derived from noble gas measurements at four sites (11-20 °C), also suggest higher elevation recharge. Environmental tracers indicate that groundwater residence time in the basin ranges from 12,000 years to modern. While this large range shows varying groundwater flowpaths and travel times, ages using different tracer methods (14C, 3H/3He, CFCs) were generally consistent. Comparing multiple tracers such as CFC-12 with CFC-113 indicates piston-flow to some discharge points, yet binary mixing of young and older groundwater at other points. In summary, groundwater within the Rio Actopan Basin watershed is relatively young (Holocene) and the majority of recharge occurs in the basin uplands and moves towards the coast.

  9. A multi-tracer approach to delineate groundwater dynamics in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Quezadas, Juan; Heilweil, Victor M.; Cortés Silva, Alejandra; Araguas, Luis; Salas Ortega, María del Rocío

    2016-12-01

    Geochemistry and environmental tracers were used to understand groundwater resources, recharge processes, and potential sources of contamination in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico. Total dissolved solids are lower in wells and springs located in the basin uplands compared with those closer to the coast, likely associated with rock/water interaction. Geochemical results also indicate some saltwater intrusion near the coast and increased nitrate near urban centers. Stable isotopes show that precipitation is the source of recharge to the groundwater system. Interestingly, some high-elevation springs are more isotopically enriched than average annual precipitation at higher elevations, indicating preferential recharge during the drier but cooler winter months when evapotranspiration is reduced. In contrast, groundwater below 1,200 m elevation is more isotopically depleted than average precipitation, indicating recharge occurring at much higher elevation than the sampling site. Relatively cool recharge temperatures, derived from noble gas measurements at four sites (11-20 °C), also suggest higher elevation recharge. Environmental tracers indicate that groundwater residence time in the basin ranges from 12,000 years to modern. While this large range shows varying groundwater flowpaths and travel times, ages using different tracer methods (14C, 3H/3He, CFCs) were generally consistent. Comparing multiple tracers such as CFC-12 with CFC-113 indicates piston-flow to some discharge points, yet binary mixing of young and older groundwater at other points. In summary, groundwater within the Rio Actopan Basin watershed is relatively young (Holocene) and the majority of recharge occurs in the basin uplands and moves towards the coast.

  10. Transboundary Air Pollution over the Central Himalayas: Monitoring network and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianggong; Kang, Shichang

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas, stretching over 3000 kms along west-east, separates South Asia continent and the Tibetan Plateau with its extreme high altitudes. The South Asia is being increasingly recognized to be among the hotspots of air pollution, posing multi-effects on regional climate and environment. Recent monitoring and projection have indicated an accelerated decrease of glacier and increasing glacier runoff in the Himalayas, and a remarkable phenomenon has been recognized in the Himalayas that long-range transport atmospheric pollutants (e.g., black carbon and dust) deposited on glacier surface can promote glacier melt, and in turns, may liberate historical contaminant legacy in glaciers into downward ecosystems. To understand the air pollution variation and how they can infiltrate the Himalayas and beyond, we started to operate a coordinated atmospheric pollution monitoring network composing 11 sites with 5 in Nepal and 6 in Tibet since April 2013. Atmospheric total suspended particles ( TSP air mass trajectories suggested that the transboundary air pollution over the Himalayas is episodic and is likely concentrated in pre-monsoon seasons. Our results emphasis the potential transport and impact of air pollution from South Asia to Himalayas and further inland Tibetan Plateau. The monitoring network will be continuously operated to provide basis for defining the transboundary air pollution and their impact on the environments and ecosystems over the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau.

  11. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuhua; Wang, Xinyu; Wang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM). We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games.

  12. Modeling and Computation of Transboundary Industrial Pollution with Emission Permits Trading by Stochastic Differential Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Chang

    Full Text Available Transboundary industrial pollution requires international actions to control its formation and effects. In this paper, we present a stochastic differential game to model the transboundary industrial pollution problems with emission permits trading. More generally, the process of emission permits price is assumed to be stochastic and to follow a geometric Brownian motion (GBM. We make use of stochastic optimal control theory to derive the system of Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB equations satisfied by the value functions for the cooperative and the noncooperative games, respectively, and then propose a so-called fitted finite volume method to solve it. The efficiency and the usefulness of this method are illustrated by the numerical experiments. The two regions' cooperative and noncooperative optimal emission paths, which maximize the regions' discounted streams of the net revenues, together with the value functions, are obtained. Additionally, we can also obtain the threshold conditions for the two regions to decide whether they cooperate or not in different cases. The effects of parameters in the established model on the results have been also examined. All the results demonstrate that the stochastic emission permits prices can motivate the players to make more flexible strategic decisions in the games.

  13. The role of transboundary air pollution over Galicia and North Portugal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C; Souto, J A; Monteiro, A; Dios, M; Rodríguez, A; Ferreira, J; Saavedra, S; Casares, J J; Miranda, A I

    2013-05-01

    In summer, high levels of ozone (O3) are frequently measured at both Galicia and Northern Portugal air quality monitoring stations, even exceeding the limit values imposed by legislation. This work aims to investigate the origin of these high O3 concentrations by the application of a chemical transport modelling system over the northwestern area of the Iberian Peninsula. The WRF-CHIMERE modelling system was applied with high resolution to simulate the selected air pollution episodes that occurred simultaneously in Galicia and North Portugal and in order to study both the contribution of local emission sources and the influence of transboundary pollution. Emission inputs have been prepared based on the development of the Portuguese and Galician emission inventories. The obtained results for O3 have been evaluated and validated against observations. Modelling results show possible contribution of the transboundary transport over the border of two neighbour regions/countries, indicating that the O3 episode starts over the urban and industrialised area of North coast of Portugal, reaching the maximum peaks over this region; at the same time, O3 levels increased over Galicia region, where lower concentrations, but still high, were observed. These results pointed out that air quality management should not be driven by political boundaries and highlight the importance of joining efforts between neighbouring countries.

  14. The role of transboundary flow on 1995 ozone levels in Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yap, D.; Fraser, D.; Kiely, P.; Brou, G. de; Dong, W. [Ontario Ministry of Environmental and Energy, Etobicoke, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Exceedances of the ozone criterion in Ontario are often widespread and associated with episodes. Here an episode refers to distinct meteorological events in which there is the simultaneous occurrence of widespread (hundreds of kilometers) elevated ozone levels (greater than 80 ppb maximum hourly concentration). An examination of the ozone data for 1995 (based on 45 monitoring sites) indicates that there were 16 such episode days in Ontario. This was slightly higher than the numbers reported in 1992 to 1994. The trend in the number of ozone episode days in Ontario over the past 17 years show the highest frequencies in 1988, 1991 and 1983. Associated air parcel back trajectories on the 16 episode days all show transboundary flows from the neighboring states of the U.S. Typically air parcels traversed regions south-southwest of southwestern Ontario. In 1995 there were, however, a number of episode days with associated southeasterly flows compared to that experienced in previous years. For example, there were about 25 such cases in 1995 compared to 8% in 1991 and none in 1988. On ozone excursion days (exceedances of 124 ppb) in Michigan, transboundary flows were significant and ozone levels in Ontario were generally high. These results support the concept of a common airshed between Ontario and neighboring states and that southern Ontario is located often within the northern edge of the ozone problem area in eastern North America.

  15. LAND USE CHANGES IN THE TRANS-BOUNDARY AMUR RIVER BASIN IN THE 20TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ermoshin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available All distinctions in the economic and nature protection policy of the neighboring states are well reflected and shown within trans-boundary river basins. The parts of trans-boundary geosystem of one country can experience an essential negative influence from rash decisions in the field of nature use and nature protection policy of the neighboring state. The Amur River Basin covers the territories of Russia, the Peoples Republic of China, Mongolia and Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and occupies more than 2 million km2. The most intensive development of the basin territory has started since the middle of the 19th century. We compiled two maps of land use in the Amur River basin in the 1930–1940s and in the early 21st century. Results showed that, negative dynamics is marked for forest lands, meadows, wetlands and mountain tundra. The basic features in the change of land use within national parts of the basin in Russia, China and Mongolia are analyzed. The comparative analysis of land use peculiarities of the countries for the last 70 years has been done.

  16. The Navruz Project: Transboundary Monitoring for Radionuclides and Metals in Central Asia Rivers. Data Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barber, David S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Betsill, J. David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Littlefield, Adriane C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mohagheghi, Amir H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shanks, Sonoya T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Yuldashev, Bekhzad [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Saalikhbaev, Umar [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Radyuk, Raisa [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Djuraev, Akram [Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Djuraev, Anwar [Tajik Academy of Sciences, Dushanbe (Tajikistan); Vasilev, Ivan [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Tolongutov, Bajgabyl [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Valentina, Alekhina [Inst. of Physics, Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan); Solodukhin, Vladimir [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Pozniak, Victor [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2003-04-01

    The Navruz Project is a cooperative, transboundary, river monitoring project involving rivers and institutions in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, and facilitated by Sandia National Laboratories in the U.S. The Navruz Project focuses on waterborne radionuclides and metals because of their importance to public health and nuclear materials proliferation concerns in the region. The Project also collects data on basic water quality parameters. Data obtained in this project are shared among all participating countries and the public through a world-wide web site (http://www.cmc.sandia.org/Central/centralasia.html), and are available for use in further studies and in regional transboundary water resource management efforts. This report includes graphs showing selected data from the Fall 2000 and Spring 2001 sampling seasons. These data include all parameters grouped into six regions, including main rivers and some tributaries in the Amu Darya and Syr Darya river systems. This report also assembles all data (in tabular form) generated by the project from Fall 2000 through Fall 2001. This report comes as the second part of a planned three-part reporting process. The first report is the Sampling and Analysis Plan and Operational Manual, SAND 2002-0484. This is the second report.

  17. Equitable utilisation and effective protection of sharing transboundary water resources:international rivers of western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Western China includes 12 provincial divisions (the 7 provinces of Sichuan, Guizhou,Yunnan, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai and; 5 autonomous regions of Tibet, Ningxia, Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia and Guangxi; and one city of Chongqing), which comprise 71.4% of the national land area,28.5% of the national population and produce 17.5% of the national GDP in China. There are 17countries that have riparian relationships with western China, most of which are water-short countries. All are listed by UN ESCAP as countries with potential water crisis. The co-operative development and coordinated management of international rivers in western China is an important step toward the implementation of the national Great Western Development program. Taking into account of the national strategy and object hierarchy, as well as the development demand of the western region, it is necessary to pursue the multi-disciplinary study of the equitable allocation,utilisation, and eco-environment protection of transboundary water resources in the region. Such efforts will undoubtedly provide scientific evidence and support for the decision-making of the environmental protection and ecological construction and management in the western regions, the enforcement of the sub-regional economic co-operation, mitigation of trans-boundary conflicts, and enhancing bio-diversity conservation.

  18. Climatic Change, Conflict and Peace in Transboundary River Basins - A Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, T. U.; Beck, L.; Koubi, V.; Bernauer, T.

    2011-12-01

    Recent research shows that one of the most significant risk for societal development pertains to water availability and that the greatest risks for unrest stemming from economic deprivation and the erosion of livelihoods is found in transboundary river basins in poor and politically unstable parts of the world. While until now, historic linkages between water scarcity and conflict were weak at best, there is growing fear that environmental change will increasingly lead to an entanglement of conflict and resources dynamics in the future. Where resources are not jointly managed in a cooperative way and resources sharing mechanisms not legislated by sound international institutions and were significant impacts from environmental change are expected, these developments give rise to concern. To study environmental change and conflict interlinkages, we develop a formal hydro-climatological model for transboundary freshwater resources and investigate theoretically how climate change translates into potential for conflict and peace, contingent on configurations of power between riparians. The model accounts for how upstream countries exercise power by using water whereas downstream countries use power to obtain water. We show that equilibrium water allocation outcomes are biased towards the more powerful riparian, and that absolute upstream or downstream river basin dominance are limiting cases of our general model. Our model suggests that the basin-wide conflict potential is always more sensitive to changes in relative power between riparian states than to impacts from climatic changes.

  19. Solidarity in transboundary flood risk management: A view from the Dutch North Rhine–Westphalian catchment area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerd, M.C.J. van; Wiering, M.A.; Dieperink, C.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is putting pressure on water systems, and its effects transcend man-made boundaries, making cooperation across territorial borders essential. The governance of transboundary flood risk management calls for solidarity among riparians, as climate change will make river basins more prone

  20. Solidarity in transboundary flood risk management: A view from the Dutch North Rhine–Westphalian catchment area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Eerd, M.C.J.; Wiering, M.A.; Dieperink, C.

    2017-01-01

    limate change is putting pressure on water systems, and its effects transcend man-made boundaries, making cooperation across territorial borders essential. The governance of transboundary flood risk management calls for solidarity among riparians, as climate change will make river basins more prone

  1. Focus on CSIR research in water resources: Inter-SEDE: a new tool for interrogating transboundary basins

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Turton, A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available the potential for benefit-sharing (as opposed to the volumetric allocation of trans-boundary waters). Three case studies were included: the Jordan River; the Kagera River, extending to the Nile as a whole; and the Mekong River...

  2. Laws, Institutions and Transboundary Pasture Management in the High Pamir and Pamir-Alai Mountain Ecosystem of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Lim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced rangeland governance is a priority for the governments of the post-Soviet Central Asian states of the Kyrgyz Republic and Tajikistan. Major transitional challenges confront the newly independent states of Central Asia. These challenges include the withdrawal of subsidies previously provided by the centralised Soviet government; moves towards privatisation and the conversion of administrative boundaries to international boundaries. In this context transboundary approaches to rangeland management are essential. This paper highlights the challenges for effective pasture management in the Pamir, Pamir-Alai ecosystem; the inadequacies of pasture-related legal instruments and the absence of institutions for the implementation of these instruments. Transboundary management is hampered by the lack of agreements between the two countries and the differences between national level laws and institutions. Meaningful transboundary agreements and the harmonization of national level laws would be a significant step towards achieving sustainable transboundary pasture management. However, on their own these legal tools are insufficient. Long-term effective pasture management in the Pamir, Pamir-Alai ecosystem necessitates that the causes of degradation are addressed. Mountain communities would also need to be convinced of economic and other benefits before current resource-use practices could be expected to change. Institutional and capacity building and adequate funding are also fundamental to ensuring the effectiveness of any legal instruments that are developed and any strategies that are employed.

  3. Transboundary Impacts of the 2010 Haiti Earthquake Disaster: Focus on Legal Dilemmas in South Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alka Sapat

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Catastrophic disasters affect not just the areas/regions and countries where they strike, but also have transboundary effects and repercussions on neighboring countries, which often serve as receiving areas for displaced survivors. South Florida, for example, served as a receiving area for earthquake survivors after the 2010 Haiti earthquake. To understand the transboundary sociolegal impacts on host communities, we draw theoretical insights from research on transboundary crises and interviewed key members of school districts, city and county governments, non-profit organizations, relief task forces, the Haitian-American diaspora, and local government agencies. We also looked at relevant plans/policies modified by governmental and non-governmental institutions in response to the legal issues that arose. The findings highlight the manner in which street-level workers in state and non-state organizations deal with legal complexities and ramifications, along with the role played by the Haitian-American diaspora actors and their networks. Los desastres por catástrofes no afectan solo a las áreas/regiones y países a los que golpean, sino que también tienen efectos transfronterizos y repercuten en los países vecinos, que a menudo sirven como áreas de recepción para los sobrevivientes desplazados. El sur de Florida, por ejemplo, sirvió como área de acogida para los supervivientes del terremoto de Haiti de 2010. Para entender el impacto sociojurídico a nivel transfronterizo en las comunidades de acogida, se trazan nuevas percepciones teóricas a partir de la investigación de crisis transfronterizas, y mediante entrevistas a miembros clave de distritos escolares, gobiernos de ciudades y condados, organizaciones sin ánimos de lucro, grupos de trabajo de auxilio, la diáspora haitiano-estadounidense, y agencias del gobierno local. También se estudian los planes/políticas relevantes, modificados por las instituciones gubernamentales y no

  4. Analysis of key thresholds leading to upstream dependencies in global transboundary water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, Hafsa Ahmed; Guillaume, Joseph; Kummu, Matti; Mirumachi, Naho; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    Transboundary water bodies supply 60% of global fresh water flow and are home to about 1/3 of the world's population; creating hydrological, social and economic interdependencies between countries. Trade-offs between water users are delimited by certain thresholds, that, when crossed, result in changes in system behavior, often related to undesirable impacts. A wide variety of thresholds are potentially related to water availability and scarcity. Scarcity can occur because of the country's own water use, and that is potentially intensified by upstream water use. In general, increased water scarcity escalates the reliance on shared water resources, which increases interdependencies between riparian states. In this paper the upstream dependencies of global transboundary river basins are examined at the scale of sub-basin areas. We aim to assess how upstream water withdrawals cause changes in the scarcity categories, such that crossing thresholds is interpreted in terms of downstream dependency on upstream water availability. The thresholds are defined for different types of water availability on which a sub-basin relies: - reliable local runoff (available even in a dry year), - less reliable local water (available in the wet year), - reliable dry year inflows from possible upstream area, and - less reliable wet year inflows from upstream. Possible upstream withdrawals reduce available water downstream, influencing the latter two water availabilities. Upstream dependencies have then been categorized by comparing a sub-basin's scarcity category across different water availability types. When population (or water consumption) grows, the sub-basin satisfies its needs using less reliable water. Thus, the factors affecting the type of water availability being used are different not only for each type of dependency category, but also possibly for every sub- basin. Our results show that, in the case of stress (impacts from high use of water), in 104 (12%) sub- basins out of

  5. Regional cost-effectiveness in transboundary water quality management for the Baltic Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler, Berit; Smart, James Christopher Rudd; Fonnesbech-Wulff, Anders

    scientists, is used to identify the most cost-effective configuration of abatement measures. BALTCOST utilises detailed regional and spatial data down to 10 x 10km grid cell level for all Baltic littoral countries. Modelling results suggest that it should be possible to achieve the BSAP load reduction......In 2007 HELCOM launched a plan for transboundary management of the Baltic Sea. This plan, called the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP), aims amongst other things, to reduce eutrophication in the different regions of the Baltic Sea by reducing incoming nutrient loads from all discharging drainage basins....... This paper investigates the costeffective distribution of nutrient abatement measures between drainage basins and Baltic Sea regions, where the aim is to achieve the BSAP nutrient load reduction targets. The cost-minimisation model BALTCOST, an interdisciplinary development involving economists and natural...

  6. Marine Environmental Protection and Transboundary Pipeline Projects: A Case Study of the Nord Stream Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lott

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nord Stream transboundary submarine pipeline, significant for its impact on the EU energy policy, has been a heav- ily debated issue in the Baltic Sea region during the past decade. This is partly due to the concerns over the effects that the pipeline might have on the Baltic Sea as a particularly sensitive large marine ecosystem.  This manuscript focuses on the issue from the viewpoint of the UNCLOS legal framework and its related treaties. It thus illustrates some of the more polemical topics arising in modern law of the sea and environmental law, eg limitations on the freedom to lay submarine pipelines, the scope and boundaries of marine scientific research, the obligation to consider alter- natives in the course of an EIA. In broader terms, this manuscript presents an explanatory study of matters mostly related to sustainable development, the precautionary principle and the ecosystem approach.

  7. Sharing Water on the Iberian Peninsula: A Europeanisation Approach to Explaining Transboundary Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanie J. Bukowski

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the Europeanisation perspective to the policy change evident in the 1998 Convention on Cooperation for the Protection and Sustainable Use of the Waters of the Spanish-Portuguese Basins (Albufeira convention. The 'top-down' Europeanisation framework is applied here to a case involving simultaneous, joint adaptation to European Union (EU policy in terms of two states negotiating a transborder agreement that encompasses institutional changes required by that policy. This study provides an analysis of transnational policy change in an area of vital importance in international relations, namely, shared freshwater resources. It finds that while the Europeanisation framework may be applied effectively to transboundary adaptation (not just cross-country comparison and goes a long way in explaining cooperation on the Iberian Peninsula, it is incomplete in its consideration of other influences within and beyond 'Europe', from the global to the local levels.

  8. Trans-Boundary Haze Pollution in Southeast Asia: Sustainability through Plural Environmental Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Saidul Islam

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent haze in Southeast Asian countries including Singapore is largely attributable to rampant forest fires in Indonesia due to, for example, extensive slash-and-burn (S & B culture. Drawing on the “treadmill of production” and environmental governance approach, we examine causes and consequences of this culture. We found that, despite some perceived benefits, its environmental consequences include deforestation, soil erosion and degradation, global warming, threats to biodiversity, and trans-boundary haze pollution, while the societal consequences comprise regional tension, health risks, economic and productivity losses, as well as food insecurity. We propose sustainability through a plural coexistence framework of governance for targeting S & B that incorporates strategies of incentives, education and community resource management.

  9. Anomalous transboundary transport of the products of biomass burning from North American wildfires to Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnov, S. A.; Mokhov, I. I.

    2017-07-01

    An analysis of smoke in the atmosphere over the Russian Far East and Eastern Siberia in August 2004 was carried out. The results of the analysis indicate that the cause of the smoke in the atmosphere over these regions (with the values of aerosol optical depth exceeding 4 over the north of Kamchatka Krai) was the long-range transboundary transport of combustion products from North American wildfires. The anomalous (westward) long-range transport of the products of biomass burning was caused by atmospheric circulation characteristic for the atmospheric blocking of the dipole-type with a high-pressure region over the Chukchi Sea and a low pressure region over the south of the Bering Sea.

  10. Transboundary smoke haze pollution in Malaysia: inpatient health impacts and economic valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Jamal; Sahani, Mazrura; Mahmud, Mastura; Ahmad, Md Khadzir Sheikh

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed the economic value of health impacts of transboundary smoke haze pollution in Kuala Lumpur and adjacent areas in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Daily inpatient data from 2005, 2006, 2008, and 2009 for 14 haze-related illnesses were collected from four hospitals. On average, there were 19 hazy days each year during which the air pollution levels were within the Lower Moderate to Hazardous categories. No seasonal variation in inpatient cases was observed. A smoke haze occurrence was associated with an increase in inpatient cases by 2.4 per 10,000 populations each year, representing an increase of 31 percent from normal days. The average annual economic loss due to the inpatient health impact of haze was valued at MYR273,000 ($91,000 USD). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. THE SETTLEMENT POND AND TRANSBOUNDARY TRANSPORT OF POLLUTANTS BETWEEN DIFFERENT PERTS OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Monakhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The settlement pond and transboundary transport of pollutants between different perts of the Caspian sea. Location. Water area of the Caspian Sea. Methods. In the study used the methods of calculating of operational wind fields, sea levels and currents. ResultsThe technology was developed for the calculating of the reservoir and the transport of pollutants between the different parts, with operational hydrodynamic model of high-revolution, located in a mode of “constant readiness”. Mainconclusions. Transport of pollutants characterized by their entry (P and removal (B outside for the Russian sector of subsoil, and also of the resulting transfer (RP= P - B– and total transfer (SP= P +B. The different sectors and levels of water were markedly different from each other by the nature of the transfer of pollutants. 

  12. International Direct Investment and Transboundary Pollution: An Empirical Analysis of Complex Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Deng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Using complex networks and spatial econometric methods, we empirically test the extent to which a country’s influence and its position in an international investment network affect environmental quality as well as the country’s role in transboundary pollution transfer. The estimated results show that the ties connecting nodes together in an international investment network have significant impacts on global environmental pollution. Additionally, node linkages between developing countries have stronger negative effects on environmental quality than node linkages between developed countries. Moreover, greater node importance and node centrality accelerate the speed and scale of the growth of polluting industries, which allows developed countries to more easily transfer their pollution-intensive industries to developing countries that possess higher node dependency. We also find that the factor endowment effect coexists with the pollution haven effect, the effects of environmental regulation advantage in the international investment network are greater than the impact of factor endowment advantage.

  13. Social and ecological aspects of the water resources management of the transboundary rivers of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normatov, P.

    2014-09-01

    The Zeravshan River is a transboundary river whose water is mainly used for irrigation of agricultural lands of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Sufficiently rich hydropower resources in upstream of the Zeravshan River characterize the Republic of Tajikistan. Continuous monitoring of water resources condition is necessary for planning the development of this area taking into account hydropower production and irrigation needs. Water quality of Zeravshan River is currently one of the main problems in the relationship between the Republics of Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, and it frequently triggers conflict situations between the two countries. In most cases, the problem of water quality of the Zeravshan River is related to river pollution by wastewater of the Anzob Mountain-concentrating Industrial Complex (AMCC) in Tajikistan. In this paper results of research of chemical and bacteriological composition of the Zeravshan River waters are presented. The minimum impact of AMCC on quality of water of the river was experimentally established.

  14. 8th Annual report 1999. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 1998/99 including: - a short summary of previous data assessments - a short status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and the present geographical coverage of the monitoring network - a documentation of the scientific strategies to carry out data assessment on two priority topics: - assessment of heavy metal pools and fluxes - assessment of cause-effect relationships for understorey vegetation - a description of the WATBAL-model for estimating monthly water balance components, including soil water fluxes. (orig.)

  15. Paradigm for Distributive & Procedural Justice in Equitable Apportionment of Transboundary Ganges Waters Under Changing Climate & Landuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, H.; Gosain, A. K.; Khosa, R.; Anand, J.

    2015-12-01

    Rivers have no regard for human demarcated boundaries. Besides, ever increasing demand-supply gap & vested riparian interests, fuel transboundary water conflicts. For resolving such disputes, appropriation doctrines advocating equity & fairness have received endorsement in the Helsinki Rules-1966 & UN Convention-1997. Thus, current study proposes the principle of equitable apportionment for sharing Ganges waters as it balances the interests & deservedness of all stakeholders, namely, India & its 11 states, Bangladesh, Nepal, & China. The study endeavors to derive a reasonable share of each co-basin state by operationalizing the vague concepts of fairness & equity through an objective & quantitative framework encompassing proportionality & egalitarianism for distributive & procedural justice. Equal weightage factors reflecting hydrology, geography & water use potential are chosen for fair share computation, wherein each contender ranks these factors to maximize his entitlement. If cumulative claims exceed the water availability, each claimant puts forth next ranked factor & this process continues till the claims match availability. Due to inter-annual variability in few factors, scenarios for Rabi & Kharif seasons are considered apart from cases for maximum, upper quartile, median, lower quartile & minimum. Possibility of spatial homogeneity & heterogeneity in factors is also recognized. Sometimes lack of technical information hinders transboundary dispute resolution via legal mechanisms. Hence, the study also attempts to bridge this gap between law & technology through GIS-based SWAT hydrologic model by estimating the Ganges water yield, & consequent share of each riparian for range of flows incorporating e-flows as well, under present & future climate & landuse scenarios. 82% of India's territory lies within interstate rivers, & therefore this research is very pertinent as it can facilitate the decision makers in effective interstate water conflict resolution.

  16. Daily and hourly chemical impact of springtime transboundary aerosols on Japanese air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Moreno

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The regular eastward drift of transboundary aerosol intrusions from the Asian mainland into the NW Pacific region has a pervasive impact on air quality in Japan, especially during springtime. Analysis of 24-h filter samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES and Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS, and hourly Streaker with Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE samples collected continuously for six weeks reveal the chemistry of successive waves of natural mineral desert dust ("Kosa" and metalliferous sulphatic pollutants arriving in western Japan during spring 2011. The main aerosol sources recognised by Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF analysis of Streaker data are mineral dust and fresh sea salt (both mostly in the coarser fraction PM2.5–10, As-bearing sulphatic aerosol (PM0.1–2.5, metalliferous sodic particulate matter (PM interpreted as aged, industrially contaminated marine aerosol, and ZnCu-bearing aerosols. Whereas mineral dust arrivals are typically highly transient, peaking over a few hours, sulphatic intrusions build up and decline more slowly, and are accompanied by notable rises in ambient concentrations of metallic trace elements such as Pb, As, Zn, Sn and Cd. The magnitude of the loss in regional air quality due to the spread and persistence of pollution from mainland Asia is especially clear when cleansing oceanic air advects westward across Japan, removing the continental influence and reducing concentrations of the undesirable metalliferous pollutants by over 90%. Our new chemical database, especially the Streaker data, demonstrates the rapidly changing complexity of ambient air inhaled during these transboundary events, and implicates Chinese coal combustion as the main source of the anthropogenic aerosol component.

  17. Armenia-To Trans-Boundary Fault: AN Example of International Cooperation in the Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakhanyan, A.; Avagyan, A.; Avanesyan, M.; Elashvili, M.; Godoladze, T.; Javakishvili, Z.; Korzhenkov, A.; Philip, S.; Vergino, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Studies of a trans-boundary active fault that cuts through the border of Armenia to Georgia in the area of the Javakheti volcanic highland have been conducted since 2007. The studies have been implemented based on the ISTC 1418 and NATO SfP 983284 Projects. The Javakheti Fault is oriented to the north-northwest and consists of individual segments displaying clear left-stepping trend. Fault mechanism is represented by right-lateral strike-slip with normal-fault component. The fault formed distinct scarps, deforming young volcanic and glacial sediments. The maximum-size displacements are recorded in the central part of the fault and range up to 150-200 m by normal fault and 700-900 m by right-lateral strike-slip fault. On both flanks, fault scarps have younger appearance, and displacement size there decreases to tens of meters. Fault length is 80 km, suggesting that maximum fault magnitude is estimated at 7.3 according to the Wells and Coppersmith (1994) relation. Many minor earthquakes and a few stronger events (1088, Mw=6.4, 1899 Mw=6.4, 1912, Mw=6.4 and 1925, Mw=5.6) are associated with the fault. In 2011/2012, we conducted paleoseismological and archeoseismological studies of the fault. By two paleoseismological trenches were excavated in the central part of the fault, and on its northern and southern flanks. The trenches enabled recording at least three strong ancient earthquakes. Presently, results of radiocarbon age estimations of those events are expected. The Javakheti Fault may pose considerable seismic hazard for trans-boundary areas of Armenia and Georgia as its northern flank is located at the distance of 15 km from the Baku-Ceyhan pipeline.

  18. Transboundary Collaborations to Enhance Wildfire Suppression in Protected Areas of the Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zaimes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For the most effective and efficient management of certain natural resources (e.g. protected areas and disasters (e.g. wildfires transboundary approaches are needed. In addition in the management of protected areas, the role of wildfire should be incorporated, something that was ignored in the past and led to catastrophic wildfires. The Black Sea is a region that wildfires in the protected areas are expected to increase. This has to do with the abandonment of rural areas and the higher temperatures, especially during summer, due to climate change. Interesting is also the fact that some countries of the region have extensive experience while other do not have neither the experience nor the necessary infrastructures to face large wildfires. A transboundary collaboration would be very beneficial to the countries with limited experiences and capacities to suppress wildfires. The objective of this study is to be proactive by developing innovative tools to help suppress wildfires and enhancing the knowledge on wildfires and protected areas. The innovative tools included 4 different research activities and products. Firstly, an online Digital Geodatabase for the six pilot areas was developed. Next forest fire fuels and maps were developed while a forest fire behavior model was run to create the overall fire risk maps for the pilot areas. To estimate water resources and watershed streamflows the hydrologic model SWAT was validated and calibrated for the pilot areas. The final activities included a multi-criteria decision analysis to select the optimal location of the water reservoirs and the use of spatial analyst to provide the optimal routes to reach reservoirs by the fire vehicles. To enhance the responsible agency personnel along with stakeholders knowledge of the region, a Neighborhood Network with regular quarterly meetings was established. Participants for all six project countries were present in the meetings. Overall, new tool that will enhance

  19. Gains from trans-boundary water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socioecological systems: a case study for the Minho region

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable economic development requires balancing of marginal costs from catchment water pollution abatement and associated marginal benefits from freshwater/coastal ecosystem appreciation. Hence we need to differentiate between intra- and trans-boundary catchments because benefactors and beneficiaries from water quality improvement are not one and the same. In trans-boundary catchments, private (national) welfare maximizing rates of water quality improvement differ across natio...

  20. Paradigm Shift in Transboundary Water Management Policy: Linking Water Environment Energy and Food (weef) to Catchment Hydropolitics - Needs, Scope and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAI, S.; Wolf, A.; Sharma, N.; Tiwari, H.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant use of water due to rapid growth of population, enhanced agricultural and industrial activities, degraded environment and ecology will in the coming decades constrain the socioeconomic development of humans. To add on to the precarious situation, political boundaries rarely embrace hydrological boundaries of lakes, rivers, aquifers etc. Hydropolitics relate to the ability of geopolitical institutions to manage shared water resources in a politically sustainable manner, i.e., without tensions or conflict between political entities. Riparian hydropolitics caters to differing objectives, needs and requirements of states making it difficult to administer the catchment. The diverse riparian objectives can be merged to form a holistic catchment objective of sustainable water resources development and management. It can be proposed to make a paradigm shift in the present-day transboundary water policy from riparian hydropolitics (in which the focal point of water resources use is hinged on state's need) to catchment hydropolitics (in which the interest of the basin inhabitants are accorded primacy holistically over state interests) and specifically wherein the water, environment, energy and food (WEEF) demands of the catchment are a priority and not of the states in particular. The demands of the basin pertaining to water, food and energy have to be fulfilled, keeping the environment and ecology healthy in a cooperative political framework; the need for which is overwhelming. In the present scenario, the policy for water resources development of a basin is segmented into independent uncoordinated parts controlled by various riparians; whereas in catchment hydropolitics the whole basin should be considered as a unit. The riparians should compromise a part of national interest and work in collaboration on a joint objective which works on the principle of the whole as against the part. Catchment hydropolitics may find greater interest in the more than 250

  1. Increasing drought in Jordan: Climate change and cascading Syrian land-use impacts on reducing transboundary flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsekhar, Deepthi; Gorelick, Steven M

    2017-08-01

    In countries where severe drought is an anticipated effect of climate change and in those that heavily depend on upstream nations for fresh water, the effect of drier conditions and consequent changes in the transboundary streamflow regime induced by anthropogenic interventions and disasters leads to uncertainty in regional water security. As a case in point, we analyze Jordan's surface water resources and agricultural water demand through 2100, considering the combined impacts of climate change and land-use change driven by the Syrian conflict. We use bias-corrected regional climate simulations as input to high-resolution hydrologic models to assess three drought types: meteorological (rainfall decrease), agricultural (soil moisture deficit), and hydrologic (streamflow decline) under future scenarios. The historical baseline period (1981-2010) is compared to the future (2011-2100), divided into three 30-year periods. Comparing the baseline period to 2070-2100, average temperature increases by 4.5°C, rainfall decreases by 30%, and multiple drought-type occurrences increase from ~8 in 30 years to ~25 in 30 years. There is a significant increase in the contemporaneous occurrence of multiple drought types along with an 80% increase in simultaneous warm and dry events. Watershed simulations of future transboundary Yarmouk-Jordan River flow from Syria show that Jordan would receive 51 to 75% less Yarmouk water compared to historical flow. Recovery of Syrian irrigated agriculture to pre-conflict conditions would produce twice the decline in transboundary flow as that due to climate change. In Jordan, the confluence of limited water supply, future drought, and transboundary hydrologic impacts of land use severely challenges achieving freshwater sustainability.

  2. TRANSBOUNDARY IMPACT OF THE CHERNAVODSKA NPP ON TRITIUM POLLUTION OF THE DANUBE RIVER ON THE TERRITORY OF UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. VIT`KO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the influence of the Chernavodska nuclear power plant on the aquatic environment of the Danube River in the transboundary context. Data of tritium discharges, dependence of volume activity of tritium in the Danube River, and its inflows from the surrounding areas to its mouth. The average annual volume activities of tritium are provided. Assessments of the impact of the Chernavodska NPP in conditions that are different from the norm have been given.

  3. TANGGUNG JAWAB NEGARA TERHADAP PENCEMARAN UDARA AKIBAT POLUSI ASAP LINTAS BATAS (TRANSBOUNDARY HAZE POLLUTION) DALAM KASUS MALAYSIA DAN SINGAPURA

    OpenAIRE

    -, AVEL HAEZER M

    2016-01-01

    2016 AVEL HAEZER MATANDE, NIM : B111 12 274, Tanggung Jawab Negara Terhadap Pencemaran Udara Akibat Polusi Asap Lintas Batas (Transboundary Haze Pollution) Dalam Kasus Malaysia dan Singapura di bawah bimbingan S.M.Noor selaku pembimbing I dan Birkah Latif selaku pembimbing II. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dua hal: pertama, untuk mengetahui 1. Bagaimanakah dampak polusi kabut asap yang terjadi di Riau terhad...

  4. Flow status of three transboundary rivers in Northern Greece as a tool for hydro-diplomacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigiannakis, Eyaggelos; Hatzispiroglou, Ioannis; Arampatzis, Georgios; Ilia, Andreas; Pantelakis, Dimitrios; Filintas, Agathos; Panagopoulos, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine how the river flow monitoring consists a tool for hydro-diplomacy. Management of transboundary catchments and the demand of common water resources, often comprise the cause of conflicts and tension threatening the peaceful coexistence of nations. The Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EU sets a base for water management contributing to common approaches, common goals, common principles as well as providing new definitions and measures for Europe's water resources. In northern Greece the main renewable resources are "imported" (over 25% of its water reserves) and for this reason the implementation of continuous flow measurements throughout the year is necessary, even though difficult to achieve. This paper focuses on the three largest transboundary rivers in Northern Greece. Axios and Strymonas river flow across the region of Central Macedonia in Northern Greece. Axios flows from FYROM to Greece, and Strymonas from Bulgaria to Greece. Nestos river flows from Bulgaria to Greece. The Greek part is in the region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace in Northern Greece. Significant productive agricultural areas around these rivers are irrigated from them so they are very important for the local society. Measurements of the river flow velocity and the flow depth have been made at bridges. The frequency of the measurements is roughly monthly, because it is expected a significant change in the depth flow and discharge. A series of continuously flow measure-ments were performed during 2013 and 2014 using flowmeters (Valeport and OTT type). The cross-section characteristics, the river flow velocity of segments and the mean water flow velocity and discharge total profile were measured and calculated re-spectively. Measurements are conducted in the framework of the national water resources monitoring network, which is realised in compliance to the Water Framework Directive under the supervision and coordination of the Hellenic Ministry for the

  5. Regional and international approaches on prevention and control of animal transboundary and emerging diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenech, J; Lubroth, J; Eddi, C; Martin, V; Roger, F

    2006-10-01

    Transboundary animal diseases pose a serious risk to the world animal agriculture and food security and jeopardize international trade. The world has been facing devastating economic losses from major outbreaks of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) such as foot-and-mouth disease, classical swine fever, rinderpest, peste des petits ruminants (PPR), and Rift Valley fever. Lately the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) due to H5N1 virus, has become an international crisis as all regions around the world can be considered at risk. In the past decades, public health authorities within industrialized countries have been faced with an increasing number of food safety issues. The situation is equally serious in developing countries. The globalization of food (and feed) trade, facilitated by the liberalization of world trade, while offering many benefits and opportunities, also represents new risks. The GF-TADs Global Secretariat has carried out several regional consultations for the identification of priority diseases and best ways for their administration, prevention and control. In the questionnaires carried out and through the consultative process, it was noted that globally, FMD was ranked as the first and foremost priority. Rift Valley fever, and today highly pathogenic avian influenza, are defined as major animal diseases which also affect human health. PPR and CBPP, a disease which is particularly serious in Africa and finally, African swine fever (ASF) and classical swine fever (CSF) are also regionally recognised as top priorities on which the Framework is determined to work. The FAO philosophy--shared by the OIE--embraces the need to prevent and control TADs and emerging diseases at their source, which is most of the time in developing countries. Regional and international approaches have to be followed, and the FAO and OIE GF-TADs initiative provides the appropriate concepts and objectives as well as an organizational framework to link international and

  6. Forecasting the Depletion of Transboundary Groundwater Resources in Hyper-Arid Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, A.; Heggy, E.

    2014-12-01

    The increase in awareness about the overexploitation of transboundary groundwater resources in hyper-arid environments that occurred in the last decades has highlighted the need to better map, monitor and manage these resources. Climate change, economic and population growth are driving forces that put more pressure on these fragile but fundamental resources. The aim of our approach is to address the question of whether or not groundwater resources, especially non-renewable, could serve as "backstop" water resource during water shortage periods that would probably affect the drylands in the upcoming 100 years. The high dependence of arid regions on these resources requires prudent management to be able to preserve their fossil aquifers and exploit them in a more sustainable way. We use the NetLogo environment with the FAO Aquastat Database to evaluate if the actual trends of extraction, consumption and use of non-renewable groundwater resources would remain feasible with the future climate change impacts and the population growth scenarios. The case studies selected are three: the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, shared between Egypt, Libya, Sudan and Chad; the North Western Sahara Aquifer System, with Algeria, Tunisia and Libya and the Umm Radhuma Dammam Aquifer, in its central part, shared between Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Bahrain. The reason these three fossil aquifers were selected are manifold. First, they represent properly transboundary non-renewable groundwater resources, with all the implications that derive from this, i.e. the necessity of scientific and socio-political cooperation among riparians, the importance of monitoring the status of shared resources and the need to elaborate a shared management policy. Furthermore, each country is characterized by hyper-arid climatic conditions, which will be exacerbated in the next century by climate change and lead to probable severe water shortage periods. Together with climate change, the rate of population

  7. Inventories of atmospheric pollutants emissions in France under the convention framework on the long range transboundary air pollution; Inventaire des emissions de polluants atmospheriques en France au titre de la convention sur la pollution atmospherique tranfrontaliere a longue distance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France, concerning all the substances covered by the different protocols adopted under the Convention on Long Range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), on behalf of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The substances covered are sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), carbon monoxide (CO), total suspended particles (TSP), fine particles (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2,5}), heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Data are reported according to new specifications adopted in Autumn 2001 regarding substances and source coverage. Parties to the convention have to report annually emissions of these substances. (author)

  8. Conceptual models and sustainable groundwater resource indicators as transfer tools to stakeholders of the Lake Champlain transboundary aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, René; Rivard, Christine; Carrier, Marc-André; Parent, Michel; Laurencelle, Marc; Beaudry, Châtelaine; Martin, Alex; Bleser, Joshua; Lavoie, Roxane; Bourque, Édith; Ouellet, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Regional aquifer assessments produce a wealth of scientific and technical information that is essential for the sound management of groundwater resources. However, regional water stakeholders are not generally groundwater specialists and cannot be expected to readily handle specialized hydrogeological maps and data. Without efficient information transfer, groundwater resources cannot be adequately considered in water governance by watershed organizations and in land-use planning by regional municipalities. This presentation provides an overview of the efforts undertaken to transfer information as part of a four-year regional aquifer assessment in the transboundary Canada-USA Champlain Lake watershed, with an emphasis on the southern Quebec part. This project was part of both the provincial aquifer assessment program (Programme d'acquisition des connaissances sur les eaux souterraines, PACES) of the Quebec Environment Ministry and the National inventory of regional key aquifers of Natural Resources Canada. In Quebec, the study area extends over 9 000 km2 and includes three major watersheds and 106 municipalities with 792 000 inhabitants. Five distinct hydrogeological contexts were defined based on bedrock geology and hydrogeological conditions: St. Lawrence Lowlands (North and South), Appalachian Piedmont, Appalachian Uplands, and Monteregian Hills. Extensive fieldwork filled knowledge and spatial data gaps identified during the compilation of existing data. To illustrate hydrogeological contexts, two conceptual models of different areas were developed. These conceptual models reflect three aspects of aquifer conditions: geological context, groundwater dynamics and groundwater quality. The first representation of the conceptual model presents the geological context including typical surficial geology units as well as major bedrock geology units (including faults and dykes). The second representation shows schematic groundwater flow paths, relative well yields of

  9. Climate politics in the Lower Mekong Basin. National interests and transboundary cooperation on climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baadsgaard Lange, R.; Moerck Jensen, K.

    2013-09-01

    Climate change is expected to intensify water security concerns in international river basins. UNFCCC and DAC-donors have been important generators of political attention to the climate agenda among governments in the Mekong Basin in relation to regional cooperation, national policy-making and capacity building. However, the formal commitment to climate action is not necessarily reflected in the everyday business of development. In this paper we use a political economy approach to understand when and how climate change becomes a political priority for the governments of Laos, Thailand and Vietnam, and for transboundary cooperation. Uneven distribution of climate hazards and vulnerabilities create different national risk perceptions and commitment to climate action. Donor funding and national development strategies are also strong drivers of climate action and inaction. Climate change is sometimes used as a scapegoat for domestic policy failures and as a tool to acquire donor funding. We recommend prioritizing climate action in the context of immediate development challenges and 'no regrets' interventions that are likely to enhance adaptive capacity and governments' commitment. (Author)

  10. Global atmospheric emissions and transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Evaluation of modeling and transboundary pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2014-05-01

    Global atmospheric emissions of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from 69 major sources were estimated for a period from 1960 to 2030. Regression models and a technology split method were used to estimated country and time specific emission factors, resulting in a new estimate of PAH emission factor variation among different countries and over time. PAH emissions in 2007 were spatially resolved to 0.1° × 0.1° grids based on a newly developed global high-resolution fuel combustion inventory (PKU-FUEL-2007). MOZART-4 (The Model for Ozone and Related Chemical Tracers, version 4) was applied to simulate the global tropospheric transport of Benzo(a)pyrene, one of the high molecular weight carcinogenic PAHs, at a horizontal resolution of 1.875° (longitude) × 1.8947° (latitude). The reaction with OH radical, gas/particle partitioning, wet deposition, dry deposition, and dynamic soil/ocean-air exchange of PAHs were considered. The simulation was validated by observations at both background and non-background sites, including Alert site in Canadian High Arctic, EMEP sites in Europe, and other 254 urban/rural sites reported from literatures. Key factors effecting long-range transport of BaP were addressed, and transboundary pollution was discussed.

  11. Trans-boundary Air Quality and Health Impacts of Emissions in Various Regions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y.; Yim, S. H. L.

    2015-12-01

    In last few decades, China has gone through a rapid development, resulting in urbanization and industrialization. However, the abundant economic achievements were gained at the cost of a sharp deterioration of air quality. Previous research has reported the adverse health outcome from outdoor air pollution in China. Nevertheless, the trans-boundary air quality and health impacts due to emissions in various regions in China have yet fully understood. Our study aims to comprehensively apportion the attribution of emissions in seven regions in China, which are defined based on their geographical locations, to air pollutions, as well as the resultant health impacts in their local areas and other regions, provinces, and cities in China. A regional air quality model is applied to simulate the physical and chemical processes of various pollutants in the atmosphere. The resultant health outcome, such as premature death, is estimated by using the concentration-response functions reported in the literature. We anticipate that our results would serve as a critical reference for research community and policy makers to mitigate the air quality and health impacts of emissions in China.

  12. Biodiversity research trends and gap analysis from a transboundary landscape, Eastern Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratikshya Kandel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Kangchenjunga landscape, a transboundary complex shared by Bhutan, India, and Nepal, is one of the biologically richest regions in the Eastern Himalayas. Owing to the remarkable biodiversity, the three countries came together to enhance regional cooperation in conservation and development in 2012. To start a strategic conservation intervention, the status of our knowledge base on biodiversity of the landscape is the most important stepping stone. In this paper, we traced the history of biodiversity research in the Kangchenjunga landscape, and present the research trends over time and subject interests. Meanwhile, we also identified key research and knowledge gaps and future priorities. For this, we analyzed 500 peer-reviewed journal articles (until 2014 relating to biodiversity, which were retrieved from the web platform ‘Google Scholar’ and other peer-reviewed journals. The review showed that the landscape received attention from the scientific community as early as the 1840s, and grew progressively after the 1980s. Research on fauna (especially mammals and flora (especially angiosperms is most notable, but with major gaps in systematic research of their ecology, whereas invertebrates other than butterflies appear to be neglected. There is a need for systematic research with long-term monitoring that would allow us to understand changes occurring within the landscape.

  13. Trophic State Evolution and Nutrient Trapping Capacity in a Transboundary Subtropical Reservoir: A 25-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Davi Gasparini Fernandes; Benassi, Simone Frederigi; de Falco, Patrícia Bortoletto; do Carmo Calijuri, Maria

    2016-03-01

    Artificial reservoirs have been used for drinking water supply, other human activities, flood control and pollution abatement worldwide, providing overall benefits to downstream water quality. Most reservoirs in Brazil were built during the 1970s, but their long-term patterns of trophic status, water chemistry, and nutrient removal are still not very well characterized. We aimed to evaluate water quality time series (1985-2010) data from the riverine and lacustrine zones of the transboundary Itaipu Reservoir (Brazil/Paraguay). We examined total phosphorus and nitrogen, chlorophyll a concentrations, water transparency, and phytoplankton density to look for spatial and temporal trends and correlations with trophic state evolution and nutrient retention. There was significant temporal and spatial water quality variation ( P chlorophyll a concentrations tended to be lower in the lacustrine zone and decreased over the 25-year timeframe. Reservoir operational features seemed to be limiting primary production and phytoplankton development, which exhibited a maximum density of 6050 org/mL. The relatively small nutrient concentrations in the riverine zone were probably related to the effect of the cascade reservoirs upstream of Itaipu and led to relatively low removal percentages. Our study suggested that water quality problems may be more pronounced immediately after the filling phase of the artificial reservoirs, associated with the initial decomposition of drowned vegetation at the very beginning of reservoir operation.

  14. Hydrological picture of Nišava trans-boundary catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristova Nelly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on hydrographic and hydrological specific of Nišava River. It uses all hydrometric and cartographic information for the Bulgarian part of the catchment. Trans-boundary catchment of Nišava River includes four sub-basins, which are trans-borders too. There are a lot of karst areas in the river basin. The drainage density is 1.09 km/km2. Water resources of Nišava River are 170 million m3. They vary between 300.0 and 84.0 million m3. The period of high water appears in March/April and finishes in June. The frequency of monthly maximum is biggest in April or May. The monthly minimum appears most often in September or October. Floods in the catchment of the river Nišava are most often in March, May and June. Some of the rivers lose its waters in the karst areas and dries up during the summer. The average number of days with ice is between 10 and 70. The chemical and ecological status of river water is good. .

  15. Background concentrations of heavy metals in benthos from transboundary rivers of the Transbaikalia region, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuklin, Aleksei Petrovich; Matafonov, Petr Viktorovich

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations (mg/kg dry weight) of Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg, and Pb were measured in benthic macroalgae and invertebrates collected in the upper transboundary tributaries of the Onon River, Transbaikalia, Russia. The background concentration ranges in Cladophora fracta, Ulothrix zonata and Zygnemataceae were: 6.4-9.1 for Cu, 27.2-73.1 for Zn, 0.4-0.9 for Cd, 6.7-35.3 for As, 0.01-0.02 for Hg, and 1.9-4.3 for Pb. In Brachycentrus americanus and Lymnaea media the concentration ranges were: 9.0-25.5 for Cu, 21.4-96.0 for Zn, 0.1-0.3 for Cd, 1.7-5.6 for As, 0.004-0.02 for Hg, and 0.4-2.2 for Pb. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg were consistent with data for uncontaminated areas. Under contamination conditions the concentrations in C. fracta were: 938 for Zn, 513 for Pb, and 9.5 for Cd; in Lymnaea media were: 46.8 for Cu, 176 for Zn, 52.3 for Pb, and 3.0 for Cd. All the organisms showed a common response to contamination, and consequently can be used as biomonitors of contamination by heavy metals.

  16. Inventory of current environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, C.S.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Chapman, E.G.

    1986-05-01

    This document presents the results of a study commissioned to survey and summarize major environmental monitoring projects in the US-Canadian transboundary region. Projects with field sites located within 400 km (250 mi) of the border and active after 1980 were reviewed. The types of projects included: ambient air-quality monitoring, ambient water-quality monitoring, deposition monitoring, forest/vegetation monitoring and research, soil studies, and ecosystem studies. Ecosystem studies included projects involving the measurement of parameters from more than one monitoring category (e.g., studies that measured both water and soil chemistry). Individual descriptions were formulated for 184 projects meeting the spatial and temporal criteria. Descriptions included the official title for the project, its common abbreviation, program emphasis, monitoring site locations, time period conducted, parameters measured, protocols employed, frequency of sample collection, data storage information, and the principal contact for the project. A summary inventory subdivided according to the six monitoring categories was prepared using a computerized data management system. Information on major centralized data bases in the field of environmental monitoring was also obtained, and summary descriptions were prepared. The inventory and data base descriptions are presented in appendices to this document.

  17. Daily rainfall statistics of TRMM and CMORPH: A case for trans-boundary Gandak River basin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brijesh Kumar; Kanhu Charan Patra; Venkat Lakshmi

    2016-07-01

    Satellite precipitation products offer an opportunity to evaluate extreme events (flood and drought)for areas where rainfall data are not available or rain gauge stations are sparse. In this study, dailyprecipitation amount and frequency of TRMM 3B42V.7 and CMORPH products have been validatedagainst daily rain gauge precipitation for the monsoon months (June–September or JJAS) from 2005–2010 in the trans-boundary Gandak River basin. The analysis shows that the both TRMM and CMORPHcan detect rain and no-rain events, but they fail to capture the intensity of rainfall.The detection of precipitation amount is strongly dependent on the topography. In the plains areas,TRMM product is capable of capturing high-intensity rain events but in the hilly regions, it underestimatesthe amount of high-intensity rain events. On the other hand, CMORPH entirely fails to capturethe high-intensity rain events but does well with low-intensity rain events in both hilly regions as well asthe plain region. The continuous variable verification method shows better agreement of TRMM rainfallproducts with rain gauge data. TRMM fares better in the prediction of probability of occurrenceof high-intensity rainfall events, but it underestimates intensity at high altitudes. This implies thatTRMM precipitation estimates can be used for flood-related studies only after bias adjustment for thetopography.

  18. Cause for Concern: A Mixed-Methods Study of Campus Safety and Security Practices in United States-Mexico Border Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ryan Clevis

    2014-01-01

    Campus safety has been a source of concern since the 1990s. However, in 2007, the tragedy at the Virginia Polytechnic and State University sent a sense of alarm through many institutions of higher education. Immediately following this tragedy, institutions across the country began to evaluate and question their safety and security practices. While…

  19. Transboundary Movements of Genetically Modified Organisms and the Cartagena Protocol: Key Issues and Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile J Lim Tung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology or the engineering of the genetic material of species can give way to avenues of possibilities for the benefit of people, fauna and flora but also has the potential of posing untold and undiscovered threats to human beings and other living organisms. One of the first attempts to legislate on international rules on biotechnology can be traced back to article 19 of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD in 1992. The CBD is indeed the first international legal instrument apart from the then European Community’s relevant directives to suggest that biotechnology is a matter of concern for the international community while providing a basis upon which more detailed procedures would be elaborated in the field of biosafety. While the CBD includes international rules on access to genetic resources, access to and the transfer of technology, the handling of biotechnology and the distribution of its benefits, it does not include a detailed regulation on genetically modified organisms (GMOs and their possible adverse effects on the environment, human and animal health. It was only with the coming into existence of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (Cartagena Protocol to the CBD in 2000 that the safe transfer, handling and use of living modified organisms (LMOs such as genetically engineered plants, animals, and microbes were at last being catered for, albeit leaving aside the broader categories of GMOs. Due to the need for the negotiators of this protocol to make compromises, there were still key issues on the international biosafety framework pertaining mainly to the scope of the GMOs to be covered by this protocol and by the Advanced Informed Agreement procedure; identification and traceability issues; and liability and redress issues. Nine years after the entry into force of the Cartagena Protocol the transboundary movements of GMOs have clearly increased with new categories of GMOs and genetically modified products to regulate. The

  20. The Imposition of the Death Penalty on Mexican Nationals in the United States and the Cultural, Legal and Political Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Olivero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews death penalty perspectives from the United States, Mexico and international law. The United States practices the death penalty on not only its citizens, but those of other nations who commit capital crimes. Mexico is a death penalty abolitionist state that takes significant issue with the United States over executing Mexican nationals. The paper analyzes the cultural, legal and political conflict between the two countries surrounding the application of the death penalty on Mexican nationals.

  1. An urban systems framework to assess the trans-boundary food-energy-water nexus: implementation in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Anu; Boyer, Dana; Singh Nagpure, Ajay; Fang, Andrew; Bogra, Shelly; Bakshi, Bhavik; Cohen, Elliot; Rao-Ghorpade, Ashish

    2017-02-01

    This paper develops a generalizable systems framework to analyze the food-energy-water (FEW) nexus from an urban systems perspective, connecting in- and trans-boundary interactions, quantifying multiple environmental impacts of community-wide FEW provisioning to cities, and visualizing FEW supply-chain risks posed to cities by the environment. Delhi’s community-wide food demand includes household consumption by socio-economic-strata, visitors- and industrial food-use. This demand depends 90%, 76%, and 86% on trans-boundary supply of FEW, respectively. Supply chain data reveal unique features of trans-boundary FEW production regions (e.g. irrigation-electricity needs and GHG intensities of power-plants), yielding supply chain-informed coupled energy-water-GHG footprints of FEW provisioning to Delhi. Agri-food supply contributes to both GHG (19%) and water-footprints (72%-82%) of Delhi’s FEW provisioning, with milk, rice and wheat dominating these footprints. Analysis of FEW interactions within Delhi found >75% in-boundary water-use for food is for urban agriculture and >76% in-boundary energy-use for food is from cooking fuels. Food waste-to-energy and energy-intensity of commercial and industrial food preparation are key data gaps. Visualizing supply chains shows >75% of water embodied in Delhi’s FEW supply is extracted from locations over-drafting ground water. These baseline data enable evaluation of future urban FEW scenarios, comparing impacts of demand shifts, production shifts, and emerging technologies and policies, within and outside of cities.

  2. Influence of long-range transboundary transport on atmospheric water vapor mercury collected at the largest city of Tibet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jie [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); Kang, Shichang, E-mail: shichang.kang@lzb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Cryospheric Sciences, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Tian, Lide [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Junming [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Qianggong; Cong, Zhiyuan [Key Laboratory of Tibetan Environment Changes and Land Surface Processes, Institute of Tibetan Plateau Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Tibetan Plateau Earth Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, Mikkeli FI 50130 (Finland); and others

    2016-10-01

    Monsoon circulation is an important process that affects long-range transboundary transport of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). During the Indian monsoon season of 2013, a total of 92 and 26 atmospheric water vapor samples were collected at Lhasa, the largest city of the Tibet, for Hg and major ions analysis, respectively. The relatively low pH/high electronic conductivity values, together with the fact that NH{sub 4}{sup +} in atmospheric water vapor was even higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa, indicated the effects of anthropogenic perturbations through long-range transboundary atmospheric transport. Concentrations of Hg in atmospheric water vapor ranged from 2.5 to 73.7 ng L{sup −1}, with an average of 12.5 ng L{sup −1}. The elevated Hg and major ions concentrations, and electronic conductivity values were generally associated with weak acidic samples, and Hg mainly loaded with anthropogenic ions such as NH{sub 4}{sup +}. The results of principal component analysis and trajectory analysis suggested that anthropogenic emissions from the Indian subcontinent may have largely contributed to the determined Hg in atmospheric water vapor. Furthermore, our study reconfirmed that below-cloud scavenging contribution was significant for precipitation Hg in Lhasa, and evaluated that on average 74.1% of the Hg in precipitation could be accounted for by below-cloud scavenging. - Highlights: • The low pH/high electronic conductivity was found in atmospheric water vapor. • Anthropogenic NH{sub 4}{sup +} was higher than that determined in precipitation of Lhasa. • Elevated Hg and major ions levels were usually associated with weak acidic samples. • Hg in atmospheric water vapor was largely influenced by transboundary transport. • Below-cloud scavenging accounted for most Hg in precipitation.

  3. The air quality and health impacts of domestic trans-boundary pollution in various regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Yim, S H L

    2016-12-01

    Air pollution is one of the most pressing environmental problems in China. Literature has reported that outdoor air pollution leads to adverse health problems every year in China. Recent measurement studies found the important regional nature of particulates in China. Trans-boundary air pollution within China has yet to be fully understood. This study aimed to comprehensively understand the processes of domestic trans-boundary air pollution in China and to apportion the impacts of emissions in different regions on air quality and public health. We applied a state-of-the-art air quality model to simulate air quality in China and then adapted a form of integrated concentration-response function for China to estimate the resultant amount of premature mortality due to exposures to PM2.5. Our findings show that domestic trans-boundary impacts (TBI), on average, account for 27% of the total PM2.5 in China. We estimated that outdoor air pollution caused ~870,000 (95% CI: 130,000-1500,000) premature mortalities in China in 2010, of which on average 18% are attributed to TBI. Among all the regions, North China is the largest contributor to TBI due to 41% of the health impacts of its emissions occurring in other regions. Taiwan (TW) is the smallest contributor to TBI occurring in China, contributing 2% of the national TBI, while TBI causes 22% of the premature mortalities due to outdoor air pollution in TW. Our findings pinpoint the significant impacts of TBI on public health in China, indicating the need for cross-region cooperation to mitigate the air quality impacts and the nation's resultant health problems.

  4. Institutional design and regime effectiveness in transboundary river management – the Elbe water quality regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dombrowsky

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature on transboundary river management suggests that institutions play an important role in bringing cooperation about. However, the knowledge on how they should be designed in order to do so remains limited. One way to learn more about adequate institutional design is to assess the effectiveness of existing regimes, and to trace the causal relationships leading to the respective outcomes. In order to gain further insights into the relationship of institutional design and regime effectiveness, this paper presents a study on the water quality regime of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The analysis is based on a review of pertinent documents and ten qualitative interviews with Czech and German Commission members and NGO representatives. Particular emphasis has been put on determining the ICPE's specific contribution and the no-regime counterfactual as well as on the perceived expedience of the institutional arrangements. The study shows that overall due to external as well as internal institutional factors the ICPE proved relatively successful, and as such it also provides insights into how institutions matter: The commission served as platform for joint problem solving by identifying priorities for action. These international obligations increased the power of national administrations and their access to funds. At the same time, the Commission's reporting to the public served as an enforcement mechanism. However, the ICPE's contribution towards achieving the various goals varied significantly between the different areas of activity. It was high where the main responsibility for action was with the public authorities, such as in the area of wastewater treatment and the establishment of an international alarm plan and model. It was practically non existent in the reduction of non-point pollution from agriculture, where the success depended on the behavior of individual private actors (farmers. From a

  5. Sustainable management of transboundary water resources (Belgium/France): Characterization and modelling of the Carboniferous aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, J.; Picot-Colbeaux, G.; Crastes de Paulet, F.; Rorive, A.; Bouvet, A.; Goderniaux, P.; Thiery, D.

    2016-12-01

    The Carboniferous Limestone groundwater extends from East to West across Belgium and the North of France (1420 km²). In a high population density and industrial activity region, it represents huge volumes of abstracted groundwater (98 Mm³). The aquifer thus constitutes a critical reserve for public distribution and industrial uses. This water reservoir is intensively exploited from both sides of the border since the end of the 19th century. Historically, this transboundary aquifer was overexploited, due to the massive requirements of the industry. As a consequence, a substantial piezometric level decrease was observed (up to 50 m). Due to the karstic nature of the aquifer, many sinkhole collapses were induced in the studied area. A reduction of the abstracted volumes was implemented in the 90s, which contributed to the relative stabilization of the piezometric levels, but the equilibrium remains uncertain. Due to complex political, urbanistic and industrial developments across this region, a reasonable and long-term management model was needed, involving all concerned countries and regions. Within the framework of the Interreg ScaldWIN Project, a belgo-french collaboration allowed the acquisition of new sets of geological and hydrogeological data. A new piezometric map was established and correlated with chemical and isotopic analyses. It enabled a more accurate knowledge on the main flow directions within the aquifer, and the relation between recharge area and the confined area, where groundwater is aged up to 10000 years. A new numerical model of the aquifer was implemented and calibrated by using the MARTHE code. This 4 layer-model includes a part of the French chalk aquifer and integrates all abstracted groundwater volumes (wells and quarries) from 1900 to 2010. Atmospheric and surface waters and potential evapotranspiration are included in relation to the groundwater. This model is used by the different partners to consider globally and locally the impact of

  6. International environmental agreements: institutional innovation in European transboundary air pollution policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castells, N. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    The analysis of International Environmental Agreements (IEAs) is addressed in this study by means of a cross-disciplinary approach with the purpose of building an explanatory framework that includes the various dimensions of the process leading to the definition of an IEA. It concentrates on analysing the factors underlying the emergence of international concern, which builds up to eventually overcome the necessary threshold that enables it to be ultimately transformed into an IEA. The critical factors to explain this dynamic process are analysed from the different disciplinary fields of the social sciences, so as to take advantage of the multiplicity of analytical tools that they contribute twofold. At the theoretical level, the study combines pre-existing analytical tools in an innovative way, as a meta-analytical exercise; at the empirical level, it analyses the most recent developments of a well-known case-study: the agreements on long-range transboundary air pollution in Europe. This is done by analysing in-depth the forthcoming legislation in the field, from the UN-ECE/LATAP Convention and the European Community, which are the two most relevant sources of legislation in this field for Europe. It addresses in particular the forthcoming LRTAP Protocol to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone and the recent European Commission's proposals for two Directives on National Emission Ceilings and Ozone in Ambient Air. The policy lessons of this study are that IEAs result from complex processes that depend on the interplay of multiple actors which represent different realities and interests. In order to achieve successful IEAs, these actors have found themselves involved in creating new networks for defining international policies that acknowledge uncertainty in scientific knowledge but do not use it for postponing political decisions. 322 refs.

  7. Transboundary conservation: An ecoregional approach to protect neotropical migratory birds in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Roberto; Adkins, Leslie; Wurschy, Maria Christina; Skerl, Kevin

    1996-11-01

    Future conservation efforts will need to transcend geopolitical boundaries in efforts to protect entire landscapes and ecosystems. Neotropical migratory birds are as a group a useful conservation tool for linking diverse landscapes and people due to their dependence on multiple habitats, sensitivity to habitat changes, and universal public appeal. The conservation of neotropical migrants can therefore function as a powerful hemispheric umbrella for ecosystem protection. Efforts to protect neotropical migratory birds on their nonbreeding grounds have traditionally been focused on Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. To assess the importance of South America to neotropical migrants, an ecoregional classification system was used to determine species distributions in the Andean/Southern Cone Region (Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela). The occurrence of migrants in protected areas that are part of The Nature Conservancy's Parks in Peril program was also assessed. Of the 406 neotropical migrant species, nearly one third (132) occur as regular nonbreeding residents in the region and for almost half of these species (53), South America is their main nonbreeding ground. All Parks in Peril sites were found to harbor neotropical migrants. Forty-eight species (36%) have declining longterm North American Breeding Bird Survey population trends and/or high Partners in Flight concern scores and thus are of significant conservation concern. Most importantly, 29 species (22%) of conservation concern use South America as their primary nonbreeding ground, indicating a need for focused conservation action. The nature of the ecoregional approach used in this endeavor makes future prioritization of ecoregions and conservation strategies for neotropical migrants across national boundaries possible. The ability to link diverse landscapes using a common element such as migratory birds allows for unique transboundary partnerships and opportunities for habitat

  8. Are Village Animal Health Workers Able to Assist in Strengthening Transboundary Animal Disease Control in Cambodia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, J; Toribio, J-A L M L; Suon, S; Young, J R; Cowled, B; Windsor, P A

    2017-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 445 Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) from 19 provinces in Cambodia was undertaken. The aim was to establish their levels of training, farm visit frequency, reasons for visits and disease reporting practices, enabling the strengths and weaknesses of the VAHW system in Cambodia to be determined, in providing both a fee-based smallholder livestock clinical service and a government partnership in transboundary animal disease (TAD) surveillance and control. The study used 'guided group interviews' and identified that VAHWs had good contact with farmers with 61.5% making more than one farm visit daily. However, incomes from services remained low, with 45% VAHWs obtaining between 20 and 40% of their household income from VAHW activities. VAHWs recorded relatively high rates of disease reporting, with 72% claiming they report diseases immediately and 74% undertaking monthly reporting to veterinary authorities. Logistic regression analysis revealed VAHW contact frequency with district and/or provincial officers was associated with more VAHW farm visits, and frequency of VAHW visits to smallholder farms was positively associated with average monthly expenditure on animal medication and equipment. This suggests that increased veterinary extension to VAHWs and access to veterinary equipment, vaccines and drugs may further increase VAHW-farmer engagement. VAHWs provide an accessible, market-based, animal health 'treatment and reporting' service linked to livestock smallholders across Cambodia. However, for improved TAD prevention and more efficient control of outbreaks, research that assesses provision of an animal health 'preventive-based' business model is urgently needed to reduce both the costs to farmers and the risks to the economy due to foot-and-mouth disease and other TADs in Cambodia. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J.; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-01

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  10. Effects of climate change and population growth on the transboundary Santa Cruz aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Christopher A.; Megdal, Sharon; Oroz, Lucas Antonio; Callegary, James; Vandervoet, Prescott

    2012-01-01

    The USA and Mexico have initiated comprehensive assessment of 4 of the 18 aquifers underlying their 3000 km border. Binational management of groundwater is not currently proposed. University and agency researchers plus USA and Mexican federal, state, and local agency staff have collaboratively identified key challenges facing the Santa Cruz River Valley Aquifer located between the states of Arizona and Sonora. The aquifer is subject to recharge variability, which is compounded by climate change, and is experiencing growing urban demand for groundwater. In this paper, we briefly review past, current, and projected pressures on Santa Cruz groundwater. We undertake first-order approximation of the relative magnitude of climate change and human demand drivers on the Santa Cruz water balance. Global circulation model output for emissions scenarios A1B, B1, and A2 present mixed trends, with annual precipitation projected to vary by ±20% over the 21st century. Results of our analysis indicate that urban water use will experience greater percentage change than climate-induced recharge (which remains the largest single component of the water balance). In the Mexican portion of the Santa Cruz, up to half of future total water demand will need to be met from non-aquifer sources. In the absence of water importation and with agricultural water use and rights increasingly appropriated for urban demand, wastewater is increasingly seen as a resource to meet urban demand. We consider decision making on both sides of the border and conclude by identifying short- and longer-term opportunities for further binational collaboration on transboundary aquifer assessment.

  11. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions, air quality and health have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  12. Data sharing in international transboundary contexts: The Vietnamese perspective on data sharing in the Lower Mekong Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thu, Hang Ngo; Wehn, Uta

    2016-05-01

    Transboundary data sharing is widely recognised as a necessary element in the successful handling of water-related climate change issues, as it is a means towards integrated water resources management (IWRM). However, in practice it is often a challenge to achieve it. The Mekong River Commission (MRC), an inter-governmental agency established by Cambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam, has adopted IWRM in its water strategy plan in order to properly manage the transboundary waters of the Mekong River. In this context, data sharing procedures were institutionalised and have been officially implemented by the four member countries since 2001. This paper uses a systematic approach to identify the extent of data sharing and the factors influencing the willingness of key individuals in the Vietnam National Mekong Committee and its Primary Custodians to share data. We find that the initial objectives of the Procedures for Data and Information Exchange and Sharing (PDIES) have not been fully achieved and, further, that Vietnam has much to gain and little to lose by engaging in data sharing in the MRC context. The primary motivation for data sharing stems from the desire to protect national benefits and to prevent upstream countries from overexploiting the shared water resources. However, data sharing is hindered by a lack of national regulations in the Vietnam context concerning data sharing between state agencies and outdated information management systems.

  13. DETERMINATION OF EFFICIENCY INDICES PERTAINING TO DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATION OF TRANS-BOUNDARY TRANSPORT AND LOGISTICS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Kopko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the system efficiency requires a special approach in terms of its level, content and interrelations with an external environment. In this regard logistic  systems are rather complicated that consist of a number of service sub-systems and designed at various levels.  Such system complexity requires a development of an efficient mechanism for its design and operation of objects of the trans-boundary transport logistics. The efficiency of the trans-boundary transport and logistic systems (TTLS can be described by a number of cost and physical indicators reflecting both market and traditional approaches. The TTLS have their own peculiar features concerning determination of efficiency that are related with the state regulation set of processes occurring  at border crossings. In order to assess the current operational process it is necessary to apply an index system which pays a special attention to a transport capability due to the TTLS specificity. While planning a custom automotive processing at a border checkpoint there is no need to aspire for an immediate passage of all vehicles by all means. The basic requirement is to maintain a transport capability in the operational zone. Thus an irregularity of incoming vehicles at border crossing points is smoothed out by regulating priorities pertaining to requirements of custom processing while using an urgency function of cargo transportation thereby ensuring an optimal operation of a customs post.

  14. Hotspot identification of trans-boundary water conflict due to anthropogenic water use and climate change in the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, A.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    A significant fraction of world population is projected to experience increased water stress in response to the combined effects of population growth and climate change. Some previous studies have suggested that high water stress had significant causality for civil war, and militarized conflict and trans-boundary water conflict in international river basin. On the other hand, some previous empirical analyses have found that institutionalization (e.g., specific provisions in trans-boundary freshwater treaties) in international river basin was associated with a lower risk of water conflicts during water scarcity. The purpose of this study is to identify these water conflict "hotspots", integrating institutional and governance mechanisms of adaptations to impact of water stress. These adaptations is classified to 4 abilities and skills and then used to calculate the adaptive capacity. The adaptive capacity includes the way to manage water conflict effectively, plan to deal with uncertainty in the future, alter current situation and create institutionalization with common perspective throughout the whole activities. This study identifies water conflict "hotspots" by combining high water stress areas projected by a global water resource model and a lower degree of the adaptive capacity. This study finds that 9 water conflict "hotspots" in Africa, Asia and South America.

  15. Mountain Water Tower and Ecological Risk Estimation of the Mesta-Nestos Transboundary River Basin (Bulgaria-Greece)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Mesta-Nestos river basin in Bulgaria and Greece is a case study for transboundary decision-making support in south-eastern Europe and a show-case for the development of methodologies and information-gathering for the integrated regional planning of water resources. Land-use conflicts in this water-scarce region cover a wide spectrum of activities like agricultural irrigation, drinking water production, diversions for industrial water, and risk of pollution from mining, to name a few examples.Measurements of the water quality were carried out in the upper basin. Results will be illustrated by the example of the environmental situation in the alpine region of the Pirin National Park as well as in the Razlog Basin with a stronger anthropogenic impact and pollution around a former uranium mine near the village of Ele(s)nica. The social and economic development of this transboundary region is a recently established priority for the future. It will mean an increase in water usage and more stress for the water resources if regional impacts of global climate change are verified. Problem-focused management of the catchment area as a whole on the basis of proved geo-data sets is needed for the future.

  16. Assessment of temporal hydrologic anomalies coupled with drought impact for a transboundary river flow regime: The Diyala watershed case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Faraj, Furat A. M.; Scholz, Miklas

    2014-09-01

    Recent increases in human activities in shared river basins have unquestionably raised concerns about potential hydrological impacts, especially impacts of dams and large-scale water withdrawal schemes in the highlands. Anthropogenic pressures twinned with drought impacts have exacerbated water management challenges. This article assesses the cumulative consequences of upstream anthropogenic pressures and drought spells on temporal river flow regimes for the downstream country. The size and complexity of problems confronting transboundary river watersheds makes it necessary to use a representative example basin to study the problems and potential solutions. The Diyala (Sīrvān) river basin, which shares dozens of transboundary watersheds between Iraq and Iran, has been selected as a representative case study. A subset of the Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) was utilised and climate variability was considered in assessing the combined effect of various forms of upstream human-river regulations and climatic conditions on natural flow regimes in the downstream state. Findings indicated that the anthropogenic river-regulation coupled with the impact of drought periods have noticeably modified the natural flow paradigm. The yearly average runoffs, which are no longer available for the downstream country, have soared to very high levels, particularly over the last fifteen years. More adverse impacts were detected in the non-rainy season. Findings reveal also that damming and considerable water diversion to large-scale irrigation projects in the upstream state are the main regulations affecting the management of shared water resources in the downstream country.

  17. Analysis and determination of susceptibility Risk from slope instability at Colima State Mexico due to the accelerators factors of rain and seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Ruiz, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Slope instability is presented each year in the mountain region of the Colima State, Mexico. It occurs due to the combination of different factors existing in this area as: Precipitation, topography contrast, type and mechanical properties of deposits that constitute the rocks and soils of the region and the erosion due to the elimination of vegetation deck to develop and grow urban areas. To these geological factors we can extend the tectonic activity of the Western part of Mexico that originate high seismicity by the interaction of Cocos plate and North America plate forming the region of Graben de Colima, were is located our study area. Here we will present a Zonification and determination of the Susceptibility maps of slope instability due to the rain and seismicity accelerators factors. The North part of the State Colima is covered by deposits of the Volcan de Colima with an elevation of 3860 masl. It is the area of major precipitation yearly with more than 1200 mm in comparison to the average precipitation of about 900 mm of the State of Colima. Using a SIG system and the mapping of more than 30 sites we realize a zonification and analysis of the Risk using a methodology developed by CENAPRED. The susceptibility map developed in this area in combination with erosion factors permit us to determine an approximation of the Risk considering some limitations that will be present in this study.

  18. Modelling as a means to promote water diplomacy in Southern Africa: the Stampriet Transboundary Aquifer System case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Carvalho Resende, Tales; Filali-Meknassi, Youssef; Puri, Shaminder; Kenabatho, Piet; Amakali, Maria; Majola, Kwazikwakhe; Rossetto, Rudy

    2017-04-01

    Within the framework of the "Governance of Groundwater Resources in Transboundary Aquifers" (GGRETA) project, funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), the Governments of Botswana, Namibia and South Africa, jointly with the UNESCO International Hydrological Programme (UNESCO-IHP) are undertaking an assessment of the Stampriet Transboundary Aquifer System (STAS). The importance of the STAS to the region draws from the fact that it is the only permanent and dependable water resource in the area, which covers 87000 km2 from Central Namibia into Western Botswana and South Africa's Northern Cape Province. The first phase of the project (2013-2015) focused on an assessment of the STAS which allowed establishing a shared science based understanding of the resource. The activities of the second phase of the project (2016-2018) will consolidate the technical results achieved and the tools developed in the first phase, and will strengthen capacity on groundwater governance at the national and transboundary levels to support the process of establishment of a multi-country cooperation mechanism (MCCM). The establishment of the STAS MCCM would be the first example of a mechanism for the management and governance of a transboundary aquifer in Southern Africa. The joint development of a numerical model is crucial to foster such cooperation as it provides a baseline for the formulation of sound policies for the governance of the STAS. The model is being developed through the application of the FREEWAT platform (within the H2020 FREEWAT project - FREE and open source software tools for WATer resource management; Rossetto et al., 2015), an open source and public domain GIS-integrated modelling environment for the simulation of the hydrological cycle. The FREEWAT project aims at improving water resource management by simplifying the application of water-related regulations through the use of modeling environments and GIS tools for storage, management and

  19. Modeling for transboundary water resources planning and allocation: the case of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Juízo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available International water resources agreements for transboundary rivers in southern Africa are generally founded in system analysis models for water planning and allocation. The Water Resources Yield Model (WRYM developed in South Africa has so far been the only model applied in official joint water resources studies aimed to form water-sharing agreements. The continuous discussion around the model performance and growing distress over it being South African, where it was originally developed, while South Africa is one of the interested parties in the process, results in an increased controversy over the system analysis results that are often only meant to guide in selecting the options for water resources management in a given set of scenarios. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the model performance of two other models; WAFLEX and WEAP21 in the Umbeluzi River Basin system where the WRYM was previously applied as part of a Joint River Basin Study. A set of basin development scenarios was equally tested in the three models and the results compared. The results show that the three models all are possible tools for system analysis of river basins in southern Africa, although the structure and complexity of the models are different. The obtained level of satisfaction for specific water users could, however, vary depending on which model was used, which causes uncertainties. The reason for the diverse results is the structurally different ways of describing allocation and prioritization of water in the three models. However, the large degrees of freedom in all system models cause even larger uncertainty in the results since the model developer can, intentionally or unintentionally, direct the results to favor certain water user. The conclusion of this study is therefore that the choice of model does not per se affect the decision of best water allocation and infrastructure layout of a shared river basin. The chosen allocation and

  20. Water Management for Competing Uses: Environmental Flows in the Transboundary Rio Grande/Rio Bravo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval Solis, S.; McKinney, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Introduction Due to high water demand, the scarcity of water, and the complexity of water allocation, environmental flows have not been considered as an integral part of the water management in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo transboundary basin. The Big Bend reach is located between the cities of Presidio/Ojinaga to Amistad international reservoir, along the main stream (Fig. 1). Important environmental habitats such as the Big Bend National and State Park in the U.S., the Maderas del Carmen, Cañon de Santa Elena and Ocampo natural reserved areas in Mexico are ecologically threatened because of the lack of environmental water management policies. Several efforts have been undertaken by scientists, government agencies and NGOs to determine the environmental flows for this reach and water management policies that can provide these flows. Objective The objective of this research is to describe a water management policy that can conciliate environmental and human water uses in the Big Bend region. In other words, define a policy that can provide environmental flows without harming water supply for stakeholders or increasing flood risk, within legal and physical constraints of the system. Methodology First, the system was characterized identifying water users, hydraulic infrastructure, and water allocation according to state, federal and international regulations. Second, a hydrograph for environmental flows was proposed that mimics the hydrologic characteristics of the prior dam alteration. Third, a water planning model was constructed to evaluate alternative policies. Fourth, the water management is proposed to provide environmental restoration flows from Luis L. Leon reservoir. This policy considers mechanisms that reduce flooding and drought risks, while meting national and international water regulations. Results Three types of natural flow regimes are considered: (1) median flows aimed to provide the base flow in the region, (2) high flows to provide transversal

  1. Institutional design and regime effectiveness in transboundary river management – the Elbe water quality regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dombrowsky

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature on transboundary river management suggests that institutions play an important role in bringing about cooperation. However, knowledge about how such institutions should be designed in order to do so remains limited. One way to learn more about adequate institutional design is to assess the effectiveness of existing regimes, and to trace the causal relationships that lead to the respective outcomes. In order to gain further insights into the relationship between institutional design and regime effectiveness, this paper presents a study on the water quality regime of the International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe (ICPE. The analysis is based on a review of pertinent documents and ten qualitative interviews with Czech and German Commission members and NGO representatives. Particular emphasis has been put on determining the ICPE's specific contribution and the no-regime counterfactual as well as on the perceived expediency of the institutional arrangements. The study shows overall that the countries were relatively successful in improving water quality in the Elbe basin. However, this outcome can only partly be attributed to the ICPE itself. Furthermore, the ICPE's contribution towards achieving the various goals varied significantly between the different areas of activity: it was relatively significant where the main responsibility for action lay with the public authorities, such as in the area of wastewater treatment and the establishment of an international alarm plan and model, but was practically non-existent in the reduction of non-point pollution from agriculture, where success depended on the behavior of individual private actors (farmers. The commission contributed towards problem solving by serving as a forum for the joint identification of priorities for action from a basin-wide perspective. The resulting international obligations increased the power of national water administrations and their access to funds

  2. Transboundary health impacts of transported global air pollution and international trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qiang; Jiang, Xujia; Tong, Dan; Davis, Steven J.; Zhao, Hongyan; Geng, Guannan; Feng, Tong; Zheng, Bo; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Ni, Ruijing; Brauer, Michael; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Huo, Hong; Liu, Zhu; Pan, Da; Kan, Haidong; Yan, Yingying; Lin, Jintai; He, Kebin; Guan, Dabo

    2017-03-29

    Millions of people die every year from diseases caused by exposure to outdoor air pollution1, 2, 3, 4, 5. Some studies have estimated premature mortality related to local sources of air pollution6, 7, but local air quality can also be affected by atmospheric transport of pollution from distant sources8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18. International trade is contributing to the globalization of emission and pollution as a result of the production of goods (and their associated emissions) in one region for consumption in another region14, 19, 20, 21, 22. The effects of international trade on air pollutant emissions23, air quality14 and health24 have been investigated regionally, but a combined, global assessment of the health impacts related to international trade and the transport of atmospheric air pollution is lacking. Here we combine four global models to estimate premature mortality caused by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) pollution as a result of atmospheric transport and the production and consumption of goods and services in different world regions. We find that, of the 3.45 million premature deaths related to PM2.5 pollution in 2007 worldwide, about 12 per cent (411,100 deaths) were related to air pollutants emitted in a region of the world other than that in which the death occurred, and about 22 per cent (762,400 deaths) were associated with goods and services produced in one region for consumption in another. For example, PM2.5 pollution produced in China in 2007 is linked to more than 64,800 premature deaths in regions other than China, including more than 3,100 premature deaths in western Europe and the USA; on the other hand, consumption in western Europe and the USA is linked to more than 108,600 premature deaths in China. Our results reveal that the transboundary health impacts of PM2.5 pollution associated with international trade are greater than those associated with long-distance atmospheric pollutant transport.

  3. Assessing the Ecological Integrity of a Major Transboundary Mediterranean River Based on Environmental Habitat Variables and Benthic Macroinvertebrates (Aoos-Vjose River, Greece-Albania)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chatzinikolaou, Y.; Dakos, V.; Lazaridou-Dimitriadou, M.

    2008-01-01

    Ecological integrity has become a primary objective in monitoring programs of surface waters according to the European Water Framework Directive. For this reason we propose a scheme for assessing the ecological integrity of a major transboundary river, the Aoos-Vjose (Greece-Albania), by analysing

  4. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2012. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandmo, Trond (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry) is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2012) for documentation on this topic.This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2011), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: Minor NOx emissions from production of rock wool, which previously not have been estimated, have been included, Some factors for estimation of N2O from agriculture have been altered

  5. Lead isotope ratios in six lake sediment cores from Japan Archipelago: Historical record of trans-boundary pollution sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosono, Takahiro, E-mail: hosono@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Alvarez, Kelly [Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kuwae, Michinobu [Senior Research Fellow Center, Ehime University, 2-5 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)

    2016-07-15

    Sediment cores from six lakes situated from north to south on the Japanese Archipelago were collected during 2009–2010 to investigate the hypothesis that deposition of lead (Pb) was coming from East Asia (including China, South Korea and eastern part of Russia). Accumulation rates and ages of the lake sediment were estimated by the {sup 210}Pb constant rate of supply model and {sup 137}Cs inputs to reconstruct the historical trends of Pb accumulation. Cores from four lakes located in the north and central Japan, showed clear evidence of Pb pollution with a change in the {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios in the recent sediment as compared to the deeper sediment. Among the six studied lakes, significant inputs of anthropogenic lead emissions were observed at Lake Mikazuki (north Hokkaido in north Japan), Lake Chokai (north of Honshu), and Lake Mikuriga (central part of Honshu). Pb isotopic comparison of collected core sediment and previously reported data for wet precipitation and aerosols from different Asian regions indicate that, before 1900, Pb accumulated in these three lakes was not affected by trans-boundary sources. Lake Mikazuki started to receive Pb emissions from Russia in early 1900s, and during the last two decades, this lake has been affected by trans-boundary Pb pollution from northern China. Lake Chokai has received Pb pollutant from northern China since early 1900s until 2009, whereas for the Lake Mikuriga the major Pb contaminant was transported from southern China during the past 100 years. The results of our study demonstrate that Japan Archipelago has received trans-boundary Pb emissions from different parts of East Asian region depending on location, and the major source region has changed historically. - Highlights: • Historical trend of Pb pollution was recorded in six Japanese Lakes. • Pb concentration and Pb isotope ratios were determined for sediment cores. • High [Pb] and less radiogenic Pb isotope ratios

  6. Hunza Landslide and Monsoon Flooding in Pakistan Call for International Attention to Transboundary Natural Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Fink, W.; Furfaro, R.; Leonard, G. J.; Patterson, M.; Glims, Gaphaz

    2010-12-01

    rockslide-formed Lake Gojal and of the region’s glacier dynamics seen by satellite to show the promise of remote sensing to address disaster management and hazard identification. However, the biggest role of remote sensing should be in the identification of hazard-prone situations, such as areas where landslides or the development of dangerous glacier lakes is likely. Increased satellite surveillance and deployment of air- and land surface-borne sensor platforms, and in some cases surface or subsurface watercraft, may aid the characterization of the landscape, identify geologic and climatic instabilities, and identify vulnerabilities among the people and infrastructure. A broad-based remote sensing program should fit within a coherent regional/international approach to the key related issues of natural hazards, water resources, urban planning, food security, hydropower, and environmental conservation. Notably, these issues all are interlinked to transboundary hydrology and climate change.

  7. A South African Perspective on a Possible Benefit-Sharing Approach for Transboundary Waters in the SADC Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Turton

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of benefit-sharing is emerging in the international discourse on transboundary water resource management with greater intensity than a decade ago. While it sounds simple, the concept is complex and benefits are difficult to quantify and thus the concept remains unconvincing to potentially sceptical negotiating partners. Any discourse on water resource management is based on a core logic. This paper tries to distil some elements of a proposed benefit-sharing approach, presenting an alternative core logic, showing how these differ from what can be thought of as the traditional paradigm. This work is linked to ongoing research at the South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, into benefit-sharing and processes of policy harmonisation, within the context of developing countries.

  8. Assessment of the uncertainties in air mass and pollutants transboundary exchange over the continental part of the EANET region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Sergey S.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey A.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we attempt to quantify the uncertainties in air mass exchange in the lower troposphere across two regions of the Russian border in Eastern Siberia and the Russian Far East in 2000-2015. We use meteorological data from long-term air sound data (ASD) on mean layer winds [1] and from the ERA INTERIM re-analysis (EIR) project [2]. Using a transboundary exchange model, we estimate the total and net amounts of air crossing the boundary segments around Irkutsk (IR) and Vladivostok (VL) aerological stations. We compare transport terms derived (i) from the long-term wind statistics based on both ASD and EIR data, and (ii) from integrating 6h meteorological winds from EIR directly over the border segments cells. We find similar wind direction statistics in both meteorological datasets, however EIR favours stronger westerly winds at VL in summer, which results in more often air export from China to Russia in the Far East. There is less agreement on the wind strengths than wind directions between the datasets, with EIR often providing slower wind speeds. The resulting climatic (ASD) and directly (from EIR 6h terms) calculated non-equilibrium (net) transport terms are comparable in orders (tens of million km3/month), however may differ substantially in temporal evolution or/and magnitude. Thus, EIR net transport over the IR segment has similar annual dynamics but is higher by a factor of ˜ 4 (maxima of 3.6 vs. 12 of 106 km3/month in December, respectively). An opposite ratio is derived for the VL segment (average ˜ 6 vs. 13 of 106 km3/month), with a distinct seasonality in the ASD but not in the EIR data. We attribute this discrepancy to the variations in wind direction with altitude, which cannot be resolved in the model fed with the ASD data. Calculated transport in the boundary layer (BL, provided by the EIR) supports this inference. Thus, the BL net transport temporal dynamics differ substantially from that within the 3 km layer, owing to the BL diurnal

  9. An international intercomparison of national network systems used to provide early warning of a nuclear accident having transboundary implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, I.M.G.; Andersen, C.E.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.

    2000-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl accident many countries now operate large national networks of radiation detectors that continuously monitor radiation levels in order to give early warning of nuclear accidents having transboundary implications. The networks are used to provide data to assist in determining...... be harmonised so that it can be accurately interpreted by other countries and by international organisations. To assist with such harmonisation an intercomparison was held during May/June 1999 at the Riso Natural Environmental Radiation Measurement Station in Denmark and at the PTB underground laboratory...... for dosimetry and spectrometry (UDO) in Germany. The main aim of the intercomparison was to help ensure that results reported by different countries during a nuclear accident will be consistent and comparable. It is important that during an emergency the measurements of the plume doses or contamination levels...

  10. Multiple Introductions of Zika Virus into the United States Revealed through Genomic Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-09

    Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL 33965, USA 6Bureau of Public Health Laboratories...of Florida to report Ae. aegypti-borne virus transmission is along the United States- Mexico border near Brownsville, TX25. This area also reported...Central Americas (Guatemala, Mexico , Suriname, and Venezuela), the Caribbean (Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Martinique, and Puerto Rico), and

  11. The Practice of Transboundary Decision Making on the Incomati River: Elucidating Underlying Factors and their Implications for Institutional Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill H. Slinger

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Incomati River Basin is shared by Mozambique, South Africa, and Swaziland. In August 2002, the groundbreaking "Tripartite Interim Agreement on Water Sharing of the Maputo and Incomati Rivers" (the IncoMaputo agreement was signed. Following reports that the use, availability, and adequacy of information posed problems for future decision making on this transboundary river, the Delft University of Technology initiated a 6-month study in 2003 in which 25 southern African researchers and officials were interviewed. The Joint Incomati Basin Study (Phase I from 1992-1995, and Phase II from 2000-2001 formed a central component in the investigation, because it was viewed by the parties involved as a successful experience that paved the way for the IncoMaputo agreement. Knowledge of the role that information played in this process and how decision making occurred was collated and analyzed. Network theory provided the guiding theoretical framework in interpreting the results. A number of problems related to information use in decision making were identified. More importantly, a web of underlying causes was identified, such as cultural and language differences, differences in perception, inadequacy of stakeholder involvement, variability in political commitment, lack of capacity, absence of operational experience, the weak mandate of the international decision-making body, and the paradoxical South African-Mozambican relationship. Two groups of factors in this web were identified as needing to change if the management of this transboundary river is to comply with the IncoMaputo agreement, namely the situational or institutional factors and the cognitive factors (particularly the perceptions each country holds of the other and the way they treat one another. Our analysis shows that, contrary to current international practice, when designing international institutional arrangements for water management, the sociopolitical interface should be considered

  12. Single-tube multiplexed molecular detection of endemic porcine viruses in combination with background screening for transboundary diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Detection of several pathogens with multiplexed real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays in a one-step setup allows the simultaneous detection of two endemic porcine and four different selected transboundary viruses. Reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR systems for the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), two of the most economically important pathogens of swine worldwide, were combined with a screening system for diseases notifiable to the World Organization of Animal Health, namely, classical and African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease, and Aujeszky's disease. Background screening was implemented using the identical fluorophore for all four different RT-qPCR assays. The novel multiplex RT-qPCR system was validated with a large panel of different body fluids and tissues from pigs and other animal species. Both reference samples and clinical specimens were used for a complete evaluation. It could be demonstrated that a highly sensitive and specific parallel detection of the different viruses was possible. The assays for the notifiable diseases were even not affected by the simultaneous amplification of very high loads of PRRSV- and PCV2-specific sequences. The novel broad-spectrum multiplex assay allows in a unique form the routine investigation for endemic porcine pathogens with exclusion diagnostics of the most important transboundary diseases in samples from pigs with unspecific clinical signs, such as fever or hemorrhages. The new system could significantly improve early detection of the most important notifiable diseases of swine and could lead to a new approach in syndromic surveillance.

  13. Endocrine disrupting compounds in streams in Israel and the Palestinian West Bank: Implications for transboundary basin management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Pniela; Yeshayahu, Maayan; Odeh, Wa'd; Gordon-Kirsch, Nina; Groisman, Ludmila; Al-Khateeb, Nader; Abed Rabbo, Alfred; Tal, Alon; Arnon, Shai

    2017-09-12

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) frequently enter surface waters via discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as well as from industrial and agricultural activities, creating environmental and health concerns. In this study, selected EDCs were measured in water and sediments along two transboundary streams flowing from the Palestinian Authority (PA) into Israel (the Zomar-Alexander and Hebron-Beer Sheva Streams). We assessed how the complicated conflict situation between Israel and the PA and the absence of a coordinated strategy and joint stream management commission influence effective EDC control. Both streams receive raw Palestinian wastewater in their headwaters, which flows through rural areas and is treated via sediment settling facilities after crossing the 1949 Armistice Agreement Line. Four sampling campaigns were conducted over two years, with concentrations of selected EDCs measured in both the water and the sediments. Results show asymmetrical pollution profiles due to socio-economic differences and contrasting treatment capacities. No in-stream attenuation was observed along the stream and in the sediments within the Palestinian region. After sediment settling in treatment facilities at the Israeli border, however, significant reductions in the EDC concentrations were measured both in the sediments and in the water. Differences in sedimentation technologies had a substantial effect on EDC removal at the treatment location, positively affecting the streams' ability to further remove EDCs downstream. The prevailing approach to addressing the Israeli-Palestinian transboundary wastewater contamination reveals a narrow perspective among water managers who on occasion only take local interests into consideration, with interventions focused solely on improving stream water quality in isolated segments. Application of the "proximity principle" through the establishment of WWTPs at contamination sources constitutes a preferable strategy for

  14. Integrating EO data for applying the Nexus of water, energy and agriculture to monitor SDG Indicators within transboundary river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalidis, G.; Kavvada, A.; Crisman, T.

    2016-12-01

    The NEXUS of water, energy and agriculture is widely recognized as an integrated approach for innovative management solutions and actions to protect natural resources. Soil Spectral Libraries (SSL) implement the NEXUS approach by combining Earth Observation (EO) and Geospatial Information (GI) data and tools to extract information on soil attributes rapidly, reliably and cost effectively. NEXUS approach for soil resources at large scales- across landscapes or regions- remains a challenge however, especially for stakeholders, and in regards to promoting the concept, disseminating the methodology, and discussing potential benefits at both local and transboundary river basin levels. The CEOS Data Cube is an excellent tool for collecting, processing and disseminating EO data, and providing `Analysis Ready Data' utilized both as a management tool for policy makers, and a tool boosting economic activity and supporting end-users. Thus, it helps supporting the tracking of, and reporting on, the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and promoting targeted approaches to address specific SDG Indicators. Although several European projects in the Balkan transboundary river basin areas focus on existing/potential ties to specific SDG Indicators under the leadership of i-BEC, data are lacking for some regions, and there is an exigent need for country/region - specific case studies. A case study in Albania, the 3rd for CEOS and the 1st for Europe, will seek to build synergies between different sectors and activities (water, energy, food) and natural resources, while also accounting for ecosystem climate- regulating functions. This will contribute to the global expansion of the Data Cube initiative, while adding high quality datasets in GEOSS. Engagement of EO ecosystem stakeholders, together with National Statistical Offices, regionally and globally, should exploit the networking capacities of multipliers, maximizing the impact and reach of SSL. The H2020 project GEOCRADLE has

  15. Transboundary geothermal resources of the Mura-Zala basin: a need for joint thermal aquifer management of Slovenia and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Nador

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Large transboundary Upper Miocene geothermal sandy aquifers which are widely utilized by both countries forbalneological and direct heat purposes exist in the Slovenian-Hungarian border region. In NE Slovenia the totaldirect heat use was 382 TJ in 2010, while in SW Hungary it was 648 TJ, including utilization from basement reservoirs.The total installed capacity of the 13 Slovenian users was 38.8 MWt, while that of the 29 Hungarian userswas 70.6 MWt. Utilisation takes place without harmonized management strategies which might endanger the longtermsustainability of these systems. We aimed to overcome this by delineating a transboundary thermal groundwaterbody (TTGWB Mura-Zala with an aerial extent of 4,974 km2 and with vertical extent between depths 500–2,200 m, which was done based on detailed geological, hydrological, geochemical and geothermal models as wellas numerical modelling. The regional groundwater flow in the Mura-Zala TTGWB is from west to east in general,the modeled cross-border flow is approximately 50 l/s. At present, thermal water abstraction rates from the Mura/Újfalu Fm. (61.8 l/s in the Slovenian and 67.3 l/s in the Hungarian part of the TTGWB does not endanger the goodregional quantity status of the water body, and this should be maintained by allowing a maximum increase of thermalwater abstraction 3.5 times higher than today. However, to achieve target numbers for an increased proportionof geothermal energy in the total energy mix in both countries, we suggest that increase of thermal efficiency andre-injection should be prioritized apart from the higher thermal water abstraction with setting up limit of themaximum allowable drawdown.

  16. Composition and mixing states of brown haze particle over the Himalayas along two transboundary south-north transects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhiwen; Kang, Shichang; Guo, Junming; Zhang, Qianggong; Wang, Xuejia; Qin, Dahe

    2017-05-01

    Pollutants that are usually transported from southern Asia to the Tibetan Plateau deposit on the Plateau surface, change snow albedo and thereby surface radiative flux. This results numerous climatic implications like as erratic monsoon, perturbation in hydrological cycle, etc. However, the accurate estimation of these climatic implications is not well understood, because the atmospheric pollution is a heterogeneous mixture of various particle types. Therefore, this part of climate research requires a detailed investigation of physical and chemical properties of atmospheric pollutants. This study aimed to examine the physical and chemical properties of atmospheric pollutants across the Himalayan regions along two transboundary south-north transects. The information of individual-particles was obtained using microscopy-based techniques that comprises transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX). Study capture the signatures of various types of atmospheric species such as black carbon (BC), mineral dust, fly ash, organic matter, sulfate, nitrite, ammonium, and NaCl. Microscopy-based techniques confirm that these particles were generally in mixing state, for example salt-coated particles accounting for 25-56% of the total particles in sampled locations. Our analysis shows that urban and rural locations are characterized with atmospheric particles which sourced from anthropogenic activities, whereas remote locations with those released from natural crustal. However, the relative contributions of anthropogenic particles were higher than that of particles released from natural crustal. The presence of such particles over remote locations of Himalayan region provides an evidence of prevailing atmospheric transport processes, which further need to be well understood. It is expected that this work would be helpful in understanding the regional atmospheric conditions and the transboundary transport process of haze particles. As these

  17. LAS AGUAS SUBTERRÁNEAS TRANSFRONTERIZAS MÉXICO-ESTADOS UNIDOS: IMPORTANCIA E INVISIBILIDAD DENTRO DEL CONTEXTO DEL TLCAN/Transboundary groundwater US-Mexico: invisibility and importance in the context of NAFTA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalo Hatch Kuri; Verónica Ibarra García

    2015-01-01

      This paper identifies the importance of transboundary groundwater between Mexico and the US in relation to legal gaps within its regulation on the different scales of management, handling and pumping...

  18. LAS AGUAS SUBTERRÁNEAS TRANSFRONTERIZAS MÉXICO-ESTADOS UNIDOS: IMPORTANCIA E INVISIBILIDAD DENTRO DEL CONTEXTO DEL TLCAN/Transboundary groundwater US-Mexico: invisibility and importance in the context of NAFTA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuri, Gonzalo Hatch

    2015-01-01

    This paper identifies the importance of transboundary groundwater between Mexico and the US in relation to legal gaps within its regulation on the different scales of management, handling and pumping...

  19. International cooperation problems on transboundary rivers in Kazakhstan%哈萨克斯坦跨界河流国际合作问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓铭江

    2012-01-01

    哈萨克斯坦是中亚地区的“大国”,与四周比邻的国家均存在跨界水体联系,有44%的地表水来自邻国.跨界河流水资源开发利用与生态环境保护问题,是涉及国家政治、经济、安全、外交大局的重大战略问题.通过分析哈国地表水分布特点,简要回顾总结了与其邻国在跨界河流方面的合作情况;对哈国所担忧的水安全问题及采取的主要对策,进行了深入剖析,并就跨界河流管理未来的合作路径、跨界河流利用未来的分水原则、哈俄跨界河流水污染未来的解决途径、中亚国家间解决咸海危机的前提条件等问题,进行了分析讨论;指出对共享水资源的管理既可以成为中亚地区和平的力量,也可能成为冲突的因素,管理这种相互依存的资源是当今国际社会面临的一项关系人类发展的重大挑战.研究哈萨克斯坦跨界河流国际合作及其对核心利益问题的观点、认识、所采取的不同策略,对于处理好中哈跨界河流问题具有积极现实意义.%Kazakhstan is a great nation in Central Asia area; it has transboundary water body relation with surrounding neighboring countries, 44% of the surface water from neighboring countries. Water resources development and utilization in transboundary rivers and ecological environment protection that are major strategic problems involved with national politics, economy, security and foreign overall situation. This article systematically analyzes distribution feature of the surface water in Kazakhstan, briefly reviews the cooperation with its neighboring countries in the aspect of transboundary rivers, profoundly analyzes the main countermeasures adopted for the anxious issue of water safety, analytically discusses the problems such as future cooperation path for the management of transboundary rivers, future distributive principle for water utilization of transboundary rivers, future solution for the water

  20. After Indonesia’s Ratification: The ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution and Its Effectiveness As a Regional Environmental Governance Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Heilmann

    2015-01-01

    On 20 January 2015 Indonesia deposited its instrument of ratification for the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution with the ASEAN Secretariat, becoming the last ASEAN member state to join the treaty. Haze pollution poses a serious health threat to the people of Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia, and for decades haze pollution has been a highly contentious issue among ASEAN member states. This article argues that Indonesia's ratification will not be an immediate game changer. The me...

  1. Upravlenie transgranichnymi vodnymi resursami: sravnitel'nyj analiz rossijskogo i amerikanskogo opyta [Management of Trans-boundary Water Resources: Comparing Russian and American Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanko Dmitry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a comparative analysis of Russia and US’s experience of participation in international cooperation in the field of trans-boundary water management. The author showcases the work of Russian-Estonian Commission for Protection and Rational Use of Trans-Boundary Waters and the US-Canadian International Joint Commission. The Russian-Estonian Commission works in accordance with the principle of intergovernmentalism, whereas transnationalism is the founding principle of the International Joint Commission in North America. Though the Russian-Estonian Commission is more efficient in water quality improvement in its area of responsibility, it is early still to claim that intergovernmental cooperation is more effective than transnational cooperation. However, it gives a reason to question the conclusions of the proponents of transnationalism in the international relations theory, who claim that the latter is more efficient. Practical significance of this paper is in the proposed recommendations for further modernization of international cooperation in the field of trans-boundary water management.

  2. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2011. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandmo, Trond

    2012-07-01

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2011b) for documentation on this topic. This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2010), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: To define the different economic sectors in the Norwegian emission model, the standard industrial classification SIC2007 has replaced the previous SIC2002 (Appendix F) A new model for calculating emissions to air (HBEFA

  3. Characterization of rainwater chemical composition after a Southeast Asia haze event: insight of transboundary pollutant transport during the northeast monsoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadzir, Mohd Shahrul Mohd; Lin, Chin Yik; Khan, Md Firoz; Latif, Mohd Talib; Dominick, Doreena; Hamid, Haris Hafizal Abdul; Mohamad, Noorlin; Maulud, Khairul Nizam Abdul; Wahab, Muhammad Ikram Abdul; Kamaludin, Nurul Farahana; Lazim, Mohamad Azwani Shah Mat

    2017-06-01

    Open biomass burning in Peninsula Malaysia, Sumatra, and parts of the Indochinese region is a major source of transboundary haze pollution in the Southeast Asia. To study the influence of haze on rainwater chemistry, a short-term investigation was carried out during the occurrence of a severe haze episode from March to April 2014. Rainwater samples were collected after a prolonged drought and analyzed for heavy metals and major ion concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. The chemical composition and morphology of the solid particulates suspended in rainwater were examined using a scanning electron microscope coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The dataset was further interpreted using enrichment factors (EF), statistical analysis, and a back trajectory (BT) model to find the possible sources of the particulates and pollutants. The results show a drop in rainwater pH from near neutral (pH 6.54) to acidic (event in the study area. These findings can be useful in identifying contributions of pollutants from single or multiple sources in rainwater samples during haze episodes.

  4. Transboundary nuclear risks and legal entitlement to be protected under international law. Grenzueberschreitendes nukleares Risiko und voelkerrechtlicher Schutzanspruch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handl, G.

    1992-01-01

    The study in hand examines the conditions supporting and governing the legal entitlement of a state affected by the potential hazards of a nuclear installation in a neighbouring state to be protected against such hazards, and to enforce such entitlement on a bilateral level, based on international law, in order to guarantee the integrity of the state's territory and its population. There are three basic items to be investigated: (1) the objective definition of the transboundary nuclear risk, which in the bilateral relationship between the risk-exposed state and the installation state creates a right to claim protection on the part of the exposed state; (2) the concrete definition of this bilateral entitlement to be protected from the nuclear risks, i.e. after an 'internationalization' of the decision-making processes underlying the erection and operation of nuclear installations and the subsequent waste management; (3) the international leagal obligations to be fulfilled to compensate for nuclear damage as a result of incidents or accidents in a nuclear installation. (orig./HP).

  5. Trans-Boundary Infrastructure and Changes in Rural Livelihood Diversity in the Southwestern Amazon: Resilience and Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Perz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure has long been a priority in development policy, but there is debate over infrastructure impacts. Whereas economic studies show reductions in poverty, social research has documented growing income inequality. We suggest that a focus on livelihoods permits a bridge between the two literatures by highlighting decisions by households that may capture economic benefits but also yield social inequalities. We therefore take up two questions. First is whether new infrastructure allows households to diversify their livelihoods, where diversity begets resilience and thus affords livelihood sustainability. Second is whether households with more diverse livelihoods exhibit greater increases in livelihood diversity, which would widen livelihood inequalities. We take up the case of the Inter-Oceanic Highway, a trans-boundary infrastructure project in the southwestern Amazon. Findings from a rural household survey for the first question show a strong effect of accessibility on increasing livelihood diversity in areas receiving infrastructure upgrades, an indication that infrastructure fosters household resilience. However, results regarding the second question indicate that households with more diversified livelihoods also exhibit larger increments in diversity, which implies growing livelihood inequality. There remains a need to account for inequalities in livelihood diversity, since less diversified households benefit less from new infrastructure and remain more exposed to risks to their livelihoods.

  6. Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Transboundary River Basin: The Case of Tonle Sap Lake, Mekong River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Keskinen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The water-energy-food nexus is promoted as a new approach for research and policy-making. But what does the nexus mean in practice and what kinds of benefits does it bring? In this article we share our experiences with using a nexus approach in Cambodia’s Tonle Sap Lake area. We conclude that water, energy and food security are very closely linked, both in the Tonle Sap and in the transboundary Mekong River Basin generally. The current drive for large-scale hydropower threatens water and food security at both local and national scales. Hence, the nexus provides a relevant starting point for promoting sustainable development in the Mekong. We also identify and discuss two parallel dimensions for the nexus, with one focusing on research and analysis and the other on integrated planning and cross-sectoral collaboration. In our study, the nexus approach was particularly useful in facilitating collaboration and stakeholder engagement. This was because the nexus approach clearly defines the main themes included in the process, and at the same time widens the discussion from mere water resource management into the broader aspects of water, energy and food security.

  7. 试析越界环境损害民事责任价值定位%Value Orientation of Civil Liability for Transboundary Environmental Harm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈嘉

    2011-01-01

    Value orientation is the core issue of the theory of civil liability for transboundary environmental harm,as it is the basis of the imputation principle,the subject and the realization path of civil liability.According to the articles in the draft principles on the allocation of loss,value orientation should contain compensation value and protection value.Before detailed discussions on value orientation,this article gives a brief introduction to traditional state liability and the dilemma of state compensation liability for transboundary environmental harm.Based on the discussions,the author elaborates the developmental situation and advantages of the civil liability for transboundary environmental harm.%价值定位是越界环境损害民事责任的理论核心问题,无论是民事责任归责原则、民事责任主体还是民事责任的实现路径都以此为基础。从损失分配草案条文出发,其应具备补偿价值和保护价值。在具体论述之前,对传统国家责任及国家赔偿责任在越界环境损害中的困境作了简要介绍,并指出原因,在此基础上,阐述了民事责任在越界环境损害中的发展状况及优势。

  8. A unified hydrogeological conceptual model of the Milk River transboundary aquifer, traversing Alberta (Canada) and Montana (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétré, Marie-Amélie; Rivera, Alfonso; Lefebvre, René; Hendry, M. Jim; Folnagy, Attila J. B.

    2016-11-01

    A conceptual model of the transboundary Milk River Aquifer (MRA), extending across the Canada-USA border, was developed based on literature, focused fieldwork and a three-dimensional geological model. The MRA corresponds to the Virgelle Member of the Milk River Formation (Eagle Formation in Montana, USA) and it is an important groundwater resource over a large area (25,000 km2). The Virgelle outcrops near the international border and along the Sweet Grass Arch in Montana. The down-gradient limit of the MRA is the unconformity separating the Virgelle from the gas-bearing sandy shale of the Alderson Member. The MRA is confined above by the Pakowki/Claggett Formations aquitards and below by the Colorado Group aquitard. The MRA contains higher transmissivity areas resulting in preferential flowpaths, confirmed by natural geochemical tracers. Tritium and 14C delineate restricted recharge areas along the outcrops on both sides of the international border. Drastic decreases in horizontal hydraulic gradients indicate that the Milk River intercepts a large proportion of groundwater flowing to the north from the recharge area. Downgradient of the Milk River, groundwater movement is slow, as shown by 36Cl residence times exceeding 1 Ma. These slow velocities imply that groundwater discharge downgradient of the Milk River is via vertical leakage through the Colorado Group and upward along buried valleys, which act as drains and correspond to artesian areas. When confined, the MRA contains a fossil groundwater resource, not significantly renewed by modern recharge. Groundwater exploitation thus far exceeds recharge, a situation requiring properly managed MRA groundwater depletion.

  9. Quantifying Temporal Variations in Water Resources of the Saq Transboundary Aquifer System and Identification of their Controlling Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallatah, O.; Ahmed, M.; Save, H.; Akanda, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Abstract: Monthly (April 2002—April 2015) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity field solutions, acquired over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia/Jourdan transboundary aquifer system, the Saq aquifer, were analyzed and spatiotemporally correlated with other relevant land surface models (e.g., GLDAS), remote sensing (e.g., CMAP, NDVI), and field (e.g., water levels) datasets to quantify the temporal variations in the Saq'a water resources and to identify the factors that control these variations. Examination of the GRACE-derived Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) and Groundwater Storage (GWS) data indicates the following: (1) the Saq aquifer system is witnessing a TWS and GWS depletion rates of -9.05 ± 0.25 mm/yr (-4.84 ± 0.13 km3/yr) and -6.52 ± 0.29 mm/yr (-3.49 ± 0.15 km3/yr), respectively, related to both climatic and anthropogenic factors, (2) the observed TWS depletion rates is partially related to decline in rainfall as evident from comparison of average annual precipitation (AAP) for the investigated period to the previous 23 years (AAP: 1979—2001: 104 mm; 2002—2014: 60 mm), (3) the observed GWS depletion in the Saq aquifer is attributed to groundwater extraction activities for irrigation purposes, and (4) the observed GRACE-derived GWS depletion is highly correlated with the observed water level depletion rates within the investigated wells. Our analysis indicate that the availability of the global monthly GRACE solutions is providing, and will continue to provide, the most practical, informative, and cost-effective tool for monitoring the aquifer systems across the world.

  10. National implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution (effects). Pt. 1. Deposition loads: methods, modelling and mapping results, trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauger, Thomas [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. of Agroecology (FAL-AOE); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Navigation; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Roesemann, Claus [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. of Agroecology (FAL-AOE)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    The report on the implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution Pt.1, deposition loads (methods, modeling and mapping results, trends) includes the following chapters: Introduction, deposition on air pollutants used for the input for critical loads in exceeding calculations, methods applied for mapping total deposition loads, mapping wet deposition, wet deposition mapping results, mapping dry deposition, dry deposition mapping results, cloud and fog mapping results, total deposition mapping results, modeling the air concentration of acidifying components and heavy metals, agricultural emissions of acidifying and eutrophying species.

  11. Exploring the Potential Impact of Serious Games on Social Learning and Stakeholder Collaborations for Transboundary Watershed Management of the St. Lawrence River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wietske Medema

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The meaningful participation of stakeholders in decision-making is now widely recognized as a crucial element of effective water resource management, particularly with regards to adapting to climate and environmental change. Social learning is increasingly being cited as an important component of engagement if meaningful participation is to be achieved. The exact definition of social learning is still a matter under debate, but is taken to be a process in which individuals experience a change in understanding that is brought about by social interaction. Social learning has been identified as particularly important in transboundary contexts, where it is necessary to reframe problems from a local to a basin-wide perspective. In this study, social learning is explored in the context of transboundary water resource management in the St. Lawrence River Basin. The overarching goal of this paper is to explore the potential role of serious games to improve social learning in the St. Lawrence River. To achieve this end, a two-pronged approach is followed: (1 Assessing whether social learning is currently occurring and identifying what the barriers to social learning are through interviews with the region’s water resource managers; (2 Undertaking a literature review to understand the mechanisms through which serious games enhance social learning to understand which barriers serious games can break down. Interview questions were designed to explore the relevance of social learning in the St. Lawrence River basin context, and to identify the practices currently employed that impact on social learning. While examples of social learning that is occurring have been identified, preliminary results suggest that these examples are exceptions rather than the rule, and that on the whole, social learning is not occurring to its full potential. The literature review of serious games offers an assessment of such collaborative mechanisms in terms of design principles

  12. 澜沧江-湄公河合作机制与跨境安全治理%The Lancang-Mekong Cooperation Framework and Transboundary Security Governance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢光盛; 张励

    2016-01-01

    跨境安全问题是影响中国与缅甸、泰国、老挝、柬埔寨、越南5个下湄公河国家政治经济合作的关键因素,同时也是关系澜沧江—湄公河次区域合作水平能否冲破瓶颈的重要条件。现有的大湄公河次区域经济合作、东盟—湄公河流域开发合作机制、湄公河委员会等多边机制对于跨境安全问题捉襟见肘、应对不力。2015年11月中国提出的澜沧江—湄公河合作机制正式建立,其合作内容涵盖政治安全、经济和可持续发展、社会人文3个重点领域。因此,该机制的建立为解决次区域内跨界安全问题、深化区域合作提供了新的机遇,也为中国展现其国际秩序建设能力提供了新的平台和渠道。本文先就澜沧江—湄公河合作机制下跨境安全治理的相关概念、研究现状进行分析,接着探讨澜沧江—湄公河次区域内的跨境安全问题、根源与影响,最后指出通过夯实中国与下湄公河国家的互信基础,构建跨境安全治理的合作平台,发挥中国在跨境安全治理中的建设性作用,发挥次国家政府的能动作用,处理好与域外国家和其他合作机制的竞合关系,开展跨境安全治理的早期收获等路径来发挥澜沧江—湄公河机制的跨境安全治理作用,有效应对澜沧江—湄公河次区域的跨境安全问题。%The transboundary security issues are the key to the political and economic cooperation between China and the Lower Mekong Countries, namely, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. They are also fundamental for breaking bottleneck in the level of cooperation in the Lanccang-Mekong subregion. These existing the Great Mekong Subre-gion Economic Cooperation, ASEAN Mekong Basin Development Cooperation and the Mekong River Commission cannot be powerful enough when dealing with the transboundary security issues. The Lancang-Mekong Cooperation Framework came up with by

  13. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world’s largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  14. 中国跨境水资源的脆弱性及其影响因子%Transboundary water vulnerability and its drivers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯彦; 何大明

    2009-01-01

    Competitive use of transboundary freshwater resources is becoming one of the key factors influencing regional peace and political relationship among states. In China, 18 major international river basins are concentrated in three regions, of which the total annual outflow at the border is 7320×108 m3, occupying 26.8% of the total annual runoff of China, and the inflow at the border is only 172×108 m3. In this paper, we analyzed the major drivers affecting shared water vulnerability in China, namely: (1) changes in physical conditions affecting the availability of water; (2) competing objectives between economic development and ecological conservation; (3) lack of emergency response mechanisms; (4) unsound administrative in-stitutions; and (5) shortcomings in the development of regional cooperation based on trans-boundary waters. We concluded by identifying four pathways for reducing vulnerability: (1) encouraging scientific research cooperation; (2) constructing information-sharing channels; (3) establishing early-warning mechanisms; and (4) promoting further coordination and negotia-tion.

  15. The transboundary non-renewable Nubian Aquifer System of Chad, Egypt, Libya and Sudan: classical groundwater questions and parsimonious hydrogeologic analysis and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Clifford I.; Soliman, Safaa M.

    2014-03-01

    Parsimonious groundwater modeling provides insight into hydrogeologic functioning of the Nubian Aquifer System (NAS), the world's largest non-renewable groundwater system (belonging to Chad, Egypt, Libya, and Sudan). Classical groundwater-resource issues exist (magnitude and lateral extent of drawdown near pumping centers) with joint international management questions regarding transboundary drawdown. Much of NAS is thick, containing a large volume of high-quality groundwater, but receives insignificant recharge, so water-resource availability is time-limited. Informative aquifer data are lacking regarding large-scale response, providing only local-scale information near pumps. Proxy data provide primary underpinning for understanding regional response: Holocene water-table decline from the previous pluvial period, after thousands of years, results in current oasis/sabkha locations where the water table still intersects the ground. Depletion is found to be controlled by two regional parameters, hydraulic diffusivity and vertical anisotropy of permeability. Secondary data that provide insight are drawdowns near pumps and isotope-groundwater ages (million-year-old groundwaters in Egypt). The resultant strong simply structured three-dimensional model representation captures the essence of NAS regional groundwater-flow behavior. Model forecasts inform resource management that transboundary drawdown will likely be minimal—a nonissue—whereas drawdown within pumping centers may become excessive, requiring alternative extraction schemes; correspondingly, significant water-table drawdown may occur in pumping centers co-located with oases, causing oasis loss and environmental impacts.

  16. Inter-annual variability of air mass and acidified pollutants transboundary exchange in the north-eastern part of the EANET region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Sergey A.; Trifonova-Yakovleva, Alisa; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions, be it exhaust gases or aerosols, stem from multitude of sources and may survive long-range transport within the air masses they were emitted into. So they follow regional and global transport pathways varying under different climatological regimes. Transboundary transfer of pollutants occurs this way and has a significant impact on the ecological situation of the territories neighbouring those of emission sources, as found in a few earlier studies examining the environmental monitoring data [1]. In this study, we employ a relatively facile though robust technique for estimating the transboundary air and concomitant pollutant fluxes using actual or climatological meteorological and air pollution monitoring data. Practically, we assume pollutant transfer being proportional to the horizontal transport of air enclosed in the lower troposphere and to the concentration of the pollutant of interest. The horizontal transport, in turn, is estimated using the mean layer wind direction and strength, or their descriptive statistics at the individual transects of the boundary of interest. The domain of our interest is the segment of Russian continental border in East Asia spanning from 88° E (southern Middle Siberia) to 135° E (Far East at Pacific shore). The data on atmospheric pollutants concentration are available from the Russian monitoring sites of the region-wide Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET, http://www.eanet.asia/) Mondy (Baikal area) and Primorskaya (near Vladivostok). The data comprises multi-year continuous measurement of gas-phase and particulate species abundances in air with at least biweekly sampling rate starting from 2000. In the first phase of our study, we used climatological dataset on winds derived from the aerological soundings at Russian stations along the continental border for the 10-year period (1961-1970) by the Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information - World Data Centre (RIHMI-WDC) [3

  17. Monitoring Lake Victoria Water Quality from Space: Opportunities for Strengthening Trans-boundary Information Sharing for Effective Resource Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugo, R. M.; Korme, T.; Farah, H.; Nyaga, J. W.; Irwin, D.; Flores, A.; Limaye, A. S.; Artis, G.

    2014-12-01

    converted to croplands. On-going dissemination of our findings together with capacity building efforts with the three main fishery and research institutions working in the lake, will enable informed decision making for the water management of LV. Enhanced capacity in trans-boundary water resources research is critical for successful decision making.

  18. 3D geological modeling of the transboundary basin Berzdof-Radomierzyce in Upper Lusatia (Germany/Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszyn, Iwona; Merkel, Broder; Stanek, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    Keywords: Numerical modeling, Paradigm GOCAD, Berzdorf basin (Germany), Radomierzyce basin (Poland), Upper Lusatia. The accuracy of three-dimensional (3D) models depends on their data density and quality. Regions with a complex geology can be a challenge to model, especially if detailed models are required to support a further economic exploitation of a region. In this research, a 3D model was created based on the region's complicated geological condition. The focus area, the Berzdorf - Radomierzyce basin, located in Upper Lusatia on the Polish - German border to the south of the city of Görlitz - Zgorzelec, is such a region. The basin is divided by the volcanic threshold into the western part (Berzdorf basin) and its eastern extension (Radomierzyce basin). The connection between both parts is the so called "lignite bridge". The deposit in the Berzdorf has been exploited from 1830 until 1997. In contrast, the Radomierzyce deposit has never been exploited and is still considered as a prospective deposit for the operating Turów coal mine, which is located only around 15 km from the deposit. To represent the geology of the area a 3D modeling of the transboundary deposit was carried out. Moreover, some strategies to overcome numerical interpolation instability of the geological model with many faults were developed. Due to the large amount of data and its compatibility with other software the 3D geomodeling software Paradigm GOCAD was used. A total number of 10,102 boreholes, 60 cross sections and geological maps converted into digital format - were implemented into the model. The data density of the German part of the area of interest was much higher than the data density of the Polish part. The results demonstrate a good fit between the modeled surfaces and the real geological conditions. This is particularly evident by matching the modeled surfaces to borehole data and geological cross sections. Furthermore, simplification of the model does not decrease the

  19. An approach for estimating the radiological significance of a hypothetical major nuclear accident over long distance transboundary scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrakos, D., E-mail: dimitris.mitrakos@eeae.gr; Potiriadis, C.; Housiadas, C.

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Actions may be warranted after a major nuclear accident even at long distances. • Distance may not be the decisive parameter for longer term radiological impact. • Remote impact may vary orders of magnitude depending on the meteorological conditions. • The potential impact can be assessed using computationally inexpensive calculations. - Abstract: After the Fukushima accident important initiatives were taken in European level to enhance the nuclear safety level of the existing and planned nuclear reactors, such as the so-called nuclear “stress-tests” and the amendment of the Nuclear Safety Directive. A recent work of HERCA and WENRA focused on the need for a more consistent and harmonized response in a transboundary context in case of a hypothetical major nuclear accident in Europe. Such an accident, although very improbable, cannot be totally excluded and so, should be considered in emergency preparedness arrangements among the various European countries. In case of a hypothetical severe Fukushima-like accident in Europe, the role of the neighboring countries may be important, since the authorities should be able to provide information and advice to the government and the public, but also can contribute to the overall assessment of the situation be their own means. In this work we assess the radiological significance of a hypothetical major nuclear accident for distances longer than 300 km that are not typically covered by the internationally accepted emergency planning zones. The approach is simple and computationally inexpensive, since it is based on the calculation of only a few release scenarios at dates selected within a whole year on the basis of bounding the deposition levels at long distances in relation to the occurrence of precipitation. From the calculated results it is evident that distance is not the only decisive parameter in estimating the potential radiological significance of a severe nuclear accident. The hypothetical

  20. Europe’s Wild Heart – still beating? Experiences from a new transboundary wilderness area in the middle of the Old Continent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Křenová

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The face of Europe has been shaped by human civilization for centuries and wilderness did not only vanish from the continent’s surface but also from humans’ minds and experiences. However, there are still a few places left, which have remained more or less unmodified and have at least the potential for rewilding. Among them are the Šumava National Park and the neighbouring Bavarian Forest NP, which together create a unique forest zone in the middle of Europe susceptible to host and demonstrate natural forest dynamics and ecosystem processes. This is also a large and very important Natura 2000 area. Transboundary cooperation between both National parks has improved since 1990, when the former Iron Curtain Corridor was opened, and culminated by the project Europe’s Wild Heart. The main goal of the project Europe’s Wild Heart, which started in 2008, was to develop a transboundary wilderness area in the core zones of the two national parks – BFNP and ŠNP. The project area was 13,060 ha and a “life story” of this project is described in this paper. A common “vision 2020” was signed where both parks committed among other things “to achieve a joint core area of about 15,000 ha with harmonized management principles, information services and monitoring networks to officially become the first and largest transboundary wilderness area in Central Europe”. Unfortunately, the bark beetle outbreak which followed the Kyrill hurricane in 2008 and 2009 escalated the discussion about appropriate forest management in the ŠNP. Opponents of the national park principles, non-intervention and wilderness concept became more and more vocal. The situation escalated after the election in 2010 when the Green Party was replaced by conservatives (ODS – Civic Democratic Party at the Czech Ministry of Environment. Clear cuttings were started in some former non-intervention parts of the ŠNP and hunting was again allowed in the core zone. Since then

  1. A Value Chain Analysis of ghost nets in the Arafura Sea: identifying trans-boundary stakeholders, intervention points and livelihood trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J R A; Gunn, R; Berry, H L; Wagey, G A; Hardesty, B D; Wilcox, C

    2013-07-15

    Lost or discarded fishing nets are a significant component of marine debris which has trans-boundary impacts in large marine ecosystems. Such 'ghost nets' cause the by-catch of marine fauna and require retrieval from coastlines where they wash up. Identifying the causes of discarded nets and feasible intervention points requires analysis of a complex value chain and the stakeholders within it, yet no studies have attempted this. In this paper we combine Value Chain Analysis, commonly applied to understand value-adding for a commodity, with elements of Life Cycle Assessment and social network analysis to examine the drivers, stakeholders, economic, environmental and social costs and benefits in the life of a trawl net. We use the Arafura Sea as a case study, which is shared by Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Australia, and is the focus of a Trans-boundary Diagnostic Assessment (TDA) within the Arafura-Timor Seas Ecosystem Action program (ATSEA). We follow a trawl net through four sub-systems: manufacture of webbing in South Korea, fishing and loss by an Indonesian vessel, retrieval as ghost net on the northern Australian coastline by Indigenous rangers, and disposal or re-cycling as 'GhostNet Art' by Indigenous artists. Primary stakeholders along the value chain incur economic and social benefits, and economic and environmental costs. There is an anomaly in the chain between Indonesian fishermen and Indigenous rangers, artists and communities due to the lack of market linkages between these primary stakeholders. The first 'nexus of influence' where reductions in net losses and environmental costs can be achieved is through interactions between GhostNets Australia, the World Wide Fund for Nature and the Australian Government, which can influence Indonesian fishery management institutions and fishing crews. The second nexus is via the international art market which by publicising GhostNet Art can raise awareness amongst fish consumers about the impacts of ghost nets

  2. United States-Canada Trade and Economic Relationship: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-10

    Engines/Turbines/ Power Transmission Equipment 4.8 (-13.2) Pharmaceutical/ Medicines 4.9 (37.0) Plastics Products 4.8 (5.6) Plastic Products 4.8...2003, a case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ( BSE ) or ‘mad-cow’ disease was detected on an Alberta farm, which was quickly quarantined. During the...next three years another 10 cases of BSE would be found. Concerns about the food supply caused the United States, Mexico, Japan, and others to close

  3. Jaguar surveying and monitoring in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie

    2016-06-10

    Because of the jaguar’s (Panthera onca) endangered status under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 throughout its range (from Arizona in the north to Argentina in the south), jaguar individuals and populations are monitored to varying degrees throughout their range. Knowledge gained from monitoring jaguars is helpful for wildlife managers who are responsible for conserving this species. The University of Arizona (UA) has conducted a multiyear surveying and monitoring effort for jaguars and ocelots in southern Arizona and New Mexico. The purpose of this work was to establish an effective surveying and monitoring system for jaguars along the United States-Mexico border. Surveying and monitoring in this study focused on the United States side of the border, but the methods could also be used in Mexico. The intent was to develop and implement a surveying and monitoring system that would provide the greatest probability of recording jaguar presence in, and passage through, the border area.

  4. After Indonesia’s Ratification: The ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution and Its Effectiveness As a Regional Environmental Governance Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Heilmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On 20 January 2015 Indonesia deposited its instrument of ratification for the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution with the ASEAN Secretariat, becoming the last ASEAN member state to join the treaty. Haze pollution poses a serious health threat to the people of Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia, and for decades haze pollution has been a highly contentious issue among ASEAN member states. This article argues that Indonesia’s ratification will not be an immediate game changer. The mechanisms of the agreement are too weak to contribute much to a reduction of haze pollution in the region. The agreement is designed according to the ASEAN way: a non-binding approach that is based on the principles of state sovereignty and non-intervention. This makes it unlikely that the agreement itself will bring about change, even now that all ASEAN member states have ratified it.

  5. Phylogeographic Reconstructions of a Rift Valley Fever Virus Strain Reveals Transboundary Animal Movements from Eastern Continental Africa to the Union of the Comoros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquart, M; Pascalis, H; Abdouroihamane, S; Roger, M; Abdourahime, F; Cardinale, E; Cêtre-Sossah, C

    2016-04-01

    Major explosive outbreaks of Rift Valley fever (RVF), an arthropod borne zoonotic disease, occur in humans and animals with significant mortality and economic impact across continental Africa and the Indian Ocean region (Madagascar, the Comoros archipelago). Recently, sporadic human cases have been reported in Mayotte and Grande Comore, two islands belonging to the Comoros archipelago. To identify the hypothetical source of virus introduction in an inter-epidemic or a post-epidemic period, a longitudinal survey of livestock was set up in Comorian ruminant populations, known to be susceptible hosts. The phylogeographic genomic analysis has shown that RVF virus (RVFV) detected in a zebu collected in Anjouan in August 2011 seems to be related to the last known epidemic of RVF which occurred in East Africa and Madagascar (2007-2009). This result highlights the fact that RVFV is maintained within local livestock populations and transboundary animal movements from eastern continental Africa to Indian Ocean islands likely result in RVFV crossover.

  6. 地方政府跨界环境污染治理博弈分析%Game analysis on transboundary pollution control of local government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张跃胜

    2016-01-01

    Transboundary environmental pollution will aggravate distortions and unfair distribution of the environmental re-sources . Thus,to begin with,construct the game model of transboundary environmental pollution involving multi-regions,which are based on its diffusion range. And the conflict between the optimization of individual goals and collectives’ indicates: the optimal investment of Nash equilibrium is smaller than that is in Pareto,and the two presents the departure,what’s serious,the more areas get involved in,the deviate degree becomes deeper,which leads to the "prisoner’s dilemma" and "tragedy of the commons" situation.%跨界环境污染会加剧环境资源配置的扭曲和分配的不公平。基于环境污染扩散范围,构建多地区参与的跨界环境污染治理博弈模型,博弈模型中个体目标最优和集体目标最优的冲突表明:纳什均衡最优的跨界环境污染治理投入小于帕累托最优的跨界环境污染治理投入,二者呈现相背离状态,并且背离程度随着参与跨界环境污染治理地区的增加而增加,导致“囚徒困境”和“公地悲剧”局面。

  7. A New Sample Transect through the Sierra Madre Occidental Silicic Large Igneous Province in Southern Chihuahua State, Mexico: First Stratigraphic, Petrologic, and Geochemical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, G. D.; Davila Harris, P.; Brown, S. R.; Anderson, L.; Moreno, N.

    2014-12-01

    We completed a field sampling transect across the northern Sierra Madre Occidental silicic large igneous province (SMO) in December 2013. Here we present the first stratigraphic, petrological, and geochemical data from the transect between Hidalgo del Parral and Guadalupe y Calvo, Chihuahua, Mexico. This is the first new transect across the SMO in 25 years and the only one between existing NE - SW transects at Chihuahua - Hermosillo and Durango - Mazatlan. The 245 km-long transect along Mexican Highway 24 crosses the boundary between the extended (Basin and Range) and non-extended (Sierra Madre Occidental plateau) parts of the SMO, and allows sampling of previously undescribed Oligocene (?) - early Miocene (?) rhyolitic ignimbrites and lavas, and occasional post-rhyolite, Miocene (?) SCORBA basaltic andesite lavas. 54 samples of rhyolitic ignimbrites (40) and lavas (7), and basaltic andesite lavas (7) were sampled along the transect, including 8 canyon sections with more than one unit. The ignimbrites are overwhelming rhyodacitic (plagioclase and hornblende or biotite phyric) or rhyolitic (quartz (+/- sanidine) in additon to plagioclase and hornblende or biotite phyric) and sparsely to highly phyric. Preliminary petrographic (phenocryst abundances) and geochemical (major and trace element) will be presented and compared to existing data from elsewhere in the SMO. Future work will include U-Pb zircon dating and whole rock and in-zircon radiogenic isotopes analyses.

  8. Health-Related Conditions and Depression in Elderly Mexican American and Non-Hispanic White Residents of a United States-Mexico Border County: Moderating Effects of Educational Attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Briones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence of “high” levels of depressive symptomatology and 13 health-related medical conditions in elderly Mexican American (MA and non-Hispanic white (NHW residents of El Paso County, Texas. We analyzed the extent to which depressive symptoms in this population are associated with these conditions. Elderly MA residents possessed a higher prevalence of current depression, a relatively unique health-related condition profile, and were more likely to experience a set of conditions that impede participation in daily life—conditions that we found to be strongly associated with high depressive symptomatology in the elderly. After adjusting for educational attainment, using multiple regression analyses, depression was not associated with ethnicity and only six of the health related conditions showed significant differences between MA and NHW subjects. We believe these results provide an important insight into the mechanism of health-related conditions and depressive symptomatology in a large sample of elderly MAs; and how conditions typically attributed to MA ethnicity may in actuality be an artifact of socioeconomic status variables such as educational-attainment.

  9. 跨国界流域重金属污染溯源体系框架初步构建%Initial framework construction of sources identification system of heavy metal pollution in trans-boundary river basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑军; 张立; 杨常青; 魏亮; 国冬梅

    2015-01-01

    通过调研国内外水环境污染溯源的主要研究方法,结合我国跨国界流域重金属污染和监管的现状,提出构建以空间溯源为主线、行业溯源和成分溯源作为重要补充的跨国界流域重金属污染溯源技术体系,综合运用基于最优搜索理论的优化监测排查法、主成分分析和因子分析法,对跨国界流域内的重金属污染源的空间位置、行业类型及工艺环节等多个方面进行分析定位,旨在为我跨国界流域污染控制和外事协调管理提供重要依据。%Based on investigation of the internal and external research on water pollution source identification methods, combined with heavy metal pollution and regulatory status of trans-boundary river, a framework of sources identification for heavy metal pollution in Chinese trans-boundary water was constructed, which regards space identification as the main line, industry and component identification methods as the important supplementary. Optimization of monitoring investigation method based on optimal search theory, principal component analysis and factor analysis was applied to identify the comprehensive locating of the spatial position, industry type and process of heavy metal pollution sources in the trans-boundary river, which provides a scientific basis for trans-boundary water pollution control and foreign coordination.

  10. Registro nuevo del escorpión mexicano Heloderma horridum (Reptilia: Helodermidae en Durango, México New report of Mexican scorpion Heloderma horridum (Reptilia: Helodermidae in Durango State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Muñiz-Martínez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El escorpión mexicano Heloderma horridum es una de las 2 especies de lagartijas venenosas que se conocen en el mundo; hay 3 subespecies, todas en una distribución muy localizada, a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico. En la parte suroeste de Durango, en el río Presidio, un grupo de técnicos topógrafos observaron un ejemplar de Heloderma horridum y tomaron fotografías, las cuales aportaron al autor de esta nota, quien por medio de claves determinó la especie. Se trata de una especie que se considera amenazada dentro de la NOM-ECOL-059-2001, razón por la cual no se recolectó. Este registro amplía la distribución de la especie hacia el suroeste de la sierra Madre Occidental y confirma su presencia en el estado de Durango, México.The Beaded Mexican Reptile is one of the 2 species recognized as venomous reptiles in the world. There are known 3 subspecies of Heloderma horridum, all show a very localized distribution, along the Pacific Coast. At the Southwestern part of Durango, this species was seen at the river Presidio. One specimen of Heloderma horridum, was observed and photographed, by a group of topography technical, who donated the pictures. By using taxonomic keys, the specimen was determined as Heloderma horridum. This species is registered in NOM-ECOL-059-2001, and is considered Amazing species, so the specimen was not collected. This is new registration, broads the geographical distribution of this taxon towards the southwestern of the Sierra Madre Occidental and its presence in Durango state, Mexico.

  11. Gains from trans-boundary water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems: a case study for the Minho region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roebeling, P. C.; Brito, A. G.; Rocha, J.; Alves, H.; Mamede, J.

    2012-04-01

    Worldwide, aquatic and coastal ecosystems are affected by point and diffuse source water pollution originating from rural, urban and industrial land uses in catchments, even though these ecosystems are of vital importance from an environmental and economic perspective. Integrated Catchment and Coastal Zone Management (ICCZM) specifically takes into account this inherent relationship between terrestrial land use, surface and ground water pollution, aquatic and coastal ecosystem state, and associated environmental values. To warrant sustainable regional economic development, we need to balance the marginal costs from terrestrial water pollution abatement and the associated marginal benefits from aquatic and coastal resource appreciation. In doing so, however, we need to differentiate between intra- and trans-boundary catchments because benefactors and beneficiaries from water quality improvement are not one and the same. In trans-boundary catchments, private (national) welfare maximizing rates of water quality improvement differ across nations as benefits from water quality improvement generally accrue to one nation while the costs are paid by multiple nations. While approaches for water quality management in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems are fairly recent though existent, water quality management in trans-boundary catchments poses additional challenges. The objective of this paper is to develop and apply a deterministic optimal control approach that allows us to explore private and social welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement in linked catchment and coastal socio-ecological systems. For a case study of the Minho region in the Iberian Peninsula, we estimate nation-specific water pollution abatement cost (based on management practice adoption) and benefit (based on aquatic and coastal environmental values) functions, to determine as well as compare private (national) and social (trans-national) welfare maximizing rates of water

  12. Institutional Arrangements for River Basin Management: A Case Study of Comparison between the United States and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Gang-yan

    2007-01-01

    This note compares institutional arrangements for water resources management in two river basins, namely, those of the Susquehanna River in the United States and the Yangtze River in China. The Susquehanna River Basin Commission is composed of the US federal government and the three states of New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland through which the Susquehanna River passes. Under the authority of the Susquehanna River Basin Compact, the Commission deals with water resources problems throughout its vast drainage area. In contrast, the Changjiang(Yangtze River) Water Resources Commission (CWRC) lacks relative effectiveness in mobilizing provincial governments in transboundary water resources management.

  13. Transboundary transport of anthropogenic sulfur in PM2.5 at a coastal site in the Sea of Japan as studied by sulfur isotopic ratio measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inomata, Yayoi, E-mail: inomata@acap.asia [Asia Center for Air Pollution Research, 1182, Sowa, Niigata, Niigata 950-2144 (Japan); Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi [Asia Center for Air Pollution Research, 1182, Sowa, Niigata, Niigata 950-2144 (Japan); Niigata Prefectural Institute of Public Health and Environmental Sciences, 314-1, Sowa, Niigata, Niigata 950-2144 (Japan); Take, Naoko; Sato, Keiichi [Asia Center for Air Pollution Research, 1182, Sowa, Niigata, Niigata 950-2144 (Japan); Nishikawa, Masataka [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2, Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Tokyo University of Science, 12-1, Ichigaya Funakawara, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0826 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    Sulfur isotopic ratios (δ{sup 34}S) in size separated aerosol particles (PM2.5 and coarse particles) were measured at Niigata-Maki facing the Sea of Japan. Non-sea salt δ{sup 34}S (δ{sup 34}S{sub nss}) in PM2.5 showed seasonal variations with relatively high values in winter (1.0–3.9‰ in spring, 2.8–4.5‰ in summer, 1.3–4.5‰ in autumn, 3.7–5.7‰ in winter). Taking into consideration air mass transport routes, δ{sup 34}S{sub nss} in the air masses which originated in the Asian continent and were transported over the Sea of Japan to the monitoring sites were higher than those values for air masses which were transported over the Japanese islands after leaving the Asian continent for each season. Considering that the δ{sup 34}S{sub nss} in sulfuric acid derived from domestic emissions in Japan are lower than those of δ{sup 34}S{sub nss} in coal, the lower δ{sup 34}S{sub nss} for the air mass transported over the Japanese islands suggest that sulfuric acid in PM2.5 modified the δ{sup 34}S{sub nss} due to aerosol mixing with sulfuric acid in Japan. Material balance calculations suggested that the relative contribution of transboundary transport in winter was also higher than for other seasons (40–75% in spring, 51–63% in summer, 45–73% in autumn, and 53–81% in winter). In particular, the contribution to the air masses which were transported directly from the Asian continent was relatively large (75% in spring, 59% in autumn, 78% in winter) in comparison with that for the air masses which were transported over Japan. - Highlights: • δ{sup 34}Snss in PM2.5 is effective to estimate contribution of anthropogenic sulfur. • δ{sup 34}Snss have characterized with seasonal variation with high values in winter. • The contribution of transboundary transport is 39-81% at the site facing to the Sea of Japan. • δ{sup 34}Snss in PM2.5 are modified during transport with mixing of domestic sources. • Map of δ{sup 34}S distribution originated

  14. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Douven

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. Case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC. A post training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within their organisation. The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme showed a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM, models and decision support systems and international water law which are required for such an integrated topic. The post training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed the increase in familiarity of the topics for all 37 respondents, with highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and educational institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught is shown by the fact that 95% of the respondents indicated they saw the relevance of the subjects and 78% had already used some knowledge acquired in their job. The respondents also indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge acquired. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops, had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their training institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building

  15. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douven, W.; Mul, M. L.; Fernández-Álvarez, B.; Hung, S. Lam; Bakker, N.; Radosevich, G.; van der Zaag, P.

    2012-09-01

    This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. The case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC). A post-training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within the organisation). The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme required a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM (integrated water resources management), model and decision support systems, and international water law). The post-training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed an increase in familiarity with the topics for all 37 respondents, with the highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and education institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught was highlighted by 95% of the respondents, and 78% of the participants had already used some of the acquired knowledge in their job. The respondents indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a wide range of subjects, which can be understood by a

  16. Enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins: experiences from the Lower Mekong River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Douven

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the design and impact of capacity building programmes aimed at enhancing capacities of riparian professionals to address and resolve transboundary issues in international river basins. The case study is a programme developed by the Mekong River Commission (MRC. A post-training evaluation was applied to assess its impact in terms of individual capacity enhancement and change (use and application of knowledge, factors hampering application, and change in function and opportunities within the organisation. The design of the Capacity Building Programme of the MRC Flood Management and Mitigation Programme required a well balanced range of subjects (such as IWRM (integrated water resources management, model and decision support systems, and international water law. The post-training evaluation, 6 months after the last training workshop, showed an increase in familiarity with the topics for all 37 respondents, with the highest increase for the respondents with few years of working experience and from training and education institutions. The relevance of the subjects taught was highlighted by 95% of the respondents, and 78% of the participants had already used some of the acquired knowledge in their job. The respondents indicated that they did not have sufficient opportunities to apply all knowledge. The phased implementation and training of lecturers during the training workshops had a good impact, directly through increasing involvement in facilitation and delivery of the capacity building programme and through the use of the knowledge gained in short courses and development of curricula at their institute. For these types of capacity building programmes, a few recommendations can be made. The selection of participants is crucial for the application of the learned knowledge in their work. The integrative nature of transboundary water issues calls for a capacity building programme addressing a wide range of subjects, which can be

  17. Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Patricia; Da Silva, Arlindo; Longo-De Freitas, Karla

    2017-01-01

    The Korea-United States Air Quality (KORUS-AQ) campaign was an international cooperative field study based out of Osan Air Base, Songtan, South Korea (about 60 kilometers south of Seoul) in April-June 2016. A comprehensive suite of instruments capable of measuring atmospheric composition was deployed around the Korean peninsula on aircrafts, ships, and at ground sites in order to characterize local and transboundary pollution. The NASA Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5) forecast model was used for near real time meteorological and aerosol forecasting and flight planning during the KORUS-AQ campaign. Evaluation of GEOS-5 against observations from the campaign will help to identify inaccuracies in the models physical and chemical processes in this region within East Asia and lead to further developments of the modeling system.

  18. Study on resources and environmental data integration towards data warehouse construction covering trans-boundary area of China, Russia and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Song, J.; Gao, M.; Zhu, L.

    2014-02-01

    The trans-boundary area between Northern China, Mongolia and eastern Siberia of Russia is a continuous geographical area located in north eastern Asia. Many common issues in this region need to be addressed based on a uniform resources and environmental data warehouse. Based on the practice of joint scientific expedition, the paper presented a data integration solution including 3 steps, i.e., data collection standards and specifications making, data reorganization and process, data warehouse design and development. A series of data collection standards and specifications were drawn up firstly covering more than 10 domains. According to the uniform standard, 20 resources and environmental survey databases in regional scale, and 11 in-situ observation databases were reorganized and integrated. North East Asia Resources and Environmental Data Warehouse was designed, which included 4 layers, i.e., resources layer, core business logic layer, internet interoperation layer, and web portal layer. The data warehouse prototype was developed and deployed initially. All the integrated data in this area can be accessed online.

  19. Water Storage Changes in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin and the Middle East from GRACE with Implications for Transboundary Water Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, K.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Lo, M.; De Linage, C.

    2011-12-01

    In this work, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately -27.2 ± 0.6 mm/year equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 km3 during the course of the study period. We use additional remote-sensing information and output from land-surface models to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach followed here provides an example of 'best current capabilities' in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the Tigris-Euphrates River Basin region lost 15.6 ± 2.9 mm/year of groundwater during the study period, or 82.3 ± 15.4 km3 in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget.

  20. Groundwater depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with implications for transboundary water management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Katalyn A.; Famiglietti, James S.; Lo, MinHui; de Linage, Caroline; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C.

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the north-central Middle East, including portions of the Tigris and Euphrates River Basins and western Iran, from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately -27.2±0.6 mm yr-1 equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 km3 during the course of the study period. Additional remote-sensing information and output from land surface models were used to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach used in this study provides an example of "best current capabilities" in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the region lost 17.3±2.1 mm yr-1 equivalent water height of groundwater during the study period, or 91.3±10.9 km3 in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget.

  1. Groundwater Depletion in the Middle East from GRACE with Implications for Transboundary Water Management in the Tigris-Euphrates-Western Iran Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Katalyn A.; Famiglietti, James S.; Lo, MinHui; De Linage, Caroline; Rodell, Matthew; Swenson, Sean C.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we use observations from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to evaluate freshwater storage trends in the north-central Middle East, including portions of the Tigris and Euphrates River Basins and western Iran, from January 2003 to December 2009. GRACE data show an alarming rate of decrease in total water storage of approximately -27.2 plus or minus 0.6 millimeters per year equivalent water height, equal to a volume of 143.6 cubic kimometers during the course of the study period. Additional remote-sensing information and output from land surface models were used to identify that groundwater losses are the major source of this trend. The approach used in this study provides an example of ''best current capabilities'' in regions like the Middle East, where data access can be severely limited. Results indicate that the region lost 17.3 plus or minus 2.1 millimeters per year equivalent water height of groundwater during the study period, or 91.3 plus or minus 10.9 cubic kilometers in volume. Furthermore, results raise important issues regarding water use in transboundary river basins and aquifers, including the necessity of international water use treaties and resolving discrepancies in international water law, while amplifying the need for increased monitoring for core components of the water budget.

  2. Defining a stable water isotope framework for isotope hydrology application in a large trans-boundary watershed (Russian Federation/Ukraine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vystavna, Yuliya; Diadin, Dmytro; Huneau, Frédéric

    2017-07-10

    Stable isotopes of hydrogen ((2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) of the water molecule were used to assess the relationship between precipitation, surface water and groundwater in a large Russia/Ukraine trans-boundary river basin. Precipitation was sampled from November 2013 to February 2015, and surface water and groundwater were sampled during high and low flow in 2014. A local meteoric water line was defined for the Ukrainian part of the basin. The isotopic seasonality in precipitation was evident with depletion in heavy isotopes in November-March and an enrichment in April-October, indicating continental and temperature effects. Surface water was enriched in stable water isotopes from upstream to downstream sites due to progressive evaporation. Stable water isotopes in groundwater indicated that recharge occurs mainly during winter and spring. A one-year data set is probably not sufficient to report the seasonality of groundwater recharge, but this survey can be used to identify the stable water isotopes framework in a weakly gauged basin for further hydrological and geochemical studies.

  3. Trans-boundary aerosol transport during a winter haze episode in China revealed by ground-based Lidar and CALIPSO satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Kai; Wu, Lixin; Wong, Man Sing; Letu, Husi; Hu, Mingyu; Lang, Hongmei; Sheng, Shijie; Teng, Jiyao; Xiao, Xin; Yuan, Limei

    2016-09-01

    By employing PM2.5 observation data, ground-based lidar measurements, MODIS and CALIPSO satellite images, meteorological data, and back trajectories analysis, we investigate a trans-boundary transport of aerosols during a large-area haze episode in China during 3-5 January 2015. The ground-based lidar observations indicated similar episodes of external aerosols passing through and mixing into three East China cities. A considerable amount of total AOD below 3 km (46% in average) was contributed by the external aerosol layers during passing over and importing. CALIPSO satellite observations of central and eastern China revealed a high altitude pollutant belt on January 3. Although the severest ground pollution was found in central and south-eastern Hebei, the high altitude pollution transport was greater in south-western Shandong, north-western Jiangsu, and north-western Anhui. These observations along with the analysis of air mass trajectories and wind fields indicates pollutants moving from Hebei, Henan and Hubei probably contributed to the haze pollution in Shandong and Jiangsu. This study reveals haze transports from North China Plain to East China could be a common phenomenon influenced by the winter monsoon in northern China. Hence, effective control of air pollution requires collaboration among different cities and provinces throughout China. The long-term measurements of aerosol vertical properties by ground-based lidar and CALIPSO are extremely valuable in quantifying the contributions of external factors and will be helpful in validating and improving various air quality models.

  4. Water resources in Central Asia - status quo and future conflicts in transboundary river catchments - the example of the Zarafshan River (Tajikistan-Uzbekistan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groll, Michael; Opp, Christian; Kulmatov, Rashid; Normatov, Inom; Stulina, Galina; Shermatov, Nurmakhmad

    2014-05-01

    Water is the most valuable resource in Central Asia and due to its uneven distribution and usage among the countries of the region it is also the main source of tension between upstream and downstream water users. Due to the rapidly shrinking glaciers in the Pamir, Tien-Shan and Alai mountains, the available water resources will, by 2030, be 30% lower than today while the water demand of the growing economies will increase by 30%. This will further aggravate the pressure on the water resources and increase the water deficit caused by an unsustainable water use and political agendas. These challenges can only be overcome by an integrated water resource management for the important transboundary river catchments. The basis for such an IWRM approach however needs to be a solid data base about the status quo of the water resources. To that end the research presented here provides a detailed overview of the transboundary Zarafshan River (Tajikistan-Uzbekistan), the lifeline for more than 6 mln people. The Zarafshan River is well suited for this as it is not only one of the most important rivers in Central Asia but because the public availability of hydrological and ecological data is very limited, Furthermore the catchment is characterized by the same imbalances in the Water-Energy-Food-Nexus as most river systems in that region, which makes the Zarafshan a perfect model river for Central Asia as a whole. The findings presented here are based on field measurements, existing data from the national hydrometeorological services and an extensive literature analysis and cover the status quo of the meteorological and hydrological characteristics of the Zarafshan as well as the most important water quality parameters (pH, conductivity, nitrate, phosphate, arsenic, chromate, copper, zinc, fluoride, petroleum products, phenols and the aquatic invertebrate fauna). The hydrology of the Zarafshan is characterized by a high natural discharge dynamic in the mountainous upper parts of

  5. Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Vegetation Dynamics in Relation to Shifting Inundation and Fire Regimes: Disentangling Environmental Variability from Land Management Decisions in a Southern African Transboundary Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcisa G. Pricope

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Increasing temperatures and wildfire incidence and decreasing precipitation and river runoff in southern Africa are predicted to have a variety of impacts on the ecology, structure, and function of semi-arid savannas, which provide innumerable livelihood resources for millions of people. This paper builds on previous research that documents change in inundation and fire regimes in the Chobe River Basin (CRB in Namibia and Botswana and proposes to demonstrate a methodology that can be applied to disentangle the effect of environmental variability from land management decisions on changing and ecologically sensitive savanna ecosystems in transboundary contexts. We characterized the temporal dynamics (1985–2010 of vegetation productivity for the CRB using proxies of vegetation productivity and examine the relative importance of shifts in flooding and fire patterns to vegetation dynamics and effects of the association of phases of the El Niño—Southern Oscillation (ENSO on vegetation greenness. Our results indicate that vegetation in these semi-arid environments is highly responsive to climatic fluctuations and the long-term trend is one of increased but heterogeneous vegetation cover. The increased cover and heterogeneity during the growing season is especially noted in communally-managed areas of Botswana where long-term fire suppression has been instituted, in contrast to communal areas in Namibia where heterogeneity in vegetation cover is mostly increasing primarily outside of the growing season and may correspond to mosaic early dry season burns. Observed patterns of increased vegetation productivity and heterogeneity may relate to more frequent and intense burning and higher spatial variability in surface water availability from both precipitation and regional inundation patterns, with implications for global environmental change and adaptation in subsistence-based communities.

  6. Using spatial metrics and surveys for the assessment of trans-boundary deforestation in protected areas of the Maya Mountain Massif: Belize-Guatemala border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicas, S D; Omine, K; Ford, J B; Sugimura, K; Yoshida, K

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the trans-boundary deforestation history and patterns in protected areas along the Belize-Guatemala border is of regional and global importance. To assess deforestation history and patterns in our study area along a section of the Belize-Guatemala border, we incorporated multi-temporal deforestation rate analysis and spatial metrics with survey results. This multi-faceted approach provides spatial analysis with relevant insights from local stakeholders to better understand historic deforestation dynamics, spatial characteristics and human perspectives regarding the underlying causes thereof. During the study period 1991-2014, forest cover declined in Belize's protected areas: Vaca Forest Reserve 97.88%-87.62%, Chiquibul National Park 99.36%-92.12%, Caracol Archeological Reserve 99.47%-78.10% and Colombia River Forest Reserve 89.22%-78.38% respectively. A comparison of deforestation rates and spatial metrics indices indicated that between time periods 1991-1995 and 2012-2014 deforestation and fragmentation increased in protected areas. The major underlying causes, drivers, impacts, and barriers to bi-national collaboration and solutions of deforestation along the Belize-Guatemala border were identified by community leaders and stakeholders. The Mann-Whitney U test identified significant differences between leaders and stakeholders regarding the ranking of challenges faced by management organizations in the Maya Mountain Massif, except for the lack of assessment and quantification of deforestation (LD, SH: 18.67, 23.25, U = 148, p > 0.05). The survey results indicated that failure to integrate buffer communities, coordinate among managing organizations and establish strong bi-national collaboration has resulted in continued ecological and environmental degradation. The information provided by this research should aid managing organizations in their continued aim to implement effective deforestation mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  7. The Transboundary Aquifer Management Challenge: Linking Landscape Patterns and Groundwater Nitrate Concentrations in the Abbotsford-Sumas Aquifer, USA/Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, T.; Gergel, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Changes in land use and landscape pattern can have an array of impacts on aquatic systems, including impacts which span international waters and borders. Globally, agricultural land use patterns and practices are among the factors responsible for elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater aquifers. Coordination of landscape monitoring across trans-boundary aquifers is needed to monitor and address contamination issues as landscape patterns can vary widely among different political jurisdictions. Landscape indicators, which quantify the amount and arrangement of land cover (such as proportion and abundance of land cover types), are one such way to improve our understanding of cross-border aquatic system interactions. In Western North America, the Abbotsford-Sumas Aquifer (ASA) spans the US-Canada border and provides drinking water for over 100,000 people. Intensive agriculture combined with high precipitation and well-drained soils make this aquifer susceptible to nitrate leaching. To understand how landscape patterns influence nitrate concentrations, we ask: Which landscape indicators correlate most strongly with elevated nitrate concentrations? A seamless cross-border land cover mosaic was created by harmonizing a variety of US and Canadian geodata. Auxiliary high spatial resolution imagery (e.g., 5m RapidEye and historical Google Earth) were used to quantify fine-scale landscape features (such as number of farm field renovations) with suspected mechanistic links to nitrate sources. We examined groundwater nitrate concentrations in shallow wells (screens Washington State Department of Ecology and Environment Canada. Surrounding each well, terrestrial zones of influence (aligned with the directional flow of groundwater) were delineated within which landscape patterns were characterized. Multiple regression was used to compare the strength of relationships between land use practices and nitrate concentrations. Preliminary results show strong positive

  8. Pollution control costs of a transboundary river basin: Empirical tests of the fairness and stability of cost allocation mechanisms using game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guang-Ming; Wang, Jin-Nan; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Yong-Liang

    2016-07-15

    With rapid economic growth, transboundary river basin pollution in China has become a very serious problem. Based on practical experience in other countries, cooperation among regions is an economic way to control the emission of pollutants. This study develops a game theoretic simulation model to analyze the cost effectiveness of reducing water pollutant emissions in four regions of the Jialu River basin while considering the stability and fairness of four cost allocation schemes. Different schemes (the nucleolus, the weak nucleolus, the Shapley value and the Separable Cost Remaining Benefit (SCRB) principle) are used to allocate regionally agreed-upon water pollutant abatement costs. The main results show that the fully cooperative coalition yielded the highest incremental gain for regions willing to cooperate if each region agreed to negotiate by transferring part of the incremental gain obtained from the cooperation to cover the losses of other regions. In addition, these allocation schemes produce different outcomes in terms of their fairness to the players and in terms of their derived stability, as measured by the Shapley-Shubik Power Index and the Propensity to Disrupt. Although the Shapley value and the SCRB principle exhibit superior fairness and stabilization to the other methods, only the SCRB principle may maintains full cooperation among regions over the long term. The results provide clear empirical evidence that regional gain allocation may affect the sustainability of cooperation. Therefore, it is implied that not only the cost-effectiveness but also the long-term sustainability should be considered while formulating and implementing environmental policies.

  9. Participatory Modeling Processes to Build Community Knowledge Using Shared Model and Data Resources and in a Transboundary Pacific Northwest Watershed (Nooksack River Basin, Washington, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandaragoda, C.; Dumas, M.

    2014-12-01

    As with many western US watersheds, the Nooksack River Basin faces strong pressures associated with climate variability and change, rapid population growth, and deep-rooted water law. This transboundary basin includes contributing areas in British Columbia, Canada, and has a long history of joint data collection, model development, and facilitated communication between governmental (federal, tribal, state, local), environmental, timber, agricultural, and recreational user groups. However, each entity in the watershed responds to unique data coordination, information sharing, and adaptive management regimes and thresholds, further increasing the complexity of watershed management. Over the past four years, participatory methods were used to compile and review scientific data and models, including fish habitat (endangered salmonid species), channel hydraulics, climate data, agricultural, municipal and industrial water use, and integrated watershed scale distributed hydrologic models from over 15 years of projects (from jointly funded to independent shared work by individual companies, agencies, and universities). A specific outcome of the work includes participatory design of a collective problem statement used for guidance on future investment of shared resources and development of a data-generation process where modeling results are communicated in a three-tiers for 1) public/decision-making, 2) technical, and 3) research audiences. We establish features for successful participation using tools that are iteratively developed, tested for usability through incremental knowledge building, and designed to provide rigor in modeling. A general outcome of the work is ongoing support by tribal, state, and local governments, as well as the agricultural community, to continue the generation of shared watershed data using models in a dynamic legal and regulatory setting, where two federally recognized tribes have requested federal court resolution of federal treaty rights

  10. Research on Countermeasures on Collaborative Governance of Trans-boundary Basin Water Pollution%跨行政区流域污染协同治理的实现路径分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜

    2016-01-01

    跨行政区流域污染协同治理是对政府主导型、市场自决型和社区自治型治理体系失灵的回应.协同治理机制不是自发实现的 ,它受到多方因素的制约 ,各级各地政府之间的利益冲突、企业社会责任的缺失、社会环境监管能力不强、政府组织结构权力分散和协调能力不强共同构成了跨行政区流域污染协同治理的制约因素.如何克服制约因素带来的负面效应是跨行政区流域污染协同治理能否实现的保障 ,提出从完善流域生态补偿和区际利益协调、科学设置政府绩效评估指标、强化企业环境污染法律责任追究、健全环境公益诉讼制度和重组流域治理组织结构等方面构建多元主体之间的平衡稳定的协同治理机制.%The collaborative governance of trans-boundary pollution is response to the failure of government leading ,market autono-my and community autonomy management system .Collaborative governance of trans-boundary pollution is not spontaneous ,it needs certain conditions .Interest conflicts between governments ,the lack of corporate social responsibility ,and the incapacity of social en-vironmental regulatory ,the decentralization of government structure and the insufficient capacity coordinated together constraint the basin trans-boundary pollution collaborative governance .How to overcome the negative effect of those restriction factors influence the collaborative governance of basin trans-boundary pollution ,need to improve basin ecological compensation and interregional inter-est coordination ,scientific setting government performance evaluation indicators ,legal responsibility should be investigated for enter-prise environmental pollution ,improve the system of environmental public interest litigation and reorganization of the basin manage-ment organization structure to build a diverse and stable collaborative governance mechanism .

  11. Niveles de plomo en sangre y factores de exposición en niños del estado de Morelos, México Blood lead levels and exposure factors in children of Morelos State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Meneses-González

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar los niveles de plomo en sangre de niños morelenses y sus factores de exposición. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal para analizar, por voltametría anódica, los niveles de plomo en sangre de 232 niños de 1 a 12 años de edad, que acudieron de junio a octubre de 1996 al Hospital del Niño Morelense de Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. Los factores de exposición se indagaron por cuestionario. El valor de concentración de plomo se transformó al logaritmo natural; se estimó la razón de momios para algunos factores de exposición que se incorporaron a un modelo de ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Se reclutaron 232 niños (50% mujeres; 73% residentes en Cuernavaca. La media geométrica de plomo en sangre fue 6.7 µg/dl; 29.7% rebasaron los 10 µg/dl; 66% tenían antecedente de cocinar alimentos en barro vidriado; 36% de almacenar alimentos, y 19%, consumo de líquidos en ese material. CONCLUSIONES: Los niveles encontrados son similares a los reportados en otras poblaciones pediátricas mexicanas en los últimos años. Entre los principales factores de exposición destacan el uso de barro vidriado para consumo de alimentos o líquidos y la intensidad del tráfico donde viven. Este es el primer estudio que documenta los niveles de plomo en sangre en población infantil de Morelos, México, y sus resultados son punto de partida para acciones futuras de control y prevención.OBJECTIVE: To assess blood lead levels and lead exposure factors in children living in Morelos State, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and October 1996, in 232 children aged 1-12 years, at Hospital del Niño Morelense de Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Blood lead levels were measured by anodic voltameter, and exposure factors were collected by questionnaire. The lead concentration value was log transformed for statistical analysis. Odds ratios were obtained for some risk factors. The statistical significative risk factors

  12. 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2013-01-01

    The Central United States experienced record-setting flooding during 2011, with floods that extended from headwater streams in the Rocky Mountains, to transboundary rivers in the upper Midwest and Northern Plains, to the deep and wide sand-bedded lower Mississippi River. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of its mission, collected extensive information during and in the aftermath of the 2011 floods to support scientific analysis of the origins and consequences of extreme floods. The information collected for the 2011 floods, combined with decades of past data, enables scientists and engineers from the USGS to provide syntheses and scientific analyses to inform emergency managers, planners, and policy makers about life-safety, economic, and environmental-health issues surrounding flood hazards for the 2011 floods and future floods like it. USGS data, information, and scientific analyses provide context and understanding of the effect of floods on complex societal issues such as ecosystem and human health, flood-plain management, climate-change adaptation, economic security, and the associated policies enacted for mitigation. Among the largest societal questions is "How do we balance agricultural, economic, life-safety, and environmental needs in and along our rivers?" To address this issue, many scientific questions have to be answered including the following: * How do the 2011 weather and flood conditions compare to the past weather and flood conditions and what can we reasonably expect in the future for flood magnitudes?

  13. 3D geological modeling of the transboundary Berzdorf-Radomierzyce basin in Upper Lusatia (Germany/Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszyn, Iwona; Merkel, Broder; Stanek, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    The management of natural resources has to follow the principles of sustainable development. Therefore, before starting new mining activities, it should be checked, whether existing deposits have been completely exploited. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) cross-border geologic model was created to generalize the existing data of the Neogene Berzdorf-Radomierzyce basin, located in Upper Lusatia on the Polish-German border south of the city of Görlitz-Zgorzelec. The model based on boreholes and cross sections of abandoned and planned lignite fields was extended to the Bernstadt and Neisse-Ręczyn Graben, an important tectonic structure at the southern rim of the basin. The partly detailed stratigraphy of Neogene sequences was combined to five stratigraphic units, considering the lithological variations and the main tectonic structures. The model was used to check the ability of a further utilization of the Bernstadt and Neisse-Ręczyn Graben, containing lignite deposits. Moreover, it will serve as a basis for the construction of a 3D cross-border groundwater model, to investigate the groundwater flow and transport in the Miocene and Quaternary aquifer systems. The large amount of data and compatibility with other software favored the application of the 3D geo-modeling software Paradigm GOCAD. The results demonstrate a very good fit between model and real geological boundaries. This is particularly evident by matching the modeled surfaces to the implemented geological cross sections. The created model can be used for planning of full-scale mining operations in the eastern part of the basin (Radomierzyce).

  14. 3D geological modeling of the transboundary Berzdorf-Radomierzyce basin in Upper Lusatia (Germany/Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woloszyn, Iwona; Merkel, Broder; Stanek, Klaus

    2017-07-01

    The management of natural resources has to follow the principles of sustainable development. Therefore, before starting new mining activities, it should be checked, whether existing deposits have been completely exploited. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) cross-border geologic model was created to generalize the existing data of the Neogene Berzdorf-Radomierzyce basin, located in Upper Lusatia on the Polish-German border south of the city of Görlitz-Zgorzelec. The model based on boreholes and cross sections of abandoned and planned lignite fields was extended to the Bernstadt and Neisse-Ręczyn Graben, an important tectonic structure at the southern rim of the basin. The partly detailed stratigraphy of Neogene sequences was combined to five stratigraphic units, considering the lithological variations and the main tectonic structures. The model was used to check the ability of a further utilization of the Bernstadt and Neisse-Ręczyn Graben, containing lignite deposits. Moreover, it will serve as a basis for the construction of a 3D cross-border groundwater model, to investigate the groundwater flow and transport in the Miocene and Quaternary aquifer systems. The large amount of data and compatibility with other software favored the application of the 3D geo-modeling software Paradigm GOCAD. The results demonstrate a very good fit between model and real geological boundaries. This is particularly evident by matching the modeled surfaces to the implemented geological cross sections. The created model can be used for planning of full-scale mining operations in the eastern part of the basin (Radomierzyce).

  15. Reinforcement Learning Multi-Agent Modeling of Decision-Making Agents for the Study of Transboundary Surface Water Conflicts with Application to the Syr Darya River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegels, N.; Siegfried, T.; Pereira Cardenal, S. J.; Jensen, R. A.; Bauer-Gottwein, P.

    2008-12-01

    -cooperative environment with which different institutional setups and incentive systems can be studied so to identify reasonable ways to reach desirable, Pareto--optimal allocation outcomes. Preliminary results from an application to the Syr Darya river basin in Central Asia will be presented and discussed. The Syr Darya River is a classic example of a transboundary river basin in which basin-wide efficiency gains identified in optimization studies have not been sufficient to induce cooperative management of the river by the riparian states.

  16. 7th annual report 1998. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1998-11-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. The monitoring and prediction of complex ecosystem effects on undisturbed reference areas require a continuous effort to improve the collection and assessment of data on the international scale. At the 1997 Task Force meeting it was decided that future annual reports from ICP IM would have a more technical character. The report could include some scientific material but also short technical descriptions of recent national activities and publications. Scientific articles should preferably be published in recognised scientific journals. The responsibility for producing annual reports would still lie on the Programme Centre, but more contributions from National Focal Points were welcomed. The content of the present Annual Report reflects the decisions of the Task Force meeting. The report gives a general overview of the ICP IM activities, the present content of the ICP IM database, and presents results from assessment activities carried out by several collaborating institutes and the ICP IM Programme Centre during the programme year 1997/98. The resources of the Programme Centre have been targeted to the revision of the Programme Manual and the EU/LIFE-project `Development of Assessment and Monitoring Techniques at Integrated Monitoring Sites in Europe`, which has limited the possibilities to carry out additional evaluations of ICP IM data. Section 1 is a short status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, including the contents of the GIS database, and the present geographical coverage of the monitoring network. Section 2 contains a report on multivariate gradient analysis applied to relate chemical and biological observations (prepared by D. de Zwart, RIVM

  17. Developing consensus: mercury science and policy in the NAFTA countries (Canada, the United States and Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, W; Schroeder, W; Porcella, D B; Santos-Burgoa, C; Montgomery, S; Hamilton, A; Trip, L

    2000-10-16

    The international science community has recognized methylmercury in the aquatic food chain, as a potential environmental and human health risk. As a result, countries around the world have implemented a number of mercury management initiatives. The United States, Mexico and Canada in consultation with stakeholders are developing a trilateral North American Regional Action Plan (NARAP) on mercury. Through public involvement in the decision making process, the NARAP has offered opportunities for more transparency in transactions between governments, industry and stakeholders. In spite of the available scientific information, there are still important uncertainties associated with the mercury issue. These knowledge gaps include: the most appropriate methylmercury reference dose for sensitive groups; the percentage of the North American population that is at risk from methylmercury exposure; spatial and temporal mercury deposition patterns in each country; the link between mercury emissions, atmospheric deposition and methylmercury concentrations in fish; and the relative magnitude of contributions from natural and anthropogenic sources.

  18. China's international trade and air pollution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jintai; Pan, Da; Davis, Steven J; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin; Wang, Can; Streets, David G; Wuebbles, Donald J; Guan, Dabo

    2014-02-04

    China is the world's largest emitter of anthropogenic air pollutants, and measurable amounts of Chinese pollution are transported via the atmosphere to other countries, including the United States. However, a large fraction of Chinese emissions is due to manufacture of goods for foreign consumption. Here, we analyze the impacts of trade-related Chinese air pollutant emissions on the global atmospheric environment, linking an economic-emission analysis and atmospheric chemical transport modeling. We find that in 2006, 36% of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide, 27% of nitrogen oxides, 22% of carbon monoxide, and 17% of black carbon emitted in China were associated with production of goods for export. For each of these pollutants, about 21% of export-related Chinese emissions were attributed to China-to-US export. Atmospheric modeling shows that transport of the export-related Chinese pollution contributed 3-10% of annual mean surface sulfate concentrations and 0.5-1.5% of ozone over the western United States in 2006. This Chinese pollution also resulted in one extra day or more of noncompliance with the US ozone standard in 2006 over the Los Angeles area and many regions in the eastern United States. On a daily basis, the export-related Chinese pollution contributed, at a maximum, 12-24% of sulfate concentrations over the western United States. As the United States outsourced manufacturing to China, sulfate pollution in 2006 increased in the western United States but decreased in the eastern United States, reflecting the competing effect between enhanced transport of Chinese pollution and reduced US emissions. Our findings are relevant to international efforts to reduce transboundary air pollution.

  19. Towards the Joint-Management of Transboundary Groundwaters: Hydrogeology and the Guarani Aquifer System; Hacia una gestion compartida de las aguas subterraneas transfronterizas: la Hidrogeologia y el Sistema Acuifero Guarani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, M.

    2012-11-01

    In stark contrast to other international waters such as shared rivers or lakes, transboundary groundwaters are rarely co-managed. Management initiatives for shared groundwaters depend on scientific knowledge, which is often unavailable, and are influenced by a multiplicity of local issues that preclude the straightforward implementation of regulatory mechanisms. Drawing from historical documents and interviews with management experts, scientists and socio-economic stake holders, we examine the roles of science and scientific co-operation in the process that led to the creation of co-management instruments for the Guarani aquifer system. This analytical approach purposely sidesteps archetypical discussion about geopolitical differences and the incompatibility of institutional settings, arguing instead that hydrogeological knowledge is a constitutive dimension of the decision-making process, in which it operates both as a tool for the re framing of preferences as a challenge to established institutional frameworks. (Author)

  20. DILEMMA AND COUNTERMEASURE ON THE PRINCIPLE OF EQUITABLE AND REASONABLE UTILIZATION OF TRANSBOUNDARY WATER RESOURCES%跨界水资源公平合理利用原则的困境与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锡生; 曾彩琳

    2012-01-01

    公平合理利用原则是国际水法的一项基本原则,它的内涵体现为权利义务的一致性,即各国有在其领土内利用跨界水资源的权利,同时又要承担不剥夺其他国家在其领土内利用跨界水资源的义务和不对跨界水资源进行损害和浪费的义务。从理论上看,对保护跨界水资源及协调跨界水资源利用冲突有重要的意义。但由于公平合理利用原则目前尚存在评价标准不明确、保障制度不完备等内在缺陷,以致其在实践中经常陷于难以适用的困境。要摆脱公平合理利用原则的适用困境,应以权利义务相一致的原理为指导,进一步明确“公平合理利用”的评价标准,厘清必要的用水优先权顺序,使公平合理利用原则具有可操作性。同时,应建立起受益补偿制度、公众参与制度、损害预警制度等有利于公平合理利用原则实现的保障制度。%The principle of equitable and reasonable utilization is a basic principle of international water law and its content reflects the consistency of rights and obligations, that is to say, countries have the right to use transboundary water resources in their own territory,but at the same time also have the obligation not to hamper other countries utilizing and not to damage and waste transboundary water resources. In theory, its application has important significance to the protection of transboundary water resources and the coordination of conflict in the use of transboundary water resources. But in practice, because of some inherent defects such as unclear evaluation criteria and incomplete security system, the principle of equitable and rea- sonable utilization often encountered the difficulties how to apply theory to reality. To get rid of dilemma of the principle, under the guidance of the theory of the consistency of rights and obligations, the evaluation criteria of "equitable and reasonable utilization" should

  1. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  2. UNIT, TIBET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT OF STUDY DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF TIBET. THE UNIT COVERS SOME OF THE GENERAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY AND THEIR EFFECT UPON THE LIVES OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE INSERTED TO STIMULATE THOUGHT. THE RELIGION OF TIBET IS DISCUSSED IN RELATION TO ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ART AND CULTURE…

  3. Turnley Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facilities at this unit include cattle working pens, hydraulic squeeze chute and electronic scale, a maintenance building, and four hay storage sheds. There is one...

  4. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  5. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  6. Research on Inter-governmental Cooperative Mechanism in Trans-boundary Water Environment Conservation%跨界水环境保护中的政府间合作机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培; 张风春; 张晓岚

    2013-01-01

    Development of an effective inter-governmental horizontal cooperative mechanism is an important solution to improve the trans-boundary water environment management in China.Much efforts has been performed and desired results have been achieved in the international trans-boundary water co-management,cooperation among different ministries in China,trans-boundary water cooperation among local governments,and departmental cooperation inside one government.At present,the horizontal cooperation among governments is carried out through the agreements,planning,joint action,and joint conference,and these methods generally involve different departments of the government.The content of the cooperation includes the law,policy,institution,and information sharing,monitoring and assessment.However,due to the existing problems in the law,cooperative mechanism,and technical support,the inter-governmental horizontal cooperative mechanism did not act significantly effectively in China and the contamination in trans-boundary surface water is still severe.Therefore,several countermeasures were proposed in this paper,including the improvement of system and structure of the cooperative mechanism,strengthening of the core content of cooperative mechanism,enrichment of realization solutions of cooperative mechanism,and improvement of the secure conditions of cooperative mechanism.%建立有效的政府间横向合作机制是完善我国跨界水环境管理的重要途径.我国已经在国际跨界水域共管、国家层面上的部际合作、地方政府间的跨界水域合作以及地方政府内部部门间的合作等方面做了大量的尝试并取得了理想的效果.目前,我国各类政府间横向合作主要是通过协议、计划、联合行动、联席会议等方式开展,而且一般都有政府部门的参与.合作的内容从法律、政策、机构到信息共享与监测和评价,非常广泛.由于尚存在着法律、协调机制、科技支撑等方面的

  7. The role of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization-International Hydro-logical Programme in sustainable water resources management in East Asian countries%联合国教科文组织国际水文计划项目在东亚可持续水资源管理中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段小丽; 刘可

    2009-01-01

    For over 30 years, IHP (International Hydrological Programme) has been actively operating as a UNESCO's (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) international scientific cooperative programme in water research, water resources manage- ment, education and capacity-building, and the only broadly-based science programme of the UN (United Nations) system in this region. By a number of initiatives and networks, the IHP has progressively carried out activities on the quantity and quality of global/regional wate resources, transboundary water resources management, mitigation of water related hazard, and water education. While addressing comprehensive areas over water challenges, greater emphasis has been placed on the role of water resources management for sustainable de- velopment and with respect to the expected changes in climate and environmental conditions. WWAP (World Water Assessment Programme) and its major product WWDR (World Water Development Report) in East Asia are under the framework of IHP which supports field ori- ented activities on monitoring freshwater, developing case studies, enhancing national as- sessment capacity, and facilitating decision making processes. In light of transboundary wa- ters in IHP, RSC (Regional Steering Committee) plays a focal role for facilitating regional cooperation in the Southeast and East Asia and Pacific States. Furthermore, ISI (International Sediment Initiative) and IFI (International Flood Initiative) have significant roles, respectively, for the management of erosion and sedimentation in line with river system or reservoir man- agement, and for the flood management focusing on capacity building of each country in East Asia. There are other major areas of concern under UNESCO's IHP programme in East Asia, specifically in aspects including, mitigating water conflicts on transboundary aquifers through ISARM (International Shared Aquifer Resources Management), water management of arid areas

  8. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  9. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Instructional units deal with each aspect of conservation: forests, wildlife, rangelands, water, minerals, and soil. The area of the secondary school curriculum with which each is correlated is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the topic, questions to…

  10. Patrones de distribución geográfica de los mamíferos de Jalisco, México Mammal geographic distribution patterns in Jalisco State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Ramos-Vizcaíno

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los patrones de distribución de la riqueza de mamíferos en el estado de Jalisco y sus relaciones con algunos factores ambientales. Se obtuvo información de registros de mamíferos de Jalisco de diferentes colecciones biológicas nacionales y extranjeras. Se utilizaron las localidades de recolecta para realizar una cobertura de puntos. El estado se dividió en 159 unidades de clasificación geográfica (UCG´s de 15' por 15'. Se sobrepuso la cobertura de puntos, las UCG y algunos mapas de CONABIO para formar una matriz de presencia-ausencia. Se analizó la distribución de la riqueza por tipo de vegetación y altitud. Se observó un gradiente de riqueza que va desde las zonas tropicales hasta las semiáridas. Por altitud, la mayor riqueza se encontró entre los 1500 y 2000 m y la menor de los 4000 a 4500 m. Se aplicó una ordenación de Bray-Curtis y una clasificación con TWINSPAN. Ambas fueron consistentes en formar 2 grupos de mamíferos; uno con especies de la costa y el otro del noreste del estado, lo que refleja un gradiente climático. El porcentaje de variación acumulada fue del 94% y las variables del medio con mayor influencia fueron precipitación, temperatura, evaporación, altitud y vegetación.We analyzed the patterns of distribution of mammal species richness in Jalisco State and their relationships with some environmental factors. We retrieved distribution data from several national and foreign biological collections. We used the collecting localities to generate a spatial record of distribution points. The state was divided into 159 geographic units of classification (GUC's of 15' by 15'. We overlap the point cover, GUCs and some maps from CONABIO to create a presence-absence matrix. We analyzed the richness distribution by vegetation type and elevation. A richness gradient was observed from tropical to semiarid vegetation types and according to elevation; we observed higher richness between 1500 and 2000 m a. s

  11. FLYING UNITED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Apart from selling hundreds of airplanes to China, Boeing buys locally made aircraft parts and transfers technology, in the true spirit of partnership Whenever Boeing's senior manager hear of a visit by one of China's state leaders, it's no doubt cause for celebration. Since China and the United States established diplomatic ties in 1978, every official trip by China's top statesmen has included a meeting with Boeing that

  12. U.S.-Mexico Border Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and the development of extensive geodatabases have become invaluable tools for addressing a variety of contemporary societal issues and for making predictions about the future. The United States-Mexico Geographic Information System (USMX-GIS) is based on fundamental datasets that are produced and/or approved by the national geography agencies of each country, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Y Geografia (INEGI) of Mexico, and the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC). The data are available at various scales to allow both regional and local analysis. The USGS and the INEGI have an extensive history of collaboration for transboundary mapping including exchanging digital technology and developing methods for harmonizing seamless national level geospatial datasets for binational environmental monitoring, urban growth analysis, and other scientific applications.

  13. United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bernow

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses an integrated set of policies designed to reduce U.S. carbon emissions over the next four decades. This innovation path also aims to promote environmental quality, particularly by reducing emissions of criteria air pollutants, to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, and to induce technological innovation and diffusion in energy production and consumption. The innovation path would reduce economy-wide carbon emissions by 26% below baseline projections for 2010 and by 62% below baseline projections for 2030; this translates into 10% below 1990 levels in 2010 and 45% below 1990 levels in 2030. Emissions of criteria pollutants also would be significantly reduced, as would petroleum imports by the United States. Moreover, the innovation path would yield cumulative net savings for the United States of $218 billion (1993 dollars through 2010, or $19 billion on a leveled annual basis, and would result in 800,000 additional jobs nationwide by 2010. Although the overall findings from the innovation path analysis are robust, the results should be taken as indicative, rather than precisely predictive, owing to uncertainties in future costs, prices, technology performance, and consumer behavior.

  14. Study on trans-boundary water resource conflict based on behavioral geography%基于行为地理的跨界水资源冲突研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范虹; 牛文娟; 牛富

    2014-01-01

    According to the different characteristics caused by geographical location differences of the left and right(LR) banks along a river and upstream and downstream (UD) of the river,the evolutionary game mathematical model of the trans-boundary water resource conflict of the LR banks and the UD of river were established to study the generation mechanism of trans-boundary water resource conflict on the basis of behavioral geography theory. The study shows that the water resource conflict of LR banks and that of UD have different water resource conflict evolutionary laws,so different management strategies should be adopted for the two kinds of water resource conflicts. LR bank evolutionary game has two evolutionary stable strategies(conflict, conflict and negotiation,negotiation). In LR bank evolutionary game,it is the relative benefits of both sides but not the absolute benefits of the individuals to decide the evolutionary direction of the game. In UD evolutionary game,“conflict,conflict”is un-stable strategy and“conflict,negotiation”is the unique evolutionary stable strategy. Increasing negotiation costs and decreasing conflict costs will lead to a proportion growth of the individuals adopting conflict action.%基于行为地理学理论,根据跨界水资源冲突中左右岸和上下游的冲突由于冲突主体地理位置差异而呈现不同特点,建立了左右岸和上下游跨界水资源冲突演化博弈数理模型,研究跨界水资源冲突事件产生机理。理论研究和数值分析表明:上下游水资源冲突与左右岸水资源冲突具有不同的发展演化规律,需要在水资源冲突管理的实践中对上下游水资源冲突和左右岸水资源冲突采取不同的管理策略;左右岸演化博弈有(冲突,冲突)和(协商,协商)两个演化稳定策略,博弈双方个体的相对收益而不是个体在博弈中的收益对博弈演化的方向有重要的影响。在上下游演化博弈中

  15. 新疆边境跨界动物疫病传入风险因素调查%Investigation on Risk Factors of the Entry of Transboundary Animal Diseases from Xinjiang Border

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙洪涛; 彭程; 孙淑芳; 房志远; 魏荣; 王树双

    2016-01-01

    Due to the vast geographic area and a complex epidemic situation in surrounding countries,Xinjiang is in danger of being introduced exotic animal diseases at any time. An investigation on risk factors of the entry of such animal diseases was conducted. The results showed that the boundary of Xinjiang was long with many countries bordering with it,and the results also indicated that the region had very complex geographic environments,frequent trade of animals and animal products,as well as a wide variety of wildlife. Although the separation facilities along the boundary are relatively perfect,the risk factors of the entry of transboundary animal diseases still exist,and the targeted prevention and control measures in the border shall be strengthened.%新疆地域辽阔,周边国家动物疫情形势复杂,随时有传入外来动物疫病的危险。调查结果表明新疆接壤国家多且边境线长,地理环境复杂,动物及动物产品贸易频繁,野生动物种类繁多,虽然边界线隔离设施较好,但仍然存在跨界动物疫病传入的风险因素,需要有针对性地强化边境防控措施。

  16. Contributions to improve fallow system in Yucatan State Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel Uribe Valle; Juan Jiménez-Osornio; Roberto Dzib Echeverría

    2006-01-01

    More than 25 percent of earth warming can be attributes to deforestation practices such as crop rotations performed in southeast part of Mexico. In the Yucatan peninsula 20 percent of staple foods such as maize and beans are produced under slash and burn system. It has been practiced for many centuries by native Mayans however population pressure and food scarcity made...

  17. [Cervical-uterine-cancer associated factors in Nayarit state, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Hernández, Raúl; Medina Carrillo, Leopoldo; Montoya Fuentes, Héctor; Sandoval López, José Guadalupe; Padilla Rosas, Miguel; García Silva, Valentín; Jáuregui Martínez, Armando

    2007-06-01

    To establish the association between high-grade intraepithelial lesions and cervical-uterine-cancer, and the infection by human papillomavirus, genetic antecedents, socioeconomics, sexual behavior and gynecology and obstetrics factors in women of the State of Nayarit, Mexico. With a case-control design were studied 66 cases of high-grade intraepithelial lesions and cervical-uterine-cancer, and 132 controls. The information upon the risk factors was obtained by the application of a structured questionnaire. Polymerase Chain Reaction executed the virus identification. In the statistical analysis the association was obtained by odds ratio. The statistical significance was evaluated by the chi-square-Fisher and Student t tests, and multivariate logistic regression was used to explain the factors' influence. In women with high-risk squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical-uterine-cancer, the most frequently high-risk human papillomavirus found were: 18, 35, 58, 16, 31, 33 and 51. Familial data of cervical-uterine-cancer, socioeconomic level, number of sexual partners, data of sexual transmitted diseases, and infection due to human papillomavirus 18 and 35 are the factors related to high-risk squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical-uterine-cancer.

  18. Papadakis methodology for agroclimatic delimitation, applied to Sinaloa State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Velasco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Relief influences on climate, lead to a wide environmental conditions, even more than latitude. The Köppen Method, one of the most used, is of physical type, and leads to excellent approaches to real climate conditions, but it doesn't consider in a full dimension the water-soil-cultivated-plant-atmosphere interaction, being that these factors decide so much the natural vegetation as crops. The periods with freezing temperatures or with high frost risk, and the duration of dry months, all of them are decisive for agriculture. These risk factors are considered in the Papadakis Method, which allows evaluating the potentiality and limitations of the climatic areas, related to crops. In this work an application is made of this method on a wide region in Northwest Mexico, where agriculture is very important, and the obtained results converge to define that existent climatic groups are the following, according to Papadakis Method: 1.4: continental savanna 1.5: tropical semi-arid 1.9: tropical with fresh winter 2.3: medium-cold highland 4.2: continental subtropical 4.3: continental semitropical

  19. Termination unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traeholt, Chresten; Willen, Dag; Roden, Mark; Tolbert, Jerry C.; Lindsay, David; Fisher, Paul W.; Nielsen, Carsten Thidemann

    2016-05-03

    Cable end section comprises end-parts of N electrical phases/neutral, and a thermally-insulation envelope comprising cooling fluid. The end-parts each comprises a conductor and are arranged with phase 1 innermost, N outermost surrounded by the neutral, electrical insulation being between phases and N and neutral. The end-parts comprise contacting surfaces located sequentially along the longitudinal extension of the end-section. A termination unit has an insulating envelope connected to a cryostat, special parts at both ends comprising an adapter piece at the cable interface and a closing end-piece terminating the envelope in the end-section. The special parts houses an inlet and/or outlet for cooling fluid. The space between an inner wall of the envelope and a central opening of the cable is filled with cooling fluid. The special part at the end connecting to the cryostat houses an inlet or outlet, splitting cooling flow into cable annular flow and termination annular flow.

  20. Transboundary geophysical mapping of geological elements and salinity distribution critical for the assessment of future sea water intrusion in response to sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jørgensen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical techniques are increasingly used as tools for characterising the subsurface and they are generally required to develop subsurface models that properly delineate the distribution of aquifers and aquitards, salt/freshwater interfaces and geological structures that affect groundwater flow. In a study area covering 730 km2 across the border between Germany and Denmark a combination of an airborne transient electromagnetic survey (performed with the SkyTEM system, a high-resolution seismic survey and borehole logging has been used in an integrated mapping of important geological, physical and chemical features of the subsurface. The spacing between flight lines is 200–250 m giving a total of about 3200 line km. About 38 km of seismic lines have been collected. Faults bordering a graben structure, deep and shallow buried tunnel valleys, glaciotectonic thrust complexes, marine clay units, and sand aquifers are all examples of geological elements mapped by the geophysical data that control groundwater flow and to some extent hydrochemistry. Additionally, the data provide an excellent picture of the salinity distribution in the area thus providing important information on the fresh-saltwater boundary and the chemical status of groundwater. Although, the westernmost part of the study area along the North Sea coast is saturated with saline water and the TEM data therefore is strongly influenced by the increased electrical conductivity here, buried valleys and other geological elements are still revealed. The salinity distribution indicates preferential flow paths through and along specific geological elements within the area. The effects of future sea level rise on the groundwater system and chemical status are discussed with special emphasis on the importance of knowing the existence, distribution and geometry of the mapped geological elements, and assessing their control on the groundwater salinity distribution.

  1. Transboundary geophysical mapping of geological elements and salinity distribution critical for the assessment of future sea water intrusion in response to sea level rise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jørgensen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical techniques are increasingly being used as tools for characterising the subsurface, and they are generally required to develop subsurface models that properly delineate the distribution of aquifers and aquitards, salt/freshwater interfaces, and geological structures that affect groundwater flow. In a study area covering 730 km2 across the border between Germany and Denmark, a combination of an airborne electromagnetic survey (performed with the SkyTEM system, a high-resolution seismic survey and borehole logging has been used in an integrated mapping of important geological, physical and chemical features of the subsurface. The spacing between flight lines is 200–250 m which gives a total of about 3200 line km. About 38 km of seismic lines have been collected. Faults bordering a graben structure, buried tunnel valleys, glaciotectonic thrust complexes, marine clay units, and sand aquifers are all examples of geological structures mapped by the geophysical data that control groundwater flow and to some extent hydrochemistry. Additionally, the data provide an excellent picture of the salinity distribution in the area and thus provide important information on the salt/freshwater boundary and the chemical status of groundwater. Although the westernmost part of the study area along the North Sea coast is saturated with saline water and the TEM data therefore are strongly influenced by the increased electrical conductivity there, buried valleys and other geological elements are still revealed. The mapped salinity distribution indicates preferential flow paths through and along specific geological structures within the area. The effects of a future sea level rise on the groundwater system and groundwater chemistry are discussed with special emphasis on the importance of knowing the existence, distribution and geometry of the mapped geological elements, and their control on the groundwater salinity distribution is assessed.

  2. “水外交”视角下的中国和下湄公河国家跨界水资源合作%Transboundary Water Cooperation between China and the Lower Mekong Countries from the Perspective of Water Diplomacy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张励; 卢光盛

    2015-01-01

    Under the background of transboundary cooperation on water resource and scramble for Water Power in-creasing steadily among countries,some international agencies and countries have begun to attach importance to Water Diplomacy and regard it as one of the important means to maintain foreign relations. The issues between Chi-na and the lower Mekong Countries on the transboundary development of the water resource of the Mekong River ur-gently need to be solved through Water Diplomacy. After drawing outline for the research on Water Diplomacy,this article attempts to define Water Diplomacy as the diplomatic means implemented with actions on technical and so-cial levels by one country's government concerning( transboundary or not)collaborative projects on water and de-velopment and exploitation of Soft Water Products. Then taking the definition as breakthrough,the article illumi-nates the problems on the transboundary water cooperation by China with the lower Mekong countries through analy-zing three cases,and meanwhile points out that some reasons contribute to the inadequate implementation of Water Diplomacy by China. In this article,we believe that,in order to resolve internal and external dilemma for exploi-ting the Mekong River,China should improve the Water Diplomacy system,establish community mutually beneficial from transboundary water cooperation,use Integrated Water Resources Management and services of third-party evaluation agencies,and exert more engaging Water Diplomacy.%在跨界水资源合作与国家间“水权力”矛盾与日俱增的背景下,国际机构和部分国家开始重视“水外交”,并将其视为处理对外关系的重要方式之一。中国与下湄公河国家在湄公河跨界水资源开发中的争端也急需通过“水外交”来解决。本文在对“水外交”研究脉络进行梳理的基础上,尝试性地将“水外交”定义为“一国政府围绕(跨界与非跨界)水合作

  3. Evaluating the impacts of climate and land-use change on the hydrology and nutrient yield in a transboundary river basin: A case study in the 3S River Basin (Sekong, Sesan, and Srepok).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trang, Nguyen Thi Thuy; Shrestha, Sangam; Shrestha, Manish; Datta, Avishek; Kawasaki, Akiyuki

    2017-01-15

    Assessment of the climate and land-use change impacts on the hydrology and water quality of a river basin is important for the development and management of water resources in the future. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of climate and land-use change on the hydrological regime and nutrient yield from the 3S River Basin (Sekong, Srepok, and Sesan) into the 3S River system in Southeast Asia. The 3S Rivers are important tributaries of the Lower Mekong River, accounting for 16% of its annual flow. This transboundary basin supports the livelihoods of nearly 3.5 million people in the countries of Laos, Vietnam, and Cambodia. To reach a better understanding of the process and fate of pollution (nutrient yield) as well as the hydrological regime, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate water quality and discharge in the 3S River Basin. Future scenarios were developed for three future periods: 2030s (2015-2039), 2060s (2045-2069), and 2090s (2075-2099), using an ensemble of five GCMs (General Circulation Model) simulations: (HadGEM2-AO, CanESM2, IPSL-CM5A-LR, CNRM-CM5, and MPI-ESM-MR), driven by the climate projection for RCPs (Representative Concentration Pathways): RCP4.5 (medium emission) and RCP8.5 (high emission) scenarios, and two land-use change scenarios. The results indicated that the climate in the study area would generally become warmer and wetter under both emission scenarios. Discharge and nutrient yield is predicted to increase in the wet season and decrease in the dry. Overall, the annual discharge and nutrient yield is projected to increase throughout the twenty-first century, suggesting sensitivity in the 3S River Basin to climate and land-use change. The results of this study can assist water resources managers and planners in developing water management strategies for uncertain climate change scenarios in the 3S River Basin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Toward a New Trilateral Strategic Security Relationship: United States, Canada, and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Kilroy, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "perimeter defense" has come back into vogue recently, with regard to security strategies for North America. The United States' concern primarily with the terrorist threat to its homeland subsequent to September 11, 2001 (9/11 is generating this discussion with its immediate neighbors of Mexico and Canada (and to some extent some Caribbean nations—the "third border". The concept is simply that by pushing defenses out to the "perimeter" nations, then security will be enhanced, since the United States visions itself as more vulnerable to international terrorism than its neighbors. However, Canada and Mexico have not been very happy about the perimeter defined by Washington since 9/11. These nations have sought to define the trilateral relationship beyond just discussions of terrorism to include natural disasters and international organized crime as a component of a broader trilateral agenda. Eight years later these three nations continue to look for some convergence of security interests, although there remains a degree of tension and hesitancy towards achieving a "common security agenda" in the Western Hemisphere.This article examines the concept of "perimeter defense" within the context of the new security challenges that the United States, Mexico, and Canada face today. Questions to be addressed in the article include: Do all these nations share the same "threat" perception? Where exactly is the "perimeter?" What security arrangements have been tried in the past? What are the prospects for the future for increased security cooperation? The main focus of this article is at the sub-regional level in North America and whether a new "trilateral" strategic security relationship between the United States, Canada, and Mexico can emerge in North America.

  5. Multinational corporations and health care in the United States and Latin America: strategies, actions, and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Waitzkin, Howard; Landwehr, Angela

    2004-01-01

    In this article we analyze the corporate dominance of health care in the United States and the dynamics that have motivated the international expansion of multinational health care corporations, especially to Latin America. We identify the strategies, actions, and effects of multinational corporations in health care delivery and public health policies. Our methods have included systematic bibliographical research and in-depth interviews in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. Influenced by public policy makers in the United States, such organizations as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and World Trade Organization have advocated policies that encourage reduction and privatization of health care and public health services previously provided in the public sector. Multinational managed care organizations have entered managed care markets in several Latin American countries at the same time as they were withdrawing from managed care activities in Medicaid and Medicare within the United States. Corporate strategies have culminated in a marked expansion of corporations' access to social security and related public sector funds for the support of privatized health services. International financial institutions and multinational corporations have influenced reforms that, while favorable to corporate interests, have worsened access to needed services and have strained the remaining public sector institutions. A theoretical approach to these problems emphasizes the falling rate of profit as an economic motivation of corporate actions, silent reform, and the subordination of polity to economy. Praxis to address these problems involves opposition to policies that enhance corporate interests while reducing public sector services, as well as alternative models that emphasize a strengthened public sector

  6. Canada-United States air quality agreement : progress report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This biennial progress report highlighted actions undertaken by Canada and the United States in the last 2 years to address transboundary air pollution within the context of the Air Quality Agreement regarding acid rain and ground-level ozone. The report was divided into 3 sections. The first section provided information concerning commitments to emission reductions in acid rain and ozone annexes. Section 2 provided details of related air quality efforts. Section 3 presented information on scientific and technical cooperation and research, which included details of health effects and acid deposition effects, recovery efforts and critical loads and exceedances. The progress report also included the third 5-year comprehensive review of the Air Quality Agreement, which was organized in a question and answer format to address requirements in the agreement and public comments on the 2004 progress report. In October 2006, Canada's federal government tabled the Clean Air Act as a new legislation that would expand the government's authorities to take action to reduce air emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants. The Notice of Intent to develop and implement regulations and other measures to reduce air emissions was also revealed. The regulations would address anthropogenic sources of air pollution, including fossil-fuel electricity production, petroleum industry, smelters, forest products, chemicals production and transportation. The report showed that over the last 2 years, both countries have reduced their emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), and have made progress in meeting the requirements of the Ozone Annex to reduce emissions of NO{sub x} and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Actions have focused on reducing emissions from major sources such as electric generating units, industrial sources, and on-road and nonroad transportation. It was concluded that to date, the agreement has provided opportunities for

  7. Trade Liberalisation, Transboundary Pollution and Market Size

    OpenAIRE

    Forslid, Rikard; Okubo, Toshihiro; Sanctuary, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a monopolistic competitive framework with many sectors to study the impact of trade liberalization on local and global emissions. We focus on the interplay of the pollution haven effect and the home market effect and show how a large-market advantage can counterbalance a high emission tax, implying that trade liberalization leads to lower global emissions. Generally, our results suggest that relative market size, the level of trade costs, the ease of abatement, and the degree ...

  8. Trade, Transboundary Pollution and Market Size

    OpenAIRE

    Forslid, Rikard; Okubo, Toshihiro; Sanctuary, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a monopolistic competitive framework with many sectors to study the impact of trade liberalization on local and global emissions. We focus on the interplay of the pollution haven effect and the home market effect and show how a large-market advantage can counterbalance a high emission tax, implying that trade liberalization leads to lower global emissions. Generally, our results suggest that relative market size, the level of trade costs, the ease of abatement, and the degree ...

  9. Transboundary Trade in Genetically Modified Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the regulatory approach to GM foods at three levels: Codex Alimentarius, the WTO and the EU. The key issue is the latitude of the EU to have regional food safety measures that impose import restrictions on GM foods from third countries. This latitude is limited by the EU...

  10. Modeling market equilibrium for transboundary environmental problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kryazhimskii, A.; Nentjes, A.; Shybaiev, S; Tarasyev, A.

    2001-01-01

    We model the international negotiations on acid deposition reduction in Europe as a multiplayer non-cooperative normal form game. The equilibrium combining the properties of Nash equilibria and Pareto-optimal outcomes, is studied. We prove its existence and investigate a dynamic combined best reply-

  11. Transboundary Trade in Genetically Modified Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at the regulatory approach to GM foods at three levels: Codex Alimentarius, the WTO and the EU. The key issue is the latitude of the EU to have regional food safety measures that impose import restrictions on GM foods from third countries. This latitude is limited by the EU...

  12. Using SI Units in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Richard

    2011-12-01

    1. Introduction; 2. An introduction to SI units; 3. Dimensional analysis; 4. Unit of angular measure (radian); 5. Unit of time (second); 6. Unit of length (metre); 7. Unit of mass (kilogram); 8. Unit of luminous intensity (candela); 9. Unit of thermodynamic temperature (kelvin); 10. Unit of electric current (ampere); 11. Unit of amount of substance (mole); 12. Astronomical taxonomy; Index.

  13. Malaria Treatment (United States)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CDC Malaria Branch clinician. malaria@cdc.gov Malaria Treatment (United States) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Treatment of Malaria: Guidelines For Clinicians (United States) Download PDF version ...

  14. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be sure to follow us on Twitter . United Cerebral Palsy UCP educates, advocates and provides support services to ... Partners Merz Logo Sprint Relay Copyright © 2015 United Cerebral Palsy 1825 K Street NW Suite 600 Washington, DC ...

  15. Unit Cost Compendium Calculations

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Unit Cost Compendium (UCC) Calculations raw data set was designed to provide for greater accuracy and consistency in the use of unit costs across the USEPA...

  16. Establishing the Intermediate Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    The State of Pennsylvania Act 102 establishes a system of 29 intermediate units, creates intermediate unit boards of directors, spells out their duties and functions, and provides a system of financing their operations. This handbook has been prepared by the Pennsylvania Department of Education to provide intermediate unit boards of directors,…

  17. Unitals in Projective Planes

    CERN Document Server

    Barwick, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Unitals are key structures in projective planes, and have connections with other structures in algebra. This book presents a monograph on unitals embedded in finite projective planes. It offers a survey of the research literature on embedded unitals. It is suitable for graduate students and researchers who want to learn about this topic

  18. Freestanding midwifery units versus obstetric units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Charlotte; Fenger-Grøn, Morten; Sandall, Jane

    2012-01-01

    women intending to give birth in two freestanding midwifery units (FMU) versus two obstetric units in Denmark differed by level of social disadvantage Methods The study was designed as a cohort study with a matched control group. It included 839 lowrisk women intending to give birth in an FMU, who were...... prospectively and individually matched on nine selected obstetric/socio-economic factors to 839 low-risk women intending OU birth. Educational level was chosen as a proxy for social position. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Results Women intending to give birth in an FMU had a significantly higher...

  19. ENERGY STAR Unit Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — These quarterly Federal Fiscal Year performance reports track the ENERGY STAR qualified HOME units that Participating Jurisdictions record in HUD's Integrated...

  20. 31 CFR 535.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 535.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof including the Trust Territory...

  1. 31 CFR 515.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 515.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including the Trust Territory...

  2. 31 CFR 500.321 - United States; continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false United States; continental United... General Definitions § 500.321 United States; continental United States. The term United States means the United States and all areas under the jurisdiction or authority thereof, including U.S. trust...

  3. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  4. REACH. Air Conditioning Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Joe; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of air conditioning. The instructional units focus on air conditioning fundamentals, window air conditioning, system and installation, troubleshooting and…

  5. Conflict Resolution Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busselle, Tish

    This 7-day unit, intended for use with secondary students, contains a statement of rationale and objectives, lesson plans, class assignments, teacher and student bibliographies, and suggestions for instructional materials on conflict resolution between individuals, groups, and nations. Among the six objectives listed for the unit are: 1) explain…

  6. REACH. Refrigeration Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Rufus; And Others

    As a part of the REACH (Refrigeration, Electro-Mechanical, Air-Conditioning, Heating) electromechanical cluster, this student manual contains individualized instructional units in the area of refrigeration. The instructional units focus on refrigeration fundamentals, tubing and pipe, refrigerants, troubleshooting, window air conditioning, and…

  7. Unit on Existentialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Bobby

    1971-01-01

    A unit on existentialism is suggested to counteract the indifferent attitude that students have toward much of the literature with which they are presented. The key to a successful literature unit is immediate and total student involvement. Topics, authors, and works which may be used to arouse student interest are presented. (CK)

  8. International treaties: United Nations; mutual assistance pacts; human rights; maritime law, air law, space law; environmental law; law for the prevention of war; German unification. Full-text edition. As of January 1994. 6. new rev. ed. Voelkerrechtliche Vertraege: Vereinte Nationen, Beistandspakte, Menschenrechte, See-, Luft- und Weltraumrecht, Umweltrecht, Kriegsverhuetungsrecht, deutsche Einheit. Textausgabe. Stand Januar 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randelzhofer, A. (ed.)

    1994-01-01

    The book contains amongst others the following texts: Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution (of 13.11.1979); Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on the Reduction of Sulphur Emissions or their Transboundary Fluxes by at least 30 per cent (of 8.7.1985); Protocol to the 1979 Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Concerning the Control of Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides or their Transboundary Fluxes (of 31.10.1988); Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (of 22.3.1985); Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (of 16.9.1987); Agreement on Early Notification in the Event of Nuclear Accidents (of 26.9.1986); Agreement on Mutual Assistance in the Event of Nuclear Accidents or Radiological Emergencies (of 26.9.1986). (HW)

  9. Major- and trace-element concentrations in soils from two continental-scale transects of the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Garrett, Robert G.; Klassen, Rodney; Kilburn, James E.; Horton, John D.; King, Harley D.; Goldhaber, Martin B.; Morrison, Jean M.

    2005-01-01

    This report contains major- and trace-element concentration data for soil samples collected from 265 sites along two continental-scale transects in North America. One of the transects extends from northern Manitoba to the United States-Mexico border near El Paso, Tex. and consists of 105 sites. The other transect approximately follows the 38th parallel from the Pacific coast of the United States near San Francisco, Calif., to the Atlantic coast along the Maryland shore and consists of 160 sites. Sampling sites were defined by first dividing each transect into approximately 40-km segments. For each segment, a 1-km-wide latitudinal strip was randomly selected; within each strip, a potential sample site was selected from the most representative landscape within the most common soil type. At one in four sites, duplicate samples were collected 10 meters apart to estimate local spatial variability. At each site, up to four separate soil samples were collected as follows: (1) material from 0-5 cm depth; (2) O horizon, if present; (3) a composite of the A horizon; and (4) C horizon. Each sample collected was analyzed for total major- and trace-element composition by the following methods: (1) inductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICPAES) for aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chromium, cobalt, copper, gallium, indium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, niobium, phosphorus, potassium, rubidium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfur, tellurium, thallium, thorium, tin, titanium, tungsten, uranium, vanadium, yttrium, and zinc; (2) cold vapor- atomic absorption spectrometry for mercury; (3) hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry for antimony and selenium; (4) coulometric titration for carbonate carbon; and (5) combustion for total carbon and total sulfur.

  10. The transboundary transfer of environmental risks as a challenge to international law. Der grenzueberschreitende Transfer von Umweltrisiken im Voelkerrecht; Moeglichkeiten und Grenzen der Zuweisung von Umweltverantwortung am Beispiel der grenzueberschreitenden Abfallentsorgung, der internationalen Vermarktung von Chemikalien und des Transfers umweltgefaehrdender Technologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rublack, S.

    1993-01-01

    With international transfer of environmental risks particularly moving from north to south, - waste trading being a topical example of what is going on - the recipient states are importing serious environmental problems. Four characteristic problem areas are chosen to show the factual basis offered by international law for attempts to resolve the problems, reviewing at the same time the results achieved so far by cooperation among the states. These areas are transboundary management and disposal of nuclear and non-nuclear wastes, international trading of chemicals, and worldwide transfer of hazardous technologies, including transnational investment activities bearing upon the environment. The book presents a comparative analysis of the available instruments of international law regarding assignment of responsibility and thus liability for environmental impacts to the various parties concerned, and discusses them in the context of the international law system. The analysis shows deficits and potentials for improvement of the existing international law regime, as well as the scope available on national and international level to establish appropriate rules and laws for controlling risk transfer, subject to the international law principles of jurisdiction and the GATT. The book presents a comprehensive analysis of the extent of a topical issue of environmental policy in its factual and international law frame. (orig./HP)

  11. National implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution (effects). Pt. 2. Impacts and risk estimation, critical loads, biodiversity, dynamic modelling, critical level violation, material corrosion; Nationale Umsetzung UNECE-Luftreinhaltekonvention (Wirkungen). T. 2. Wirkungen und Risikoabschaetzungen Critical Loads, Biodiversitaet, Dynamische Modellierung, Critical Levels Ueberschreitungen, Materialkorrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauger, Thomas [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. fuer Agraroekologie (FAL-AOE); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Navigation; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Roesemann, Claus [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Landwirtschaft, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. fuer Agraroekologie (FAL-AOE); Nagel, Hans-Dieter; Becker, Rolf; Kraft, Philipp; Schlutow, Angela; Schuetze, Gudrun; Weigelt-Kirchner, Regine [OeKO-DATA Gesellschaft fuer Oekosystemanalyse und Umweltdatenmanagement mbH, Strausberg (Germany); Anshelm, Frank [Geotechnik Suedwest Frey Marx GbR, Bietigheim-Bissingen (Germany)

    2008-09-15

    The report on the implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution Pt.2 covers the following issues: The tasks of the NFC (National Focal Center) Germany including the ICP (international cooperative program) modeling and mapping and the expert panel for heavy metals. Results of the work for the multi-component protocol cover the initial data for the calculation of the critical loads following the mass balance method, critical loads for acid deposition, critical loads for nitrogen input, critical load violations (sulfur, nitrogen). The results of work for the heavy metal protocol cover methodology development and recommendations for ICO modeling and mapping in accordance with international development, contributions of the expert group/ task force on heavy metals (WGSR), data sets on the critical loads for lead, cadmium and mercury, and critical load violations (Pb, Cd, Hg). The results of work on the inclusion of biodiversity (BERN) cover data compilation, acquisition and integration concerning ecosystems, model validation and verification and the possible interpretation frame following the coupling with dynamic modeling. The future development and utilization of dynamic modeling covers model comparison, applicability, the preparation of a national data set and preparations concerning the interface to the BERN model.

  12. Barriers to the Use of Trastuzumab for HER2+ Breast Cancer and the Potential Impact of Biosimilars: A Physician Survey in the United States and Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Lammers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy has become a standard of care for patients with HER2+ breast cancer. The cost of therapy, however, can limit patient access to trastuzumab in areas with limited financial resources for treatment reimbursement. This study examined access to trastuzumab and identified potential barriers to its use in the United States, Mexico, Turkey, Russia and Brazil via physician survey. The study also investigated if the availability of a biosimilar to trastuzumab would improve access to and use of HER2 monoclonal antibody therapy. Across all countries, a subset of oncologists reported barriers to the use of trastuzumab in a neoadjuvant, adjuvant or metastatic setting. Common barriers to the use of trastuzumab included issues related to insurance coverage, drug availability and cost to the patient. Overall, nearly half of oncologists reported that they would increase the use of HER2 monoclonal antibody therapy across all treatment settings if a lower cost biosimilar to trastuzumab were available. We conclude that the introduction of a biosimilar to trastuzumab may alleviate cost-related barriers to treatment and could increase patient access to HER2-directed therapy in all countries examined.

  13. Recovery of Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes, and Mycobacterium bovis from cheese entering the United States through a noncommercial land port of entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinde, Hailu; Mikolon, Andrea; Rodriguez-Lainz, Alfonso; Adams, Cathy; Walker, Richard L; Cernek-Hoskins, Shannon; Treviso, Scarlett; Ginsberg, Michele; Rast, Robert; Harris, Beth; Payeur, Janet B; Waterman, Steve; Ardans, Alex

    2007-01-01

    A joint multiagency project was initiated in response to a Salmonella outbreak in San Diego County, California, in 2004. Samples of cheese were collected during four 1-day operations at the San Ysidro port of entry, along the United States-Mexico border. Surveyed participants were persons crossing the border as pedestrians or in vehicles who had a minimum of 2.27 kg of cheese, which may suggest a potential diversion to illegal marketing. In addition, data were collected about the cheese to identify risk factors for cheese contamination. Two hundred four cheese samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System-San Bernardino Branch and analyzed for potential food pathogens. Ninety-four percent (190 of 203) of the samples tested positive for alkaline phosphatase. Salmonella was detected from 13% (27 of 204) of the samples comprising 11 serogroups and 28 serotypes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis DNA fingerprinting analysis, performed following standardized methods, determined that an isolate obtained from this study had an indistinguishable pattern from a recent Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium var. Copenhagen epidemic in the San Diego County that was linked to 14 illnesses. Listeria spp. were detected from 4% (8 of 204) of the samples, and of these, half were identified as L. monocytogenes. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was not detected from any of the samples. Mycobacterium bovis was detected from one panela-style cheese sample. Nine additional samples yielded Mycobacterium spp.

  14. Barriers to the Use of Trastuzumab for HER2+ Breast Cancer and the Potential Impact of Biosimilars: A Physician Survey in the United States and Emerging Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Philip; Criscitiello, Carmen; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Jacobs, Ira

    2014-09-17

    Trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy has become a standard of care for patients with HER2+ breast cancer. The cost of therapy, however, can limit patient access to trastuzumab in areas with limited financial resources for treatment reimbursement. This study examined access to trastuzumab and identified potential barriers to its use in the United States, Mexico, Turkey, Russia and Brazil via physician survey. The study also investigated if the availability of a biosimilar to trastuzumab would improve access to and use of HER2 monoclonal antibody therapy. Across all countries, a subset of oncologists reported barriers to the use of trastuzumab in a neoadjuvant, adjuvant or metastatic setting. Common barriers to the use of trastuzumab included issues related to insurance coverage, drug availability and cost to the patient. Overall, nearly half of oncologists reported that they would increase the use of HER2 monoclonal antibody therapy across all treatment settings if a lower cost biosimilar to trastuzumab were available. We conclude that the introduction of a biosimilar to trastuzumab may alleviate cost-related barriers to treatment and could increase patient access to HER2-directed therapy in all countries examined.

  15. United nations Orchestra

    CERN Multimedia

    MusiClub

    MusiClub United nations Orchestra www.ungenevaorchestra.ch An organizing committee has taken the initiative to create an Orchestra of the united nations at Geneva. In the context of this initiative, musicians in the following categories are invited to become members of the Orchestra and the Association: Active or retired staff of International organizations in Geneva; Active or retired employees of Permanent Missions to the United Nations at Geneva; as well as children and spouses of the above persons. For enrolment or for additional information, please contact: un.orchestra@yahoo.com

  16. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  17. Tax Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  18. United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Ways to Give Matching Gifts Donate Your Car Online Options United Way Close About UMDF Our ... Rights Reserved | UMDF Donor Privacy Policy Facebook Twitter Google+ Youtube Vimeo Instagram Email STAY UPDATED! Join the ...

  19. Voltage verification unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Edward J.

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  20. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  1. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  2. Operable Unit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  3. Insects: An Interdisciplinary Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Heather

    2007-01-01

    The author talks about an interdisciplinary unit on insects, and presents activities that can help students practice communication skills (interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational) and learn about insects with hands-on activities.

  4. Dimensionless Units in the SI

    CERN Document Server

    Mohr, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The International System of Units (SI) is supposed to be coherent. That is, when a combination of units is replaced by an equivalent unit, there is no additional numerical factor. Here we consider dimensionless units as defined in the SI, {\\it e.g.} angular units like radians or steradians and counting units like radioactive decays or molecules. We show that an incoherence may arise when different units of this type are replaced by a single dimensionless unit, the unit "one", and suggest how to properly include such units into the SI in order to remove the incoherence. In particular, we argue that the radian is the appropriate coherent unit for angles and that hertz is not a coherent unit in the SI. We also discuss how including angular and counting units affects the fundamental constants.

  5. Battery thermal management unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Nicholas A.

    1989-03-01

    A battery warming device has been designed which uses waste heat from an operating internal combustion engine to warm a battery. A portion of the waste heat is stored in the sensible and latent heat of a phase change type material for use in maintaining the battery temperature after the engine is shut off. The basic design of the device consists of a Phase Change Material (PCM) reservoir and a simple heat exchanger connected to the engineer's cooling system. Two types of units were built, tested and field trialed. A strap-on type which was strapped to the side of an automotive battery and was intended for the automotive after-market and a tray type on which a battery or batteries sat. This unit was intended for the heavy duty truck market. It was determined that both types of units increased the average cranking power of the batteries they were applied to. Although there were several design problems with the units such as the need for an automatic thermostatically controlled bypass valve, the overall feeling is that there is a market opportunity for both the strap-on and tray type battery warming units.

  6. Coherence for weak units

    CERN Document Server

    Joyal, André

    2009-01-01

    We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.

  7. Dispersion in unit disks

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitrescu, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    We present two new approximation algorithms with (improved) constant ratios for selecting $n$ points in $n$ unit disks such that the minimum pairwise distance among the points is maximized. (I) A very simple $O(n \\log{n})$-time algorithm with ratio 0.5110 for disjoint unit disks. In combination with an algorithm of Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, it yields a $O(n^2)$-time algorithm with ratio of 0.4487 for dispersion in $n$ not necessarily disjoint unit disks. (II) A more sophisticated LP-based algorithm with ratio 0.6495 for disjoint unit disks that uses a linear number of variables and constraints, and runs in polynomial time. The algorithm introduces a novel technique which combines linear programming and projections for approximating distances. The previous best approximation ratio for disjoint unit disks was 1/2. Our results give a partial answer to an open question raised by Cabello \\cite{Ca07}, who asked whether 1/2 could be improved.

  8. Signal processing unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boswell, J.

    1983-01-01

    The architecture of the signal processing unit (SPU) comprises an ROM connected to a program bus, and an input-output bus connected to a data bus and register through a pipeline multiplier accumulator (pmac) and a pipeline arithmetic logic unit (palu), each associated with a random access memory (ram1,2). The system pulse frequency is from 20 mhz. The pmac is further detailed, and has a capability of 20 mega operations per second. There is also a block diagram for the palu, showing interconnections between the register block (rbl), separator for bus (bs), register (reg), shifter (sh) and combination unit. The first and second rams have formats 64*16 and 32*32 bits, respectively. Further data are a 5-v power supply and 2.5 micron n-channel silicon gate mos technology with about 50000 transistors.

  9. Allocating multiple units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Krishna, Kala

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the allocation and rent distribution in multi-unit, combinatorial-bid auctions under complete information. We focus on the natural multi-unit analogue of the first-price auction, where buyers bid total payments, pay their bids, and where the seller allocates goods to maximize his...... revenue. While there are many equilibria in this auction, only efficient equilibria remain when the truthful equilibrium restriction of the menu-auction literature is used. Focusing on these equilibria we first show that the first-price auction just described is revenue and outcome equivalent to a Vickrey...

  10. United States Attorney Prosecutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    Berceda, 572 F.2d 630 (9th Cir. 1978).. A mere request, such as that made by the defendant, is not sufficient; United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d...a mere request and more than mere speculation that disclosure will be helpful. United States v. Trejo- Zambrano , 582 F.2d 460 (9th Cir. 1978), eect. dt...both known and unknown to the Grand Jury, including Lane Boudreau, Scott Willard Holland, James Allen Halperin, Maria Ximena Erlandsen, Derek Adrian

  11. Women's Rights Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Helen; Weigel, Margaret

    Designed for use in the intermediate grades, this interdisciplinary unit helps students examine traditional and modern roles of women. Fourteen lessons focus on women's activities in colonial America, reasons for women's discontent, the women's rights movement of the 1800's, changes in the roles of women, enfranchisement of women, women's role…

  12. Consumer Mathematics. Teaching Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    GRADES OR AGES: Secondary school. SUBJECT MATTER: Consumer mathematics including--money management, transportation, probability, swindles and gyps, insurance, housing, taxes, consumer credit, banks, savings, and investments. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into ten parallel units, one for each of the above areas, which…

  13. United in change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanneke Posthumus; Josje den Ridder; Joep de Hart

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Verenigd in verandering The importance of citizens who unite in civil society organisations is broadly recognised. Organisations bind people to each other, to the community and to the political system. How are civil-society organisations in the Netherlands faring? Is there

  14. Outdoorsman, Unit III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    The third and final unit of the 4-H Outdoorsman Program covers the most advanced and challenging campcraft skills for 4-H members in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Survival camping (including building shelters and finding food), in-depth map-reading and orienteering, game management, hiking themes and recordkeeping are all…

  15. Sickle Cell Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canipe, Stephen L.

    Included in this high school biology unit on sickle cell anemia are the following materials: a synopsis of the history of the discovery and the genetic qualities of the disease; electrophoresis diagrams comparing normal, homozygous and heterozygous conditions of the disease; and biochemical characteristics and population genetics of the disease. A…

  16. Whale Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Materials in this teaching unit are designed to foster an interest in whale preservation among intermediate grade and junior high school students. Several readings provide background information on various types of whales and the economic value of whales. Student activities include a true and false game, a crossword, and a mobile. A resource list…

  17. Whale Teaching Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Materials in this teaching unit are designed to foster an interest in whale preservation among intermediate grade and junior high school students. Several readings provide background information on various types of whales and the economic value of whales. Student activities include a true and false game, a crossword, and a mobile. A resource list…

  18. Transfer of manufacturing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Skov; Riis, Jens Ove; Sørensen, Brian Vejrum

    2008-01-01

    The ongoing and unfolding relocation of activities is one of the major trends, that calls for attention in the domain of operations management. In particular, prescriptive models outlining: stages of the process, where to locate, and how to establish the new facilities have been studied, while...... and dilemmas to be addressed when transferring manufacturing units....

  19. A historical context of municipal solid waste management in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Garrick E

    2004-08-01

    Municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in the United States is a system comprised of regulatory, administrative, market, technology, and social subcomponents, and can only be understood in the context of its historical evolution. American cities lacked organized public works for street cleaning, refuse collection, water treatment, and human waste removal until the early 1800s. Recurrent epidemics forced efforts to improve public health and the environment. The belief in anticontagionism led to the construction of water treatment and sewerage works during the nineteenth century, by sanitary engineers working for regional public health authorities. This infrastructure was capital intensive and required regional institutions to finance and administer it. By the time attention turned to solid waste management in the 1880s, funding was not available for a regional infrastructure. Thus, solid waste management was established as a local responsibility, centred on nearby municipal dumps. George Waring of New York City organized solid waste management around engineering unit operations; including street sweeping, refuse collection, transportation, resource recovery and disposal. This approach was adopted nationwide, and was managed by City Departments of Sanitation. Innovations such as the introduction of trucks, motorized street sweepers, incineration, and sanitary landfill were developed in the following decades. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA), is the defining legislation for MSWM practice in America today. It forced the closure of open dumps nationwide, and required regional planning for MSWM. The closure of municipal dumps caused a 'garbage crisis' in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Private companies assumed an expanded role in MSWM through regional facilities that required the transportation of MSW across state lines. These transboundary movements of MSW created the issue of flow control, in which the US Supreme Court affirmed the protection

  20. Laser color recording unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  1. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  2. Unit 5. Thermodynamics (Summary)

    OpenAIRE

    Beléndez Vázquez, Augusto

    2012-01-01

    Summary of the "Unit 5. Thermodynamics" of course "Physical Foundations of Engineering I". Degree in Sound and Image Engineering, in Telecommunications. Polytechnic School of the University of Alicante Resumen del "Tema 5. Termodinámica" de la asignatura "Fundamentos Físicos de la Ingeniería I". Grado en Ingeniería en Sonido e Imagen en Telecomunicaciones. Escuela Politécnica Superior. Universidad de Alicante.

  3. 77 FR 12543 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for Riverside Fairy Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... coastal mesa tops along the United States-Mexico Border in San Diego County. The current known range of Riverside fairy shrimp is from Ventura County to the United States-Mexico Border in San Diego County, a... California, Mexico, at the time the species was listed (58 FR 41385)). Extant occurrences are located...

  4. UNIT COMMITMENT: A NEW TRUNCATED METHOD OF UNIT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    limits, minimum up/down times. Other ... incremental heat rate in ₦/hour for unit i ... approaches to treating thermal unit during its ... (d) Load Balance: During each interval of time, k, the .... The unit information and initial conditions are shown in.

  5. Dynamic Torque Calibration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agronin, Michael L.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1989-01-01

    Proposed dynamic torque calibration unit (DTCU) measures torque in rotary actuator components such as motors, bearings, gear trains, and flex couplings. Unique because designed specifically for testing components under low rates. Measures torque in device under test during controlled steady rotation or oscillation. Rotor oriented vertically, supported by upper angular-contact bearing and lower radial-contact bearing that floats axially to prevent thermal expansion from loading bearings. High-load capacity air bearing available to replace ball bearings when higher load capacity or reduction in rate noise required.

  6. Small Unit Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    best demonstrated value for small (< AA size) lithium - thionyl - chloride batteries (Halpert 1993). Equation (2-3) shows that the solar power...However, this energy den- sity this is only ~ 3 times larger than the demonstrated performance of the best lithium batteries , and the fuel cells are...Units 13 2.2.2 ASIC Capability 15 2.2.3 Power and Size 17 2.2.4 Cost 19 2.3 Power Sources 20 2.3.1 Batteries 21 2.3.2 Solar Augmentation

  7. Atmospheric measurements of CDDs, CDFs and coplanar PCBs in rural and remote locations of the United States in the year 2001 from the National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleverly, D. [National Center for Environmental Assessment, Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (United States); Winters, D. [Office of Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, WA, DC (United States); Ferrario, J.; Dupuy, A.; Byrne, C. [Environmental Chemistry Lab., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Stennis Space Center, MS (United States); Riggs, K.; Hartford, P.; Joseph, D.; Wisbith, T. [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The U.S. EPA has established a National Dioxin Air Monitoring Network (NDAMN) to address three primary objectives: (1) to determine the atmospheric levels and occurrences of dioxin-like compounds in rural and agricultural areas where livestock, poultry and animal feed crops are grown; (2) to provide measurements of atmospheric levels of dioxin-like compounds in remote areas of the U.S.; and (3) to provide information regarding the long-range and transboundary transport of dioxin-like compounds in air over the United States. Figure 1 shows the locations of NDAMN sites. Previously EPA has reported on the preliminary results of monitoring at 9 rural locations from June1998 through December 19991, and calendar year 2000. The year 1999 measurement at the 9 rural stations indicated an annual mean TEQ{sub DF}-WHO{sub 98} air concentration of about 11.3 fg m{sup -3}. In the year 2000, the mean of 18 rural stations and 8 remote areas were 14.6 fg m{sup -3} and 2.0 fg m{sup -3}, respectively. Since this reporting, NDAMN has been extended to include additional stations. We are reporting the air monitoring results of NDAMN for calendar year 2001 at both rural and remote sites in the U.S. The rural sites are indicated as circles and remote sites are indicted as squares on Figure 1.

  8. Order Units in a *-Algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil K Karn

    2003-02-01

    Order unit property of a positive element in a *-algebra is defined. It is proved that precisely projections satisfy this order theoretic property. This way, unital hereditary *-subalgebras of a *-algebra are characterized.

  9. DS796 California Groundwater Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The California Groundwater Units dataset classifies and delineates the State into one of three groundwater based polygon units: (1) those areas defined as alluvial...

  10. Trend of hydraulic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshimaru, Jun' ichi

    1988-11-01

    The gear, vane and piston pumps occupy a more then 90% share in the hydraulic pumps. Comparatively large pumps are mainly variable delivery piston pumps. The piston pumps are comparatively high in output density (output per unit weight), indicating the hydraulic pump in performance, and tend to become higher and higher in it. Though they are mainly 210 to 350kgf/cm/sup 2/ in rated pressure, some of them come to surpass 400kgf/cm/sup 3/ in it. While the progress in computation also requires the high speed operation, high accuracy and other severe conditions for the hydraulic units, which accordingly and increasingly intensify the requirement for hydraulic oil in abrasion resistibility, oxidation stability and response characteristics. While cavitation comes to easily occur, which considerably and disadvantageously influences hydraulic oil in life through degradation, noise level and respondingness. From now on, the development of high performance oil and study of mechanical structure are important. 19 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  11. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  12. Snakes: An Integrated Unit Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Lisa

    This document presents an integrated unit plan on snakes targeting second grade students. Objectives of the unit include developing concepts of living things, understanding the contribution and importance of snakes to the environment, and making connections between different disciplines. The unit integrates the topic of snakes into the areas of…

  13. Design of hydraulic recuperation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandourek Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with design and measurement of hydraulic recuperation unit. Recuperation unit consist of radial turbine and axial pump, which are coupled on the same shaft. Speed of shaft with impellers are 6000 1/min. For economic reasons, is design of recuperation unit performed using commercially manufactured propellers.

  14. United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    This discussion of the United Arab Emirates focuses on the following: the people; geography; history; government; political conditions; defense; the economy; foreign relations; and relations between the US and the United Arab Emirates. In 1983 the population was estimated at 1,194,000. In 1984 the annual growth rate was negative. Life expectancy is about 60 years. Fewer than 20% of the population are UAE citizens. Indigenous Emiris are Arab; the rest of the population includes significant numbers of other Arabs -- Palestinians, Egyptians, Jordanians, Yemenis, Omanis, as well as many Iranians, Pakistanis, Indians, and West Europeans, especially in Dubai. The UAE is in the eastern Arabian Peninsula, bounded on the north by the Persian Gulf. European and Arab pirates roamed the Trucial Coast area from the 17th century into the 19th century. Early British expeditions against the pirates led to further campaigns against their headquarters. Piracy continued intermittently until 1835, when the shaikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the UK and the Trucial States established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty. In 1968 the British government announced its decision, reaffirmed in March 1971, to end the treaty relationship with the gulf shaikhdoms. When the British protective treaty with the Trucial Shaikhdoms ended on December 1, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, 6 of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The 7th, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Administratively, the UAE is a loose federation of 7 emirates, each with its own ruler. The pace at which local government in each emirate is evolving, from traditional to modern, is set primarily by the ruler. Under the provisional constitution of 1971, each emirate reserves considerable powers, including control over mineral rights, taxation, and police powers. In this milieu, the growth of federal powers has

  15. Learning unit: Thin lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, L.-S.

    2012-04-01

    Learning unit: Thin lenses "Why objects seen through lenses are sometimes upright and sometimes reversed" Nita Laura Simona National College of Arts and Crafts "Constantin Brancusi", Craiova, Romania 1. GEOMETRIC OPTICS. 13 hours Introduction (models, axioms, principles, conventions) 1. Thin lenses (Types of lenses. Defining elements. Path of light rays through lenses. Image formation. Required physical quantities. Lens formulas). 2. Lens systems (Non-collated lenses. Focalless systems). 3. Human eye (Functioning as an optical system. Sight defects and their corrections). 4. Optical instruments (Characteristics exemplified by a magnifying glass. Paths of light rays through a simplified photo camera. Path of light rays through a classical microscope) (Physics curriculum for the IXth grade/ 2011). This scenario exposes a learning unit based on experimental sequences (defining specific competencies), as a succession of lessons started by noticing a problem whose solution assumes the setup of an experiment under laboratory conditions. Progressive learning of theme objectives are realised with sequential experimental steps. The central cognitive process is the induction or the generalization (development of new knowledge based on observation of examples or counterexamples of the concept to be learnt). Pupil interest in theme objectives is triggered by problem-situations, for example: "In order to better see small objects I need a magnifying glass. But when using a magnifier, small object images are sometimes seen upright and sometimes seen reversed!" Along the way, pupils' reasoning will converge to the idea: "The image of an object through a lens depends on the relative distances among object, lens, and observer". Associated learning model: EXPERIMENT Specific competencies: derived from the experiment model, in agreement with the following learning unit steps I. Evoking - Anticipation: Size of the problem, formulation of hypotheses and planning of experiment. II

  16. Last call for units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Stuart; Rosen, Ronald; Jones, Clifford; Bean, Leonard W.; Lane, Frank

    2009-09-01

    I am writing with regard to Kevin McGuigan's definition of the darwin unit, Dw, as "the mathematical probability of one undergraduate (or faculty) fatality per practical if the person in question is left to their own devices" (July p60). Although it is clear how the loss of genitals in a laboratory accident would result in a student's removal from the gene pool, McGuigan does not explain how the loss of finger (a 1 mDw event, he suggests) might impede procreation in the slightest. Perhaps McGuigan is confusing Darwin's evolution by natural selection with Lamarck's discredited theory of evolution by the inheritance of acquired characteristics. If so, the gulf between physicists and biologists seems as wide as ever.

  17. Forward Deployed Robotic Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brendle, Bruce E., Jr.; Bornstein, Jonathan A.

    2000-07-01

    Forward Deployed Robotic Unit (FDRU) is a core science and technology objective of the US Army, which will demonstrate the impact of autonomous systems on all phases of future land warfare. It will develop, integrate and demonstrate technology required to achieve robotic and fire control capabilities for future land combat vehicles, e.g., Future Combat Systems, using a system of systems approach that culminates in a field demonstration in 2005. It will also provide the required unmanned assets and conduct the demonstration. Battle Lab Warfighting Experiments and data analysis required to understand the effects of unmanned assets on combat operations. The US Army Tank- Automotive & Armaments Command and the US Army Research Laboratory are teaming in an effort to leverage prior technology achievements in the areas of autonomous mobility, architecture, sensor and robotics system integration; advance the state-of-the-art in these areas; and to provide field demonstration/application of the technologies.

  18. [United theory of aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubitsyn, A G

    2012-01-01

    In attempts to develop a means of life prolongation the humankind has created more than three hundred theories of the aging; each of them offers the original cause of aging. However, none of them has given practical result by now. The majority of the theories have now only historical interest. There are several different theories that are mainly under consideration currently. They are based on reliable, proven evidence: the free radical theory, the protein error theory, the replicative senescence theory, the theory of reparation weakening, the immunological theory, several versions of neuroendocrinal theories, and programmed aging theory. The theory presented here is based on conception that the life as the phenomenon represents many of the interconnected physical and chemical processes propelled by energy of the mitochondrial bioenergetical machine. Gradual degradation of all vital processes is caused by the programmed decrease in level of bioenergetics. This theory unites all existing theories of aging constructed on authentic facts: it is shown, that such fundamental phenomena accompanying aging process as the increase in level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the decrease in the general level of protein synthesis, the limitation of cellular dividing (Haiflick limit), decrease in efficiency of reparation mechanisms are caused by bioenergetics attenuation. Each of these phenomena in turn generates a number of harmful secondary processes. Any of the theories bases on one of these destructive phenomena or their combination. Hence, each of them describes one of sides of process of the aging initially caused by programmed decrease of level of bioenergetics. This united theory gives the chance to understand the nature of aging clock and explains a phenomenon of increase in longevity at the condition of food restriction. Failures of attempts to develop means from aging are explained by that the manipulations with the separate secondary phenomena of attenuation of

  19. Friendly units for coldness

    CERN Document Server

    Fraundorf, P

    2006-01-01

    Measures of temperature that center around human experience get lots of use. Of course thermal physics insights of the last century have shown that reciprocal temperature (1/kT) has applications that temperature addresses less well. In addition to taking on negative absolute values under population inversion (e.g. of magnetic spins), bits and bytes turn 1/kT into an informatic measure of the thermal ambient for developing correlations within any complex system. We show here that, in the human-friendly units of bytes and food Calories, water freezes when 1/kT ~200 ZB/Cal or kT ~5 Cal/YB. Casting familiar benchmarks into these terms shows that habitable human space requires coldness values (part of the time, at least) between 0 and 40 ZB/Cal with respect body temperature ~100 degrees F, a range in kT of ~1 Cal/YB. Insight into these physical quantities underlying thermal equilibration may prove useful for budding scientists, as well as the general public, in years ahead.

  20. Mobile contingency unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio O. da; Magalhaes, Milton P. de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Junqueira, Rodrigo A.; Torres, Carlos A.R. [PETROBRAS Transporte S/A (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting what is already a reality in TRANSPETRO in the area covered by OSBRA, a pipeline that carries by-products to the Mid-West region of Brazil. In order to meet the needs of covering occasional accidents, TRANSPETRO counts on a standardized system of emergency management. It is a great challenge to secure an efficient communication along the 964 km of extension, considering that there are shadow zones where it is not possible to use conventional means of communication such as mobile telephony and internet. It was in this context that the Mobile Contingency Unit Via Satellite - MCU was developed, to extend the communication facilities existing in fixed installations to remote places, mainly the pipeline right of ways. In case of emergency, simulation and work in the pipeline right of way, MCU is fully able to provide the same data, voice, closed-circuit TV and satellite video conference facilities that are available in any internal area of the PETROBRAS system. (author)

  1. Portable Virtual Training Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Reagan; Johnston, Alan

    2015-01-01

    The Mission Operations Lab initiated a project to design, develop, deliver, test, and validate a unique training system for astronaut and ground support personnel. In an effort to keep training costs low, virtual training units (VTUs) have been designed based on images of actual hardware and manipulated by a touch screen style interface for ground support personnel training. This project helped modernized the training system and materials by integrating them with mobile devices for training when operators or crew are unavailable to physically train in the facility. This project also tested the concept of a handheld remote device to control integrated trainers using International Space Station (ISS) training simulators as a platform. The portable VTU can interface with the full-sized VTU, allowing a trainer co-located with a trainee to remotely manipulate a VTU and evaluate a trainee's response. This project helped determine if it is useful, cost effective, and beneficial for the instructor to have a portable handheld device to control the behavior of the models during training. This project has advanced NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) VTU capabilities with modern and relevant technology to support space flight training needs of today and tomorrow.

  2. Fascioliasis and Intestinal Parasitoses Affecting Schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: Epidemiology and Treatment with Nitazoxanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Background The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. Methodology and Findings A total of 865 6–14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94–13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24–384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Conclusions Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate alternative to triclabendazole, the present drug of choice for chronic fascioliasis. Its wide spectrum efficacy against intestinal protozooses and helminthiasis, usually coinfecting liver fluke infected subjects in human endemic areas, represents an important added value. PMID:24278492

  3. First Record of the Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus in Hidalgo State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Morales, Aldo I; Cueto-Medina, Sarai M; Rodríguez, Quetzaly K Siller

    2016-09-01

    The occurrence of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus , has been reported in the Mexican states of Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila (northeastern), Veracruz, Chiapas, Quintana Roo (southeastern), Morelos, San Luis Potosí (middle), and Sinaloa (northwestern). In April and September 2012, Ae. albopictus was collected in a variety of habitats and landing/biting on the collecting personnel in 12 counties of Hidalgo state (middle). This is the first record of the occurrence of this species in Hidalgo state.

  4. Conservation assessment of current and proposed nature reserves of Tamaulipas state, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, C.; Gerald, Wright R.; Michael, Scott J.; Strand, Espen

    2003-01-01

    The Mexican state of Tamaulipas located in the northeastern portion of the country currently has five state nature reserves covering slightly less than 3% of its land area. These reserves were established for a variety of reasons, many unrelated to the protection of biological resources. In 2000 in response to a growing concern about the lack of organized conservation reserve planning to protect the important biological and physical features of Mexico, the Mexican Commission for Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity (CONABIO) proposed 13 new terrestrial reserves for Tamaulipas. If established these new reserves would increase the proportion of terrestrial protected lands in the state to over 21%. We compiled a geographic information system (GIS) using existing digital thematic maps of physical and biological features to examine how the existing and proposed reserves might serve to protect the biodiversity and physical features of the state. We found that most of the existing protected sites occur in areas with elevations > 1000-2000 m with temperate climate and dominated by pine forest, oak forest, and cloud forest vegetation cover types. The state's dominant biotic region - low elevation coastal plain with tropical and arid climate types and xeric scrub vegetation - is disproportionately underrepresented in the current reserve system. The creation of the proposed areas would substantially increase the protection of mid and high elevation lands. The largest gap in the protected lands network would be low elevation, level, coastal lands.

  5. [Distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea) from Mexico State, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Mejía, Claudia; Vargas-Fernández, Isabel; Luis-Martínez, Armando; Llorente-Bousquets, Jorge

    2008-09-01

    The State of Mexico is a region with great biological diversity, owing to its geographical and ecological features. Regarding Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea, 15% of the Mexican species are recorded in the State of Mexico, 17% of which are endemic to the country. A checklist of the two superfamilies for the State of Mexico was integrated, based on published literature and databases at the Museo de Zoología of the Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM. The checklist is composed by six families, 22 subfamilies, 197 genera and 325 species (95 Hesperiidae, 19 Papilionidae, 35 Pieridae, 54 Lycaenidae, 20 Riodinidae, and 102 Nymphalidae). A list of each species is presented, including collecting localities, flight month, and whether data correspond to scientific collection records or literature.

  6. Fascioliasis and Intestinal Parasitoses Affecting Schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: Epidemiology and Treatment with Nitazoxanide

    OpenAIRE

    José Lino Zumaquero-Ríos; Jorge Sarracent-Pérez; Raúl Rojas-García; Lázara Rojas-Rivero; Yaneth Martínez-Tovilla; María Adela Valero; Santiago Mas-Coma

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: A total of 865 6-14 year-old school...

  7. Superinfection between influenza and RSV alternating patterns in San Luis Potosi State, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Xicoténcatl Velasco-Hernández

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explain through the ecological hypothesis superinfection and competitive interaction between two viral populations and niche (host availability, the alternating patterns of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV and influenza observed in a regional hospital in San Luis Potosí State, México using a mathematical model as a methodological tool. The data analyzed consists of community-based and hospital-based Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI consultations provided by health-care institutions reported to the State Health Service Epidemiology Department from 2003 through 2009.

  8. Annotated checklist of the coastal ichthyofauna from Michoacán State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Hernández, Eloísa; Palacios-Morales, Georgina; Romero-Gallardo, Salvador; Salazar-Araujo, Paloma; García-Meraz, Adrián; Madrigal-Guridi, Xavier; Del Moral-Flores, Luis F.; Domínguez-Domínguez, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study is the first to complete an intensive and comprehensive list of the ichthyofauna of nearly all ecosystems of the Michoacán coast, Mexico. The resulting systematic checklist, supplemented with information from the literature and scientific collections, comprises 440 species belonging to two classes, 31 orders, 104 families, and 264 genera. The families with the highest number of species were Sciaenidae (30 spp.), Carangidae (26), Haemulidae (24), Serranidae (21), Paralichthyidae, and Gobiidae (13). Of the total species list, 134 represent first records for the Michoacán State, and one is a first record for Mexico. The results expand the number of known fish species of the Michoacán coast by almost one third and will help to develop conservation and management plans for this coastal zone. PMID:27551224

  9. Assessing deforestation in the coastal zone of the Campeche State, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mas, J.F.; Vega, A.P.; Aponte, G.P.; Lomeli, D.Z. [Univ. of Campeche (Mexico)

    1997-06-01

    In order to determine rates of deforestation in the State of Campeche, Mexico, forest maps of 1978/80 and 1992 were compared within a geographic information system (GIS). Results indicate that more than 25 per cent of the tropical forest and mangroves were deforested and other 29 per cent were fragmented during this period. The rate of deforestation in the whole state is about 4.4 per cent per year, but the analysis showed that rates of deforestation are much higher in the coastal zone. For this reason an attempt was made to study deforestation patterns in the coastal zone. Data such as distance from roads and from settlements images were incorporated in the GIS data base and a model which represents influence of population on its environment was developed in order to establish the influence of socioeconomic factors on forest clearing. Results indicate that deforestation presents a higher correlation with levels of poverty and social abandonment than with demographic aspects.

  10. Discrimination between diffuse and point sources of arsenic at Zimapán, Hidalgo state, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sracek, Ondra; Armienta, María Aurora; Rodríguez, Ramiro; Villaseñor, Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    There are two principal sources of arsenic in Zimapán. Point sources are linked to mining and smelting activities and especially to mine tailings. Diffuse sources are not well defined and are linked to regional flow systems in carbonate rocks. Both sources are caused by the oxidation of arsenic-rich sulfidic mineralization. Point sources are characterized by Ca-SO(4)-HCO(3) ground water type and relatively enriched values of deltaD, delta(18)O, and delta(34)S(SO(4)). Diffuse sources are characterized by Ca-Na-HCO(3) type of ground water and more depleted values of deltaD, delta(18)O, and delta(34)S(SO(4)). Values of deltaD and delta(18)O indicate similar altitude of recharge for both arsenic sources and stronger impact of evaporation for point sources in mine tailings. There are also different values of delta(34)S(SO(4)) for both sources, presumably due to different types of mineralization or isotopic zonality in deposits. In Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the principal component 1 (PC1), which describes the impact of sulfide oxidation and neutralization by the dissolution of carbonates, has higher values in samples from point sources. In spite of similar concentrations of As in ground water affected by diffuse sources and point sources (mean values 0.21 mg L(-1) and 0.31 mg L(-1), respectively, in the years from 2003 to 2008), the diffuse sources have more impact on the health of population in Zimapán. This is caused by the extraction of ground water from wells tapping regional flow system. In contrast, wells located in the proximity of mine tailings are not generally used for water supply.

  11. [Description of chagas disease in the Valle de Iguala, Guerrero state, Mexico- Marco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerril-Flores, Marco Antonio; Valle-De La Cruz, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    There are reports regarding the presence of triatomine vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas' disease, and infected individuals on the coast and zones south of the State of Guerrero, Mexico. Nonetheless, there are no completed reports in the Valley of Iguala. To know with greater precision endemic zones, seropositive individuals and their health condition, T. cruzi-infected triatomines and characteristics of dwellings were studied. Seroprevalence was 1.8% by indirect ELISA and latex agglutination techniques were carried out in serum of 450 individuals of three municipalities of the Valley of Iguala. We reported presence of triatomine and conditions of dwellings. Of 71 triatomines collected, 38.2% were infected with T. cruzi. Triatoma pallidipennis was the only triatomine species found. No seropositive persons presented intestinal, or cardiac problems. The greatest percentage of infected triatomines was observed in rural zones as compared to urban. Results suggest considerable risk of infection in the Valley of Iguala but studies regarding the infectivity capacity of T. cruzi strains are required.

  12. 3-D Modelling of Magnetic Data from an Archaeological Site in Northwestern Tlaxcala State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, R. E.; Argote, D. L.; Cifuentes, G.; Tejero, A.; Camara, E.

    2009-05-01

    In Archaeology, geophysical methods had been applied usually in a qualitative form, limited only to the use of filters that enhance the data display. The main objective in this work is the implementation of a modeling technique that allows us to reconstruct the geometry of buried bodies and the determination of their depths. This is done by means of the estimation of the magnetic moments of archaeological objects using a three- dimensional mesh of individual magnetic dipoles using the least squares method and the singular value decomposition of a weighted matrix to solve the linear problem. The distribution and shape of the underlying archaeological remains can be inferred. This methodology was applied to an archaeological site called Los Teteles de Ocotitla, in the state of Tlaxcala, Mexico. A high-resolution magnetic prospection was carried out in three selected areas (terraces). The most important total field anomalies found on each area were inverted, obtaining results that were corroborated by archaeological excavations. This investigation demonstrates the potential of quantitative geophysical methods for the characterization of archaeological structures, in extension and in depth.

  13. [Coffee tree cultivation and the social history of onchocerciasis in Soconusco, Chiapas state, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez Castellanos, J L

    1991-01-01

    Due to the social and ecological changes that have taken place in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico, the coffee tree growth economy (established in the latter part of the last century) has been an important factor in the transmission of onchocerciasis. The optimum ecological conditions for the growth of the coffee tree coincide with those of the disease's growth rate vector; the mobilization of migrant workers for the cultivation and gathering of coffee beans, plus changes in the natural environment, are elements which explain the disease's distribution in the different regions. The origin of the disease in Chiapas may be due to the migration of coffee plantation workers from Guatemala in search of land in which to settle. Social changes occurring after the Agrarian Distribution (land distributions that occurred in 1918 and 1940) caused an intensification and modernization in the areas of cultivation which in turn caused a decline in the disease's growth rate vector. This, together with standard of living improvements and control measures against the disease, explain why the problem in these regions has decreased considerably. The use of ivermectin as a new therapy paves the way for better disease control in the future. Nevertheless, in the smaller locations occupied by middle and poor class farmers, where coffee bean cultivation is just commencing and still in a rudimentary form, onchocerciasis and other diseases continue to present serious health problems.

  14. A participatory approach to integrated aquifer management: The case of Guanajuato State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, Ricardo

    Guanajuato State, located in central Mexico, with less than 2% of the country's area, has almost 17,000 deep water wells, from which nearly 4,000 cubic hectometers (hm3) per year are being extracted, more than 1,000 hm3 over the estimated renewable yield. Since, in Mexico, water is administered under federal jurisdiction by the National Water Commission (CNA, for its Spanish acronym), the state government faces the challenge of ensuring its population's economic development without formal means of intervention. Being thus limited to apply mandatory policies and measures, the state water program has focused on the implementation of a two-sided strategy. First, basic hydrogeological studies and mathematical groundwater hydrodynamic models were developed upon a comprehensive survey of existing wells and a general revision of the state's geological framework. Second, a structure for water user's participation in water management actions was promoted (from the dissemination of information to the implementation of pilot efficient water use projects) with financial, technical and political support from the state. Simultaneously, a coordinated effort towards the completion of the water user's registry was performed with the federal authority along with other supporting measures such as training and monitoring programs. In this paper, a general overview of the project's achievements and challenges is presented. L'État de Guanajuato, situé dans la partie centrale du Mexique, avec moins de 2% de la surface du pays, a près de 17 000 puits profonds, d'où sont extraits près de 4 000 hm3 par an, soit plus de 1 000 hm3 de plus que le débit renouvelable estimé. Comme au Mexique l'eau est administrée dans le cadre d'une juridiction fédérale, le gouvernement de l'État fait tout son possible pour assurer le développement de sa population sans moyens formels d'intervention. Étant ainsi limité à appliquer des politiques et des mesures de recommandations, le programme Eau de l'État s'est appliqué à développer une stratégie sur deux plans. Tout d'abord, des études hydrogéologiques de base et des modèles mathématiques d'écoulement et de transport de nappe ont été réalisés à partir d'un suivi d'ensemble des puits existants et d'une révision générale du contexte géologique de l'État. Ensuite, on a soutenu une structure de participation des usagers de l'eau aux actions de gestion de l'eau, à partir de la dissémination de l'information pour la mise en place de projets pilotes efficaces d'utilisation de l'eau, avec des aides financières, techniques et politiques de l'État. Simultanément, un effort coordonné en vue de l'achèvement de l'enregistrement des usagers de l'eau a été fait avec l'autorité fédérale, en même temps que d'autres mesures de soutien, telles que des programmes de formation et des campagnes de surveillance. Cet article présente une vue d'ensemble des réalisations de projets et des défis. Resumen El Estado de Guanajuato, situado en el centro de México, ocupa menos del 2% de la superficie del país. Tiene casi 17.000 pozos profundos, de los cuales se extrae cerca de 4.000 hm3/a, lo que supone un exceso de 1.000 hm3/a respecto a la recarga anual. Puesto que el agua es administrada a nivel federal en México, el gobierno del Estado afronta el reto de asegurar el desarrollo de la población sin disponer de medios formales de intervención. Dadas las limitaciones para aplicar políticas y medidas reguladoras, el programa del agua en el Estado tiene como objetivo principal la implantación de una doble estrategia. Por un lado, desarrollar estudios hidrogeológicos básicos y modelos matemáticos de flujo y transporte de los acuíferos, basándose en una campaña exhaustiva de pozos existentes y en una revisión del marco geológico del Estado. Por otro lado, promover-con soporte financiero, técnico y político-una estructura de participación de los usuarios en las acciones de gestión, incluyendo desde la difusión de la información hasta la implantación de proyectos piloto para un uso eficiente del agua. Simultáneamente, se ha llevado a cabo un esfuerzo coordinado con la autoridad federal para completar el registro de usuarios del agua, además de promover otras medidas de ayuda, como programas de capacitación y campañas de muestreo. En este artículo, se ofrece una visión general de los logros y retos del proyecto.

  15. [Periodontal treatment needs in adults from Mixteca rural area in Puebla State, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Conde, Gloria G; de Santillana, Irene A Espinosa; Martínez-Arroniz, Fernando; Huerta-Herrera, Ninfa; Islas-Márquez, Arturo J; Medina-Solís, Carlo E

    2010-08-01

    This study was aimed at determining periodontal treatment needs, as determined by the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need (CPITN), in a sample of adults from the Mixteca region of the State of Puebla, in Mexico. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional, single-centre study. Previous informed consent was obtained; 60.0 % of the sample were women whose main activity was housework (46 %), 14.0 % were farmers. Average age was 37.6 ± 13.6. Gingival and Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Need proposed by the World Health Organisation and the International Dental Federation were used; they were implemented by the same, previously-standardised researcher. Means, standard deviations and confidence intervals were calculated for dimensional variables and percentages for categorical ones. The gingival index gave 50.0 % light gingivitis, 32.0% moderate and 14.0 % severe gingivitis. The rear superior sextants commonly showed more 4 to 5 mm pockets, the front sextants calculus and the rear inferior sextants showed calculus and bleeding. 94.0 % of the patients required periodontal treatment (3.6 sextants per patient average). Periodontal treatment needs were high in this study; nine out of ten patients in the Mixteca region of the State of Puebla required periodontal treatment. Efforts must thus be guided towards improving oral health in indigenous communities.

  16. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-11-01

    The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24-384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate alternative to triclabendazole, the present drug of choice for chronic fascioliasis. Its wide spectrum efficacy against intestinal protozooses and helminthiasis, usually coinfecting liver fluke infected subjects in human endemic areas, represents an important added value.

  17. New species of Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Puebla State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Bolaños, M; Castaño-Meneses, G; Guzmán-Mendoza, R

    2011-01-01

    Tetramorium notomelanum sp. n. is described from the Tehuacán Valley, state of Puebla, México. Its distribution and relation with other species of the tortuosum-group is discussed. The new species of Tetramonium is described from workers, and distinguished from others of the group by several characters: i) black coloration of the body; ii) size: T. notomelanum sp. n. is smaller than T. hispidum (Wheeler), T. mexicanum Bolton and T.spinosum (Pergande), but larger than T. bicolorum Vásquez-Bolaños and T. placidum Bolton; iii) length of the hairs of the dorsal of the head are equal to the diameter of eye; iv) the length of the hairs on the scape and tibiae less than the width of the appendage where they are located. This is the second species of the tortuosum group of Tetramorium found in the State of Puebla, and the fourth recorded in Mexico.

  18. Phenotypic characterization of the population of creole wool ewes in the highlands of Puebla State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-López, Samuel; Guerrero-Rodríguez, Juan de Dios; Rojas-Álvarez, Joel; Bustamante-González, Angel

    2012-12-01

    This study characterized the population of wool ewes in the highlands of the State of Puebla, Mexico, considering traits such as fleece color, weight, and body measurements. In this region, dominated by a temperate climate, sheep are a traditional animal species for farming systems. To carry out the work, 2,082 ewes were randomly selected from 14 communities and 124 flocks belonging to the six municipalities that have the largest inventory of sheep in the state. For each ewe, live weight, breed, fleece color pattern, and 18 other body measurements were recorded. Descriptive statistics were estimated for weight and body traits and the morphotype was classified by multivariate analysis. Factor analysis identified the bulk, size, and breed standard as the attributes that best describe the population of ewes. These elements varied in importance among the groups (p < 0.05). Cluster analysis helped to classify the population into small black-faced ewes (28.5 %), small white ewes (11.9 %), black-faced medium-sized ewes (24.1 %), large ewes (12.3 %), and white medium-sized ewes (23.2 %). The groups identified were similar to creole sheep present in rural communities in other environments, but have lower morphostructural values than specialized breeds.

  19. Epidemiological investigation of Taenia solium taeniasis and cysticercosis in a rural village of Michoacan state, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarti, E; Schantz, P M; Plancarte, A; Wilson, M; Gutierrez, O I; Aguilera, J; Roberts, J; Flisser, A

    1994-01-01

    We performed a survey for taeniasis and cysticercosis among persons living in a Mexican village where Taenia solium infection in pigs was known to be enzootic. A standardized questionnaire was administered in all 577 households to obtain medical histories and information on demographic and environmental factors and on risk factors associated with transmission of infection. Serum and/or stool specimens were obtained from 1005 volunteers and examined for cysticercosis antibodies and intestinal parasites. Faecal examination of 828 participants revealed infection by Taenia sp. in 2 (0.2%). Three additional cases of taeniasis were detected in individuals who evacuated proglottids after treatment with praziquantel. Of 1005 human serum specimens, 49 (4.9%) were positive in the cysticercosis immunoblot assay. Seropositivity increased with age and reached a peak in subjects aged 46-55 years (P taeniasis.

  20. [Taeniasis, amebiasis and other intestinal parasitosis in school age children from Michoacan State, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Aguilera, R; Aguilar-Bucio, M T; Martínez-Toledo, J L

    1990-03-01

    92.3% schoolchildren aged 6-13 years of a mexican rural village, suspected foci of Taenia solium cysticercosis were screened for intestinal parasites with the main purpose to know the infection rate by taeniasis. An stool sample was collected to schoolchildren of the village and 95.4% of a urban private school as comparative group. Laboratory examinations were performed with the most accurate technics, included microscopies with an ocular micrometer. The general parasitation rate was 4 times higher in the rural village, but the percentages of Taenia spp. infection were 0.6% both of them. Entamoeba histolytica was observed 1.8% and 7.2% in the city and rural village, respectively. All the cases with taeniasis passed T. saginata after treatment with niclosamide. Negative results were obtained with the same chemotherapy in a randomly selected group of 112 schoolchildren which previous stool examination was reported negative. Neither taeniasis were demonstrated in 94 adult persons. These data are suggestive of the great variability on the transmission rates of T. solium cysticercosis in endemic areas and illustrate the faced methodological problems to confirm the diagnosis of taeniasis. By other hand support the hypothesis that estimates of infection rates with E. histolytica have been overdiagnosed in the country. Taeniasis-cysticercosis; schoolchildren; Taenia saginata; amebiasis.

  1. Analysis of spatial mobility in subjects from a Dengue endemic urban locality in Morelos State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Lezama, Jorge Abelardo; Santos-Luna, René; Román-Pérez, Susana; Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Herrera-Valdez, Marco Arieli; Kuri-Morales, Ángel Fernando; Adams, Ben; Kuri-Morales, Pablo Antonio; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Ramos-Castañeda, José

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models and field data suggest that human mobility is an important driver for Dengue virus transmission. Nonetheless little is known on this matter due the lack of instruments for precise mobility quantification and study design difficulties. We carried out a cohort-nested, case-control study with 126 individuals (42 cases, 42 intradomestic controls and 42 population controls) with the goal of describing human mobility patterns of recently Dengue virus-infected subjects, and comparing them with those of non-infected subjects living in an urban endemic locality. Mobility was quantified using a GPS-data logger registering waypoints at 60-second intervals for a minimum of 15 natural days. Although absolute displacement was highly biased towards the intradomestic and peridomestic areas, occasional displacements exceeding a 100-Km radius from the center of the studied locality were recorded for all three study groups and individual displacements were recorded traveling across six states from central Mexico. Additionally, cases had a larger number of visits out of the municipality´s administrative limits when compared to intradomestic controls (cases: 10.4 versus intradomestic controls: 2.9, p = 0.0282). We were able to identify extradomestic places within and out of the locality that were independently visited by apparently non-related infected subjects, consistent with houses, working and leisure places. Results of this study show that human mobility in a small urban setting exceeded that considered by local health authority's administrative limits, and was different between recently infected and non-infected subjects living in the same household. These observations provide important insights about the role that human mobility may have in Dengue virus transmission and persistence across endemic geographic areas that need to be taken into account when planning preventive and control measures. Finally, these results are a valuable reference when setting the parameters for future mathematical modeling studies.

  2. Wide spread cross resistance to pyrethroids in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Veracruz state Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Adriana E; Ponce, Gustavo; Silva, Brenda G; Gutierrez, Selene M; Bobadilla, Cristina; Lopez, Beatriz; Mercado, Roberto; Black, William C

    2013-04-01

    Seven F1 strains of Aedes aegypti (L.) were evaluated by bottle bioassay for resistance to the pyrethroids d-phenothrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyalothrin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, and z-cypermethrin. The New Orleans strain was used as a susceptible control. Mortality rates after a 1 h exposure and after a 24 h recovery period were determined. The resistance ratio between the 50% knockdown values (RR(KC50)) of the F1 and New Orleans strains indicated high levels of knockdown resistance. The RR(KC50) with alpha-cypermethrin varied from 10 to 100 among strains indicating high levels of knockdown resistance. Most of the strains had moderate resistance to d-phenothrin. Significant but much lower levels of resistance were detected for lambda-cyalothrin, permethrin, and cypermethrin. For zeta-cypermethrin and bifenthrin, only one strain exhibited resistance with RR(KC50) values of 10- and 21-fold, respectively. None of the strains showed RR(KC50) >10 with deltamethrin, and moderate resistance was seen in three strains, while the rest were susceptible. Mosquitoes from all strains exhibited some recovery from all pyrethroids except d-phenothrin. Regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between RR(LC50) and RR(KC50). Both were highly correlated (R2 = 0.84-0.97) so that the slope could be used to determine how much additional pyrethroid was needed to ensure lethality. Slopes ranged from 0.875 for d-phenothrin (RR(LC50) approximately equal to RR(KC50)) to 8.67 for lambda-cyalothrin (-8.5-fold more insecticide needed to kill). Both RR(LC50) and RR(KC50) values were highly correlated for all pyrethroids except bifenthrin indicating strong cross-resistance. Bifenthrin appears to be an alternative pyrethroid without strong cross-resistance that could be used as an alternative to the current widespread use of permethrin in Mexico.

  3. Prediction of cutability of beef carcasses processed in Jalisco State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Zorrilla-Ríos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En un estudio previo se reportó la factibilidad de utilizar, en condiciones locales, ecuaciones disponibles de predicción de cortabilidad con base en kilogramos (TRC, o expresada como porcentaje de la canal (TRYD de bovino. Todas las ecuaciones consideradas incluyen variables obtenidas en el cuarteo de una media canal, lo que representa una limitante para su adopción en regiones del país (el estado de Jalisco incluido, en donde la evaluación de las canales —previa a su comercialización— se lleva a cabo sin el cuarteo de la media canal. Esta condición marca la necesidad de disponer de ecuaciones de predicción que no se sustenten en variables generadas con el cuarteo de la media canal, lo que se convirtió en el objetivo de esta investigación. Las ecuaciones de predicción propuestas se basan en los datos obtenidos de la fabricación tipo corte español, de treinta canales de toretes cruza indefinida cebú-europeo y menores a 36 meses de edad, procesadas en condiciones comerciales en una carnicería del municipio de Guadalajara, Jalisco, México. El peso de la canal fría mostró una correlación positiva (r=0.98 con el rendimiento de cortes expresados en kilogramos. Un modelo matemático de predicción del peso de los cortes comerciales mostró que la variable de peso de la canal, por sí sola, explicó el 95.60% de la varianza estimada, por lo que se propone como ecuación de predicción bajo estas condiciones.

  4. Evaluation of climatic forecasts of rainfall for the Tlaxcala State (Mexico): 1998-2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay Garcia, C. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Hernandez Vazquez, M.; Jimenez Lopez, J. [Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Lezama Gutierrez, J. [Departamento de Agrobiologia, Universidad Autonoma de Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala (Mexico); Magana Rueda, V.O.; Morales Acoltzi, T. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Orozco Flores, S. [Centro de Investigaciones en Ciencias Biologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    During the second semester of 1997 the Project Utilizacion de pronosticos climaticos para actividades agricolas de Tlaxcala was instrumented with the purpose of aiding decision making in agricultural activities in the estate of Tlaxcala, Mexico. The main objective of the project was to characterize extreme values of precipitation associated with El Nino/La Nina events, to produce useful forecasts for decision making. This was achieved through close contacts with the farmers whose specific needs were taken into account to the extent possible. In a sense such forecasts became forecasts watched over by producers. The method of ensemble of analogs was applied to historical data. The evaluation of annual and monthly forecasts is presented here. The results show that knowledge about the regional climate has been gained as it is reflected by the skill of the method to forecast. The forecast for the region, for the year 2003 is analyzed in terms of the precipitation anomalies. [Spanish] En el segundo semestre de 1997, se implemento el proyecto de investigacion Utilizacion de pronosticos climaticos para actividades agricolas en el estado de Tlaxcala. El objetivo principal del proyecto original fue el de caracterizar valores extremos de precipitacion asociados a los eventos El Nino/La Nina, producir pronosticos mensuales de precipitacion que fueran practicos en la toma de decisiones para los cultivos de temporal. Esto ultimo fue discutido con los productores cuyas necesidades y sugerencias fueron tomadas en cuenta, considerando un pronostico lo mas extendido posible. De esta manera los pronosticos se tornaron Pronosticos vigilados por los productores. El metodo de ensamble de analogos observados fue aplicado para generar los pronosticos de 1998-2002. La evaluacion de los pronosticos anuales y mensuales se presenta aqui. Los resultados muestran que se ha ganado conocimiento acerca del clima regional, como se refleja en la habilidad del metodo para pronosticar. Por ultimo, se analiza el pronostico 2003 para el Estado en terminos de las anomalias de la precipitacion.

  5. Analysis of spatial mobility in subjects from a Dengue endemic urban locality in Morelos State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Lezama, Jorge Abelardo; Santos-Luna, René; Román-Pérez, Susana; Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Herrera-Valdez, Marco Arieli; Kuri-Morales, Ángel Fernando; Adams, Ben; Kuri-Morales, Pablo Antonio; López-Cervantes, Malaquías

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mathematical models and field data suggest that human mobility is an important driver for Dengue virus transmission. Nonetheless little is known on this matter due the lack of instruments for precise mobility quantification and study design difficulties. Materials and methods We carried out a cohort-nested, case-control study with 126 individuals (42 cases, 42 intradomestic controls and 42 population controls) with the goal of describing human mobility patterns of recently Dengue virus-infected subjects, and comparing them with those of non-infected subjects living in an urban endemic locality. Mobility was quantified using a GPS-data logger registering waypoints at 60-second intervals for a minimum of 15 natural days. Results Although absolute displacement was highly biased towards the intradomestic and peridomestic areas, occasional displacements exceeding a 100-Km radius from the center of the studied locality were recorded for all three study groups and individual displacements were recorded traveling across six states from central Mexico. Additionally, cases had a larger number of visits out of the municipality´s administrative limits when compared to intradomestic controls (cases: 10.4 versus intradomestic controls: 2.9, p = 0.0282). We were able to identify extradomestic places within and out of the locality that were independently visited by apparently non-related infected subjects, consistent with houses, working and leisure places. Conclusions Results of this study show that human mobility in a small urban setting exceeded that considered by local health authority’s administrative limits, and was different between recently infected and non-infected subjects living in the same household. These observations provide important insights about the role that human mobility may have in Dengue virus transmission and persistence across endemic geographic areas that need to be taken into account when planning preventive and control measures. Finally, these results are a valuable reference when setting the parameters for future mathematical modeling studies. PMID:28225820

  6. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lino Zumaquero-Ríos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries.A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%. Intensities were however low (24-384 epg. The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids.Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate alternative to triclabendazole, the present drug of choice for chronic fascioliasis. Its wide spectrum efficacy against intestinal protozooses and helminthiasis, usually coinfecting liver fluke infected subjects in human endemic areas, represents an important added value.

  7. Genotoxic biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticides in the north of Sinaloa State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Alvarez-Torres, Armando

    2009-11-01

    Genotoxic damage was evaluated in 70 agricultural workers, 25 women and 45 men, exposed to pesticides in Las Grullas, Ahome, Sinaloa, Mexico, with an average of 7 years of exposure. The effect was detected through the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in lymphocytes of peripheral blood and micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear anomalies (NA) in buccal exfoliated cells. Also, the influence on cellular proliferation kinetics (CPK) was studied by means of the replication index (RI) and the cytotoxic effect was examined with the mitotic index (MI). The non-exposed group consisted of 70 other persons, 21 women and 47 men from the city of Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico. Significant differences between the exposed and the non-exposed groups were observed in SCE, CPK, MI, MN and NA. Analysis of variance revealed that age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption did not have a significant effect on genetic damage. However, there was a correlation between exposure time to pesticides and SCE frequency. These results could have been due to the exposure of workers to pesticides containing different chemical compounds. This study afforded valuable data to estimate the possible risk to health associated with pesticide exposure.

  8. Microbiological characteristics of four ‘chorizo’ types commercialized in Hidalgo State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Gonzalez-Tenorio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Chorizo is a raw sausage commercialized in almost all Mexico, mainly in the central region. Chorizo is elaborated from small producers’ craftsman who sold their products in local markets, to big meat processors who distribute their products in supermarkets. These differences in elaboration affect chorizo quality. In this work commercial chorizo bought in four different points (local butchers, rural markets, supermarkets and supply centers. Mainly microbiological groups were determined. Techno-sanitary conditions regulation should be improved in order to establish quality criteria.

  9. Alkali-silica reaction of aggregates for concrete pavements in Chihuahua’s State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olague, C.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The concrete of pavements must resist the climatic conditions, heavy traffic, chemical agents or any other type of aggressive agent. A methodology for characterizing materials that would influence concrete durability was developed considering chemical and physical factors. This methodology allows the consideration of several factors like physiography, geology, and climate, among others that would be of great importance to prevent future durability problems of pavements. This methodology takes into account several tests and this paper presents the results of potential reactivity aggregates of the State of Chihuahua. The tests for evaluating the reactive siliceous aggregate and the potential alkali-silica reactivity were performed according to the: petrographic examination (ASTM C 295 and standard quick chemical test (ASTM C 289. 38% of the tested sites resulted innocuous, 48% potentially reactive and 13% reactive. It is discussed the benefit of applying a conscious methodology in order to obtain the best results with a representative quantity of tests.

    El hormigón de los pavimentos debe ser resistente a las condiciones climáticas, tránsito pesado, agentes químicos o cualquier otro tipo de agente agresivo. Se desarrolló una metodología para caracterización de materiales considerando factores físicos y químicos que influyen en la durabilidad del hormigón. Esta metodología se basa en la consideración de varios factores como: fisiografía, geología y clima, entre otros, que podrían ser de gran importancia para prevenir futuros problemas de durabilidad en pavimentos de hormigón. La metodología en cuestión considera varias pruebas, en este artículo se presentan los resultados de la reactividad potencial de los áridos del Estado de Chihuahua. Las pruebas para evaluar la reactividad de áridos silíceos y la reactividad potencial álcali-sílice fueron ejecutadas de acuerdo a: examen petrográfico (ASTM C 295 y la prueba química rápida ( ASTM C 289. El 38% de los sitios estudiados resultaron inocuos, 48% potencialmente reactivos y 13% reactivos. Se discuten los beneficios de aplicar una metodología profunda, en orden a obtener los mejores resultados con un número de muestras representativas.

  10. Coliform and metal contamination in Lago de Colina, a recreational water body in Chihuahua State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I; Quintana, Rey M; Nevarez, G Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

    2011-06-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  11. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Rubio-Arias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lago de Colina (Colina Lake is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico, and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  12. Cohesion in Multinational Military Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-10

    He openly admitted his homosexual orientation at a staff meeting; by doing that he clearly stated his guidelines toward gays . He had developed a...of units and consequentially unit effectiveness (Dupuy 1993, 2948). Some nations permit openly gay and lesbian personnel and others may not. Social...may cause less tension. However, for some nations involvement of gays and lesbians in multinational units may be offensive, while other nations are

  13. Inlet Geomorphology Evolution Work Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    the expected behavior and benefits of nearshore placement. Nearshore placement studies have been documented in two journal papers, one technical...Coastal Inlets Research Program Inlet Geomorphology Evolution Work Unit The Inlet Geomorphology Evolution work unit of the CIRP develops methods...sensing measurements, and USACE projects to create valuable guidance that address geomorphic questions. The present focus of the work unit is a common

  14. From stroke unit care to stroke care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Sulter, G.

    1999-01-01

    In some stroke units continuous monitoring of blood pressure, electrocardiogram, body temperature, and oxygen saturation has become an integral part of the management of acute stroke. In addition, regular measurements of blood glucose are performed. Stroke units equipped with such monitoring facilit

  15. From stroke unit care to stroke care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, J; Sulter, G.

    1999-01-01

    In some stroke units continuous monitoring of blood pressure, electrocardiogram, body temperature, and oxygen saturation has become an integral part of the management of acute stroke. In addition, regular measurements of blood glucose are performed. Stroke units equipped with such monitoring

  16. GPS Metric Tracking Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    As Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) applications become more prevalent for land- and air-based vehicles, GPS applications for space vehicles will also increase. The Applied Technology Directorate of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has developed a lightweight, low-cost GPS Metric Tracking Unit (GMTU), the first of two steps in developing a lightweight, low-cost Space-Based Tracking and Command Subsystem (STACS) designed to meet Range Safety's link margin and latency requirements for vehicle command and telemetry data. The goals of STACS are to improve Range Safety operations and expand tracking capabilities for space vehicles. STACS will track the vehicle, receive commands, and send telemetry data through the space-based asset, which will dramatically reduce dependence on ground-based assets. The other step was the Low-Cost Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Transceiver (LCT2), developed by the Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), which allows the vehicle to communicate with a geosynchronous relay satellite. Although the GMTU and LCT2 were independently implemented and tested, the design collaboration of KSC and WFF engineers allowed GMTU and LCT2 to be integrated into one enclosure, leading to the final STACS. In operation, GMTU needs only a radio frequency (RF) input from a GPS antenna and outputs position and velocity data to the vehicle through a serial or pulse code modulation (PCM) interface. GMTU includes one commercial GPS receiver board and a custom board, the Command and Telemetry Processor (CTP) developed by KSC. The CTP design is based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) with embedded processors to support GPS functions.

  17. Ad valorem versus unit taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Sørensen, Allan

    2010-01-01

    a general equilibrium monopolistic competition model with heterogeneous firms and intra-industry reallocations. We show that the welfare superiority of ad valorem over unit taxes under imperfect competition is not only preserved but amplified. The additional difference between the tools arises because unit...

  18. Fatigue of Concrete Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N. B.; Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed.......In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed....

  19. Multicultural Mini-Units. Elementary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Sherrill B.

    The teaching mini-units in this teacher's guide are designed for use with elementary level students. Thematic study units are given for each of the following countries or continents: Africa, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, England, France, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, and the…

  20. Studying in the United Kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The United Kingdom is among the world leaders in recruiting international students.Joanna Burke,Cultural Counselor in the Cultural and Education Section of the British Embassy in China,recently spoke about international students,especially Chinese students in the United Kingdom,with Beijing Review reporter Wang Hairong.

  1. Fatigue of Concrete Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N. B.; Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed.......In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed....

  2. Unit 03 - Introduction to Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Unit 74, CC in GIS; National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis

    1990-01-01

    This unit provides a brief introduction to computer hardware and software. It discusses binary notation, the ASCII coding system and hardware components including the central processing unit (CPU), memory, peripherals and storage media. Software including operating systems, word processors database packages, spreadsheets and statistical packages are briefly described.

  3. Multicultural Mini-Units. Elementary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Sherrill B.

    The teaching mini-units in this teacher's guide are designed for use with elementary level students. Thematic study units are given for each of the following countries or continents: Africa, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, England, France, Germany, Greece, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Thailand, and the…

  4. Edison Home Community Study Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    History is not merely events that occurred in the past. The past has influenced the present, as the present will influence the future. The purpose of this community study unit is to provide fourth grade students with an opportunity to investigate some of the history of Lee County, Florida. The unit's focus is on Thomas Edison, who built a home in…

  5. Views of Appalachia: Resource Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafin, Shirley R.

    Designed to teach twelfth grade English honors students in Kentucky to think critically, to write creatively, to develop a better self-concept, and to stimulate appreciation and pride for Appalachian literature and culture, this 9-week resource unit features mini-units on (1) Man and His Values; (2) Death; (3) Prejudice; (4) Strip Mining; and (5)…

  6. 7 CFR 1160.104 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States. 1160.104 Section 1160.104 Agriculture... Definitions § 1160.104 United States. United States means the 48 contiguous states in the continental United States and the District of Columbia, except that United States means the 50 states of the United......

  7. Theory and Practice of Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in respe

  8. Theory and Practice of Transboundary Environmental Impact Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastmeijer, C.J.; Koivurova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is a well-established instrument of environmental law and policy that aims to ensure that potential adverse environmental effects of human activities are assessed before decisions on such activities are made. The instrument is increasingly being applied in respe

  9. International Agreements on Transboundary Shipments of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several international agreements may affect U.S. hazardous waste import and export practices including the Basel Convention, the OECD Council Decision, and bilateral agreements between the U.S. and Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica, Malaysia, and the Philippines

  10. Transboundary pollution and its effect on Ontario : fact sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-24

    The Ontario Ministry of the Environment (MOE) has taken action to improve air quality in the province. Some measures include strict air emission limits and mandatory reporting requirements for the electric power generating sector. A freeze has been placed on the sale of all coal-fired generating plants pending environmental review. The Ontario Government pressured the Federal Government to reduce the sulphur content of gasoline and diesel fuel produced in Canada. This report stated that while it is recognized that half of Ontario's air pollution is caused by emissions from the U.S., the province considers smog and acid rain to be regional air issues that should be addressed using coordinated bilateral efforts. Ontario will commit to adopting the standards of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency if these standards will cap emissions of nitrogen oxides. This report presented a summary of simple facts regarding emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, acid rain, as well as nuclear and fossil fueled power generation. The MOE has created several environmental programs such as the Anti-Smog Action Plan, Drive Clean Program, Smog Patrol, Partners in Air Program and the Climate Change Fund. It has also taken other initiatives such as the implementation of emission performance standards for power generation, updating air quality standards and investing $4 million into an air monitoring network. The ministry has offered resource materials for smog alert and has updated Ontario's gasoline volatility regulation. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  11. Managing Transboundary Crises : The Emergence of European Union Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boin, Arjen; Rhinard, Mark; Ekengren, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has modest but promising capacities to assist member states overwhelmed by disaster through its Civil Protection Mechanism. The EU also routinely sends civil and military missions to hotspots outside EU territory. But these capacities do not suffice in the face of transbounda

  12. Trans-boundary plans at sea; Grensoverschrijdende plannen op zee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoorn, A.; Sorel, N.

    2011-05-15

    According to European regulations, the Netherlands must generate 14 percent of its energy from renewable sources in 2020. This could have major spatial implications. For example, offshore wind can lead to dozens of wind farms consisting of thousands of wind turbines. Where should these be placed?. [Dutch] Europese regels bepalen dat Nederland in 2020 veertien procent van de energie haalt uit hernieuwbare bronnen. Dat kan grote ruimtelijke gevolgen hebben. Windenergie op zee bijvoorbeeld kan leiden tot tientallen parken met duizenden windturbines. Waar kunnen die komen?.

  13. Special session: Governance of transboundary waters: roles of young professionals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patrick, M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available into silos of understanding based on academic disciplines. These disciplines; natural, social, economic and political sciences; all utilise a different language and have evolved from different philosophies, and are often in direct conflict. There is now...

  14. Stratospheric ozone transboundary transport to upper troposphere North Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ture, K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available National Laser Centre, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa. School of physics, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durbn, South Africa. Department of Geography, Geoinformatics and Meteorology..., for Feb. 28, 1996. Almost parallel isentropic lines shown in FIG.2d (white- doted lines) as well as the PV orientation shows along isentropic transport. Secondly, high IPV at the polar vortex which decreases all the way to 300 N also confirms a...

  15. Governance of transboundary waters - roles of young professionals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Patrick, MJ

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Integration Organization Interpretation Selection Testing Verification Specific skills acquisition Increasing ability to provide vision and leadership Increasing “objectivity” and reliability Inc re as in g v al u e to s o ci et...: Roles of Young Professionals Marian J Patrick# and Anthony R Turton* #Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR): Natural Resources and the Environment, South Africa mpatrick@csir.co.za Abstract The effective governance...

  16. Design of Dolos Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1993-01-01

    The slender, complex types of armour units, such as Tetrapods and Dolosse are widely used. Many of the recent failures are such rubble mound breakwaters revealed that there is an imbalance between strength (structural integrity) of the units and the hydraulic stability (resistance to displacements......) of the armour layers. The paper deals only with dolos armour and presents the first design diagrammes and formulae where stresses from static, quasistatic and impact loads are implemented as well as the hydraulic stability. The dolos is treated as a multi shape unit where the thickness can be adjusted...

  17. Geysers Unit 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, John P.

    1980-12-01

    likely. For all of its risk aversion, SDG&E still remains one of the best potential markets for any energy producer. A recent article in FORBES MAGAZINE found that SDG&E had the third highest price per kilowatt of any utility in the country--5.9{cents} per kilowatt hour for commercial customers. That was in March, 1980. Energy cost adjustment clause increases resulted in an average commercial price per kilowatt hour of 7.2{cents} in May. In July it is expected to climb to 9.2{cents}. SDG&E's rate territory continues to expand at the rate of 5% annually and it is located just over 100 miles from a major source of geothermal heat in the Imperial Valley. But today, SDG&E has no commercial geothermal heat or power purchase contracts with domestic producers. You may ask, ''Why not?'' With no incentive to spend its own money and with a high growth rate, what is SDG&E doing to obtain capacity for its existing and future customers? At the present time, most of SDG&E's capital expenditure for generation is going to the construction of San Onofre Units 2 and 3 , a nuclear project which has been under way for ten years and which is expected to start generating commercial power in 1982 and 1983. San Onofre 2 and 3 will add 440 MW of capacity from a reliable, proven generating technology to SDG&E's system.

  18. Tax_Units_2011_Final

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Statewide GIS Tax Unit boundary file was created through a collaborative partnership between the State of Kansas Department of Revenue Property Valuation...

  19. Fundamental units: physics and metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich

    2003-01-01

    The problem of fundamental units is discussed in the context of achievements of both theoretical physics and modern metrology. On one hand, due to fascinating accuracy of atomic clocks, the traditional macroscopic standards of metrology (second, metre, kilogram) are giving way to standards based on fundamental units of nature: velocity of light $c$ and quantum of action $h$. On the other hand, the poor precision of gravitational constant $G$, which is widely believed to define the ``cube of theories'' and the units of the future ``theory of everything'', does not allow to use $G$ as a fundamental dimensional constant in metrology. The electromagnetic units in SI are actually based on concepts of prerelativistic classical electrodynamics such as ether, electric permitivity and magnetic permeability of vacuum. Concluding remarks are devoted to terminological confusion which accompanies the progress in basic physics and metrology.

  20. Studying in the United Kingdom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Beijing Review:The United Kingdom has many top universities in the world. Could you please tell us how many inter-national students are enrolled in UK institutes of higher learning and how many are from China?