WorldWideScience

Sample records for united states-mexico relations

  1. Adolescent Worlds and Literacy Practices on the United States-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Piedra, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This article presents partial results of an ethnographic study about literacy practices among adolescents living near the United States-Mexico border. The students became involved in literacy practices with their friends and family at home. These practices were related to the adolescents' interests in popular culture such as reading magazines or…

  2. Pensando en Cynthia y su Hermana: Educational Implications of United States-Mexico Transnationalism for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Edmund T.; Zuniga, Victor; Garcia, Juan Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    We use 3 brief educational biographies of students in Mexico who have previously attended public school in the United States to introduce this literature review on United States-Mexico transnational students. This article is also the first of several planned articles stemming from a currently ongoing, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y…

  3. Pensando en Cynthia y su Hermana: Educational Implications of United States-Mexico Transnationalism for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Edmund T.; Zuniga, Victor; Garcia, Juan Sanchez

    2006-01-01

    We use 3 brief educational biographies of students in Mexico who have previously attended public school in the United States to introduce this literature review on United States-Mexico transnational students. This article is also the first of several planned articles stemming from a currently ongoing, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y…

  4. United States/Mexico electricity exchanges. [History, incentives, and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    As a result of the agreement between the respective presidents, a joint study was undertaken to analyze the possibilities of increasing the international electricity exchange between the two countries. Responsibility for this undertaking was assigned to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and to the Direccion de Energia de Mexico (DEM) through the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Representatives from Mexico and the US were chosen from the regional utilities along the border between the two countries and made up working groups that particiated in the study. With the support of both governments, and a high degree of cooperation between the two countries, work on the study was completed within fourteen months The completion of the study has been a major step in broadening the base of bilateral energy relations. the study highlights the opportunities for increased electricity exchanges, which could increase cooperation along the common border. Expansion of electricity interchange could offer substantial economic benefit to both countries, both directly and indirectly. Direct benefits include increased reliability of electric power and cost savings through economies of scale and diversity of peak demand patterns. Indirect benefits include improved economic and employment opportunities, especially in the border areas of both countries. This report provides background on the history of past exchanges and the characteristics of the US and Mexico electric systems, a summary of opportunities and incentives, and suggestions for procedures to remove obstacles and constraints.

  5. CHIPS: A New Way to Monitor Colonias Along the United States-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Humberson, Delbert G.

    2007-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. Colonia residents live in poverty and lack adequate health care, potable water, and sanitation systems. These conditions create substantial health risks for colonias and surrounding communities. By 2001, more than 1,400 colonias were identified in Texas. Cooperation with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Offices of the Texas Attorney General, Secretary of State, and the Texas Water Development Board has allowed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to improve colonia Geographic Information System (GIS) boundaries and develop the Colonia Health, Infrastructure, and Platting Status tool (CHIPS). Together, the GIS boundaries and CHIPS aid the Texas government in prioritizing the limited funds that are available for infrastructure improvement. CHIPS's report generator can be tailored to the needs of the user, providing either broad or specific output. For example, a congressman could use CHIPS to list colonias with wastewater issues in a specific county, whereas a health researcher could list all colonias without clinical access. To help cities along the United States-Mexico border manage issues related to colonias growth, CHIPS will become publicly available in an Internet-enabled GIS as part of a cooperative study between the USGS, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica.

  6. United States-Mexico electricity transfers: Of alien electrons and the migration of undocumented environmental burdens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gandara, A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This article intends to set forth the necessity for reform in the United States policy and procedures regarding approval of power transfers between the United States and Mexico. In order to do this, the article will review the history of electrical power transfers between the United States and Mexico (Part II), analyze recent regulatory changes in the United States and Mexico which may result in increased power exports to Mexico (Part III), evaluate the extent to which the present permit and authorization system in the United States considers the increased environmental burden of such power transfers (Part IV), and, where appropriate, propose some procedural and policy reforms that could take into account the environmental burdens generated by the production of power destined for transfer across the United States-Mexico border (Part V).

  7. Trace metal concentrations and lead isotopic composition in surface waters of the Northeast Pacific along the United States - Mexico boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. (Inst. of Marine Science, Santa Cruz, CA (United States))

    1990-01-09

    To evaluate the magnitude of heavy metal contamination along the United States - Mexico boundary, trace metal concentrations (Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe, and Zn) and lead isotopic composition ([sup 204]Pb, [sup 206]Pb, [sup 207]Pb, and [sup 208]Pb) were measured along four surface water transects across the continental shelf off the Baja California Coast. The stations were located between 2 to 45 km offshore, including both coastal and open ocean locations. All the metal distributions along the transects were characterized by offshore concentration gradients. The highest trace metal concentrations occurred in coastal waters in association with high salinities and nutrient concentrations. There was also a longshore gradient in trace metal concentrations. Trace element concentrations were lower in the southern locations than along the United States - Mexico boundary, and were comparable to typical open ocean values. The relative enrichment of metals in surface waters off the northern part of Baja California was primarily associated with advection/upwelling processes, not with anthropogenic inputs. Mass balance calculations indicated that about 1% of Cd and 13% of Zn were from urban discharges. The low metal levels measured in coastal waters off the central part of Baja California were attributed to the intrusion of open ocean waters, based on hydrographic data, satellite images and lead isotopic compositions.

  8. Disturbance and climate change in United States/Mexico borderland plant communities: a state-of-the-knowledge review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy R. McPherson; Jake F. Weltzin

    2000-01-01

    This review evaluates the effects and importance of disturbance and climate change on plant community dynamics in the United States/Mexico borderlands region. Our primary focus is on knowledge of physiognomic-level change in grasslands and woodlands of southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico. Changes in vegetation physiognomy have broad implications for...

  9. CHIPS: Monitoring Colonias along the United States-Mexico border in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. The expansion of colonias in the United States-Mexico border region can be traced to the rapid growth associated with the Mexican Border Industrial Program during the 1960s. This rapid population growth created a lack of affordable housing, causing new migrants in the United States to purchase rural homestead lots through a contract-for-deed program from land developers. Because of the need to keep prices affordable and the absence of effective land-use controls, these homesteads expanded into rural subdivisions, commonly called colonias, without proper infrastructure. Colonias have been identified in the four U.S. border states, with Texas having designated the majority, which numbered over 1,400 colonias in 2001. Because the region is binationally interconnected economically, politically, and socially, the phenomenon of colonias in the United States is a transborder issue.

  10. Children's mental health and collective violence: a binational study on the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Marie; Puertas, Hector; Caratachea, Raúl; Avila, Carmen; Atluru, Aparna; Briones, David; Vargas, Cecilia de

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the risk effects of poverty and exposure to collective violence attributed to organized crime on the mental health of children living on the United States-Mexico border. A repeated, cross-sectional study measured risk effects by comparing scores of psychosocial and behavioral problems among children and adolescents living on the border in the United States or Mexico in 2007 and 2010. Patients living in poverty who responded once to the Pictorial Child Behavior Checklist (P+CBCL) in Spanish were randomly selected from clinics in El Paso, Texas, United States (poverty alone group), and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico (poverty plus violence group). Only children of Hispanic origin (Mexican-American or Mexican) living below the poverty level and presenting at the clinic for nonemergency visits with no history of diagnosed mental, neurological, or life-threatening disease or disability were included. Exposure to collective violence and poverty seemed to have an additive effect on children's mental health. Children exposed to both poverty and collective violence had higher problem scores, as measured by the P+CBCL, than those exposed to poverty alone. It is important to consider that children and adolescents exposed to collective violence and poverty also have fewer chances to receive treatment. Untreated mental health problems predict violence, antisocial behaviors, and delinquency and affect families, communities, and individuals. It is crucial to address the mental health of children on the border to counteract the devastating effects this setting will have in the short term and the near future.

  11. Health-Related Conditions and Depression in Elderly Mexican American and Non-Hispanic White Residents of a United States-Mexico Border County: Moderating Effects of Educational Attainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Briones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the prevalence of “high” levels of depressive symptomatology and 13 health-related medical conditions in elderly Mexican American (MA and non-Hispanic white (NHW residents of El Paso County, Texas. We analyzed the extent to which depressive symptoms in this population are associated with these conditions. Elderly MA residents possessed a higher prevalence of current depression, a relatively unique health-related condition profile, and were more likely to experience a set of conditions that impede participation in daily life—conditions that we found to be strongly associated with high depressive symptomatology in the elderly. After adjusting for educational attainment, using multiple regression analyses, depression was not associated with ethnicity and only six of the health related conditions showed significant differences between MA and NHW subjects. We believe these results provide an important insight into the mechanism of health-related conditions and depressive symptomatology in a large sample of elderly MAs; and how conditions typically attributed to MA ethnicity may in actuality be an artifact of socioeconomic status variables such as educational-attainment.

  12. Clinical manifestations and endoscopic findings of amebic colitis in a United States-Mexico border city: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Rhonda; Cooper, Chad J; Ramirez-Vega, Ruben; Huerta-Alardin, Ana; Boman, Darius; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2015-12-14

    Invasive amebiasis is not frequently seen in the United States. It is associated with considerable morbidity in patients residing in or traveling to endemic areas. We report a case series of patients with amebic colitis in a United States-Mexico border city to alert physicians to the varied clinical manifestations. Nine patients were diagnosed with amebic colitis. Mean age was 56 (38-83), 6 were males, and all were Hispanic. Common symptoms were diarrhea (56 %), hematochezia (33 %) and abdominal bloating (11 %). The diagnosis of amebic colitis was established in the following ways: 8 patients by colonoscopy with biopsy, 1 by surgery for colonic obstruction. The diagnosis of amebic colitis was confirmed in 8 patients (89 %) by amebic trophozoites present in histopathologic sections. One patient was diagnosed with amebic colitis based upon clinical symptoms, colitis on colonoscopy and visualization of amebic trophozoites on stool examination. In the 8 patients in whom colonoscopy was done, 6 (75 %) had inflammation with rectosigmoid involvement and 5 (62.5 %) had ulcerations. Infection resolved after treatment with metronidazole in most patients; however, one patient developed a liver abscess and another had a colonic perforation and later developed a liver abscess. The occurrence of amebic colitis in this United States-Mexico border city hospital population was low, but in some cases potentially life-threatening. Physicians should be alert to the less common presentations of amebic colitis, such as overt gastrointestinal bleeding, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, and the incidental finding of association with colon cancer, or a surgical abdomen. Rectosigmoid involvement was typically found on colonoscopy.

  13. 77 FR 18296 - Notice of U.S. Hosting of 2012-2013 United States-Mexico Binational Bridges and Border Crossings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of U.S. Hosting of 2012-2013 United States-Mexico Binational Bridges and Border Crossings Meetings; Executive Order 11423, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs; Department of State....

  14. United States-Mexico border crossing: experiences and risk perceptions of undocumented male immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Lawrence A; McEwen, Marylyn M; Keim, Samuel M

    2010-02-01

    Undocumented immigrants crossing the US-Mexico border face many hazards as they attempt to enter the United States, including heat and cold injury, dehydration, and wild animal encounters. In the Tucson sector of the US-Mexico border, there are over 100 deaths a year from heat-related injuries alone. Public awareness campaigns have been undertaken to disseminate information on the dangers inherent in crossing. Little is known, however, about the ways in which undocumented immigrants actually receive information regarding the risks of crossing the border, how such information impacts their preparation for crossing or how the journey itself effects their motivation to cross again in the future. A qualitative descriptive method was used to describe and analyze information from adult males who had attempted to illegally cross the US-Mexico Border and had recently been returned to Mexico. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and responses were classified into several broad themes. Interviews were conducted and analyzed iteratively until thematic saturation was achieved. The responses validated the established risks as being commonplace. A total of eight (8) male undocumented immigrants participated in the interviews. Individuals sought information prior to crossing from the media, their families and friends, and acquaintances in border towns. They did not appear to value any particular information source over any other. New areas of risk were identified, such as traveling with others who might have new or existing medical problems. There was also substantial concern for the family unit as both a source of inspiration and motivation. The family emerged as an additional at-risk unit due to the destabilization and financial strain of having one of its members leave to attempt to immigrate to the US for work. While many planned to cross again, the majority of the men in our sample had no intention of seeking permanent residence in the US, instead planning to work and

  15. Hyperendemic Cryptosporidium and Giardia in households lacking municipal sewer and water on the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, Thomas; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Graham, Jay; Galindo, Adriana; Avitia, Raquel; Cardenas, Victor

    2002-06-01

    This study identified differences in the epidemiology of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infection for low-income populations residing on the United States-Mexico border. Participation included 77 households in three communities lacking adequate municipal water and sewage services. The household was the unit of analysis and sampling was from household biosolid waste from newly installed composting toilets. The proportion of households positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium was high, 82% and 70%, respectively, and this was in contrast to the few households (14%) reporting at least one individual with diarrhea symptoms. This finding indicated that most of the participant families were chronically infected but asymptomatic. In the multivariate analysis, there was a statistically significant protective effect for Cryptosporidium in those households that purified drinking water but not for Giardia. Those households with children less than five years of age were 1.3 times at risk for Giardia infection. Our findings highlighted differences in the transmission mode of these two pathogens and underscore the need for interventions addressing hygiene, water supply, and sanitation.

  16. Black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from vehicles in the United States-Mexico border region: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kerry; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn; Quintero Núñez, Margarito; Vazquez, F Adrian; Collins, Kimberly; Barud-Zubillaga, Alberto

    2006-03-01

    The investigators developed a system to measure black carbon (BC) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission factors during roadside sampling in four cities along the United States-Mexico border, Calexico/Mexicali and El Paso/Juarez. The measurement system included a photoacoustic analyzer for BC, a photoelectric aerosol sensor for particle-bound PAHs, and a carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer. When a vehicle with measurable emissions passed the system probe, corresponding BC, PAH, and CO2 peaks were evident, and a fuel-based emission factor was estimated. A picture of each vehicle was also recorded with a digital camera. The advantage of this system, compared with other roadside methods, is the direct measurement of particulate matter components and limited interference from roadside dust. The study revealed some interesting trends: Mexican buses and all medium-duty trucks were more frequently identified as high emitters of BC and PAH than heavy-duty trucks or passenger vehicles. In addition, because of the high daily mileage of buses, they are good candidates for additional study. Mexican trucks and buses had higher average emission factors compared with U.S. trucks and buses, but the differences were not statistically significant. Few passenger vehicles had measurable BC and PAH emissions, although the highest emission factor came from an older model passenger vehicle licensed in Baja California.

  17. Increasing cervical cancer screening in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Beti; Vilchis, Hugo; Moran, Crystal; Copeland, Wade; Holte, Sarah; Duggan, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic women living on the United States-México border experience health disparities, are less likely to access cervical cancer screening services, and have a higher rate of cervical cancer incidence compared to women living in nonborder areas. Here we investigate the effects of an intervention delivered by community health workers (CHWs, known as lay health educators or Promotores de Salud in Spanish) on rates of cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women who were out of compliance with recommended screening guidelines. Hispanic women out of compliance with screening guidelines, attending clinics in southern New Mexico, were identified using medical record review. All eligible women were offered the intervention. The study was conducted between 2009 and 2011, and data were analyzed in 2012. Setting/participants--162 Hispanic women, resident in New Mexico border counties, aged 29-80 years, who had not had a Pap test within the past 3 years. Intervention--a CHW-led, culturally appropriate, computerized education intervention. Main outcome measures--the percentage of women who underwent cervical cancer screening within 12 months of receiving the intervention. Change in knowledge of, and attitudes toward cervical cancer and screening as assessed by a baseline and follow-up questionnaire. 76.5% of women had a Pap test after the intervention. Women displayed increased knowledge about cervical cancer screening and about HPV. A culturally appropriate promotora-led intervention is successful in increasing cervical cancer screening in at-risk Hispanic women on the United States-México border. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  18. Preliminary United States-Mexico border watershed analysis, twin cities area of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Laura Margaret; Gray, Floyd; Castaneda, Mario; Bultman, Mark; Bolm, Karen Sue

    2002-01-01

    The United States - Mexico border area faces the challenge of integrating aspects of its binational physical boundaries to form a unified or, at least, compatible natural resource management plan. Specified geospatial components such as stream drainages, mineral occurrences, vegetation, wildlife, and land-use can be analyzed in terms of their overlapping impacts upon one another. Watersheds have been utilized as a basic unit in resource analysis because they contain components that are interrelated and can be viewed as a single interactive ecological system. In developing and analyzing critical regional natural resource databases, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal and non-governmental agencies have adopted a ?watershed by watershed? approach to dealing with such complicated issues as ecosystem health, natural resource use, urban growth, and pollutant transport within hydrologic systems. These watersheds can facilitate the delineation of both large scale and locally important hydrologic systems and urban management parameters necessary for sustainable, diversified land-use. The twin border cities area of Nogales, Sonora and Nogales, Arizona, provide the ideal setting to demonstrate the utility and application of a complete, cross-border, geographic information systems (GIS) based, watershed analysis in the characterization of a wide range of natural resource as well as urban features and their interactions. In addition to the delineation of a unified, cross-border watershed, the database contains sewer/water line locations and status, well locations, geology, hydrology, topography, soils, geomorphology, and vegetation data, as well as remotely sensed imagery. This report is preliminary and part of an ongoing project to develop a GIS database that will be widely accessible to the general public, researchers, and the local land management community with a broad range of application and utility.

  19. Characterizing tuberculosis genotype clusters along the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B J; Moonan, P K

    2014-03-01

    We examined the growth of tuberculosis (TB) genotype clusters during 2005-2010 in the United States, categorized by country of origin and ethnicity of the index case and geographic proximity to the US-Mexico border at the time of TB diagnosis. Nationwide, 38.9% of cases subsequent to Mexico-born index cases were US-born. Among clusters following US-born Hispanic and US-born non-Hispanic index cases, respectively 29.2% and 5.3% of subsequent cluster members were Mexico-born. In border areas, the majority of subsequent cases were Mexico-born following US-born Hispanic (56.4%) and US-born non-Hispanic (55.6%) index cases. These findings suggest that TB transmission commonly occurs between US-born and Mexico-born persons. Along the US-Mexico border, prioritizing TB genotype clusters following US-born index cases for investigation may prevent subsequent cases among both US-born and Mexico-born persons.

  20. Population-based survey of taeniasis along the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton Behravesh, C; Mayberry, L F; Bristol, J R; Cardenas, V M; Mena, K D; Martínez-Ocaña, J; Flisser, A; Snowden, K F

    2008-06-01

    Taenia solium and T. saginata are zoonotic tapeworms of substantial medical and economic importance. Although human taeniasis is widely recognised as an endemic problem in Mexico, its presence in the United States is poorly understood. The first population-based study to estimate the prevalence of human infection with Taenia tapeworms along the Texas-Mexico border has recently been conducted. Households were interviewed in the Texan city of El Paso and in the neighbouring Ciudad Juárez, in Mexico. Faecal samples from household members were then checked for Taenia eggs by flotation and/or for Taenia copro-antigens in an ELISA. The overall prevalence of taeniasis in this border region was found to be 3% but, compared with the residents of Juárez, El Paso residents were 8.6-fold more likely to be tapeworm carriers. The interviews revealed some important differences between the two study sites, particularly the more frequent use of anthelminthic drugs on the Mexican side of the border. These findings have implications in terms of the planning of effective health-education campaigns to decrease the prevalence of taeniasis in the human populations along the Texas-Mexico border.

  1. Quantitative Detection of Hepatitis A Virus and Enteroviruses Near the United States-Mexico Border and Correlation with Levels of Fecal Indicator Bacteria▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gersberg, Richard M.; Rose, Michael A.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Dhar, Arun K.

    2006-01-01

    For decades, untreated sewage flowing northward from Tijuana, Mexico, via the Tijuana River has adversely affected the water quality of the recreational beaches of San Diego, California. We used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure the levels of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enteroviruses in coastal waters near the United States-Mexico border and compared these levels to those of the conventional fecal indicators, Escherichia coli and enterococci. Over a 2-year period from 2003 to ...

  2. Acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits among Hispanics in United States-Mexico border communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Suad; Brown, Cynthia J; Pagán, José A; Díaz, Violeta

    2010-09-01

    To explore the relationship between acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits in the largely Hispanic populations living in underserved communities in the United States of America along the U.S.-Mexico border. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2006 to June 2008 using survey data from the Alliance for a Healthy Border, a program designed to reduce health disparities in the U.S.-Mexico border region by funding nutrition and physical activity education programs at 12 federally qualified community health centers in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. The survey included questions on acculturation, diet, exercise, and demographic factors and was completed by 2,381 Alliance program participants, of whom 95.3% were Hispanic and 45.4% were under the U.S. poverty level for 2007. Chi-square (χ2) and Student's t tests were used for bivariate comparisons between acculturation and dietary and physical activity measures. Linear regression and binary logistic regression were used to control for factors associated with nutrition and exercise. Based on univariate tests and confirmed by regression analysis controlling for sociodemographic and health variables, less acculturated survey respondents reported a significantly higher frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and healthier dietary habits than those who were more acculturated. Adjusted binary logistic regression confirmed that individuals with low language acculturation were less likely to engage in physical activity than those with moderate to high acculturation (odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.59-0.95). Findings confirmed an association between acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits and supported the hypothesis that acculturation in border community populations tends to decrease the practice of some healthy dietary habits while increasing exposure to and awareness of the importance of other healthy behaviors.

  3. Breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among Hispanic women living near the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño, Tomas; Castle, Philip E; Harris, Robin; Estrada, Antonio; García, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    Hispanic women who reside in low-resource settings are especially at risk for nonparticipation in cancer screening programs. The purpose of this study was to assess characteristics that influence breast and cervical cancer screening among older Hispanic women living along the United States-Mexico border. A cross-sectional study of women aged ≥50 years (n = 504) residing in Yuma County, Arizona, were randomly selected for interviews. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify determinants of compliance with mammography and Pap smear use. Women who received a recommendation from a clinician to get both mammography and Pap smears were more likely to receive a mammogram within the past year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0-8.9) compared to women who received no recommendation. Likewise, women who received both recommendations were more likely to receive a Pap smear within the past 3 years (AOR 9.7, 95% CI 4.6-20.7) compared to women who received no recommendation. Other factors, such as current health insurance and a visit with their healthcare provider in the past year, were also associated with getting a mammogram within 1 year or Pap smear within 3 years. Enabling characteristics were significantly associated with breast and cervical cancer screening use compared to predisposing and need characteristics among older Hispanic women residing near the U.S.-Mexico border. Clinician recommendation of both mammograms and Pap smears and opportunistic clinic visits to medical providers may increase breast and cervical cancer screening coverage and reduce the burden of these two cancers in this high-risk population.

  4. United States-Mexico cross-border health insurance initiatives: Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Bustamante, Arturo; Laugesen, Miriam; Caban, Mabel; Rosenau, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    While U.S. health care reform will most likely reduce the overall number of uninsured Mexican-Americans, it does not address challenges related to health care coverage for undocumented Mexican immigrants, who will remain uninsured under the measures of the reform; documented low-income Mexican immigrants who have not met the five-year waiting period required for Medicaid benefits; or the growing number of retired U.S. citizens living in Mexico, who lack easy access to Medicare-supported services. This article reviews two promising binational initiatives that could help address these challenges-Salud Migrante and Medicare in Mexico; discusses their prospective applications within the context of U.S. health care reform; and identifies potential challenges to their implementation (legal, political, and regulatory), as well as the possible benefits, including coverage of uninsured Mexican immigrants, and their integration into the U.S. health care system (through Salud Migrante), and access to lower-cost Medicare-supported health care for U.S. retirees in Mexico (Medicare in Mexico).

  5. Canada-United States-Mexico Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadán-Diehl, Cristina; Safdie, Margarita; Rodin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Childhood obesity is an important public health problem that affects countries in the Americas. In 2014, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) Member States agreed on a Plan of Action for the Prevention of Obesity in Children and Adolescents in an effort to address the impact of this disorder in the Americas region. The interventions laid out in this regional plan are multi-faceted and require multi-sectoral partnerships. Building on a strong history of successful trilateral collaboration, Canada, Mexico, and the United States formed a partnership to address the growing epidemic of childhood obesity in the North American region. This collaborative effort, known as the Trilateral Cooperation on Childhood Obesity Initiative, is the first initiative in the region to address chronic noncommunicable diseases by bringing together technical and policy experts, with strong leadership and support from the secretaries and ministers of health. The Initiative's goals include increasing levels of physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior through 1) increased social mobilization and citizen engagement, 2) community- based outreach, and 3) changes to the built (man-made) environment. This article describes the background and development process of the Initiative; specific goals, activities, and actions achieved to date; and opportunities and next steps. This information may be useful for those forming other partnerships designed to address childhood obesity or other complex public health challenges in the region. RESUMEN La obesidad infantil es un problema de salud pública importante que afecta a los países de las Américas. En el 2014, los Estados Miembros de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) acordaron un Plan de acción para la prevención de la obesidad en la niñez y la adolescencia con el fin de hacer frente a las repercusiones de este trastorno en la Región de las Américas. Las intervenciones que componen este plan regional son multifacéticas y

  6. Potential effects of the United States-Mexico border fence on wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Aaron D; Epps, Clinton W; Cain, James W; Clark, Matt; Krausman, Paul R; Morgart, John R

    2010-02-01

    Security infrastructure along international boundaries threatens to degrade connectivity for wildlife. To explore potential effects of a fence under construction along the U.S.-Mexico border on wildlife, we assessed movement behavior of two species with different life histories whose regional persistence may depend on transboundary movements. We used radiotelemetry to assess how vegetation and landscape structure affect flight and natal dispersal behaviors of Ferruginous Pygmy-Owls (Glaucidium brasilianum), and satellite telemetry, gene-flow estimates, and least-cost path models to assess movement behavior and interpopulation connectivity of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana). Flight height of Pygmy-Owls averaged only 1.4 m (SE 0.1) above ground, and only 23% of flights exceeded 4 m. Juvenile Pygmy-Owls dispersed at slower speeds, changed direction more, and had lower colonization success in landscapes with larger vegetation openings or higher levels of disturbance (p < or = 0.047), which suggests large vegetation gaps coupled with tall fences may limit transboundary movements. Female bighorn sheep crossed valleys up to 4.9 km wide, and microsatellite analyses indicated relatively high levels of gene flow and migration (95% CI for F(ST)=0.010-0.115, Nm = 1.9-24.8, M =10.4-15.4) between populations divided by an 11-km valley. Models of gene flow based on regional topography and movement barriers suggested that nine populations of bighorn sheep in northwestern Sonora are linked by dispersal with those in neighboring Arizona. Disruption of transboundary movement corridors by impermeable fencing would isolate some populations on the Arizona side. Connectivity for other species with similar movement abilities and spatial distributions may be affected by border development, yet mitigation strategies could address needs of wildlife and humans.

  7. Monitoring Colonias Development along the United States-Mexico Border: A Process Application using GIS and Remote Sensing in Douglas, Arizona, and Agua Prieta, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Donelson, Angela J.; Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Lam, Alven H.; Osborn, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have developed a joint project to create Internet-enabled geographic information systems (GIS) that will help cities along the United States-Mexico border deal with issues related to colonias. HUD defines colonias as rural neighborhoods in the United States-Mexico border region that lack adequate infrastructure or housing and other basic services. They typically have high poverty rates that make it difficult for residents to pay for roads, sanitary water and sewer systems, decent housing, street lighting, and other services through assessment. Many Federal agencies recognize colonias designations and provide funding assistance. It is the intention of this project to empower Arizona-Sonora borderland neighborhoods and community members by recognizing them as colonias. This recognition will result in eligibility for available economic subsidies and accessibility to geospatial tools and information for urban planning. The steps to achieve this goal include delineation of colonia-like neighborhoods, identification of their urbanization over time, development of geospatial databases describing their infrastructure, and establishment of a framework for distributing Web-based GIS decision support systems. A combination of imagery and infrastructure information was used to help delineate colonia boundaries. A land-use change analysis, focused on urbanization in the cities over a 30-year timeframe, was implemented. The results of this project are being served over the Internet, providing data to the public as well as to participating agencies. One of the initial study areas for this project was the City of Douglas, Ariz., and its Mexican sister-city Agua Prieta, Sonora, which are described herein. Because of its location on the border, this twin-cities area is especially well suited to international manufacturing and commerce, which has, in turn, led to an uncontrolled spread of

  8. Improving Pediatric Cancer Care Disparities Across the United States-Mexico Border: Lessons Learned from a Transcultural Partnership between San Diego and Tijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, Paula; Fuller, Spencer; Rivera, Rebeca; Beyda, David; Ribeiro, Raul C; Roberts, William

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the 5-year survival rate for children with acute leukemia in Baja California, Mexico was estimated at 10% (vs. 88% in the United States). In response, stakeholders at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Rady Children's Hospital San Diego, and the Hospital General de Tijuana (HGT) implemented a transcultural partnership to establish a pediatric oncology program. The aim was to improve clinical outcomes and overall survival for children in Baja California. An initial needs assessment evaluation was performed and a culturally sensitive, comprehensive, 5-year plan was designed and implemented. After six years, healthcare system accomplishments include the establishment of a fully functional pediatric oncology unit with 60 new healthcare providers (vs. five in 2007). Patient outcome improvements include a rise in 5-year survival for leukemia from 10 to 43%, a rise in new cases diagnosed per year from 21 to 70, a reduction in the treatment abandonment rate from 10% to 2%, and a 45% decrease in the infection rate. More than 600 patients have benefited from this program. Knowledge sharing has taken place between teams at the HGT and Rady Children's Hospital San Diego. Further, one of the most significant outcomes is that the HGT has transitioned into a regional referral center and now mentors other hospitals in Mexico. Our results show that collaborative initiatives that implement long-term partnerships along the United States-Mexico border can effectively build local capacity and reduce the survival gap between children with cancer in the two nations. Long-term collaborative partnerships should be encouraged across other disciplines in medicine to further reduce health disparities across the United States-Mexico border.

  9. Empowerment and continuous improvement in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India: predicting fit on the basis of the dimensions of power distance and individualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, C; Probst, T M; Martocchio, J J; Drasgow, F; Lawler, J J

    2000-10-01

    Although variations in national cultures predominate as explanation for the belief that universal approaches to management do not exist, there have been few reports of systematic studies. Data from employees of a single firm with operations in the United States, Mexico, Poland, and India were used to test the fit of empowerment and continuous improvement practices with national culture. Using the theoretical constructs of individualism-collectivism and power distance, the authors predicted that the practices would be more congruent in some cultures than in others and that value congruence would result in job satisfaction. Using structural equations modeling, the authors found that empowerment was negatively associated with satisfaction in India but positively associated in the other 3 samples. Continuous improvement was positively associated with satisfaction in all samples. Substantive, theoretical, and methodological implications are discussed.

  10. Recueil des legislations linguistiques dans le monde. Tome VI: La Colombie, les Etats-Unis, le Mexique, Porto Rico at les traites internationaux (Record of World Language-Related Legislation. Volume VI: Colombia, the United States, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and International Treaties).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Jacques, Ed.; Maurais, Jacques, Ed.

    The volume is one of a series of six listing language-related legislation around the world. It contains the texts, in French, of laws of Colombia, the United States federal and some state governments (California, Florida, Louisiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Minnesota, and New York), Mexico, and Puerto Rico, and those relating to international…

  11. Special Interests and Transnational Relations in Agricultural Trade: Implications for United States-Mexico Relations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Batiz Echevarria *... N 9E2.ci. 19. "Se apelara a los convenios y recomendaciones internacionales sobre comercio exterior, para la solucion del...Sinaloa y La Asociacion de Agricultores del Rio Culiacan al C. Profesor Juan Gil Preciado, Secretario de Agricultura y Ganaderia:.I. en relacion a las...General en Sinaloa, SAG, 12 junio de 1969. 32. Ibid. 33. Embajador Lic. Hugo B. Margain to Antonio Carrillo Flores, Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores

  12. Blood pressure control, hypertension, awareness, and treatment in adults with diabetes in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; He, Guozhong; Stoddard, Pamela; Schillinger, Dean

    2010-09-01

    To determine prevalence of blood pressure control, hypertension, hypertension awareness, and antihypertensive treatment among adults (> 18 years old) with diabetes living in the border region between the United States of America and Mexico, and to explore variation in those variables between all adults on the Mexican side of the border ("Mexicans") and three groups on the U.S. side of the border ("all U.S. adults," "U.S.-born Hispanics," and "Mexican immigrants"). Using data from Phase I (February 2001-October 2002) of the U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project, a prevalence study of type 2 diabetes and its risk factors, age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension-related variables was calculated for the sample (n = 682) and differences between the border groups were examined through logistic regression. Less than one-third of the sample had controlled blood pressure (hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg), and hypertension awareness and treatment were inadequate. After adjusting for demographics, body mass index, and access to health care, there were no differences in blood pressure control, hypertension, hypertension awareness, or treatment between Mexicans and both U.S. adults and Mexican immigrants. However, compared to Mexicans and Mexican immigrants, U.S.-born Hispanics, particularly younger individuals, had the lowest rates of blood pressure control (17.3%) and the highest rates of coexisting hypertension (54.8%). Compared to Mexicans, U.S.-born Hispanics had lower odds of controlled blood pressure (odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.95) and greater odds of hypertension (OR 3.75, 95% CI 1.51-9.29) and hypertension awareness (OR 6.19, 95% CI 1.46-26.15). Co-occurrence of diabetes and hypertension is a major public health problem among U.S.-Mexico border residents. The low rate of blood pressure control among various border groups, especially younger U.S.-born Hispanics, suggests that initiatives should aggressively target blood

  13. Quantitative Detection of Hepatitis A Virus and Enteroviruses Near the United States-Mexico Border and Correlation with Levels of Fecal Indicator Bacteria▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersberg, Richard M.; Rose, Michael A.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Dhar, Arun K.

    2006-01-01

    For decades, untreated sewage flowing northward from Tijuana, Mexico, via the Tijuana River has adversely affected the water quality of the recreational beaches of San Diego, California. We used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure the levels of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enteroviruses in coastal waters near the United States-Mexico border and compared these levels to those of the conventional fecal indicators, Escherichia coli and enterococci. Over a 2-year period from 2003 to 2005, a total of 20 samples were assayed at two sites during both wet and dry weather: the surfzone at the mouth of the Tijuana River and the surfzone near the pier at Imperial Beach (IB), California (about 2 km north of the mouth of the Tijuana River). HAV and enterovirus were detected in 79 and 93% of the wet-weather samples, respectively. HAV concentrations in these samples ranged from 105 to 30,771 viral particles/liter, and enterovirus levels ranged from 7 to 4,417 viral particles/liter. The concentrations of HAV and enterovirus were below the limit of detection for all dry weather samples collected at IB. Regression analyses showed a significant correlation between the densities of both fecal bacterial indicators and the levels of HAV (R2 > 0.61, P 0.70, P < 0.0001), a finding that supports the use of conventional bacterial indicators to predict the levels of these viruses in recreational marine waters. PMID:16980430

  14. Quantitative detection of hepatitis a virus and enteroviruses near the United States-Mexico border and correlation with levels of fecal indicator bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersberg, Richard M; Rose, Michael A; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Dhar, Arun K

    2006-12-01

    For decades, untreated sewage flowing northward from Tijuana, Mexico, via the Tijuana River has adversely affected the water quality of the recreational beaches of San Diego, California. We used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure the levels of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enteroviruses in coastal waters near the United States-Mexico border and compared these levels to those of the conventional fecal indicators, Escherichia coli and enterococci. Over a 2-year period from 2003 to 2005, a total of 20 samples were assayed at two sites during both wet and dry weather: the surfzone at the mouth of the Tijuana River and the surfzone near the pier at Imperial Beach (IB), California (about 2 km north of the mouth of the Tijuana River). HAV and enterovirus were detected in 79 and 93% of the wet-weather samples, respectively. HAV concentrations in these samples ranged from 105 to 30,771 viral particles/liter, and enterovirus levels ranged from 7 to 4,417 viral particles/liter. The concentrations of HAV and enterovirus were below the limit of detection for all dry weather samples collected at IB. Regression analyses showed a significant correlation between the densities of both fecal bacterial indicators and the levels of HAV (R2>0.61, P0.70, P<0.0001), a finding that supports the use of conventional bacterial indicators to predict the levels of these viruses in recreational marine waters.

  15. Five-year interim report of the United States-Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Program: 2007--2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Transboundary aquifers are an essential, and in many cases, singular source of water for United States – Mexico border communities, particularly in arid regions. Declining water levels, deteriorating water quality, and increasing use of groundwater resources by municipal, industrial, and agricultural water users on both sides of the international border have raised concerns about the long-term availability of this supply. Water quantity and quality are determining and limiting factors that ultimately control agriculture, future economic development, population growth, human health, and ecological conditions along the border. Knowledge about the extent, depletion rates, and quality of transboundary aquifers, however, is limited and, in some areas, completely absent. The U.S. – Mexico Transboundary Aquifer Assessment Act (Public Law 109-448), referred to in this report as “the Act,” was signed into law by the President of the United States on December 22, 2006, to conduct binational scientific research to systematically assess priority transboundary aquifers and to address water information needs of border communities. The Act authorizes the Secretary of the Interior, through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), to collaborate with the States of Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas through their Water Resources Research Institutes (WRRIs) and with the International Boundary and Water Commission (IBWC), stakeholders, and Mexican counterparts to provide new information and a scientific foundation for State and local officials to address pressing water-resource challenges along the U.S. – Mexico border.

  16. Using GIS to assess priorities of infrastructure and health needs of colonias along the United States-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, J.W.; Humberson, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border setdements in the United. States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. Colonia residents live in poverty and lack adequate health care, potable water, and sanitation systems. These conditions create substantial health risks for themselves and surrounding communities. By 2001, more than 1,400 colonias were identified in Texas. Cooperation with several Federal and Texas state agencies has allowed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to improve colonia Geographic Information System (GIS) boundaries and develop the Colonia Health, Infrastructure, and Platting Status tool (CHIPS). Together, the GIS boundaries and CHIPS aid the Texas government in prioritizing the limited funds that are available for infrastructure improvement. CHIPS's report: generator can be tailored, to the needs of the user, providing either broad or specific output. CHIPS is publicly available on the U.S. Geological Survey Border Environmental Health Initiative website at http://borderhealth.cr. usgs.gov.

  17. Development of a United States-Mexico Emissions Inventory for the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhns, Hampden; Knipping, Eladio M; Vukovich, Jeffrey M

    2005-05-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study was commissioned to investigate the sources of haze at Big Bend National Park in southwest Texas. The modeling domain of the BRAVO Study includes most of the continental United States and Mexico. The BRAVO emissions inventory was constructed from the 1999 National Emission Inventory for the United States, modified to include finer-resolution data for Texas and 13 U.S. states in close proximity. The first regional-scale Mexican emissions inventory designed for air-quality modeling applications was developed for 10 northern Mexican states, the Tula Industrial Park in the state of Hidalgo, and the Popocatépetl volcano in the state of Puebla. Emissions data were compiled from numerous sources, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (now Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), the Eastern Research Group, the Minerals Management Service, the Instituto Nacional de Ecología, and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografía y Informática. The inventory includes emissions for CO, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, particulate matter (PM) < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, and PM < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter. Wind-blown dust and biomass burning were not included in the inventory, although high concentrations of dust and organic PM attributed to biomass burning have been observed at Big Bend National Park. The SMOKE modeling system was used to generate gridded emissions fields for use with the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model modified with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (CMAQ-MADRID). The compilation of the inventory, supporting model input data, and issues encountered during the development of the inventory are documented. A comparison of the BRAVO emissions

  18. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele T Jay-Russell

    Full Text Available In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6% dog and 5 (4.9% coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2% dog and 33 (32% coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2% of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1% of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the

  19. Nonfuel mineral resources in the United States-Mexico border region; a progress report on information available from the Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations (CIMRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, G.J.; Page, N.J.; Staude, J.G.; Bolm, K.S.; Carbonaro, M.M.; Gray, Floyd; Long, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    The exploitation of minerals has played a significant role in population growth and development of the U.S.Mexico border region. Recent proposed changes in regulations related to mining in the United States and changes in mining and investment regulations in Mexico have led to increased mineral exploration and development in Mexico, especially in the border region. As a preliminary step in the study of the mineral industry of this area, the Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations (CIMRI) of the U.S. Geological Survey has compiled mine and occurrence data for nonfuel minerals in the border region. Analysis of this information indicates that a wide variety of metallic and industrial mineral commodities are present which can be used in agriculture, infrastructure, environmental improvement, and other industries. Therefore, mining will continue to play a significant role in the economy of this region.

  20. Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posada-Villa Jose

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Methods Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426, Colombia (n = 5,782 and the United States (USA; n = 8,228. The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO users across these surveyed populations. Results The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004 and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001. Conclusions This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that

  1. Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiestas, Fabian; Radovanovic, Mirjana; Martins, Silvia S; Medina-Mora, Maria E; Posada-Villa, Jose; Anthony, James C

    2010-03-23

    Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426), Colombia (n = 5,782) and the United States (USA; n = 8,228). The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO) users across these surveyed populations. The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004) and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001). This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that might make cannabis-related social and legal problems more

  2. Factors Influencing the Impacts on Security of Manning Military Posts on the United States-Mexico Border from 1865 to 1916

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    town. Additionally, the Yucatan Peninsula declared itself independent and neutral in regards to the war. Following the loss at Buena Vista Santa Anna...across the southern United States by railroad to Agua Prieta to rout some 6,500 forces of Villa’s feared División del Norte. Once again Wilson’s...support worked. The Agua Prieta battle ended Villa’s ability to mass forces. His ability to influence Mexicans, however, had yet to peak. Fed up with the

  3. Soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in El Paso, Texas: analysis of a potential problem in the United States/Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Roche, Roberto J; Lee, Wen-Yee; Campos-Díaz, Sandra I

    2009-04-30

    Ultrasonic extraction followed by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption inline coupled with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) was used to perform a comprehensive determination of soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in El Paso, Texas. The method provided good sensitivity and faster processing time for the analysis. The total PAHs in El Paso soil ranged from 0.1 to 2225.5 microg kg(-1). Although the majority of PAH concentrations did not exceed the soil screening levels regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the existence of PAHs in this ecosystem is ubiquitous. Naphthalene were found in 100% of the soil samples; while the heavy PAHs (five- and six-ring) were not often detected and mostly remained in closer proximity to industrial areas and major traffic points. The results ruled out the possibility of petroleum refining as the significant source of local soil-borne PAH contamination, but they suggested that the PAHs found in El Paso soil were closely linked to human activities and possible other industrial processes.

  4. International Boundary United States Mexico Minute 315

    Data.gov (United States)

    International Boundary & Water Commission — This dataset was created to provide resource managers, public officials, researchers, and the general public with ready access to the location of the international...

  5. Forecasting urban growth across the United States-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Feller, M.; Phillip, Guertin D.

    2009-01-01

    The sister-city area of Nogales, Arizona, and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, is known collectively as Ambos (both) Nogales. This area was historically one city and was administratively divided by the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. These arid-lands have limited and sensitive natural resources. Environmental planning can support sustainable development to accommodate the predicted influx of population. The objective of this research is to quantify the amount of predicted urban growth for the Ambos Nogales watershed to support future planning for sustainable development. Two modeling regimes are explored. Our goal is to identify possible growth patterns associated with the twin-city area as a whole and with the two cities modeled as separate entities. We analyzed the cross-border watershed using regression analysis from satellite images from 1975, 1983, 1996, and 2002 and created urban area classifications. We used these classifications as input to the urban growth model, SLEUTH, to simulate likely patterns of development and define projected conversion probabilities. Model results indicate that the two cities are undergoing very different patterns of change and identify locations of expected growth based on historical development. Growth in Nogales, Arizona is stagnant while the urban area in Nogales, Sonora is exploding. This paper demonstrates an application that portrays how future binational urban growth could develop and affect the environment. This research also provides locations of potential growth for use in city planning.

  6. Countering Violence Along the United States - Mexico Border: Thinking Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Account JIATF-S Joint Interagency Task Force South NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NAZTF National Arrival Zone Task Force NDCS...consultation and coordination with the Departments of State and Defense; and 4. Work closely with the governments of Canada and Mexico to enhance North...included within the broader enterprise, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ). 39 CHAPTER 7 MÉRIDA INITIATIVE This chapter

  7. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in southern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples of 429 sheep from 4 farms in 2 geographical regions in Oaxaca State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT); 99 (23.1%) of the 429 sh...

  8. High prevalance of Toxoplasma Gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca state, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondi...

  9. Diplostomiasis in cultured and wild tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Guerrero State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante-González, Juan; García-Varela, Martín; Rojas-Herrera, Agustín; Guerrero, Salvador Gil

    2009-09-01

    This paper is a comparative study of Diplostomum (Austrodiplostomum) compactum (Lutz, 1928) in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (Linneo) from two fish farms and two nearby coastal lagoons in Guerrero state, Mexico. The higher infections levels in cultured tilapia than wild tilapia is attributed to higher fish densities in the culture systems and higher abundance of the snail Biomphalaria cf. havanensis (Pteiffer), first intermediate host of this parasite in freshwater and brackish water systems.

  10. [Cervical-uterine-cancer associated factors in Nayarit state, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre Hernández, Raúl; Medina Carrillo, Leopoldo; Montoya Fuentes, Héctor; Sandoval López, José Guadalupe; Padilla Rosas, Miguel; García Silva, Valentín; Jáuregui Martínez, Armando

    2007-06-01

    To establish the association between high-grade intraepithelial lesions and cervical-uterine-cancer, and the infection by human papillomavirus, genetic antecedents, socioeconomics, sexual behavior and gynecology and obstetrics factors in women of the State of Nayarit, Mexico. With a case-control design were studied 66 cases of high-grade intraepithelial lesions and cervical-uterine-cancer, and 132 controls. The information upon the risk factors was obtained by the application of a structured questionnaire. Polymerase Chain Reaction executed the virus identification. In the statistical analysis the association was obtained by odds ratio. The statistical significance was evaluated by the chi-square-Fisher and Student t tests, and multivariate logistic regression was used to explain the factors' influence. In women with high-risk squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical-uterine-cancer, the most frequently high-risk human papillomavirus found were: 18, 35, 58, 16, 31, 33 and 51. Familial data of cervical-uterine-cancer, socioeconomic level, number of sexual partners, data of sexual transmitted diseases, and infection due to human papillomavirus 18 and 35 are the factors related to high-risk squamous intraepithelial lesions and cervical-uterine-cancer.

  11. Papadakis methodology for agroclimatic delimitation, applied to Sinaloa State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Velasco

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Relief influences on climate, lead to a wide environmental conditions, even more than latitude. The Köppen Method, one of the most used, is of physical type, and leads to excellent approaches to real climate conditions, but it doesn't consider in a full dimension the water-soil-cultivated-plant-atmosphere interaction, being that these factors decide so much the natural vegetation as crops. The periods with freezing temperatures or with high frost risk, and the duration of dry months, all of them are decisive for agriculture. These risk factors are considered in the Papadakis Method, which allows evaluating the potentiality and limitations of the climatic areas, related to crops. In this work an application is made of this method on a wide region in Northwest Mexico, where agriculture is very important, and the obtained results converge to define that existent climatic groups are the following, according to Papadakis Method: 1.4: continental savanna 1.5: tropical semi-arid 1.9: tropical with fresh winter 2.3: medium-cold highland 4.2: continental subtropical 4.3: continental semitropical

  12. Ontology of Units of Measure and Related Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijgersberg, H.; Assem, van M.; Top, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the Ontology of Units of Measure and Related Concepts (OM), an OWL ontology of the domain of quantities and units of measure. OM enables to make quantitative research data more explicit, so that data can be integrated, verified, repoduced, etcetera. The various options for

  13. Domestic Trauma and Adult Education on the United States-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Andres; Mein, Erika

    2010-01-01

    While there are increasing efforts to address the problem of domestic violence and trauma in the justice, health care, and social service systems, the adult education system still lags behind. The inattention to this issue in adult education is particularly troubling because these programs often play a significant role in the lives of women who…

  14. Re-Framing the United States/Mexico Border Violence Situation: Strategic Campaign Planning in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Brands 2009, 15). This sentiment helps drug organizations perpetuate the cycle of corruption in government. The Final Line of Operation orients around...a DTO now known as La Familia . The group was initially aligned with the Gulf Cartel, then turned vigilante, intent on cleaning up the Mexican state...22 October 2009, U.S. Attorney General Eric Holdren announced the arrest of 303 La Familia members nationwide. The two-day takedown culminated

  15. Modeling complex dispersed energy and clean water systems for the United States/Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Hugo Francisco Lopez

    As world population grows, and its technology evolves, the demand for electricity inexorably increases. Until now most of this electricity has been produced via fossil fuels, non-renewable energy resources that are irreversibly deteriorating our environment. On the economical aspect it does not get any better. Let's not forget market rules, the higher the demand and lower the offer, the higher the price we will have to pay. Oil is an excellent example. Some countries try to solve this situation with Pharaohnic projects, i.e. investing absurd amounts of money in 'green electricity' building monstrous dams to power equally monstrous hydroelectric power plants. The only problem with this is that it is not green at all---it does have an enormous environmental impact---it is extremely complicated and expensive to implement. It is important to point out, that this research project does not try to solve world's thirst for electricity. It is rather aimed to help solve this problematic at a much lower scale---it should be considered as an extremely small step in the right direction. It focuses on satisfying the local electricity needs with renewable, non-contaminating and locally available resources. More concisely, this project focuses on the attainment and use of hydrogen as an alternate energy source in El Paso/Juarez region. Clean technology is nowadays available to produce hydrogen and oxygen, i.e. the photoelectrolysis process. Photovoltaic cells coupled with electrolytic devices can be used to produce hydrogen and oxygen in a sustainable manner. In this research, simulation models of hybrid systems were designed and developed. They were capable to compare, predict and evaluate different options for hydrogen generation. On the other hand, with the produced hydrogen from the electrolysis process it was possible to generate electricity through fuel cells. The main objectives of the proposed research were to define how to use the resources for the attainment of hydrogen and distribution of it in El Paso/Juarez region. More precisely, the goals were the conversion of brines and waste-waters to hydrogen via electrolysis, and the generation of electricity through fuel cells. Thereafter, the specific objectives were to (1) design a simulation model for hydrogen generation, (2) design and simulate a model of photovoltaic (PV) array capable to generate the required energy for the process, (3) simulate fuel cells in order to be used as electricity power supply in remote houses, and (4) simulate a complete remote house hybrid system. The results of this research gave us information about the feasibility of high-volume hydrogen generation with the diverse resources of the region. On the other hand, this research has shown the alternatives of local energy generation, and efficiency of a remote house hybrid system located in El Paso/Juarez area. Experiences obtained from this research will also provide information for future investigations in the field of alternate energy sources, in order to get a clean environment through sustainable development.

  16. 78 FR 70281 - United States-Mexico High Level Economic Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ..., and Innovation (1) Workforce Development; (2) Joint Investment Promotion; (3) Travel and Tourism; (4) Economic Development along the Border as well as a Comprehensive Economic Development Strategy; (5) Effective use of the North American Development Bank; (6) Partnership on Advanced Manufacturing;...

  17. The relatedness of HIV epidemics in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sanjay R; Delport, Wayne; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Espitia, Stephen; Patterson, Thomas; Pond, Sergei Kosakovsky; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Smith, Davey M

    2010-12-01

    Phylogeography can improve the understanding of local and worldwide HIV epidemics, including the migration of subepidemics across national borders. We analyzed HIV-1 sequences sampled from Mexico and San Diego, California to determine the relatedness of these epidemics. We sampled the HIV epidemics in (1) Mexico by downloading all publicly available HIV-1 pol sequences from antiretroviral-naive individuals in GenBank (n = 100) and generating similar sequences from cohorts of injection drug users and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico (n = 27) and (2) in San Diego, California by pol sequencing well-characterized primary (n = 395) and chronic (n = 267) HIV infection cohorts. Estimates of population structure (F(ST)), genetic distance cluster analysis, and a cladistic measure of migration events (Slatkin-Maddison test) were used to assess the relatedness of the epidemics. Both a test of population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.06; p cluster analysis identified 72 clusters (two or more sequences), with two clusters containing both Mexican and San Diego sequences (permutation p Mexico are distinct. Larger epidemiological studies are needed to quantify the magnitude and associations of cross-border mixing.

  18. Domestic Trauma and Adult Education on the United States-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, Andres; Mein, Erika

    2010-01-01

    While there are increasing efforts to address the problem of domestic violence and trauma in the justice, health care, and social service systems, the adult education system still lags behind. The inattention to this issue in adult education is particularly troubling because these programs often play a significant role in the lives of women who…

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2013-02-01

    The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep in southern Mexico is largely unknown. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in serum samples of 429 sheep from 4 farms in 2 geographical regions in Oaxaca State, Mexico, using the modified agglutination test (MAT); 99 (23.1%) of the 429 sheep had positive MAT titers: 1:25 in 35, 1:50 in 18, 1:100 in 7, 1:200 in 1, 1:400 in 3, 1:800 in 10, 1:1,600 in 5, and 1:3,200, or higher, in 20. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection varied with management, breed of sheep, and location. It was significantly higher in sheep raised under semi-intensive (grazed on cultivated pasture and hay) conditions than in those raised under semi-extensive conditions (grazed on communal natural grass land). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was significantly higher in mixed-breed sheep than in pure breeds. Sheep raised in temperate climate in municipalities at 1,560-1,600 m above sea level (Central Valley region) had a significantly higher seroprevalence of T. gondii infection than those raised in semiarid and warm-humid climates in municipalities at 1,020-1,080 m of altitude (Cañada region) (29.8% vs. 7.1%, respectively). This is the first report of T. gondii infection in sheep in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

  20. Geochemical surveys in the United States in relation to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourtelot, H.A.

    1979-01-01

    Geochemical surveys in relation to health may be classified as having one, two or three dimensions. One-dimensional surveys examine relations between concentrations of elements such as Pb in soils and other media and burdens of the same elements in humans, at a given time. The spatial distributions of element concentrations are not investigated. The primary objective of two-dimensional surveys is to map the distributions of element concentrations, commonly according to stratified random sampling designs based on either conceptual landscape units or artificial sampling strata, but systematic sampling intervals have also been used. Political units have defined sample areas that coincide with the units used to accumulate epidemiological data. Element concentrations affected by point sources have also been mapped. Background values, location of natural or technological anomalies and the geographic scale of variation for several elements often are determined. Three-dimensional surveys result when two-dimensional surveys are repeated to detect environmental changes. -Author

  1. [Natural contamination with mycotoxins in forage maize and green coffee in Nayarit State (Mexico)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robledo, M de L; Marin, S; Ramos, A J

    2001-09-01

    The presence of mycotoxins in forage maize (zearalenone, fumonisin B1, T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol) and green coffee (ochratoxin A) from Nayarit State (Mexico) has been studied. All maize samples analyzed showed fumonisin B1 contamination, with an average concentration of 2,541 microg/kg. Fifteen percent of the samples contained zearalenone, with an average concentration of 1,610 microg/kg. Only one sample showed T-2 toxin contamination (7 microg/kg), and no diacetoxyscirpenol was detected. Sixty-seven per cent of green coffee samples were contaminated with ochratoxin A, with an average concentration of 30.1 microg/kg. This is the first study about mycotoxins developed in Nayarit and it has shown that mycotoxin contamination is a real problem in both foodstuffs studied.

  2. Distribución del género Bursera en el estado de Morelos, México y su relación con el clima Distribution of the genus Bursera in Morelos state (Mexico and its relation to climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Hernández-Pérez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la influencia de las variables climáticas en la distribución de 15 especies del género Bursera en Morelos, México. Se obtuvieron datos de presencia de especies y de variables climáticas de 47 estaciones meteorológicas, y se elaboraron mapas de distribución real y potencial de cada especie, por medio de un SIG; la influencia de las variables climáticas en la distribución se evaluó mediante análisis de componentes principales y de conglomerados. Las especies se distribuyen en un intervalo altitudinal de 800 a 2 800 m; la riqueza es mayor en las áreas más cálidas y relativamente más secas del sur del estado. Se identificaron 2 grandes grupos de especies: a, las de distribución restringida a sitos relativamente cálidos y b, las de distribución más amplia, incluyendo sitios menos cálidos. La precipitación, las temperaturas máxima y mínima, la evapotranspiración y su estacionalidad influyeron en la distribución de las especies. Bursera bicolor, B. bipinnata, B. cuneata, B. copallifera, B. fagaroides, B. grandifolia y B. glabrifolia se presentan en sitios con temperatura mínima relativamente baja (5-10° C y más húmedos, mientras que B. aptera, B. ariensis, B. lancifolia, B. linanoe, B. longipes, B. morelensis, B. schlechtendalii y B. submoniliformis se encuentran en zonas con temperaturas mínimas más altas (≥ 14° C y condiciones más secas.The influence of climatic variables on the distribution of 15 species of Bursera in Morelos Mexico, was analyzed. Data on the presence of species and climatic variables from 47 meteorological stations were obtained, and maps of actual and potential distribution were made using a GIS; the influence of the main climatic variables on the distribution was analyzed by principal component and cluster analyses. The species of Bursera are found in an altitudinal range of 800-2 800 m; species richness is higher in the warm, relatively dry areas south of the state. Two main groups

  3. Relative value units and cost analysis, Part 3 of 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Kathryn P; Anderson, Jeffery R

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, the interest in relative value unit (RVU) cost analysis has been on the rise. Why all the excitement? RVU cost analysis places the knowledge, and therefore the power, in the hands of the administrator to negotiate revenues, analyze expenditures, and control costs. Cost analysis at the per (relative)-unit level allows for procedure profitability (or loss) analysis, setting internal fee schedules based on costs, contract negotiation based on RVU cost and utilization, equitable provider compensation packages based on productivity and overhead coverage, and tracking ancillary and referral utilization risks. In short, RVU cost accounting uses the Resource-Based Relative Value Scale (RBRVS) instead of stopwatches and clipboards when measuring clinical costs and activity.

  4. A multi-tracer approach to delineate groundwater dynamics in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Quezadas, Juan; Heilweil, Victor M.; Cortés Silva, Alejandra; Araguas, Luis; Salas Ortega, María del Rocío

    2016-07-01

    Geochemistry and environmental tracers were used to understand groundwater resources, recharge processes, and potential sources of contamination in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico. Total dissolved solids are lower in wells and springs located in the basin uplands compared with those closer to the coast, likely associated with rock/water interaction. Geochemical results also indicate some saltwater intrusion near the coast and increased nitrate near urban centers. Stable isotopes show that precipitation is the source of recharge to the groundwater system. Interestingly, some high-elevation springs are more isotopically enriched than average annual precipitation at higher elevations, indicating preferential recharge during the drier but cooler winter months when evapotranspiration is reduced. In contrast, groundwater below 1,200 m elevation is more isotopically depleted than average precipitation, indicating recharge occurring at much higher elevation than the sampling site. Relatively cool recharge temperatures, derived from noble gas measurements at four sites (11-20 °C), also suggest higher elevation recharge. Environmental tracers indicate that groundwater residence time in the basin ranges from 12,000 years to modern. While this large range shows varying groundwater flowpaths and travel times, ages using different tracer methods (14C, 3H/3He, CFCs) were generally consistent. Comparing multiple tracers such as CFC-12 with CFC-113 indicates piston-flow to some discharge points, yet binary mixing of young and older groundwater at other points. In summary, groundwater within the Rio Actopan Basin watershed is relatively young (Holocene) and the majority of recharge occurs in the basin uplands and moves towards the coast.

  5. A multi-tracer approach to delineate groundwater dynamics in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Quezadas, Juan; Heilweil, Victor M.; Cortés Silva, Alejandra; Araguas, Luis; Salas Ortega, María del Rocío

    2016-12-01

    Geochemistry and environmental tracers were used to understand groundwater resources, recharge processes, and potential sources of contamination in the Rio Actopan Basin, Veracruz State, Mexico. Total dissolved solids are lower in wells and springs located in the basin uplands compared with those closer to the coast, likely associated with rock/water interaction. Geochemical results also indicate some saltwater intrusion near the coast and increased nitrate near urban centers. Stable isotopes show that precipitation is the source of recharge to the groundwater system. Interestingly, some high-elevation springs are more isotopically enriched than average annual precipitation at higher elevations, indicating preferential recharge during the drier but cooler winter months when evapotranspiration is reduced. In contrast, groundwater below 1,200 m elevation is more isotopically depleted than average precipitation, indicating recharge occurring at much higher elevation than the sampling site. Relatively cool recharge temperatures, derived from noble gas measurements at four sites (11-20 °C), also suggest higher elevation recharge. Environmental tracers indicate that groundwater residence time in the basin ranges from 12,000 years to modern. While this large range shows varying groundwater flowpaths and travel times, ages using different tracer methods (14C, 3H/3He, CFCs) were generally consistent. Comparing multiple tracers such as CFC-12 with CFC-113 indicates piston-flow to some discharge points, yet binary mixing of young and older groundwater at other points. In summary, groundwater within the Rio Actopan Basin watershed is relatively young (Holocene) and the majority of recharge occurs in the basin uplands and moves towards the coast.

  6. Roller coaster related fatalities, United States, 1994--2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, A R; Gilchrist, J

    2005-10-01

    To determine the number of fatalities related to roller coasters and examine factors common to multiple incidents. A case was defined as the death of a person, which was associated with a roller coaster in the United States between 15 May 1994 and 14 May 2004. Cases were identified from four (1) Consumer Product Safety Commission, (2) Lexis-Nexis, (3) Medline, and (4) Safer parks. Forty people, ranging in age from 7 to 77 years, were killed in 39 separate incidents. Twenty nine (73%) deaths occurred among roller coaster patrons. Eleven fatalities resulted from external causes related to injuries from falls or collisions. Eighteen people died from medical conditions that might have been caused or exacerbated by riding a roller coaster; 15 were the result of intracranial hemorrhages or cardiac problems. Eleven (28%) deaths involved employees; all were caused by injuries. Approximately four deaths annually in the United States are associated with roller coasters. Prevention of roller coaster fatalities is dependent on establishing an effective surveillance system for amusement ride injuries, engineering rides to better protect both patrons and employees, improving training and supervision of employees regarding safety precautions, and posting cautionary notices near roller coasters for people with specified medical conditions. Further research is needed on roller coaster related deaths resulting from intracranial hemorrhages and cardiac problems.

  7. Roller coaster related fatalities, United States, 1994–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, A; Gilchrist, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the number of fatalities related to roller coasters and examine factors common to multiple incidents. Methods: A case was defined as the death of a person, which was associated with a roller coaster in the United States between 15 May 1994 and 14 May 2004. Cases were identified from four data sources: (1) Consumer Product Safety Commission, (2) Lexis-Nexis, (3) Medline, and (4) Saferparks. Results: Forty people, ranging in age from 7 to 77 years, were killed in 39 separate incidents. Twenty nine (73%) deaths occurred among roller coaster patrons. Eleven fatalities resulted from external causes related to injuries from falls or collisions. Eighteen people died from medical conditions that might have been caused or exacerbated by riding a roller coaster; 15 were the result of intracranial hemorrhages or cardiac problems. Eleven (28%) deaths involved employees; all were caused by injuries. Conclusions: Approximately four deaths annually in the United States are associated with roller coasters. Prevention of roller coaster fatalities is dependent on establishing an effective surveillance system for amusement ride injuries, engineering rides to better protect both patrons and employees, improving training and supervision of employees regarding safety precautions, and posting cautionary notices near roller coasters for people with specified medical conditions. Further research is needed on roller coaster related deaths resulting from intracranial hemorrhages and cardiac problems. PMID:16203841

  8. Local evolution of pyrethroid resistance offsets gene flow among Aedes aegypti collections in Yucatan State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Beaty, Meaghan; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Denham, Steven; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Beaty, Barry; Eisen, Lars; Black, William C

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4). Previous studies have shown that Ae. aegypti in Mexico have a high effective migration rate and that gene flow occurs among populations that are up to 150 km apart. Since 2000, pyrethroids have been widely used for suppression of Ae. aegypti in cities in Mexico. In Yucatan State in particular, pyrethroids have been applied in and around dengue case households creating an opportunity for local selection and evolution of resistance. Herein, we test for evidence of local adaptation by comparing patterns of variation among 27 Ae. aegypti collections at 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene para known to confer knockdown resistance, three in detoxification genes previously associated with pyrethroid resistance, and eight in putatively neutral loci. The SNPs in para varied greatly in frequency among collections, whereas SNPs at the remaining 11 loci showed little variation supporting previous evidence for extensive local gene flow. Among Ae. aegypti in Yucatan State, Mexico, local adaptation to pyrethroids appears to offset the homogenizing effects of gene flow.

  9. Local Evolution of Pyrethroid Resistance Offsets Gene Flow Among Aedes aegypti Collections in Yucatan State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra-Rodriguez, Karla; Beaty, Meaghan; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Denham, Steven; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Reyes-Solis, Guadalupe; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Loroño-Pino, Maria Alba; Flores-Suarez, Adriana; Ponce-Garcia, Gustavo; Beaty, Barry; Eisen, Lars; Black, William C.

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1–4). Previous studies have shown that Ae. aegypti in Mexico have a high effective migration rate and that gene flow occurs among populations that are up to 150 km apart. Since 2000, pyrethroids have been widely used for suppression of Ae. aegypti in cities in Mexico. In Yucatan State in particular, pyrethroids have been applied in and around dengue case households creating an opportunity for local selection and evolution of resistance. Herein, we test for evidence of local adaptation by comparing patterns of variation among 27 Ae. aegypti collections at 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene para known to confer knockdown resistance, three in detoxification genes previously associated with pyrethroid resistance, and eight in putatively neutral loci. The SNPs in para varied greatly in frequency among collections, whereas SNPs at the remaining 11 loci showed little variation supporting previous evidence for extensive local gene flow. Among Ae. aegypti in Yucatan State, Mexico, local adaptation to pyrethroids appears to offset the homogenizing effects of gene flow. PMID:25371186

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens in Durango State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; González-Salazar, A M; Alvarado-Esquivel, D; Ontiveros-Vázquez, F; Vitela-Corrales, J; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-04-01

    Little is known concerning the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Mexico. Antibodies to T. gondii were determined in 519 chickens in Durango, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT). Two groups (A, B) of chickens were sampled. Group A chickens (n  =  51) were raised in backyards in 7 municipalities in 3 geographical regions in Durango State. Group B chickens were raised in farms in the Mexican States of Sinaloa (n  =  289) and Nayarit (n  =  179) but slaughtered in 2 abattoirs in Durango City. Overall, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 36 (6.9%) of 519 chickens, with MAT titers of 1∶25 in 22, 1∶50 in 8, 1∶100 in 2, 1∶200 in 3, and 1∶400 in 1. Seroprevalence of T. gondii increased significantly with age and was significantly higher in Group A chickens than in Group B chickens. In Group A chickens, a 25.5% seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was found. Seropositive chickens were found in all 7 municipalities sampled. In Group B chickens, the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was 4.9%. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in chickens in Durango State, Mexico.

  11. Urinary catheter related nosocomial infections in paediatric intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tullu M

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The present prospective study was carried out in the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Mumbai. The objective was to determine the incidence, risk factors, mortality and organisms responsible for urinary catheter related infections (UCRI. Colonization and/or bacteriuria was labelled as urinary catheter related infection (UCRI. Forty-four patients with 51 urinary catheters were studied. Incidence of UCRI was 47.06%. Age, female sex and immunocompromised status did not increase the risk of UCRI. Duration of catheter in-situ and duration of stay in the PICU were associated with higher risk of UCRI. The mortality was not increased by UCRI. Commonest organism isolated in UCRI was E. coli, which had maximum susceptibility to nitrofurantoin and amikacin.

  12. Professionalism in Public Relations Pedagogy: A Comparative Analysis of Public Relations Curricula among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong

    2012-01-01

    Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…

  13. Professionalism in Public Relations Pedagogy: A Comparative Analysis of Public Relations Curricula among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wonjun; Choi, Jinbong

    2012-01-01

    Based on a concept of professionalism, this study analyzed and compared current public relations curricula of higher education among the United States, the United Kingdom, and South Korea. In terms of three educational orientations, results indicated that public relations education in the United States is the most balanced among theoretical,…

  14. Anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes from grazing beef cattle in Campeche State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñiz-Lagunes, Abel; González-Garduño, Roberto; López-Arellano, Maria Eugenia; Ramírez-Valverde, Rodolfo; Ruíz-Flores, Agustín; García-Muñiz, Guadalupe; Ramírez-Vargas, Gabriel; Mendoza-de Gives, Pedro; Torres-Hernández, Glafiro

    2015-08-01

    Production of beef cattle is one of the most important economic activities in Mexico. However, anthelmintic resistance (AR) has affected animal productivity. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of AR in gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) of beef cattle in Candelaria Municipality of Campeche State, Mexico. Sixty-five-month-old beef calves were selected for the faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) and the inhibition of egg hatch (IEH) assay. These parameters were determined using albendazole (benzimidazole, BZ), ivermectin (IVM, Macrocyclic lactone, ML) and levamisole (LEV, imidazothiazole, IMZ). Allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) confirmed polymorphisms at codon 200 of isotype 1 of the β-tubulin gene of Haemonchus placei. The results showed 32 % IVM toxicity by FECRT, indicating problems of AR in the GIN population. In contrast, BZ and LEV showed 95 and 100 % toxicity, respectively, against GIN from infected beef calves. The infective larvae (L3) of Cooperia, Haemonchus and Oesophagostomum were identified before anthelmintic treatment, and Cooperia L3 larvae were identified after treatment with IVM. The IEH assays had lethal dose 50 (LD50) of 187 nM to BZ, confirming the ovicidal effect of BZ. In contrast, the LD50 for LEV and IVM were 3.3 and 0.4 mM, respectively. The results obtained by AS-PCR confirmed two DNA fragments of 250 and 550 bp, corresponding to the resistant and susceptible alleles in the H. placei population. The nematode Cooperia showed AR against IVM, while the toxicity effect of BZ against GIN with both FECRT and IEH was confirmed.

  15. Seroprevalence and correlates of Toxoplasma gondii infection in domestic pigs in Veracruz State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Romero-Salas, Dora; García-Vázquez, Zeferino; Crivelli-Diaz, Margarita; Barrientos-Morales, Manuel; Lopez-de-Buen, Lorena; Dubey, Jitender P

    2014-04-01

    Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs has epidemiological concern for its contributing role in human infections. We determined seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in 402 domestic pigs raised in backyards in Veracruz State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT; cut off 1:25); 182 (45.3%) of the 402 pigs were seropositive with MAT titers of 1:25 in 28, 1:50 in 22, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 30, 1:400 in 35, 1:800 in 23, 1:1,600 in 11, and 1:3,200 or higher in 15. Seropositive pigs were found in 137 (53.3%) of 257 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Multivariate analysis showed that T. gondii seropositivity in pigs was associated with tropical-humid climate (OR = 4.32; 95% CI 1.47-12.62; P = 0.007) of the raising municipalities, feeding with leftovers (OR = 2.83; 95% CI 1.01-7.91; P = 0.04), storing pig food in the owner's home (OR = 2.39; 95% CI 1.09-5.22; P = 0.02), and free ranging (OR = 3.48; 95% CI 1.49-8.15; P = 0.003). Results indicate that backyard pigs in Veracruz have the highest seroprevalence of T. gondii infection obtained by MAT in pigs studied in Mexico so far. The correlates of T. gondii infection found in the present study may be useful for an optimal planning of preventive measures against T. gondii infection in pigs. Results also remark the risk of T. gondii infection in humans by ingestion of raw or undercook pork in Mexico.

  16. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in domestic pigs in Oaxaca State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, C; Estrada-Malacón, M A; Reyes-Hernández, S O; Pérez-Ramírez, J A; Trujillo-López, J I; Villena, I; Dubey, J P

    2012-12-01

    Pigs are important in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis in North America. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 525 domestic pigs (337 backyard raised, 188 farm raised) in Oaxaca State, Mexico was determined using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cutoff 1:25). Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 58 (17.2%) of the 337 backyard pigs with MAT titers of 1:25 in 10, 1:50 in 12, 1:100 in 18, 1:200 in 6, 1:400 in 6, 1:800 in 3, and 1:1,600 in 3. Seropositive pigs were found in 39 (37.9%) of 103 homes in all 7 municipalities surveyed. Seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in backyard pigs varied with age, gender, geographic region, climate, and altitude. High seroprevalence was found in pigs ≥ 9-mo-old (40%), in females (40%), in pigs from the Istmo region (33.3%), and in those raised in a tropical climate (65%). Seroprevalence was higher (24.5%) in pigs raised at 100-660 m above sea level than in those at 20-60 m of altitude (14.2%). With respect to farm pigs, only 1 (0.5%, MAT titer 1:100) of 188 pigs from 5 farms was positive for anti- T. gondii antibodies. The results affirm that the management system (outdoor vs. indoor system with biosecurity) is a key factor in the epidemiology of porcine toxoplasmosis. Because there is no national system of determining the T. gondii infection status at the time of slaughter, precautions should be taken while handling pig carcasses, and all pork should be cooked thoroughly before human consumption.

  17. The Relative Value Unit in academic geriatrics: incentive or impediment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Neil M; Radulovich, Nichole

    2014-03-01

    Although the number of older adults is rapidly expanding, the number of healthcare professionals trained in geriatrics is small and declining. The reasons are multifaceted, but because responsibility for training such professionals resides largely in academic health centers (AHCs), their support for geriatrics is critical. As AHCs face increasing financial pressure, many are seeking metrics to measure productivity and the Relative Value Unit (RVU) may be the one most commonly selected. Yet little is known about the RVU's effect on geriatric programs. Review of the literature and a survey of the leaders of the Association of Directors of Geriatric Academic Programs suggest that the advantages of an RVU-based metric are likely eclipsed by its negative impact on the care of older adults, the ability of academic geriatrics to accomplish its mission, and even the survival of geriatrics. If the RVU is to continue to be used as the index of productivity, it should be modified--by reweighting its codes (or by adding new ones)--and complemented by interventions to ensure patient access, care quality, and efficiency. Because an alternative metric, such as a Patient-based Value Unit may be preferable, this article describes the principles on which one might be based. Regardless, urgent action is required by all stakeholders to address this issue. Without it, the future of academic geriatrics--and with it the innovative care models, research, and training the nation needs to improve care and bend the cost curve--will be difficult if not impossible to sustain. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Epidemiological study of Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in a rural village in Yucatan state, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Canul, R; Fraser, A; Allan, J C; Dominguez-Alpizar, J L; Argaez-Rodriguez, F; Craig, P S

    1999-01-01

    A survey to detect human taeniasis and cysticercosis was conducted in a community in Yucatan state, Mexico, an area endemic for Taenia solium. Information on the environmental, demographic and risk factors associated with transmission of T. solium within the community was recorded on questionnaires. Although no Taenia eggs or proglottides were found in the initial faecal samples collected from each of the 475 subjects, the results of a capture-ELISA for T. solium coproantigen were positive for 10 of the subjects (of both genders and various ages). After treatment with niclosamide, proglottides were detected in purge samples from seven of these 10 subjects. The prevalence of parasitologically confirmed taeniasis was therefore 1.5% (seven in 475). The other three ELISA-positive cases delayed supplying faecal material post-treatment, and it is nuclear whether they had expelled proglottides before providing the samples. All 10 ELISA-positive subjects became ELISA-negative after treatment. Seroprevalence of human cysticercosis, based on the detection in immunoblots of antibodies to antigens of 8- and 26-kDa from a crude saline extract of T. solium metacestodes, was 3.7% (i.e. five positives out of 134 subjects). None of the seropositive cases demonstrated clinical symptoms of infection. Again, the positive cases were of both genders and various ages. Although tongue palpation indicated that 17 (23%) of 75 pigs kept within the community had T. solium cysticercosis, the results of immunoblotting demonstrated antibodies to the 8- and/or 26-kDa antigens of T. solium in 26 (35%). The pigs allowed to roam throughout the community were far more likely to have cysticercosis than those kept in pens (odds ratio = 42, with a 95% confidence interval of 5.05-920.2; P taeniasis and cysticercosis included the eating of infected pork and close proximity to a carrier of T. solium. The main risk factor identified for porcine cysticercosis was free-range husbandry, permitting access to

  19. Assessing Unit-Price Related Remifentanil Choice in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuska, Chad M.; Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Hursh, Steven R.

    2006-01-01

    Given a commodity available at different prices, a unit-price account of choice predicts preference for the cheaper alternative. This experiment determined if rhesus monkeys preferred remifentanil (an ultra-short-acting [mu]-opioid agonist) delivered at a lower unit price over a higher-priced remifentanil alternative (Phases 1 and 3). Choice…

  20. Learning variable length units for SMT between related languages via Byte Pair Encoding

    OpenAIRE

    Kunchukuttan, Anoop; Bhattacharyya, Pushpak

    2016-01-01

    We explore the use of segments learnt using Byte Pair Encoding (referred to as BPE units) as basic units for statistical machine translation between related languages and compare it with orthographic syllables, which are currently the best performing basic units for this translation task. BPE identifies the most frequent character sequences as basic units, while orthographic syllables are linguistically motivated pseudo-syllables. We show that BPE units modestly outperform orthographic syllab...

  1. Guinea: Background and Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,Library of Congress,101 Independence Ave., SE,Washington...DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) 11...des Membres du Gouvernement de Kabiné Komara,” January 14, 2009. 33 BBC News Online, “Troops Crawl After Guinea Attack,” July 24, 2009; United Nations

  2. Issues Related To Troubleshooting Of Avionic Hydraulic Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastrzębski Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines workflows associated with troubleshooting of avionic hydraulic systems with detailed description of the troubleshooting algorithm and classification of diagnostic signals provided by avionic hydraulic systems and their subassemblies. Attention is paid to measurement sequences for diagnostic signals from hydraulic systems, circuits and units. Detailed description is dedicated to an innovative design of a troubleshooting device intended for direct measurements of internal leaks from avionic hydraulic units. Advantages of the proposed measurement method are summarized with benefits from use of the presented device and compared against the methods that are currently in use. Subsequent phases of the troubleshooting process are described with examples of measurement results that have been acquired from subassemblies of hydraulic systems of SU-22 aircrafts currently in service at Polish Air Forces with consideration given to cases when the permissible threshold of diagnostic signals were exceeded. Finally, all results from investigations are subjected to thorough analysis.

  3. Present and Future of the United States-Bolivia Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-11

    Andean Trade Preference Act ATPDEA Andean Trade Preference and Drug Enforcement Act BID Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo (Spanish for Inter... Organizacion de Estados Americanos (Spanish for Organization of American States) PNUD United Nations Program for Development) TCP Tratado de Comercio de...partidos en Bolivia,” Futuros Revista Trimestral Latinoamericana y Caribeña de Desarrollo Sustentable, http://www.revistafuturos.info/ futuros_9

  4. Key articles and guidelines relative to intensive care unit pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erstad, Brian L; Jordan, Ché J; Thomas, Michael C

    2002-12-01

    Compilations of key articles and guidelines in a particular clinical practice area are useful not only to clinicians who practice in that area, but to all clinicians. We compiled pertinent articles and guidelines pertaining to drug therapy in the intensive care unit setting from the perspective of an actively practicing critical care pharmacist. This document also may serve to stimulate other experienced clinicians to undertake a similar endeavor in their practice areas.

  5. Epidemiologic investigation of tuberculosis in a Mexican population from Chihuahua State, Mexico: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittoor, Geetha; Arya, Rector; Farook, Vidya S; David, Randy; Puppala, Sobha; Resendez, Roy G; Rivera-Chavira, Blanca E; Leal-Berumen, Irene; Zenteno-Cuevas, Roberto; López-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Bastarrachea, Raul A; Curran, Joanne E; Dhandayuthapani, Subramanian; Gonzalez, Lupe; Blangero, John; Crawford, Michael H; Vlasich, Esteban M; Escobedo, Luis G; Duggirala, Ravindranath

    2013-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) and its co-morbid conditions have become a burden on global health economies. It is well understood that susceptibility of the host to TB infection/disease is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors and their interactions. The aims of this pilot case-control study are to characterize the sociodemographic and environmental factors related to active TB disease (TB/case) and latent TB infection (LTBI/control) status, and to identify risk factors associated with progression from LTBI to TB. We recruited 75 cases with TB (mean age=46.3y; females=41%) and 75 controls with LTBI (mean age=39.0y; females=37%), from the Mestizo population of Cuidad Juárez, Mexico. In addition to the determination of case/control status, information on environmental variables was collected (e.g., socioeconomic status, smoking, alcohol consumption, substance abuse, nutritional status, household demographics, medical histories and presence of type 2 diabetes [T2DM]). The data were analyzed to identify the environmental correlates of TB and LTBI using univariate and multivariate statistical approaches. Following multivariate logistic regression analysis, TB was associated with poor nutrition, T2DM, family history of TB, and non-Chihuahua state of birth. These preliminary findings have relevance to TB control at the Mexico-United States border, and contribute to our future genetic study of TB in Mexicans.

  6. Professional Competence of the Head of External Relations Unit and its Development in the Study Process

    OpenAIRE

    Turuševa, Larisa

    2010-01-01

    Dissertation Annotation Larisa Turuševa’s promotion paper „Professional Competence of the Head of External Relations Unit and its Development in the Study Process” is a fulfilled research on the development of Professional competence of the heads of external relations units, conditions for the study programme development. A model of professional competence of the head of external relations unit is worked out, its indicators and levels are described. A study process model for th...

  7. Binational Dengue Outbreak Along the United States-Mexico Border - Yuma County, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson M; Lopez, Benito; Adams, Laura; Gálvez, Francisco Javier Navarro; Núñez, Alfredo Sánchez; Santillán, Nubia Astrid Hernández; Plante, Lydia; Hemme, Ryan R; Casal, Mariana; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge; Acevedo, Veronica; Ernst, Kacey; Hayden, Mary; Waterman, Steve; Gomez, Diana; Sharp, Tyler M; Komatsu, Kenneth K

    2016-05-20

    Dengue is an acute febrile illness caused by any of four dengue virus types (DENV-1-4). DENVs are transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes (1) and are endemic throughout the tropics (2). In 2010, an estimated 390 million DENV infections occurred worldwide (2). During 2007-2013, a total of three to 10 dengue cases were reported annually in Arizona and all were travel-associated. During September-December 2014, coincident with a dengue outbreak in Sonora, Mexico, 93 travel-associated dengue cases were reported in Arizona residents; 70 (75%) cases were among residents of Yuma County, which borders San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora, Mexico. San Luis Río Colorado reported its first case of locally acquired dengue in September 2014. To investigate the temporal relationship of the dengue outbreaks in Yuma County and San Luis Río Colorado and compare patient characteristics and signs and symptoms, passive surveillance data from both locations were analyzed. In addition, household-based cluster investigations were conducted near the residences of reported dengue cases in Yuma County to identify unreported cases and assess risk for local transmission. Surveillance data identified 52 locally acquired cases (21% hospitalized) in San Luis Río Colorado and 70 travel-associated cases (66% hospitalized) in Yuma County with illness onset during September-December 2014. Among 194 persons who participated in the cluster investigations in Yuma County, 152 (78%) traveled to Mexico at least monthly during the preceding 3 months. Four (2%) of 161 Yuma County residents who provided serum samples for diagnostic testing during cluster investigations had detectable DENV immunoglobulin M (IgM); one reported a recent febrile illness, and all four had traveled to Mexico during the preceding 3 months. Entomologic assessments among 105 households revealed 24 water containers per 100 houses colonized by Ae. aegypti. Frequent travel to Mexico and Ae. aegypti colonization indicate risk for local transmission of DENV in Yuma County. Public health officials in Sonora and Arizona should continue to collaborate on dengue surveillance and educate the public regarding mosquito abatement and avoidance practices. Clinicians evaluating patients from the U.S.-Mexico border region should consider dengue in patients with acute febrile illness and report suspected cases to public health authorities.

  8. Great Blunders?: The Great Wall of China, the Berlin Wall, and the Proposed United States/Mexico Border Fence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langerbein, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of the Great Wall of China and the Berlin Wall which reveals that both grew from unique political, historical, geographical, cultural, and economic circumstances. The purpose of this article is to provide new arguments for a debate that all too often has been waged with emotions, polemics, and misinformation. The…

  9. Microstructural and geochronology data of the Coacoyulillo-Intzcuinatoyac sector rocks, Guerrero state, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo Bautista, G.; Hernandez, T.; Elías, M.; Solari, L.

    2013-12-01

    The south of Mexico is constituted by many conjugated geological events with volcanic, sedimentary, tectonic, plutonic and metamorphic sequences. The exposed evidences establish the pieces of a complex puzzle which were analyzed in this study for geochronological and structural purposes in context with the observed field relationships. According to Campa and Coney (1983), Mexico is constituted by sixteen tectonostratigraphic terranes, which are distinguished by their basement petrology, although they can superficially share an identical geological record. The study area is located in a triple point where the Xolapa, Guerrero and Mixteca terranes converge and covers the adjacent areas to the Intzcuinatoyac and Coacoyulillo villages, southwest of the city of Chilpancingo in the Guerrero state. This study was performed in a region which is integrated by geological events covered by ductile-fragile regional deformation of great magnitude, consisting of mylonitic rocks and less than 60 to 132 Ma magmatic events, associated with a subduction scenario. The analyzed magmatic events are geographically distributed along the El Zapote and El Reparo rivers and can be classified into three different magmatic pulses, determined by field relations and geochronological data. However, the age of the deformations and deformational events were constrained by two or more magmatic and / or tectonic events. The oldest magmatism is represented by felsic intrusive rocks, which were later affected by ductile deformation, developing mylonitic textures. The deformed intrusive forms part of a mylonitic sector associated to a tectonic contact between the Xolapa, Mixteca and Guerrero terranes. This mylonitic sector can be correlated with other mylonitic areas within the state of Guerrero due to its ductile structural features and its geochronology, such as La Venta and the Ocotito areas. The mylonitic areas of Guerrero form a belt that may be associated with the Chacalapa fault in the state of

  10. Labor Relations: Unions and the United States Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    reflect today’s labor relations environment as commanders still do not understand labor law and the roles of unions. 3 Labor Relations in Federal...current leanings of the administration, it is not likely the uniform services would be considered for exclusion from labor law , at least in the near term...better understanding of labor law and employee relations. Popular with companies in the private sector, business management companies provide a variety

  11. Shear zones between rock units with no relative movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Schmeling, H.; Burchardt, S.

    2012-01-01

    Shear zones are normally viewed as relatively narrow deformation zones that accommodate relative displacement between two "blocks" that have moved past each other in opposite directions. This study reports localized zones of shear between adjacent blocks that have not moved past each other. Such ...

  12. A Relational Approach to the Study of Religious Survival Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels

    2012-01-01

    , a religion can be defined and studied as the result of complex set of dynamic relations, where a central tenet of a religion is that it relates to the significant religious other. As such religion is not a stable phenomenon but embedded in a dynamic historical process, which can explain the difficulties...

  13. Shear zones between rock units with no relative movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, H.; Schmeling, H.; Burchardt, S.

    2012-01-01

    Shear zones are normally viewed as relatively narrow deformation zones that accommodate relative displacement between two "blocks" that have moved past each other in opposite directions. This study reports localized zones of shear between adjacent blocks that have not moved past each other. Such ...

  14. Food, eating and body image in the lives of low socioeconomic status rural Mexican women living in Queretaro State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Riko; Ronquillo, Dolores; Caamaño, Maria C; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schubert, Lisa; Rosado, Jorge L; Garcia, Olga; Long, Kurt Z

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative research using semi-structured interviews and key informant interviews were used to explore how women from low socioeconomic rural households in Queretaro State, Mexico perceived and reacted to their obesogenic environment. Reduced availability of healthy food options and household financial constraints along with reduced agency of women in this setting were factors that limited women's ability to access and consume diets consistent with the promotion of good health. The cultural values that emphasised obesity as a desirable state for women and the women's social networks that promoted these values were also identified as playing a role in reinforcing certain behaviours. Public health advocates wanting to design interventions in such settings need to be sensitive to the cultural as well as the environmental context described for rural Mexican women.

  15. Knowledge about useful entomofauna in the county of La Purísima Palmar de Bravo, Puebla State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Zetina

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen species of edible insects belonging to 15 families of six orders of Insecta were recorded in the county of La Purísima Palmar de Bravo in Puebla State, Mexico. They had the following taxonomic distribution among the different families: Lygaeidae, Pentatomidae, Membracidae, Cercopidae, Psocidae, Melolonthidae, Curculionidae, Cossidae, Megathymidae, Pyralidae, Geometridae and Apidae, all with a single recorded species; the families Acrididae, Formicidae and Vespidae with two species in each family. The latter were the most abundant families, and Hymenoptera was the most salient order with five species. Three species were reported as new registers of edible insects for Mexico and also for the world. The nutritive value of insects in terms of macro and micronutrients is discussed.

  16. United States/European workshop on power system related research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, L. H.; Carlsen, K. [eds.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the workshop was to strengthen U.S. and European power system related research programs by encouraging increased direct interaction between research investigators working on related problems. The agenda included brief reviews of ongoing and planned research programs; a discussion on research program planning and management; discussion of high priority problems in power system planning, operation, and control; discussion of the adequacy of existing programs addressing those areas. The final session summed the results of the two previous sessions. (MCW)

  17. Shear zones between rock units with no relative movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koyi, Hemin; Schmeling, Harro; Burchardt, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    Shear zones are normally viewed as relatively narrow deformation zones that accommodate relative displacement between two "blocks" that have moved past each other in opposite directions. This study reports localized zones of shear between adjacent blocks that have not moved past each other...... a partially molten magma body (stoping). From the fluid dynamics perspective these shear zones can be regarded as low Reynolds number deformation zones within the wake of a body moving through a viscous medium. While compact moving bodies (aspect ratio 1:1:1) generate axial symmetric (cone like) shear zones...

  18. An inventory of crop wild relatives of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of crop wild relatives (CWR) in breeding is likely to continue to intensify as utilization techniques improve and crop adaptation to climate change becomes more pressing. Significant gaps remain in the conservation of these genetic resources, constraining availability for research. As a fi...

  19. 42 CFR 414.22 - Relative value units (RVUs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... rated relative to the value of work for other physician services. (2) Special RVUs for anesthesia and radiology services)—(i) Anesthesia services. The rules for determining RVUs for anesthesia services are set...: services that have only technical component practice expense RVUs or only professional component practice...

  20. An Inventory of Crop Wild Relatives of the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khoury, C.K.; Greene, S.; Wiersema, J.; Maxted, N.; Jarvis, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    The use of crop wild relatives (CWRs) in breeding is likely to continue to intensify as utilization techniques improve and crop adaptation to climate change becomes more pressing. Signifi cant gaps remain in the conservation of these genetic resources. As a fi rst step toward a national strategy for

  1. Ventriculostomy related infection in intensive care unit:Diagnostic criteria and related conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sergio Castaño ´Avila; Amaia Quintano Rodero; Ana Tejero Mojena; Alberto Manzano Ramírez; Esther Corral Lozano; Javier Maynar Moliner; Fernando Fonseca San Miguel; Elena Us ´on García; Yolanda Poveda Hern ´andez; Sara Cabañes Daro-Franc ´es; Goiatz Balziskueta Fl ´orez; Noemi Legaristi Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of clinical signs, blood tests, microbiological cultures and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis to detect ventriculostomy related in-fections (VRI), and to describe related conditions. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out including all patients with external ventricular drain admitted to intensive care unit from January 2000 to December 2006. Diagnosis of VRI, mortality, demographic and clinical data, time and number of drains, microbiological and biochemical CSF results and blood test were recorded. Difference between infected and uninfected patients was statistically significant at P Results: The results revealed 136 drainages in 120 patients with 22 (18.33%) infected (15.39 infections per 1 000 days of drainage). This group was on overage older, had more severe systemic response syndrome and a significantly higher number of drains and longer duration of drain insertion. We found statistical differences in proteinorrachia, glycorrhachia, and glycorrachia/glycemia ratio during 8.5-day drain insertion (inter-quartile range 7–10.25). A total of 31 cultures were positive in patients without VRI and 47 were negative in patients with VRI. Furthermore, 35 patients died (2 belonging to the infected group). Significantly higher risk of VRI in intraventricular fibrinolysis and subarachnoid haemorrhage was observed. We made a multivariate regression model resulting in a prediction rule with 55.7%area under curve (95%CI 0.43–0.70). Conclusions: CSF routine cultures and biochemical studies are not recommended to diagnose VRI. Clinical signs, external ventricular drain manipulation and a drainage insertion over a week justify the routine measurement of proteinorraquia, glycorrhachia and the ratio of glycorrachia/glycemia.

  2. Relating Soil Moisture to TRMMPR Backscatter in Southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, S.; Stephen, H.; Ahmad, S.

    2009-12-01

    Soil Moisture is an important variable in hydrological cycle. It plays a vital role in agronomy, meteorology, and hydrology. In spite of being an important variable, soil moisture measuring stations are sparse. This is due to high cost involved in the installation of dense network of measuring stations required to map a comprehensive spatio-temporal behavior of soil moisture. Hence, there is a need to develop an alternate method to measure soil moisture. This research relates soil moisture (SM) to backscatter (σ°) obtained from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Precipitation Radar (TRMMPR) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. SM data is obtained from Soil Climate Analysis Network (SCAN). σ° measurements are normalized at an incidence angle of 10° at which it has the highest sensitivity to SM. An empirical model that relates SM to normalized σ° and NDVI is developed. NDVI takes into account the different vegetation densities. The relationship between model variables is approximated to be linear. The model is applied to data from 1998 to 2008 where 75% of the data is used for calibration and the remaining 25% for validation. Figure 1 shows the comparison of observed and modeled soil moisture for a site with low vegetation. Even though the model underestimates the soil moisture content, it captures the signal well and produces peaks similar to the observed soil moisture. The model performs well with a correlation of 0.71 and root mean square error of 4.0%. The accuracy of the model depends on vegetation density. Table 1 summarizes the model performance for different vegetation densities. The model performance decreases with the increase in vegetation as the leaves in the vegetation canopy attenuate the incident microwaves which reduces the penetration depth and subsequently the sensitivity to soil moisture. This research provides a new insight into the microwave remote sensing of soil

  3. Axon-myelin sheath relations of oligodendrocyte unit phenotypes in the adult rat anterior medullary velum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, A M; Ibrahim, M; Berry, M

    1998-04-01

    Axon-oligodendrocyte relations of Rip-immunolabelled and dye-injected oligodendrocyte units are characterised in the adult rat anterior medullary velum (AMV). Each oligodendrocyte unit comprised the oligodendrocyte cell body, processes and the internodal myelin segments they support. Oligodendrocyte units corresponded to classically described type I/II or type III/IV unit phenotypes which respectively myelinated discrete populations of small and large diameter axons, delineated by a myelinated fire diameter of 2-4 microns (diameter of the axon plus its myelin sheath). Within units, mean fibre diameter was directly related to mean internodal length and inversely related to the number of myelin sheaths in the unit. The relationship between fibre diameter and internodal length was retained in units which myelinated axons of different diameters, indicating that axon diameter was an important determinant of the longitudinal dimensions of myelin sheaths. We also show that type III/IV units maintained a far greater volume of myelin than type I/II units. It was concluded that type I/II and III/IV oligodendrocytes represent two functionally and morphologically distinct phenotypes whose distribution densities were determined by the diameter and spatial dispersion of axons.

  4. The effectiveness of unitization in mitigating age-related relational learning impairments depends on existing cognitive status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Maria C; Smith, Victoria M; Kacollja, Arber; Zhang, Felicia; Binns, Malcolm A; Barense, Morgan D; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2016-11-01

    Binding relations among items in the transverse patterning (TP) task is dependent on the integrity of the hippocampus and its extended network. Older adults have impaired TP learning, corresponding to age-related reductions in hippocampal volumes. Unitization is a training strategy that can mitigate TP impairments in amnesia by reducing reliance on hippocampal-dependent relational binding and increasing reliance on fused representations. Here we examined whether healthy older adults and those showing early signs of cognitive decline would also benefit from unitization. Although both groups of older adults had neuropsychological performance within the healthy range, their TP learning differed both under standard and unitized training conditions. Healthy older adults with impaired TP learning under standard training benefited from unitized training. Older adults who failed the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) showed greater impairments under standard conditions, and showed no evidence of improvement with unitization. These individuals' failures to benefit from unitization may be a consequence of early deficits not seen in older adults who pass the MoCA.

  5. Prevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in landrace and mixed breed pigs slaughtered in Baja California Sur State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Vazquez-Morales, Renata Fabiola; Colado-Romero, Edgar Eusebio; Guzmán-Sánchez, Ramiro; Liesenfeld, Oliver; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-03-01

    We performed a cross-sectional study to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in 308 domestic pigs slaughtered in La Paz, Baja California Sur State, Mexico using the modified agglutination test (MAT, cut off 1:25). Forty (13%) of the 308 pigs were seropositive with MAT titers of 1:25 in 16, 1:50 in 5, 1:100 in 4, 1:200 in 5, 1:400 in 3, 1:800 in 3, 1:1600 in 2, and 1:3200 in 2. Multivariate analysis of pigs' characteristics showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was negatively associated with mixed breed (OR = 0.02; 95% CI: 0.003-0.26; P = 0.001). Other variables including sex, type of raising, and municipality did not show an association with T. gondii seropositivity by multivariate analysis. The frequency of high antibody titers (≥1:400) was significantly higher (P Landrace pigs than mixed breed pigs. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in pigs for slaughter in Baja California Sur State is low compared with seroprevalences reported in pigs in other Mexican states. Landrace pigs demonstrated higher seroprevalence rates and antibody levels than mixed breed pigs. This is the first report of T. gondii infection in pigs raised in a desert climate.

  6. Spatial analysis techniques applied to uranium prospecting in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinojosa de la Garza, Octavio R.; Montero Cabrera, María Elena; Sanín, Luz H.; Reyes Cortés, Manuel; Martínez Meyer, Enrique

    2014-07-01

    To estimate the distribution of uranium minerals in Chihuahua, the advanced statistical model "Maximun Entropy Method" (MaxEnt) was applied. A distinguishing feature of this method is that it can fit more complex models in case of small datasets (x and y data), as is the location of uranium ores in the State of Chihuahua. For georeferencing uranium ores, a database from the United States Geological Survey and workgroup of experts in Mexico was used. The main contribution of this paper is the proposal of maximum entropy techniques to obtain the mineral's potential distribution. For this model were used 24 environmental layers like topography, gravimetry, climate (worldclim), soil properties and others that were useful to project the uranium's distribution across the study area. For the validation of the places predicted by the model, comparisons were done with other research of the Mexican Service of Geological Survey, with direct exploration of specific areas and by talks with former exploration workers of the enterprise "Uranio de Mexico". Results. New uranium areas predicted by the model were validated, finding some relationship between the model predictions and geological faults. Conclusions. Modeling by spatial analysis provides additional information to the energy and mineral resources sectors.

  7. Survival units as the point of departure for a relational social theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Lars Bo; Gabriel, Norman

    makes two claims: 1) the only theoretically sustainable point of departure for a social theory is to study human beings, human society (and maybe also other animals but we leave this aside for the moment!) in a relational perspective! This claim is justified by a number of arguments among others his......Relational social theory can be found in the works of Hegel, Marx, Simmel, Mannheim, Mead, Saussure, Lévi-Strauss, Althusser, Foucault and Bourdieu. However, one of the most consistent relational thinkers is Norbert Elias. In order to develop his figurational and relational social theory Elias...... individual or a man-woman relation (family) or man-nature (subject-object). The first unit of analysis is the double relational binding of human beings in social groups. In the first order we find the relation between survival units (`state'-`state'). In a second order we find relations between families...

  8. Stressors in the relatives of patients admitted to an intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Angélica Adam; Weigel, Bruna Dorfey; Dummer, Claus Dieter; Machado, Kelly Campara; Tisott, Taís Montagner

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify and stratify the main stressors for the relatives of patients admitted to the adult intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted with relatives of patients admitted to an intensive care unit from April to October 2014. The following materials were used: a questionnaire containing identification information and demographic data of the relatives, clinical data of the patients, and 25 stressors adapted from the Intensive Care Unit Environmental Stressor Scale. The degree of stress caused by each factor was determined on a scale of values from 1 to 4. The stressors were ranked based on the average score obtained. Results The main cause of admission to the intensive care unit was clinical in 36 (52.2%) cases. The main stressors were the patient being in a state of coma (3.15 ± 1.23), the patient being unable to speak (3.15 ± 1.20), and the reason for admission (3.00 ± 1.27). After removing the 27 (39.1%) coma patients from the analysis, the main stressors for the relatives were the reason for admission (2.75 ± 1.354), seeing the patient in the intensive care unit (2.51 ± 1.227), and the patient being unable to speak (2.50 ± 1.269). Conclusion Difficulties in communication and in the relationship with the patient admitted to the intensive care unit were identified as the main stressors by their relatives, with the state of coma being predominant. By contrast, the environment, work routines, and relationship between the relatives and intensive care unit team had the least impact as stressors. PMID:27737424

  9. Water Awareness Strategy for Sinaloa State, Mexico, as a Tool to Mitigate the Imbalance of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Miguel-Rodriguez, A.

    2013-05-01

    education unit; developing and distributing educational materials; creation of a State Government webpage and establishing a network of trainers and promoters. The following items were agreed at the workshop: Mission - To be promoters of good water management, through interdisciplinary programs and innovation to provide knowledge about the proper use and care of water, ensuring a sustainable future for Sinaloa; Vision- To be the most committed and recognized state for the actions taken in water conservation and efficient use through the use of technology, knowledge and participatory processes; Objective- in three years reach at least 20% of the population, generating positive changes in customs, habits and behaviors in consumption and water management; and Specific objectives - helping to reduce total water consumption by 15% over three years and minimize the actual cost of providing water; report timely and effectively to the public about water scarcity, the cost of providing it, the need for payment, responsible use and its economic, health, social and environmental; education and communication programs to promote water culture; foster teamwork of the agencies involved in water management; and optimize the resources available to deliver the PCA.

  10. New species of Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Puebla State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez-Bolaños, M; Castaño-Meneses, G; Guzmán-Mendoza, R

    2011-01-01

    Tetramorium notomelanum sp. n. is described from the Tehuacán Valley, state of Puebla, México. Its distribution and relation with other species of the tortuosum-group is discussed. The new species of Tetramonium is described from workers, and distinguished from others of the group by several characters: i) black coloration of the body; ii) size: T. notomelanum sp. n. is smaller than T. hispidum (Wheeler), T. mexicanum Bolton and T.spinosum (Pergande), but larger than T. bicolorum Vásquez-Bolaños and T. placidum Bolton; iii) length of the hairs of the dorsal of the head are equal to the diameter of eye; iv) the length of the hairs on the scape and tibiae less than the width of the appendage where they are located. This is the second species of the tortuosum group of Tetramorium found in the State of Puebla, and the fourth recorded in Mexico.

  11. An ancient relation between units of length and volume based on a sphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Zapassky

    Full Text Available The modern metric system defines units of volume based on the cube. We propose that the ancient Egyptian system of measuring capacity employed a similar concept, but used the sphere instead. When considered in ancient Egyptian units, the volume of a sphere, whose circumference is one royal cubit, equals half a hekat. Using the measurements of large sets of ancient containers as a database, the article demonstrates that this formula was characteristic of Egyptian and Egyptian-related pottery vessels but not of the ceramics of Mesopotamia, which had a different system of measuring length and volume units.

  12. Fascioliasis and Intestinal Parasitoses Affecting Schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: Epidemiology and Treatment with Nitazoxanide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Background The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. Methodology and Findings A total of 865 6–14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94–13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24–384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Conclusions Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate

  13. Discrimination between diffuse and point sources of arsenic at Zimapán, Hidalgo state, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sracek, Ondra; Armienta, María Aurora; Rodríguez, Ramiro; Villaseñor, Guadalupe

    2010-01-01

    There are two principal sources of arsenic in Zimapán. Point sources are linked to mining and smelting activities and especially to mine tailings. Diffuse sources are not well defined and are linked to regional flow systems in carbonate rocks. Both sources are caused by the oxidation of arsenic-rich sulfidic mineralization. Point sources are characterized by Ca-SO(4)-HCO(3) ground water type and relatively enriched values of deltaD, delta(18)O, and delta(34)S(SO(4)). Diffuse sources are characterized by Ca-Na-HCO(3) type of ground water and more depleted values of deltaD, delta(18)O, and delta(34)S(SO(4)). Values of deltaD and delta(18)O indicate similar altitude of recharge for both arsenic sources and stronger impact of evaporation for point sources in mine tailings. There are also different values of delta(34)S(SO(4)) for both sources, presumably due to different types of mineralization or isotopic zonality in deposits. In Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the principal component 1 (PC1), which describes the impact of sulfide oxidation and neutralization by the dissolution of carbonates, has higher values in samples from point sources. In spite of similar concentrations of As in ground water affected by diffuse sources and point sources (mean values 0.21 mg L(-1) and 0.31 mg L(-1), respectively, in the years from 2003 to 2008), the diffuse sources have more impact on the health of population in Zimapán. This is caused by the extraction of ground water from wells tapping regional flow system. In contrast, wells located in the proximity of mine tailings are not generally used for water supply.

  14. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumaquero-Ríos, José Lino; Sarracent-Pérez, Jorge; Rojas-García, Raúl; Rojas-Rivero, Lázara; Martínez-Tovilla, Yaneth; Valero, María Adela; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2013-11-01

    The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude) through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries. A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%). Intensities were however low (24-384 epg). The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids. Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate alternative to triclabendazole, the present drug of choice

  15. Analysis of spatial mobility in subjects from a Dengue endemic urban locality in Morelos State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Lezama, Jorge Abelardo; Santos-Luna, René; Román-Pérez, Susana; Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Herrera-Valdez, Marco Arieli; Kuri-Morales, Ángel Fernando; Adams, Ben; Kuri-Morales, Pablo Antonio; López-Cervantes, Malaquías; Ramos-Castañeda, José

    2017-01-01

    Mathematical models and field data suggest that human mobility is an important driver for Dengue virus transmission. Nonetheless little is known on this matter due the lack of instruments for precise mobility quantification and study design difficulties. We carried out a cohort-nested, case-control study with 126 individuals (42 cases, 42 intradomestic controls and 42 population controls) with the goal of describing human mobility patterns of recently Dengue virus-infected subjects, and comparing them with those of non-infected subjects living in an urban endemic locality. Mobility was quantified using a GPS-data logger registering waypoints at 60-second intervals for a minimum of 15 natural days. Although absolute displacement was highly biased towards the intradomestic and peridomestic areas, occasional displacements exceeding a 100-Km radius from the center of the studied locality were recorded for all three study groups and individual displacements were recorded traveling across six states from central Mexico. Additionally, cases had a larger number of visits out of the municipality´s administrative limits when compared to intradomestic controls (cases: 10.4 versus intradomestic controls: 2.9, p = 0.0282). We were able to identify extradomestic places within and out of the locality that were independently visited by apparently non-related infected subjects, consistent with houses, working and leisure places. Results of this study show that human mobility in a small urban setting exceeded that considered by local health authority's administrative limits, and was different between recently infected and non-infected subjects living in the same household. These observations provide important insights about the role that human mobility may have in Dengue virus transmission and persistence across endemic geographic areas that need to be taken into account when planning preventive and control measures. Finally, these results are a valuable reference when setting the

  16. Analysis of spatial mobility in subjects from a Dengue endemic urban locality in Morelos State, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Lezama, Jorge Abelardo; Santos-Luna, René; Román-Pérez, Susana; Martínez-Vega, Ruth Aralí; Herrera-Valdez, Marco Arieli; Kuri-Morales, Ángel Fernando; Adams, Ben; Kuri-Morales, Pablo Antonio; López-Cervantes, Malaquías

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mathematical models and field data suggest that human mobility is an important driver for Dengue virus transmission. Nonetheless little is known on this matter due the lack of instruments for precise mobility quantification and study design difficulties. Materials and methods We carried out a cohort-nested, case-control study with 126 individuals (42 cases, 42 intradomestic controls and 42 population controls) with the goal of describing human mobility patterns of recently Dengue virus-infected subjects, and comparing them with those of non-infected subjects living in an urban endemic locality. Mobility was quantified using a GPS-data logger registering waypoints at 60-second intervals for a minimum of 15 natural days. Results Although absolute displacement was highly biased towards the intradomestic and peridomestic areas, occasional displacements exceeding a 100-Km radius from the center of the studied locality were recorded for all three study groups and individual displacements were recorded traveling across six states from central Mexico. Additionally, cases had a larger number of visits out of the municipality´s administrative limits when compared to intradomestic controls (cases: 10.4 versus intradomestic controls: 2.9, p = 0.0282). We were able to identify extradomestic places within and out of the locality that were independently visited by apparently non-related infected subjects, consistent with houses, working and leisure places. Conclusions Results of this study show that human mobility in a small urban setting exceeded that considered by local health authority’s administrative limits, and was different between recently infected and non-infected subjects living in the same household. These observations provide important insights about the role that human mobility may have in Dengue virus transmission and persistence across endemic geographic areas that need to be taken into account when planning preventive and control measures. Finally

  17. Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting schoolchildren in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lino Zumaquero-Ríos

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Atlixco municipality, Puebla State, at a mean altitude of 1840 m, was selected for a study of Fasciola hepatica infection in schoolchildren in Mexico. This area presents permanent water collections continuously receiving thaw water from Popocatepetl volcano (5426 m altitude through the community supply channels, conforming an epidemiological scenario similar to those known in hyperendemic areas of Andean countries.A total of 865 6-14 year-old schoolchildren were analyzed with FasciDIG coproantigen test and Lumbreras rapid sedimentation technique, and quantitatively assessed with Kato-Katz. Fascioliasis prevalences ranged 2.94-13.33% according to localities (mean 5.78%. Intensities were however low (24-384 epg. The association between fascioliasis and the habit of eating raw vegetables was identified, including watercress and radish with pronouncedly higher relative risk than lettuce, corncob, spinach, alfalfa juice, and broccoli. Many F. hepatica-infected children were coinfected by other parasites. Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia intestinalis, Blastocystis hominis, Hymenolepis nana and Ascaris lumbricoides infection resulted in risk factors for F. hepatica infection. Nitazoxanide efficacy against fascioliasis was 94.0% and 100% after first and second treatment courses, respectively. The few children, for whom a second treatment course was needed, were concomitantly infected by moderate ascariasis burdens. Its efficacy was also very high in the treatment of E. histolytica/E. dispar, G. intestinalis, B. hominis, H. nana, A. lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and Enterobius vermicularis. A second treatment course was needed for all children affected by ancylostomatids.Fascioliasis prevalences indicate this area to be mesoendemic, with isolated hyperendemic foci. This is the first time that a human fascioliasis endemic area is described in North America. Nitazoxanide appears as an appropriate alternative to triclabendazole, the present

  18. Stratigraphic relations and hydrologic properties of the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) hydrologic unit, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, T.C.; Geslin, J.K. [Science Applications International Corp., Golden, CO (United States); Flint, L.E. [U.S. Geological Survey, Yucca Mountain Project, Mercury, NV (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Yucca Mountain is being investigated as a potential site for a high- level nuclear waste repository. The intent of this study was to clarify stratigraphic relations within the Paintbrush Tuff (PTn) unit at Yucca Mountain in order to better understand vertical and lateral variations in hydrologic properties as they relate to the lithologic character of these rocks. This report defines informal stratigraphic units within the PTn interval, demonstrates their lateral continuity in the Yucca Mountain region, describes later and vertical variations within them, and characterizes their hydrologic properties and importance to numerical flow and transport models. We present tables summarizing the depth to stratigraphic contacts in cored borehole studies, and unit descriptions and correlations in 10 measured sections.

  19. Predicting business unit performance using employee surveys: Monitoring HRM-related changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorde, F.C. van de; Paauwe, J.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van

    2010-01-01

    Organisations are increasingly using strategy tools such as workforce scorecards to keep track of human resource management related change processes that have been implemented and the effects of these on business unit performance. However, in this area, the challenge of finding appropriate

  20. Increase in Clostridium difficile-related Mortality Rates, United States, 1999-2004

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-01-08

    Deaths related to Clostridium difficile are on the rise in the United States. Matthew Redelings from the Los Angeles County Department of Health discusses the increase and what can be done to prevent this infection.  Created: 1/8/2008 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 1/8/2008.

  1. Increase in fall-related hospitalizations in the United States, 2001-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Hartholt (Klaas); J.A. Stevens (Judy); S. Polinder (Suzanne); T.J.M. van der Cammen (Tischa); P. Patka (Peter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: The objective was to determine secular trends in unintentional fall-related hospitalizations in people aged 65 years and older in the United States. MATERIALS: Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of emergency department visits from January 1, 2001, to D

  2. Single-unit transfusions and hemoglobin trigger: relative impact on red cell utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, William W; Thakkar, Rajiv N; Gehrie, Eric A; Chen, Weiyun; Frank, Steven M

    2017-05-01

    Patient blood management (PBM) programs can reduce unnecessary transfusions, but the optimal methods used to achieve this effect are unclear. We tested the hypothesis that encouraging single-unit red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in stable patients would have a greater impact on blood use than compliance with a specific hemoglobin (Hb) transfusion trigger alone. We analyzed blood utilization data at three community hospitals without previous PBM efforts before and after implementing a PBM program. Data were analyzed at monthly intervals to determine the relative impact of a "Why give 2 when 1 will do?" campaign promoting single-unit RBC transfusions and simultaneous efforts to promote evidence-based Hb triggers of 7 or 8 g/dL. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify independent effects of these two interventions on overall RBC utilization. Univariate analysis revealed that both the increase in single-unit transfusions (from 38.0% to 70.9%; p utilization. Multivariate analysis showed that the increase in single-unit transfusions was an independent predictor of decreased RBC utilization, but the Hb triggers of both 7 and 8 g/dL were not. Overall, our PBM efforts decreased RBC utilization from 0.254 to 0.185 units/patient (27.2%) across all three hospitals (p = 0.0009). A campaign promoting single-unit RBC transfusions had a greater impact on RBC utilization than did encouraging a restrictive transfusion trigger. © 2016 AABB.

  3. Low back pain and work-related factors among nurses in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    June, Kyung Ja; Cho, Sung-Hyun

    2011-02-01

    To examine the relationship of low back pain prevalence and treatment to personal and work-related characteristics among intensive care unit nurses. Back pain is the most common work-related health problem among nurses. A cross-sectional study including a survey conducted in 2007. The study sample included 1345 nurses in 65 intensive care units in 22 South Korean hospitals. Back pain prevalence was measured by the frequency of back pain (always, once a week, once a month or once in two or more months) during the past year. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between back pain and personal and work-related characteristics. The mean age of nurses was 27.2 years. Overall, 90.3% of nurses had back pain at least once a month (21.9% always, 40.7% once a week and 27.7% once a month). Only 18.3% had received medical treatment for their back pain. Compared with neonatal intensive care unit nurses, who had the lowest prevalence, nurses in other specialties, excluding paediatric intensive care units, had a greater likelihood of back pain. Specialty medical (e.g. cardiology, neurology) intensive care unit nurses had the greatest probability of back pain and treatment. Perceiving staffing as inadequate and working 6 or more night shifts per month were related to a 64% increase (OR = 1.64; 95% CI =1.16-2.33) and 48% increase (OR =1.48; 95% CI = 1.10-1.99) in back pain, respectively. Nurses with 2-4 years of working experience in intensive care units had the greatest probability of back pain and treatment. A high prevalence of back pain was found in intensive care unit nurses, even though they comprise a very young workforce in Korea. Improving nurse staffing, reducing the frequency of night shifts and assessing risk factors in specific intensive care unit specialties are suggested to decrease back pain prevalence. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Age-related decreases in motor unit discharge rate and force control during isometric plantar flexion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallio, J; Søgaard, Karen; Avela, J

    2012-01-01

    Aging is related to multiple changes in muscle physiology and function. Previous findings concerning the effects of aging on motor unit discharge rate (DR) and fluctuations in DR and force are somewhat contradictory. Eight YOUNG and nine OLD physically active males performed isometric ramp (RECR......) and isotonic (ISO) plantar flexions at 10 and 20% of surface EMG at MVC. Motor unit (MU) action potentials were recorded with intramuscular fine-wire electrodes and decomposed with custom build software "Daisy". DR was lower in OLD in RECR-10% (17.9%, p...

  5. How to analyze contextuality of metatextual language units? Notes on the relation: TRS – particle semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kisiel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available How to analyze contextuality of metatextual language units? Notes on the relation: TRS – particle semantics The presented article is devoted to further (after Kisiel 2010 discussion about contextuality of metatextual language units, especially particles. Having selected contextual particles as an example, the author shows how specific structuralisation of TRS is strictly connected with particle meaning. The observation leads to the conclusion that examination of TRS cannot be avoided when analysing particles. Untangling particles meaning has to be based on describing the TRS they work on. Such a procedure has been only recently applied to Polish lexicography.

  6. Developing consensus: mercury science and policy in the NAFTA countries (Canada, the United States and Mexico).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, W; Schroeder, W; Porcella, D B; Santos-Burgoa, C; Montgomery, S; Hamilton, A; Trip, L

    2000-10-16

    The international science community has recognized methylmercury in the aquatic food chain, as a potential environmental and human health risk. As a result, countries around the world have implemented a number of mercury management initiatives. The United States, Mexico and Canada in consultation with stakeholders are developing a trilateral North American Regional Action Plan (NARAP) on mercury. Through public involvement in the decision making process, the NARAP has offered opportunities for more transparency in transactions between governments, industry and stakeholders. In spite of the available scientific information, there are still important uncertainties associated with the mercury issue. These knowledge gaps include: the most appropriate methylmercury reference dose for sensitive groups; the percentage of the North American population that is at risk from methylmercury exposure; spatial and temporal mercury deposition patterns in each country; the link between mercury emissions, atmospheric deposition and methylmercury concentrations in fish; and the relative magnitude of contributions from natural and anthropogenic sources.

  7. Complicated grief after death of a relative in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentish-Barnes, Nancy; Chaize, Marine; Seegers, Valérie; Legriel, Stéphane; Cariou, Alain; Jaber, Samir; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Floccard, Bernard; Renault, Anne; Vinatier, Isabelle; Mathonnet, Armelle; Reuter, Danielle; Guisset, Olivier; Cohen-Solal, Zoé; Cracco, Christophe; Seguin, Amélie; Durand-Gasselin, Jacques; Éon, Béatrice; Thirion, Marina; Rigaud, Jean-Philippe; Philippon-Jouve, Bénédicte; Argaud, Laurent; Chouquer, Renaud; Adda, Mélanie; Dedrie, Céline; Georges, Hugues; Lebas, Eddy; Rolin, Nathalie; Bollaert, Pierre-Edouard; Lecuyer, Lucien; Viquesnel, Gérard; Léone, Marc; Chalumeau-Lemoine, Ludivine; Garrouste, Maïté; Schlemmer, Benoit; Chevret, Sylvie; Falissard, Bruno; Azoulay, Élie

    2015-05-01

    An increased proportion of deaths occur in the intensive care unit (ICU). We performed this prospective study in 41 ICUs to determine the prevalence and determinants of complicated grief after death of a loved one in the ICU. Relatives of 475 adult patients were followed up. Complicated grief was assessed at 6 and 12 months using the Inventory of Complicated Grief (cut-off score >25). Relatives also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at 3 months, and the Revised Impact of Event Scale for post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at 3, 6 and 12 months. We used a mixed multivariate logistic regression model to identify determinants of complicated grief after 6 months. Among the 475 patients, 282 (59.4%) had a relative evaluated at 6 months. Complicated grief symptoms were identified in 147 (52%) relatives. Independent determinants of complicated grief symptoms were either not amenable to changes (relative of female sex, relative living alone and intensivist board certification before 2009) or potential targets for improvements (refusal of treatment by the patient, patient died while intubated, relatives present at the time of death, relatives did not say goodbye to the patient, and poor communication between physicians and relatives). End-of-life practices, communication and loneliness in bereaved relatives may be amenable to improvements.

  8. Network of Spaces and Interaction-Related Behaviors in Adult Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahbub Rashid

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using three spatial network measures of “space syntax”, this correlational study describes four interaction-related behaviors among three groups of users in relation to visibility and accessibility of spaces in four adult intensive care units (ICUs of different size, geometry, and specialty. Systematic field observations of interaction-related behaviors show significant differences in spatial distribution of interaction-related behaviors in the ICUs. Despite differences in unit characteristics and interaction-related behaviors, the study finds that when nurses and physicians “interact while sitting” they prefer spaces that help maintain a high level of environmental awareness; that when nurses “walk” and “interact while walking” they avoid spaces with better global access and visibility; and that everyone in ICUs “walk” more in spaces with higher control over neighboring spaces. It is argued that such consistent behavioral patterns occur due to the structural similarities of spatial networks over and above the more general functional similarities of ICUs.

  9. Nursing workload in an intensive care unit and its relation with nosocomial infection incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Alameda Varela

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infection is one of the most common causes of adverse events and complications related to health care. Development of nosocomial infection is associated with an increase in hospital stay and mortality and an overall increase in health care costs. Knowing the incidence of nosocomial infection is an effective way of controlling and preventing it. Identifying the relationship between nursing workload and nosocomial infections in critical care may be helpful to adjust the staff to the real requirements of the intensive care unit and may help reducing costs. The aim of the present study is to analyze the influence of nursing workload in the development of nosocomial infections in patients admitted to an intensive care unit. A longitudinal correlational research will be performed. The sample will be comprised of the patients admitted in the intensive care unit of the Hospital Universitario Fundación Alcorcón.Data regarding sociodemographical variables, ventilador-associated pneumonia, intravascular catheter location and duration, urinary catheter type and duration, and all pertinent cultures will be obtained from the medical records. Nursing Activities Score scale will be used to assess daily nursing workload in the unit. The number of patients admitted daily, as well as the number of nursing professionals working in each shift will also be taken into account.

  10. Malaria-Related Hospitalizations in the United States, 2000-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuu, Diana; Eberhard, Mark L; Bristow, Benjamin N; Javanbakht, Marjan; Ash, Lawrence R; Shafir, Shira C; Sorvillo, Frank J

    2017-07-01

    Few data are available on the burden of malaria hospitalization in the United States. Study of malaria using hospital-based data can better define the impact of malaria and help inform prevention efforts. U.S. malaria cases identified from hospitalization discharge records in the 2000-2014 Nationwide Inpatient Sample were examined. Frequencies and population rates were reported by demographics, infecting species, clinical, financial, institutional, geographic, and seasonal characteristics, and disparities were identified. Time trends in malaria cases were assessed using negative binomial regression. From 2000 to 2014, there were an estimated 22,029 malaria-related hospitalizations (4.88 per 1 million population) in the United States, including 182 in-hospital deaths and 4,823 severe malaria cases. The rate of malaria-related hospitalizations did not change significantly over the study period. The largest number of malaria-related hospitalizations occurred in August. Malaria-related hospitalizations occurred disproportionately among patients who were male, black, or 25-44 years of age. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for the majority of malaria-related hospitalizations. On average, malaria patients were hospitalized for 4.36 days with charges of $25,789. Patients with a malaria diagnosis were more often hospitalized in the Middle Atlantic and South Atlantic census divisions, urban teaching, private not-for-profit, and large-bed-size hospitals. Malaria imposes a substantial disease burden in the United States. Enhanced primary and secondary prevention measures, including strategies to increase the use of pretravel consultations and prompt diagnosis and treatment are needed.

  11. On the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stress including Specific Results related to Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Howell, G.L.; Liu, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams for structu......Failures of rubble mound breakwaters armoured with complex types of unreinforced concrete armour units are often due to breakage. This happens when the stresses exceed the material strength. Sufficient parametric studies of the stresses are not yet available to produce design diagrams...... for structural integrity. The paper presents a general discussion of the problems related to stress etermination and describes the results and the analyses of model tests with 200 kg and 200 g load-cell instrumented Dolosse. Static stresses, wave-generate stresses due to impacts were studied as well as model...

  12. Factors related to building loss due to wildfires in the conterminous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Patricia M; Stewart, Susan I; Keuler, Nicholas S; Clayton, Murray K; Mockrin, Miranda H; Bar-Massada, Avi; Syphard, Alexandra D; Radeloff, Volker C

    2016-10-01

    Wildfire is globally an important ecological disturbance affecting biochemical cycles and vegetation composition, but also puts people and their homes at risk. Suppressing wildfires has detrimental ecological effects and can promote larger and more intense wildfires when fuels accumulate, which increases the threat to buildings in the wildland-urban interface (WUI). Yet, when wildfires occur, typically only a small proportion of the buildings within the fire perimeter are lost, and the question is what determines which buildings burn. Our goal was to examine which factors are related to building loss when a wildfire occurs throughout the United States. We were particularly interested in the relative roles of vegetation, topography, and the spatial arrangement of buildings, and how their respective roles vary among ecoregions. We analyzed all fires that occurred within the conterminous United States from 2000 to 2010 and digitized which buildings were lost and which survived according to Google Earth historical imagery. We modeled the occurrence as well as the percentage of buildings lost within clusters using logistic and linear regression. Overall, variables related to topography and the spatial arrangement of buildings were more frequently present in the best 20 regression models than vegetation-related variables. In other words, specific locations in the landscape have a higher fire risk, and certain development patterns can exacerbate that risk. Fire policies and prevention efforts focused on vegetation management are important, but insufficient to solve current wildfire problems. Furthermore, the factors associated with building loss varied considerably among ecoregions suggesting that fire policy applied uniformly across the United States will not work equally well in all regions and that efforts to adapt communities to wildfires must be regionally tailored.

  13. Democracy Related Units in Social Studies Curriculums Based on Self-Regulation Strategies: A Comparison of Turkey and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eker, Cevat; Incirci, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the units related to democracy concept of Social Studies Curriculums applied in Federal Republic of Germany and Republic of Turkey. The goals of the study indicated in Democracy related unit in Social Studies Curriculum in Turkey is examined comparatively with North Rhine-Westphalia State of Germany based on the…

  14. Carcinogenic Air Toxics Exposure and Their Cancer-Related Health Impacts in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Chaoyang; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Mumtaz, M. Moiz

    2015-01-01

    Public health protection from air pollution can be achieved more effectively by shifting from a single-pollutant approach to a multi-pollutant approach. To develop such multi-pollutant approaches, identifying which air pollutants are present most frequently is essential. This study aims to determine the frequently found carcinogenic air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) combinations across the United States as well as to analyze the health impacts of developing cancer due to exposure to these HAPs. To identify the most commonly found carcinogenic air toxics combinations, we first identified HAPs with cancer risk greater than one in a million in more than 5% of the census tracts across the United States, based on the National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment (NATA) by the U.S. EPA for year 2005. We then calculated the frequencies of their two-component (binary), and three-component (ternary) combinations. To quantify the cancer-related health impacts, we focused on the 10 most frequently found HAPs with national average cancer risk greater than one in a million. Their cancer-related health impacts were calculated by converting lifetime cancer risk reported in NATA 2005 to years of healthy life lost or Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). We found that the most frequently found air toxics with cancer risk greater than one in a million are formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride, acetaldehyde, and benzene. The most frequently occurring binary pairs and ternary mixtures are the various combinations of these four air toxics. Analysis of urban and rural HAPs did not reveal significant differences in the top combinations of these chemicals. The cumulative annual cancer-related health impacts of inhaling the top 10 carcinogenic air toxics included was about 1,600 DALYs in the United States or 0.6 DALYs per 100,000 people. Formaldehyde and benzene together contribute nearly 60 percent of the total cancer-related health impacts. Our study shows that although there are many

  15. Acting with dedication and expertise: Relatives' experience of nurses' provision of care in a palliative unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grøthe, Å; Biong, Stian; Grov, E K

    2015-12-01

    Admission of a cancer patient to a palliative unit when near the final stage of their disease trajectory undoubtedly impacts their relatives. The aim of our study was to illuminate and interpret relatives' lived experiences of health personnel's provision of care in a palliative ward. A phenomenological/hermeneutic approach was employed that was inspired by the philosophical tradition of Heidegger and Ricoeur and further developed by Lindseth and Nordberg. The perspectives of the narrator and the text were interpreted by highlighting relatives' views on a situation in which they have to face existential challenges. The analysis was undertaken in three steps: naïve reading, structural analysis, and comprehensive understanding, including the authors' professional experiences and theoretical background. Six subthemes appeared: the dying person, the bubble, the sight, the cover, the provision for children's needs, and the availability of immediate help. These components were further constructed into three themes: the meaning of relating, the meaning of action, and the meaning of resources. Our comprehensive understanding of the results suggests that the most important theme is "acting with dedication and expertise." The following aspects are crucial for relatives of cancer patients hospitalized in a palliative ward: time and existence, family dynamics, and care adjusted to the situation. Our study results led to reflections on the impact of how nurses behave when providing care to patients during the palliative phase, and how they interact with relatives in this situation. We found that cancer patients in a palliative unit most appreciate nurses who act with dedication and expertise.

  16. Epidemiology of playground equipment-related injuries to children in the United States, 1996-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, David; Witsaman, Rachel; Comstock, R Dawn; Smith, Gary A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe the epidemiology of playground equipment-related injuries. This is a retrospective analysis of data for children 18 years old and younger from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission for 1996 through 2005. There were an estimated 2,136,800 playground equipment-related injuries to children 18 years and younger treated in hospital emergency departments in the United States during the 10-year period. The leading mechanism of injury was falls (75.1%), followed by impact/striking (10.5%), cutting/ pinching/crushing (7.7%), entrapment/ entanglement (1.4%), trip/slip (1.1%), and other/ unknown (4.1%). The leading type of injury sustained by patients was a fracture (35.4%), followed by contusion/ abrasion (19.6%) and laceration (19.6%). The consistency of the large annual number of playground equipment-related injuries to children is evidence that more needs to be done to prevent these injuries. More research should be conducted to develop and implement arm fracture-specific criteria for surface performance.

  17. Rigid motions: action-angles, relative cohomology and polynomials with roots on the unit circle

    CERN Document Server

    Francoise, Jean Pierre; Gallavotti, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Revisiting canonical integration of the classical solid near a uniform rotation, canonical action angle coordinates, hyperbolic and elliptic, are constructed in terms of various power series with coefficients which are polynomials in a variable $r^2$ depending on the inertia moments. Normal forms are derived via the analysis of a relative cohomology problem and shown to be obtainable without the use of ellitptic integrals (unlike the derivation of the action-angles). Results and conjectures also emerge about the properties of the above polynomials and the location of their roots. In particular a class of polynomials with all roots on the unit circle arises.

  18. Risk factors related to the global burden of disease in Brazil and its Federated Units, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Machado, Ísis Eloah; Passos, Valéria Maria de Azeredo; Abreu, Daisy Maria Xavier de; Ishitani, Lenice Harumi; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Carneiro, Mariangela; Mooney, Meghan; Naghavi, Mohsen

    2017-05-01

    To analyze the global burden of disease related to disability adjusted life years (DALYs) attributed to selected risk factors in Brazil and its 27 Federated Units. Databases from the Global Burden of Disease study in Brazil and its Federated Units were used, estimating the summary exposure value (SEV) for selected environmental, behavioral, and metabolic risk factors (RFs), and their combinations. The DALYs were used as the main metric. The ranking of major RFs between 1990 and 2015 was compiled, comparing data by sex and states. The analyzed RFs account for 38.8% of the loss of DALYs in the country. Dietary risks was the main cause of DALYs in 2015. In men, dietary risks contributed to 12.2% of DALYs and in women, to 11.1%. Other RFs were high systolic blood pressure, high body mass index, smoking, high fasting plasma glucose and, among men, alcohol and drug use. The main RFs were metabolic and behavioral. In most states, dietary risks was the main RF, followed by high blood pressure. Dietary risks leads the RF ranking for Brazil and its Federated Units. Men are more exposed to behavioral risk factors, and women are more exposed to metabolic ones.

  19. The communication between patient relatives and physicians in intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicekci, Faruk; Duran, Numan; Ayhan, Bunyamin; Arican, Sule; Ilban, Omur; Kara, Iskender; Turkoglu, Melda; Yildirim, Fatma; Hasirci, Ismail; Karaibrahimoglu, Adnan; Kara, Inci

    2017-07-17

    Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are often physically unable to communicate with their physicians. Thus, the sharing of information about the on-going treatment of the patients in ICUs is directly related to the communication attitudes governing a patient's relatives and the physician. This study aims to analyze the attitudes displayed by the relatives of patients and the physician with the purpose of determining the communication between the two parties. For data collection, two similar survey forms were created in context of the study; one for the relatives of the patients and one for the ICU physicians. The questionnaire included three sub-dimensions: informing, empathy and trust. The study included 181 patient relatives and 103 ICU physicians from three different cities and six hospitals. Based on the results of the questionnaire, identification of the mutual expectations and substance of the messages involved in the communication process between the ICU patients' relatives and physicians was made. The gender and various disciplines of the physicians and the time of the conversation with the patients' relatives were found to affect the communication attitude towards the patient. Moreover, the age of the patient's relatives, the level of education, the physician's perception, and the contact frequency with the patient when he/she was healthy were also proven to have an impact on the communication attitude of the physician. This study demonstrates the mutual expectations and substance of messages in the informing, empathy and trust sub-dimensions of the communication process between patient relatives and physicians in the ICU. The communication between patient relatives and physicians can be strengthened through a variety of training programs to improve communication skills.

  20. Abortion-Related Mortality in the United States: 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Suzanne; Creanga, Andreea A; Berg, Cynthia J; Pazol, Karen; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Callaghan, William M

    2015-08-01

    To examine characteristics and causes of legal induced abortion-related deaths in the United States between 1998 and 2010. Abortion-related deaths were identified through the national Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System with enhanced case-finding. We calculated the abortion mortality rate by race, maternal age, and gestational age and the distribution of causes of death by gestational age and procedure. During the period from 1998-2010, of approximately 16.1 million abortion procedures, 108 women died, for a mortality rate of 0.7 deaths per 100,000 procedures overall, 0.4 deaths for non-Hispanic white women, 0.5 deaths for Hispanic women, and 1.1 deaths for black women. The mortality rate increased with gestational age, from 0.3 to 6.7 deaths for procedures performed at 8 weeks or less and at 18 weeks or greater, respectively. A majority of abortion-related deaths at 13 weeks of gestation or less were associated with anesthesia complications and infection, whereas a majority of abortion-related deaths at more than 13 weeks of gestation were associated with infection and hemorrhage. In 20 of the 108 cases, the abortion was performed as a result of a severe medical condition where continuation of the pregnancy threatened the woman's life. Deaths associated with legal induced abortion continue to be rare events-less than 1 per 100,000 procedures. Primary prevention of unintended pregnancy, including those in women with serious pre-existing medical conditions, and increased access to abortion services at early gestational ages may help to further decrease abortion-related mortality in the United States. III.

  1. Abortion-Related Mortality in the United States 1998–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Suzanne; Creanga, Andreea A.; Berg, Cynthia J.; Pazol, Karen; Suchdev, Danielle B.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Callaghan, William M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine characteristics and causes of legal induced abortion–related deaths in the United States between 1998 and 2010. METHODS Abortion-related deaths were identified through the national Pregnancy Mortality Surveillance System with enhanced case-finding. We calculated the abortion mortality rate by race, maternal age, and gestational age and the distribution of causes of death by gestational age and procedure. RESULTS During the period from 1998–2010, of approximately 16.1 million abortion procedures, 108 women died, for a mortality rate of 0.7 deaths per 100,000 procedures overall, 0.4 deaths for non-Hispanic white women, 0.5 deaths for Hispanic women, and 1.1 deaths for black women. The mortality rate increased with gestational age, from 0.3 to 6.7 deaths for procedures performed at 8 weeks or less and at 18 weeks or greater, respectively. A majority of abortion-related deaths at 13 weeks of gestation or less were associated with anesthesia complications and infection, whereas a majority of abortion-related deaths at more than 13 weeks of gestation were associated with infection and hemorrhage. In 20 of the 108 cases, the abortion was performed as a result of a severe medical condition where continuation of the pregnancy threatened the woman’s life. CONCLUSION Deaths associated with legal induced abortion continue to be rare events—less than 1 per 100,000 procedures. Primary prevention of unintended pregnancy, including those in women with serious pre-existing medical conditions, and increased access to abortion services at early gestational ages may help to further decrease abortion-related mortality in the United States. PMID:26241413

  2. Microwave oven-related injuries treated in hospital EDs in the United States, 1990 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambiraj, Dana F; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A

    2013-06-01

    The widespread availability of microwave ovens has sparked interest in injuries resulting from their use. Using a retrospective cohort design, the objective of this study is to investigate the epidemiology of microwave oven-related injuries treated in United States emergency departments (EDs) from 1990 through 2010 by analyzing data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System. An estimated 155959 (95% confidence interval [CI], 133515-178402) individuals with microwave oven-related injuries were treated in US hospital EDs from 1990 through 2010, which equals an average of 21 individuals per day; 60.7% were female; 63.3% were adults (≥18 years); 98.1% of injury events occurred at home; and 3.9% of patients were hospitalized. During the 21-year study period, the number and rate of microwave oven-related injuries increased significantly by 93.3% and 50.0%, respectively. The most common mechanism of injury was a spill (31.3%), and the most common body region injured was the hand and fingers (32.4%). Patients younger than 18 years were more likely to sustain an injury to their head and neck (relative risk: 1.65; 95% CI, 1.39-1.96) than adults. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate microwave oven-related injuries on a national scale. Microwave ovens are an important source of injury in the home in the United States. The large increases in the number and rate of these injuries underscore the need for increased prevention efforts, especially among young children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The meaning and importance of vigilant attendance for the relatives of intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakas, Sotirios; Taket, Ann; Cant, Bob; Fouka, Georgia; Vardaki, Zambia

    2014-09-01

    To explore the meaning of vigilant attendance for relatives of critically ill patients in Greece. A plethora of international research has identified proximity to the patient to be a major concern for relatives of critically ill patients. Greece however follows a strict visiting policy in intensive care units (ICUs) so Greek relatives spend great amounts of time just outside the ICUs. This qualitative study adopted the social constructionist version of grounded theory. Data were collected from three ICUs in Athens through in depth interviews with 25 informants and approximately 10 h of observations outside the ICUs on 159 relatives. Vigilant attendance was one of the main coping mechanisms identified for relatives. Four subcategories were found to comprise vigilant attendance: (1) being as close as possible to feel relief, (2) being there to find out what is going on, (3) monitoring changes in the loved one and making own diagnosis and (4) interacting with the ICU professionals. Vigilant attendance describes the way in which relatives in Greece stayed outside the ICUs. Relatives felt satisfaction from being close as the best alternative for not actually being inside the ICU and they tried to learn what was going on by alternative methods. By seeing the patients, relatives were also able to make their own diagnoses and could therefore avoid relying solely on information given to them. However, a prerequisite for successful vigilant attendance was to get on well with doctors and nurses. Changes in visiting policies in Greece are needed to meet the needs of relatives adequately. Recommendations for changes with minimal investment of time and funding are made. © 2013 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  4. [Nursing diagnoses related to breastfeeding in a rooming-in unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Evilene Pinto; Alves, Albertisa Rodrigues; Macedo, Ana Ruth Monteiro; Bezerra, Regina Maria de Sá Barreto; de Almeida, Paulo César; Chaves, Edna Maria Camelo

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to identify, in a Rooming-in unit, diagnoses related to the phenomenon of breastfeeding according to the NANDA-I Taxonomy II. It was conducted a descriptive exploratory study involving 83 mothers and their babies in the period of February to April 2011. Data were collected by means of an instrument based on the Theory of Basic Human Needs and, after statistical analysis, presented in tables. The results showed that the most frequent nursing diagnosis was Effective breastfeeding, identified in 65 (78.3%) cases. It is estimated that the nursing diagnoses related to breastfeeding can contribute to nursing care so that it can be more targeted, in order to promote a more qualified, effective and human care.

  5. Elevator-related injuries to children in the United States, 1990 through 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Joseph; Steele, Gregory K; Huisingh, Carrie; Smith, Gary A

    2007-09-01

    This study describes the epidemiology of elevator-related injuries among children in the United States from 1990 to 2004. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Reported cases were used to project national estimates. An estimated 29 030 elevator-related injuries occurred among children in the United States during 1990 to 2004. The mean age was 8.1 years (SD, 6.1 years), with 53.3% of injuries among boys. The overall injury rate was 2.5 injuries per 100,000 population. The injury rate for children aged 0-4 years was 4.2 per 100,000 population, and for children aged 5-19 years the injury rate was 1.9 per 100,000 population. The most frequent cause of injury was the elevator door closing on a body part, the most frequently injured body region was the upper extremity, and soft-tissue injuries were the most frequent type of injury. Children should be closely supervised on or near elevators to reduce the risk of injury.

  6. Extent, trends, and perpetrators of prostitution-related homicide in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Devon D; Dudek, Jonathan A; Potterat, John J; Muth, Stephen Q; Roberts, John M; Woodhouse, Donald E

    2006-09-01

    Prostitute women have the highest homicide victimization rate of any set of women ever studied. We analyzed nine diverse homicide data sets to examine the extent, trends, and perpetrators of prostitution-related homicide in the United States. Most data sources substantially under-ascertained prostitute homicides. As estimated from a conservative capture-recapture analysis, 2.7% of female homicide victims in the United States between 1982 and 2000 were prostitutes. Frequencies of recorded prostitute and client homicides increased substantially in the late 1980s and early 1990s; nearly all of the few observed pimp homicides occurred before the late 1980s. These trends may be linked to the rise of crack cocaine use. Prostitutes were killed primarily by clients, clients were killed mainly by prostitutes, and pimps were killed predominantly by pimps. Another conservative estimate suggests that serial killers accounted for 35% of prostitute homicides. Proactive surveillance of, and evidence collection from, clients and prostitutes might enhance the investigation of prostitution-related homicide.

  7. The Relative Abundance of Desert Tortoises on the Nevada Test Site within Ecological Landform Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, Roy; Rautenstrauch, Kurt R.; Hall, Derek B.; Ostler, W. Kent

    1998-09-01

    Sign-survey transects were sampled in 1996 to better determine the relative abundance of desert tortoises on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These transects were sampled within ecological land-form units (ELUs), which are small, ecologically homogeneous units of land. Two-hundred and six ELUs were sampled by walking 332 transects totaling 889 kilometers (km) (552 miles [mi]). These ELUs covered 528 km{sup 2} (204 mi{sup 2}). Two-hundred and eighty-one sign were counted. An average of 0.32 sign was found per km walked. Seventy percent of the area sampled had a very low abundance of tortoises, 29 percent had a low abundance, and 1 percent had a moderate abundance. A revised map of the relative abundance of desert tortoise on the NTS is presented. Within the 1,330 km{sup 2} (514 mi{sup 2}) of desert tortoise habitat on the NTS, 49 percent is classified as having no tortoises or a very low abundance, 18 percent has a low or moderate abundance, 12 percent is unclassified land being used by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, and the remaining 21 percent still has an unknown abundance of desert tortoises. Based on the results of this work, the amount of tortoise habitat previously classified as having an unknown or low-moderate abundance, and on which clearance surveys and on-site monitoring was required, has been reduced by 20 percent.

  8. Relative emissions intensity of dairy production systems: employing different functional units in life-cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, S A; Topp, C F E; Ennos, R A; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the merit and suitability of individual functional units (FU) in expressing greenhouse gas emissions intensity in different dairy production systems. An FU provides a clearly defined and measurable reference to which input and output data are normalised. This enables the results from life-cycle assessment (LCA) of different systems to be treated as functionally equivalent. Although the methodological framework of LCA has been standardised, selection of an appropriate FU remains ultimately at the discretion of the individual study. The aim of the present analysis was to examine the effect of different FU on the emissions intensities of different dairy production systems. Analysis was based on 7 years of data (2004 to 2010) from four Holstein-Friesian dairy systems at Scotland's Rural College's long-term genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd. Implementation of LCA accounted for the environmental impacts of the whole-farm systems and their production of milk from 'cradle to farm gate'. Emissions intensity was determined as kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents referenced to six FU: UK livestock units, energy-corrected milk yield, total combined milk solids yield, on-farm land used for production, total combined on- and off-farm land used for production, and the proposed new FU-energy-corrected milk yield per hectare of total land used. Energy-corrected milk was the FU most effective for reflecting differences between the systems. Functional unit that incorporated a land-related aspect did not find difference between systems which were managed under the same forage regime, despite their comprising different genetic lines. Employing on-farm land as the FU favoured grazing systems. The proposed dual FU combining both productivity and land use did not differentiate between emissions intensity of systems as effectively as the productivity-based units. However, this dual unit displayed potential to quantify in a simple way

  9. Adult sports-related traumatic brain injury in United States trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Ethan A; Yue, John K; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Sports-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health concern estimated to affect 300,000 to 3.8 million people annually in the United States. Although injuries to professional athletes dominate the media, this group represents only a small proportion of the overall population. Here, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in adults from a community-based trauma population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from adults (age ≥ 18 years) across 5 sporting categories-fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α sports-related TBIs were documented in the NTDB, which represented 18,310 incidents nationally. Equestrian sports were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (45.2%). Mild TBI represented nearly 86% of injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU) were 4.25 ± 0.09 days and 1.60 ± 0.06 days, respectively. The mortality rate was 3.0% across all patients, but was statistically higher in TBI from roller sports (4.1%) and aquatic sports (7.7%). Age, hypotension on admission to the emergency department (ED), and the severity of head and extracranial injuries were statistically significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Traumatic brain injury during aquatic sports was similarly associated with prolonged ICU and hospital LOSs, medical complications, and failure to be discharged to

  10. Public Health Ethics Related Training for Public Health Workforce: An Emerging Need in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Kanekar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ethics is a discipline, which primarily deals with what is moral and immoral behavior. Public Health Ethics is translation of ethical theories and concepts into practice to address complex multidimensional public health problems. The primary purpose of this paper was to conduct a narrative literature review-addressing role of ethics in developing curriculum in programs and schools of public health, ethics-related instruction in schools and programs of public health and the role of ethics in developing a competent public health workforce. Methods: An open search of various health databases including Google scholar and Ebscohost yielded 15 articles related to use of ethics in public health practice or public health training and the salient features were reported.  Results: Results indicated a variable amount of ethics' related training in schools and programs of public health along with public health practitioner training across the nation. Bioethics, medical ethics and public health ethics were found to be subspecialties' needing separate ethical frameworks to guide decision making.Conclusions: Ethics based curricular and non-curricular training for emerging public health professionals from schools and programs of public health in the United States is extremely essential.  In the current age of public health challenges faced in the United States and globally, to have an ethically untrained public health force is arguably, immoral and unethical and jeopardizes population health.  There is an urgent need to develop innovative ethic based curriculums in academia as well as finding effective means to translate these curricular competencies into public health practice.

  11. The equestrian sport-related injury workload of a regional doctor-led air ambulance unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleetman, David

    2012-12-01

    The Great Western Ambulance Service Air Support Unit (ASU) was established in July 2007. The helicopter carries a doctor, providing a Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) model of care. Equestrian sport-related injuries account for 6.8% of the unit's total attended case load. Horse riding has a higher rate of severe injury than motorcycle racing and 45% of patients admitted with equestrian injuries require surgical intervention. Orthopaedic injuries to the extremities are commonest, superseding head injuries since the introduction of protective headwear. The majority of equestrian sport-related injuries occur in areas inaccessible to land crews. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the ASU mission database from July 2008 to December 2009 (18 months) and identified 29 patients that were attended to by the ASU. The patient cohort had a female majority with an average age of 31.9. 10 Patients (34.5%) were under the age of 20. The ISS ranged from 1 to 75 (mean, 4.8; median, 1) and injuries to the extremities were commonest. The location of the accident was inaccessible to land ambulance in 55.2% of missions. The average mission time was over 2h. Doctors delivered more advanced (medical) interventions in 20.7% of missions. In 41.4% of missions, there were no such interventions performed by the attending doctor and no access to land ambulance. We therefore conclude that a large proportion of ASU dispatches were due to limited access rather than for the delivery of advanced interventions. However, our results support the opinion that horse riding carries some risk of serious injury and when employed appropriately, HEMS doctors on the ASU are a useful resource for a minority of equestrian sport-related injuries.

  12. Social Studies: Economics, International Relations, and Political Science. Latin American Curriculum Units for Junior and Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glade, William P.; Baldwin, Emily

    These three self-contained units of study will help community college students learn about the economics, international relations, and politics of Latin America. Each unit can be used independently and contains introductory notes for instructors, student materials, and a bibliography. Students are expected to read and discuss the reading…

  13. Relative Merit of Mean Length of T-Unit and Sentence Weight as Indices of Syntactic Complexity in Oral Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutter, Norma

    1981-01-01

    Compares the use of sentence weight and the T-unit in measuring the oral language of 32 adolescents. Indicates the relative merits of the T-unit as a measure of oral language, because the two measures appeared to give much the same information about the speech samples examined. (RL)

  14. Pediatric sports-related traumatic brain injury in United States trauma centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, John K; Winkler, Ethan A; Burke, John F; Chan, Andrew K; Dhall, Sanjay S; Berger, Mitchel S; Manley, Geoffrey T; Tarapore, Phiroz E

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children is a significant public health concern estimated to result in over 500,000 emergency department (ED) visits and more than 60,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually. Sports activities are one important mechanism leading to pediatric TBI. In this study, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in the pediatric population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and of increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from children (age 0-17 years) across 5 sports categories: fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports. Multivariable regression analysis was used to identify predictors of prolonged length of stay (LOS) in the hospital or intensive care unit (ICU), medical complications, inpatient mortality rates, and hospital discharge disposition. Statistical significance was assessed at α sports-related TBIs were recorded in the NTDB, and these injuries represented 11,614 incidents nationally after sample weighting. Fall or interpersonal contact events were the greatest contributors to sports-related TBI (47.4%). Mild TBI represented 87.1% of the injuries overall. Mean (± SEM) LOSs in the hospital and ICU were 2.68 ± 0.07 days and 2.73 ± 0.12 days, respectively. The overall mortality rate was 0.8%, and the prevalence of medical complications was 2.1% across all patients. Severities of head and extracranial injuries were significant predictors of prolonged hospital and ICU LOSs, medical complications, failure to discharge to home, and death. Hypotension on admission to the ED was a significant predictor of failure to discharge to home (OR 0.05, 95% CI 0.03-0.07, p injury incurred during roller sports was independently associated with prolonged hospital LOS compared

  15. Proposal for relative units of value (RUV) for use in allergy examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negro Alvarez, J M; Pascual Camus, A; Murcia Alemán, T; Aparicio García, C; Jiménez Molina, J L; Hernández García, J; Pagán Alemán, J A; Puerta Jiménez, J; Serrano, E; Ferrandiz Gomis, R; Alcaraz Quiñonero, M

    2006-01-01

    Health resources are limited and consequently real cost generators must be identified to optimize resources. In the present article, we describe the structure of the Homogeneous Functional Groups (HFG) for Diagnostic Techniques in the Allergy Department of the Virgen de la Arrixaca University Hospital in Murcia (Spain) and the healthcare products generated. Based on the 2005 budget, variable costing was used to calculate the costs of the healthcare products generated (skin tests, investigation of drug allergies, etc.) by one of the three HFG (the HFG for complementary investigations). On the basis of these costs, and taking as the unit the cost of one skin prick test, we assigned relative units of value (RUV) to each of the products in our services portfolio. The following conclusions can be drawn: 1) the current system of variable costing provides information, which should be useful to health professionals; 2) the real cost generators in the microcosm of daily clinical practice should be identified to allow resource reallocation; 3) the costing system used enables modifications to be made that allow decision making on optimal use of the budget; 4) to take the decisions required to optimize resources, clinical management and complementary tests should go hand-in-hand.

  16. Single-trial event-related potential extraction through one-unit ICA-with-reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lih Lee, Wee; Tan, Tele; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Leung, Yee Hong

    2016-12-01

    Objective. In recent years, ICA has been one of the more popular methods for extracting event-related potential (ERP) at the single-trial level. It is a blind source separation technique that allows the extraction of an ERP without making strong assumptions on the temporal and spatial characteristics of an ERP. However, the problem with traditional ICA is that the extraction is not direct and is time-consuming due to the need for source selection processing. In this paper, the application of an one-unit ICA-with-Reference (ICA-R), a constrained ICA method, is proposed. Approach. In cases where the time-region of the desired ERP is known a priori, this time information is utilized to generate a reference signal, which is then used for guiding the one-unit ICA-R to extract the source signal of the desired ERP directly. Main results. Our results showed that, as compared to traditional ICA, ICA-R is a more effective method for analysing ERP because it avoids manual source selection and it requires less computation thus resulting in faster ERP extraction. Significance. In addition to that, since the method is automated, it reduces the risks of any subjective bias in the ERP analysis. It is also a potential tool for extracting the ERP in online application.

  17. Catheter-related infection in Irish intensive care units diagnosed with HELICS criteria: a multi-centre surveillance study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conrick-Martin, I

    2013-03-01

    Catheter-related infection (CRI) surveillance is advocated as a healthcare quality indicator. However, there is no national CRI surveillance programme or standardized CRI definitions in Irish intensive care units (ICUs).

  18. SOFTWARE SOLUTIONS FOR MEASURING AND FORECASTING THE CASH GENERATING UNIT FLOWS RELATED TO INTANGIBLE ASSETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica R GROSU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In light of the difficulties encountered in assessing the value of the CGU (Cash Generating Unit and of the cash flows associated with goodwill or other intangible assets of a company and after performing the impairment test as provided by the IAS 36-Intangibile Asset and the forecasts related to it, the aim of this paper is to identify and suggest software instruments that would assist in the measurement and forecasting of these elements. The employment of the SPSS and the NeuroShell programmes in analyzing and forecasting the changes in CGU and CGU flows has helped compare the results and the ensuing error margins, thus giving the business entity the possibility to select the best software option, depending on certain variables identified on a micro or a macroeconomic level that may affect the depreciation or the increases in value of the underlying assets for CGU or CGU flows.

  19. [Analyzing the evolution of a Pharmacy Department using a relative value unit system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poveda Andrés, J L; García Gómez, C; Valladolid Walsh, A; Garrigues Sebastiá, M; Rubio Fernández, M

    2004-01-01

    This study proposes the use of relative value units (RVU) as a clinical management tool to evaluate departmental services. To measure productivity from 2000 to 2002 by estimating RVU. To determine RVU cost in constant Euros and evaluate system efficiency during this period of time. Retrospective, observational study of a pharmacy department s production. RVU assigned to each activity have been obtained from a standardized document drawn up by the Sociedad Española de Farmacia Hospitalaria. Cost of each RVU was determined based on total cost assigned to the pharmacy department and the total number of RVUs produced. Drug dispensation activities account for 76% of the total production, followed by elaboration activities (21%). Productivity in our department has increased 46.48% in this period of time, while efficiency has increased by 23.8%.

  20. Streamflow characteristics related to channel geometry of streams in western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedman, E.R.; Osterkamp, W.R.

    1982-01-01

    Assessment of surface-mining and reclamation activities generally requires extensive hydrologic data. Adequate streamflow data from instrumented gaging stations rarely are available, and estimates of surface- water discharge based on rainfall-runoff models, drainage area, and basin characteristics sometimes have proven unreliable. Channel-geometry measurements offer an alternative method of quickly and inexpensively estimating stream-flow characteristics for ungaged streams. The method uses the empirical development of equations to yield a discharge value from channel-geometry and channel-material data. The equations are developed by collecting data at numerous streamflow-gaging sites and statistically relating those data to selected discharge characteristics. Mean annual runoff and flood discharges with selected recurrence intervals can be estimated for perennial, intermittent, and ephemeral streams. The equations were developed from data collected in the western one-half of the conterminous United States. The effect of the channel-material and runoff characteristics are accounted for with the equations.

  1. Associations Between Relative Value Units and Patient-Reported Back Pain and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S. Gold PhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe associations between health care utilization measures and patient-reported outcomes (PROs. Method: Primary data were collected from patients ≥65 years with low back pain visits from 2011 to 2013. Six PROs of pain and functionality were collected 12 and 24 months after the index visits and total and spine-specific relative value units (RVUs from electronic health records were tabulated over 1 year. We calculated correlation coefficients between RVUs and 12- and 24-month PROs and conducted linear regressions with each 12- and 24-month PRO as the outcome variables and RVUs as predictors of interest. Results: We observed very weak correlations between worse PROs at 12 and 24 months and greater 12-month utilization. In regression analyses, we observed slight associations between greater utilization and worse 12- and 24-month PROs. Discussion: We found that 12-month health care utilization is not strongly associated with PROs at 12 or 24 months.

  2. Associations Between Relative Value Units and Patient-Reported Back Pain and Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S. Gold PhD

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe associations between health care utilization measures and patient-reported outcomes (PROs. Method: Primary data were collected from patients ≥65 years with low back pain visits from 2011 to 2013. Six PROs of pain and functionality were collected 12 and 24 months after the index visits and total and spine-specific relative value units (RVUs from electronic health records were tabulated over 1 year. We calculated correlation coefficients between RVUs and 12- and 24-month PROs and conducted linear regressions with each 12- and 24-month PRO as the outcome variables and RVUs as predictors of interest. Results: We observed very weak correlations between worse PROs at 12 and 24 months and greater 12-month utilization. In regression analyses, we observed slight associations between greater utilization and worse 12- and 24-month PROs. Discussion: We found that 12-month health care utilization is not strongly associated with PROs at 12 or 24 months.

  3. Graduate education in general surgery and its related specialties and subspecialties in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard H

    2008-10-01

    Each year, approximately 1,000 graduating medical students enter training in general surgery and its related specialties and subspecialties in the United States. Traditionally, residents who want to practice vascular surgery, plastic surgery, thoracic surgery, and other specialties and subspecialties derived from general surgery have been required to complete five years of training in general surgery before embarking on further training. However, three phenomena have recently emerged that are changing the picture of surgical training: (1) proliferation of fellowships in subspecialties of general surgery, (2) increasing desire of subspecialties of general surgery for recognition as specialties in their own right, and (3) pressure to reduce or eliminate the traditional general surgery training required before specialization or subspecialization. In the meantime, and perhaps as a consequence of these changes, traditional general surgery has become less attractive as a specialty and there has been significant concern about the quality of training in general surgery. As a result of fewer trainees electing general surgery as a career, there is now increasing evidence of a shortage of surgeons who are able to handle a reasonably broad caseload of emergency care in general surgery and trauma.Many of these issues are currently being addressed by the profession. Among the initiatives underway are developing a standardized curriculum in general surgery, appropriately apportioning operative experience between residency and fellowship, considering alternative pathways for training in subspecialties, and developing a system for oversight of advanced surgical training fellowships. The system for governance of graduate surgical education in the United States is less centralized than in other countries. One initiative that has been undertaken to improve coordination of efforts between educational and regulatory bodies is the formation of the Surgical Council on Resident Education

  4. Chapter F: Preliminary Bibliography of Lacustrine Diatomite Deposits in the Western United States and Related Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolm, Karen S.; Wallace, Alan R.; Moyle, Phillip R.; Bliss, James D.; Orris, Greta J.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction As part of the assessment of lacustrine diatomite resources in the Western United States (fig. 1), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) project members conducted a review of literature relating to the formation, location, and nature of deposits in the study area. This preliminary bibliography consists of selected publications to identify, locate, and describe the deposits to be studied, to characterize common geologic factors about the deposits, and to better understand the factors that control their formation, preservation, or destruction. The bibliography also serves as a resource for other workers to research the topic. References included in the preliminary bibliography were gathered by searching existing bibliographic data bases and library collections. Project researchers also contributed references that they found during the course of their work. This bibliography should be considered a working document that will grow as research and literature searches continue. Clearly, many significant publications may be missing from this preliminary list; therefore, USGS staff members intend to issue a revised bibliography as project work progresses. To assure completeness, input from other researchers and industry is welcome. Although the focus of this bibliography is lacustrine diatomite deposits of the Western United States, additional references that provide a foundation of knowledge for the study of diatomites, diatoms, and diatom-related processes (ecology, geology, geochemistry) and for the uses and behavior of diatomite have also been included. An index of keywords has been added to this bibliography, designed to help the user locate reports by topic or by geographic location. The letter 'A' following a number indicates that the report referenced is an abstract.

  5. Relating management practices and nutrient export in agricultural watersheds of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.

    2012-01-01

    Relations between riverine export (load) of total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P) from 133 large agricultural watersheds in the United States and factors affecting nutrient transport were evaluated using empirical regression models. After controlling for anthropogenic inputs and other landscape factors affecting nutrient transport-such as runoff, precipitation, slope, number of reservoirs, irrigated area, and area with subsurface tile drains-the relations between export and the area in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) (N) and conservation tillage (P) were positive. Additional interaction terms indicated that the relations between export and the area in conservation tillage (N) and the CRP (P) progressed from being clearly positive when soil erodibility was low or moderate, to being close to zero when soil erodibility was higher, to possibly being slightly negative only at the 90th to 95th percentile of soil erodibility values. Possible explanations for the increase in nutrient export with increased area in management practices include greater transport of soluble nutrients from areas in conservation tillage; lagged response of stream quality to implementation of management practices because of nitrogen transport in groundwater, time for vegetative cover to mature, and/or prior accumulation of P in soils; or limitations in the management practice and stream monitoring data sets. If lags are occurring, current nutrient export from agricultural watersheds may still be reflecting the influence of agricultural land-use practices that were in place before the implementation of these management practices.

  6. Clinical, Epidemiological and Microbiological Study of Patients Admitted to Intensive Care Units with Mechanical Ventilation Related Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledys Pérez Morales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanical ventilation related pneumonia is a very current issue due to its frequency, severity and etiologic and therapeutic implications. Objective: To characterize, from a clinical, epidemiological and microbiological point of view, patients with ventilation related pneumonia who are admitted to intensive care units. Methods: Descriptive case series study, conducted from January 2007 to December 2009, at the Laboratory of Microbiology and intensive care units of the Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima General Hospital in Cienfuegos.  We analyzed the following variables: service that remitted patients, age, sex, cause of admission to intensive care unit, discharge status, microbiological results, isolated microorganisms, antimicrobial disks tested and antimicrobial resistance in vitro. Results: mechanical ventilation related pneumonia in intensive care units was observed mainly in male patients over 65 years old (43.1% with multiple trauma (20.9%; 20.9% were patients with cerebrovascular disease. Acinetobacter baumannii was the most frequently isolated organism in all units (41.4%, except in the Surgical Intensive Care Unit. It also reported a high mortality rate and in vitro resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Conclusions: Acinetobacter baumannii was the most isolated germen in cases of mechanical ventilation related pneumonia in intensive care units` patients. It affected mainly patients with multiple trauma and cerebrovascular disease.

  7. Cause for Concern: A Mixed-Methods Study of Campus Safety and Security Practices in United States-Mexico Border Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ryan Clevis

    2014-01-01

    Campus safety has been a source of concern since the 1990s. However, in 2007, the tragedy at the Virginia Polytechnic and State University sent a sense of alarm through many institutions of higher education. Immediately following this tragedy, institutions across the country began to evaluate and question their safety and security practices. While…

  8. Risk factors for legal induced abortion-related mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Linda A; Berg, Cynthia J; Shulman, Holly B; Zane, Suzanne B; Green, Clarice A; Whitehead, Sara; Atrash, Hani K

    2004-04-01

    To assess risk factors for legal induced abortion-related deaths. This is a descriptive epidemiologic study of women dying of complications of induced abortions. Numerator data are from the Abortion Mortality Surveillance System. Denominator data are from the Abortion Surveillance System, which monitors the number and characteristics of women who have legal induced abortions in the United States. Risk factors examined include age of the woman, gestational length of pregnancy at the time of termination, race, and procedure. Main outcome measures include crude, adjusted, and risk factor-specific mortality rates. During 1988-1997, the overall death rate for women obtaining legally induced abortions was 0.7 per 100000 legal induced abortions. The risk of death increased exponentially by 38% for each additional week of gestation. Compared with women whose abortions were performed at or before 8 weeks of gestation, women whose abortions were performed in the second trimester were significantly more likely to die of abortion-related causes. The relative risk (unadjusted) of abortion-related mortality was 14.7 at 13-15 weeks of gestation (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.2, 34.7), 29.5 at 16-20 weeks (95% CI 12.9, 67.4), and 76.6 at or after 21 weeks (95% CI 32.5, 180.8). Up to 87% of deaths in women who chose to terminate their pregnancies after 8 weeks of gestation may have been avoidable if these women had accessed abortion services before 8 weeks of gestation. Although primary prevention of unintended pregnancy is optimal, among women who choose to terminate their pregnancies, increased access to surgical and nonsurgical abortion services may increase the proportion of abortions performed at lower-risk, early gestational ages and help further decrease deaths. II-2

  9. Diabetes Mellitus-Related Knowledge among University Students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nelofer; Gomathi, Kadayam G; Shehnaz, Syed Ilyas; Muttappallymyalil, Jayakumary

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess diabetes mellitus (DM)-related knowledge and practices among university students enrolled in non-health care related professional courses in the United Arab Emirates. A pre-tested questionnaire assessing the knowledge of DM was administered to the above-mentioned students. Data collected were transferred to PASW Statistics (Chicago, IL, USA, Version 18) and analysed. Data on 168 university students (47 males and 121 females) were included in the analysis. Of the participants, 25% were overweight or obese and only 27% exercised regularly. Regarding their knowledge of DM, 70% knew that it is characterised by high blood sugar levels and identified family history as a major risk factor. Surprisingly, only just over half could link obesity and physical inactivity as risk factors for developing DM, or could identify an excessive feeling of thirst, frequent urination, and weight loss as symptoms. Knowledge of the complications of diabetes, including gangrene, loss of sensation in limbs, oral and dental complications, recurrent infections, and risk for cardiovascular disease got a moderate response. Knowledge of diabetes was found to be higher in females compared to males. No significant differences were observed in the health behaviour of participants with or without a family history of DM. Our study revealed that in spite of exposure to various sources of information, the participants' level of DM-related knowledge was not adequate. We recommend the engagement of health professionals in educational settings in order to enhance health-related knowledge and inculcate healthy lifestyle practices in students.

  10. Computer use and vision-related problems among university students in ajman, United arab emirate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantakumari, N; Eldeeb, R; Sreedharan, J; Gopal, K

    2014-03-01

    The extensive use of computers as medium of teaching and learning in universities necessitates introspection into the extent of computer related health disorders among student population. This study was undertaken to assess the pattern of computer usage and related visual problems, among University students in Ajman, United Arab Emirates. A total of 500 Students studying in Gulf Medical University, Ajman and Ajman University of Science and Technology were recruited into this study. Demographic characteristics, pattern of usage of computers and associated visual symptoms were recorded in a validated self-administered questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to determine the significance of the observed differences between the variables. The level of statistical significance was at P visual problems reported among computer users were headache - 53.3% (251/471), burning sensation in the eyes - 54.8% (258/471) and tired eyes - 48% (226/471). Female students were found to be at a higher risk. Nearly 72% of students reported frequent interruption of computer work. Headache caused interruption of work in 43.85% (110/168) of the students while tired eyes caused interruption of work in 43.5% (98/168) of the students. When the screen was viewed at distance more than 50 cm, the prevalence of headaches decreased by 38% (50-100 cm - OR: 0.62, 95% of the confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.92). Prevalence of tired eyes increased by 89% when screen filters were not used (OR: 1.894, 95% CI: 1.065-3.368). High prevalence of vision related problems was noted among university students. Sustained periods of close screen work without screen filters were found to be associated with occurrence of the symptoms and increased interruptions of work of the students. There is a need to increase the ergonomic awareness among students and corrective measures need to be implemented to reduce the impact of computer related vision problems.

  11. Racial/ethnic variations in substance-related disorders among adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Woody, George E; Yang, Chongming; Pan, Jeng-Jong; Blazer, Dan G

    2011-11-01

    While young racial/ethnic groups are the fastest growing population in the United States, data about substance-related disorders among adolescents of various racial/ethnic backgrounds are lacking. To examine the magnitude of past-year DSM-IV substance-related disorders (alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, inhalants, hallucinogens, heroin, analgesic opioids, stimulants, sedatives, and tranquilizers) among adolescents of white, Hispanic, African American, Native American, Asian or Pacific Islander, and multiple race/ethnicity. The 2005 to 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Academic research. Noninstitutionalized household adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Substance-related disorders were assessed by standardized survey questions administered using the audio computer-assisted self-interviewing method. Of 72 561 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, 37.0% used alcohol or drugs in the past year; 7.9% met criteria for a substance-related disorder, with Native Americans having the highest prevalence of use (47.5%) and disorder (15.0%). Analgesic opioids were the second most commonly used illegal drugs, following marijuana, in all racial/ethnic groups; analgesic opioid use was comparatively prevalent among adolescents of Native American (9.7%) and multiple race/ethnicity (8.8%). Among 27 705 past-year alcohol or drug users, Native Americans (31.5%), adolescents of multiple race/ethnicity (25.2%), adolescents of white race/ethnicity (22.9%), and Hispanics (21.0%) had the highest rates of substance-related disorders. Adolescents used marijuana more frequently than alcohol or other drugs, and 25.9% of marijuana users met criteria for marijuana abuse or dependence. After controlling for adolescents' age, socioeconomic variables, population density of residence, self-rated health, and survey year, adjusted analyses of adolescent substance users indicated elevated odds of substance-related disorders among Native Americans, adolescents of multiple race/ethnicity, adolescents of

  12. The Imposition of the Death Penalty on Mexican Nationals in the United States and the Cultural, Legal and Political Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Olivero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews death penalty perspectives from the United States, Mexico and international law. The United States practices the death penalty on not only its citizens, but those of other nations who commit capital crimes. Mexico is a death penalty abolitionist state that takes significant issue with the United States over executing Mexican nationals. The paper analyzes the cultural, legal and political conflict between the two countries surrounding the application of the death penalty on Mexican nationals.

  13. Motor unit action potential rate and motor unit action potential shape properties in subjects with work-related muscle pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kallenberg, Laura A.C.; Hermens, Hermie J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate differences in motor control of the trapezius muscle in cases with work-related chronic pain, compared to healthy controls. Ten cases with chronic pain and 13 controls participated in the study. Electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from the upp

  14. Factors related to obesity and overweight among Black adolescent girls in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Megan R; Bennett, Gary G; Brandon, Debra H

    2017-02-01

    In the United States, Black adolescents have the highest prevalence of pediatric obesity and overweight among girls. While Black girls are disproportionately affected, the reasons for this health disparity remain unclear. The authors conducted a systematic review to investigate the factors related to obesity and overweight among Black adolescent girls. The authors searched four databases for relevant English-language publications using all publication years through 2015. Fifty-one studies met the inclusion criteria and were used for this review. Using a configuration approach to synthesis, three categories were identified, paralleling the bioecological theory of human development: (1) individual, (2) interpersonal, and (3) community and societal factors. A description of each factor's association with obesity among Black adolescent girls is presented. From this review, the authors identified a diverse and vast set of individual, interpersonal, and community and societal factors explored for their relationship with obesity and overweight. Given the insufficient repetition and limited significant findings among most factors, the authors believe that multiple gaps in knowledge exist across all categories regarding the factors related to obesity and overweight among Black adolescent girls. To improve the quality of research in this area, suggested research directions and methodological recommendations are provided.

  15. Postoperative delirium and factors related in a cardiac surgery unit care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia de las Pozas Abril

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Describe the incidence of postoperative delirium and related risk factors associated with this complication in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Method: Cohort study conducted for 3 months in a sample of 105 patients undergoing cardiac surgery in a hospital in Madrid. The emergence of delirium with scale ICDSC (Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist was measured during the first five days of postoperative and collected data on preoperative, intra-operative and post-operative factors to relate to the emergence of delirium. Results: 95 Patients studied, 15 of them developed delirium, which means an incidence of 15.7%. We found that there was a significant relationship between delirium appearance and age of the patients, the presence of atrial fibrillation, intubation orotraqueal time and the administration of adrenaline during the immediate post-operative management. The multivariable model showed the duration of orotraqueal intubation to be independently associated with delirium. Conclusions: The incidence of delirium found in this study as well as the identification of the time of orotraqueal intubation as independent risk factor supposes a new contribution to the knowledge of this postoperative complication and allow us to begin to evaluate its importance in the unit of cardiac surgery.

  16. Relation between safe use of medicines and Clinical Pharmacy Services at Pediatric Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Lucas Miyake; da Silva, Daniella Matsubara; Comarella, Larissa

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Clinical Pharmacy Services (CPS) are considered standard of care and is endorsed by the Joint Commission International, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American College of Clinical Pharmacy. In Brazil, single experiences have been discreetly arising and the importance of these services to children and adolescents care has led to interesting results, but certainly are under reported. This short report aims to discuss the effect of implementing a bedside CPS at a Brazilian Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in a 12 bed PICU community hospital, from Campo Largo/Brazil. Subjects with<18 years old admitted to PICU were included for descriptive analysis if received a CPS intervention. Results: Of 53 patients accompanied, we detected 141 preventable drug-related problems (DRPs) which were solved within clinicians (89% acceptance of all interventions). The most common interventions performed to improve drug therapy included: preventing incompatible intravenous solutions (21%) and a composite of inadequate doses (17% due to low, high and non-optimized doses). Among the top ten medications associated with DRPs, five were antimicrobials. By analyzing the correlation between DRPs and PICU length of stay, we found that 74% of all variations on length of stay were associated with the number of DRPs. Conclusions: Adverse drug reactions due to avoidable DRPs can be prevented by CPS in a multifaceted collaboration with other health care professionals, who should attempt to use active and evidence-based strategies to reduce morbidity related to medications. PMID:27578187

  17. Urban enhancement of PM10 bioaerosol tracers relative to background locations in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Metwali, Nervana; Baker, Zach; Jayarathne, Thilina; Kostle, Pamela A.; Thorne, Peter S.; O'Shaughnessy, Patrick T.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2016-05-01

    Bioaerosols are well-known immune-active particles that exacerbate respiratory diseases. Human exposures to bioaerosols and their resultant health impacts depend on their ambient concentrations, seasonal and spatial variation, and copollutants, which are not yet widely characterized. In this study, chemical and biological tracers of bioaerosols were quantified in respirable particulate matter (PM10) collected at three urban and three background sites in the Midwestern United States across four seasons in 2012. Endotoxins from Gram-negative bacteria (and a few Gram-positive bacteria), water-soluble proteins, and tracers for fungal spores (fungal glucans, arabitol, and mannitol) were ubiquitous and showed significant seasonal variation and dependence on temperature. Fungal spores were elevated in spring and peaked in summer, following the seasonal growing cycle, while endotoxins peaked in autumn during the row crop harvesting season. Paired comparisons of bioaerosols in urban and background sites revealed significant urban enhancements in PM10, fungal glucans, endotoxins, and water-soluble proteins relative to background locations, such that urban populations have a greater outdoor exposure to bioaerosols. These bioaerosols contribute, in part, to the urban excesses in PM10. Higher bioaerosol mass fractions in urban areas relative to background sites indicate that urban areas serve as a source of bioaerosols. Similar urban enhancements in water-soluble calcium and its correlation with bioaerosol tracers point toward windblown soil as an important source of bioaerosols in urban areas.

  18. Economic Burden of Hospitalizations for Heat-Related Illnesses in the United States, 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Schmeltz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how heat waves affect morbidity and mortality, as well as the associated economic costs, is essential for characterizing the human health impacts of extreme heat under a changing climate. Only a handful of studies have examined healthcare costs associated with exposures to high temperatures. This research explores costs associated with hospitalizations for heat-related illness (HRI in the United States using the 2001 to 2010 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS. Descriptive statistics of patient data for HRI hospitalizations were examined and costs of hospitalizations were reported using the all-payer inpatient cost-to-charge ratio. Costs were examined using a log-gamma model with patient and hospital characteristics included as fixed effects. Adjusted mean costs were then compared across racial groups. The mean costs of HRI hospitalizations were higher among racial/ethnic minorities compared to Whites, who accounted for almost 65% of all HRI hospitalizations. Observed differences in costs based on income, insurance, and gender were also significant. These results suggest that these populations are suffering disproportionately from health inequity, thus, they could shoulder greater disease and financial burdens due to climate change. These findings may have important implications in understanding the economic impact public health planning and interventions will have on preventing hospitalizations related to extreme heat.

  19. Hospital Related Stress Among Patients Admitted to a Psychiatric In-patient Unit in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha KS

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychiatric patient’s attitudes towards hospitalization have found an association between patient perceptions of the ward atmosphere and dissatisfaction. The aim of the study was to determine the aspects of stress related to hospitalization in inpatients admitted to a psychiatric facility. Fifty in-patients of both sexes admitted consecutively to a psychiatric unit in a General Hospital were asked to rate the importance of, and their satisfaction with, 38 different aspects of in-patient care and treatment. Results showed that the major sources of stress were related to having a violent patient near to his/her bed; being away from family; having to stay in closed wards; having to eat cold and tasteless food; losing income or job due to illness, being hospitalized away from home; not able to understand the jargons used by the clinical staff and not getting medication for sleep. A well-differentiated assessment of stress and satisfaction has implications for the evaluation of the quality of psychiatric care and for the improvement of in-patient psychiatric care.

  20. Update: fatal air bag-related injuries to children--United States, 1993-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-13

    Dual air bags will be required standard equipment in all new passenger cars sold in the United States beginning in 1997 and all light trucks sold in the United States in 1998 but are available now in many earlier-model vehicles. Air bags are designed to supplement the protection provided by safety belts in frontal crashes; when combined with lap and shoulder safety belts, air bags assist in preventing fatal and nonfatal injuries in motor-vehicle crashes. However, passenger-side air bags have been associated with injuries to children who, in almost all cases, were unrestrained or incorrectly restrained in the front seat. In 1993, approximately 1.4 million (0.8% of all vehicles registered) were equipped with passenger-side air bags, compared with an estimated 21.6 million vehicles (11.4% of all vehicles registered) in 1996 (National Highway Traffic Safety Administration [NHTSA], unpublished data, 1996). NHTSA, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), and CDC collaborated with the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, The Air Bag Safety Campaign, the National Safety Council, the Brain Injury Association, the National Association of Governors Highway Safety Representatives, the National Association of Children's Hospitals and Related Institutions, and the Health Resources and Services Administration to examine crashes from the Special Crash Investigation Data File maintained by NHTSA, in which fatal injuries in children (aged air bags. This report presents the findings of this review, which indicate that during January 1993-November 1996, annual increases occurred for both the number of fatal injuries to children resulting from air-bag deployments and the proportion of dual air bag-equipped vehicles (Table 1).

  1. Hair removal-related injuries in the United States, 1991-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Thomas A; Tully, Albert Scott; Redford, Travis; McGwin, Gerald

    2016-12-01

    Hair removal practices have changed in frequency and location on the body. Previous research on hair removal injuries has focused on a specific body region, age, or gender. This study sought to take a broader perspective of hair removal-associated injuries in the United States which sought treatment at emergency departments. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) from 1991 to 2014 were used to identify hair removal-related injuries. Incidence rates were determined for the overall population and stratified by gender and age category using US Census Bureau population estimates. From 1991 to 2014, there were an estimated 292 053 hair removal-associated injuries in the United States. The overall incidence rate was highest in 2013 (9/100 000). Those aged 65+ had the highest incidence from 1991 to 2010 with those aged 19-34 having the highest rate starting in 2011. When stratified by body region injured, males had highest injury rates to the face and females had highest rates to the lower limbs. Starting in 2010, those aged 19-34 had higher incidence particularly for pubic and trunk regions. The incidence of hair removal-associated injuries seen by emergency departments increased nearly ninefold between 1991 and 2013. Due to the increased incidence among 19- to 34-year-olds, caution should be taken particularly for this age group when undergoing depilatory practices. Overall, individuals should practice safe and acceptable usage of hair removal products to reduce the risk of injury. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Age-related changes in motor unit firing pattern of vastus lateralis muscle during low-moderate contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kohei; Holobar, Aleš; Kouzaki, Motoki; Ogawa, Madoka; Akima, Hiroshi; Moritani, Toshio

    2016-06-01

    Age-related changes in motor unit activation properties remain unclear for locomotor muscles such as quadriceps muscles, although these muscles are preferentially atrophied with aging and play important roles in daily living movements. The present study investigated and compared detailed motor unit firing characteristics for the vastus lateralis muscle during isometric contraction at low to moderate force levels in the elderly and young. Fourteen healthy elderly men and 15 healthy young men performed isometric ramp-up contraction to 70 % of the maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) during knee extension. Multichannel surface electromyograms were recorded from the vastus lateralis muscle using a two-dimensional grid of 64 electrodes and decomposed with the convolution kernel compensation technique to extract individual motor units. Motor unit firing rates in the young were significantly higher (~+29.7 %) than in the elderly (p  0.05). Firing rates at 60 % of the MVC force level for the motor units recruited at MVC were significantly correlated with MVC force in the elderly (r = 0.885, p  0.05). These results suggest that the motor unit firing rate in the vastus lateralis muscle is affected by aging and muscle strength in the elderly and/or age-related strength loss is related to motor unit firing/recruitment properties.

  3. Surveillance for travel-related disease--GeoSentinel Surveillance System, United States, 1997-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kira; Esposito, Douglas H; Han, Pauline; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Freedman, David O; Plier, D Adam; Sotir, Mark J

    2013-07-19

    probable travel-related diagnoses. Of these, 23,006 (16%) patients were evaluated in the United States, 10,032 (44%) of whom were evaluated after returning from travel outside of the United States (i.e., after-travel patients). Of the 10,032 after-travel patients, 4,977 (50%) were female, 4,856 (48%) were male, and 199 (2%) did not report sex; the median age was 34 years. Most were evaluated in outpatient settings (84%), were born in the United States (76%), and reported current U.S. residence (99%). The most common reasons for travel were tourism (38%), missionary/volunteer/research/aid work (24%), visiting friends and relatives (17%), and business (15%). The most common regions of exposure were Sub-Saharan Africa (23%), Central America (15%), and South America (12%). Fewer than half (44%) reported having had a pretravel visit with a health-care provider. Of the 13,059 diagnoses among the 10,032 after-travel patients, the most common diagnoses were acute unspecified diarrhea (8%), acute bacterial diarrhea (5%), postinfectious irritable bowel syndrome (5%), giardiasis (3%), and chronic unknown diarrhea (3%). The most common diagnostic groupings were acute diarrhea (22%), nondiarrheal gastrointestinal (15%), febrile/systemic illness (14%), and dermatologic (12%). Among 1,802 patients with febrile/systemic illness diagnoses, the most common diagnosis was Plasmodium falciparum malaria (19%). The rapid communication component of the GeoSentinel network has allowed prompt responses to important health events affecting travelers; during 2010 and 2011, the notification capability of the GeoSentinel network was used in the identification and public health response to East African trypanosomiasis in Eastern Zambia and North Central Zimbabwe, P. vivax malaria in Greece, and muscular sarcocystosis on Tioman Island, Malaysia. The GeoSentinel Global Surveillance System is the largest repository of provider-based data on travel-related illness. Among ill travelers evaluated in U.S. Geo

  4. Work-related Musculoskeletal Pain among Different Dental Specialists in United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rawi, Natheer H; Khatib, Hiba El; Rajoub, Lin; El-Sayed, Mariem; Naji, Rawand; Youssef, Reem; Kawas, Sausan Al

    2016-08-01

    Dentists are at a very high risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal pain. The present study aimed at studying the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among different dental specialists in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), and correlating the region of pain with the type of clinical work done by the specialists. A sample of more than 100 dentists was chosen randomly from different emirates in UAE. An interview questionnaire was administered regarding the number of years of experience and the presence, region, duration, and type of musculoskeletal pain they experienced. Musculoskeletal pain is experienced by 83.3% of periodontists, 80% of conservative dentists, 77.8% of endodon-tists, 72.7% of orthodontists, 70% of oral surgeons, 63.6% of prosthodontists, 63% of general dental practitioners, and 50% of pedodontists. The results have also indicated that the region of experienced musculoskeletal pain does vary according to the specialty. From those dentists who experience work-related musculoskeletal pain, 80% of conservative dentists experience pain in neck and shoulders, 66.7% of periodontists, and 54.5% of orthodontists experience pain in the lower back region. More than 50% of endodontists experience pain in the neck and shoulders regions, and 39% of general dental practitioners who experience pain in the neck region. Preventive measures need to be taken to decrease the risk of dentists and dental specialists developing work-related musculoskeletal pain. The prevalence and distribution of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among registered general dental practitioners and dental specialists in UAE was not clearly documented. The study results indicated that the region that experienced musculoskeletal pain does vary according to the specialty.

  5. Influenza-Related Hospitalizations and Poverty Levels - United States, 2010-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadler, James L; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly; Pérez, Alejandro; Anderson, Evan J; Bargsten, Marisa; Bohm, Susan R; Hill, Mary; Hogan, Brenna; Laidler, Matt; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Lung, Krista L; Mermel, Elizabeth; Miller, Lisa; Morin, Craig; Parker, Erin; Zansky, Shelley M; Chaves, Sandra S

    2016-02-12

    Annual influenza vaccine is recommended for all persons aged ≥6 months in the United States, with recognition that some persons are at risk for more severe disease (1). However, there might be previously unrecognized demographic groups that also experience higher rates of serious influenza-related disease that could benefit from enhanced vaccination efforts. Socioeconomic status (SES) measures that are area-based can be used to define demographic groups when individual SES data are not available (2). Previous surveillance data analyses in limited geographic areas indicated that influenza-related hospitalization incidence was higher for persons residing in census tracts that included a higher percentage of persons living below the federal poverty level (3-5). To determine whether this association occurs elsewhere, influenza hospitalization data collected in 14 FluSurv-NET sites covering 27 million persons during the 2010-11 and 2011-12 influenza seasons were analyzed. The age-adjusted incidence of influenza-related hospitalizations per 100,000 person-years in high poverty (≥20% of persons living below the federal poverty level) census tracts was 21.5 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.7-22.4), nearly twice the incidence in low poverty (poverty level) census tracts (10.9, 95% CI: 10.3-11.4). This relationship was observed in each surveillance site, among children and adults, and across racial/ethnic groups. These findings suggest that persons living in poorer census tracts should be targeted for enhanced influenza vaccination outreach and clinicians serving these persons should be made aware of current recommendations for use of antiviral agents to treat influenza (6).

  6. Trends in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Related Risk Behaviors among High School Students--United States, 1991-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; Lowry, Richard; Wechsler, Howell; Romero, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    This paper examined changes in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors among high school students in the United States during 1991-2005. Data from 8 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys conducted during that period were analyzed. During 1991-2005, the percentage of US high school students engaging in HIV-related sexual risk…

  7. Health-related quality of life after prolonged pediatric intensive care unit stay.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conlon, Niamh P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes for patients requiring at least 28 days of pediatric intensive care. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort and prospective follow-up study. SETTING: A 21-bed pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in a university-affiliated, tertiary referral pediatric hospital. PATIENTS: One hundred ninety-three patients who spent 28 days or longer in the PICU between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 2004. INTERVENTIONS: Quality of life was measured using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (Peds QL 4.0) parent-proxy version at 2 to 10 yrs after discharge. The PedsQL 4.0 is a modular measure of HRQOL, which is reliable in children aged 2 to 18 yrs. It generates a total score and physical, emotional, social, school, and psychosocial subscores. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Of the 193 patients, 41 died during their PICU admission and 27 died between PICU discharge and follow-up. Quality of life questionnaires were posted to parents of 108 of the 125 survivors and 70 were returned completed. Forty children (57.1%) had scores indicating a normal quality of life, whereas 30 (42.9%) had scores indicating impaired HRQOL. Of these, 14 (20%) had scores indicating poor quality of life with ongoing disabling health problems requiring hospitalization or the equivalent. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that, while long PICU stay is associated with significant mortality, the long-term HRQOL is normal for the majority of surviving children.

  8. Baler and compactor-related deaths in the workplace--United States, 1992-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-27

    Equipment that compacts and bales loose solid waste materials into denser, more easilytransported units is common in refuse disposal and recycling and is used routinely at recycling centers, manufacturing facilities, and retail and wholesale stores to compress paper, textiles, metals, plastic, and other material. Persons operating balers and compactors can become caught by the powered rams of the compression chambers while using these machines. Risk factors resulting from these incidents have been identified through surveillance findings and results of investigations conducted by CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program and the Bureau of Labor Statistics Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI), a nationwide multisource reporting system for occupational deaths. This report describes the results of two baler and compactor-related investigations conducted during 1992-2000, summarizes surveillance data from 1992 through 1998, which indicated that some employers and workers may have been unaware of the hazards of operating or working near compacting and baling equipment, and suggests safety recommendations for preventing future incidents.

  9. [Single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses in relation to the occlusal system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, D J; Gerritsen, A E; van Spijker, A; Creugers, N H J

    2013-02-01

    Occlusion concepts based on functional aspects offer more solid ground in the diagnostic process and in the treatment of (reduced) dentitions than morphologically and mechanically oriented occlusion concepts. Nevertheless, for occlusal reconstruction morphologically oriented guidelines are necessary. These guidelines are based on the border movements and positions of the mandible in the orofacial system, and on the location and modelling of the occlusal contacts in the occlusal system. The modelling of single- and multi-unit fixed dental prostheses must harmonize with the occlusal system. Moreover, an important feature is the relation of the anterior teeth which enables mutually protected occlusion. Characteristics of a healthy orofacial and occlusal system are: absence of pathology, perceived sufficient oral functions, variability inform and function, and adaptive capacity. When designing single- or multiunit fixed dental prostheses, a pragmatic starting point is to maintain the existing occlusion and the existing speech pattern unless arguments can be provided for alterations. The occlusal design should aim at optimizing oral functions, such as mandibular and occlusal stability.

  10. Relation between safe use of medicines and Clinical Pharmacy Services at Pediatric Intensive Care Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Miyake Okumura

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Clinical Pharmacy Services (CPS are considered standard of care and is endorsed by the Joint Commission International, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the American College of Clinical Pharmacy. In Brazil, single experiences have been discreetly arising and the importance of these services to children and adolescents care has led to interesting results, but certainly are under reported. This short report aims to discuss the effect of implementing a bedside CPS at a Brazilian Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in a 12 bed PICU community hospital, from Campo Largo/Brazil. Subjects with<18 years old admitted to PICU were included for descriptive analysis if received a CPS intervention. Results: Of 53 patients accompanied, we detected 141 preventable drug-related problems (DRPs which were solved within clinicians (89% acceptance of all interventions. The most common interventions performed to improve drug therapy included: preventing incompatible intravenous solutions (21% and a composite of inadequate doses (17% due to low, high and non-optimized doses. Among the top ten medications associated with DRPs, five were antimicrobials. By analyzing the correlation between DRPs and PICU length of stay, we found that 74% of all variations on length of stay were associated with the number of DRPs. Conclusions: Adverse drug reactions due to avoidable DRPs can be prevented by CPS in a multifaceted collaboration with other health care professionals, who should attempt to use active and evidence-based strategies to reduce morbidity related to medications.

  11. Analysis and determination of susceptibility Risk from slope instability at Colima State Mexico due to the accelerators factors of rain and seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Ruiz, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    Slope instability is presented each year in the mountain region of the Colima State, Mexico. It occurs due to the combination of different factors existing in this area as: Precipitation, topography contrast, type and mechanical properties of deposits that constitute the rocks and soils of the region and the erosion due to the elimination of vegetation deck to develop and grow urban areas. To these geological factors we can extend the tectonic activity of the Western part of Mexico that originate high seismicity by the interaction of Cocos plate and North America plate forming the region of Graben de Colima, were is located our study area. Here we will present a Zonification and determination of the Susceptibility maps of slope instability due to the rain and seismicity accelerators factors. The North part of the State Colima is covered by deposits of the Volcan de Colima with an elevation of 3860 masl. It is the area of major precipitation yearly with more than 1200 mm in comparison to the average precipitation of about 900 mm of the State of Colima. Using a SIG system and the mapping of more than 30 sites we realize a zonification and analysis of the Risk using a methodology developed by CENAPRED. The susceptibility map developed in this area in combination with erosion factors permit us to determine an approximation of the Risk considering some limitations that will be present in this study.

  12. Tornado-related fatalities--five states, Southeastern United States, April 25-28, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    During April 25-28, 2011, a massive storm system generated 351 tornadoes (including 15 registering 4 or 5 on the Enhanced Fujita [EF] scale*), killing 338 persons in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee. This was the third-deadliest tornado event in the United States, surpassing an April 1974 event that resulted in 315 fatalities. This event also was historic because of the record number of fatalities that occurred despite modern advances in tornado forecasting, advanced warning times, and media coverage. Risk factors for death and injury from tornadoes are sheltering in mobile homes, proximity to an EF-4 or EF-5 tornado, being an older adult (aged ≥65 years), lack of accessibility to safe rooms (e.g., basements or reinforced shelters), and a night-time tornado impact. To describe the fatalities by demographic characteristics, type of shelter used, cause of death, and tornado severity and location, CDC reviewed data from the American Red Cross (Red Cross), death certificates, and the National Weather Service (NWS). This report summarizes the results of that review. Among the 338 decedents, median age was 55.0 years (range: 4 days-97 years); approximately one third were older adults. On tornado impact, 46.7% of decedents were in single-family homes, and 26.6% were in mobile homes. The leading cause of death was traumatic injury, including 21.9% with head injuries. Half of the deadly tornadoes were rated EF-4 or EF-5 and were responsible for 89.5% of the deaths. To prevent tornado-related deaths, health messaging should encourage the public (especially older adults and residents of mobile/manufactured homes) to pre-identify an accessible safe room, prepare the room with personal protection items (e.g., blankets and helmets), and monitor local weather.

  13. Using real time process measurements to reduce catheter related bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, R; Ely, E; Elasy, T; Dittus, R; Foss, J; Wilkerson, K; Speroff, T

    2005-01-01

    

Problem: Measuring a process of care in real time is essential for continuous quality improvement (CQI). Our inability to measure the process of central venous catheter (CVC) care in real time prevented CQI efforts aimed at reducing catheter related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs) from these devices. Design: A system was developed for measuring the process of CVC care in real time. We used these new process measurements to continuously monitor the system, guide CQI activities, and deliver performance feedback to providers. Setting: Adult medical intensive care unit (MICU). Key measures for improvement: Measured process of CVC care in real time; CR-BSI rate and time between CR-BSI events; and performance feedback to staff. Strategies for change: An interdisciplinary team developed a standardized, user friendly nursing checklist for CVC insertion. Infection control practitioners scanned the completed checklists into a computerized database, thereby generating real time measurements for the process of CVC insertion. Armed with these new process measurements, the team optimized the impact of a multifaceted intervention aimed at reducing CR-BSIs. Effects of change: The new checklist immediately provided real time measurements for the process of CVC insertion. These process measures allowed the team to directly monitor adherence to evidence-based guidelines. Through continuous process measurement, the team successfully overcame barriers to change, reduced the CR-BSI rate, and improved patient safety. Two years after the introduction of the checklist the CR-BSI rate remained at a historic low. Lessons learnt: Measuring the process of CVC care in real time is feasible in the ICU. When trying to improve care, real time process measurements are an excellent tool for overcoming barriers to change and enhancing the sustainability of efforts. To continually improve patient safety, healthcare organizations should continually measure their key clinical processes in real

  14. Epidemiology of constipation (EPOC) study in the United States: relation of clinical subtypes to sociodemographic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, W F; Liberman, J N; Sandler, R S; Woods, M S; Stemhagen, A; Chee, E; Lipton, R B; Farup, C E

    1999-12-01

    Constipation is a common heterogeneous condition, possibly encompassing different clinical subtypes. Little is known about the comparative epidemiology of constipation subtypes. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of constipation subtypes and determine whether subtypes differ by sociodemographic factors. Between June and September 1997, a telephone interview was conducted with individuals about their bowel habits in the preceding 3 months. Survey data on 15 constipation-related symptoms were used to identify individuals who met prespecified symptom criteria for the following mutually exclusive subgroups: functional constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), outlet obstruction or delay (outlet), both IBS and outlet (IBS-outlet), and frequent laxative users (i.e., at least every other day). A total of 10,018 eligible individuals in the United States 18 yr of age or older completed the interview. Test-retest reliability of reporting symptoms was assessed in a separate national survey. The Spearman's correlation coefficient for reporting symptoms ranged from 0.54 to 0.83; all but three symptoms had correlations above 0.68. The overall prevalence of constipation was 14.7%. By subtype, prevalence was 4.6% for functional, 2.1% for IBS, 4.6% for outlet, and 3.4% for IBS-outlet. An additional 1.8% of respondents reported laxative use at least every other day. Outlet was the most common subtype among women, whereas functional constipation was the most common subtype among men. The gender ratio varied by subtype, with elevated ratios for outlet (F/M = 1.65) and IBS-outlet (F/M = 2.27) subtypes. The age pattern differed among each of the four subtypes. Prevalence of functional subtype decreased with increasing age. In contrast, outlet subtype did not seem to vary by age, and IBS (both men and women) and IBS-outlet (women only) subtypes increased to age 35 yr and declined thereafter. Prevalence of functional constipation increased with increasing education

  15. South Asian and Middle Eastern patients' perspectives on medicine-related problems in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhomoud, Faten; Dhillon, Soraya; Aslanpour, Zoe; Smith, Felicity

    2015-08-01

    There has been little research which specifically examines medicine use among South Asian (SA) and Middle Eastern (ME) groups, although evidence suggests that medicine-related needs may be poorly met for these groups. To describe medicine-related problems (MRPs) experienced by SA and ME patients from their perspectives and identify possible contributory factors that may be specific to their cultures. The data were collected in seven pharmacies in London, United Kingdom (UK). The study was a qualitative study. Patients were from SA and ME origins, aged over 18 and prescribed three or more regular medicines. Patients were identified when presenting with a prescription. The data were collected in 80 face-to-face semi-structured interviews using Gordon's MRPs tool. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using Gordon's coding frame and Nvivo 10 software. Describing MRPs experienced by SA and ME patients from their perspectives and identifying possible contributory factors that may be specific to their cultures. Results Eighty participants (61 % male) had mean (SD) age 58 (13.4) years and a mean (SD) of 8 (4) medicines. Interviews revealed that several factors contributed to the development of MRPs; some appeared to be specific to SA and ME cultures and others were similar to the general population. The factors that were reported to be specific to SA and ME groups comprised religious practices and beliefs, use of non-prescription medicines, extent of family support, and travelling abroad--to patient's homeland or to take religious journeys. Illiteracy, language and communication barriers, lack of translated resources, perceptions of healthcare providers, and difficulty consulting a doctor of the same gender may also contribute to the problems. Many of these factors could be expected to influence patient's safety, adherence, and informed decision-making. This study demonstrated that SA and ME patients have their own problems and needs

  16. Severe and fatal obstetric injury claims in relation to labor unit volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milland, Maria; Mikkelsen, Kim L; Christoffersen, Jens K

    2015-01-01

    with decreasing annual delivery volume. Face value incidence rate ratios of approved severe injuries increased with decreasing labor unit volume, but the association did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSION: High volume labor units appear associated with fewer approved and fewer fatal injury claims...... quintiles as annual volume per labor unit: (10-1377), (1378-2016), (2017-2801), (2802-3861), (3862-6659). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Five primary measures of outcome were used. Incidence rate ratios of (A) Submitted claims, (B) Approved claims, (C) Approved severe injury claims (120% degree of disability), (D......) Approved fatal injury claims, and (C+D) Combined. RESULTS: 1 151 734 deliveries in 51 labor units and 1872 submitted claims were included. The incidence rate ratios of approved claims overall, of approved fatal injury claims, and of approved severe and fatal injuries combined increased significantly...

  17. Comparison of xanthans by the relative abundance of its six constituent repeating units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kool, M.M.; Gruppen, H.; Sworn, G.; Schols, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Five xanthans were hydrolyzed to their repeating units using cellulases. Hydrophilic interaction chromatography with online electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry and evaporative light scattering detection was used to analyze the oligomers released. It was concluded that six different pe

  18. Guinea’s 2008 Military Coup and Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-16

    WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Congressional Research Service,Library of Congress,101 Independence Ave., SE...Washington,DC,20540-7500 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S... Gouvernement de Kabiné Komara,” January 14, 2009. 31 Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), Country Report: Guinea, March 2009: 13. 32 International Crisis Group

  19. Observation of parturition in the Mexican mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) on the Island of Agaltepec, Veracruz State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte Dias, Pedro Américo

    2005-01-01

    We observed a birth in a group of Mexican mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) living under semi-free-ranging conditions on Agaltepec Island, Catemaco, Veracruz, Mexico. Although we could not quantify contractions, we were able to record a complete description of the sequence of events that resulted in a successful birth. Nine minutes passed from the release of the amniotic fluid to the total emergence of the infant. Although all group members were resting relatively close to the female when the birth occurred, none approached her until the postpartum period. Only then did several individuals briefly inspect the newborn and then resume their foraging activities.

  20. Heroin-related overdose: The unexplored influences of markets, marketing and source-types in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Mars, Sarah G.; Fessel, Jason N.; Bourgois, Philippe; Montero, Fernando; Karandinos, George; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Heroin overdose, more accurately termed ‘heroin-related overdose’ due to the frequent involvement of other drugs, is the leading cause of mortality among regular heroin users. (Degenhardt et al., 2010) Heroin injectors are at greater risk of hospital admission for heroin-related overdose (HOD) in the eastern United States where Colombian-sourced powder heroin is sold than in the western US where black ‘tar’ heroin predominates. (Unick et al., 2014) This paper examines under-researched influen...

  1. Adaptive control system having hedge unit and related apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric Norman (Inventor); Calise, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The invention includes an adaptive control system used to control a plant. The adaptive control system includes a hedge unit that receives at least one control signal and a plant state signal. The hedge unit generates a hedge signal based on the control signal, the plant state signal, and a hedge model including a first model having one or more characteristics to which the adaptive control system is not to adapt, and a second model not having the characteristic(s) to which the adaptive control system is not to adapt. The hedge signal is used in the adaptive control system to remove the effect of the characteristic from a signal supplied to an adaptation law unit of the adaptive control system so that the adaptive control system does not adapt to the characteristic in controlling the plant.

  2. Towards a best practice of modeling unit of measure and related statistical metadata

    CERN Document Server

    Grossmann, Wilfried

    2011-01-01

    Data and metadata exchange between organizations requires a common language for describing structure and content of statistical data and metadata. The SDMX consortium develops content oriented guidelines (COG) recommending harmonized cross-domain concepts and terminology to increase the efficiency of (meta-) data exchange. A recent challenge is a recommended code list for the unit of measure. Based on examples from SDMX sponsor organizations this paper analyses the diversity of ""unit of measure"" as used in practice, including potential breakdowns and interdependencies of the respective meta-

  3. Spinosad toxicity to Simulium spp. larvae and associated aquatic biota in a coffee-growing region of Veracruz State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante-Rodríguez, Dennis A; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Mercado, Gabriel; Williams, Trevor

    2011-05-01

    Spinosad is a naturally derived insecticide that has shown potential as a mosquito larvicide. To determine the activity of spinosad against blackflies, late-instar larvae from a community comprising Simulium triittatum (63.6%) and seven other species, including three known vectors of onchocerciasis in Mexico (S. metallicum, S. ochraceum, and S. callidum), were subjected to concentration-mortality laboratory bioassays following World Health Organization guidelines. Cephalic capsule measurements confirmed the relatively homogeneous distribution of experimental larvae. The 50% lethal concentration of spinosad was estimated at 1.48 ppm spinosad (95% confidence interval: 1.07-2.33) for a 10-min exposure period, whereas larvae treated with 0.05 ppm of the organophosphate temephos experienced 61% mortality. Immature aquatic insects were identified to genus and tested for their susceptibility to spinosad in the laboratory. After exposure to 12 ppm spinosad for 10 min, ephemeropterans, odonates, trichopterans, and hemipterans did not experience significantly increased mortality over that of untreated controls, whereas a significant increase in mortality was observed in spinosad-treated Plecoptera (P < 0.001). Tilapia and trout fry exposed to 12 ppm spinosad for 10 min did not experience increased mortality at 24-h postexposure over that of the controls. We conclude that spinosad is less toxic than temephos to these blackfly species, but is likely to have a low impact on nontarget members of the aquatic community.

  4. USBF recognized President Ilves for promoting relations between the Baltic countries and the United States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  5. Developing Leaders of Character at the United States Military Academy: A Relational Developmental Systems Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callina, Kristina Schmid; Ryan, Diane; Murray, Elise D.; Colby, Anne; Damon, William; Matthews, Michael; Lerner, Richard M.

    2017-01-01

    A paucity of literature exists on the processes of character development within diverse contexts. In this article, the authors use the United States Military Academy at West Point (USMA) as a sample case for understanding character development processes within an institution of higher education. The authors present a discussion of relational…

  6. The New Chapter of the United States-Indonesia Defense Relations: Reengagement through IMET

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    provided by the United States was consistently designed to limit the influence of communism in the country. Therefore, when President Sukarno started to...order to balance the shift taken by President Sukarno . During this period, the Central Intelligence of America (CIA) contributed by supplying weapons...

  7. Climate change impacts on freshwater fish, coral reefs, and related ecosystem services in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    We analyzed the potential physical and economic impacts of climate change on freshwater fisheries and coral reefs in the United States, examining a reference scenario and two policy scenarios that limit global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We modeled shifts in suitable habitat ...

  8. International Comparisons of Infant Mortality and Related Factors : United States and Europe, 2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacDorman, M.F.; Mathews, T.J.; Mohangoo, A.D.; Zeitlin, J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This report investigates the reasons for the United States' high infant mortality rate when compared with European countries. Specifically, the report measures the impact on infant mortality differences of two major factors: the percentage of preterm births and gestational age-specific i

  9. Revolution or Realism? United States-Iran Relations in the Post-Cold War Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    class diesel attack submarines purchased 23 from Rusia .23 Iran has thus gained the first submaritn capability of any Gulf state, a major achievement...important econotc interemt were to Rusia , Britain and the United States, larger strategic concerns have always headed the list of interests regarding IraM

  10. USBF recognized President Ilves for promoting relations between the Baltic countries and the United States

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves pälvis Balti riikide ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suhete edendamise eest Ameerika-Balti Fondi (USBF - The United States-Baltic Foundation) autasu - Baltic Statesmanship Award'i. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 17.-23.04.2008

  11. Segmenting into Adequate Units for Automatic Recognition of Emotion-Related Episodes: A Speech-Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Batliner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We deal with the topic of segmenting emotion-related (emotional/affective episodes into adequate units for analysis and automatic processing/classification—a topic that has not been addressed adequately so far. We concentrate on speech and illustrate promising approaches by using a database with children's emotional speech. We argue in favour of the word as basic unit and map sequences of words on both syntactic and ‘‘emotionally consistent” chunks and report classification performances for an exhaustive modelling of our data by mapping word-based paralinguistic emotion labels onto three classes representing valence (positive, neutral, negative, and onto a fourth rest (garbage class.

  12. Heat-related deaths after an extreme heat event--four states, 2012, and United States, 1999-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    On June 29, 2012, a rapidly moving line of intense thunderstorms with high winds swept across the midwestern and eastern United States, causing widespread damage and power outages. Afterward, the area experienced extreme heat, with maximum temperatures exceeding 100°F (37.8°C). This report describes 32 heat-related deaths in Maryland, Ohio, Virginia, and West Virginia that occurred during the 2 weeks following the storms and power outages. Median age of the decedents was 65 years, and most of the excessive heat exposures occurred within homes. During 1999-2009, an annual average of 658 heat-related deaths occurred in the United States. Heat-related deaths are preventable, and heat response plans should be in place before an extreme heat event (EHE). Interventions should focus on identifying and limiting heat exposure among vulnerable populations.

  13. Multiple Introductions of Zika Virus into the United States Revealed through Genomic Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-09

    Biological Sciences, College of Arts and Sciences, Florida Gulf Coast University, Fort Myers, FL 33965, USA 6Bureau of Public Health Laboratories...of Florida to report Ae. aegypti-borne virus transmission is along the United States- Mexico border near Brownsville, TX25. This area also reported...Central Americas (Guatemala, Mexico , Suriname, and Venezuela), the Caribbean (Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Martinique, and Puerto Rico), and

  14. Impact of role-, job- and organizational characteristics on Nursing Unit Managers' work related stress and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bogaert, Peter; Adriaenssens, Jef; Dilles, Tinne; Martens, Daisy; Van Rompaey, Bart; Timmermans, Olaf

    2014-11-01

    To study the impact of role, job- and organizational characteristics on nurse managers' work related stress and well-being such as feelings of emotional exhaustion, work engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intention. Various studies investigated role-, job- and organizational characteristics influencing nurse-related work environments. Research on nurse managers' related work environments define influencing factors, but, a clear understanding of the impact of nurse-managers' work-environment characteristics on their work related stress and well-being is limited. A cross-sectional design with a survey. A cross-sectional survey (N = 365) was carried out between December 2011-March 2012. The questionnaire was based on various validated measurement instruments identified by expert meetings (e.g. staff nurses, nurse managers and executives and physicians). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed using emotional exhaustion, work engagement, job satisfaction and turnover intentions as outcome variables. Study results showed one out of six nursing unit managers have high to very high feelings of emotional exhaustion and two out of three respondents have high to very high work engagement. Hierarchical regression models showed that role conflict and role meaningfulness were strong predictors of nursing unit managers' work related stress and well-being, alongside with job- and organizational characteristics. Several risk factors and stimulating factors influencing nurse unit managers' work related stress and well-being were identified. Further challenges will be to develop proper interventions and strategies to support nursing unit managers and their team in daily practice to deliver the best and safest patient care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. [Assessment of diagnostic methods for the catheter-related bloodstream infections in intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataman Hatipoğlu, Ciğdem; Ipekkan, Korhan; Oral, Behiç; Onde, Ufuk; Bulut, Cemal; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2011-01-01

    The majority of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) are associated with central venous catheters (CVCs) and most of them develop in patients staying at intensive care units (ICUs). The aim of this study was to assess the performance of different methods for the diagnosis of CR-BSI in neurology and neurosurgery ICUs of our hospital. This prospective study was carried out between January 2007 and January 2008 and all of the patients were followed daily for CR-BSI after the insertion of CVCs. Blood cultures were taken simultaneously from the catheter lumen and from at least one peripheral vein when there was a suspicion of CR-BSI. Additionally, from patients whose CVCs were removed, catheter tip cultures were taken and from patients with exit site infection, cultures of the skin surrounding the catheter entrance were taken. Catheter tip cultures were done by using quantitative and semiquantitative culture methods. Blood cultures taken from the catheter lumen and peripheral vein were incubated in the BACTEC 9050 (Becton Dickinson, USA) automated blood culture system. Gram and acridine orange (AO) staining were used for the smears prepared from the catheter tips and blood cultures. To evaluate the value of culture and staining methods in the diagnosis of CR-BSI; sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) of each method were determined. A total of 148 patients (66 male, 82 female; age range: 1-94 years, mean age: 58.7 ± 21.8 years) were included in the study, of whom 67 (45.3%) were from neurology and 81 (54.7%) were from neurosurgery ICUs. One hundred ninety-nine CVC application performed in 148 patients were evaluated. Mean duration of catheterization was 8.5 ± 5.2 days. Thirty-two episodes of CR-BSI among 199 catheterizations (16%) in 29 patients among a total of 148 patients (19.6%) were determined. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci

  16. Fires and related incidents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (2006–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Alqassim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire incidents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, reported to the Forensic and Mechanical Engineering section of the Dubai Police Forensic Laboratory during 2006–2013 were reviewed. A detailed examination of more than 5000 incidents, representing a wide range of fire types is presented. Statistical comparisons on the type of incident and the cause and origin of the fire have been evaluated. City areas covered by each police station are also identified. The outcomes of the study indicate that more than one third of the total number of incidents involved motor vehicles and these accounted for more than half of all deliberately set fires in Dubai. A further one third of the incidents reviewed were in residential units. Electrical failures were shown to pose the highest risk of accidental fire and the Bur Dubai Police Station was the busiest in terms of fire investigation caseload.

  17. United States - Cuba Relations: Does the War on Terrorism Change Our Stance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-04-09

    embargo. The United States’ North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) partners, Canada and Mexico , are also two of Cuba’s largest trading partners...getting through the lean "Special Period" by way of subsistence farming. Dr. Fernando Funes-Aguilar of the Havana-based Grupo de Agricultura Organica...www.sustainabletimes.ca/articles/cubanfarms.htm>. Internet. Accessed 19 October 2001. Baklanoff, Eric N. Expropriation of U.S. Investments in Cuba, Mexico

  18. Bathtub-related electrocutions in the United States, 1979 to 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnick, L D

    1984-08-17

    From 1979 to 1982, in the United States, at least 95 persons were electrocuted in bathtubs; 66% of the deaths occurred during the winter and spring. Children younger than 5 years had the greatest mortality rate, and hair dryers were responsible for 60% of the deaths. Until electric appliances used in bathrooms are made safer, the appliances should be disconnected when not in use, not used in wet bathtubs, and kept away from children.

  19. Politico-Military Relations, a Basis for Military Interaction between Argentina and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-15

    34 Guevara had a secret meeting with President Frondizi . (e) Refusal of the government to associate Argentina with the United States and the thirteen other...Peronist governor and even the government was shocked with this outcome, which was foreseen by the armed forces but not by President Frondizi . (2...accomplish what the constitutional government of President Illia could not. (b) Support of civilian intellectuals included ex-president Frondizi , who welcomed

  20. Key articles and guidelines relative to intensive care unit pharmacotherapy: 2009 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erstad, Brian L; Brophy, Gretchen M; Martin, Steven J; Haas, Curtis E; Devlin, John W; Welage, Lynda S; Dager, William E

    2009-10-01

    Compilations of key articles and guidelines in a particular clinical practice area are useful not only to clinicians who practice in that area, but also to all clinicians. We compiled pertinent articles and guidelines pertaining to drug therapy in the intensive care setting from the perspective of experienced critical care pharmacists. A broad assembly of practitioners with expertise in various areas of intensive care unit pharmacology were involved in the compilation of this update.

  1. Making the Environmental Justice Grade: The Relative Burden of Air Pollution Exposure in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Edwards, Sharon E.; Keating, Martha H.; Paul, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses whether the Clean Air Act and its Amendments have been equally successful in ensuring the right to healthful air quality in both advantaged and disadvantaged communities in the United States. Using a method to rank air quality established by the American Lung Association in its 2009 State of the Air report along with EPA air quality data, we assess the environmental justice dimensions of air pollution exposure and access to air quality information in the United States. We focus on the race, age, and poverty demographics of communities with differing levels of ozone and particulate matter exposure, as well as communities with and without air quality information. Focusing on PM2.5 and ozone, we find that within areas covered by the monitoring networks, non-Hispanic blacks are consistently overrepresented in communities with the poorest air quality. The results for older and younger age as well as poverty vary by the pollution metric under consideration. Rural areas are typically outside the bounds of air quality monitoring networks leaving large segments of the population without information about their ambient air quality. These results suggest that substantial areas of the United States lack monitoring data, and among areas where monitoring data are available, low income and minority communities tend to experience higher ambient pollution levels. PMID:21776200

  2. Rates of TBI-related Deaths by Age Group — United States, 2001–2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Changes in the rates of TBI-related deaths vary depending on age. For persons 44 years of age and younger, TBI-related deaths decreased between the periods of...

  3. Measuring relative efficiency of applied science and technology universities in province of Semnan, Iran and providing suggestions for merging units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Danaei

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available University of applied science and technology has been designed to create a platform for multilateral activities such as industrial, military and academic in developing countries to promote science and scientific research applications. These universities are responsible to promote practical training in quantitative and qualitative indicators and they provide appropriate infrastructure to implement theoretical graduates to solve practical problems to build necessary infrastructure to transfer modern technology into developing countries. During the past few years, there have been tremendous development on these units but some of them have not been efficient. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the relative efficiencies of various units of applied science and technology universities using data envelopment analysis. The proposed model of this paper uses two inputs including human resources as well as total assets and two outputs including the number of graduate students as well as operating profit. The results of the study have indicated that some of the units are inefficient and need to be merged with other units to increase the relative efficiency of these universities.

  4. The Welfare to Work Transition in the United States: Implications for Work-Related Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James C.; Martin, Larry G.

    2000-11-01

    This paper summarizes the legislation upon which the current welfare-to-work transition in the United States is based and describes characteristics of the former welfare population from which various tiers of employment options have emerged: unsubsidized-employed workers, subsidized-employed workers, subsidized-unemployed recipients, and unsubsidized-unemployed individuals. It also discusses current program emphases, and presents a format for directions for future program development which includes academic programs, situated cognition programs, integrated literacy/occupational skills programs, and integrated literacy/soft skills training.

  5. Relation between soil-gas radon variation and different lithotectonic units, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choubey, Vinay M.; Bist, K.S.; Saini, N.K. [Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehra Dun (India); Ramola, R.C. [Physics Department, H.N.B. Garhwal University campus, Tehri Garhwal (India)

    1999-11-01

    Measurements of radon concentration and uranium content in soil and rocks were made in the regions of the Alaknanda and Bhagirathi valleys in the Garhwal Himalaya by using radon emanometry and X-ray fluorescence method, respectively. The data were collected from different lithotectonic units along and across the various regional thrust planes, faults, shears, etc. The observed values were then correlated with the geological formations and structure of the area. Radon concentrations were found to be controlled by lithology, structure and associated uranium mineralization. A positive linear correlation was also observed between soil-gas radon and in situ uranium in the area.

  6. Ozone and Other Air Quality Related Variables Affecting Visibility in the Southeast United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    RHK 4 S ( smoke ) T 425 T (thunderstorm) TB 1 B (blowing dust, sand, etc...) TBH 1 TF 79 TFH 7 TH 197 THF 3 TLF 1 TR 80 TRF 32 TRH 21 Totals 2723 32...10 and ozone control stratigies to improve visibility in the Los Angeles Basin. Atmospheric Environment, 28, 3277-3283, 1994. Friedlander S. K., Smoke ...extinction in the United States. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 1347-1370, 1994. Malm W. C., J. Trijonis, J. Sisler, Pitchford M., Dennis R. L., Assesing the

  7. Thyroid Function Changes Related to Use of Iodinated Water in United States Space Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonigal, Kathleen A.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Dunn, John T.; Stanbury, John B.; Wear, Mary L.; Hamm, Peggy B.; Sauer, Richard L.; Billica, Roger D.; Pool, Sam L.

    1999-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has used iodination as a method of microbial disinfection of potable water systems in United States spacecraft and long-duration habitability modules. A review of the effects on the thyroid following consumption o iodinated water by NASA astronauts was conducted. Pharmacological doses of iodine consumed by astronauts transiently decreased thyroid function, as reflected in serum TSH values. Although the adverse effects of excess iodine consumption in susceptible individuals are well documented, exposure to high doses of iodine during space flight did not result in a statistically significant increase in long-term thyroid disease in the astronaut population.

  8. Army Pacific Pathways: Comprehensive Assessment and Planning Needed to Capture Benefits Relative to Costs and Enhance Value for Participating Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    logistics and sustainment units, any training efficiencies or cost avoidance resulting from Pacific Pathways, and non-financial costs , such as...ARMY PACIFIC PATHWAYS Comprehensive Assessment and Planning Needed to Capture Benefits Relative to Costs and Enhance...the costs of Pacific Pathways. The corrected section should read: “For fiscal year 2015, the three Pathway operations cost a total of $34.5 million

  9. How do relatives of persons with dementia experience their role in the patient participation process in special care units?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgesen, Ann K; Larsson, Maria; Athlin, Elsy

    2013-06-01

    To explore the role of relatives in the patient participation process for persons with dementia living in special care units in Norwegian nursing homes, with focus on everyday life. Studies exploring the experience of relatives of persons with dementia as to their role in the patient participation process are limited. The study had an explorative grounded theory design. Data collection was carried out by interviews with twelve close relatives. Simultaneously, data analysis was performed with open, axial and selective coding. The relatives' role in the patient participation process was experienced as transitions between different roles to secure the resident's well-being, which was understood as the resident's comfort and dignity. This was the ultimate goal for their participation. The categories 'being a visitor', 'being a spokesperson', 'being a guardian' and 'being a link to the outside world' described the different roles. Different situations and conditions triggered different roles, and the relatives' trust in the personnel was a crucial factor. The study has highlighted the great importance of relatives' role in the patient participation process, to secure the well-being of residents living in special care units. Our findings stress the uttermost need for a high degree of competence, interest and commitment among the personnel together with a well functioning, collaborative and cooperative relationship between the personnel and the relatives of persons with dementia. The study raises several important questions that emphasise that more research is needed. Relatives need to be seen and treated as a resource in the patient participation process in dementia care. More attention should be paid to initiating better cooperation between the personnel and the relatives, as this may have a positive impact both on the residents' and the relatives' well-being. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Anesthesia-Related Maternal Mortality in the United States : 1979-2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawkins, Joy L.; Chang, Jeani; Palmer, Susan K.; Gibbs, Charles P.; Callaghan, William M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine 12 years of anesthesia-related maternal deaths from 1991 to 2002 and compare them with data from 1979 to 1990, to estimate trends in anesthesia-related maternal mortality over time, and to compare the risks of general and regional anesthesia during cesarean delivery. METHODS: T

  11. The New Rules of PR and Marketing: A Teaching Unit for College Public Relations Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, Candice

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this lesson plan is to introduce the importance of social media and the Internet on public relations and marketing. The lesson describes the new rules for public relations versus the old rules. It is a more in depth look at how, and why, to use blogging, social media, and the Internet for promoting a company and appealing to buyers.…

  12. Anesthesia-Related Maternal Mortality in the United States : 1979-2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hawkins, Joy L.; Chang, Jeani; Palmer, Susan K.; Gibbs, Charles P.; Callaghan, William M.

    OBJECTIVE: To examine 12 years of anesthesia-related maternal deaths from 1991 to 2002 and compare them with data from 1979 to 1990, to estimate trends in anesthesia-related maternal mortality over time, and to compare the risks of general and regional anesthesia during cesarean delivery. METHODS:

  13. Health care expenditures associated with pediatric pain-related conditions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewald, Cornelius B; Wright, Davene R; Palermo, Tonya M

    2015-05-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the impact of pediatric pain-related conditions on health care expenditures. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 6- to 17-year-old children captured in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey and 2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Health care expenditures of children with pain-related conditions were compared with those of children without pain-related conditions. Pain-related conditions were associated with incremental health care expenditures of $1339 (95% confidence interval [CI], $248-$2447) per capita. Extrapolated to the nation, pediatric pain-related conditions were associated with $11.8 billion (95% CI, $2.18-$21.5 billion) in total incremental health care expenditures. The incremental health care expenditures associated with pediatric pain-related conditions were similar to those of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder ($9.23 billion; 95% CI, $1.89-$18.1 billion), but more than those associated with asthma ($5.35 billion; 95% CI, $0-$12.3 billion) and obesity ($0.73 billion; 95% CI, $6.28-$8.81 billion). Health care expenditures for pediatric pain-related conditions exert a considerable economic burden on society. Efforts to prevent and treat pediatric pain-related conditions are urgently needed.

  14. Cervical collar-related pressure ulcers in trauma patients in intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, H.W.; Schoonhoven, L.; Galer, A.A.; Shortridge-Baggett, L.L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The application of a cervical collar (C-collar) in trauma patients can be life-saving. Previous studies, however, describe development of pressure ulcers related to C-collars. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively compare collar-related pressure ulcers (CRPUs) occurring in trauma patients admi

  15. Cervical collar-related pressure ulcers in trauma patients in intensive care unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, H.W.; Schoonhoven, L.; Galer, A.A.; Shortridge-Baggett, L.L.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The application of a cervical collar (C-collar) in trauma patients can be life-saving. Previous studies, however, describe development of pressure ulcers related to C-collars. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively compare collar-related pressure ulcers (CRPUs) occurring in trauma patients

  16. Catheter-related infections in a northwestern São Paulo reference unit for burned patients care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Penido Campos Júnior

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in care and rehabilitation of burned patients, infections still remain the main complication and death cause. Catheter-related infections are among the four most common infections and are associated with skin damage and insertion site colonization. There are few studies evaluating this kind of infection worldwide in this special group of patients. Padre Albino Hospital Burn Care Unit (PAHBCU is the only reference center in the Northwestern São Paulo for treatment of burned patients. This paper presents the results of a retrospective study aiming at describing the epidemiological and clinical features of catheter-related infections at PAHBCU.

  17. Catheter-related infections in a northwestern São Paulo reference unit for burned patients care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Penido Campos Júnior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite improvements in care and rehabilitation of burned patients, infections still remain the main complication and death cause. Catheter-related infections are among the four most common infections and are associated with skin damage and insertion site colonization. There are few studies evaluating this kind of infection worldwide in this special group of patients. Padre Albino Hospital Burn Care Unit (PAHBCU is the only reference center in the Northwestern São Paulo for treatment of burned patients. This paper presents the results of a retrospective study aiming at describing the epidemiological and clinical features of catheter-related infections at PAHBCU.

  18. [Feelings of relatives regarding the patient who is admitted in intensive care unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Andreza Santos; Aragão, Neylor Rodrigo Oliveira; Moura, Elaine; Lima, Gabriela de Carvalho; Hora, Edilene Curvelo; Silva, Lausimary Araújo São Mateus

    2009-01-01

    This is a study with qualitative approach focusing on the relatives' feelings related to the patient who is admitted in intensive care unity. Twenty-four relatives were interviewed in a public hospital in Aracaju, SE, Brazil between July and August, 2007. The information was collected through an interview and evaluated according to content analysis. The results showed the following feelings: anxiety; worry; anguish and sadness; powerless; pain and sorrow; lost; fear and panic; stress; trust and security; insecurity; faith and hope and unexplainable feelings. Anxiety was the most common one and was related to the strange environment, the diversified procedures, fear of what will happen tomorrow and expectations of their relatives to get better.

  19. Prevalence and impact of dementia-related functional limitations in the United States, 2001 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, Henry Michael; McLaughlin, Trent; Leibman, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    These analyses examined the relationship between dementia and comorbid conditions with respect to degree of functional impairment and emotional impact. Analyses were conducted using National Health Interview Survey (2001 through 2005) data from a subset of individuals aged > or =60 years with activity limitations attributed to dementia, senility, or Alzheimer disease compared with those whose limitations were attributed to other conditions. The mean number of limited activities was 6.84 (95% confidence interval: 6.48-7.20) for persons with dementia-related limitations and 4.87 (95% confidence interval: 4.81-4.93) for those with limitations not dementia related. Both groups reported similar prevalence of diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, heart disease, prostate cancer, breast cancer, angina, and emphysema; respondents with dementia-related functional limitations were more likely to report diabetes, depression or anxiety, and vision problems as being related to functional limitations. Persons with dementia-related functional limitations were also more likely than persons with non-dementia-related functional limitations to report feeling sad, hopeless, worthless, nervous, and that "everything is an effort." Improving or maintaining functional independence in patients with dementia will likely require a multifaceted approach across disease states. Additional research will help define the impact of dementia on the development and progression of functional limitations related to comorbidities.

  20. Relative deprivation in income and self-rated health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanyam, Malavika; Kawachi, Ichiro; Berkman, Lisa; Subramanian, S V

    2009-08-01

    Absolute income is robustly associated with health status. Few studies have, however, examined if relative income is independently associated with health. We examined if, over and above the effects of absolute income, individual relative deprivation in income as well as position in the income hierarchy is associated with individual poor health in the U.S. Using three rounds of the Current Population Surveys (CPS), we analyzed the association between self-rated health (1=fair/poor, 0=otherwise) and the Yitzhaki index of relative deprivation in income and percentile position in the income hierarchy across 17 reference groups. Over and above the effects of absolute income, the odds ratio for reporting poor health among individuals in the highest quintile of relative deprivation compared to the lowest quintile ranged between 2.18 and 3.30, depending on the reference groups used. A 10 percentile increase in income position within reference groups was associated with an odds ratio of poor health of 0.89. Relative deprivation appeared to explain between 33 and 94% of the association between individual income and self-rated health. Relative deprivation in income is independently associated with poor health over and above the well established effects of absolute income on health. Relative deprivation may partly explain the association between income inequality and worse population health status.

  1. Occupationally related hydrogen sulfide deaths in the United States from 1984 to 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, D C; Suruda, A J

    2000-09-01

    Alice Hamilton described fatal work injuries from acute hydrogen sulfide poisonings in 1925 in her book Industrial Poisons in the United States. There is no unique code for H2S poisoning in the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision; therefore, these deaths cannot be identified easily from vital records. We reviewed US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) investigation records for the period 1984 to 1994 for mention of hazardous substance 1480 (hydrogen sulfide). There were 80 fatalities from hydrogen sulfide in 57 incidents, with 19 fatalities and 36 injuries among coworkers attempting to rescue fallen workers. Only 17% of the deaths were at workplaces covered by collective bargaining agreements. OSHA issued citations for violation of respiratory protection and confined space standards in 60% of the fatalities. The use of hydrogen sulfide detection equipment, air-supplied respirators, and confined space safety training would have prevented most of the fatalities.

  2. Productivity Gap and Asymmetric Trade Relations: The Canada-United States of America Integration Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán H. Gonzalez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of the European model of integration is currently subject to debate and the North American integration process has been largely ignored as a comparative framework. The asymmetrical relationship between Canada and the United States began a long time before NAFTA, and the study of this process could shed light on the usual problems faced by Latin American countries. This article attempts to encourage discussion about this topic. Particularly,there is evidence for a substantial and positive change in Canadian productivity at the time of the Canada-US Free Trade Agreement (CUFTA. However, the enactment of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA does not seem to have had the same effect as the earlier treaty.

  3. Relative spatial soil geochemical variability along two transects across the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    To support the development of protocols for the proposed North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes project, whose objective is to establish baselines for the geochemistry of North American soils, two continental-scale transects across the United States and Canada were sampled in 2004. The sampling employed a spatially stratified random sampling design in order to estimate the variability between 40-km linear sampling units, within them, at sample sites, and due to sample preparation and analytical chemical procedures. The 40-km scale was chosen to be consistent with the density proposed for the continental-scale project. The two transects, north–south (N–S) from northern Manitoba to the USA–Mexico border near El Paso, Texas, and east–west (E–W) from the Virginia shore north of Washington, DC, to north of San Francisco, California, closely following the 38th parallel, have been studied individually. The purpose of this study was to determine if statistically significant systematic spatial variation occurred along the transects. Data for 38 major, minor and trace elements in A- and C-horizon soils where less than 5% of the data were below the detection limit were investigated by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). A total of 15 elements (K, Na, As, Ba, Be, Ce, La, Mn, Nb, P, Rb, Sb, Th, Tl and W) demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.05) variability at the between-40-km scale for both horizons along both transects. Only Cu failed to demonstrate significant variability at the between-40-km scale for both soil horizons along both transects.

  4. Measuring Distributional Inequality: Relative Body Mass Index Distributions by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Education, United States (1999–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Houle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Few studies consider obesity inequalities as a distributional property. This study uses relative distribution methods to explore inequalities in body mass index (BMI; kg/m2. Data from 1999–2006 from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to compare BMI distributions by gender, Black/White race, and education subgroups in the United States. For men, comparisons between Whites and Blacks show a polarized relative distribution, with more Black men at increased risk of over or underweight. Comparisons by education (overall and within race/ethnic groups effects also show a polarized relative distribution, with more cases of the least educated men at the upper and lower tails of the BMI distribution. For women, Blacks have a greater probability of high BMI values largely due to a right-shifted BMI distribution relative to White women. Women with less education also have a BMI distribution shifted to the right compared to the most educated women.

  5. [The role of the psychologist in the intensive care unit with patients and their relatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, François

    2012-06-01

    The ICU stay is a potential source of psychological trauma for patients but also for their relatives. The presence of a psychologist can help overcome these difficulties. The nursingteam should be alerted to the identification of symptoms of distress.

  6. Relative deprivation and internal migration in the United States: A comparison of black and white men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2013-03-01

    While the link between geographic and social mobility has long been a cornerstone of sociological approaches to migration, recent research has cast doubt on the economic returns to internal U.S. migration. Moreover, important racial disparities in migration patterns remain poorly understood. Drawing on data from the 2000 census, I reappraise the link between migration and social mobility by taking relative deprivation into consideration. I examine the association between migration, disaggregated by region of origin and destination, and absolute and relative earnings and occupational prestige, separately by race. Findings lend new insight into the theoretical and stratification implications of growing racial disparities in migration patterns; while both blacks and whites who move north-south generally average lower absolute incomes than their stationary northern peers, they enjoy significantly higher relative social position. Moreover, the relative "gains" to migration are substantially larger for blacks than whites. The opposite patterns obtain for south-north migration.

  7. Energy-related doctoral scientists and engineers in the United States, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    Information is compiled about the number and characteristics of doctoral-level engineers and scientists in primarily energy-related activities. These data are for the year 1977 and are part of the data base for a program of continuing studies on the employment and utilization of all scientists and engineers involved in energy-related activities. Data on mathematics, physics, chemistry, environmental engineering, engineering, life sciences, psychology, and social sciences doctoral degree specialties are included.

  8. United States-Japan economic relations: (1945-1997): a hegemonic quest?

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan, Elif

    1997-01-01

    Ankara : Department of International Relations and Institute of Economics and Social Sciences, Bilkent Univ., 1997. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 1997. Includes bibliographical references leaves 113-119 In this thesis, the purpose is to analyze the dynamism in the US- Japanese economic relations between 1945- 1997; with regard to the hegemonic stability theory. After stating the basic assumptions of the theory; the economic decline of the US and the rise of Jap...

  9. Technology Strategy and Industrial Relations: Case Studies of Japanese Multinationals in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Eight case studies of U.S. manufacturing subsidiaries of Japanese multinationals are analyzed in terms of variations in competitive strategies and industrial relations practices. Based on data collected in 1980 on-site visits, each firm is reviewed in light of the technology contributions coming from the Japanese parent and is categorized as having product-, process-, and/or management-centered technology strategies. The industrial relations practices are also grouped according to similaritie...

  10. State and local policies related to sexual orientation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ryan; Hexem, Sarah; LaPollo, Archana; Cuffe, Kendra M; Chesson, Harrell W; Leichliter, Jami S

    2016-09-23

    Poorer health suffered by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations may be associated with public policies. We collected the laws that in 2013 prohibited discrimination based on sexual orientation from 50 United States (US) states, the District of Columbia (Washington, DC or DC), and the 30 most populous US metropolitan areas. To facilitate future research, we coded certain aspects of these laws to create a dataset. We generated descriptive statistics by jurisdiction type and tested for regional differences in state law using Chi-square tests. Sixteen (31.4 per cent) states prohibited discrimination by all employers based on sexual orientation, 25 states (49.0 per cent) in public employment, 18 states (35.3 per cent) in government contracting, and 21 states (41.2 per cent) in private employment. Twenty-one states prohibited discrimination (41.2 per cent) in housing practices (selling and renting), and 17 (33.3 per cent) in public accommodations. Local (county/city) laws prohibiting discrimination were less common. State laws differed significantly by US census region - West, Midwest, Northeast, and South. Future analyses of these data could examine the impact of these laws on various outcomes, including health among LGB populations.

  11. Exploratory factor analysis for differentiating sensory and mechanical variables related to muscle-tendon unit elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro H. Chagas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Stretching exercises are able to promote adaptations in the muscle-tendon unit (MTU, which can be tested through physiological and biomechanical variables. Identifying the key variables in MTU adaptations is crucial to improvements in training. Objective To perform an exploratory factor analysis (EFA involving the variables often used to evaluate the response of the MTU to stretching exercises. Method Maximum joint range of motion (ROMMAX, ROM at first sensation of stretching (FSTROM, peak torque (torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy were investigated in 36 participants during passive knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. Stiffness and energy values were normalized by the muscle cross-sectional area and their passive mode assured by monitoring the EMG activity. Results EFA revealed two major factors that explained 89.68% of the total variance: 53.13% was explained by the variables torqueMAX, passive stiffness, normalized stiffness, passive energy, and normalized energy, whereas the remaining 36.55% was explained by the variables ROMMAX and FSTROM. Conclusion This result supports the literature wherein two main hypotheses (mechanical and sensory theories have been suggested to describe the adaptations of the MTU to stretching exercises. Contrary to some studies, in the present investigation torqueMAX was significantly correlated with the variables of the mechanical theory rather than those of the sensory theory. Therefore, a new approach was proposed to explain the behavior of the torqueMAX during stretching exercises.

  12. Major Problems Related with Operation of Catalytic Reforming Units and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Jianhua

    2006-01-01

    @@ Currently the catalytic reforming units are playing an increasingly important role for gasoline quality upgrading, increased production of high add-value aromatic compounds and supply of cheap hydrogen resources. The high proportion of FCC gasoline in China' s automotive gasoline pool has led to a quite significant gap in gasoline quality as compared to the demand of World Fuel Charter and even to the new Chinese standards for unleaded automotive gasoline. According to the statistical data, the ratio of FCC naphtha in the gasoline pool is 35% in the US and 27% in EU, whereas that number is 75% in China's gasoline pool. The share of reformate and other high-quality gasoline components in the gasoline pool is 65% in the US and 73% in EU, whereas that number is merely 14% in China's gasoline pool along with a definite share of low-octane (straight-run) gasoline. Therefore, devoting major efforts to the development of catalytic reforming technology to increase the output of high-octane, lowolefin and low-sulfur reformer gasoline component is an effective avenue for gasoline quality upgrading along with increased production of high add-value aromatics and cheap hydrogen.

  13. Economist intelligence unit democracy index in relation to health services accessibility: a regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mary Ellen; Anonson, June; Szafron, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between political environment and health services accessibility (HSA) has not been the focus of any specific studies. The purpose of this study was to address this gap in the literature by examining the relationship between political environment and HSA. This relationship that HSA indicators (physicians, nurses and hospital beds per 10 000 people) has with political environment was analyzed with multiple least-squares regression using the components of democracy (electoral processes and pluralism, functioning of government, political participation, political culture, and civil liberties). The components of democracy were represented by the 2011 Economist Intelligence Unit Democracy Index (EIUDI) sub-scores. The EIUDI sub-scores and the HSA indicators were evaluated for significant relationships with multiple least-squares regression. While controlling for a country's geographic location and level of democracy, we found that two components of a nation's political environment: functioning of government and political participation, and their interaction had significant relationships with the three HSA indicators. These study findings are of significance to health professionals because they examine the political contexts in which citizens access health services, they come from research that is the first of its kind, and they help explain the effect political environment has on health. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. State and local policies related to sexual orientation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Ryan; Hexem, Sarah; LaPollo, Archana; Cuffe, Kendra M; Chesson, Harrell W; Leichliter, Jami S

    2017-02-01

    Poorer health suffered by lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations may be associated with public policies. We collected the laws that in 2013 prohibited discrimination based on sexual orientation from 50 United States (US) states, the District of Columbia (Washington, DC or DC), and the 30 most populous US metropolitan areas. To facilitate future research, we coded certain aspects of these laws to create a dataset. We generated descriptive statistics by jurisdiction type and tested for regional differences in state law using Chi-square tests. Sixteen (31.4 per cent) states prohibited discrimination by all employers based on sexual orientation, 25 states (49.0 per cent) in public employment, 18 states (35.3 per cent) in government contracting, and 21 states (41.2 per cent) in private employment. Twenty-one states prohibited discrimination (41.2 per cent) in housing practices (selling and renting), and 17 (33.3 per cent) in public accommodations. Local (county/city) laws prohibiting discrimination were less common. State laws differed significantly by US census region - West, Midwest, Northeast, and South. Future analyses of these data could examine the impact of these laws on various outcomes, including health among LGB populations.

  15. Unmeasured improvement work: the lack of routinely collected, service-related data in NHS endoscopy units in England involved in "modernisation".

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorne, K.; Hutchings, H.A.; Elwyn, G.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of routinely collected service-related endoscopy data from NHS endoscopy units has never been quantified. METHODS: This retrospective observational study asked 19 endoscopy units to submit copies of all in-house, service-related endoscopy data that had been routinely

  16. Comfort of the patient's family in an Intensive Care Unit related to welcoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana de Almeida Moraes Gibaut

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the level of comfort of families of patients in a critical health condition related to the welcoming practices performed by the hospital staff. Interviews were conducted with 250 relatives in hospitals of the state Bahia, using a Likert scale. Data were analyzed as percentages and quartiles. For nine of the 12 statements of the scale, most relatives scored their comfort level between very and totally comfortable, median of 4,revealing kindness, tranquility and friendly communication with family members. More than half of the sample scored its level as not at all to more or less comfortable, median of 3, for statements about demonstration of interest towards the relative by the staff and flexible visiting of the patient. The necessity of greater interest of the team in the condition and needs of the family was observed. Promoting comfort from the dimension of welcoming demands interdisciplinary actions grounded in humanistic philosophy, in which the nurse has an important role to play.

  17. Conservation priorities for tree crop wild relatives in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our native crop wild relatives have proved useful as genetic resources in breeding more productive, nutritious, and resilient crops. Their utilization is expected only to increase with better information on the species and improving breeding tools, but may well be constrained by their limited repres...

  18. Factors Related to Performance of Health Practices Among Asian Adolescents in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia G. Ayres, PhD, RN

    2010-06-01

    Conclusions: Study findings extend existing knowledge and contribute to a more comprehensive knowledge base regarding health practices among Asian adolescents. Having this knowledge base provides practitioners with a better understanding of the factors related to health practices in Asian adolescents and assists them in developing culturally sensitive interventions aimed at promoting PHP in this population.

  19. The Use of Relative Performance Evaluation at the Business Unit Manager Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Elten, Hilco

    2016-01-01

    Relative Performance Evaluation is a widely studies topic in the theoretical and analytical economics and accounting literatures. Also the empirical literature addresses this topic, with its main focus on executive compensation, and using archival data. This study assesses the extent to which RPE is

  20. Using real time process measurements to reduce catheter related bloodstream infections in the intensive care unit

    OpenAIRE

    Wall, R; Ely, E; Elasy, T; Dittus, R; Foss, J.; Wilkerson, K; Speroff, T

    2005-01-01

    

Problem: Measuring a process of care in real time is essential for continuous quality improvement (CQI). Our inability to measure the process of central venous catheter (CVC) care in real time prevented CQI efforts aimed at reducing catheter related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs) from these devices.

  1. Alcohol involvement in opioid pain reliever and benzodiazepine drug abuse-related emergency department visits and drug-related deaths - United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher M; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Mack, Karin A

    2014-10-10

    The abuse of prescription drugs has led to a significant increase in emergency department (ED) visits and drug-related deaths over the past decade. Opioid pain relievers (OPRs) and benzodiazepines are the prescription drugs most commonly involved in these events. Excessive alcohol consumption also accounts for a significant health burden and is common among groups that report high rates of prescription drug abuse. When taken with OPRs or benzodiazepines, alcohol increases central nervous system depression and the risk for overdose. Data describing alcohol involvement in OPR or benzodiazepine abuse are limited. To quantify alcohol involvement in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse and drug-related deaths and to inform prevention efforts, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed 2010 data for drug abuse-related ED visits in the United States and drug-related deaths that involved OPRs and alcohol or benzodiazepines and alcohol in 13 states. The analyses showed alcohol was involved in 18.5% of OPR and 27.2% of benzodiazepine drug abuse-related ED visits and 22.1% of OPR and 21.4% of benzodiazepine drug-related deaths. These findings indicate that alcohol plays a significant role in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse. Interventions to reduce the abuse of alcohol and these drugs alone and in combination are needed.

  2. Measuring the Relative Efficiency in Multi-Component Decision Making Units and its Application to Bank Branches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Noora

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cases of data envelopment analysis (DEA, decision making units (DMUs can be separated into different components. These DMUs are called multi-component DMUs, and studying them is known as multi-component DEA. In multi-component DEA some inputs are shared among the components of a DMU, and some components involve into producing some outputs of the DMU. In this paper, we survey measuring the relative efficiency in multi-component DEA. It is shown that using common idea for measuring the efficiency of multi-component DMUs, the relative efficiency of an evaluating DMU may be not obtained. Therefore, present paper proposes a new DEA model which can obtain the relative efficiencies of multi-component DMUs. Some facts about the proposed approach are also provided by theorems. Moreover, the proposed DEA model is compared to another approach in literature utilizing a set of data about 19 bank branches

  3. Energy-related doctoral scientists and engineers in the United States, 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-11-01

    The pursuit of a vigorous research and development program to provide renewable and other resources to meet U. S. energy needs in the next century is an important objective of President Carter's National Energy Plan. A highly educated and motivated pool of engineers and scientists must be available for energy research and development if this objective is to be achieved. This report provides, for the first time, information about the number and characteristics of doctoral-level engineers and scientists in primarily energy-related activities. These data for the year 1975 will become part of the data base for a program of continuing studies on the employment and utilization of all scientists and engineers involved in energy-related activities. Information is provided for employment in the following fields: mathematics; physics/astronomy; chemistry; Earth, Environment, and Marine Sciences; Engineering; Life Sciences; Psychology; Social Sciences; Arts and Humanities; and Education and Business.

  4. Epidemiology of Chain Saw Related Injuries, United States: 2009 through 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Hammig

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem. Chain saws are a commonly used tool with the potential to inflict severe injuries. Methods. Descriptive epidemiological estimates for emergency department (ED visits for injuries associated with the use of a chain saw were calculated using data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System for the years 2009–2013. Results. A total of 115,895 ED visits for injuries related to the use of a chain saw occurred during the study period. Most injury visits occurred among males (95% and persons aged 30–59 years and during the months of September through November. The main body sites injured were the hand/fingers and knee. The majority of injuries were lacerations (80%. Conclusions. Chain saw injuries present with characteristic patterns which can aid in prevention of injuries related to the use of these tools. Examination of the epidemiology of chain saw injuries will help to ascertain targeted needs for prevention and control efforts.

  5. Assessment and Management of Sport-Related Concussions in United States High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P.; d’Hemecourt, Pierre; Collins, Christy L.; Comstock, R. Dawn

    2012-01-01

    Background Little existing data describe which medical professionals and which medical studies are used to assess sport-related concussions in high school athletes. Purpose To describe the medical providers and medical studies used when assessing sport-related concussions. To determine the effects of medical provider type on timing of return to play, frequency of imaging, and frequency of neuropsychological testing. Study Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods All concussions recorded by the High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO) injury surveillance system during the 2009 to 2010 academic year were included. χ2 analyses were conducted for categorical variables. Fisher exact test was used for nonparametric data. Logistic regression analyses were used when adjusting for potential confounders. Statistical significance was considered for P concussions, representing 14.6% of all injuries. Most (94.4%) concussions were assessed by athletic trainers (ATs), 58.8% by a primary care physician. Few concussions were managed by specialists. The assessment of 21.2% included computed tomography. Computerized neuropsychological testing was used for 41.2%. For 50.1%, a physician decided when to return the athlete to play; for 46.2%, the decision was made by an AT. After adjusting for potential confounders, no associations between timing of return to play and the type of provider (physician vs AT) deciding to return the athlete to play were found. Conclusion Concussions account for nearly 15% of all sport-related injuries in high school athletes. The timing of return to play after a sport-related concussion is similar regardless of whether the decision to return the athlete to play is made by a physician or an AT. When a medical doctor is involved, most concussions are assessed by primary care physicians as opposed to subspecialists. Computed tomography is obtained during the assessment of 1 of every 5 concussions occurring in high school athletes. PMID:21969181

  6. Assessment and management of sport-related concussions in United States high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, William P; d'Hemecourt, Pierre; Collins, Christy L; Comstock, R Dawn

    2011-11-01

    Little existing data describe which medical professionals and which medical studies are used to assess sport-related concussions in high school athletes. To describe the medical providers and medical studies used when assessing sport-related concussions. To determine the effects of medical provider type on timing of return to play, frequency of imaging, and frequency of neuropsychological testing. Descriptive epidemiology study. All concussions recorded by the High School Reporting Information Online (HS RIO) injury surveillance system during the 2009 to 2010 academic year were included. χ(2) analyses were conducted for categorical variables. Fisher exact test was used for nonparametric data. Logistic regression analyses were used when adjusting for potential confounders. Statistical significance was considered for P concussions, representing 14.6% of all injuries. Most (94.4%) concussions were assessed by athletic trainers (ATs), 58.8% by a primary care physician. Few concussions were managed by specialists. The assessment of 21.2% included computed tomography. Computerized neuropsychological testing was used for 41.2%. For 50.1%, a physician decided when to return the athlete to play; for 46.2%, the decision was made by an AT. After adjusting for potential confounders, no associations between timing of return to play and the type of provider (physician vs AT) deciding to return the athlete to play were found. Concussions account for nearly 15% of all sport-related injuries in high school athletes. The timing of return to play after a sport-related concussion is similar regardless of whether the decision to return the athlete to play is made by a physician or an AT. When a medical doctor is involved, most concussions are assessed by primary care physicians as opposed to subspecialists. Computed tomography is obtained during the assessment of 1 of every 5 concussions occurring in high school athletes.

  7. Effectiveness of the United Nations Security Council to Prevent Conflict Related Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    3 Definition of Terms Conflict-Related Sexual Violence (CRSV)—Rape, sexual slavery, forced prostitution, forced pregnancy , forced abortion... Stress Disorder, and anxiety. Below is a brief testimony from a Rwandan woman named Goretti. I was taken by force, they were wild animals. You knew it...reconstruction or self-confidence, which are characteristics of depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Although, Goretti does not show signs

  8. School bullying among adolescents in the United States: physical, verbal, relational, and cyber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Iannotti, Ronald J; Nansel, Tonja R

    2009-10-01

    Four forms of school bullying behaviors among US adolescents and their association with sociodemographic characteristics, parental support, and friends were examined. Data were obtained from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) 2005 Survey, a nationally representative sample of grades 6-10 (N = 7,182). The revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire was used to measure physical, verbal, and relational forms of bullying. Two items were added using the same format to measure cyber bullying. For each form, four categories were created: bully, victim, bully-victim, and not involved. Multinomial logistic regressions were applied, with sociodemographic variables, parental support, and number of friends as predictors. Prevalence rates of having bullied others or having been bullied at school for at least once in the last 2 months were 20.8% physically, 53.6% verbally, 51.4% socially, or 13.6% electronically. Boys were more involved in physical or verbal bullying, whereas girls were more involved in relational bullying. Boys were more likely to be cyber bullies, whereas girls were more likely to be cyber victims. African-American adolescents were involved in more bullying (physical, verbal, or cyber) but less victimization (verbal or relational). Higher parental support was associated with less involvement across all forms and classifications of bullying. Having more friends was associated with more bullying and less victimization for physical, verbal, and relational forms but was not associated with cyber bullying. Parental support may protect adolescents from all four forms of bullying. Friends associate differentially with traditional and cyber bullying. Results indicate that cyber bullying is a distinct nature from that of traditional bullying.

  9. TRAFFIC CONTROL AND IMPROVING RELATIONS DRIVERS OF VEHICLES WITH EMPLOYEES UNITS GAI CITIES OF DNIPROPETROVSK

    OpenAIRE

    Мозолевич, Г. Я.; А. В. ТРОЯН

    2013-01-01

    In this work there were suggested the arrangements for the improvement of mutual relations of drivers and employees of the State motor-car inspection of Dnipropetrovsk city by introduction of electronic account of documents and automation of processes of travelling traffic regulation and controlling a travelling situation on the motor-car ways of city. There has been worked out strategy of introduction and expected cost of project for Dni-propetrovsk city. 

  10. Nursery Product-Related Injuries Treated in United States Emergency Departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaw, Christopher E; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A

    2017-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the epidemiology of injuries associated with nursery products among young children treated in US emergency departments. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were retrospectively analyzed for patients aged injuries among children aged injuries per 10 000 children. The annual injury rate decreased significantly by 33.9% from 1991 to 2003, followed by a significant increase of 23.7% from 2003 to 2011. The decrease was driven by a significant decline in baby walker/jumper/exerciser-related injuries; the increase was driven by a significant increase in concussions and closed head injuries. Nursery product-related injuries were most commonly associated with baby carriers (19.5%), cribs/mattresses (18.6%), strollers/carriages (16.5%), or baby walkers/jumpers/exercisers (16.2%). The most common mechanism of injury was a self-precipitated fall (80.0%), and the most frequently injured body region was the head or neck (47.1%). Although successful injury prevention efforts with baby walkers led to a decline in nursery product-related injuries from 1991 to 2003, the number and rate of these injuries have been increasing since 2003. Greater efforts are warranted to prevent injuries associated with other nursery products, especially baby carriers, cribs, and strollers. Prevention of falls and concussions/closed head injuries associated with nursery products also deserves special attention. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. The mouse genome displays highly dynamic populations of KRAB-zinc finger protein genes and related genetic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauzlaric, Annamaria; Ecco, Gabriela; Cassano, Marco; Duc, Julien; Imbeault, Michael; Trono, Didier

    2017-01-01

    KRAB-containing poly-zinc finger proteins (KZFPs) constitute the largest family of transcription factors encoded by mammalian genomes, and growing evidence indicates that they fulfill functions critical to both embryonic development and maintenance of adult homeostasis. KZFP genes underwent broad and independent waves of expansion in many higher vertebrates lineages, yet comprehensive studies of members harbored by a given species are scarce. Here we present a thorough analysis of KZFP genes and related units in the murine genome. We first identified about twice as many elements than previously annotated as either KZFP genes or pseudogenes, notably by assigning to this family an entity formerly considered as a large group of Satellite repeats. We then could delineate an organization in clusters distributed throughout the genome, with signs of recombination, translocation, duplication and seeding of new sites by retrotransposition of KZFP genes and related genetic units (KZFP/rGUs). Moreover, we harvested evidence indicating that closely related paralogs had evolved through both drifting and shifting of sequences encoding for zinc finger arrays. Finally, we could demonstrate that the KAP1-SETDB1 repressor complex tames the expression of KZFP/rGUs within clusters, yet that the primary targets of this regulation are not the KZFP/rGUs themselves but enhancers contained in neighboring endogenous retroelements and that, underneath, KZFPs conserve highly individualized patterns of expression.

  12. [Fluctuations in relative income and the baby boom in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier De Carbon, P

    1997-01-01

    This work argues that fluctuations in relative income of young adults in the US after World War II coincided with the dramatically increased fertility of the baby boom and were probably a significant determining factor in its occurrence and eventual interruption. The US total fertility rate declined rapidly in the early 20th century, from 3.8 in 1900 to 2.44 in 1929 and 2.24 in 1935-36. Fertility was below replacement level in 1932-39. Its spectacular recovery from the early 1940s culminated in the year 1957, with a total fertility rate of 3.77. Fertility declined rapidly again in the late 1960s and attained its low point in 1976, with a total fertility rate of 1.74. It has slowly increased since then, especially with the arrival of increasing numbers of high-fertility immigrants from Latin America beginning in the late 1980s. Although per capita gross national product in the US rose dramatically between 1929 and 1994, income distribution also changed, as did the relative income from wages and salaries of workers under 40 years old. From the end of World War II until the late 1950s, the wage and salary income of young workers increased more rapidly than did that of older workers, so that younger workers were at an advantage during the years of the baby boom. Young workers also benefited from federal programs such as Fulbright scholarships, home loan programs, and veterans benefits. Transfer payments for pensions and higher interest rates progressively improved the position of older workers, and younger workers faced a loss of relative income in the 1960s and 1970s that coincided with the end of the baby boom and that quite likely was a causative factor. With the progressive aging of the US population, the relative loss of income of younger workers will probably intensify and be joined by a relative loss of political power, as the proportion of the electorate in the prime childbearing years shrinks further.

  13. Data envelopment analysis model for the appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses at an intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ibrahim H; Berbary, Lynn N; Sidani, Yusuf; Al-Ayoubi, Baydaa; Emrouznejad, Ali

    2011-10-01

    The appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses are very important and beneficial for both nurses and employers in an era of clinical governance, increased accountability and high standards of health care services. They enhance and consolidate the knowledge and practical skills of nurses by identification of training and career development plans as well as improvement in health care quality services, increase in job satisfaction and use of cost-effective resources. In this paper, a data envelopment analysis (DEA) model is proposed for the appraisal and relative performance evaluation of nurses. The model is validated on thirty-two nurses working at an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at one of the most recognized hospitals in Lebanon. The DEA was able to classify nurses into efficient and inefficient ones. The set of efficient nurses was used to establish an internal best practice benchmark to project career development plans for improving the performance of other inefficient nurses. The DEA result confirmed the ranking of some nurses and highlighted injustice in other cases that were produced by the currently practiced appraisal system. Further, the DEA model is shown to be an effective talent management and motivational tool as it can provide clear managerial plans related to promoting, training and development activities from the perspective of nurses, hence increasing their satisfaction, motivation and acceptance of appraisal results. Due to such features, the model is currently being considered for implementation at ICU. Finally, the ratio of the number DEA units to the number of input/output measures is revisited with new suggested values on its upper and lower limits depending on the type of DEA models and the desired number of efficient units from a managerial perspective.

  14. On the relation between the Lebesgue integral means and Nevanlinna characteristic of analytic functions in the unit disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. V. Vasyl’kiv

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The best possible asymptotic estimates for Lebesgue integral means $m_{p}(r,log f, 1 leq p$ of logarithms of analytic functions $f(z$ in the unit disc in terms of their Nevanlinna characteristic $T(r,f$ are obtained. We get sharp relation between the order of $T(r,f$ and the order of $m_{p}(r,log f$ for an analytic function $f(z$ of finite order $alpha(f.$ This generalizes well-known results of L.~R.~Sons and C.~N.~Linden.

  15. Tooth Loss in Appalachia and the Mississippi Delta Relative to Other Regions in the United States, 1999–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Marina Mileo; Sanders, Seth G.; Wu, Bei

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined regional variation in tooth loss in the United States from 1999 to 2010. Methods. We used 6 waves of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and data on county characteristics to describe regional trends in tooth loss and decompose diverging trends into the parts explained by individual and county components. Results. Appalachia and the Mississippi Delta had higher levels of tooth loss than the rest of the country in 1999. From 1999 to 2010, tooth loss declined in the United States. However, Appalachia did not converge toward the US average, and the Mississippi Delta worsened relative to the United States. Socioeconomic status explained the largest portion of differences between regions in 1999, but a smaller portion of the trends. The Mississippi Delta is aging more quickly than the rest of the country, which explains 17% of the disparity in the time trend. Conclusions. The disadvantage in tooth loss is persistent in Appalachia and growing in the Mississippi Delta. The increasing disparity is partly explained by changes in the age structure but is also associated with behavioral and environmental factors. PMID:24524527

  16. Fact sheets relating to use of geothermal energy in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    A compilation of data relating to geothermal energy in each of the 50 states is presented. The data are summarized on one page for each state. All summary data sheets use a common format. Following the summary data sheet there are additional data on the geology of each state pertaining to possible hydrothermal/geothermal resources. Also there is a list of some of the reports available pertaining to the state and state energy contacts. The intent of these documents is to present in a concise form reference data for planning by the Department of Energy.

  17. Work-related pilot fatalities in agriculture--United States, 1992-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-23

    Aircraft often are used in agriculture to apply pesticides, herbicides, or fertilizers. During 1992-2001, a total of 141 persons died in agriculture-related plane crashes. To characterize aviation fatalities in agriculture, CDC analyzed data on fatal injuries to pilots working in U.S. agriculture during 1992-2001. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that agricultural pilots are at increased risk for fatal injury compared with pilots in all other industries. The agriculture aviation profession continues to work to reduce fatalities by recommending continual skill development and by offering training to aerial application pilots.

  18. Turkey’s Relations with Iran and the United States: A Shift in Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    experienced a golden era during the Ataturk and Riza Shah Pahlavi period. Both states’ fates were similar against the imperial powers. The Soviet...February 21, 2009). 107 Arif Keskin, “Bütün Boyutları ile İran ve Türkiye İlişkileri”, http://www.oyrenci.com/SpecialPart/b5775632-5417-4cf3-a4fa...cetinsaya.pdf (accessed February 21, 2009). 109 Arif Keskin, “Iran-Turkey Relations: Balance, Rivalry and Mutual Dependence”, Avrasya Stratejik

  19. Valuation of Child Health-Related Quality of Life in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Benjamin M; Greiner, Wolfgang; Brown, Derek S; Reeve, Bryce B

    2016-06-01

    Many economic analyses fail to incorporate evidence on child health-related quality of life because of a paucity of quality-adjusted life year (QALY) estimates. This health valuation study is the first to summarize the EQ-5D-Y on a QALY scale. Drawn from a nationally representative panel, 5207 adult respondents were asked to choose between two losses in child health-related quality of life. Based on their choices, a 1-year increase in child pain/discomfort from 'some' to 'a lot' equals a loss of 4 QALYs (95% CI, 3.8-4.4). Likewise, a 1-year increase in child anxiety/depression from 'a bit' to 'very worried, sad, or unhappy' equals a loss of 2 QALYs (95% CI, 1.9-2.2). These findings enable the integration of child-reported outcomes with adult preferences to inform economic analysis. Results inform both clinical practice and resource allocation decisions by enhancing understanding of difficult tradeoffs in child-reported outcomes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Factors of human capital related to project success in health care work units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhonen, Marjo; Paasivaara, Leena

    2011-03-01

    To explore factors of human capital related to project success that employees expect from nurse managers. Human capital refers to those resources that managers working with projects possess, such as abilities, knowledge and qualities of character. The data were collected by open interviews (n=14) with nurses, public health nurses and nurse managers working in primary health care and a hospital. Data analysis was carried out using qualitative content analysis. The main factors of human capital related to project success proved to be as follows: (1) management of enthusiastic project culture, (2) management of regeneration and (3) management of emotional intelligence. Future research is needed on the kind of means nurse managers use in human capital management in projects and how they see their possibilities in managing human capital. Human capital management skills should be underlined as an important competence area when recruiting a nurse manager. The success of health care projects cannot be improved only through education or by training of nurse managers; in addition, projects need nurse managers who understand workplace spirituality and have high emotional intelligence. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Familial factors related to suicidal ideation of Latina adolescents in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piña-Watson, Brandy; Castillo, Linda G; Rodriguez, Kimberly M; Ray, Sara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a Latina adolescent's perception of mother connectedness, father connectedness, parental caring, autonomy granting from parents, and parental interest in their child's school life predicts suicidal ideation above and beyond known risk factors of adolescent depression and acculturation. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) Wave 1, 2 secondary logistic regression data analyses were conducted on a sample of 345 Latina adolescents. Results of correlational analyses indicated that perceived mother connectedness, father connectedness, parental caring, and academic interest were positively related; depression and nativity were negatively related to reports of suicidal ideation. Additionally, in a model with adolescents who reported having both a mother and father figure present in their life, depression and academic interest were significant predictors of suicidal ideation. In a second model, which included all Latinas regardless of the presence of both parents, depression, nativity, perceived academic interest, and caring were significant predictors. Implications are discussed for suicide prevention and intervention with Latina adolescents.

  2. Assessment of the relative socioeconomic effects of increased coal development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenehjem, E.J.; Santini, D.J.

    1979-12-01

    This report contains a description of the Social and Economic Assessment Model, which is used to analyze the social and economic effects of energy development at the regional and county levels. Using the SEAM, the effects of coal mines and coal-fired utilities projected for over 340 US counties are examined. The study utilizes a clustering algorithm to determine the assimilative capacity of a county, that is, the county's ability to sustain the effects of an influx of population and thus an increased demand on its resources. The results of the clustering algorithm are used, together with county demographic data, as well as data on projected facility location, size, timing, and type, to estimate socioeconomic effects in terms of public costs that will be imposed on the affected populations. These results are aggregated to the regional level to give a rough estimate of the relative regional effects of coal development. The results indicate that 93% of the entire long-term, adverse impact from coal will be borne by states and counties of the Rocky Mountain area, whereas only 14% of the short-term impacts will be borne by this region. About 42% of the short-term costs will occur in the Southern region and 33% in the North Central region, but only 5% of the long-term costs are estimated for these two regions. Of the four major Census regions (Northeast, South, North Central, and West) only the Northeast is expected to be relatively free of community growth problems caused by coal development.

  3. Bathtub-related drownings in the United States, 1979-81.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnick, L D; Ross, D A

    1985-06-01

    We analyzed National Center for Health Statistics data on drownings in bathtubs and Consumer Product Safety Commission data on bathtub-related injuries for the years 1979-80 and 1979-81, respectively. Seven hundred ten persons drowned in bathtubs in 1979 and 1980, for a crude mortality rate of 1.6 per million persons per year. Although there was an excess of deaths in the spring, there was no important seasonal trend. Mortality rates in the Pacific and Mountain states were higher than in other states. Persons at the extremes of age were at greatest risk of death, with mortality rates of 5-6 per million per year. Black males aged 20-64 years had substantially elevated mortality rates compared to White males. The prevalence of personal risk indicators varied with age, with a frequent history of being left unattended among children less than 5 years old, a frequent history of seizures among persons 5-39 years old, a frequent history of alcohol or drug use among persons 40-59 years old, and frequent evidence of having fallen among those at least 60 years old. Bathtubs are potentially dangerous, and the prevention of drownings in them can be approached through a combination of passive and active strategies.

  4. United States Government Regulations and International Standards Related to Food Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Knowledge of government regulations relevant to the chemical analysis of foods is extremely important to persons working in the food industry. Federal laws and regulations reinforce the efforts of the food industry to provide wholesome foods, to inform consumers about the nutritional composition of foods, and to eliminate economic frauds. In some cases, they dictate what ingredients a food must contain, what must be tested, and the procedures used to analyze foods for safety factors and quality attributes. This chapter describes the US federal regulations related to the composition of foods. The reader is referred to references (1-4) for comprehensive coverage of US food laws and regulations. Many of the regulations referred to in this chapter are published in the various titles of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) (5). This chapter also includes information about food standards and safety practices established by international organizations. Internet addresses are given at the end of this chapter for many of the government agencies, organizations, and documents discussed.

  5. Performance of Laterite-Cement Blocks as Walling Units in Relation to Sandcrete Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Isiwu AGUWA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of the performance of laterite-cement blocks as walling materials in relation to those of sandcrete was conducted, for the purpose of establishing a cheaper building material in Minna, Niger state, Nigeria and surrounding towns, in the present ever increasing cost of building material. An A-2-6 laterite according to the AASHTO classification system was stabilized with 0-10% cement content by weight of the soil at a constant interval of 2% to produce 20 blocks of size 100mm × 100mm × 100mm for each mix. One hundred laterite-cement blocks were produced, cured under laboratory conditions and subjected to compressive strength test at 7, 14, 21, and 28-days of age, in five applications for each cement mix ratio. The average compressive strength was determined from five blocks crushed in each mix at every age of curing and the same procedure was repeated using sandcrete blocks. At a common cement content of 6%, the compressive strengths, densities, water absorption and the cost per square metre of wall for both types of blocks were determined. The study recommends the use of laterite-cement blocks as walling materials in Minna and environs because it has better engineering properties and more economical with a saving of 30% per square metre of wall when compared with the use of sandcrete blocks.

  6. Uncertainty and variability in health-related damages from coal-fired power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, J.I.; Baxter, L.K.; Schwartz, J. [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States). Harvard School of Public Health

    2009-07-15

    The health-related damages associated with emissions from coal-fired power plants can vary greatly across facilities as a function of plant, site, and population characteristics, but the degree of variability and the contributing factors have not been formally evaluated. In this study, we modeled the monetized damages associated with 407 coal-fired power plants in the United States, focusing on premature mortality from fine particulate matter (PM2.5). We applied a reduced-form chemistry-transport model accounting for primary PM2.5 emissions and the influence of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions on secondary particulate formation. Outputs were linked with a concentration-response function for PM2.5-related mortality that incorporated nonlinearities and model uncertainty. We valued mortality with a value of statistical life approach, characterizing and propagating uncertainties in all model elements. At the median of the plant-specific uncertainty distributions, damages across plants ranged from $30,000 to $500,000 per ton of PM2.5, $6,000 to $50,000 per ton of SO{sub 2}, $500 to $15,000 per ton of NOx, and $0.02 to $1.57 per kilowatt-hour of electricity generated. Variability in damages per ton of emissions was almost entirely explained by population exposure per unit emissions (intake fraction), which itself was related to atmospheric conditions and the population size at various distances from the power plant. Variability in damages per kilowatt-hour was highly correlated with SO{sub 2} emissions, related to fuel and control technology characteristics, but was also correlated with atmospheric conditions and population size at various distances.

  7. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among construction workers in the United States from 1992 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuanwen; Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Choi, Sang D; Dement, John

    2017-05-01

    Examine trends and patterns of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among construction workers in the USA, with an emphasis on older workers. WMSDs were identified from the 1992-2014 Survey of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses (SOII), and employment was estimated from the Current Population Survey (CPS). Risk of WMSDs was measured by number of WMSDs per 10 000 full-time equivalent workers and stratified by major demographic and employment subgroups. Time series analysis was performed to examine the trend of WMSDs in construction. The number of WMSDs significantly dropped in the US construction industry, following the overall injury trends. However, the rate of WMSDs in construction remained higher than in all industries combined; the median days away from work increased from 8 days in 1992 to 13 days in 2014, and the proportion of WMSDs for construction workers aged 55 to 64 years almost doubled. By occupation, construction labourers had the largest number of WMSD cases, while helpers, heating and air-conditioning mechanics, cement masons and sheet metal workers had the highest rates of WMSDs. The major cause of WMSDs in construction was overexertion, and back injuries accounted for more than 40% of WMSDs among construction workers. The estimated wage loss for private wage-and-salary construction workers was $46 million in 2014. Construction workers continue to face a higher risk of WMSDs. Ergonomic solutions that reduce overexertion-the primary exposure for WMSDs-should be adopted extensively at construction sites, particularly for workers with a higher risk of WMSDs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Microbial communities related to volatile organic compound emission in automobile air conditioning units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Nina; Burghartz, Melanie; Remus, Lars; Kaufholz, Anna-Lena; Nawrath, Thorben; Rohde, Manfred; Schulz, Stefan; Roselius, Louisa; Schaper, Jörg; Mamber, Oliver; Jahn, Dieter; Jahn, Martina

    2013-10-01

    During operation of mobile air conditioning (MAC) systems in automobiles, malodours can occur. We studied the microbial communities found on contaminated heat exchanger fins of 45 evaporators from car MAC systems which were operated in seven different regions of the world and identified corresponding volatile organic compounds. Collected biofilms were examined by scanning electron microscopy and fluorescent in situ hybridization. The detected bacteria were loosely attached to the metal surface. Further analyses of the bacteria using PCR-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and sequencing of isolated 16S rRNA gene fragments identified highly divergent microbial communities with multiple members of the Alphaproteobacteriales, Methylobacteria were the prevalent bacteria. In addition, Sphingomonadales, Burkholderiales, Bacillales, Alcanivorax spp. and Stenotrophomonas spp. were found among many others depending on the location the evaporators were operated. Interestingly, typical pathogenic bacteria related to air conditioning systems including Legionella spp. were not found. In order to determine the nature of the chemical compounds produced by the bacteria, the volatile organic compounds were examined by closed loop stripping analysis and identified by combined gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sulphur compounds, i.e. di-, tri- and multiple sulphides, acetylthiazole, aromatic compounds and diverse substituted pyrazines were detected. Mathematical clustering of the determined microbial community structures against their origin identified a European/American/Arabic cluster versus two mainly tropical Asian clusters. Interestingly, clustering of the determined volatiles against the origin of the corresponding MAC revealed a highly similar pattern. A close relationship of microbial community structure and resulting malodours to the climate and air quality at the location of MAC operation was concluded.

  9. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Drought in the Western United States in Relation to Oceanic Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, L.; Scuderi, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Drought, a natural phenomenon that has affected western North America for millennia, is characterized by significant changes in precipitation with rapid shifts between wet and dry states. General Circulation Model projections indicate increased aridity in the 21st century for the Western U.S., and as such the impact of drought will likely become more significant on the environment and the economy. In the pursuit of improving drought predictability, as well as increasing our ability to better characterize the onset of drought, we ask whether defined climate regime shift signals can be identified and if there are variations in this signal for different drought periods, and if so, whether these shifts may be periodic. Annual growth rings of precipitation sensitive trees in the upper and lower Colorado River Basin regions are analyzed using 1) edge detection filters to determine the timing and significance of climate regime induced precipitation shifts, 2) digital filters to identify long and short-term precipitation variability within the site mean chronologies, and 3) wavelet analysis to determine the presence of significant periodicities in the chronologies. Results show that the edge detection algorithms are successful in identifying significant shifts in climatic regimes, and wavelet analysis indicates that some of these shifts may be periodic, suggesting larger scale atmospheric circulation forcing on timescales of decades to centuries. These results are used to identify specific patterns and timing of drought over the upper and lower Colorado River Basins in relation to oceanic oscillations such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, and El Nino Southern Oscillation. Establishing a relationship between the timing and pattern of the drought and the timing of the oceanic oscillations can lead to improved drought predictability in this region and increase our ability to respond to the environmental and economic impacts of drought.

  10. Characteristics of Mexican women admitted to emergency care units: alcohol consumption and related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Martha

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This article describes the demographic characteristics and psychological differences in a sample of female heavy and non-heavy drinkers who attended three emergency services of the Mexican city of Pachuca, Hidalgo. Material and Methods. A sample of patients seen at emergency services (ES patients over the age of 18 was selected using ES admission forms. Twenty-five-minute, face-to-face interviews were conducted by a group of trained interviewers. Patients answered various questionnaires and scales to measure alcohol consumption and to provide information on variables that have proved to be related to female drinking. Results. Thirty-six women (5.2% out of 717 of the total number of women were found to be heavy drinkers according to the TWEAK scale. This group of women had 2.3 times the risk of becoming depressed, 2.87 times the risk of taking other drugs, 1.95 times the likelihood of having been sexually abused and 1.57 times the risk of displaying suicidal ideation. Conclusions. Data from this small analysis confirm international findings that problem drinking among females throughout the life cycle is linked to depression. As regards the screening instruments employed, it is necessary to conduct more in-depth research to enrich their contents and increase their reliability and validity when used among female populations. In this study, the TWEAK proved to be extremely useful for studies in emergency services. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  11. College Sports-Related Injuries - United States, 2009-10 Through 2013-14 Academic Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Dompier, Thomas P; Corlette, Jill; Klossner, David A; Gilchrist, Julie

    2015-12-11

    Sports-related injuries can have a substantial impact on the long-term health of student-athletes. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) monitors injuries among college student-athletes at member schools. In academic year 2013-14, a total of 1,113 member schools fielded 19,334 teams with 478,869 participating student-athletes in NCAA championship sports (i.e., sports with NCAA championship competition) (1). External researchers and CDC used information reported to the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) by a sample of championship sports programs to summarize the estimated national cumulative and annual average numbers of injuries during the 5 academic years from 2009-10 through 2013-14. Analyses were restricted to injuries reported among student-athletes in 25 NCAA championship sports. During this period, 1,053,370 injuries were estimated to have occurred during an estimated 176.7 million athlete-exposures to potential injury (i.e., one athlete's participation in one competition or one practice). Injury incidence varied widely by sport. Among all sports, men's football accounted for the largest average annual estimated number of injuries (47,199) and the highest competition injury rate (39.9 per 1,000 athlete-exposures). Men's wrestling experienced the highest overall injury rate (13.1 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.2 per 1,000). Among women's sports, gymnastics had the highest overall injury rate (10.4 per 1,000) and practice injury rate (10.0 per 1,000), although soccer had the highest competition injury rate (17.2 per 1,000). More injuries were estimated to have occurred from practice than from competition for all sports, with the exception of men's ice hockey and baseball. However, injuries incurred during competition were somewhat more severe (e.g., requiring ≥7 days to return to full participation) than those acquired during practice. Multiple strategies are employed by NCAA and others to reduce the number of injuries in

  12. Sugar maple growth in relation to nutrition and stress in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert P; Horsley, Stephen B; Hallett, Richard A; Bailey, Scott W

    2009-09-01

    Sugar maple, Acer saccharum, decline disease is incited by multiple disturbance factors when imbalanced calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and manganese (Mn) act as predisposing stressors. Our objective in this study was to determine whether factors affecting sugar maple health also affect growth as estimated by basal area increment (BAI). We used 76 northern hardwood stands in northern Pennsylvania, New York, Vermont, and New Hampshire, USA, and found that sugar maple growth was positively related to foliar concentrations of Ca and Mg and stand level estimates of sugar maple crown health during a high stress period from 1987 to 1996. Foliar nutrient threshold values for Ca, Mg, and Mn were used to analyze long-term BAI trends from 1937 to 1996. Significant (P maples sampled in the 1990s had decreased growth in the 1970s, 10-20 years in advance of the 1980s and 1990s decline episode in Pennsylvania. Even apparently healthy stands that had no defoliation, but had below-threshold amounts of Ca or Mg and above-threshold Mn (from foliage samples taken in the mid 1990s), had decreasing growth by the 1970s. Co-occurring black cherry, Prunus serotina, in a subset of the Pennsylvania and New York stands, showed opposite growth responses with greater growth in stands with below-threshold Ca and Mg compared with above-threshold stands. Sugar maple growing on sites with the highest concentrations of foliar Ca and Mg show a general increase in growth from 1937 to 1996 while other stands with lower Ca and Mg concentrations show a stable or decreasing growth trend. We conclude that acid deposition induced changes in soil nutrient status that crossed a threshold necessary to sustain sugar maple growth during the 1970s on some sites. While nutrition of these elements has not been considered in forest management decisions, our research shows species specific responses to Ca and Mg that may reduce health and growth of sugar maple or change species composition, if not addressed.

  13. Annotated Bibliography of Water-Related Information and Studies, Acadian-Pontchartrain Study Unit, Louisiana, 1863-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Kevin J.; D'Arconte, Patricia J.

    2003-01-01

    The mission of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program is to describe the status and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the nation's surface- and ground-water resources and to improve understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting the quality of these resources. This report is a collection of 1,364 bibliographic references to water-related information and studies that are pertinent to these goals in the Acadian-Ponchartrain Study Unit of the National Water- Quality Assessment Program This study unit includes all or parts of 39 parishes in southern Louisiana and 5 counties in southwestern Mississippi. These references encompass a large range of subjects, including aquatic biology, climate, geology, land use, liminology, salinity, sedimentation, subsidence, surface-and ground-water hydrology, urban runoff, water chemistry, and water use and management. Publication dates for references range from 1863 through 2000. Whenever possible, an abstract is included in addition to the bibliographic information.

  14. [Medical care unit -- a suitable instrument for ambulatory patient-adequate care and performance-related remuneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, P; Isensee, D; Gerlach, E; Gross, H

    2013-02-01

    The question of whether a medical care unit is an appropriate tool for outpatient care has been discussed for a long time. Our aim is to investigate whether the MCU is an effective instrument for outpatient care and adequate performance-related remuneration. This retro- and prospective overview of the work included statements on legal foundations for medical care units, for reimbursement of services in medical care units, the development of medical care centres in Germany and a listing of the specific advantages and disadvantages of an MCU. This article focuses on the generally applicable facts and complements them with examples from general, visceral and vascular surgery. The main quantitative data on medical centre statistics come from different publications of the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance for Physicians. From a legal point of view the instrument MCU allows the participating of ambulatory and stationary care in the framework of medical care contracts. This has been especially extended for stationary applications, including the spectrum of possibilities that can contribute under certain circumstances for the provision of medical care in underdeveloped regions. Freelancers can benefit primarily from financial risk and minimising bureaucratic routine. The remuneration for services performed in the MCU is analogous to that of other ambulatory care providers. Basically, there are no disadvantages, but a greater design freedom and opportunities for the generation of aggregates are visible. The number of MCU in Germany has quadrupled in the last five years, indicating an establishment of an outpatient care landscape. MCU offers from the patient's perspective, providers and policy specific advantages and disadvantages. Indeed the benefits outweigh the disadvantages, but this is not yet verified by qualitative studies. The question of the appropriateness of medical care units as outpatient care instrumentation must be considered differentially

  15. Multinational corporations and health care in the United States and Latin America: strategies, actions, and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasso-Aguilar, Rebeca; Waitzkin, Howard; Landwehr, Angela

    2004-01-01

    In this article we analyze the corporate dominance of health care in the United States and the dynamics that have motivated the international expansion of multinational health care corporations, especially to Latin America. We identify the strategies, actions, and effects of multinational corporations in health care delivery and public health policies. Our methods have included systematic bibliographical research and in-depth interviews in the United States, Mexico, and Brazil. Influenced by public policy makers in the United States, such organizations as the World Bank, International Monetary Fund, and World Trade Organization have advocated policies that encourage reduction and privatization of health care and public health services previously provided in the public sector. Multinational managed care organizations have entered managed care markets in several Latin American countries at the same time as they were withdrawing from managed care activities in Medicaid and Medicare within the United States. Corporate strategies have culminated in a marked expansion of corporations' access to social security and related public sector funds for the support of privatized health services. International financial institutions and multinational corporations have influenced reforms that, while favorable to corporate interests, have worsened access to needed services and have strained the remaining public sector institutions. A theoretical approach to these problems emphasizes the falling rate of profit as an economic motivation of corporate actions, silent reform, and the subordination of polity to economy. Praxis to address these problems involves opposition to policies that enhance corporate interests while reducing public sector services, as well as alternative models that emphasize a strengthened public sector

  16. Cocaine-related admissions to an intensive care unit: a five-year study of incidence and outcomes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galvin, S

    2010-02-01

    Cocaine misuse is increasing and it is evidently considered a relatively safe drug of abuse in Ireland. To address this perception, we reviewed the database of an 18-bed Dublin intensive care unit, covering all admissions from 2003 to 2007. We identified cocaine-related cases, measuring hospital mortality and long-term survival in early 2009. Cocaine-related admissions increased from around one annually in 2003-05 to 10 in 2007. Their median (IQR [range]) age was 25 (21-35 [17-47]) years and 78% were male. The median (IQR [range]) APACHE II score was 16 (11-27 [5-36]) and length of intensive care stay was 5 (3-9 [1-16]) days. Ten patients died during their hospital stay. A further five had died by the time of follow-up, a median of 24 months later. One was untraceable. Cocaine toxicity necessitating intensive care is increasingly common in Dublin. Hospital mortality in this series was 52%. These findings may help to inform public attitudes to cocaine.

  17. Brazil-United States Military Relations in the Early Post-World War II Era Brazil-United States Military Relations in the Early Post-World War II Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonny Davis

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available As estreitas relações militares entre o Brasil e os Estados Unidos deterioraram-se no período imediatamente após à II Guerra Mundial. As divisões associadas à Guerra Fria criaram pressões nacionais e internacionais que levaram a um relacionamento menos preciso e sempre reativo entre os dois gigantes do hemisfério. Quando havia uma convergência de metas, as relações militares refletiam a cooperação amistosa anterior. Quando divergências políticas e institucionais sobre questões bilaterais emergiam, o Brasil recusava-se a seguir a liderança norte-americana. Em larga medida, a política externa no pós-guerra obrigou o Brasil a desenvolver confiança e habilidade para acabar com a prática tradicional de agir como subordinado de um poderoso protetor. O processo começou com a assistência norte-americana para a criação da Escola Superior de Guerra e culminou em 1977 com o fim das relações militares com os EUA (com a denúncia do acordo militar com os EUA. Dessa forma, o Brasil conquistou parte do seu antigo desejo de grandeza.The close military relations between the Brazil and the United States underwent strains in the early post-war era. Cold War divisions created national and international pressures that led to a less precise and often reactive relationship between the hemisphere giants. When there was a convergence of goals, military relations reflected the previous smooth cooperation. When political and institutional divisiveness emerged in the officer corps over bilateral issues, Brazil refused to follow the U.S. lead. To a large degree, the post-war foreign policy forced Brazil and its military establishment to develop the confidence and ability to end the traditional practice of acting as a surrogate for a more powerful patron. The process began with U.S. assistance in creating the Escola Superior de Guerra and culminated in 1977 with the end of formal military relations with the United States. In so doing, Brazil

  18. All-terrain vehicle-related nonfatal injuries among young riders in the United States, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shults, Ruth A; West, Bethany A; Rudd, Rose A; Helmkamp, James C

    2013-08-01

    To estimate the numbers and rates of all-terrain vehicle (ATV)-related nonfatal injuries among riders aged ≤ 15 years treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs) in the United States during 2001-2010. National Electronic Injury Surveillance System-All Injury Program data for 2001-2010 were analyzed. Numbers and rates of injuries were examined by age group, gender, primary body part injured, diagnosis, and hospital admission status. During 2001-2010, an estimated 361,161 ATV riders aged ≤ 15 years were treated in EDs for ATV-related injuries. The injury rate peaked at 67 per 100,000 children in 2004 and then declined to 42 per 100,000 children by 2010. The annualized injury rate for boys was double that of girls (73 vs 37 per 100,000). Children aged 11 to 15 years accounted for two-thirds of all ED visits and hospitalizations. Fractures accounted for 28% of ED visits and 45% of hospitalizations. The reasons for the decline in ATV-related injuries among young riders are not well understood but might be related to the economic recession of the mid-2000s and decreased sales of new ATVs. Although many states have regulations governing children's use of ATVs, their effectiveness in reducing injuries is unclear. Broader use of known effective safety measures, including prohibiting children aged ≤ 15 years from riding adult-sized ATVs, always wearing a helmet while riding, not riding on paved roads, and not riding as or carrying a passenger could additionally reduce ATV-related injuries among children. Last, more research to better understand ATV crash dynamics might lead to safer designs for ATVs.

  19. 75 FR 27155 - Delegation of Authority Relating To Certain Functions Under Section 201 (B) of the United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Certain Functions Under Section 201 (B) of the United States- india Nuclear Cooperation Approval And... section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you the certification and reporting functions conferred upon the President by section 201 (b) of the United States-India Nuclear...

  20. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH MORTALITY AMONG PATIENTS WITH CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER-RELATED BLOODSTREAM INFECTION IN AN INTENSIVE CARE UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Roberta Silva Rocha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central venous catheterization is a common practice in the management of critically ill patients and is associated with various complications, such as Bloodstream Infections (BSI, which are major determinants of increased morbidity, mortality and healthcare expenses. Few studies have addressed factors that predict mortality in patients with this complication. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with mortality in patients with Central Venous Catheter (CVC-related BSI in an intensive care unit of a tertiary care hospital in the Federal District, Brazil. This was a retrospective and observational study, in which all CVC-related BSI that occurred between January 2008 and December 2010 were reviewed. We obtained demographic, clinical, biochemical and microbiological data from medical records and investigated its association with mortality during ICU stay. There were 4,504 ICU admissions during the study period and 68 were complicated by CVC-related BSI (4.09 per 1000 catheter-days, most due to gram-negative organisms (45.6%. Overall mortality was 59.7%. Death risk was significantly associated with mechanical ventilation (OR 27.8, 95% CI 3.28-250, p-1 in survivors vs. 73.9 mg dL-1 in non-survivors, p = 0.001. Mortality was not associated with other clinical or biochemical features, neither with microbiological variables, although lethality was high among patients with gram-positive infections (77% Vs 58.33% for fungi and 54.83% for gram-negative. CVC-related BSI was associated with high absolute mortality, which was predicted by mechanical ventilation and a higher number of invasive devices other than the CVC. Knowledge of local factors predictive of mortality is critical for planning strategies to reduce death risk associated with this complication.

  1. Mapping the Relative Probability of Common Toad Occurrence in Terrestrial Lowland Farm Habitat in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosie D Salazar

    Full Text Available The common toad (Bufo bufo is of increasing conservation concern in the United Kingdom (UK due to dramatic population declines occurring in the past century. Many of these population declines coincided with reductions in both terrestrial and aquatic habitat availability and quality and have been primarily attributed to the effect of agricultural land conversion (of natural and semi-natural habitats to arable and pasture fields and pond drainage. However, there is little evidence available to link habitat availability with common toad population declines, especially when examined at a broad landscape scale. Assessing such patterns of population declines at the landscape scale, for instance, require an understanding of how this species uses terrestrial habitat.We intensively studied the terrestrial resource selection of a large population of common toads in Oxfordshire, England, UK. Adult common toads were fitted with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags to allow detection in the terrestrial environment using a portable PIT antenna once toads left the pond and before going into hibernation (April/May-October 2012 and 2013. We developed a population-level resource selection function (RSF to assess the relative probability of toad occurrence in the terrestrial environment by collecting location data for 90 recaptured toads.The predicted relative probability of toad occurrence for this population was greatest in wooded habitat near to water bodies; relative probability of occurrence declined dramatically > 50 m from these habitats. Toads also tended to select habitat near to their breeding pond and toad occurrence was negatively related to urban environments.

  2. Heroin-related overdose: The unexplored influences of markets, marketing and source-types in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Sarah G.; Fessel, Jason N.; Bourgois, Philippe; Montero, Fernando; Karandinos, George; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Heroin overdose, more accurately termed ‘heroin-related overdose’ due to the frequent involvement of other drugs, is the leading cause of mortality among regular heroin users. (Degenhardt et al., 2010) Heroin injectors are at greater risk of hospital admission for heroin-related overdose (HOD) in the eastern United States where Colombian-sourced powder heroin is sold than in the western US where black ‘tar’ heroin predominates. (Unick et al., 2014) This paper examines under-researched influences on HOD, both fatal and non-fatal, using data from a qualitative study of injecting drug users of black tar heroin in San Francisco and powder heroin in Philadelphia Data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews carried out in 2012 that were conducted against a background of longer-term participant-observation, ethnographic studies of drug users and dealers in Philadelphia (2007–12) and of users in San Francisco (1994–2007, 2012). Our findings suggest three types of previously unconsidered influences on overdose risk that arise both from structural socio-economic factors and from the physical properties of the heroin source-types: 1) retail market structure including information flow between users; 2) marketing techniques such as branding, free samples and pricing and 3) differences in the physical characteristics of the two major heroin source forms and how they affect injecting techniques and vascular health. Although chosen for their contrasting source-forms, we found that the two cities have contrasting dominant models of drug retailing: San Francisco respondents tended to buy through private dealers and Philadelphia respondents frequented an open-air street market where heroin is branded and free samples are distributed, although each city included both types of drug sales. These market structures and marketing techniques shape the availability of information regarding heroin potency and its dissemination among users who tend to seek out

  3. Heroin-related overdose: The unexplored influences of markets, marketing and source-types in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Sarah G; Fessel, Jason N; Bourgois, Philippe; Montero, Fernando; Karandinos, George; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Heroin overdose, more accurately termed 'heroin-related overdose' due to the frequent involvement of other drugs, is the leading cause of mortality among regular heroin users. (Degenhardt et al., 2010) Heroin injectors are at greater risk of hospital admission for heroin-related overdose (HOD) in the eastern United States where Colombian-sourced powder heroin is sold than in the western US where black 'tar' heroin predominates. (Unick et al., 2014) This paper examines under-researched influences on HOD, both fatal and non-fatal, using data from a qualitative study of injecting drug users of black tar heroin in San Francisco and powder heroin in Philadelphia Data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews carried out in 2012 that were conducted against a background of longer-term participant-observation, ethnographic studies of drug users and dealers in Philadelphia (2007-12) and of users in San Francisco (1994-2007, 2012). Our findings suggest three types of previously unconsidered influences on overdose risk that arise both from structural socio-economic factors and from the physical properties of the heroin source-types: 1) retail market structure including information flow between users; 2) marketing techniques such as branding, free samples and pricing and 3) differences in the physical characteristics of the two major heroin source forms and how they affect injecting techniques and vascular health. Although chosen for their contrasting source-forms, we found that the two cities have contrasting dominant models of drug retailing: San Francisco respondents tended to buy through private dealers and Philadelphia respondents frequented an open-air street market where heroin is branded and free samples are distributed, although each city included both types of drug sales. These market structures and marketing techniques shape the availability of information regarding heroin potency and its dissemination among users who tend to seek out the

  4. Health-related quality of life and rehabilitation cost following intensive care unit stay in multiple trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiannis, Pantelis; Katsoulas, Theodoros; Fildissis, George; Intas, George; Galanis, Peter; Kosta, Natalia; Zidianakis, Vasilios; Baltopoulos, George

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in multiple trauma patients due to motor vehicle crashes during a follow-up period of 2 years after discharge from an intensive care unit (ICU) and the effect of income and financial cost of rehabilitation in HRQOL. The study was a prospective observational study of multiple trauma patients from January 2009 to January 2011 who were hospitalized in a general, medical, and surgical ICU of a district hospital in Athens, Greece. Eighty-five patients with multiple traumas due to motor vehicle crashes and with an ICU stay of more than 24 hours were included in the study. HRQOL was assessed by a general questionnaire, the EuroQol 5D. Increased monthly household income and absence of traumatic brain injuries were associated with an improved EQ-VAS score. The frequency of severe problems in mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression decreased over time. The financial cost of rehabilitation was initially high but decreased over time. Severely injured victims of motor vehicle crashes suffer from serious problems in terms of HRQOL which is gradually improved even 2 years after hospital discharge. In addition, HRQOL is significantly related to income. Resources used for rehabilitation decrease over time, but even at 24 months, the patients still use half of the amount as compared with the cost of the first 6 months after trauma.

  5. Unit Risk Quotient (RQ) and Relative Significance of Radionuclide on Flora and Fauna to the EU-APR Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keunsung [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sukhoon [FNC Technology Co., Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chonghui [KEPCO E and C, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As part of the project for acquiring the certification from EUR organization, in accordance with Articles 4.8 and 5.5 specified in Section 2.20 of EUR Volume 2, the effects of ionizing radiation from the standard design of EU-APR on biota and ecosystems during operation and decommissioning phases shall be assessed. This assessment must be carried out according to the ERICA (i.e. Environmental Risk from Ionizing Contaminants: Assessment and management) integrated approach. This paper describes the evaluation results for unit risk quotient and relative significance by radionuclide derived from performing Tier 1 assessment on flora and fauna for the EU-APR design using ERICA Tool. As specified previously, Pa-231 and Th-228 are the most significant for the terrestrial and for the marine/freshwater ecosystems, respectively. And, in terms of environmental risk, those radionuclides having the most impact on flora and fauna are relatively more significant than isotope having the least impact by about 7 to 10 orders of magnitude.

  6. Linear trend and climate response of five-needle pines in the western United States related to treeline proximity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipfmueller, K.F. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Geography; Salzer, M.W. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research

    2010-01-15

    This study investigated sixty-six 5-needle pine growth chronologies from 1896 to their end years in order to identify potential patterns related to linear trends in ring width. Individual chronology responses to climate were also evaluated by comparing the chronologies with seasonal temperature and precipitation data from 1896 to the present date. Chronologies exhibiting similar patterns of climate response were grouped in order to examine the role of treeline proximity on climate-growth relationships. Ring width measurements for pine sites located in the western United States were obtained from the International Tree Ring Data Bank. Growth indices were compared among all sites in order to assess the relative strength of common signals with increasing distance. Pearson correlations were used to calculate linear trends for each chronology. A cluster analysis of climate response patterns indicated that most chronologies positively associated with temperatures were located near upper treeline and contained significant positive linear trends. The study suggested that 5-needle pine treeline chronologies may be used as predictors in temperature reconstructions. However, care must be taken to determine that collection sites have not been impacted by disturbances such as fire or insect outbreaks. 35 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Review, Analyses and Recommendations Related to Modern International Use of Nuclear Space Technologies with Focus on United States and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T.

    The current Administration under President Barack Obama has given NASA a new directive in manned spaceflight. Instead of building a fleet of Ares rockets with various load specifications to deliver astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS) and return them to the Moon, the 2011 NASA Strategic Plan [1] states that NASA will develop ``integrated architecture and capabilities for safe crewed and cargo missions beyond Low Earth Orbit.'' The technologies developed within this architecture will take astronauts beyond the Moon, to destinations such as Mars or asteroids and will most likely require the use of Nuclear Space Technologies (NSTs).While there are other proposals for novel power generation and propulsion, such as fusion technology, these technologies are immature and it may be decades before they have demonstrated feasibility; in contrast NSTs are readily available, proven to work in space, and flight qualified. However, NSTs such as nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) may or may not reach completion - especially with the lack of a mission in which they may be developed. Prospects and progress in current NST projects, ranging from power sources to propulsion units, are explored within this study, mainly in the United States, with an overview of projects occurring in other countries. At the end of the study, recommendations are made in order to address budget and political realities, aerospace export control and nuclear non-proliferation programs, and international issues and potentials as related to NSTs. While this report is not fully comprehensive, the selection of chosen projects illustrates a range of issues for NSTs. Secondly, the reader would be keen to make a distinction between technologies that have flown in the past, projects that have been tested and developed yet not flown, and concepts that have not yet reached the bench for testing.

  8. Forty Years of the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 (XXX on Zionism and Racism: the Brazilian Vote as an instance of United States - Brazil Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORMA BREDA DOS SANTOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 1975, Brazil voted in favor of the United Nations General Assembly resolution 3379 (XXX, equating Zionism with a form of racism. Focusing on the decision-making process of president Ernesto Geisel's (1974-1979 foreign policy, "responsible pragmatism", this article discusses how the ultimate decision to vote in favor of resolution was taken taking into account mainly US-Brazil relationship.

  9. Gymnastics-related injuries to children treated in emergency departments in the United States, 1990-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shubha; Smith, Gary A; Fields, Sarah K; McKenzie, Lara B

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiology of gymnastics-related injuries among children in the United States. A retrospective analysis was conducted of data for children 6 through 17 years of age from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission for 1990 through 2005. Sample weights provided by the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were used to calculate national estimates of gymnastics-related injuries. Injury rates were calculated for the most frequently occurring types of injury using gymnastics participation data. An estimated 425,900 children 6 through 17 years of age were treated in US hospital emergency departments for gymnastics-related injuries during the 16-year period of 1990-2005. The number of injuries averaged 26,600 annually. The number of injuries sustained per 1000 gymnastics participants per year for the pediatric population was 4.8. The number of injuries sustained per 1000 participants per year was greater for the ages 12 to 17 years (7.4) than for the ages 6 to 11 years (3.6). The place where an injury occurred include school (40.0%), a place of recreation or sports (39.7%), home (14.5%), or on other public property (5.8%). The body parts injured were upper extremity (42.3%), lower extremity (33.8%), head/neck (12.9%), trunk (10.4%), and other (0.6%). Injury diagnoses were strain/sprain (44.5%), fracture/dislocation (30.4%), abrasion/contusion (15.6%), laceration/avulsion (3.7%), concussion/closed head injury (1.7%), and other (4.2%). The majority (97.1%) of patients with gymnastics-related injuries were treated and released from the emergency department. Gymnastics has one of the highest injury rates of all girls' sports. Establishment of a national database for gymnastics-related injuries, including exposure data for direct calculation of injury rates, would permit better identification and monitoring of risk factors for gymnastics-related injuries and aid in

  10. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Related to Sodium Intake and Reduction Among Adult Consumers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Deesha; Cogswell, Mary E; John, Katherine; Creel, Stephanie; Ayala, Carma

    2017-01-01

    To describe the prevalence and determinants of sodium-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among U.S. adults Design. A cross-sectional survey was used. The study was set in the United States in 2012. Participants were 6122 U.S. adults. Sodium-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were measured. Chi-squared tests were used to determine differences in sodium-related knowledge, attitude, and behaviors by respondent characteristics; multiple logistic regression was used to examine associations between selected respondent characteristics and health professional advice, reported action, or knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (adjusted for all other respondent characteristics). About three-fourths of respondents answered eating too much sodium is "somewhat" or "very" harmful to their health. Twenty-six percent reported receiving health professional advice, and 45% reported taking action to reduce their sodium intake. The prevalence of reported action was highest among adults receiving advice, those with hypertension, blacks, and those aged ≥65 years. Sixty-two percent who reported action agreed that most of their sodium comes from processed or restaurant foods. Of those reporting action, the most common tactics to reduce sodium intake were checking nutrition labels, using other spices than salt, and choosing low-sodium foods; requesting lower-sodium options when eating out was the least common tactic. Results suggest almost half of adults overall and the vast majority of those receiving health professional advice are taking some action to watch or reduce sodium intake. Although a substantial proportion report using recommended tactics to lower intake, many are not using the most effective tactics. In order to reach the general population, health communication messages could be simpler and focus on the most effective tactics to reduce sodium intake. Furthermore, health professionals can help reduce sodium intake by discussing the benefits of sodium reduction

  11. Motor unit number estimates and neuromuscular transmission in the tibialis anterior of master athletes: evidence that athletic older people are not spared from age-related motor unit remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piasecki, Mathew; Ireland, Alex; Coulson, Jessica; Stashuk, Dan W; Hamilton-Wright, Andrew; Swiecicka, Agnieszka; Rutter, Martin K; McPhee, Jamie S; Jones, David A

    2016-10-01

    Muscle motor unit numbers decrease markedly in old age, while remaining motor units are enlarged and can have reduced neuromuscular junction transmission stability. However, it is possible that regular intense physical activity throughout life can attenuate this remodeling. The aim of this study was to compare the number, size, and neuromuscular junction transmission stability of tibialis anterior (TA) motor units in healthy young and older men with those of exceptionally active master runners. The distribution of motor unit potential (MUP) size was determined from intramuscular electromyographic signals recorded in healthy male Young (mean ± SD, 26 ± 5 years), Old (71 ± 4 years) and Master Athletes (69 ± 3 years). Relative differences between groups in numbers of motor units was assessed using two methods, one comparing MUP size and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) determined with MRI, the other comparing surface recorded MUPs with maximal compound muscle action potentials and commonly known as a "motor unit number estimate (MUNE)". Near fiber (NF) jiggle was measured to assess neuromuscular junction transmission stability. TA CSA did not differ between groups. MUNE values for the Old and Master Athletes were 45% and 40%, respectively, of the Young. Intramuscular MUPs of Old and Master Athletes were 43% and 56% larger than Young. NF jiggle was slightly higher in the Master Athletes, with no difference between Young and Old. These results show substantial and similar motor unit loss and remodeling in Master Athletes and Old individuals compared with Young, which suggests that lifelong training does not attenuate the age-related loss of motor units.

  12. Relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics in nine metropolitan areas of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Peppler, Marie C.

    2010-01-01

    The relation of urbanization to stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics was examined collectively and individually for nine metropolitan areas of the United States?Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado; Dallas?Forth Worth, Texas; Milwaukee?Green Bay, Wisconsin; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; and Boston, Massachusetts. The study was part of a larger study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1999 to 2004 to examine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological components of stream ecosystems. The objectives of the current study were to determine how stream habitat and geomorphic characteristics relate to different aspects of urbanization across a variety of diverse environmental settings and spatial scales. A space-for-time rural-to-urban land-cover gradient approach was used. Reach-scale habitat data and geomorphic characteristic data were collected once during low flow and included indicators of potential habitat degradation such as measures of channel geometry and hydraulics, streambed substrate, low-flow reach volume (an estimate of base-flow conditions), habitat complexity, and riparian/bank conditions. Hydrologic metrics included in the analyses were those expected to be altered by increases in impervious surfaces, such as high-flow frequency and duration, flashiness, and low-flow duration. Other natural and human features, such as reach-scale channel engineering, geologic setting, and slope, were quantified to identify their possible confounding influences on habitat relations with watershed-scale urbanization indicators. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were compared to several watershed-scale indicators of urbanization, natural landscape characteristics, and hydrologic metrics by use of correlation analyses and stepwise linear regression. Habitat and geomorphic characteristics were related to percentages of impervious surfaces only in some metropolitan areas and

  13. Latest Cambrian-Early Ordovician rift-related magmatic activity in the Kouřim Unit, Bohemian Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soejono, Igor; Machek, Matej; Sláma, Jiří; Janoušek, Vojtěch

    2017-04-01

    Pre-collisional history of high-grade Variscan complexes is mostly difficult to reveal, due to intense reworking during the development of the orogenic belt. An ancient magmatism could provide a unique possibility to study it. The Kouřim Unit represents an extensive pre-Variscan plutonic body involved into the tectonic collage of the Kutná Hora Crystalline Complex, at the northern margin of the Moldanubian Domain in the Bohemian Massif. The LA-ICP-MS zircon ages and geochemical characteristics of (meta-)igneous rocks from the Kouřim Unit allow us to determine the timing and nature of magmatic activity within this part of the Bohemian Massif and thus to decipher its pre-Variscan evolution. The Kouřim Unit is composed of strongly metamorphosed and deformed sequence of magmatic rocks, dominated mainly by various types of migmatites, coarse-grained orthogneisses and minor metadiorites. The newly obtained LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages of four orthogneisses ranging between 486 ± 2 Ma and 484 ± 2 Ma are interpreted as timing the magma crystallization. The single metadiorite gave concordia age of 337 ± 2 Ma interpreted as the age of migmatitization. Few discordant older ages from metadiorite are considered as older xenocrysts more or less reset during the Variscan metamorphism. The orthogneisses are acid (SiO2 = 68.6-76.4 wt. %), exclusively subaluminous and seem to form a single calc-alkaline trend, whereas the metadiorite is intermediate (SiO2 = 54.3 wt. %; mg# = 61), distinctly metaluminous and displays tholeiitic character. The chondrite-normalized REE patterns for the orthogneisses show LREE enrichment (LaN/YbN = 1.5-8.9) and deep negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.42-0.32); the NMORB-normalized spiderplots feature LILE/HFSE enrichment with deep negative Nb- Ta-Ti anomalies. In contrast, both patterns of metadiorite resemble those of NMORB (LaN/YbN = 0.5, Eu/Eu* = 0.96). The apparent magmatic arc-like geochemical signature of the orthogneisses is interpreted as

  14. 76 FR 32409 - Medicare Program; Five-Year Review of Work Relative Value Units Under the Physician Fee Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... Medicine and Rehabilitation AATS American Association for Thoracic Surgery ACC American College of... ICU Intensive care unit IDTF Independent diagnostic testing facility IWPUT Intra-service work per...

  15. Target-context unitization effect on the familiarity-related FN400: a face recognition exclusion task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Fabrice; Etienne, Yann

    2015-03-01

    Using two exclusion tasks, the present study examined how the ERP correlates of face recognition are affected by the nature of the information to be retrieved. Intrinsic (facial expression) and extrinsic (background scene) visual information were paired with face identity and constituted the exclusion criterion at test time. Although perceptual information had to be taken into account in both situations, the FN400 old-new effect was observed only for old target faces on the expression-exclusion task, whereas it was found for both old target and old non-target faces in the background-exclusion situation. These results reveal that the FN400, which is generally interpreted as a correlate of familiarity, was modulated by the retrieval of intra-item and intrinsic face information, but not by the retrieval of extrinsic information. The observed effects on the FN400 depended on the nature of the information to be retrieved and its relationship (unitization) to the recognition target. On the other hand, the parietal old-new effect (generally described as an ERP correlate of recollection) reflected the retrieval of both types of contextual features equivalently. The current findings are discussed in relation to recent controversies about the nature of the recognition processes reflected by the ERP correlates of face recognition.

  16. Patient specific optimization of the relation between CT-hounsfield units and proton stopping power with proton radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Uwe; Pemler, Peter; Besserer, Jürgen; Pedroni, Eros; Lomax, Antony; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to show the feasibility of using in vivo proton radiography of a radiotherapy patient for the patient individual optimization of the calibration from CT-Hounsfield units to relative proton stopping power. Water equivalent tissue (WET) calibrated proton radiographs of a dog patient treated for a nasal tumor were used as baseline in comparison with integrated proton stopping power through the calibrated CT of the dog. In an optimization procedure starting with a stoichiometric calibration curve, the calibration was modified randomly. The result of this iteration is an optimized calibration curve which was used to recalculate the dose distribution of the patient. One result of this experiment was that the mean value of the deviations between WET calculations based on the stoichiometric calibration curve and the measurements was shifted systematically away from zero. The calibration produced by the optimization procedure reduced this shift to around 0.4 mm. Another result was that the precision of the calibration, reflected as the standard deviation of the normally distributed deviations between WET calculation and measurement, could be reduced from 7.9 to 6.7 mm with the optimized calibration. The dose distributions based on the two calibration curves showed major deviations at the distal end of the target volume.

  17. United States of America activities relative to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiative: Records management for deep geologic repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, P.J.

    1997-03-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has conducted consultant and advisory meetings to prepare a Technical Document which is intended to provide guidance to all IAEA Member States (otherwise known as countries) that are currently planning, designing, constructing or operating a deep or near surface geological repository for the storage and protection of vitrified high-level radioactive waste, spent fuel waste and TRU-waste (transuranic). Eleven countries of the international community are presently in various stages of siting, designing, or constructing deep geologic repositories. Member States of the IAEA have determined that the principle safety of such completed and operation sites must not rely solely on long term institutional arrangements for the retention of information. It is believed that repository siting, design, operation and postoperation information should be gathered, managed and retained in a manner that will provide information to future societies over a very long period of time. The radionuclide life is 10,000 years thus the retention of information must outlive current societies, languages, and be continually migrated to new technology to assure retrieval. This presentation will provide an overview of the status of consideration and implementation of these issues within the United States efforts relative to deep geologic repository projects.

  18. Interpersonal discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Sherrill; Cherepanav, Dasha; Hanmer, Janel; Fryback, Dennis G; Palta, Mari

    2013-08-01

    We assessed associations between discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States. We examined data from the National Health Measurement Study, a nationally representative sample of 3,648 adults aged 35-89 in the non-institutionalized US population. These data include self-reported lifetime and everyday discrimination as well as several health utility indexes (EQ-5D, HUI3, and SF-6D). Multiple regression was used to compute mean health utility scores adjusted for age, income, education, and chronic diseases for each race-by-gender subgroup. Black men and women reported more discrimination compared to white men and women. Health utility tended to be worse as reported discrimination increased. With a few exceptions, differences between mean health utility scores in the lowest and highest discrimination groups exceeded the 0.03 difference generally considered to be a clinically significant difference. Persons who experienced discrimination tended to score lower on health utility measures. The study also revealed a complex relationship between experiences of discrimination and race and gender. Because of these differential social and demographic relationships caution is urged when interpreting self-rated health measures in research, clinical, and policy settings.

  19. Facilitated Nurse Medication-Related Event Reporting to Improve Medication Management Quality and Safety in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Reale, Carrie; Slagle, Jason M; Anders, Shilo; Shotwell, Matthew S; Dresselhaus, Timothy; Weinger, Matthew B

    Medication safety presents an ongoing challenge for nurses working in complex, fast-paced, intensive care unit (ICU) environments. Studying ICU nurse's medication management-especially medication-related events (MREs)-provides an approach to analyze and improve medication safety and quality. The goal of this study was to explore the utility of facilitated MRE reporting in identifying system deficiencies and the relationship between MREs and nurses' work in the ICUs. We conducted 124 structured 4-hour observations of nurses in three different ICUs. Each observation included measurement of nurse's moment-to-moment activity and self-reports of workload and negative mood. The observer then obtained MRE reports from the nurse using a structured tool. The MREs were analyzed by three experts. MREs were reported in 35% of observations. The 60 total MREs included four medication errors and seven adverse drug events. Of the 49 remaining MREs, 65% were associated with negative patient impact. Task/process deficiencies were the most common contributory factor for MREs. MRE occurrence was correlated with increased total task volume. MREs also correlated with increased workload, especially during night shifts. Most of these MREs would not be captured by traditional event reporting systems. Facilitated MRE reporting provides a robust information source about potential breakdowns in medication management safety and opportunities for system improvement.

  20. UNIT, TIBET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Arts and Science Center, Baton Rouge.

    THE UNIT OF STUDY DESCRIBED IN THIS BOOKLET DEALS WITH THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY OF TIBET. THE UNIT COVERS SOME OF THE GENERAL FEATURES OF THE COUNTRY AND THEIR EFFECT UPON THE LIVES OF THE TIBETAN PEOPLE. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS ARE INSERTED TO STIMULATE THOUGHT. THE RELIGION OF TIBET IS DISCUSSED IN RELATION TO ITS INFLUENCE ON THE ART AND CULTURE…

  1. Paired Comparison Survey Analyses Utilizing Rasch Methodology of the Relative Difficulty and Estimated Work Relative Value Units of CPT® Code 27279

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorio, Morgan; Ferrara, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive sacroiliac joint arthrodesis (“MI SIJ fusion”) received a Category I CPT® code (27279) effective January 1, 2015 and was assigned a work relative value unit (“RVU”) of 9.03. The International Society for the Advancement of Spine Surgery (“ISASS”) conducted a study consisting of a Rasch analysis of two separate surveys of surgeons to assess the accuracy of the assigned work RVU. Methods A survey was developed and sent to ninety-three ISASS surgeon committee members. Respondents were asked to compare CPT® 27279 to ten other comparator CPT® codes reflective of common spine surgeries. The survey presented each comparator CPT® code with its code descriptor as well as the description of CPT® 27279 and asked respondents to indicate whether CPT® 27279 was greater, equal, or less in terms of work effort than the comparator code. A second survey was sent to 557 U.S.-based spine surgeon members of ISASS and 241 spine surgeon members of the Society for Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery (“SMISS”). The design of the second survey mirrored that of the first survey except for the use of a broader set of comparator CPT® codes (27 vs. 10). Using the work RVUs of the comparator codes, a Rasch analysis was performed to estimate the relative difficulty of CPT® 27279, after which the work RVU of CPT® 27279 was estimated by regression analysis. Results Twenty surgeons responded to the first survey and thirty-four surgeons responded to the second survey. The results of the regression analysis of the first survey indicate a work RVU for CPT® 27279 of 14.36 and the results of the regression analysis of the second survey indicate a work RVU for CPT® 27279 of 14.1. Conclusion The Rasch analysis indicates that the current work RVU assigned to CPT® 27279 is undervalued at 9.03. Averaging the results of the regression analyses of the two surveys indicates a work RVU for CPT® 27279 of 14.23.

  2. Study on quantitative relation between characteristics of striature bionic coupling unit and wear resistance of gray cast iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Wang, Chuanwei; Ren, Luquan

    2015-03-01

    In order to improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, striature bionic coupling units of different characteristics were manufactured by laser surface remelting. Wear behavior of gray cast iron with striature bionic coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using a homemade linear reciprocating wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that there is a relationship between weight loss and the area of striature bionic coupling units and α: Δm = Δm0 - 0.0212S × cos α - 0.0241S × sin α.

  3. Incidence and mortality rates of selected infection-related cancers in Puerto Rico and in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Carlos J

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2002, 17.8% of the global cancer burden was attributable to infections. This study assessed the age-standardized incidence and mortality rates of stomach, liver, and cervical cancer in Puerto Rico (PR for the period 1992-2003 and compared them to those of Hispanics (USH, non-Hispanic Whites (NHW, and non-Hispanic Blacks (NHB in the United States (US. Methods Age-standardized rates [ASR(World] were calculated based on cancer incidence and mortality data from the PR Cancer Central Registry and SEER, using the direct method and the world population as the standard. Annual percent changes (APC were calculated using the Poisson regression model from 1992-2003. Results The incidence and mortality rates from stomach, liver and cervical cancer were lower in NHW than PR; with the exception of mortality from cervical cancer which was similar in both populations. Meanwhile, the incidence rates of stomach, liver and cervical cancers were similar between NHB and PR; except for NHB women who had a lower incidence rate of liver cancer than women in PR. NHB had a lower mortality from liver cancer than persons in PR, and similar mortality from stomach cancer. Conclusions The burden of liver, stomach, and cervical cancer in PR compares to that of USH and NHB and continues to be a public health priority. Public health efforts are necessary to further decrease the burden of cancers associated to infections in these groups, the largest minority population groups in the US. Future studies need to identify factors that may prevent infections with cancer-related agents in these populations. Strategies to increase the use of preventive strategies, such as vaccination and screening, among minority populations should also be developed.

  4. Smartphone and medical related App use among medical students and junior doctors in the United Kingdom (UK: a regional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne Karl Frederick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smartphone usage has spread to many settings including that of healthcare with numerous potential and realised benefits. The ability to download custom-built software applications (apps has created a new wealth of clinical resources available to healthcare staff, providing evidence-based decisional tools to reduce medical errors. Previous literature has examined how smartphones can be utilised by both medical student and doctor populations, to enhance educational and workplace activities, with the potential to improve overall patient care. However, this literature has not examined smartphone acceptance and patterns of medical app usage within the student and junior doctor populations. Methods An online survey of medical student and foundation level junior doctor cohorts was undertaken within one United Kingdom healthcare region. Participants were asked whether they owned a Smartphone and if they used apps on their Smartphones to support their education and practice activities. Frequency of use and type of app used was also investigated. Open response questions explored participants’ views on apps that were desired or recommended and the characteristics of apps that were useful. Results 257 medical students and 131 junior doctors responded, equating to a response rate of 15.0% and 21.8% respectively. 79.0% (n=203/257 of medical students and 74.8% (n=98/131 of junior doctors owned a smartphone, with 56.6% (n=115/203 of students and 68.4% (n=67/98 of doctors owning an iPhone. The majority of students and doctors owned 1–5 medical related applications, with very few owning more than 10, and iPhone owners significantly more likely to own apps (Chi sq, p Conclusions This study found a high level of smartphone ownership and usage among medical students and junior doctors. Both groups endorse the development of more apps to support their education and clinical practice.

  5. Infection related never events in pediatric patients undergoing spinal fusion procedures in United States: prevalence and predictors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerajalandhar Allareddy

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and predictors of infection related never events (NE associated with spinal fusion procedures (SFP in children (age < = 18 years in the United States. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample for the years 2004 to 2008. All pediatric hospitalizations that underwent SFP were selected for analysis. The main outcomes measures include occurrence of certain NE's. The association between the occurrence of a NE and factors (patient & hospital related were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 56,465 hospitalizations, 61.7% occurred among females. The average age was 13.7 y and two-thirds were whites. The major insurance payer was private insurance (67.4%. About 82% of all hospitalizations occurred on an elective basis. Teaching hospitals accounted for a majority of hospitalizations (87.9%. Two-thirds were posterior fusion techniques, 52.3% had underlying musculoskeletal deformities, and the most frequently present co-morbid conditions (CMC included paralysis (10.9%, chronic pulmonary disease (9.7%, and fluid/electrolyte disorders (7.6%. Overall rate of occurrence of a NE was 4.8%. Post-operative pneumonia was the most frequently occurring NE (2.9%. Female gender (OR = 0.78 and elective admissions (OR = 0.66 were associated with lower risk of NE occurrence. Medicaid coverage (OR = 1.46, primary diagnosis of other acquired deformities (OR = 1.82, spinal cord injury (OR = 6.94, other nervous system disorders (OR = 2.84 were associated with higher risk of NE occurrence. Among CMC, those with chronic blood loss anemia (OR = 2.57, coagulopathy (OR = 1.97, depression (OR = 2, drug abuse (OR = 3.71, fluid/electrolyte disorders (OR = 2.62, neurological disorders (OR = 1.72, paralysis (OR = 1.75, renal failure (OR = 5.45, and weight loss (OR = 4.61 were risk factors for higher odds of a NE occurrence. Hospital teaching status, region, hospital size, and

  6. Similar or Different?: A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Research in Political Science and International Relations between the United States of America and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of the writing in 73 articles published in six U.S. and U.K. political science and international relations journals that focus on teaching and learning. A comparative analysis is made of the articles through a review of the characteristics of the authors, the themes researched, the analytical focus, the research…

  7. Similar or Different?: A Comparative Analysis of Higher Education Research in Political Science and International Relations between the United States of America and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the nature of the writing in 73 articles published in six U.S. and U.K. political science and international relations journals that focus on teaching and learning. A comparative analysis is made of the articles through a review of the characteristics of the authors, the themes researched, the analytical focus, the research…

  8. Unmeasured improvement work: the lack of routinely collected, service-related data in NHS endoscopy units in England involved in "modernisation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchings Hayley A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of routinely collected service-related endoscopy data from NHS endoscopy units has never been quantified. Methods This retrospective observational study asked 19 endoscopy units to submit copies of all in-house, service-related endoscopy data that had been routinely collected by the unit – Referral numbers, Activity, Number of patients waiting and Number of lost slots. Nine of the endoscopy units had previously participated in the Modernising Endoscopy Services (MES project during 2003 to redesign their endoscopy services. These MES sites had access to additional funding and data collection software. The other ten (Control sites had modernised independently. All data was requested in two phases and corresponded to eight specific time points between January 2003 and April 2006. Results Only eight of 19 endoscopy units submitted routinely collected, service-related data. Another site's data was collected specifically for the study. A further two units claimed to routinely collect service-related data but did not submit any to the study. The remaining eight did not collect any service-related endoscopy data routinely and liaised with their Trust for data. Of the eight sites submitting service-related data, only three were MES project sites. Of these three, the data variables collected were limited and none collected the complete set of endoscopy data variables requested. Of the other five sites, two collected all four endoscopy data types. Data for the three MES project sites went back as far as January 2003, whilst the five Control sites were only able to submit data from December 2003 onwards. Conclusion There was a lack of service-related endoscopy data routinely collected by the study sites, especially those who had participated in the MES project. Without this data, NHS endoscopy services cannot have a true understanding of their services, cannot identify problems and cannot measure the impact of any

  9. United States-Canada Trade and Economic Relationship: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-10

    Engines/Turbines/ Power Transmission Equipment 4.8 (-13.2) Pharmaceutical/ Medicines 4.9 (37.0) Plastics Products 4.8 (5.6) Plastic Products 4.8...2003, a case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ( BSE ) or ‘mad-cow’ disease was detected on an Alberta farm, which was quickly quarantined. During the...next three years another 10 cases of BSE would be found. Concerns about the food supply caused the United States, Mexico, Japan, and others to close

  10. A General Discussion of Problems Related to the Determination of Concrete Armour Unit Stresses Including Specific Results related to Static and Dynamic Stresses in Dolosse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Zhou

    1989-01-01

    Recent breakwater failures revealed the shortcomings of the traditional design procedures for concrete armour units. This paper deals with one of them, which can be expressed as the "lack of balance between the hydraulic stability of the armour layer and the mechanical strength or integrity...

  11. The aging self in a cultural context: the relation of conceptions of aging to identity processes and self-esteem in the United States and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, G.J.; Whitbourne, S.K.; Freeman, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To study the aging self, that is, conceptions of one’s own aging process, in relation to identity processes and self-esteem in the United States and the Netherlands. As the liberal American system has a stronger emphasis on individual responsibility and youthfulness than the social–democ

  12. Collaboration between the US Forest Service and the USDA Agricultural Research Service on the complementary conservation of crop wild relatives in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two USDA agencies, the Forest Service (USFS) and the Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) are cooperating on the complementary conservation of crop wild relatives (CWR) native to the United States. The USFS manages 193 million acres of National Forest System lands in 43 states and provides suppo...

  13. Discussion Leader Guide for Confrontation: A Human Relations Training Unit and Simulation Game for Teachers and Administrators in a Multi-Ethnic Elementary and High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, Berkeley, CA.

    This discussion leader guide for teachers and administrators is designed to accompany four films in a human relations training unit titled "Confrontation." The guide is presented in two parts. Part I outlines objectives and episodes in each film and suggests discussion questions and solutions. Objectives of the first film, "School-Community," are…

  14. National Digital Preservation Initiatives: An Overview of Developments in Australia, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom and of Related International Activity. Strategies and Tools for the Digital Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beagrie, Neil

    This report provides an overview of selected key national and multinational initiatives in digital preservation occurring outside North America. It examines digital preservation initiatives in four countries--Australia, France, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom--as well as related multinational initiatives. The initiatives were chosen in…

  15. The aging self in a cultural context: the relation of conceptions of aging to identity processes and self-esteem in the United States and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Whitbourne, S.K.; Freeman, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To study the aging self, that is, conceptions of one’s own aging process, in relation to identity processes and self-esteem in the United States and the Netherlands. As the liberal American system has a stronger emphasis on individual responsibility and youthfulness than the social–democ

  16. On-ward participation of a hospital pharmacist in a Dutch intensive care unit reduces prescribing errors and related patient harm: an intervention study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopotowska, J.E.; Kuiper, R.; van Kan, H.J.; de Pont, A.C.; Dijkgraaf, M.G.; Lie-A-Huen, L.; Vroom, M.B.; Smorenburg, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) are at high risk for prescribing errors and related adverse drug events (ADEs). An effective intervention to decrease this risk, based on studies conducted mainly in North America, is on-ward participation of a clinical pharmacist in an

  17. The aging self in a cultural context: the relation of conceptions of aging to identity processes and self-esteem in the United States and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Whitbourne, S.K.; Freeman, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To study the aging self, that is, conceptions of one’s own aging process, in relation to identity processes and self-esteem in the United States and the Netherlands. As the liberal American system has a stronger emphasis on individual responsibility and youthfulness than the

  18. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 197 - Procedures for the Department of State (DoS) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) Series C Appendix C to Part 197 National Defense Department... RESEARCH IN THE FILES OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (OSD) Pt. 197, App. C Appendix C to Part... such non-DoD Agency classified information expected to be interfiled with the requested OSD records....

  19. Smartphone and medical related App use among medical students and junior doctors in the United Kingdom (UK): a regional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Smartphone usage has spread to many settings including that of healthcare with numerous potential and realised benefits. The ability to download custom-built software applications (apps) has created a new wealth of clinical resources available to healthcare staff, providing evidence-based decisional tools to reduce medical errors. Previous literature has examined how smartphones can be utilised by both medical student and doctor populations, to enhance educational and workplace activities, with the potential to improve overall patient care. However, this literature has not examined smartphone acceptance and patterns of medical app usage within the student and junior doctor populations. Methods An online survey of medical student and foundation level junior doctor cohorts was undertaken within one United Kingdom healthcare region. Participants were asked whether they owned a Smartphone and if they used apps on their Smartphones to support their education and practice activities. Frequency of use and type of app used was also investigated. Open response questions explored participants’ views on apps that were desired or recommended and the characteristics of apps that were useful. Results 257 medical students and 131 junior doctors responded, equating to a response rate of 15.0% and 21.8% respectively. 79.0% (n=203/257) of medical students and 74.8% (n=98/131) of junior doctors owned a smartphone, with 56.6% (n=115/203) of students and 68.4% (n=67/98) of doctors owning an iPhone. The majority of students and doctors owned 1–5 medical related applications, with very few owning more than 10, and iPhone owners significantly more likely to own apps (Chi sq, papp usage of several times a day. Over 24hours apps were used for between 1–30 minutes for students and 1–20 minutes for doctors, students used disease diagnosis/management and drug reference apps, with doctors favouring clinical score/calculator apps. Conclusions This study found a high level of

  20. Barriers to the Use of Trastuzumab for HER2+ Breast Cancer and the Potential Impact of Biosimilars: A Physician Survey in the United States and Emerging Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Lammers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy has become a standard of care for patients with HER2+ breast cancer. The cost of therapy, however, can limit patient access to trastuzumab in areas with limited financial resources for treatment reimbursement. This study examined access to trastuzumab and identified potential barriers to its use in the United States, Mexico, Turkey, Russia and Brazil via physician survey. The study also investigated if the availability of a biosimilar to trastuzumab would improve access to and use of HER2 monoclonal antibody therapy. Across all countries, a subset of oncologists reported barriers to the use of trastuzumab in a neoadjuvant, adjuvant or metastatic setting. Common barriers to the use of trastuzumab included issues related to insurance coverage, drug availability and cost to the patient. Overall, nearly half of oncologists reported that they would increase the use of HER2 monoclonal antibody therapy across all treatment settings if a lower cost biosimilar to trastuzumab were available. We conclude that the introduction of a biosimilar to trastuzumab may alleviate cost-related barriers to treatment and could increase patient access to HER2-directed therapy in all countries examined.

  1. Barriers to the Use of Trastuzumab for HER2+ Breast Cancer and the Potential Impact of Biosimilars: A Physician Survey in the United States and Emerging Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, Philip; Criscitiello, Carmen; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Jacobs, Ira

    2014-09-17

    Trastuzumab in combination with chemotherapy has become a standard of care for patients with HER2+ breast cancer. The cost of therapy, however, can limit patient access to trastuzumab in areas with limited financial resources for treatment reimbursement. This study examined access to trastuzumab and identified potential barriers to its use in the United States, Mexico, Turkey, Russia and Brazil via physician survey. The study also investigated if the availability of a biosimilar to trastuzumab would improve access to and use of HER2 monoclonal antibody therapy. Across all countries, a subset of oncologists reported barriers to the use of trastuzumab in a neoadjuvant, adjuvant or metastatic setting. Common barriers to the use of trastuzumab included issues related to insurance coverage, drug availability and cost to the patient. Overall, nearly half of oncologists reported that they would increase the use of HER2 monoclonal antibody therapy across all treatment settings if a lower cost biosimilar to trastuzumab were available. We conclude that the introduction of a biosimilar to trastuzumab may alleviate cost-related barriers to treatment and could increase patient access to HER2-directed therapy in all countries examined.

  2. Jaguar surveying and monitoring in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Melanie

    2016-06-10

    Because of the jaguar’s (Panthera onca) endangered status under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 throughout its range (from Arizona in the north to Argentina in the south), jaguar individuals and populations are monitored to varying degrees throughout their range. Knowledge gained from monitoring jaguars is helpful for wildlife managers who are responsible for conserving this species. The University of Arizona (UA) has conducted a multiyear surveying and monitoring effort for jaguars and ocelots in southern Arizona and New Mexico. The purpose of this work was to establish an effective surveying and monitoring system for jaguars along the United States-Mexico border. Surveying and monitoring in this study focused on the United States side of the border, but the methods could also be used in Mexico. The intent was to develop and implement a surveying and monitoring system that would provide the greatest probability of recording jaguar presence in, and passage through, the border area.

  3. KPC and NDM-1 genes in related Enterobacteriaceae strains and plasmids from Pakistan and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesesky, Mitchell W; Hussain, Tahir; Wallace, Meghan; Wang, Bin; Andleeb, Saadia; Burnham, Carey-Ann D; Dantas, Gautam

    2015-06-01

    To characterize the genomic context of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), we sequenced 78 Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Pakistan and the United States encoding KPC, NDM-1, or no carbapenemase. High similarities of the results indicate rapid spread of carbapenem resistance between strains, including globally disseminated pathogens.

  4. Variability of United States isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina based on simple sequence repeats and cross genus transferability to related Botryosphaeraceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve simple sequence repeat (SSRs) loci were used to evaluate genetic diversity of 109 isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina collected from different geographical regions and host species throughout the United States (U.S.). Genetic diversity was assessed using Nei’s minimum genetic distance and th...

  5. Is a Degree Relevant? A Comparison of Pedagogical thought Units of Teachers with and without ELT-Related Academic Credentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, Ramin; Moradkhani, Shahab

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the difference between the pedagogical thought units of ELT practitioners with English-relevant degrees and those with non-relevant degrees. An entire teaching session of eight EFL teachers' performance was video recorded and their pedagogical thoughts were identified by using stimulated recall technique. The findings revealed…

  6. Influence of a portable air treatment unit on health-related quality indicators of indoor air in a classroom.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, P.T.J.; Cremers, R.G.H.M.; Hout, S.P. van; Anzion, R.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    During periods of two weeks in February and June 2010 the performance of portable air treatment units (PATUs) was evaluated in a primary school classroom using indicators of indoor air quality. Air samples were collected in an undisturbed setting on weekend days and in an occupied setting during tea

  7. Universal Beliefs and Specific Practices: Students' Math Self-Efficacy and Related Factors in the United States and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yin

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to compare and contrast student and school factors that are associated with students' mathematics self-efficacy in the United States and China. Using hierarchical linear regressions to analyze the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 data, this study compares math self-efficacy, achievement, and variables…

  8. Three Decades of International Guidelines for Environment-Related Education: A Critical Hermeneutic of the United Nations Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauve, Lucie; Berryman, Tom; Brunelle, Renee

    2007-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNEP International Environmental Education Program (1975-1995) provided impetus for developing, legitimizing, and institutionalizing environmental education. More recently, UNESCO was mandated by the United Nations to carry out a worldwide shift towards education for sustainable development. As international organizations'…

  9. Overview of School and Unit Variables and Their Structural Relations in Phase I of the IGE Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gary G.; And Others

    This document provides an overview of the school variables and unit variables used in Phase 1 of the Individually Guided Education (IGE) evaluation. Included in the discussion of each variable are a verbal definition of the variable, a description of the distribution of the variable in the 156 schools that participated in the Phase 1 study, and…

  10. When does inconsistency hurt? On the relation between phonological-consistency effects and the reliability of sublexical units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martensen, H.E.; Maris, E.G.G.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2000-01-01

    Phonological consistency describes to what extent a letter string in one word is pronounced equally in other words. Phonological reliability describes to what extent a sublexical unit is usually consistent throughout one language. The relationship between the two concepts was investigated by

  11. KPC and NDM-1 Genes in Related Enterobacteriaceae Strains and Plasmids from Pakistan and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesesky, Mitchell W.; Hussain, Tahir; Wallace, Meghan; Wang, Bin; Andleeb, Saadia; Burnham, Carey-Ann D.

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the genomic context of New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), we sequenced 78 Enterobacteriaceae isolates from Pakistan and the United States encoding KPC, NDM-1, or no carbapenemase. High similarities of the results indicate rapid spread of carbapenem resistance between strains, including globally disseminated pathogens. PMID:25988236

  12. A New Sample Transect through the Sierra Madre Occidental Silicic Large Igneous Province in Southern Chihuahua State, Mexico: First Stratigraphic, Petrologic, and Geochemical Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, G. D.; Davila Harris, P.; Brown, S. R.; Anderson, L.; Moreno, N.

    2014-12-01

    We completed a field sampling transect across the northern Sierra Madre Occidental silicic large igneous province (SMO) in December 2013. Here we present the first stratigraphic, petrological, and geochemical data from the transect between Hidalgo del Parral and Guadalupe y Calvo, Chihuahua, Mexico. This is the first new transect across the SMO in 25 years and the only one between existing NE - SW transects at Chihuahua - Hermosillo and Durango - Mazatlan. The 245 km-long transect along Mexican Highway 24 crosses the boundary between the extended (Basin and Range) and non-extended (Sierra Madre Occidental plateau) parts of the SMO, and allows sampling of previously undescribed Oligocene (?) - early Miocene (?) rhyolitic ignimbrites and lavas, and occasional post-rhyolite, Miocene (?) SCORBA basaltic andesite lavas. 54 samples of rhyolitic ignimbrites (40) and lavas (7), and basaltic andesite lavas (7) were sampled along the transect, including 8 canyon sections with more than one unit. The ignimbrites are overwhelming rhyodacitic (plagioclase and hornblende or biotite phyric) or rhyolitic (quartz (+/- sanidine) in additon to plagioclase and hornblende or biotite phyric) and sparsely to highly phyric. Preliminary petrographic (phenocryst abundances) and geochemical (major and trace element) will be presented and compared to existing data from elsewhere in the SMO. Future work will include U-Pb zircon dating and whole rock and in-zircon radiogenic isotopes analyses.

  13. Variables in the Guatemalan Operational Environment That Affect Guatemalan Decision Makers Concerning Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-06

    America and the United States in the Eighties, (Panteon Books, 1983), p. 182. 39. Richard R. Fagan and Olga Pellicer , The Future of Central America...Grove Press, Inc., 1983), p. 307. -97- ~ *.4q;~ *~ ~ ~ 9. .~9.... 9 49. Richard R. Fagan and Olga Pellicer , The Future of Central America: Policy...Westview Press, 1983), p. 133. 51. Richard R. Fagan and Olga Pellicer , The Future of Central America: Policy Choices for the U.S. and Mexico

  14. Neotethyan rifting-related ore occurrences: study of an accretionary mélange complex (Darnó Unit, NE Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Gabriella B.; Oláh, Erika; Zaccarini, Federica; Szakáll, Sándor

    2016-02-01

    The geology of the NE Hungarian Darnó Unit is rather complicated, as it is composed mostly of a Jurassic accretionary mélange complex, according to the most recent investigations. The magmatic and sedimentary rock blocks of the mélange represent products of different evolutionary stages of the Neotethys; including Permian and Triassic sedimentary rocks of marine rifting related origin, Triassic pillow basalt of advanced rifting related origin and Jurassic pillow basalt originated in back-arc-basin environment. This small unit contains a copper-gold occurrence in the Permian marly-clayey limestone, an iron enrichment in the Triassic sedimentary succession, a copper-silver ore occurrence in Triassic pillow basalts and a copper ore indication, occurring both in the Triassic and Jurassic pillow basalts. The present study deals with the Cu(-Ag) occurrence in the Triassic basalt and the Fe occurrence in the Triassic sedimentary succession. The former shows significant similarities with the Michigan-type mineralizations, while the latter has typical characteristics of the Fe-SEDEX deposits. All the above localities fit well into the new geological model of the investigated area. The mineralizations represent the different evolutionary stages of the Neotethyan rifting and an epigenetic, Alpine metamorphism-related process and their recent, spatially close position is the result of the accretionary mélange formation. Thus, the Darnó Unit represents a perfect natural laboratory for studying and understanding the characteristic features of several different rifting related ore forming processes.

  15. Central venous catheter-related blood stream infection rate in critical care units in a tertiary care, teaching hospital in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Chopdekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood stream infections related to central venous catheterization are one of the major device-associated infections reported. Patients admitted in critical care units requiring central venous catheterization and presenting with signs of septicemia during catheterization period were investigated for catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI. The CRBSI rate was 9.26 per 1000 catheter days in general with highest rate in neonatal intensive care unit (27.02/1000 days. Site of insertion of catheter and duration of catheterization did not show the influence on the CRBSI rate. Coagulase-negative Staphylococci were the predominant cause. Mortality of 33% was observed in patients with CRBSI. Since central venous catheters are increasingly being used in the critical care, regular surveillance for infection associated them are essential.

  16. A comparison of wakeboard-, water skiing-, and tubing-related injuries in the United States, 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John I; Griffin, Russell; Brauneis, Paul F; Rue, Loring W; McGwin, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare tubing-related injuries to wakeboarding- and water skiing-related injuries. Data was collected from the 2000-2007 National Electronic Injury Surveillance Survey for 1,761 individuals seeking care at an emergency department due to a tubing-, wakeboarding, or water skiing-related injury. Data included patient age and sex, as well as injury characteristics including body region injured (i.e., head and neck, trunk, shoulder and upper extremity, and hip and lower extremity) and diagnosis of injury (e.g., contusion, laceration, or fracture). Case narratives were reviewed to ensure that a tubing-, wakeboarding-, or water skiing-related injury occurred while the individual was being towed behind a boat. Severe injury (defined as an injury resulting in the individual being hospitalized, transferred, held for observation) was compared among the groups using logistic regression. Wakeboard- and tubing-related injuries more commonly involved the head and neck, while water skiing- related injuries were likely to involve the hip and lower extremity. Tubing-related injuries, compared to water skiing-related injuries, were more likely to be severe (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.23-4. 33). Like wakeboarding and water skiing, tubing has inherent risks that must be understood by the participant. While tubing is generally considered a safer alternative to wakeboarding and water skiing, the results of the current study suggest otherwise. Both the number and severity of tubing- related injuries could be prevented through means such as advocating the use of protective wear such as helmets while riding a tube or having recommended safe towing speeds prominently placed on inner tubes. Key pointsIncrease annual injury rate trend in wakeboard injuries.Wakeboard- and tubing-related injuries more often to head and neck, waterskiing-related injuries more often to hip and lower extremity.Tubing-related injuries over 2-times as likely to be severe compared to

  17. RELATIONS BETWEEN THE FREE TRADE AGREEMENT OF COLOMBIA WITH THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE MULTILATERAL ENVIRONMENTAL AGREEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This article is the result of a study carried out by the Environmental law Research Area of Universidad del Rosario, within the project of environmental conflicts applied to international decisions. One of the topics discussed in this research is the analysis of relationships between Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs) and the Free Trade Agreement, or Trade Promotion Agreement, which was entered into by Colombia and the United States of America (Col-USA FTA) with the purpose of deter...

  18. RELATIVE ASYMPTOTICS FOR ORTHOGONAL MATRIX POLYNOMIALS WITH RESPECT TO A PERTURBED MATRIX MEASURE ON THE UNIT CIRCLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossain O. Yakhlef; Francisco Marcellán

    2002-01-01

    Given a positive definite matrix measure Ω supported on the unit circle T, then main purpose of this paper is to study the asymptotic behavior of Ln(Ω)Ln(Ω)-1 and Φn(z;Ω)Φn(z;Ω)-1 where Ω(z) = Ω(z) + zδ(z - w); |w| > 1,M is a positive definite matrix and δ is the Dirac matrix measure. Here, Ln ( @ ) means the leading coefficient of the orthonormal matrix polynomials Φn(z; @ ).Finally, we deduce the asymptotic behavior of Φn (w;Ω)Φn (w;Ω) * in the case when M=I.

  19. Understanding determinants of government and consumer behavior relative to product safety : an application of the theory of planned behavior to China and the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Domke, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The following thesis applies Icek Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior to explain consumer and government response to safety of Chinese-made products sold in China and the United States. The thesis relies on secondary data as it considers the responses and actions relative to product safety by four different groups: Chinese government, U.S. government, Chinese consumers and U.S. consumers. Increased globalization has heightened the need for a better understanding and agreement...

  20. A Case Study of How the United States Coordinates Its Global Change Research and Its Related National Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, W. M.

    2016-12-01

    The United State federal program coordinates scientific research on Global Change that provides useful information for the public and national and international policymakers? The U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) was started in 1990 by an act of Congress and it has sought the advice of the U.S. academies of science, engineering, and medicine. The academies have a special relationship to the government which draws upon the expertise of the academies to provide rigorous peer reviewed advice. Specifically, the academies' advisory committee and its other committees helps identify future directions and priorities, provides consensus on science controversies, gives a "state of science', and technical analyses, peer review documents, serves as neutral convening body, and facilitates collaboration. The academies produce reports, workshops, and reports. One of the major tasks of the USGCRP is to produce a National Climate Assessment (NCA) report about every four years, which is reviewed by the academies and the public. This report provides "mature" and balanced scientific information to a broad set of sectors and regional stakeholders as well as local, regional and national governments that are involved in decision-making. Recently the USGCRP representatives have held a meeting with United Kingdom assessment representatives to compare and learn from each other about different national assessment methods.

  1. The distribution of brown recluse spiders in the southeastern quadrant of the United States in relation to loxoscelism diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S

    2009-05-01

    The southern and eastern margins of the range of the brown recluse spider run through the southeastern quadrant of the United States. Populations vary from abundant in states such as Arkansas and west and central Kentucky and Tennessee to absent in the Atlantic seaboard states. The diagnosis of loxoscelism should be restricted to areas of the southeastern United States where brown recluse spiders are both common and widespread. Better knowledge of the local presence of recluse spiders in one's area, along with the list of differential diagnoses for dermonecrosis, will allow medical personnel in the south to better assess the probability of spider involvement in a necrotic skin lesion. In North America, there are two groups of spiders proven to be medically important: the widow spiders (genus Latrodectus) and the recluse spiders (genus Loxosceles). The widow spiders are a known entity, because their distinctive coloration makes them readily identifiable by nonarachnologists. Also, the physiological mechanism of the venom, the antivenom to counter it, and the symptoms are known, causing misdiagnosis to rarely occur. In contrast, recluse spiders are almost at the other end of the spectrum. They are readily misidentified or confused with harmless spiders, and the physiological mechanism of the venom is still being elucidated. Furthermore, no antivenom is commercially available, and the brown recluse's infamy causes many skin lesions of nonarachnid origin to be misdiagnosed as brown recluse spider bites.

  2. Emergency Department Visits Related to Schizophrenia Among Adults Aged 18-64: United States, 2009-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Michael; McCaig, Linda F

    2015-09-01

    ED care is important for the treatment of acute presentations of schizophrenia and may serve as a safety net for schizophrenic patients not otherwise receiving care (4,5). This analysis of National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) data indicates that during 2009-2011, an average of 382,000 ED visits related to schizophrenia occurred each year among adults aged 18-64, corresponding to an overall visit rate of 20.1 per 10,000 adults. A visit having a first-, second-, or third-listed diagnosis of schizophrenia (i.e., whether the visit was directly or indirectly related to schizophrenia) was included in the analysis to provide a broader description of ED use by these patients. The distribution of the primary diagnosis of visits related to schizophrenia was: schizophrenia (58.8%), another mental disorder (15.4%), and a nonmental health disorder (25.7%) (data not shown). Among adults aged 18-64, the rate for ED visits related to schizophrenia was about twice as high for men as for women. Public insurance (Medicaid, Medicare, or dual Medicare and Medicaid) was more frequently the primary expected source of payment for ED visits related to schizophrenia compared with ED visits not related to schizophrenia. ED visits related to schizophrenia were more frequently made by patients who were homeless compared with ED visits not related to schizophrenia. About one-third of ED visits related to schizophrenia resulted in a hospital admission, and another 16.7% resulted in a transfer to a psychiatric hospital--both higher than the percentages for ED visits not related to schizophrenia. One of the goals of Healthy People 2020 is to improve mental health through prevention and by ensuring access to appropriate, quality mental health services (6). National data on the rates and characteristics of ED visits related to schizophrenia will help policymakers and practitioners address disparities and meet this goal.

  3. Brazil as an Emerging Power: Its Role in the Transition to a Multipolar Order and the Consequences for Its Relations with the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Roy Leatherman III

    2012-01-01

    This master\\'s thesis examines the effects of Brazil\\'s economic and political rise on the nation\\'s ability to have shaped global order through soft balancing during the presidency of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and the consequent impact on Brazil\\'s relations with the United States. In order to contextualize the effects of Brazil\\'s soft balancing on international institutions and Brazilian-American relations, this text first reviews the relevant theoretical and empirical literature on the li...

  4. Effects of exposure to pesticides during pregnancy on placental maturity and weight of newborns: a cross-sectional pilot study in women from the Chihuahua State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Maldonado, Brenda; Sánchez-Ramírez, Blanca; Reza-López, Sandra; Levario-Carrillo, Margarita

    2009-08-01

    It is known that pesticides cross the placental barrier and can cause alterations in the development of placental structures resulting in adverse effects in reproduction. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of pesticide exposure during pregnancy on placental maturity and to evaluate the relationship between placental maturity, gestational age and birth weight. We collected the placentas from singleton pregnancies from women exposed (n = 9) and non-exposed (n = 45 full-term and n = 31 preterm) to pesticides as evaluated geographically, by questionnaire and by acetylcholinesterase levels. Placental morphometry from the central and peripheral regions was examined by microscopy and staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The placental maturity index (PMI) was estimated by dividing the number of epithelial plates in terminal villi to their thickness in 1 mm(2) of the placental parenchyma. Gestational age, birth weight and the following characteristics of the mother were also recorded: pre-pregnancy body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy and hemoglobin concentrations. Birth weight and the gestational age were correlated with PMI (r = .54 and r = .44, respectively; p < .01). Pesticide exposure was associated with a higher PMI (beta = 7.38, p = .01) after adjusting by variables related to placental maturity. In conclusion, the results suggest a relationship between prenatal exposure to pesticides and placental maturity and may potentially affect the nutrient transport from the mother to the fetus.

  5. Registro nuevo del escorpión mexicano Heloderma horridum (Reptilia: Helodermidae en Durango, México New report of Mexican scorpion Heloderma horridum (Reptilia: Helodermidae in Durango State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Muñiz-Martínez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El escorpión mexicano Heloderma horridum es una de las 2 especies de lagartijas venenosas que se conocen en el mundo; hay 3 subespecies, todas en una distribución muy localizada, a lo largo de la costa del Pacífico. En la parte suroeste de Durango, en el río Presidio, un grupo de técnicos topógrafos observaron un ejemplar de Heloderma horridum y tomaron fotografías, las cuales aportaron al autor de esta nota, quien por medio de claves determinó la especie. Se trata de una especie que se considera amenazada dentro de la NOM-ECOL-059-2001, razón por la cual no se recolectó. Este registro amplía la distribución de la especie hacia el suroeste de la sierra Madre Occidental y confirma su presencia en el estado de Durango, México.The Beaded Mexican Reptile is one of the 2 species recognized as venomous reptiles in the world. There are known 3 subspecies of Heloderma horridum, all show a very localized distribution, along the Pacific Coast. At the Southwestern part of Durango, this species was seen at the river Presidio. One specimen of Heloderma horridum, was observed and photographed, by a group of topography technical, who donated the pictures. By using taxonomic keys, the specimen was determined as Heloderma horridum. This species is registered in NOM-ECOL-059-2001, and is considered Amazing species, so the specimen was not collected. This is new registration, broads the geographical distribution of this taxon towards the southwestern of the Sierra Madre Occidental and its presence in Durango state, Mexico.

  6. A relation between the right triangle and circular tori with constant mean curvature in the unit 3-sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdênago Barros

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this note we will show that the inverse image under the stereographic projection of a circular torus of revolution in the 3-dimensional euclidean space has constant mean curvature in the unit 3-sphere if and only if their radii are the catet and the hypotenuse of an appropriate right triangle.Neste artigo mostraremos que a imagem inversa pela projeção estereográfica de um toro circular de revolução no espaço euclidiano de dimensão 3 tem curvatura média constante se e somente se os seus raios são o cateto e a hipotenusa de um triângulo retângulo apropriado.

  7. The 1997-98 El-Nino Event and Related Lightning Variations in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, D. E.; Goodman, S. J.; McCaul, E. W.; Knupp, K.

    1999-01-01

    The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climate anomaly responsible for world-wide weather impacts ranging from droughts to floods. In the United States, warm episode years are known to produce above normal rainfall along the Southeast US Gulf Coast and into the Gulf of Mexico, with the greatest response observed in the October-March period of the current warm-episode year. The 1997-98 warm episode, notable for being the strongest event since 1982-83, presents our first opportunity to examine the response to a major ENSO event and determine the variation of wintertime thunderstorm activity in this part of the world. Due to the recent launch of a lightning sensor on NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in November 1997 and the expanded coverage of the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), we are able to examine such year-to-year changes in lightning activity with far greater detail than ever before.

  8. The Northern triangle: relations between the United States, the EU and Russia A flexible and complex complementariness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Serra Massansalvador

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to analyse the structural implications of the cooperation between the United States, the European Union and Russia, as well as the shape this cooperation assumes according to the area dealt with. At the beginning of this new century, the structureof the international system presents symptoms of variable geometry, in which the country that appears to be the hegemonic power in the area of security needs solid supports in order to exercise this hegemony. These supports will have to be sought not only at thestrategic level, but, above all, in such aspects as trade, control of international organisations and even the ideological arena, all of which are areas in which it would be difficult to exert hegemony through a unilateral approach.

  9. A COMPARISON OF WAKEBOARD-, WATER SKIING-, AND TUBING-RELATED INJURIES IN THE UNITED STATES, 2000-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John I. Baker

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare tubing-related injuries to wakeboarding- and water skiing-related injuries. Data was collected from the 2000-2007 National Electronic Injury Surveillance Survey for 1,761 individuals seeking care at an emergency department due to a tubing-, wakeboarding, or water skiing-related injury. Data included patient age and sex, as well as injury characteristics including body region injured (i.e., head and neck, trunk, shoulder and upper extremity, and hip and lower extremity and diagnosis of injury (e.g., contusion, laceration, or fracture. Case narratives were reviewed to ensure that a tubing-, wakeboarding-, or water skiing-related injury occurred while the individual was being towed behind a boat. Severe injury (defined as an injury resulting in the individual being hospitalized, transferred, held for observation was compared among the groups using logistic regression. Wakeboard- and tubing-related injuries more commonly involved the head and neck, while water skiing- related injuries were likely to involve the hip and lower extremity. Tubing-related injuries, compared to water skiing-related injuries, were more likely to be severe (OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.23-4. 33. Like wakeboarding and water skiing, tubing has inherent risks that must be understood by the participant. While tubing is generally considered a safer alternative to wakeboarding and water skiing, the results of the current study suggest otherwise. Both the number and severity of tubing- related injuries could be prevented through means such as advocating the use of protective wear such as helmets while riding a tube or having recommended safe towing speeds prominently placed on inner tubes

  10. A Comparison of Wakeboard-, Water Skiing-, and Tubing-Related Injuries in The United States, 2000-2007

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare tubing-related injuries to wakeboarding- and water skiing-related injuries. Data was collected from the 2000-2007 National Electronic Injury Surveillance Survey for 1,761 individuals seeking care at an emergency department due to a tubing-, wakeboarding, or water skiing-related injury. Data included patient age and sex, as well as injury characteristics including body region injured (i.e., head and neck, trunk, shoulder and upper extremity, and hip and ...

  11. What Explains Differences in Availability of Community Health-Related Services for Seniors in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Mildred E; Xu, Yuanshuo; Morken, Lydia J

    2016-06-01

    This study analyzes the links between planning, the built environment, and availability of health-related community services across U.S. urban and rural communities. We analyze the first national survey of health-related community services for seniors (2010 Maturing of America), covering 1,459 U.S. cities and counties. We tested the influence of morbidity (diabetes and obesity), city management, socioeconomic characteristics, planning and the built environment, metro status, and government finance. Community health-related services are more common in places that plan for and involve seniors in planning processes. Places with higher need and government capacity also show higher levels. Service levels in rural communities are not lower after controlling for other population characteristics. Morbidity measures (diabetes and obesity) do not explain differences in service availability. Policies promoting planning for aging and elder involvement in the planning process have the greatest impact on the level of community health-related services for seniors.

  12. Rates of TBI-related Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Deaths — United States, 2001–2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — In general, total combined rates for traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations and deaths have increased over the past...

  13. Absence of Fluoride Varnish-Related Adverse Events in Caries Prevention Trials in Young Children, United States

    OpenAIRE

    Gansky, Stuart; Garcia, RI; Gregorich, SE; Ramos-Gomez, F; Braun, PA; Wilson, A.; Albino, J; Tiwari , T.; Harper, M.; Batliner, TS; Rasmussen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride varnish is an effective prevention intervention for caries in young children. Its routine use in clinical care is supported by meta-analyses and recommended by clinical guidelines, including the US Preventive Services Task Force (B rating). This report is the first prospective systematic assessment of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in young children. Methods We determined the incidence of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in 3 cli...

  14. Predictors of the work-related depressive symptoms among blue-collar male employees of an industrial unit in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Lotfizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Possible associations between depressive symptoms and work-related parameters have frequently been discussed in the literature. The present study was aimed to evaluate the work-related depressive symptoms and their possible-related parameters among male employees of Esfahan Steel Company (ESCO as one of the most important industrial sites in Iran. Materials and Methods: With a cross-sectional design and a stratified random sampling method in 2010, a total of 400 male employees were enrolled from the operational parts of the ESCO. Results: Among 400 participated employees, 245 (61.3% were rotational duty employees and 358 (89.5% were reported making <$500. After applying the linear regression model, some variables including: economic difficulties (P = 0.022, odds ratio [OR] = 0.558, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.339–0.919, family-related problems (P = 0.003, OR = 0.303, 95% CI = 0.138–0.669, and work environment (P < 0.001, OR = 0.244, 95% CI = 0.140–0.426 were found to be significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms among the participants. Conclusion: The present study brought to light the predictors of occupational depressive symptoms among blue-collar employees of ESCO. More research is needed to find the causal relations between mental health and work-related parameters among Iranian employees.

  15. The effects of unitization on the contribution of familiarity and recollection processes to associative recognition memory: evidence from event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhiwei; Li, Juan; Xiao, Fengqiu; Broster, Lucas S; Jiang, Yang; Xi, Mingjing

    2015-03-01

    Familiarity and recollection are two independent cognitive processes involved in recognition memory. It is traditionally believed that both familiarity and recollection can support item recognition, whereas only recollection can support associative recognition. Here, using a standard associative recognition task, we examined whether associative retrieval of unitized associations involved differential patterns of familiarity and recollection processes relative to non-unitized associations. The extent of engagement of familiarity and recollection processes during associative retrieval was estimated by using event-related potentials (ERPs). Twenty participants studied compound words and unrelated word pairs during encoding. Subsequently, they were asked to decide whether a presented word pair was intact, rearranged, or a new pair while electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. ERP results showed that compound words evoked a significant early frontal old/new effect (associated with familiarity) between ERPs to intact and rearranged word pairs, whereas this effect disappeared for the unrelated word pairs. In addition, the left parietal old/new effect (associated with recollection) between ERPs to intact and rearranged word pairs was greater for compounds than for unrelated word pairs. These findings suggest that unitization enhances the contribution of both familiarity and recollection processes to associative recognition.

  16. Increased Economic Relations Between China and Zambia in the Last Decade: Implications on Zambia’s Existing Bilateral Relations with the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    Committee on Human Rights Studies by Mr. Micheal Chilufya Sata in 2007, prior to his becoming the President of Zambia. The paper highlighted...continent. In his paper, Sata stated that China’s recent march into Africa was in search of natural resources, especially oil, timber and base metals to...especially in the 48 African countries that have diplomatic ties with China.60 Sata argued that the increased China and Zambia relations had negative

  17. Neonatal Mortality of Planned Home Birth in the United States in Relation to Professional Certification of Birth Attendants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Grünebaum

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, planned home births in the United States (US have increased, and have been associated with increased neonatal mortality and other morbidities. In a previous study we reported that neonatal mortality is increased in planned home births but we did not perform an analysis for the presence of professional certification status.The objective of this study therefore was to undertake an analysis to determine whether the professional certification status of midwives or the home birth setting are more closely associated with the increased neonatal mortality of planned midwife-attended home births in the United States.This study is a secondary analysis of our prior study. The 2006-2009 period linked birth/infant deaths data set was analyzed to examine total neonatal deaths (deaths less than 28 days of life in term singleton births (37+ weeks and newborn weight ≥ 2,500 grams without documented congenital malformations by certification status of the midwife: certified nurse midwives (CNM, nurse midwives certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board, and "other" or uncertified midwives who are not certified by the American Midwifery Certification Board.Neonatal mortality rates in hospital births attended by certified midwives were significantly lower (3.2/10,000, RR 0.33 95% CI 0.21-0.53 than home births attended by certified midwives (NNM: 10.0/10,000; RR 1 and uncertified midwives (13.7/10,000; RR 1.41 [95% CI, 0.83-2.38]. The difference in neonatal mortality between certified and uncertified midwives at home births did not reach statistical levels (10.0/10,000 births versus 13.7/10,000 births p = 0.2.This study confirms that when compared to midwife-attended hospital births, neonatal mortality rates at home births are significantly increased. While NNM was increased in planned homebirths attended by uncertified midwives when compared to certified midwives, this difference was not statistically significant. Neonatal

  18. A cross-sectional study of emergency care utilization and associated costs of violent-related (assault) injuries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monuteaux, Michael C; Fleegler, Eric W; Lee, Lois K

    2017-08-01

    Violent-related (assault) injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Many violent injury victims seek treatment in the emergency department (ED). Our objectives were to (1) estimate rates of violent-related injuries evaluated in United States EDs, (2) estimate linear trends in ED visits for violent-related injuries from 2000 to 2010, and (3) to determine the associated health care and work-loss costs. We examined adults 18 years and older from a nationally representative survey (the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) of ED visits, from 2000 to 2010. Violent injury was defined using International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev.-Clinical Modification, diagnosis and mechanism of injury codes. We calculated rates of ED visits for violent injuries. Medical and work-loss costs accrued by these injuries were calculated for 2005, inflation-adjusted to 2011 dollars using the WISQARS Cost of Injury Reports. An annual average of 1.4 million adults were treated for violent injuries in EDs from 2000 to 2010, comprising 1.6% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-1.6%) of all US adult ED visits. Young adults (18-25 years), men, nonwhites, uninsured or publically insured patients, and those residing in high poverty urban areas were at increased risk for ED visits for violent injury. The 1-year, inflation-adjusted medical and work-loss cost of violent-inflicted injuries in adults in the United States was US $49.5 billion. Violent injuries account for over one million ED visits annually among adults, with no change in rates over the past decade. Young black men are at especially increased risk for ED visits for violent injuries. Overall, violent-related injuries resulted in substantial financial and societal costs. Epidemiological study, level III.

  19. Intimate partner violence in the relationships of men with disabilities in the United States: relative prevalence and health correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Monika; Mouradian, Vera E

    2014-11-01

    Despite the growing literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization against people with disabilities, few studies have examined IPV against men with disabilities. This study uses population-based data to examine the prevalence of past-year and lifetime IPV against men with disabilities in the United States in comparison with men without disabilities and women with and without disabilities, compare the demographic characteristics of men with disabilities who reported IPV to those of other men, and examine associations of IPV and disability status with mental and physical health and other health risks among men. Results indicate that, adjusting for demographic characteristics, men with disabilities were more likely to report lifetime IPV than men without disabilities and, among those reporting any lifetime IPV, men with disabilities were more likely to report past-year IPV than both nondisabled men and women. With few exceptions, comparisons of health indicators revealed that men with disabilities reporting lifetime IPV were more likely than other men to report poor health status and to report engaging in health risk behaviors. Directions for future research and programmatic and policy implications of these results are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Category of functional tooth units in relation to the number of teeth and masticatory ability in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masayuki; Yanagisawa, Tomohito; Shinada, Kayoko; Ohara, Satoko; Kawaguchi, Yoko

    2010-02-01

    The purposes of this study were (1) to examine differences in dental status among various age groups, particularly, focusing on whether subjects retained 20 or more natural teeth, and (2) to investigate the relationship among dental status, the number and categories of functional tooth units (FTUs), and masticatory ability. A dental examination and self-administered questionnaire were conducted in a total of 2,164 residents aged 40 to 75 years who dwelt in Japan. The percentage of subjects with 20 and more natural teeth and their number of posterior teeth decreased with age. There was not much difference in the mean number of FTUs in subjects with and without 20 or more natural teeth, but those with 20 natural teeth had fewer numbers of FTUs than those with more than 20 natural teeth. The categories of the FTUs were extremely different. Subjects with 20 or more natural teeth had FTUs consisting mostly of natural to natural teeth. Subjects with 19 or fewer natural teeth had many FTUs consisting of removable prosthetic teeth. The subjective chewing ability test was significantly correlated with the number of natural teeth. Subjects could chew the higher number of test foods as the number of natural teeth increased. Not only the number of natural teeth but the categories of FTUs appear to be key factors of chewing ability. It is important to keep as many natural teeth as possible so that the person's categories of FTUs are mainly composed of natural to natural teeth to maintain better oral function.

  1. Sales of Forestry-Related Specialty License Plates in the Southern United States: A County Level Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun M. Tanger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, specialty license plates have become an increasingly popular way to raise awareness and show support for a myriad of issues with which the plate is linked. Several states and various organizations that provide forestry education have developed forestry license plates. Vehicle owners can purchase the plates to show their support towards forestry by buying the forestry license plates, which generates revenue for the provider organization. Using county-level data from five states in the Southeastern United States, a statistical model was developed to examine explanatory factors of forestry-based specialty license plate sales in 2014. Using linear count regression modeling, we observed that the significant predictor variables of plate sales were income per capita, population density, the percentage of acres that are forested in the county, acres of forest in the county that are privately owned, percentage of people who are 65 or older, and presence of the forest industry in the county. Plate sales were positively correlated with the presence of the forest industry in the county.

  2. Distribution of male infertility specialists in relation to the male population and assisted reproductive technology centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Ajay K; Likosky, Donald S; Wang, Dongmei

    2010-07-01

    To describe the spatial distribution of assisted reproductive technology (ART) centers and male infertility specialists by location, driving distance from ART center, and potential male population in need of these resources. Cross-sectional study. Male population in the reproductive years (20-49 years old) based on U.S. Census Bureau data in 2000. Urology male infertility specialists as defined by 2005 specialty society membership directories. ART centers registered with the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology in 2005. Male population and male infertility specialists within the service area served by in-state and neighboring-state ART centers, as defined by a 60-minute travel time. One hundred ninety-seven male infertility specialists and 390 ART centers were identified. On a state level, the highest male population in the reproductive years was seen in California, Texas, and Florida. The highest male populations per male specialist were found in Oregon, Tennessee, and Oklahoma. The highest number of ART centers per male specialist was found in Tennessee. The highest proximities of male specialists within the 60-minute driving service area of different ART centers were found in the North East and Southern California. The Midwest to Northwest had the least. A disparity of urology male infertility specialists exists in the United States, with large areas of the country being underserved and overserved based on the location of ART centers. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Capabilities of the Japanese Self-Defense Force and Its Impact on United States-Japan Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    9 Denny Roy. "Stirring Samurai , Disapproving Dragon: Japan’s Growing Security Activity and Sino...149–168. 80 ———. "Stirring Samurai , Disapproving Dragon: Japan’s Growing Security Activity and Sino-Japan Relations." Asian Affairs (Heldref

  4. Absence of Fluoride Varnish–Related Adverse Events in Caries Prevention Trials in Young Children, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorich, Steven E.; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Braun, Patricia A.; Wilson, Anne; Albino, Judith; Tiwari, Tamanna; Harper, Maya; Batliner, Terrence S.; Rasmussen, Margaret; Cheng, Nancy F.; Santo, William; Geltman, Paul L.; Henshaw, Michelle; Gansky, Stuart A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride varnish is an effective prevention intervention for caries in young children. Its routine use in clinical care is supported by meta-analyses and recommended by clinical guidelines, including the US Preventive Services Task Force (B rating). This report is the first prospective systematic assessment of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in young children. Methods We determined the incidence of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in 3 clinical trials on the prevention of early childhood caries, conducted under the auspices of the Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers, an initiative sponsored by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Each trial incorporated use of fluoride varnish in its protocol and systematically queried all children’s parents or legal guardians about the occurrence of acute adverse events after each fluoride varnish treatment. Results A total of 2,424 community-dwelling, dentate children aged 0 to 5 years were enrolled and followed for up to 3 years. These children received a cumulative total of 10,249 fluoride varnish treatments. On average, each child received 4.2 fluoride varnish treatments. We found zero fluoride varnish–related adverse events. Conclusion Fluoride varnish was not associated with treatment-related adverse events in young children. Our findings support its safety as an effective prevention intervention for caries in young children. PMID:28207379

  5. Interaction of Combat Exposure and Unit Cohesion in Predicting Suicide-Related Ideation among Post-Deployment Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Mary M.; Gallaway, Michael Shayne; Millikan, Amy M.; Bell, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of death among U.S. Army soldiers. Suicide-related ideation, which is associated with suicide attempts and suicide, can cause considerable distress. In a sample of 1,663 recently redeployed soldiers, we used factor analysis and structural equation modeling to test the associations between combat exposure, unit…

  6. Comment on G.E. Mizon, Modelling relative price variability and aggregate inflation in the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractComments on an article on the modelling of relative price variability and aggregate inflation in Great Britain. Advantage of the general to specific modeling approach; Steps in the analysis of macroeconomic time series; Information on the PC-GIVE menu-driven program.

  7. Absence of Fluoride Varnish-Related Adverse Events in Caries Prevention Trials in Young Children, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Raul I; Gregorich, Steven E; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Braun, Patricia A; Wilson, Anne; Albino, Judith; Tiwari, Tamanna; Harper, Maya; Batliner, Terrence S; Rasmussen, Margaret; Cheng, Nancy F; Santo, William; Geltman, Paul L; Henshaw, Michelle; Gansky, Stuart A

    2017-02-16

    Fluoride varnish is an effective prevention intervention for caries in young children. Its routine use in clinical care is supported by meta-analyses and recommended by clinical guidelines, including the US Preventive Services Task Force (B rating). This report is the first prospective systematic assessment of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in young children. We determined the incidence of adverse events related to fluoride varnish treatment in 3 clinical trials on the prevention of early childhood caries, conducted under the auspices of the Early Childhood Caries Collaborating Centers, an initiative sponsored by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Each trial incorporated use of fluoride varnish in its protocol and systematically queried all children's parents or legal guardians about the occurrence of acute adverse events after each fluoride varnish treatment. A total of 2,424 community-dwelling, dentate children aged 0 to 5 years were enrolled and followed for up to 3 years. These children received a cumulative total of 10,249 fluoride varnish treatments. On average, each child received 4.2 fluoride varnish treatments. We found zero fluoride varnish-related adverse events. Fluoride varnish was not associated with treatment-related adverse events in young children. Our findings support its safety as an effective prevention intervention for caries in young children.

  8. Preferred "Learning Styles" in Students Studying Sports-Related Programmes in Higher Education in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Derek; Jones, Gareth; Peters, John

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the "preferred learning styles" and their relationship with grades for students undertaking sports-related undergraduate programmes at a higher education institution in the UK. Preferred "learning styles" in students in this discipline have been identified as auditory, kinaesthetic and group, although…

  9. The 1997-98 El Nino Event and Related Wintertime Lightning Variations in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, S. J.; Buechler, D. E.; Knupp, K.; Driscoll, K.; McCaul, E. W., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a climate anomaly responsible for worldwide weather impacts ranging from droughts to floods. In the United States, warm episode years are known to produce above normal rainfall along the Southeast U.S. Gulf Coast and into the Gulf of Mexico, with the greatest response observed in the October-March period of the warm episode year. The 1997-98 warm episode is notable for being the strongest event since 198283. With the recent launch of a lightning sensor on NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) in November 1997 and the detailed coverage of the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), such interannual changes in lightning activity can be examined with far greater detail than ever before. For the 1997-98 ENSO event the most significant year-to-year changes in lightning frequency worldwide occurred along the Gulf Coast and within the Gulf of Mexico basin during the Northern Hemisphere winter. Within a broad swath across the northern Gulf of Mexico basin there is a 100-150% increase in lightning days year-to-year (a peak of 33 days in the winter of 1997-98 vs. only 15 days or fewer in both the 1996-97 and 1998-99 winter). In addition, there is a nearly 200% increase in lightning hours (a peak of 138 hours in 1996-97 vs. 50 hours in both 1996-97 and 1998-99). The increase in lightning activity during ENSO occurs in association with a 100% increase in the number of synoptic scale cyclones that developed within or moved through the Gulf basin. The primary variables controlling these enhancements in thunderstorm activity are the position and strength of the jet stream.

  10. Derivation of S and Pb in phanerozoic intrusion-related metal deposits from neoproterozoic sedimentary pyrite, Great Basin, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, P.G.; Poulson, S.R.; Koenig, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    The thick (???8 km), regionally extensive section of Neoproterozoic siliciclastic strata (terrigenous detrital succession, TDS) in the central and eastern Great Basin contains sedimentary pyrite characterized by mostly high d34S values (-11.6 to 40.8%, derived from reduction of seawater sulfate, and by markedly radiogenic Pb isotopes ( 207Pb/204Pb derivation of deposit S and Pb from TDS pyrite. Minor element abundances in TDS pyrite (e.g., Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, and Au) compared to sedimentary and hydrothermal pyrite elsewhere are not noticeably elevated, implying that enrichment in source minerals is not a precondition for intrusion-related metal deposits. Three mechanisms for transferring components of TDS sedimentary pyrite to intrusion-related metal deposits are qualitatively evaluated. One mechanism involves (1) decomposition of TDS pyrite in thermal aureoles of intruding magmas, and (2) aqueous transport and precipitation in thermal or fluid mixing gradients of isotopically heavy S, radiogenic Pb, and possibly other sedimentary pyrite and detrital mineral components, as sulfide minerals in intrusion-related metal deposits. A second mechanism invokes mixing and S isotope exchange in thermal aureoles of Pb and S exsolved from magma and derived from decomposition of sedimentary pyrite. A third mechanism entails melting of TDS strata or assimilation of TDS strata by crustal or mantle magmas. TDS-derived or assimilated magmas ascend, decompress, and exsolve a mixture of TDS volatiles, including isotopically heavy S and radiogenic Pb from sedimentary pyrite, and volatiles acquired from deeper crustal or mantle sources. In the central and eastern Great Basin, the wide distribution and high density of small to mid-sized vein, replacement, and skarn intrusion-related metal deposits in lower Paleozoic rocks that contain TDS sedimentary pyrite S and Pb reflect (1) prolific Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary magmatism, (2) a regional, substrate reservoir of S and Pb in

  11. Cloud and convection frequencies over the southeast United States as related to small-scale geographic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Harold M.; Vonder Haar, Thomas H.

    1990-01-01

    Based on relatively high spatial and temporal resolution satelite data collected at 0700 CST and at each hour from 1000 CST to 1700 CST during the summer of 1986, cloud and convection variations over the area from Mississippi east to Georgia and from the Gulf of Mexico north to Tennessee are discussed. The data analyses show an average maximum cloud frequency over the land areas at 1400 local time and a maximum of deep convection one hour later. Both cloudiness and deep convection are found to be at a maximum during the nocturnal hours over the Gulf of Mexico. Cloud frequency shows a strong relationship to small terrain features. Small fresh water bodies have cloud minima relative to the surroundings in the afternoon hours. Higher, steep terrain shows cloud maxima and the adjacent lower terrain exhibits afternoon cloud minima due to a divergence of mountain breeze caused by the valley.

  12. Systematic analysis of funding awarded for viral hepatitis-related research to institutions in the United Kingdom, 1997-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Head, M.G.; Fitchett, J.R.; G. S. Cooke; Foster, G R; Atun, R

    2015-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is responsible for great health, social and economic burden both globally and in the UK. This study aimed to assess the research funding awarded to UK institutions for viral hepatitis research and the relationship of funded research to clinical and public health burden of viral hepatitis. Databases and websites were systematically searched for information on infectious disease research studies funded for the period 1997–2010. Studies specifically related to viral hepatitis res...

  13. Outbreak of long-term intravascular catheter-related bacteremia due to Achromobacter xylosoxidans subspecies xylosoxidans in a hemodialysis unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, D; Carranza, R; Barberá, J R; Valdezate, S; Garrancho, J M; Arranz, M; Sáez-Nieto, J A

    2005-11-01

    Achromobacter xylosoxidans is a rare cause of bacteremia. Over a 2-week period, A. xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans was isolated from blood cultures of four hemodialysis patients with long-term intravascular catheters. A culture from one atomizer that contained diluted 2.5% chlorhexidine, which had been used to disinfect the skin, yielded A. xylosoxidans subsp. xylosoxidans. No further cases were diagnosed once the use of this atomizer was discontinued. Five outbreak-related strains from the four patients and the atomizer were tested by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) under XbaI restriction. The isolates from the first three patients and the atomizer had identical PFGE patterns, confirming the atomizer as the source of the outbreak. The strain isolated from the fourth patient had six more bands than the outbreak strain and was considered possibly related to the outbreak strain. All patients were treated with intravenous levofloxacin. The catheter was removed in only one patient. The three patients in whom the catheter was left in place were also treated with antibiotic lock therapy with levofloxacin. All four patients were cured. This is believed to be the first reported outbreak of central venous catheter-related bacteremia due to A. xylosoxidans and the second reported outbreak with this organism associated with chlorhexidine atomizers. The use of diluted chlorhexidine via atomizers can be dangerous for the care of venous catheters and should be called into question. Patients with long-term intravascular catheter-related bacteremia due to this organism can be treated successfully with systemic antimicrobial therapy in addition to antibiotic lock therapy without catheter removal.

  14. Effects of Tobacco-Related Media Campaigns on Young Adult Smoking: Longitudinal Data from the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Emery, Sherry; Wakefield, Melanie A.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Szczypka, Glen; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Young adults in the U.S. have one of the highest smoking prevalence rates of any age group, and young adulthood is a critical time period of targeting by the tobacco industry. We examined relationships between potential exposure to tobacco-related media campaigns from a variety of sponsors and 2-year smoking change measures among a longitudinal sample of U.S. adults aged 20-30 from 2001-2008. Methods Self-report data were collected from a longitudinal sample of 13,076 U.S. young adults from age 20-30. These data were merged with tobacco-related advertising exposure data from Nielsen Media Research. Two-year measures of change in smoking were regressed on advertising exposures. Results Two-year smoking uptake was unrelated to advertising exposure. The odds of quitting among all smokers and reduction among daily smokers in the two years between the prior and current survey were positively related to anti-tobacco advertising, especially potential exposure levels of 104-155 ads over the past 24 months. Tobacco company advertising (including corporate image and anti-smoking) and pharmaceutical industry advertising were unrelated to quitting or reduction. Conclusions Continued support for sustained, public health-based, well-funded anti-tobacco media campaigns may help reduce tobacco use among young adults. PMID:21972061

  15. Association between parent-adolescent communication about sex-related topics and HIV testing, United States. 2006-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Alexandra B; Oraka, Emeka; Fasula, Amy M; Jayne, Paula E; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L

    2017-03-01

    Adolescents need information about sex-related topics in order to reduce risk behavior and engage in healthy sexual decision-making. Parents have the potential to be an important source of this information. Using the 2006-2010 and 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth, we examined associations between parent-adolescent communication before age 18 about sex-related topics and HIV testing among respondents aged 18-24 that ever had sexual intercourse (women = 3893; men = 3359). Analyses showed that for both men and women, discussing how to prevent HIV/AIDS and how to use a condom with a parent before age 18 were positively associated with HIV testing. Among women only, discussions about methods of birth control, where to get birth control, and STDs were positively associated with HIV testing. Developing strategies and interventions to facilitate parent-adolescent communication about sex-related topics, particularly HIV prevention and condom use, may be important to increase HIV testing among young women and men.

  16. Increased Incidence Rate of Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders in Denmark After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Østergaard, Søren D; Sønderskov, Kim M; Dinesen, Peter T

    2016-10-01

    The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined the consequences of the 9/11 attacks on mental disorders in the Kingdom of Denmark. Utilizing population data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register from 1995 to 2012, we used a time-series intervention approach to estimate the change in the incidence rate of mental disorders after the 9/11 attacks. Based on analyses of 1,448,250 contacts with psychiatric services, we found that the attacks were followed by an immediate 16% increase in the incidence rate of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. This surge dissipated approximately a year after 9/11. In contrast, no similar increases were found for other disorders. This is consistent with the prominent role of external stressors in the etiology of trauma- and stressor-related disorders. The results indicate that the effects of 9/11 on mental disorders extended across the Atlantic Ocean to Denmark. Thus, the impact of terrorist attacks on mental health is likely not limited to inhabitants of the country under attack; it also extends to people far away and without immediate relation to it.

  17. Spectrum of Immune-Related Conditions Associated with Risk of Keratinocyte Cancers among Elderly Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanik, Elizabeth L; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Freedman, D Michal; Weinstock, Martin A; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Arron, Sarah T; Chaloux, Matthew; Connolly, M Kari; Nagarajan, Priyadharsini; Engels, Eric A

    2017-07-01

    Background: Elevated keratinocyte carcinoma risk is present with several immune-related conditions, e.g., solid organ transplantation and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Because many immune-related conditions are rare, their relationships with keratinocyte carcinoma have not been studied.Methods: We used Medicare claims to identify cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cases in 2012, and controls matched on sex and age. All subjects were aged 65 to 95 years, of white race, and had attended ≥1 dermatologist visit in 2010-2011. Immune-related conditions were identified during 1999-2011 using Medicare claims. Associations were estimated with logistic regression, with statistical significance determined after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons.Results: We included 258,683 SCC and 304,903 BCC cases. Of 47 immune-related conditions, 21 and 9 were associated with increased SCC and BCC risk, respectively. We identified strongly elevated keratinocyte carcinoma risk with solid organ transplantation (SCC OR = 5.35; BCC OR = 1.94) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SCC OR = 1.62; BCC OR = 1.25). We identified associations with common conditions, e.g., rheumatoid arthritis [SCC OR = 1.06, 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.04-1.09] and Crohn's disease (SCC OR = 1.33, 95% CI, 1.27-1.39; BCC OR = 1.10, 95% CI, 1.05-1.15), and rare or poorly characterized conditions, e.g., granulomatosis with polyangiitis (SCC OR = 1.88; 95% CI, 1.61-2.19), autoimmune hepatitis (SCC OR = 1.81; 95% CI, 1.52-2.16), and deficiency of humoral immunity (SCC OR = 1.51, 95% CI, 1.41-1.61; BCC OR = 1.22, 95% CI, 1.14-1.31). Most conditions were more positively associated with SCC than BCC. Associations were generally consistent regardless of prior keratinocyte carcinoma history.Conclusions: Many immune-related conditions are associated with elevated keratinocyte carcinoma risk and appear more tightly linked to SCC.Impact: Immunosuppression or immunosuppressive treatment may

  18. Fire history, related to climate and land use in three southern Appalachian landscapes in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatley, William T; Lafon, Charles W; Grissino-Mayer, Henri D; LaForest, Lisa B

    2013-09-01

    history compiled for the eastern United States and support the hypothesis that frequent burning has played a long and important role in the development of forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains.

  19. Modification and backfitting at the Barsebaeck Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 and 2 in safety related systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Leif [KSU, Nykoeping (Sweden); Nilsson, Ove; Lidh, B. [ES-Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-05-01

    This report is intended for use by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. It has been published to enable comparison of modification and backfitting implemented at Barsebaeck, with those implemented at other plants, both domestic and abroad. The report summarizes the more notable modifications and backfitting carried out on any safety-related equipment, or software, at Barsebaeck, and covers the decade 1984 to 1994. Modifications to hardware, and to some extent to software, are catalogued, but not described in any detail. No general procedures (operational or maintenance) are dealt with. 3 refs.

  20. 中国新诗诗律单元的相对性%The Relativity of Metrical Unit of Chinese New Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国辉

    2016-01-01

    不论是英语诗歌还是汉语诗歌,诗律单元都是一种双重结构,即是音律节奏单元和言语节奏单元的结合。文学革命后,一方面面对无形式的批评,另一方面面对无法援用声律的困境,中国新诗采取了一种折中的办法,即转向英诗等时性重复的音律观念,利用音组来建立诗律节奏。这种诗律单元被认为是绝对存在的,它以词语和句法为判定标准,它的基本节奏单位是二音节音组和三音节音组,它在诗行中组织的原则是等时性反复。但这种诗律是相对的,它的单元并不是真正的诗律单元,词语和句法是相对的判定标准,二音节音组和三音节音组的基本节奏单元是机械的、不合理的认识,等时性重复原则与言语节奏本身是矛盾的。这种诗律单元其实是言语节奏单元,以这种单元建立的所谓格律诗,其实还是自由诗。%No matter whether it is in English verse or in Chinese verse, rhythmic unit always has a twofold struc⁃ture, namely a metrical rhythm and a speech rhythm. After the Literary Revolution, confronted with the criticism of having no form and with the difficulty of using the tonal pattern, Chinese New Poetry had to make a compromise by imitating English verse’s isochronism, and using syllabic group to build poetic rhythm. Such a kind of rhythmic unit seems to be regarded as the absolute metrical unit, whose scansion is determined by word and syntax, whose basic units are two syllables’rhythmic group and three syllables’rhythmic group, and whose principle of organiz⁃ing verse is isochronism repetition. That kind of meter, however, is relative; its unit is not a true metrical unit;word and syntax are only a relative measure for dividing such a syllabic group; two syllables’rhythmic group and three syllables’rhythmic group are no more than mechanical and illogical understanding; isochronism is in conflict with speech rhythm

  1. Mortality-related factors disparity among Iranian deceased children aged 1-59 months according to the medical activities in emergency units: National mortality surveillance system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Kelishadi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To determine disparity in mortality-related factors in 1-59 months children across Iran using hospital records of emergency units. Materials and Methods: After designing and validating a national questionnaire for mortality data collection of children 1-59 months, all 40 medical universities has been asked to fill in the questionnaires and return to the main researcher in the Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Age and sex of deceased children, the type of health center, staying more than 2 h in emergency unit, the reason of prolonged stay in emergency, having emergency (risk signs, vaccination, need to blood transfusion, need to electroshock and so on have also been collected across the country. There was also a comparison of children based on their BMI. Chi-square test has been applied for nominal and ordinal variables. ANOVA and t-student test have been used for measuring the difference of continuous variables among groups. Results: Mortality in 1-59 months children was unequally distributed across Iran. The average month of entrance to hospital was June, the average day was 16 th of month, and the average hour of entrance to hospital was 14:00. The average of month, day and hour for discharge was July, 16, and 14:00, respectively. The hour of discharge was statistically significant between children with and without risk signs. More than half (54% of patients had referred to educational hospital emergency units. There were no statistically significant differences between children with and without emergency signs. There were statistically significant differences between children with and without emergency signs in age less than 24 months (0.034, nutrition situation ( P = 0.031, recommendation for referring ( P = 0.013, access to electroshock facilities ( P = 0.026, and having successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation ( P = 0.01. Conclusion: This study is one of the first to show the distribution of the disparity of early

  2. Algorithm for Screening Phasor Measurement Unit Data for Power System Events and Categories and Common Characteristics for Events Seen in Phasor Measurement Unit Relative Phase-Angle Differences and Frequency Signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, A.; Santoso, S.; Muljadi, E.

    2013-08-01

    A network of multiple phasor measurement units (PMU) was created, set up, and maintained at the University of Texas at Austin to obtain actual power system measurements for power system analysis. Power system analysis in this report covers a variety of time ranges, such as short- term analysis for power system disturbances and their effects on power system behavior and long- term power system behavior using modal analysis. The first objective of this report is to screen the PMU data for events. The second objective of the report is to identify and describe common characteristics extracted from power system events as measured by PMUs. The numerical characteristics for each category and how these characteristics are used to create selection rules for the algorithm are also described. Trends in PMU data related to different levels and fluctuations in wind power output are also examined.

  3. Incidence by occupation and industry of work-related skin diseases in the United Kingdom, 1996-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, J C; Beck, M H; Chen, Y; Cherry, Nicola M

    2006-09-01

    Work-related skin disease is common but few cases are documented in statutory reports or disability systems. Voluntary reporting by specialist physicians provides more complete information. To summarize incidence rates of work-related skin diseases reported by consultant dermatologists and occupational physicians, with emphasis on contact and allergic dermatitis by occupation and industry. Cases reported in 1996-2001 to the EPIDERM and OPRA national surveillance schemes were analysed by causal agent, occupation and industry, with incidence rates calculated against appropriate denominators. Average annual incidence rates based on data from dermatologists were 97 per million overall, 74 for contact dermatitis and 14 for neoplasia. The corresponding rates for occupational physicians were 623 overall, 510 and 2, respectively. For infective disease, the rates for occupational physicians were 28 compared to 2 for dermatologists. Contact dermatitis was most frequently attributed to rubber chemicals, soaps and cleaners, wet work, nickel and acrylics; most cases of contact urticaria were attributed to rubber chemicals or foods and flour. The pattern of incidence rates by occupation and industry was complex, but correlated with the probable type of exposure. Rates of contact dermatitis were highest among skilled workers in the petrochemical and rubber and plastic manufacturing industries, with machine operators and technical workers in metal and automotive industries also at increased risk. High proportions of cases attributed to rubber chemicals were in nurses and technicians in the health and social services. These findings identify jobs and types of work where contact with causal agents is common and potentially preventable.

  4. Sleep Duration and Injury-Related Risk Behaviors Among High School Students--United States, 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Olsen, Emily O'Malley; Miller, Gabrielle F; Croft, Janet B

    2016-04-08

    Insufficient sleep is common among high school students and has been associated with an increased risk for motor vehicle crashes (1), sports injuries (2), and occupational injuries (3). To evaluate the association between self-reported sleep duration on an average school night and several injury-related risk behaviors (infrequent bicycle helmet use, infrequent seatbelt use, riding with a driver who had been drinking, drinking and driving, and texting while driving) among U.S. high school students, CDC analyzed data from 50,370 high school students (grades 9-12) who participated in the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBSs) in 2007, 2009, 2011, or 2013. The likelihood of each of the five risk behaviors was significantly higher for students who reported sleeping ≤7 hours on an average school night; infrequent seatbelt use, riding with a drinking driver, and drinking and driving were also more likely for students who reported sleeping ≥10 hours compared with 9 hours on an average school night. Although insufficient sleep directly contributes to injury risk, some of the increased risk associated with insufficient sleep might be caused by engaging in injury-related risk behaviors. Intervention efforts aimed at these behaviors might help reduce injuries resulting from sleepiness, as well as provide opportunities for increasing awareness of the importance of sleep.

  5. Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury: experience of the nephrology unit at the university hospital of fez, morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrayhani, Mohamed; El Youbi, Randa; Sqalli, Tarik

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Acute kidney injury (PRAKI) continues to be common in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to study AKI characteristics in pregnancy and identify the factors related to the unfavorable evolution. Methods. This prospective study was conducted in the University Hospital Hassan II of Fez, Morocco, from February 01, 2011 to January 31, 2012. All patients presenting PRAKI were included. Results. 37 cases of PRAKI were listed. Their ages varied from 20 to 41 years old, with an average of 29.03 ± 6.3 years and an average parity of 1.83. High blood pressure was the most common symptom (55.6%). Thirty-nine percent were oliguric. PRAKI occurred during the 3rd trimester in 66.6% of the cases and 25% of the cases in the postpartum. Hemodialysis was necessary in 16.2% of cases. The main causes were preeclampsia, hemorrhagic shocks, and functional, respectively, in 66.6%, 25%, and 8.3% of the cases. The outcome was favorable, with a complete renal function recovery for 28 patients. Poor prognosis was related to two factors: age over 38 years and advanced stage of AKI according to RIFLE classification. Conclusion. Prevention of PRAKI requires an improvement of the sanitary infrastructures with the implementation of an obligatory prenatal consultation.

  6. Concentration and risk of pharmaceuticals in freshwater systems are related to the population density and the livestock units in Iberian Rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Victoria; Larrañaga, Aitor; Aceña, Jaume; Pérez, Sandra; Barceló, Damià

    2016-01-01

    Considerable amounts of pharmaceuticals are used in human and veterinary medicine, which are not efficiently removed during wastewater and slurries treatment and subsequently entering continuously into freshwater systems. The intrinsic biological activity of these non-regulated pollutants turns their presence in the aquatic environment into an ecological matter of concern. We present the first quantitative study relating the presence of pharmaceuticals and their predicted ecotoxicological effects with human population and livestock units. Four representative Iberian River basins (Spain) were studied: Llobregat, Ebro, Júcar and Guadalquivir. The levels of pharmaceuticals were determined in surface water and sediment samples collected from 77 locations along their stream networks. Predicted total toxic units to algae, Daphnia and fish were estimated for pharmaceuticals detected in surface waters. The use of chemometrics enabled the study of pharmaceuticals for: their spatial distribution along the rivers in two consecutive years; their potential ecotoxicological risk to aquatic organisms; and the relationships among their occurrence and predicted ecotoxicity with human population and animal farming pressure. The Llobregat and the Ebro River basins were characterized as the most polluted and at highest ecotoxicological risk, followed by Júcar and Guadalquivir. No significant acute risks of pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms were observed. However potential chronic ecotoxicological effects on algae could be expected at two hot spots of pharmaceuticals pollution identified in the Llobregat and Ebro basins. Analgesics/antiinflammatories, antibiotics and diuretics were the most relevant therapeutic groups across the four river basins. Among them, hydrochlorothiazide and gemfibrozil, as well as azithromycin and ibuprofen were widely spread and concentrated pharmaceuticals in surface waters and sediments, respectively. Regarding their predicted ecotoxicity, sertraline

  7. Systematic review of the relation between smokeless tobacco and non-neoplastic oral diseases in Europe and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitkunat Rolf

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How smokeless tobacco contributes to non-neoplastic oral diseases is unclear. It certainly increases risk of oral mucosal lesions, but reviewers disagree as to other conditions. In some areas, especially South-East Asia, risk is difficult to quantify due to the many products, compositions (including non-tobacco ingredients, and usage practices involved. This review considers studies from Europe (in practice mainly Scandinavia and from the USA. Methods Experimental and epidemiological studies published in 1963–2007 were identified that related risk of oral lesions to smokeless tobacco use. Data were assessed separately for oral mucosal lesions, periodontal and gingival diseases, dental caries and tooth loss, and oral pain. Results Oral mucosal lesions: Thirty-three epidemiological studies consistently show a strong dose-related effect of current snuff on oral mucosal lesion prevalence. In Scandinavia, users have a near 100% prevalence of a characteristic "snuff-induced lesion", but prevalence of the varied lesions reported in the USA is lower. Associations with chewing tobacco are weaker. The lack of clear association with former use suggests reversibility following cessation, consistent with experimental studies showing rapid lesion regression on quitting. Periodontal and gingival diseases: Two of four studies report a significant association of snuff with attachment loss and four out of eight with gingival recession. Snuff is not clearly related to gingivitis or periodontal diseases. Limited evidence suggests chewing tobacco is unrelated to periodontal or gingival diseases. Tooth loss: Swedish studies show no association with snuff, but one US study reported an association with snuff, and another with chewing tobacco. Dental caries: Evidence from nine studies suggests a possible relationship with use of smokeless tobacco, particularly chewing tobacco, and the risk of dental caries. Oral pain: Limited evidence precludes any

  8. Trends in Health-Related Quality of Life Among Adolescents in the United States, 2001–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjun Cui, PhD

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Health-related quality of life (HRQOL measures are often used to track changes in population health, mostly among adults. Prompted by the recent US recession, we assessed trends in adolescent HRQOL by using cross-sectional data from the 2001–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Adolescents’ self-rated health and reported mental health declined significantly, especially among those in low-income families, but their physical health and activity limitation did not change. Because these HRQOL declines occurred at the end of the decade and especially among adolescents from low-income families, we conclude that these declines are consistent with recession effects and warrant further study.

  9. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Brewster, Hilary D

    2009-01-01

    The theory of relativity has become a cornerstone of modern physics. Over the course of time it has been scrutinized in a multitude of experiments and has always been verified with high accuracy. The correctness of this theory can no longer be called into question. Right after its discovery by Albert Einstein in 1905, special relativity was only gradually accepted because it made numerous predictions contradicting common sense, fervently castigated by Einstein, and also defied experiment for too long a time. It was only with the advent of particle or high energy physics that matter could be ac

  10. Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Einstein, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Time magazine's ""Man of the Century"", Albert Einstein is the founder of modern physics and his theory of relativity is the most important scientific idea of the modern era. In this short book, Einstein explains, using the minimum of mathematical terms, the basic ideas and principles of the theory that has shaped the world we live in today. Unsurpassed by any subsequent books on relativity, this remains the most popular and useful exposition of Einstein's immense contribution to human knowledge.With a new foreword by Derek Raine.

  11. Epidemiology of Snow Skiing- Versus Snowboarding-Related Concussions Presenting to the Emergency Department in the United States from 2010 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Joseph A; DeFroda, Steven F; Kriz, Peter; Owens, Brett D

    2017-09-01

    To examine the trend of concussions in skiers and snowboarders from 2010 to 2014; and to quantify and compare the incidence of concussions injuries in skiers and snowboarders who presented to emergency departments in the United States in 2014. Cross-sectional study of concussions in skiers and snowboarders who were evaluated in emergency departments in the United States. Incidence of concussions. The trend of the annual incidence of concussions for skiers and snowboarders remained stable from 2010 to 2014. An estimated total of 5388 skiing-related concussions and 5558 snowboarding-related concussions presented to emergency departments in the United States between January 1st, 2014, and December 31st, 2014. This represented an incidence of 16.9 concussions per 1 000 000 person-years for skiers and 17.4 concussions per 1 000 000 person-years for snowboarders. The incidence of concussions in the pediatric and young adult population of skiers was significantly higher than the incidence in the adult population. Similarly, the incidence of concussions in the pediatric and young adult population of snowboarders was significantly higher than the incidence in the adult population. The incidence of concussions was significantly higher in males compared with females in both skiing and snowboarding. The incidence of concussions from 2010 to 2014 plateaued in both skiers and snowboarders. Pediatric and young adult skiers and snowboarders had significantly higher incidences of concussion than the adult population. In contrast to the higher incidence of concussions in females in several sports including ice hockey, soccer, and basketball, the incidence of concussions was higher in males compared with females in both skiing and snowboarding.

  12. The relationship between school characteristics and the availability of mental health and related health services in middle and high schools in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Eric P

    2003-01-01

    Problems related to mental illness are increasingly becoming the focal point of public concern over the safety and performance of schools, yet little is known about the availability and quality of school-based mental health services in the United States. In this article it is estimated that approximately 50% of US middle and high schools have any mental health counseling services available onsite and approximately 11% have mental health counseling, physical examinations, and substance abuse counseling available on-site. There are substantial differences in mental health counseling availability by region, urbanicity, and school size, with rural schools, schools in the Midwest and South regions, and small schools being least likely to offer mental health counseling. Multivariate estimates suggest that disparities between schools in the availability of mental health counseling and related health services may be partly explained by differences in access to Medicaid for financing of health services provided at school.

  13. Spatial vulnerability of fine particulate matter relative to the geographic disparities of adult's diabetes prevalence in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Alamgir, Hassanat; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2015-04-01

    Potentially larger regional effects of climate change have been revealed on the elevation of fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 µg in diameter; PM2.5) in the U.S. In addition, recent research supports a link between diabetes and PM2.5 in both laboratory and epidemiology studies. However, research investigating the potential relationship of the spatial vulnerability of diabetes to concomitant PM2.5 levels is still sparse, and the level of diabetes geographic disparities attributed to PM2.5 levels has yet to be evaluated. We conducted a Bayesian structured additive regression modeling approach to determine whether long-term exposure to PM2.5 is spatially associated with diabetes prevalence after adjusting for the socioeconomic status of county residents. This study utilizes the following data sources from 2004-2010: the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the American Community Survey, and the Environmental Protection Agency. We also conducted spatial comparisons with low, median-low, median-high, and high levels of PM2.5 concentrations. When PM2.5 concentrations increased 1 µg/m3, the increase in the relative risk percentage for diabetes ranged from -5.47% (95% credible interval = -6.14, -4.77) to 2.34% (95% CI = 2.01, 2.70), where 1,323 of 3,109 counties (42.55%) displayed diabetes vulnerability with significantly positive relative risk percentages. These vulnerable counties are more likely located in the Southeast, Central, and South Regions of the U.S. A similar spatial vulnerability pattern for concentrations of low PM2.5 levels was also present in these same three regions. A clear cluster of vulnerable counties at median-high PM2.5 level was found in Michigan. This study identifies the spatial vulnerability of diabetes prevalence associated with PM2.5, and thereby provides the evidence needed to prompt and establish enhanced surveillance that can monitor diabetes vulnerability in areas with low PM2.5 pollution.

  14. BOXING, WRESTLING, AND MARTIAL ARTS RELATED INJURIES TREATED IN EMERGENCY DEPARTMENTS IN THE UNITED STATES, 2002-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Pappas

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of injury in combat sports has not been adequately reported although it is important to identify the nature and frequency of injuries prior to the implementation of prevention programs. This study compared injury rates treated in Hospital Emergency Departments between different combat sports of boxing, wrestling, and martial arts. A secondary objective described anatomic region and diagnosis of these injuries. Data were obtained on all boxing, wrestling, and martial arts-related injuries that were in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database and resulted in Emergency Department visits between 2002 and 2005. Pearson's chi-square statistics were calculated to compare injury rates for each activity accounting for complex sample design. Martial arts had lower injury rates compared to boxing and wrestling for all diagnoses (p<0.001. Boxing had lower injury rates compared to wrestling for strains/sprains and dislocations. Boxing and wrestling had similar injury rates for concussions. Injury prevention efforts should consider the distribution of injuries and concentrate on preventing strains/sprains in wrestling, concussions in boxing and wrestling, and fractures for all three activities. The findings of the present study do not provide evidence that combat sports have alarmingly high rates of injuries resulting in emergency department visits

  15. Boxing, Wrestling, and Martial Arts Related Injuries Treated in Emergency Departments in the United States, 2002-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Evangelos

    2007-01-01

    The incidence of injury in combat sports has not been adequately reported although it is important to identify the nature and frequency of injuries prior to the implementation of prevention programs. This study compared injury rates treated in Hospital Emergency Departments between different combat sports of boxing, wrestling, and martial arts. A secondary objective described anatomic region and diagnosis of these injuries. Data were obtained on all boxing, wrestling, and martial arts-related injuries that were in the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System database and resulted in Emergency Department visits between 2002 and 2005. Pearson’s chi-square statistics were calculated to compare injury rates for each activity accounting for complex sample design. Martial arts had lower injury rates compared to boxing and wrestling for all diagnoses (pMartial arts have lower emergency department injury rates compared to boxing and wrestling. Wrestling has higher strains/sprains and dislocation injury rates compared to boxing. Combat sports do not appear to have higher injury rates compared to non-combat sports. PMID:24198705

  16. Risk factors for catheter-related bloodstream infection: a prospective multicenter study in Brazilian intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bicudo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Central venous catheters (CVC are devices of great importance in health care. The advantages gained from the use of catheters outweigh the complications that might result from their use, among which bloodstream infections (BSI. In spite of its importance, few national studies have addressed this issue. OBJECTIVE: The aim this study was to determine the incidence of BSI in patients with CVC, hospitalized in ICU, as well as the variables associated with this complication. METHODS: Multicentric cohort study carried out at ICUs of three hospitals at Universidade Federal de São Paulo complex. RESULTS: A total of 118 cases of BSI in 11.546 catheters day were observed: 10.22 BSI per 1,000 catheters day. On average, BSI was associated to seven additional days of hospital stay in our study (p < 0.001, with a significant difference between types of catheters. Concerning the place of insertion, there was no statistical difference in BSI rates. CONCLUSION: We concluded that a patient who uses a catheter for longer than 13 days presents a progressive risk for infection of approximately three times higher in relation to a patient who uses the catheter for less than 13 days (p < 0.001. The median duration of catheter use was 14 days among patients with BSI and 9 days in patients without infection (p < 0.001. There was higher prevalence of Gram-negative infections. The risk factors for BSI were utilization of multiple-lumen catheters, duration of catheterization and ICU length of stay.

  17. Relating Mandates in the United States for Managing the Ocean to Ecosystem Goods and Services Demonstrates Broad but Varied Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy M Foran

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous ecosystem goods and services (EGS provided by the ocean. There are also multiple mandates to address this suite of EGS. Which facets of the ocean EGS does this portfolio of mandates collectively address? How are these mandates interrelated? Are there gaps in their coverage of EGS? Are there areas of reinforcement? To elucidate this set of issues, we characterize the portfolio of mandates that a leading U.S. governmental ocean agency, the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA, and the subset of those that one of its Line Offices, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA-Fisheries, is responsible for implementing. We link these mandates to a suite of EGS, evaluating the relative degree that each mandate addresses each EGS. The weighted overlap across mandates with respect to EGS was also estimated. Of the nearly 100 NOAA mandates, and the subset of 50 NOAA-Fisheries mandates, there was broad coverage of ocean EGS; every EGS has at a minimum of 9 NOAA mandates that addressed that topic. Food production, habitat provision, genetic resources, recreation, tourism, historical and heritage value, and knowledge and science value were the EGS that had the highest amount of coverage at 30, 42, 50, 39, 38, 34, and 60 NOAA mandates, respectively. There was some reinforcement across mandates, particularly for the top EGS, suggesting that the multiple facets of these EGS are being reasonably well addressed. Seventy percent of mandates informed the same EGS via implementation of the top 10 mandates considered to be the most important for NOAA. The large number of mandates and the overlap in the EGS they address suggest that some form of coordination is warranted, particularly via adoption of an ecosystem-based approach to management.

  18. The association between motor vehicle injuries and health-related quality of life: a longitudinal study of a population-based sample in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghnam, Suliman; Palta, Mari; L Remington, Patrick; Mullahy, John; S Durkin, Maureen

    2014-02-01

    As many as 3 million US residents are injured in traffic-related incidents every year leaving many victims with disabling conditions. To date, limited numbers of studies have examined the effects of traffic-related injuries on self-reported health. This study aims to examine the association between health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and traffic-related injuries longitudinally in a nationally representative sample of US adult population. This is a longitudinal study of adult participants (age ≥18) from seven panels (2000-2007) of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. The dependent variables included the physical and mental components of the SF-12, a measure of self-reported health. The outcome was assessed twice during the follow-up period: round 2 (~4-5 months into the study) and round 4 (~18 months into the study) for 62,298 individuals. Two methods estimate the association between traffic-related injuries and HRQOL: a within person change using paired tests and a between person change using multivariable regression adjusting for age, sex, income and educational level. Nine hundred and ninety-three participants reported traffic-related injuries during the follow-up period. Compared to their pre-crash HRQOL, these participants lost 2.7 of the physical component score while their mental component did not change. Adjusted results showed significant deficits in the physical component (-2.84, p value = injuries were significantly associated with the physical component of HRQOL. These findings highlight the individual and societal burden associated with motor vehicle crash-related disability in the United States.

  19. Opinion Toward Living Liver Donation of Hospital Personnel From Units Related to Organ Donation and Transplantation: A Multicenter Study From Spain and Latin-America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Antonio; Lopez Navas, Ana; Ayala Garcia, Marco Antonio; Sebastian, Jose; Abdo Cuza, Anselmo; Martinez Alarcon, Laura; Ramirez, Ector Jaime; Munoz, Gerardo; Palacios, Gerardo; Suarez Lopez, Juliette; Castellanos, Ricardo; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Martinez, Miguel Angel; Diaz, Ernesto; Ramirez, Pablo; Parrilla, Pascual

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hospital personnel of services related to donation and transplantation process play a fundamental role in the development of transplantation. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the attitude toward living liver donation (LLD) among hospital personnel from services related to donation and transplantation in hospital centers in Spain and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Eight hospitals within the “International Donor Collaborative Project” were selected, three in Spain, three in Mexico and two in Cuba. The study was performed in transplant-related services, using a randomized sample, which was stratified by the type of service and job category. Results: In total, 878 workers were surveyed of which 82% (n = 720) were in favor of related LLD, 10% (n = 90) were against and 8% (n = 68) undecided. Attitudes toward related LLD were more favorable in the following groups: the Latin Americans (86% in favor vs. 77% among the Spanish; P = 0.007); younger people (37 vs. 40 years, P = 0.002); those in favor of either deceased donation (P < 0.001) or living kidney donation (P < 0.001); those who believed that they might need a transplant in the future (P < 0.001); those who would accept a liver from a living donor (P < 0.001); those who discussed the subject of donation and transplantation with their families (P = 0.040); and those whose partner was in favor of donation and transplantation (P = 0.044). Conclusions: Personnel from donation and transplantation-related units had a favorable attitude toward LLD. This attitude was not affected by psychosocial factors, although it was influenced by factors directly and indirectly related to the donation and transplantation process. PMID:25737727

  20. Potential Exposure to Anti-Drug Advertising and Drug-Related Attitudes, Beliefs, and Behaviors among United States Youth, 1995-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Emery, Sherry; Szczypka, Glen; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2010-01-01

    Using nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future Study on United States middle and high school students, we related exposure to anti-drug television advertising as measured by Nielsen Media Research ratings points to student self-reported drug-related outcomes from 1995-2006. Multivariate analyses controlling for key socio-demographics and accounting for the complex survey design included 337,918 cases. Results indicated that attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors regarding substance use were significantly related to such advertising exposure over the six months prior to the date youth were surveyed. However, the observed relationships varied by grade level, over time and by advertising tagline and marijuana focus. Findings differed markedly between middle and high school students across the study interval. One factor that may partially explain observed differences may be variation in the degree to which the ads focused on marijuana. Putting a concerted effort into increasing anti-drug advertising will likely increase the exposure to and recall of such ads among youth. However, the likelihood that such advertising will result in youth being less likely to use drugs seems to depend heavily on the type of advertising utilized and how it relates to different ages and characteristics of targeted youth. PMID:20961691

  1. Changes in Transportation-Related Air Pollution Exposures by Race-Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status: Outdoor Nitrogen Dioxide in the United States in 2000 and 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2017-09-14

    Disparities in exposure to air pollution by race-ethnicity and by socioeconomic status have been documented in the United States, but the impacts of declining transportation-related air pollutant emissions on disparities in exposure have not been studied in detail. This study was designed to estimate changes over time (2000 to 2010) in disparities in exposure to outdoor concentrations of a transportation-related air pollutant, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), in the United States. We combined annual average NO2 concentration estimates from a temporal land use regression model with Census demographic data to estimate outdoor exposures by race-ethnicity, socioeconomic characteristics (income, age, education), and by location (region, state, county, urban area) for the contiguous United States in 2000 and 2010. Estimated annual average NO2 concentrations decreased from 2000 to 2010 for all of the race-ethnicity and socioeconomic status groups, including a decrease from 17.6 ppb to 10.7 ppb (-6.9 ppb) in nonwhite [non-(white alone, non-Hispanic)] populations, and 12.6 ppb to 7.8 ppb (-4.7 ppb) in white (white alone, non-Hispanic) populations. In 2000 and 2010, disparities in NO2 concentrations were larger by race-ethnicity than by income. Although the national nonwhite-white mean NO2 concentration disparity decreased from a difference of 5.0 ppb in 2000 to 2.9 ppb in 2010, estimated mean NO2 concentrations remained 37% higher for nonwhites than whites in 2010 (40% higher in 2000), and nonwhites were 2.5 times more likely than whites to live in a block group with an average NO2 concentration above the WHO annual guideline in 2010 (3.0 times more likely in 2000). Findings suggest that absolute NO2 exposure disparities by race-ethnicity decreased from 2000 to 2010, but relative NO2 exposure disparities persisted, with higher NO2 concentrations for nonwhites than whites in 2010. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP959.

  2. CONFIGURING THE ROLE OF THE UNITED NATIONS SECRETARYGENERAL IN THE PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT OF INTERNATIONAL DISPUTES. RELATIONS WITH THE SECURITY COUNCIL AND THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA-ADRIANA IACOB

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In an international context embracing the idealist concepts of harmony, cooperation, structural peace, illegality of war, the United Nations Organization has created a system of peaceful settlement of disputes, based on principles of justice and international law. In this framework, the organs bearing the responsibility of peaceful resolution of conflicts are the International Court of Justice, the Security Council, the General Assembly and the Secretary-General. The latter has a unique position, triggering a spectacular evolution of its role in the maintenance of international peace and security. The challenges of the international environment and the outstanding ways in which they were addressed by the distinctive personalities that filled the function of the Secretary General, creating precedents and influencing its future development, have led to a continuous enlargement of its role. The purpose of the present paper is that of defining the role of the Secretary-General in the system of peaceful settlement of international disputes created by the United Nations, by analysing the relevant provisions consecrated in the Charter and by revealing and explaining the outstanding evolution of this institution, with an emphasis on the relations of mutual influence between the High Official, on one side, the Security Council and the General Assembly, on the other.

  3. Health domains and race in generic preference-based health-related quality of life instruments in the United States literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cristina de Aguiar Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Race differences in health have been extensively analyzed and documented in the literature, especially between African Americans or blacks and whites in the United States. Despite the vast literature in the area, the majority of studies that explore the relationship between race and health use outcomes such as self-rated health, mortality or morbidity, and disability, but very few use Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL measures and their domains or dimensions. This narrative review aims to provide a better understanding of the relationship between race and health domains that are commonly used in preference-based HRQoL measures. We investigated the literature on race, physical health, mental health, pain and discomfort, cognition, neurologic spectrum domains, dexterity, ambulation, vitality and social functioning domains. We conducted a literature search and review using the key words race and the health domain of interest, using medical and social sciences databases, such as MEDLINE/Pubmed, Web of Science, and the Google Scholar portal.The majority of the studies identified in the literature show that African Americans or blacks in the United States tend to have lower scores than whites throughout a variety of health domains found in preference-based HRQoL measures. This review also emphasizes the scarcity of studies that investigate some health domains, such as social functioning, dexterity, vitality and neurologic spectrum domains, and therefore we identify the need for more studies focusing on race and measures that address such domains.

  4. Quality of care in the intensive care unit from the perspective of patient's relatives: development and psychometric evaluation of the consumer quality index 'R-ICU'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensen, Ans; van Mol, Margo M; Menheere, Ilse; Nijkamp, Marjan D; Verhoogt, Ellen; Maris, Bea; Manders, Willeke; Vloet, Lilian; Verharen, Lisbeth

    2017-01-24

    The quality standards of the Dutch Society of Intensive Care require monitoring of the satisfaction of patient's relatives with respect to care. Currently, no suitable instrument is available in the Netherlands to measure this. This study describes the development and psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire-based Consumer Quality Index 'Relatives in Intensive Care Unit' (CQI 'R-ICU'). The CQI 'R-ICU' measures the perceived quality of care from the perspective of patients' relatives, and identifies aspects of care that need improvement. The CQI 'R-ICU' was developed using a mixed method design. Items were based on quality of care aspects from earlier studies and from focus group interviews with patients' relatives. The time period for the data collection of the psychometric evaluation was from October 2011 until July 2012. Relatives of adult intensive care patients in one university hospital and five general hospitals in the Netherlands were approached to participate. Psychometric evaluation included item analysis, inter-item analysis, and factor analysis. Twelve aspects were noted as being indicators of quality of care, and were subsequently selected for the questionnaire's vocabulary. The response rate of patients' relatives was 81% (n = 455). Quality of care was represented by two clusters, each showing a high reliability: 'Communication' (α = .80) and 'Participation' (α = .84). Relatives ranked the following aspects for quality of care as most important: no conflicting information, information from doctors and nurses is comprehensive, and health professionals take patients' relatives seriously. The least important care aspects were: need for contact with peers, nuisance, and contact with a spiritual counsellor. Aspects that needed the most urgent improvement (highest quality improvement scores) were: information about how relatives can contribute to the care of the patient, information about the use of meal-facilities in the hospital, and

  5. 22nd August 2011 - Permanent Representative of Georgia to the United Nations Office and other International Organisations in Geneva Ambassador Z. Tchiaberashvili, signing the guest book with CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss. Deputy Permanent Representative witnessing.

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoit Jeannet

    2011-01-01

    22nd August 2011 - Permanent Representative of Georgia to the United Nations Office and other International Organisations in Geneva Ambassador Z. Tchiaberashvili, signing the guest book with CERN Head of International Relations F. Pauss. Deputy Permanent Representative witnessing.

  6. 9 August 2011 - United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights N. Pillay signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    9 August 2011 - United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights N. Pillay signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; in the ATLAS visitor centre with Collaboration Former Spokesperson P. Jenni.

  7. Toxoplasmosis-related knowledge among pregnant and postpartum women attended in public health units in Niterói, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, Patricia Riddell; Moura, Fernanda Loureiro de; Bastos, Otílio Machado Pereira; Mattos, Danuza Pinheiro Bastos Garcia de; Fonseca, Ana Beatriz Monteiro; Sudré, Adriana Pittella; Leles, Daniela; Amendoeira, Maria Regina Reis

    2014-01-01

    The present study conducted a toxoplasmosis-related knowledge level survey with 400 pregnant and puerperal women attended in public health units in the municipality of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro. Only 111 (27.8%) women claimed to know about the disease. Most of them (n = 289; 72.2%) had never heard about toxoplasmosis nor knew how to prevent the infection by Toxoplasma gondii. A significant difference (p = 0.013) regarding the presence of anti-T. gondii IgG was observed between women who claimed to know about the disease and those who had never heard about it. These results highlight the importance of a systematic serological screening process for toxoplasmosis, as well as the importance of primary prevention by accurate information during prenatal care, an important Public Health action to be implemented.

  8. Nurses' and nurse assistants' beliefs, attitudes, and actions related to role and function in an inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit - A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Mia Ingerslev; Poulsen, Ingrid; Esbensen, Bente Appel

    2017-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: To explore nurses' and nurse assistants' beliefs, attitudes, and actions related to their function in an inpatient stroke rehabilitation unit. BACKGROUND: Several attempts have been made to describe nurses' roles and functions in inpatient neurorehabilitation. However, current......: Three main categories with underlying sub categories were identified: (1) the importance of professionalism, (2) striving for visibility, (3) the importance of structure. CONCLUSION: This study contributes to present understandings of nurses' and nurse assistants' roles and functions in inpatient stroke...... rehabilitation. We obtained insights into nursing staff's beliefs and attitudes about rehabilitation-as well as their own role and function-and furthermore how the latter affects their actions in daily practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  9. An analysis of national and cross-national consumer segments using the food-related lifestyle instrument in Denmark, France, Germany and the United Kingdom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    with a view towards cross-national comparisons, consists of 69 items measuring 23 dimensions. 1000 respondents each were interviewed in Denmark, Fran Germany, and the United Kingdom. A test of the cross-cultural validity of the data obtained using a confirmatory factor analysis approach showed that the data...... aimed at investigating whether cross-national food consumer segments can be found. Food consumer segments are derived using the food-related lifestyle instrument, which characterizes consumers by ho employ food and eating to obtain life values. The instrument, which has been developed especially...... have at least weak cross-cultural comparability. Nation-wise cluster analysis using Ward method yielded sets of five or six segments per country. The segments were named the uninvolved, the careless, the rational, the conservative, and the adventurous food consumers. A comparison of the segment...

  10. Inventories and mobilization of unsaturated zone sulfate, fluoride, and chloride related to land use change in semiarid regions, southwestern United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B.R.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Reedy, R.C.; Leaney, F.W.; Gates, J.; Cresswell, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Unsaturated zone salt reservoirs are potentially mobilized by increased groundwater recharge as semiarid lands are cultivated. This study explores the amounts of pore water sulfate and fluoride relative to chloride in unsaturated zone profiles, evaluates their sources, estimates mobilization due to past land use change, and assesses the impacts on groundwater quality. Inventories of water-extractable chloride, sulfate, and fluoride were determined from borehole samples of soils and sediments collected beneath natural ecosystems (N = 4), nonirrigated ("rain-fed") croplands (N = 18), and irrigated croplands (N = 6) in the southwestern United States and in the Murray Basin, Australia. Natural ecosystems contain generally large sulfate inventories (7800-120,000 kg/ha) and lower fluoride inventories (630-3900 kg/ha) relative to chloride inventories (6600-41,000 kg/ha). Order-of-magnitude higher chloride concentrations in precipitation and generally longer accumulation times result in much larger chloride inventories in the Murray Basin than in the southwestern United States. Atmospheric deposition during the current dry interglacial climatic regime accounts for most of the measured sulfate in both U.S. and Australian regions. Fluoride inventories are greater than can be accounted for by atmospheric deposition in most cases, suggesting that fluoride may accumulate across glacial/ interglacial climatic cycles. Chemical modeling indicates that fluorite controls fluoride mobility and suggests that water-extractable fluoride may include some fluoride from mineral dissolution. Increased groundwater drainage/recharge following land use change readily mobilized chloride. Sulfate displacement fronts matched or lagged chloride fronts by up to 4 m. In contrast, fluoride mobilization was minimal in all regions. Understanding linkages between salt inventories, increased recharge, and groundwater quality is important for quantifying impacts of anthropogenic activities on groundwater

  11. Comparison of 2015 Medicare relative value units for gender-specific procedures: Gynecologic and gynecologic-oncologic versus urologic CPT coding. Has time healed gender-worth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, M F; Ma, J F; Upperman, B A

    2017-02-01

    In 1992, Congress implemented a relative value unit (RVU) payment system to set reimbursement for all procedures covered by Medicare. In 1997, data supported that a significant gender bias existed in reimbursement for gynecologic compared to urologic procedures. The present study was performed to compare work and total RVU's for gender specific procedures effective January 2015 and to evaluate if time has healed the gender-based RVU worth. Using the 2015 CPT codes, we compared work and total RVU's for 50 pairs of gender specific procedures. We also evaluated 2015 procedure related provider compensation. The groups were matched so that the procedures were anatomically similar. We also compared 2015 to 1997 RVU and fee schedules. Evaluation of work RVU's for the paired procedures revealed that in 36 cases (72%), male vs female procedures had a higher wRVU and tRVU. For total fee/reimbursement, 42 (84%) male based procedures were compensated at a higher rate than the paired female procedures. On average, male specific surgeries were reimbursed at an amount that was 27.67% higher for male procedures than for female-specific surgeries. Female procedure based work RVU's have increased minimally from 1997 to 2015. Time and effort have trended towards resolution of some gender-related procedure worth discrepancies but there are still significant RVU and compensation differences that should be further reviewed and modified as surgical time and effort highly correlate. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. The viewpoint of energy relations between China and United States in think tank in the United States%美国智库对中美能源关系的认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦磊; 刘颖

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the think tanks in the United States pay utmost attention to the energy relations between China and foreign Countries. The think tank concern about those problems: First, the energy friction between China and US; Second, U. S.-China clean energy cooperation; Third, relationship between China and foreign countries. On the above, think tanks talk about the behavior of China, the importance and ways of Sino-US energy cooperation. And think tanks also put forward many suggestions.%近年来,随着中国发展对于能源需求的增加,同时由于中国能源问题的影响力的增强,国际社会,特别是美国智库对中国与其他国家和地区的能源关系问题给予了高度关注.近年来,美国智库关注的问题主要有:第一,中美能源摩擦;第二,中美在清洁能源领域的合作;第三,中国与世界其他能源富集区的关系.从中可以基本把握美国在能源方面采取的对华态度,因此中国方面应该有针对性地给予研究.

  13. Niveles de plomo en sangre y factores de exposición en niños del estado de Morelos, México Blood lead levels and exposure factors in children of Morelos State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Meneses-González

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar los niveles de plomo en sangre de niños morelenses y sus factores de exposición. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal para analizar, por voltametría anódica, los niveles de plomo en sangre de 232 niños de 1 a 12 años de edad, que acudieron de junio a octubre de 1996 al Hospital del Niño Morelense de Cuernavaca, Morelos, México. Los factores de exposición se indagaron por cuestionario. El valor de concentración de plomo se transformó al logaritmo natural; se estimó la razón de momios para algunos factores de exposición que se incorporaron a un modelo de ANOVA. RESULTADOS: Se reclutaron 232 niños (50% mujeres; 73% residentes en Cuernavaca. La media geométrica de plomo en sangre fue 6.7 µg/dl; 29.7% rebasaron los 10 µg/dl; 66% tenían antecedente de cocinar alimentos en barro vidriado; 36% de almacenar alimentos, y 19%, consumo de líquidos en ese material. CONCLUSIONES: Los niveles encontrados son similares a los reportados en otras poblaciones pediátricas mexicanas en los últimos años. Entre los principales factores de exposición destacan el uso de barro vidriado para consumo de alimentos o líquidos y la intensidad del tráfico donde viven. Este es el primer estudio que documenta los niveles de plomo en sangre en población infantil de Morelos, México, y sus resultados son punto de partida para acciones futuras de control y prevención.OBJECTIVE: To assess blood lead levels and lead exposure factors in children living in Morelos State, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted between June and October 1996, in 232 children aged 1-12 years, at Hospital del Niño Morelense de Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico. Blood lead levels were measured by anodic voltameter, and exposure factors were collected by questionnaire. The lead concentration value was log transformed for statistical analysis. Odds ratios were obtained for some risk factors. The statistical significative risk factors

  14. Pain-related stress during the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit stay and SLC6A4 methylation in very preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzi, Livio; Fumagalli, Monica; Sirgiovanni, Ida; Giorda, Roberto; Pozzoli, Uberto; Morandi, Francesco; Beri, Silvana; Menozzi, Giorgia; Mosca, Fabio; Borgatti, Renato; Montirosso, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    Very preterm (VPT) infants need long-lasting hospitalization in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) during which they are daily exposed to pain-related stress. Alterations of DNA methylation at the promoter region of the SLC6A4 have been associated with early adverse experiences in infants. The main aim of the present work was to investigate the association between level of exposure to pain-related stress during hospitalization and changes in SLC6A4 DNA methylation at NICU discharge in VPT infants. In order to exclude the potential effect of birth status (i.e., preterm vs. full-term birth) on SLC6A4 methylation, we preliminarily assessed SLC6A4 epigenetic differences between VPT and full-term (FT) infants at birth. Fifty-six VPT and thirty-two FT infants participated in the study. The level of exposure to pain-related stress was quantified on the basis of the amount of skin-breaking procedures to which they were exposed. VPT infants were divided in two sub-groups: low-pain exposure (LPE, N = 25) and high-pain exposure (HPE, N = 31). DNA methylation was evaluated at birth for both VPT and FT infants, assessing 20 CpG sites within the SLC6A4 promoter region. The same CpG sites were re-evaluated for variations in DNA methylation at NICU discharge in LPE and HPE VPT infants. No differences in SLC6A4 CpG sites' methylation emerged between FT and VPT infants at birth. Methylation at CpG sites 5 and 6 significantly increased from birth to NICU discharge only for HPE VPT infants. Findings show that preterm birth per se is not associated with epigenetic alterations of the SLC6A4, whereas higher levels of pain-related stress exposure during NICU stay might alter the transcriptional functionality of the serotonin transporter gene. PMID:25941480

  15. Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen K-12 Education in the United States: Findings Related to Research and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David E.; Becker, Henry J.; Bransford, John D.; Davidson, Jan; Hawkins, Jan; Malcom, Shirley; Molina, Mario; Ride, Sally K.; Sharp, Phillip; Tinker, Robert F.; Vest, Charles; Young, John; Allen, Richard; Bakia, Marianne; Bryson, Rebecca; Chen, C. Samantha; Costello, Caroline M.; Deckel, Garrett M.; Dial, Marjorie R.; Kealey, Edith M.; Lehoczky, Sandor

    1998-06-01

    The Panel on Educational Technology was organized in April 1995 under the auspices of the President's Committee of Advisers on Science and Technology (PCAST) to provide advice to the President on matters related to the application of information technologies to K-12 education in the United States. Its findings and recommendations were set forth in March 1997 in the Report to the President on the Use of Technology to Strengthen K-12 Education in the United States. This report was based on a review of the research literature and on written submissions and oral briefings from a number of academic and industrial researchers, practicing educators, software developers, governmental agencies, and professional and industry organizations involved in various ways with the application of technology to education. Its most important finding is that a large-scale program of rigorous, systematic research on education in general and educational technology in particular will ultimately prove necessary to ensure both the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of technology use within our nation's K-12 schools. Finding that less than 0.1 percent of our nation's expenditures for elementary and secondary education are currently invested to determine which educational techniques actually work, and to find ways to improve them—an extremely low level relative to comparable ratios within the private sector—the Panel recommended that this figure be increased over a period of several years to at least 0.5 percent, and sustained at that level on an ongoing basis. Further, because no one state, municipality, or private firm could hope to capture more than a small fraction of the benefits associated with a significant advance in our understanding of how best to educate K-12 students, the Panel concluded that such funding will have to be provided largely at the federal level in order to avoid a systematic underinvestment (attributable to a classical form of economic externality) relative to the

  16. Genetic aspects of barite mineralization related to rocks of the teschenite association in the Silesian Unit, Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirásek, Jakub; Dolníček, Zdeněk; Matýsek, Dalibor; Urubek, Tomáš

    2017-04-01

    Barite is a relatively uncommon phase in vein and amygdule mineralizations hosted by igneous rocks of the teschenite association in the Silesian Unit (Western Carpathians). In macroscopically observable sizes, it has been reported from 10 sites situated only in the Czech part of the Silesian Unit. Microscopic barite produced by the hydrothermal alteration of rock matrix and also by the supergene processes is more abundant. We examined four samples of barite by mineralogical and geochemical methods. Electron microprobe analyses proved pure barites with up to 0.038 apfu Sr and without remarkable internal zonation. Fluid inclusion and sulphur isotope data suggests that multiple sources of fluid components have been involved during barite crystallization. Barite contains primary and secondary aqueous all-liquid (L) or less frequent two-phase (L+V) aqueous fluid inclusions with variable salinity (0.4-2.9 wt. % NaCl eq.) and homogenization temperatures between 77 and 152 °C. The higher-salinity fluid endmember was probably Cretaceous seawater and the lower-salinity one was probably diagenetic water derived from surrounding flysch sediments during compaction and thermal alteration of clay minerals. The δ34S values of barite samples range between -1.0 ‰ and +16.4 ‰ CDT suggesting participation of two sources of sulphate, one with a near-zero δ34S values probably derived from wall rocks and another with high δ34S values being most probably sulphate from the Cretaceous seawater. All results underline the role of externally derived fluids during post-magmatic alteration of bodies of rock of the teschenite association.

  17. Genetic aspects of barite mineralization related to rocks of the teschenite association in the Silesian Unit, Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirásek Jakub

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Barite is a relatively uncommon phase in vein and amygdule mineralizations hosted by igneous rocks of the teschenite association in the Silesian Unit (Western Carpathians. In macroscopically observable sizes, it has been reported from 10 sites situated only in the Czech part of the Silesian Unit. Microscopic barite produced by the hydrothermal alteration of rock matrix and also by the supergene processes is more abundant. We examined four samples of barite by mineralogical and geochemical methods. Electron microprobe analyses proved pure barites with up to 0.038 apfu Sr and without remarkable internal zonation. Fluid inclusion and sulphur isotope data suggests that multiple sources of fluid components have been involved during barite crystallization. Barite contains primary and secondary aqueous all-liquid (L or less frequent two-phase (L+V aqueous fluid inclusions with variable salinity (0.4-2.9 wt. % NaCl eq. and homogenization temperatures between 77 and 152 °C. The higher-salinity fluid endmember was probably Cretaceous seawater and the lower-salinity one was probably diagenetic water derived from surrounding flysch sediments during compaction and thermal alteration of clay minerals. The δ34S values of barite samples range between -1.0 ‰ and +16.4 ‰ CDT suggesting participation of two sources of sulphate, one with a near-zero δ34S values probably derived from wall rocks and another with high δ34S values being most probably sulphate from the Cretaceous seawater. All results underline the role of externally derived fluids during post-magmatic alteration of bodies of rock of the teschenite association.

  18. The Effects of Emotional Intelligence (EI Items Education on Job Related Stress in Physicians and Nurses who Work in Intensive Care Units

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    Kh Nooryan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Intensive care units (ICUs are recognized as stressful environments. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of emotional intelligence education items on job related stress on physicians and nurses who work in intensive care units at hospitals of Yerevan, Armenia. Methods: A interventional study design was implemented with 106 registered hospital physicians and nurses, who were widely distributed all the way through. Case group was taught about 15 E.I items. For data collection, the 20-question Berger situational (overt anxiety questionnaire, the 20-item personality (covert anxiety questionnaire, and the Bar-on emotional intelligence questionnaire with 133 questions were used. Statistical descriptive methods, chi-square (X2 and t-tests were used to analyze data. Results: The research achievements revealed that the average score of the case group`s situational anxiety was 46.59 before intervention, which decreased to 39.95 after the training of the items of emotional intelligence. The average score of situational anxiety of control group was 44.32 before intervention which increased to 44.76 after examination. There was a meaningful statistical difference between case and control group after education of emotional intelligence`s items (p=0.001. Conclusion: Results of the current study showed that physicians and nurses experience high level of stress. The ability to effectively deal with emotion intelligence and emotional information in the workplace assists employees in coping with occupational stress and should be developed in stress managing trainings.

  19. Riparian and Associated Habitat Characteristics Related to Nutrient Concentrations and Biological Responses of Small Streams in Selected Agricultural Areas, United States, 2003-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelt, Ronald B.; Munn, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Physical factors, including both in-stream and riparian habitat characteristics that limit biomass or otherwise regulate aquatic biological condition, have been identified by previous studies. However, linking the ecological significance of nutrient enrichment to habitat or landscape factors that could allow for improved management of streams has proved to be a challenge in many regions, including agricultural landscapes, where many ecological stressors are strong and the variability among watersheds typically is large. Riparian and associated habitat characteristics were sampled once during 2003-04 for an intensive ecological and nutrients study of small perennial streams in five contrasting agricultural landscapes across the United States to determine how biological communities and ecosystem processes respond to varying levels of nutrient enrichment. Nutrient concentrations were determined in stream water at two different sampling times per site and biological samples were collected once per site near the time of habitat characterization. Data for 141 sampling sites were compiled, representing five study areas, located in parts of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware and Maryland), Georgia, Indiana, Ohio, Nebraska, and Washington. This report examines the available data for riparian and associated habitat characteristics to address questions related to study-unit contrasts, spatial scale-related differences, multivariate correlation structure, and bivariate relations between selected habitat characteristics and either stream nutrient conditions or biological responses. Riparian and associated habitat characteristics were summarized and categorized into 22 groups of habitat variables, with 11 groups representing land-use and land-cover characteristics and 11 groups representing other riparian or in-stream habitat characteristics. Principal components analysis was used to identify a reduced set of habitat variables that describe most of the variability among the

  20. A Prospective, Descriptive Study to Determine the Rate and Characteristics of and Risk Factors for the Development of Medical Device-related Pressure Ulcers in Intensive Care Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanonu, Seval; Karadag, Ayise

    2016-02-01

    Pressure ulcers do not develop only in areas with bony prominences; they can develop in any tissue under pressure, including pressure exerted by medical devices. A prospective, descriptive study was conducted from December 15, 2013 to March 25, 2014 to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and characteristics of medical device-related hospitalacquired pressure ulcers (MDR HAPUs) among all patients (N = 175) in 5 adult intensive care units (ICUs) in a university hospital in Turkey. The previously established point prevalence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPUs) in these ICUs was 15%. Patients were evaluated in the first 24 hours after admission and observed 6 times thereafter in intervals of 48 hours. Demographic (eg, age, gender, body mass index) and medical device-related pressure ulcer data (eg, location, device type, stage), and Braden Scale scores were collected and analyzed; frequencies and percentages were calculated and Mann-Whitney U Test, t-test, and odds ratios were applied. Twenty-seven (27) patients (15.4%) developed nonMDR HAPUs and 70 (40.0%) developed MDR HAPUs. MDR HAPUs occurred most frequently (45.0%) in patients with an endotracheal tube. The most frequent type (42.6%) was Stage II. The highest rates of MDR HAPUs were observed among internal medicine ICU patients (OR 7.041), patients who also had a nonMDR HAPU (OR 6.6), patients in the high Braden risk score group (OR 1.8), or patients who received enteral feeding (OR 2.12). Because of the high rate of MDR HAPUs noted, policies and procedures aimed at preventing medical device-related pressure ulcers are needed.

  1. Hospitalizations for Suicide-Related Drug Poisonings and Co-Occurring Alcohol Overdoses in Adolescents (Ages 12-17) and Young Adults (Ages 18-24) in the United States, 1999-2008: Results from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Aaron M.; MacInnes, Erin; Hingson, Ralph W.; Pan, I-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Drug poisoning is the leading method of suicide-related deaths among females and third among males in the United States. Alcohol can increase the severity of drug poisonings, yet the prevalence of alcohol overdoses in suicide-related drug poisonings (SRDP) remains unclear. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample was examined to determine rates…

  2. Hospitalizations for Suicide-Related Drug Poisonings and Co-Occurring Alcohol Overdoses in Adolescents (Ages 12-17) and Young Adults (Ages 18-24) in the United States, 1999-2008: Results from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Aaron M.; MacInnes, Erin; Hingson, Ralph W.; Pan, I-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Drug poisoning is the leading method of suicide-related deaths among females and third among males in the United States. Alcohol can increase the severity of drug poisonings, yet the prevalence of alcohol overdoses in suicide-related drug poisonings (SRDP) remains unclear. Data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample was examined to determine rates…

  3. In vivo measurement of Pu dissolution parameters of MOX aerosols and related uncertainties in the values of the dose per unit intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramounet-Le Gall, B; Rateau, G; Abram, M C; Grillon, G; Ansoborlo, E; Bérard, P; Delforge, J; Fritsch, P

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare dissolution parameter values for Pu from industrial MOX with different Pu contents. For this purpose, preliminary results obtained after inhalation exposure of rats to MOX containing 2.5% Pu are reported and compared to those obtained previously with MOX containing 5% Pu. Dissolution parameter values appear to increase when the amount of Pu decreases. Rapid fractions, f(r), of 4 x 10(-3) (s.d. = 2 x 10(-3)) and 1 x 10(-3) (s.d. = 6 x 10(-4)) and slow dissolution rates, s(s) of 2 x 10(-4) d(-1) (standard deviation, sigma = 5 x 10(-5)) and 5 x 10(-5) d(-1) (sigma = 1 x 10(-5)) were derived for MOX containing 2.5 and 5% of Pu, respectively. Simulations were performed to assess uncertainties on dose due to experimental errors. The relative standard deviations of the dose per unit intake (DPUI) due to f(r) (4-8%), are far less than those due to s(s) (about 20%), which is the main parameter altering the dose. Although quite different dissolution parameter values were derived, similar DPUIs were obtained for MOX aerosols containing 2.5 and 5% Pu which appear close to that for default Type S values.

  4. Convergent validity of the ACC/AHA pooled cohort equations in associating with health-related quality of life among adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooe, Allison; Edwards, Meghan K; Addoh, Ovuokerie; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-01-01

    Background: The potential convergent validity of the pooled cohort risk (PCR) equations in predicting health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has yet to be evaluated, which was this study's purpose. Methods: Data from the 2001-2011 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 8978 adults, 40-79 years, free of cardiovascular disease at baseline). Calculation of an individual's 10-year risk of a first atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) event was determined via the PCR equation. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) HRQOL measure was assessed utilizing 4 questions regarding participants' perceived mental and physical health status from the past 30 days. Results: When adjusting for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), obesity, age, gender and race-ethnicity, an ASCVD score of >20% (vs. <20%) was associated with a 0.53-unit (95% CI: 0.34-0.71) higher HRQOL score. A higher HRQOL score indicates a poorer patient perception of their mental and physical health. Conclusion: The observed association between PCR-determined ASCVD-risk scores and HRQOL provides evidence for the convergent validity of the PCR algorithms, indicating that individuals with a higher risk for a first time ASCVD-event may also have an overall worse HRQOL. As such, employing ASCVD risk reduction efforts may be an important strategy in improving an individual's HRQOL.

  5. Erratum to: Interpersonal discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Sherrill L; Cherepanov, Dasha; Hanmer, Janel; Fryback, Dennis G; Palta, Mari

    2013-08-01

    We assessed associations between discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States. We examined data from the National Health Measurement Study, a nationally representative sample of 3,648 adults aged 35-89 in the non-institutionalized US population. These data include self-reported lifetime and everyday discrimination as well as several health utility indexes (EQ-5D, HUI3, and SF-6D). Multiple regression was used to compute mean health utility scores adjusted for age, income, education, and chronic diseases for each race-by-gender subgroup. Black men and women reported more discrimination than white men and women. Health utility tended to be worse as reported discrimination increased. With a few exceptions, differences between mean health utility scores in the lowest and highest discrimination groups exceeded the 0.03 difference generally considered to be a clinically significant difference. Persons who experienced discrimination tended to score lower on health utility measures. The study also revealed a complex relationship between experiences of discrimination and race and gender. Because of these differential social and demographic relationships caution is urged when interpreting self-rated health measures in research, clinical, and policy settings.

  6. Road Traffic Related Injury Research and Informatics. New Opportunities for Biomedical and Health Informatics as a Contribution to the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shorbaji, N; Haux, R; Krishnamurthy, R; Marschollek, M; Mattfeld, D C; Bartolomeos, K; Reynolds, T A

    2015-01-01

    The United Nations has recently adopted 17 sustainable development goals for 2030, including ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all at all ages, and making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable. Road injuries remain among the ten leading causes of death in the world, and are projected to increase with rapidly increasing motorisation globally. Lack of comprehensive data on road injuries has been identified as one of the barriers for effective implementation of proven road safety interventions. Building, linking and analysing electronic patient records in conjunction with establishing injury event and care registries can substantially contribute to healthy lives and safe transportation. Appropriate use of new technological approaches and health informatics best practices could provide significant added value to WHO's global road safety work and assist Member States in identifying prevention targets, monitoring progress and improving quality of care to reduce injury-related deaths. This paper encourages the initiation of new multidisciplinary research at a global level.

  7. [Hypoacusis-deafness related to perinatal adverse conditions. According to the register available in a specialized unit of Ciudad de Mexico. Analysis according to birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñazola-López, Y R; Castillo-Maya, G; García-Pedroza, F; Sánchez-López, H

    2004-01-01

    To analyse perinatal adverse conditions related with birth weight in 160 children with hearing impairment-deafness (prelingual sensorineural hearing loss) according to medical data of a specialized medical unit in Mexico City. The average age of children was 4 years old +/- 1.7; 61% were male. 47.5% of the cases had a birthweight between 1,500 and 2,900 g. 90 cases (56%) had an abnormal delivery and 68 (42.5%) were first pregnancy cases. A high number of cases had delayed breathing, cyanosis, jaundice or respiratory failure. 104 cases (65%) had deafness and 56 (35%) presented. hearing loss. Only 11% of the children had a birth-weight under 1,500 g. 58% of all cases had a birth weight lower than 3,000 g. The quality of medical assistance provided during the perinatal period has a very important role in origin of hearing impairment--deafness in this group of children. It is important to increase our knowledge about the perinatal adverse conditions in order to establish preventive programs.

  8. Relations between temperament and theory of mind development in the United States and China: biological and behavioral correlates of preschoolers' false-belief understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Jonathan D; Wellman, Henry M; Olson, Sheryl L; Miller, Alison L; Wang, Li; Tardif, Twila

    2013-05-01

    The emotional reactivity hypothesis holds that, over the course of phylogeny, the selection of animals with less reactive temperaments supported the development of sophisticated social-cognitive skills in several species, including humans (Hare, 2007). In the ontogenetic human case, an emotional reactivity hypothesis predicts that children with less reactive temperaments will reach certain milestones in theory-of-mind (ToM) development more quickly. We examined relations between temperament and false-belief understanding in 102 preschool-age children from China and the United States. Temperament was measured via parental ratings of behavior as well as with physiological measures of children's reactivity (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis reactivity gauged via salivary cortisol). In accord with an emotional reactivity hypothesis, children with certain reactive temperaments--specifically, those who were more aggressive and those who were both socially withdrawn and physiologically reactive--evidenced poorer social-cognition. However, our findings also force amendment to the ontogenetic emotional reactivity hypothesis. For the majority of children in both countries, physiological reactivity predicted more advanced ToM, perhaps by facilitating social engagement and attention to social stimuli. Moreover, children who were withdrawn from social interaction yet nonreactive, especially Chinese children of this temperament, evidenced advanced ToM. Thus, some forms of social disengagement may foster social-cognitive development in certain sociocultural contexts.

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life Among Adults With Multiple Chronic Conditions in the United States, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Yang Chen, MS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLittle is known about health-related quality of life (HRQOL among people with multiple chronic conditions. We examined the association between the number of chronic conditions and self-reported HRQOL outcomes among adults in the United States.MethodsWe used data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS in 2007 (n = 430,912 to compare 4 HRQOL measures for people with any of 8 chronic conditions. We also assessed the frequency of self-reported physical and mental distress and the number of days activity was limited because of chronic conditions. We estimated prevalence and adjusted odds ratios (AORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs by using survey logistic regression analyses.ResultsPeople with 3 or more chronic conditions had the highest risk of reporting fair or poor health compared with respondents with no chronic conditions (AOR, 8.7; 95% CI, 8.0-9.4. People with cardiovascular conditions or diabetes had higher risk of reporting poor HRQOL outcomes than those with other chronic conditions. The odds ratios for frequent physical distress were consistently higher than those for frequent mental distress and frequent activity limitations for all conditions.ConclusionStrategies that help clinicians to manage their patients’ chronic conditions may contribute to improved HRQOL among adults. Our findings may help to inform these strategies.

  10. Factors related to positive and negative outcomes in psychiatric inpatients in a General Hospital Psychiatric Unit: a proposal for an outcomes index

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    HUGO KARLING MORESCHI

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background General Hospital Psychiatric Units have a fundamental importance in the mental health care systems. However, there is a lack of studies regarding the level of improvement of patients in this type of facility. Objective To assess factors related to good and poor outcomes in psychiatric inpatients using an index composed by clinical parameters easily measured. Methods Length of stay (LOS, Global Assessment of Functioning (variation and at discharge and Clinical Global Impression (severity and improvement were used to build a ten-point improvement index (I-Index. Records of psychiatric inpatients of a general hospital during an 18-month period were analyzed. Three groups (poor, intermediate and good outcomes were compared by univariate and multivariate models according to clinical and sociodemographic variables. Results Two hundred and fifty patients were included, with a percentage in the groups with poor, regular and good outcomes of 16.4%, 59,6% and 24.0% respectively. Poor outcome at the discharge was associated mainly with lower education, transient disability, antipsychotics use, chief complaint “behavioral change/aggressiveness” and psychotic features. Multivariate analysis found a higher OR for diagnoses of “psychotic disorders” and “personality disorders” and others variables in relation to protective categories in the poor outcome group compared to the good outcome group. Discussion Our I-Index proved to be an indicator of that allows an easy and more comprehensive evaluation to assess outcomes of inpatients than just LOS. Different interventions addressed to conditions such as psychotic disorders and disruptive chief complaints are necessary.

  11. Coherent motor unit rhythms in the 6-10 Hz range during time-varying voluntary muscle contractions: neural mechanism and relation to rhythmical motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erimaki, Sophia; Christakos, Constantinos N

    2008-02-01

    In quasi-sinusoidal (0.5-3.0 Hz) voluntary muscle contractions, we studied the 6- to 10-Hz motor unit (MU) firing synchrony and muscle force oscillation with emphasis on their neural substrate and relation to rhythmical motor control. Our analyses were performed on data from 121 contractions of a finger muscle in 24 human subjects. They demonstrate that coherent 6- to 10-Hz components of MU discharges coexist with carrier components and coherent modulation components underlying the voluntary force variations. The 6- to 10-Hz synchrony has the frequency of the tremor synchrony in steady contractions and is also widespread and in-phase. Its strength ranges from very small to very large (MU/MU coherence >0.50) among contractions; moreover, it is not related to the contraction parameters, in accord with the notion of a distinct 6- to 10-Hz synaptic input to the MUs. Unlike the coherent MU modulations and the voluntary force variations, the in-phase 6- to 10-Hz MU components are suppressed or even eliminated during ischemia, while the respective force component is drastically reduced. These findings agree with the widely assumed supraspinal origin of the MU modulations, but they also strongly suggest a key role for muscle spindle feedback in the generation of the 6- to 10-Hz synaptic input. They therefore provide important information for the study of generators of the 6- to 10-Hz rhythm which subserves the postulated rhythmical control and is manifested as force and movement components. Moreover, they argue for a participation of oscillating spinal stretch reflex loops in the rhythm generation, possibly in interaction with supraspinal oscillators.

  12. The epidemiology, economics and quality of life burden of age-related macular degeneration in France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonastre, J; Le Pen, C; Anderson, P; Ganz, A; Berto, P; Berdeaux, G

    2002-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major public health issue, but little is known about the economics of the disease. This contribution describes the epidemiology and the economics of AMD in four European countries: France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom (UK). We reviewed published information on AMD, including guidelines, official statistics, and local literature and interviewed AMD experts. All available health-related quality of life studies (HRQoL) on AMD were also reviewed. Data collection focused on epidemiology, medical management and resource use (both medical and non-medical items). Prevalence of AMD among persons older than 65 years is 8% and increases with age. There are two forms of the disease: atrophic (80-85% of AMD cases) and exudative, which is characterised by choroidal neovascularisation (CNV; 15-20% of AMD cases). No treatment for the atrophic form is available. Laser photocoagulation is the mainstay of treatment for CNV, although less than 30% of persons with CNV can benefit from it. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a new treatment for CNV, reduces the risk of vision loss in forms with predominantly visible lesions. Several other new procedures are also under development. Rehabilitation and low-vision aids are useful palliative interventions when there is a residual visual acuity. The yearly budget impact of AMD was found to be between 51.3 and 101.1 million euros in the four countries studied. Information on social services and resource use was scant and little is reported on the impact of AMD on HRQoL. Economic studies of AMD should be conducted in order to assist public health decision making.

  13. Optimism/pessimism and health-related quality of life during pregnancy across three continents: a matched cohort study in China, Ghana, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calhoun Cecilia

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about how optimism/pessimism and health-related quality of life compare across cultures. Methods Three samples of pregnant women in their final trimester were recruited from China, Ghana, and the United States (U.S.. Participants completed a survey that included the Life Orientation Test - Revised (LOT-R, an optimism/pessimism measure, the Short Form 12 (SF-12, a quality of life measure, and questions addressing health and demographic factors. A three-country set was created for analysis by matching women on age, gestational age at enrollment, and number of previous pregnancies. Anovas with post-hoc pairwise comparisons were used to compare results across the cohorts. Multivariate regression analysis was used to create a model to identify those variables most strongly associated with optimism/pessimism. Results LOT-R scores varied significantly across cultures in these samples, with Ghanaian pregnant women being the most optimistic and least pessimistic and Chinese pregnant women being the least optimistic overall and the least pessimistic in subscale analysis. Four key variables predicted approximately 20% of the variance in overall optimism scores: country of origin (p = .006, working for money (p = .05; level of education (p = .002, and ever being treated for emotional issues with medication (p Conclusion This research raises important questions regarding what it is about country of origin that so strongly influences optimism/pessimism among pregnant women. Further research is warranted exploring underlying conceptualization of optimism/pessimism and health related quality of life across countries.

  14. On-ward participation of a hospital pharmacist in a Dutch intensive care unit reduces prescribing errors and related patient harm: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopotowska, Joanna E; Kuiper, Rob; van Kan, Hendrikus J; de Pont, Anne-Cornelie; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; Lie-A-Huen, Loraine; Vroom, Margreeth B; Smorenburg, Susanne M

    2010-01-01

    Patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) are at high risk for prescribing errors and related adverse drug events (ADEs). An effective intervention to decrease this risk, based on studies conducted mainly in North America, is on-ward participation of a clinical pharmacist in an ICU team. As the Dutch Healthcare System is organized differently and the on-ward role of hospital pharmacists in Dutch ICU teams is not well established, we conducted an intervention study to investigate whether participation of a hospital pharmacist can also be an effective approach in reducing prescribing errors and related patient harm (preventable ADEs) in this specific setting. A prospective study compared a baseline period with an intervention period. During the intervention period, an ICU hospital pharmacist reviewed medication orders for patients admitted to the ICU, noted issues related to prescribing, formulated recommendations and discussed those during patient review meetings with the attending ICU physicians. Prescribing issues were scored as prescribing errors when consensus was reached between the ICU hospital pharmacist and ICU physicians. During the 8.5-month study period, medication orders for 1,173 patients were reviewed. The ICU hospital pharmacist made a total of 659 recommendations. During the intervention period, the rate of consensus between the ICU hospital pharmacist and ICU physicians was 74%. The incidence of prescribing errors during the intervention period was significantly lower than during the baseline period: 62.5 per 1,000 monitored patient-days versus 190.5 per 1,000 monitored patient-days, respectively (P Medication Error Reporting and Prevention severity categories E and F) were reduced from 4.0 per 1,000 monitored patient-days during the baseline period to 1.0 per 1,000 monitored patient-days during the intervention period (P = 0.25). Per monitored patient-day, the intervention itself cost €3, but might have saved €26 to €40 by preventing

  15. Muscle Torque Relative to Cross-Sectional Area and the Functional Muscle-Bone Unit in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dale Y.; Wetzsteon, Rachel J.; Zemel, Babette S.; Shults, Justine; Organ, Jason M.; Foster, Bethany J.; Herskovitz, Rita M.; Foerster, Debbie L.; Leonard, Mary B.

    2015-01-01

    Measures of muscle mass or size are often used as surrogates of forces acting on bone. However, chronic diseases may be associated with abnormal muscle force relative to muscle size. The muscle-bone unit was examined in 64 children and adolescents with new-onset Crohn’s disease (CD), 54 with chronic kidney disease (CKD), 51 treated with glucocorticoids for nephrotic syndrome (NS), and 264 healthy controls. Muscle torque was assessed by isometric ankle dynamometry. Calf muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and tibia cortical section modulus (Zp) were assessed by quantitative CT. Log-linear regression was used to determine the relations among muscle CSA, muscle torque, and Zp, adjusted for tibia length, age, Tanner stage, sex, and race. Muscle CSA and muscle torque-relative-to-muscle CSA were significantly lower than controls in advanced CKD (CSA −8.7%, p = 0.01; torque −22.9%, p < 0.001) and moderate-to-severe CD (CSA −14.1%, p < 0.001; torque −7.6%, p = 0.05), but not in NS. Zp was 11.5% lower in advanced CKD (p = 0.005) compared to controls, and this deficit was attenuated to 6.7% (p = 0.05) with adjustment for muscle CSA. With additional adjustment for muscle torque and body weight, Zp was 5.9% lower and the difference with controls was no longer significant (p = 0.09). In participants with moderate-to-severe CD, Zp was 6.8% greater than predicted (p = 0.01) given muscle CSA and torque deficits (R2=0.92), likely due to acute muscle loss in newly diagnosed patients. Zp did not differ in NS, compared with controls. In conclusion, muscle torque relative to muscle CSA was significantly lower in CKD and CD, compared with controls, and was independently associated with Zp. Future studies are needed to determine if abnormal muscle strength contributes to progressive bone deficits in chronic disease, independent of muscle area. PMID:25264231

  16. Protectiveness of water quality criteria for copper in western United States waters relative to predicted olfactory responses in juvenile Pacific salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, David K; Gensemer, Robert W; Van Genderen, Eric J; Gorsuch, Joseph W

    2011-07-01

    Copper (Cu) can impair olfaction in juvenile Pacific salmon (as well as other fishes), thus potentially inhibiting the ability of juveniles to avoid predators or to find food. Because Cu is commonly elevated in stormwater runoff in urban environments, storm events may result in elevated Cu concentrations in salmon-bearing streams. Accordingly, there is concern that existing Cu criteria, which were not derived using data for olfactory-related endpoints, may not be adequately protective of juvenile salmon. However, a modification of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) biotic ligand model (BLM) for deriving site-specific Cu criteria was recently proposed, which accounted for the sensitivity of olfactory endpoints. The modification was based on olfactory inhibition in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) exposed to Cu in various combinations of pH, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations. We used that olfactory-based BLM to derive 20% inhibition concentrations (IC20) values for Cu for 133 stream locations in the western United States. The olfactory BLM-based IC20 values were compared to the existing hardness-based Cu criteria and the USEPA's BLM-based Cu criteria for these representative natural waters of the western United States. Of the 133 sampling locations, mean hardness-dependent acute and chronic Cu criteria were below the mean olfactory-based BLM IC20 value in 122 (92%) and 129 (97%) of the waters, respectively (i.e., <20% olfactory impairment would have been predicted at the mean hardness-based Cu criteria concentrations). Waters characterized by a combination of high hardness and very low DOC were most likely to have hardness-based Cu criteria that were higher than the olfactory-based BLM IC20 values, because DOC strongly influences Cu bioavailability in the BLM. In all waters, the USEPA's current BLM-based criteria were below the mean olfactory-based BLM IC20 values, indicating that the USEPA's BLM

  17. Increased Incidence Rate of Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders in Denmark After the September 11, 2001, Terrorist Attacks in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bertel T; Østergaard, Søren D; Sønderskov, Kim M

    2016-01-01

    The terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001 (hereafter referred to as 9/11) in the United States had a profound impact on the physical and mental health of Americans, but the effects beyond the United States are largely unknown. To understand the wider aftermath, we examined...

  18. Fatores determinantes da carga de trabalho em uma unidade básica de saúde Decisive factors relating to workload in a primary healthcare unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Rogério da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available As doenças decorrentes do exercício pro-fissional, sejam de ordem física ou emocional, têm apresentado aumento crescente na sociedade atual, nos diferentes segmentos laborativos, com projeção significativa junto aos profissionais da saúde como médicos, dentistas, enfermeiros, auxiliares de enfermagem e auxiliares administrativos envolvidos com a prestação de serviços nas unidades de saúde. Este estudo teve por objetivo conhecer a carga de trabalho e seus fatores determinantes, buscando identificar possíveis relações entre as condições de trabalho e o possível impacto para a saúde dos trabalhadores. Participaram da amostra 31 indivíduos: 12 médicos, 3 dentistas, 1 enfermeira, 9 auxiliares de enfermagem, 3 auxiliares odontológicos e 3 auxiliares administrativos de uma Unidade Básica de Saúde (UBS no interior de São Paulo. Para a coleta dos dados foi elaborado um roteiro de entrevista estruturado e realizadas reuniões com os grupos específicos para uma descrição detalhada das atividades realizadas em cada setor e o levantamento de problemas e de características desejáveis. Os resultados indicam a presença de carga física, carga cognitiva e carga psíquica; processo de comunicação inadequado; equipamentos obsoletos; número excessivo de usuários e estrutura frágil para lidar com absenteísmo.Work-related diseases o either physical or emotional origin have been on the increase in contemporary society in the different work sectors. They have had a profound impact on health professionals, such as physicians, dentists, nurses, nursing assistants and administrative assistants in the primary healthcare units. This study aimed to establish the decisive factors relating to workload, seeking to identify possible relations between the working conditions and their potential impact on worker health. Thirty-one individuals comprised the sample, namely 12 physicians, 3 dentists, 1 nurse, 9 nursing assistants, 3 dental

  19. Re-validation of the Van Rie HIV/AIDS-related stigma scale for use with people living with HIV in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipp, Aaron M; Audet, Carolyn M; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Owens, Jared; McGowan, Catherine C; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2015-01-01

    There is little consensus about which of the many validated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) stigma scales should be regularly used, with few being re-validated in different contexts or evaluated for how they compare to other, existing HIV stigma scales. The purpose of this exploratory study was to re-validate the Van Rie HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Scale, originally validated in Thailand and using a third-person wording structure, for use with people living with HIV in the United States. Adult HIV clinic patients completed a survey including the Berger and Van Rie scales, and measures of social support and depression. Eighty-five of 211 (40%) eligible participants provided data for both stigma scales. Exploratory factor analyses identified three factors to the Van Rie scale: Loss of Social Relationships (new subscale), Managing HIV Concealment (new subscale), and Perceived Community Stigma (original subscale). These subscales were moderately inter-related (r = 0.51 to 0.58) with acceptable to excellent reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.69 to 0.90). The Van Rie subscales were also moderately inter-correlated with the Berger subscales (r = 0.44 to 0.76), had similar construct validity, and tended to have higher mean stigma scores when compared with Berger subscales that were conceptually most similar. The revised Van Rie HIV-related Stigma Scale demonstrates good validity and internal consistency, offering a valid measure of HIV stigma with a three-factor structure. The third-person wording may be particularly suitable for measuring stigmatizing attitudes during an individual's transition from at-risk and undergoing HIV testing to newly diagnosed, a time when experiences of discrimination and processing issues of disclosure have not yet occurred. The stigma mechanisms for individuals making this transition have not been well explored. These scenarios, combined with the observed non-response to the Berger Enacted Stigma subscale items (a surprise finding), highlight

  20. Re-validation of the Van Rie HIV/AIDS-related stigma scale for use with people living with HIV in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M Kipp

    Full Text Available There is little consensus about which of the many validated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV stigma scales should be regularly used, with few being re-validated in different contexts or evaluated for how they compare to other, existing HIV stigma scales. The purpose of this exploratory study was to re-validate the Van Rie HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Scale, originally validated in Thailand and using a third-person wording structure, for use with people living with HIV in the United States. Adult HIV clinic patients completed a survey including the Berger and Van Rie scales, and measures of social support and depression. Eighty-five of 211 (40% eligible participants provided data for both stigma scales. Exploratory factor analyses identified three factors to the Van Rie scale: Loss of Social Relationships (new subscale, Managing HIV Concealment (new subscale, and Perceived Community Stigma (original subscale. These subscales were moderately inter-related (r = 0.51 to 0.58 with acceptable to excellent reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.69 to 0.90. The Van Rie subscales were also moderately inter-correlated with the Berger subscales (r = 0.44 to 0.76, had similar construct validity, and tended to have higher mean stigma scores when compared with Berger subscales that were conceptually most similar. The revised Van Rie HIV-related Stigma Scale demonstrates good validity and internal consistency, offering a valid measure of HIV stigma with a three-factor structure. The third-person wording may be particularly suitable for measuring stigmatizing attitudes during an individual's transition from at-risk and undergoing HIV testing to newly diagnosed, a time when experiences of discrimination and processing issues of disclosure have not yet occurred. The stigma mechanisms for individuals making this transition have not been well explored. These scenarios, combined with the observed non-response to the Berger Enacted Stigma subscale items (a surprise finding

  1. Assessment of risk factors related to healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection at patient admission to an intensive care unit in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogura Hiroshi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Healthcare-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA infection in intensive care unit (ICU patients prolongs ICU stay and causes high mortality. Predicting HA-MRSA infection on admission can strengthen precautions against MRSA transmission. This study aimed to clarify the risk factors for HA-MRSA infection in an ICU from data obtained within 24 hours of patient ICU admission. Methods We prospectively studied HA-MRSA infection in 474 consecutive patients admitted for more than 2 days to our medical, surgical, and trauma ICU in a tertiary referral hospital in Japan. Data obtained from patients within 24 hours of ICU admission on 11 prognostic variables possibly related to outcome were evaluated to predict infection risk in the early phase of ICU stay. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent risk factors for HA-MRSA infection. Results Thirty patients (6.3% had MRSA infection, and 444 patients (93.7% were infection-free. Intubation, existence of open wound, treatment with antibiotics, and steroid administration, all occurring within 24 hours of ICU admission, were detected as independent prognostic indicators. Patients with intubation or open wound comprised 96.7% of MRSA-infected patients but only 57.4% of all patients admitted. Conclusions Four prognostic variables were found to be risk factors for HA-MRSA infection in ICU: intubation, open wound, treatment with antibiotics, and steroid administration, all occurring within 24 hours of ICU admission. Preemptive infection control in patients with these risk factors might effectively decrease HA-MRSA infection.

  2. Mode of correction is related to treatment timing in Class II patients treated with the mandibular advancement locking unit (MALU) appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candir, Muhsin; Kerosuo, Heidi

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the proportion of skeletal/dentoalveolar components for correction of Class II malocclusion in relation to the pubertal growth peak (PGP) among patients treated with the mandibular advancement locking unit (MALU) appliance. We conducted a retrospective study of 27 orthodontic patients (age range: 12-18 years; mean age 14.9 years) with skeletal Class II Division 1 malocclusion who were treated with the MALU appliance until they reached Class I occlusion with overjet and overbite within normal range. Pretreatment (T1) and posttreatment (T2) lateral cephalograms were analyzed using standard cephalometrics and sagittal occlusion analysis to assess changes in the dentoalveolar and skeletal complex. The cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) method was used to determine participants' skeletal maturation in T1 cephalograms. Based on this maturation, participants were divided into two groups: the peak group (treatment initiation before or during PGP [peak group, n=15]) or the postpeak group (treatment initiation after the PGP [n = 12]). No significant differences between groups were found at T1 for most of the skeletal and dental parameters investigated. At T2, the mean ANB angle and proclination of the mandibular incisors were significantly smaller in the peak group than in the postpeak group. In the peak group, skeletal correction comprised 54% and dental correction 46% of the total change at T2, while in the postpeak group the corresponding figures were 24% and 76%, respectively. Treatment initiated before or during PGP seems to result in a more favorable SNA/SNB relationship and less tipping of the mandibular incisors than when treatment is initiated after PGP.

  3. Personality disorders and physical comorbidities in adults from the United States: data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Shae E; El-Gabalawy, Renée; Brennan, Sharon L; Bolton, James M; Sareen, Jitender; Berk, Michael; Chanen, Andrew M; Pasco, Julie A; Williams, Lana J

    2015-05-01

    There is a paucity of research examining the relationship between personality disorders (PDs) and chronic physical comorbidities. Consequently, we investigated associations between individual PDs and PD Clusters, and various common disease groups [cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, arthritis and gastrointestinal disease (GI)] in a nationally representative survey of adults from the United States. This study utilized pooled data (n = 34,653; ≥20 years) from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. PDs were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Physical conditions were based on self-reports of being diagnosed by a health professional. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regressions examined the relationship between PDs and physical conditions. After adjustment (sociodemographic factors, past-year mood, anxiety and substance use disorders), Clusters A, B and C PDs were each associated with physical conditions (all p ≤ 0.01). Of the individual PDs, schizoid, schizotypal, narcissistic, borderline and obsessive-compulsive PDs were associated with CVD (all p ≤ 0.01) among younger adults. Paranoid, antisocial, borderline and avoidant PDs and younger adults with schizoid, schizotypal and obsessive-compulsive PDs were each associated with arthritis (all p ≤ 0.01). Significant associations were seen between paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal PDs and diabetes (all p ≤ 0.01). Finally, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline and narcissistic PDs were associated with GI conditions (all p ≤ 0.01). PDs were consistently associated with physical conditions. Investigation of PDs and their relationship with physical health outcomes warrant further research attention as these findings have important clinical implications.

  4. Prevalence of sclerotinia stem rot of soybeans in the north-central United States in relation to tillage, climate, and latitudinal positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, F; Yang, X B

    2000-12-01

    ABSTRACT Since the early 1990s, Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, has caused considerable damage to soybean production in the north-central United States. To determine the extent of its distribution and associated factors, investigations were conducted in 1995 and 1996 in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Ohio. Investigations also were conducted in 1997 and 1998 in Iowa, Minnesota, and Missouri. In each state, soybean fields were randomly selected in collaboration with the National Agricultural Statistics Service. From each field, 20 soybean stems 20 cm long (from the base) in 1995 and 1996 and full-length stems in 1997 and 1998 were sampled in a zigzag pattern. During the 4-year period, stem samples were collected from 1,983 fields and assessed for the presence or absence of the disease. Of the five states, Sclerotinia stem rot was most prevalent in north-central Iowa and southern Minnesota. Sclerotinia stem rot was not detected in Missouri during the 4-year investigation period. The disease was most prevalent in 1996 and least prevalent in 1995. The prevalence of the disease was strongly related to cumulative departures from normal maximum and minimum temperatures in July and August. The disease was more prevalent when yearly temperatures were below normal than when they were above normal. In 1996, a year with a cooler-than-normal summer, the disease was detected farther south than in 1995. In both years, the prevalence of the disease was exponentially related to latitudinal positions of the fields (R(2) = 0.93 and 0.83 for 1995 and 1996, respectively) reflecting the effect of the north-south variations in temperature. During the 4-year period, there was no relationship between precipitation and the prevalence of the disease. The lack of relationship may suggest that there was no shortage of moisture since it is one of the primary factors for disease development. The prevalence of Sclerotinia stem rot was less in no-till than in

  5. Prospect- and Mine-Related Features from U.S. Geological Survey 7.5- and 15-Minute Topographic Quadrangle Maps of the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data are part of a larger USGS project to develop an updated geospatial database of mines, mineral deposits and mineral regions in the United States. Mine and...

  6. Design, evaluation and recommedation effort relating to the modification of a residential 3-ton absorption cycle cooling unit for operation with solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, R. H.; Anderson, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    The possible use of solar energy powered absorption units to provide cooling and heating of residential buildings is studied. Both, the ammonia-water and the water-lithium bromide cycles, are considered. It is shown that the air cooled ammonia water unit does not meet the criteria for COP and pump power on the cooling cycle and the heat obtained from it acting as a heat pump is at too low a temperature. If the ammonia machine is water cooled it will meet the design criteria for cooling but can not supply the heating needs. The water cooled lithium bromide unit meets the specified performance for cooling with appreciably lower generator temperatures and without a mechanical solution pump. It is recommeded that in the demonstration project a direct expansion lithium bromide unit be used for cooling and an auxiliary duct coil using the solar heated water be employed for heating.

  7. Lower Prevalence of Celiac Disease and Gluten-Related Disorders in Persons Living in Southern vs Northern Latitudes of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unalp-Arida, Aynur; Ruhl, Constance E; Choung, Rok Seon; Brantner, Tricia L; Murray, Joseph A

    2017-06-01

    The association between prevalence of celiac disease and geographic region is incompletely understood, but the occurrence of several autoimmune disorders has been found to vary along a North-South gradient. We examined geographic, demographic, and clinical factors associated with prevalence of celiac disease and gluten-free diet in the United States. In a population-based study, we analyzed data on gluten-related conditions from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, from 2009 through 2014, on 22,277 participants 6 years and older. We identified persons with celiac disease based on results of serum tests for IgA against tissue transglutaminase and endomysium or on both a health care provider diagnosis and adherence to a gluten-free diet. Gluten avoidance without celiac disease was defined as adherence to a gluten-free diet without a diagnosis of celiac disease. We compared mean serum levels of biochemical and nutritional markers based on status of gluten-related conditions. We found 0.7% of participants to have celiac disease and 1.1% of participants to avoid gluten without celiac disease. Celiac disease was more common among individuals who lived at latitudes of 35°-39° North (odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-7.1) or at latitudes of 40° North or more (odds ratio, 5.4; 95% CI, 2.6-11.3) than individuals who lived at latitudes below 35° North, independent of race or ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and body mass index. Gluten avoidance without celiac disease was more common among individuals who lived at latitudes of 40° North or more, independent of demographic factors and body mass index. Participants with undiagnosed celiac disease (identified by positive results from serologic tests) had lower mean levels of vitamin B-12 and folate (data collected from 2009 through 2012) than persons without celiac disease. Participants with a health care provider diagnosis of celiac disease had a lower mean level of hemoglobin than persons

  8. The Role of Coping in Moderating the Relationship between Racism-Related Stress and Self-Reported General Health among Asians and Latinas/os in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Denise Carina

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has shown an association between racism-related stress and negative health outcomes among African Americans and the moderating effect of coping strategies on this relationship. Yet, scant attention has been paid to this relationship for two of the largest minority groups in the United States: Asians and Latinos/as. Using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) and a framework derived from stress process and biopsychosocial models, this study examines the relation...

  9. Complexity Index as Applied to Magnetic Resonance: Study Based on a Scale of Relative Units; Indice de complejidad en resonancia magnetica: estudio basado en una escala de unidades relativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capelastegui, A.; Villanua, J.

    2003-07-01

    To analyze the merit and repercussions of measuring magnetic resonance (MR) activity in units of radiological activity, and of using complexity index (CI) as an activity indicator. We studied the MR activity of Osatek, Inc. during an 8-year period (1994-2001). We measured this activity both in number of MR procedures performed and in units of radiological activity, such units being based on the scale of relative units published in the Radiological Services Administration Guidelines published by the Spanish Society or Medical Radiology. We calculated the annual complexity index, this being a quotient between the number of MR procedures performed and corresponding value in units of radiological activity. We also analyzed factors that can have an impact on the CI: type of exploration and power of the equipment's magnetic field. The CL stayed practically stable during the first 4 years of the study, while it increased during the second 4 years. There exists a direct relationship between this increase and the percentage of explorations that we term complex (basically, body-and angio-MR). The increasing complexity of MR studies in the last years is evident from a consideration of CI. MR productivity is more realistically expressed in units of radiological activity than in number of procedures performed by any one center. It also allows for making external comparisons. CI is a useful indicator that can be utilized as an administrative tool. (Author) 13 refs.

  10. Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Treaty-Based Settlement of Terrorism-Related Disputes in the Era of Active United Nations Security Council Involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. Ali (Nathanael)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The United Nations Security Council has become a crucial actor in international counterterrorism by not only spurring the taking of preventive and suppressive measures against terrorist individuals and groups, but also by taking actions against states that are said to s

  11. Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Treaty-Based Settlement of Terrorism-Related Disputes in the Era of Active United Nations Security Council Involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.T. Ali (Nathanael)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The United Nations Security Council has become a crucial actor in international counterterrorism by not only spurring the taking of preventive and suppressive measures against terrorist individuals and groups, but also by taking actions against states that are said to

  12. An Analysis of the Units "I'm Learning My Past" and "The Place Where We Live" in the Social Studies Textbook Related to Critical Thinking Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aybek, Birsel; Aslan, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Problem Statement: Various research have been conducted investigating the quality and quantity of textbooks such as wording, content, design, visuality, physical properties, activities, methods and techniques, questions and experiments, events, misconceptions, organizations, pictures, text selection, end of unit questions and assessments, indexes…

  13. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-10-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April.1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), Supplement No. 14 (December 1994), Supplement No. 15 (June 1995), and Supplement No. 16 (September 1995) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50--390 and 50--391). The facility is located in Rhea county, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. In this supplement, NRC examines the significant problems of construction quality and quality assurance effectiveness that led TVA to withdraw its certification in 1985 that Watts Bar Unit I was ready to load fuel. Also discussed are the extensive corrective actions performed by TVA according to its nuclear performance plans and other supplemental programs, and NRC`s extensive oversight to determine whether the Watts Bar Unit 1 construction quality and TVA`s operational readiness and quality assurance effectiveness are adequate for a low-power operating license to be issued. SSER 17 does not address Watts Bar Unit 2, except for the systems which are necessary to support Unit 1 operation.

  14. Generating Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Generating Units are any combination of physically connected generators, reactors, boilers, combustion turbines, and other prime movers operated together to produce...

  15. Accounting of costs in a service of physical health. Relative units of value in dosimetry clinic in teletherapy; Contabilidad de costes en un servicio de fisica medica. Unidades relativas de valor en dosimetria clinica en teleterapia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Font Gomez, J. A.; Gandia Martinez, A.; Jimenez Albericio, F. J.; Andres Redondon, M. M.; Mengual Gil, M. A.

    2013-07-01

    A single - although laborious - start in the economic and clinical management of our units can be come to the knowledge of the time invested in the tasks functional, having to differentiate them, name them and even encrypt them. The time spent in performing the tasks multiplied by the annual number of these will indicate the resources necessary to achieve our objectives. In addition, pooling the values of times that members of the Unit provide analysed inter-workers dispersal, their causes and possible solutions. The establishment of relative units of value in any process benefits all workers involved in the process since it allows to know the dispersion of the times that each person employed in the development of the tasks. (Author)

  16. Fluoroquinolone resistance: relation between drug use and evolution of resistance in some Units of the “San Bassiano” hospital from 2007 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Mascotto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence that the overuse of antibiotics is a major cause for the emergence in antimicrobial resistance. This study analyzes the evolution of antimicrobial resistance to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin from 2007 to 2008 in some Units of the “San Bassiano” hospital and compares this evolution among the consumption of the same antibiotics. The study involved the collection of all first isolates in blood, urine and transtracheal samples between 2007 and 2008; three microorganisms were chosen: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microorganisms investigations concerned Geriatrics, Medicine, Surgery and Intensive Care Unit (ICU with 48, 48, 44 and 10 beds respectively. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the Phoenix automated system (Becton Dickinson. If the ciprofloxacin susceptibility was (S and levofloxacin susceptibility was (I/R antimicrobial susceptibility was confirmed by the E-Test method (bioMérieux on Muller Hilton agar and cell density of 0.5 MacFarland. Control strains were E. Coli ATCC 25922, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and S. aureus ATCC 29213. The antibiotics consumed in the hospital between January 2007 and December 2008 were transformed into Defined Daily Dose (DDD, which corresponds to the quantity of antibiotics consumed by a patient in 24 h. Ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin demonstrated a similar pattern of increasing resistance in some units between 2007 and 2008. Fluoroquinolone resistance increase for E. coli, varies from 10% in Geriatrics to 15% in ICU, for S. aureus varies from 15% in Medicine Unit to 5% in ICU. P. aeruginosa maintained the same percentage of resistance from 2007 to 2008, but there was a significantly increase of strains with intermediate sensitivity (I up to 30%. The consumption of Ciprofloxacin didn’t increase in any of the units and in some case decreased. The consumption of levofloxacin increased in every units

  17. Using a Geospatial Model to Relate Fluvial Geomorphology to Macroinvertebrate Habitat in a Prairie River—Part 2: Matching Family-Level Indices to Geomorphological Response Units (GRUs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Grace Nostbakken Meissner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many rivers are intensely managed due to anthropogenic influences such as dams, channelization, and water provision for municipalities, agriculture, and industry. With this growing pressure on fluvial systems comes a greater need to evaluate the state of their ecosystems. The purpose of this research is to use a geospatial model of the Qu’Appelle River in Saskatchewan to distinguish instream macroinvertebrate habitats at the family level. River geomorphology was assessed through the use of ArcGIS and digital elevation models; with these tools, the sinuosity, slope, fractal dimension, and stream width of the river were processed. Subsequently, Principal Component Analysis, a clustering technique, revealed areas with similar sets of geomorphological characteristics. These similar typology sequences were then grouped into geomorphological response units (GRUs, designated a color, and mapped into a geospatial model. Macroinvertebrate data was then incorporated to reveal several relationships to the model. For instance, certain GRUs contained more highly sensitive species and healthier diversity levels than others. Future possibilities for expanding on this project include incorporating stable isotope data to evaluate the food-web structure within the river basin. Although GRUs have been very successful in identifying fish habitats in other studies, the macroinvertebrates may be too sessile and their habitat too localized to be identified by such large river units. Units may need to be much shorter (250 m to better identify macroinvertebrate habitat.

  18. Atlas of relations between climatic parameters and distributions of important trees and shrubs in North America: Revisions for all taxa from the United States and Canada and new taxa from the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert S.; Anderson, Katherine H.; Pelltier, Richard T.; Strickland, Laura E.; Shafer, Sarah L.; Bartlein, Patrick J.; McFadden, Andrew K.

    2015-01-01

    This is the seventh volume in an atlas series that explores the relations between the geographic distributions of woody plant species and climatic variables in North America. A 25-kilometer (km) equal-area grid of modern climatic and bioclimatic variables was constructed from weather data. The geographic distributions of selected tree and shrub species were digitized, and the presence or absence of each species was determined for each point on the 25-km grid, thus providing a basis for comparing climatic data and species' distributions. The relations between climate and plant distributions are presented in graphical and tabular form. The results of this effort are intended primarily for use in biogeographic, ecologic, paleoclimatic, and global-change research.

  19. The Chavez Challenge: Venezuela, The United States and the Geo-Politics of Post-Cold War Inter-American Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Americas,” A.1. 122 Corrales, “The Logic of Extremism: How Chávez Gains by Giving Cuba So Much,” 2. 123 Erikson , “Castro’s Chávez Strategy,” 10. 40...accessed February 19, 2009). Erikson , Dan. “Castro’s Chávez Strategy.” Inter-American Dialogue. http://lacc.fiu.edu/centers_institutes/cri...Robert H. and Eric Zolov. eds. Latin America and the United States: A Documentary History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000. Irwin, Domingo

  20. 15 February 2012 - Geneva United Nations Office Director-General K.-J. Tokayev in the LHC tunnel with Adviser for Relations with international organisations M. Bona and Technology Department Head F. Bordry.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-claude Gadmer

    2012-01-01

    Kassym-Jomart Tokayev, director-general of the United Nations Office at Geneva, (centre picture 02), visited CERN on 15 February. He toured the LHC tunnel with Maurizio Bona, CERN’s adviser to the director-general, relations with international organizations, left, and Frédérick Bordry, CERN’s technology department head. He also visited the ATLAS underground experimental area, as well as the exhibition at the Globe of Science and Innovation.

  1. A linear relation between the cloud point and the number of oxyethylene units of water-soluble nonionic surfactants valid for the entire range of ethoxylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Hans

    2003-04-01

    The following linear equation correlates the cloud point (CP) of water-soluble polyoxyethylated nonionic surfactants (NSs) with the average number p of oxyethylene units per molecule: (p - p0)/CP = a + b(p - p0). Here p0 is the smallest value of p that confers solubility in cold water: In a homologous series of NSs, it belongs to the surfactant with CP = 0 degrees C. Plots of CP versus p for five representative homologous series of NSs consist of three segments: A steeply ascending, nearly straight line, a transition region that ranges from p = 15-22 to p = 20-28, and a nearly horizontal plateau that approaches asymptotically the CPs of polyethylene glycols with molecular weights between 30,000 and 4400. These CPs range from 113 to 130 degrees C. Most CPs for NSs were taken from the literature or measured on commercially available samples; eight CPs above 100 degrees C were measured on newly synthesized surfactants. Previously published linear equations correlating CP with p cover only NSs with p or = 100. It can be used for selecting specific NSs for high-temperature applications. The hydrophile-lipophile balance of the surfactant with p = p0 oxyethylene units, namely, HLB0, is a novel quantitative measure of the hydrophobicity of the hydrocarbon moiety of the relevant homologous NS series. Its value reflects the size, composition, and structure of the hydrocarbon moiety.

  2. Turnley Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facilities at this unit include cattle working pens, hydraulic squeeze chute and electronic scale, a maintenance building, and four hay storage sheds. There is one...

  3. Operable Units

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of operable unit data from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times and...

  4. Detector Unit

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Original detector unit of the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) BOL project. This detector unit shows that silicon detectors for nuclear physics particle detection were already developed and in use in the 1960's in Amsterdam. Also the idea of putting 'strips' onto the silicon for high spatial resolution of a particle's impact on the detector were implemented in the BOL project which used 64 of these detector units. The IKO BOL project with its silicon particle detectors was designed, built and operated from 1965 to roughly 1977. Detector Unit of the BOL project: These detectors, notably the ‘checkerboard detector’, were developed during the years 1964-1968 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, by the Natuurkundig Laboratorium of the N.V. Philips Gloeilampen Fabrieken. This was done in close collaboration with the Instituut voor Kernfysisch Onderzoek (IKO) where the read-out electronics for their use in the BOL Project was developed and produced.

  5. Genetic parameters between feed-intake-related traits and conformation in 2 separate dairy populations-the Netherlands and United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzanilla-Pech, C.I.V.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Tempelman, R.J.; Pelt, van M.L.; Weigel, K.A.; VandeHaar, M.; Lawlor, T.J.; Spurlock, D.M.; Armentano, L.E.; Staples, C.R.; Hanigan, M.; Haas, De Y.

    2016-01-01

    To include feed-intake-related traits in the breeding goal, accurate estimates of genetic parameters of feed intake, and its correlations with other related traits (i.e., production, conformation) are required to compare different options. However, the correlations between feed intake and

  6. Os Estados Unidos e as relações internacionais contemporâneas The United States in the present international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Ayerbe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo analisa a posição dos Estados Unidos nas relações internacionais pós-Guerra Fria, tomando como referência as controvérsias sobre os alcances e limites da sua postura hegemônica, que adquirem maior impulso a partir da formulação da chamada "doutrina Bush", sistematizada no documento "A Estratégia de Segurança Nacional dos EUA". No tratamento da temática proposta, enfatizam-se os seguintes aspectos: estabelecimento de um paralelo entre a transição dos séculos XIX-XX e XX-XXI, situando as características do imperialismo de cada época; uma análise da atual política externa dos Estados Unidos, enfocando o debate entre unilateralismo e multilateralismo, com destaque para as reações geradas pela intervenção no Iraque; uma discussão crítica das abordagens que visualizam na agenda de segurança da administração Bush um indicador de perda de hegemonia, que imporia a substituição da busca do consenso pela dominação aberta.This article analyzes the position of the United States in the post-Cold War world, considering as a reference the controversies on the extension and limits of its hegemonic posture, which acquires greater relevance after the formulation of the "Bush Doctrine", systematized in the document "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America". Our approach will lay emphasis on the following aspects: establishment of a parallel between the transition of the XIX-XX and XX-XXI centuries, from studies that point out the characteristics of imperialism at different times; an analysis of the current foreign policy of the United States, focusing on the debate between unilateralism and multilateralism, emphasizing the reactions caused by the intervention in Iraq; a critical argument of the approaches that visualize in the security agenda of the Bush administration an indicator of a loss of hegemony, which would impose open domination over the search of consensus.

  7. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-10-01

    In June 1982, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff (NRC staff or staff) issued a Safety Evaluation Report, NUREG-0847, regarding the application by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA or the applicant) for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2. Each of the following sections and appendices of this supplement is numbered the same as the section or appendix of the SER that is being updated, and the discussions are supplementary to, and not in lieu of, the discussion in the SER, unless otherwise noted. Accordingly, Appendix A continues the chronology of the safety review. Appendix E lists principal contributors to this supplement. Appendix FF is added in this supplement. The other appendices are not changed by this supplement.

  8. Civil liability, criminal law, and other policies and alcohol-related motor vehicle fatalities in the United States: 1984-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten-Goldstein, K; Sloan, F A; Stout, E; Liang, L

    2000-11-01

    This study examines the associations between alcohol policies and motor vehicle fatality rates from 1984 to 1995 in the United States. State policies and state characteristics variables were merged with motor vehicle fatality rates over an 11 year period and analyzed using minimum logit chi-square method and fixed effects to create a quasi time-series analysis. Laws allowing individuals to sue bars for the drunken behavior of their patrons were the policies most strongly associated with lower minor and adult fatality rates. The mandatory first offense fine was associated with lower minor fatality rates but not adult fatality rates, while minor and adult rates fell after administrative per se license suspension and anti-consumption laws for all vehicle occupants. Many other public policies evaluated were not associated with lower fatality rates.

  9. PSPs and ERPs: applying the dynamics of post-synaptic potentials to individual units in simulation of temporally extended Event-Related Potential reading data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Sarah; Armstrong, Blair C

    2014-05-01

    The Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) framework is built on neural-style computation, and is thus well-suited for simulating the neural implementation of cognition. However, relatively little cognitive modeling work has concerned neural measures, instead focusing on behavior. Here, we extend a PDP model of reading-related components in the Event-Related Potential (ERP) to simulation of the N400 repetition effect. We accomplish this by incorporating the dynamics of cortical post-synaptic potentials--the source of the ERP signal--into the model. Simulations demonstrate that application of these dynamics is critical for model elicitation of repetition effects in the time and frequency domains. We conclude that by advancing a neurocomputational understanding of repetition effects, we are able to posit an interpretation of their source that is both explicitly specified and mechanistically different from the well-accepted cognitive one.

  10. The Feto-Maternal Health Cost of Intimate Partner Violence Among Delivery-Related Discharges in the United States, 2002-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogos, Mulubrhan F; Araya, Winta N; Masho, Saba W; Salemi, Jason L; Shieh, Carol; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2016-02-01

    Our purpose was to estimate the national prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among delivery-related discharges and to investigate its association with adverse feto-maternal birth outcomes and delivery-related cost. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis of delivery-related hospital discharges from 2002 to 2009 was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS). We used ICD-9-CM codes to identify IPV, covariates, and outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between IPV and each outcome. Joinpoint regression was used for trend analysis. During the study period, 3,649 delivery-related discharges were diagnosed with IPV (11.2 per 100,000; 95% CI = [10.0, 12.4]). IPV diagnosis during delivery is associated with stillbirth (AOR = 4.12, 95% CI = [2.75, 6.17]), preterm birth (AOR = 1.97, 95% CI = [1.59, 2.44]), fetal death (AOR = 3.34, 95% CI = [1.99, 5.61]), infant with poor intrauterine growth (AOR = 1.55, 95% CI = [1.01, 2.40]), and increased inpatient hospital care cost (US$5,438.2 vs. US$4,080.1) per each discharge, incurring an additional cost of US$4,955,707 during the study period. IPV occurring during pregnancy has a significant health burden to both the mother and infant. Education about IPV; screening at periodic intervals, including during obstetric visits; and ongoing clinical care could help to reduce or eliminate adverse effects of pregnancy-related IPV. Preventing the lifelong consequences associated with IPV can have a positive effect on the overall health of all women and delivery-related health care cost. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. In the United States, negligible rates of zoonotic sarcocystosis occur in feral swine that, by contrast, frequently harbour infections with Sarcocystis miescheriana, a related parasite contracted from canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calero-Bernal, R; Verma, S K; Oliveira, S; Yang, Y; Rosenthal, B M; Dubey, J P

    2015-04-01

    Transmission of pathogens between domestic and wild life animals plays an important role in epidemiology. Feral pig populations are increasing and expanding in the USA, and may constitute a risk to non-biosecure domestic pig facilities by serving as reservoirs for pathogens. We surveyed, for Sarcocystis infection, the myocardium of 1006 feral pigs (Sus scrofa) trapped or hunted in 29 states during the Comprehensive Feral Swine Disease Surveillance Program of the USDA's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services unit during 2012-2014. Sarcocysts were detected in histological sections of 25% (251/1006) of myocardium with an average parasitic load/intensity of infection of 3.03 sarcocysts/section (1.5×0.7 cm), and higher prevalence of myocarditis in severe infections. Microscopic examination of pepsin digests of 147 hearts revealed a higher prevalence of Sarcocystis bradyzoites (49%, 72/147) than when diagnosed by histology. A fragment of Sarcocystis 18S rRNA was amplified and digested with a restriction endonuclease, revealing a pattern consistent with Sarcocystis miescheriana in all 44 selected samples. Sequencing 31 of these 44 isolates confirmed their correspondence to S. miescheriana. Thus, S. miescheriana infection, but not the zoonotic parasite Sarcocystis suihominis, appears to be prevalent and widespread in feral pigs in the USA.

  12. Risk factors for device-associated infection related to organisational characteristics of intensive care units: findings from the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Y G; Lee, S-O; Kim, H Y; Kim, Y K; Park, E S; Jin, H Y; Choi, H J; Jeong, S Y; Kim, E S; Ki, H K; Kim, S R; Lee, J Y; Hong, H K; Kim, S; Lee, Y S; Oh, H-B; Kim, J M

    2010-07-01

    Device-associated infections (DAIs) have been the major causes of morbidity and mortality of patients in intensive care units (ICUs). This study evaluated the risk factors for DAIs in ICUs. Ninety-six medical or surgical ICUs of 56 hospitals participated in the Korean Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System between July 2007 and June 2008. The occurrence of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CABSI), and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) were monitored and DAI rates were calculated. Data associated with ICU characteristics were collected and Poisson regression was used for statistical analysis. Rates of CAUTI, CABSI, and VAP were 3.87 per 1000 urinary catheter days, 2.23 per 1000 central line days, and 1.89 per 1000 mechanical ventilator days, respectively. Rates of CAUTI were higher in ICUs in Seoul (P=0.032) and ICUs of major teaching hospitals (P=0.010). The ICUs of university-affiliated hospitals showed lower CAUTI rates (P=0.013). CABSI rates were higher in Seoul (P=0.001) and in medical ICUs (P=0.026). VAP rates were lower in ICUs of hospitals with more than 900 beds compared with hospitals with 400-699 beds (P=0.026). VAP rates were higher in surgical ICUs (Pinfection control professional (P=0.003). The organisational and institutional characteristics of ICUs may influence DAI rates and there is a need for improvement in the incidence of VAP, CAUTI or CABSI.

  13. Variability of United States isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina based on simple sequence repeats and cross genus transferability to related genera within botryosphaeriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Richard E; Wadl, Phillip A; Allen, Thomas; McNeill, David; Wang, Xinwang; Moulton, John K; Rinehart, Timothy A; Abbas, Hamed K; Shier, Thomas; Trigiano, Robert N

    2010-09-01

    Twelve simple sequence repeat (SSRs) loci were used to evaluate genetic diversity of 109 isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina collected from different geographical regions and host species throughout the United States (US). Genetic diversity was assessed using Nei's minimum genetic distance, and the usefulness of each locus was determined by calculating the polymorphism information content (PIC). A total of 98 alleles were detected and of these 31 were unique to individual genotypes. Eight of twelve loci were highly informative with PIC values greater than 0.50. The majority of pairwise comparisons of genetic distance were greater than 0.60 indicating moderate to high genetic diversity. Dendrograms based on the genetic dissimilarities were created for the 109 isolates of which 79 were from soybean. Some clustering by host and geography was noted, but, the dendrograms generally grouped isolates independent of host or geography. Additionally, sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) for 10 isolates revealed that all of these isolates were 99% similar. Three SSR loci from M. phaseolina were cross amplified in other genera in the Botryosphaeriaceae. This was the first study of genotyping and assessing genetic diversity of M. phaseolina isolates collected from a widespread host and geographic range across the US with SSRs. With an additional 34 loci publically available for M. phaseolina, the results indicate that previously developed SSRs from one species can be used in future population, ecological, and genetic studies of M. phaseolina and other genera within the Botryosphaeriaceae.

  14. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). Supplement No. 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tam, P.S.

    1995-06-01

    This report supplements the Safety Evaluation Report (SER), NUREG-0847 (June 1982), Supplement No. 1 (September 1982), Supplement No. 2 (January 1984), Supplement No. 3 (January 1985), Supplement No. 4 (March 1985), Supplement No. 5 (November 1990), Supplement No. 6 (April 1991), Supplement No. 7 (September 1991), Supplement No. 8 (January 1992), Supplement No. 9 (June 1992), Supplement No. 10 (October 1992), Supplement No. 11 (April 1993), Supplement No. 12 (October 1993), Supplement No. 13 (April 1994), and Supplement No. 14 (December 1994) issued by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with respect to the application filed by the Tennessee Valley Authority, as applicant and owner, for licenses to operate the Watts Bar Nuclear Plant, Units 1 and 2 (Docket Nos. 50-390 and 50-391). The facility is located in Rhea County, Tennessee, near the Watts Bar Dam on the Tennessee River. This supplement provides recent information regarding resolution of some of the outstanding and confirmatory items, and proposed license conditions identified in the SER.

  15. Trauma history and psychopathology in war-affected refugee children referred for trauma-related mental health services in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S; Newnham, Elizabeth A; Layne, Christopher M; Kim, Soeun; Steinberg, Alan M; Ellis, Heidi; Birman, Dina

    2012-12-01

    There is an increasing need to deliver effective mental health services to refugee children and adolescents across the United States; however, the evidence base needed to guide the design and delivery of services is nascent. We investigated the trauma history profiles, psychopathology, and associated behavioral and functional indicators among war-affected refugee children presenting for psychological treatment. From the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's Core Data Set, 60 war-affected refugee children were identified (51.7% males, mean age = 13.1 years, SD = 4.13). Clinical assessments indicated high rates of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (30.4%), generalized anxiety (26.8%), somatization (26.8%), traumatic grief (21.4%), and general behavioral problems (21.4%). Exposure to war or political violence frequently co-occurred with forced displacement; traumatic loss; bereavement or separation; exposure to community violence; and exposure to domestic violence. Academic problems and behavioral difficulties were prevalent (53.6% and 44.6%, respectively); however, criminal activity, alcohol/drug use, and self-harm were rare (all < 5.45%). These findings highlight the complex trauma profiles, comorbid conditions, and functional problems that are important to consider in providing mental health interventions for refugee children and adolescents. Given the difficulties associated with access to mental health services for refugees, both preventive and community-based interventions within family, school, and peer systems hold particular promise.

  16. Regulatory approaches to obesity prevention: A systematic overview of current laws addressing diet-related risk factors in the European Union and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisnowski, Jana; Handsley, Elizabeth; Street, Jackie M

    2015-06-01

    High prevalence of overweight and obesity remains a significant international public health problem. Law has been identified as a tool for obesity prevention and selected high-profile measures have been reported. However, the nature and extent of enacted legislation internationally are unclear. This research provides an overview of regulatory approaches enacted in the United States, the European Union, and EU Member States since 2004. To this end, relevant databases of primary and secondary legislation were systematically searched to identify and explore laws addressing dietary risk factors for obesity. Across jurisdictions, current regulatory approaches to obesity prevention are limited in reach and scope. Target groups are rarely the general population, but instead sub-populations in government-supported settings. Consumer information provision is preferred over taxation and marketing restrictions other than the regulation of health and nutrition claims. In the EU in particular, product reformulation with industry consent has also emerged as a popular small-scale measure. While consistent and widespread use of law is lacking, governments have employed a range of regulatory measures in the name of obesity prevention, indicating that there is, in principle, political will. Results from this study may serve as a starting point for future research and policy development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Review of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection and HPV Vaccine-Related Attitudes and Sexual Behaviors among College-Aged Women in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Nop T.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV vaccine-related attitudes among college-aged women and the relationship between HPV vaccine uptake and subsequent sexual behaviors. Methods: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar searches were performed from 2006, the date after the first HPV vaccine became available, to…

  18. The Impact of Social Support on the Relation between Stress from Daily Life Issues and Depression among East Asian International Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hong-Ning

    2013-01-01

    Moderation effects of social support on the relation between stress resulting from five daily life issues (i.e., acculturation, second language, academic performance, interpersonal relationships, and financial concerns) and psychological distress (i.e., the level of depression) among China, South Korea, Taiwan, and Japan international students…

  19. Sexuality-Related Communication within the Family Context: Experiences of Bisexual Parents with Their Children in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Jessamyn; Dodge, Brian; Bartelt, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Although many self-identified bisexual individuals report having at least one child, bisexual parents' unique experiences, including sexuality-related communication with their children, have been largely absent from the parenting literature. We conducted in-depth interviews via telephone (or digital telephony such as voice over Internet protocol)…

  20. Relationship between community prevalence of obesity and associated behavioral factors and community rates of influenza-related hospitalizations in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charland, Katia M.; Buckeridge, David L.; Hoen, Anne G.; Berry, Jay G.; Elixhauser, Anne; Melton, Forrest; Brownstein, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Findings from studies examining the association between obesity and acute respiratory infection are inconsistent. Few studies have assessed the relationship between obesity-related behavioral factors, such as diet and exercise, and risk of acute respiratory infection. Objective To determi