WorldWideScience

Sample records for united states-canada border

  1. United States/Canada electricity exchanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The United States and Canada have been cooperating in all areas of energy exchange for many years. Electrical energy has been chosen to be the focus of this study because substantial means for exchanges offer benefits that have not yet been fully exploited. There may be some bilateral benefits from additional interconnections because of the buffers which they represent against domestic imbalances. After the history of the electricity exchanges between the two countries is reviewed, opportunities and incentives and obstacles and constraints are discussed in the next two chapters. The final chapter examines procedures to resolve obstacles and minimize constraints. (MCW)

  2. Toward a New Trilateral Strategic Security Relationship: United States, Canada, and Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Kilroy, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The term "perimeter defense" has come back into vogue recently, with regard to security strategies for North America. The United States' concern primarily with the terrorist threat to its homeland subsequent to September 11, 2001 (9/11 is generating this discussion with its immediate neighbors of Mexico and Canada (and to some extent some Caribbean nations—the "third border". The concept is simply that by pushing defenses out to the "perimeter" nations, then security will be enhanced, since the United States visions itself as more vulnerable to international terrorism than its neighbors. However, Canada and Mexico have not been very happy about the perimeter defined by Washington since 9/11. These nations have sought to define the trilateral relationship beyond just discussions of terrorism to include natural disasters and international organized crime as a component of a broader trilateral agenda. Eight years later these three nations continue to look for some convergence of security interests, although there remains a degree of tension and hesitancy towards achieving a "common security agenda" in the Western Hemisphere.This article examines the concept of "perimeter defense" within the context of the new security challenges that the United States, Mexico, and Canada face today. Questions to be addressed in the article include: Do all these nations share the same "threat" perception? Where exactly is the "perimeter?" What security arrangements have been tried in the past? What are the prospects for the future for increased security cooperation? The main focus of this article is at the sub-regional level in North America and whether a new "trilateral" strategic security relationship between the United States, Canada, and Mexico can emerge in North America.

  3. Communication Ethics in the Communication Curriculum: United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson-Lepper, Tammy; Leavitt, Michelle A.; Hoffer, Melba; Charron, Lori N.; Ballard, Robert L.; Bell McManus, Leeanne M.; Holba, Annette M.; Jovanovic, Spoma; Tompkins, Paula S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the status of communication ethics pedagogy at colleges and universities in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico. Data were collected from 193 institutions that responded to an online survey. Results showed an increase in communication ethics courses compared with 19 years ago, with 51% now offering a required or…

  4. Communication Ethics in the Communication Curriculum: United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson-Lepper, Tammy; Leavitt, Michelle A.; Hoffer, Melba; Charron, Lori N.; Ballard, Robert L.; Bell McManus, Leeanne M.; Holba, Annette M.; Jovanovic, Spoma; Tompkins, Paula S.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the status of communication ethics pedagogy at colleges and universities in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico. Data were collected from 193 institutions that responded to an online survey. Results showed an increase in communication ethics courses compared with 19 years ago, with 51% now offering a required or…

  5. Emergent patterns in the regulation of pharmaceuticals: institutions and interests in the United States, Canada, Britain, and France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorowicz, Mary E

    2003-08-01

    Although industrialized nations regulate pharmaceuticals to ensure their safety and efficacy, they balance these concerns with those related to the timeliness of the approval process and the burdens involved in meeting regulatory criteria. The United States, Canada, Britain, and France have adopted different approaches to the regulation of pharmaceuticals that place varying emphases on these competing goals and involve the participation of private interests to different extents. The regulatory approval processes and the government-industry relationships inherent within them are compared in the United States, Canada, Britain, and France by analyzing five features that distinguish the U.S. pluralist from the European corporatist approaches to policy development: representation (internal versus external), process (closed versus open), stance (informal, accommodative versus formal, adversarial), institutional power (fragmented versus centralized), and resources. An institutional framework further characterizes these approaches as based on models of managerial discretion and adjudication (United States), consultation (Canada), and bargaining (Britain, France) to clarify the patterns that emerge. While the approach that most effectively supports product safety involves managerial discretion as occurs in the United States, formal mechanisms for negotiation might be incorporated rather than a reliance on the judicial process. In an era of globalization and regulatory harmonization such divergence has significant implications. First, where harmonization in Europe involves the mutual recognition of one country's product licensing decision by the others, differences in evaluative processes remain important. Second, as harmonization leads to a common set of regulatory criteria, the criteria adopted tend to be those of nations with the least stringent regulatory standards, making evident the need for more responsive systems of post-market surveillance to protect the public

  6. United States-Canada Trade and Economic Relationship: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-10

    Engines/Turbines/ Power Transmission Equipment 4.8 (-13.2) Pharmaceutical/ Medicines 4.9 (37.0) Plastics Products 4.8 (5.6) Plastic Products 4.8...2003, a case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy ( BSE ) or ‘mad-cow’ disease was detected on an Alberta farm, which was quickly quarantined. During the...next three years another 10 cases of BSE would be found. Concerns about the food supply caused the United States, Mexico, Japan, and others to close

  7. Project North Star: Drug Interdiction at the United States-Canada Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-02

    diethylamide ( LSD ) and methamphetamine, commonly known as ’speed’. Over 8 million Americans are regular marijuana users, over four million regularly use...major U.S. cities.𔃺 Crack is a highly addictive drug made from cocaine base, popular because it is easily converted for smoking, brings rapid effects

  8. Public perceptions of climate change as a human health risk: surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Karen; Debono, Roberto; Berry, Peter; Leiserowitz, Anthony; Roser-Renouf, Connie; Clarke, Kaila-Lea; Rogaeva, Anastasia; Nisbet, Matthew C; Weathers, Melinda R; Maibach, Edward W

    2010-06-01

    We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%), their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%), and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76%) as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31%) said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45%) and children (33%) are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78-91%), heat-related problems (75-84%), cancer (61-90%), and infectious diseases (49-62%). Canadians also named sunburn (79%) and injuries from extreme weather events (73%), and Maltese cited allergies (84%). However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the salience of the

  9. Public Perceptions of Climate Change as a Human Health Risk: Surveys of the United States, Canada and Malta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Akerlof

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We used data from nationally representative surveys conducted in the United States, Canada and Malta between 2008 and 2009 to answer three questions: Does the public believe that climate change poses human health risks, and if so, are they seen as current or future risks? Whose health does the public think will be harmed? In what specific ways does the public believe climate change will harm human health? When asked directly about the potential impacts of climate change on health and well-being, a majority of people in all three nations said that it poses significant risks; moreover, about one third of Americans, one half of Canadians, and two-thirds of Maltese said that people are already being harmed. About a third or more of people in the United States and Canada saw themselves (United States, 32%; Canada, 67%, their family (United States, 35%; Canada, 46%, and people in their community (United States, 39%; Canada, 76% as being vulnerable to at least moderate harm from climate change. About one third of Maltese (31% said they were most concerned about the risk to themselves and their families. Many Canadians said that the elderly (45% and children (33% are at heightened risk of harm, while Americans were more likely to see people in developing countries as being at risk than people in their own nation. When prompted, large numbers of Canadians and Maltese said that climate change can cause respiratory problems (78–91%, heat-related problems (75–84%, cancer (61–90%, and infectious diseases (49–62%. Canadians also named sunburn (79% and injuries from extreme weather events (73%, and Maltese cited allergies (84%. However, climate change appears to lack salience as a health issue in all three countries: relatively few people answered open-ended questions in a manner that indicated clear top-of-mind associations between climate change and human health risks. We recommend mounting public health communication initiatives that increase the

  10. Motivation and Engagement in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and China: Testing a Multi-Dimensional Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Yu, Kai; Papworth, Brad; Ginns, Paul; Collie, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored motivation and engagement among North American (the United States and Canada; n = 1,540), U.K. (n = 1,558), Australian (n = 2,283), and Chinese (n = 3,753) secondary school students. Motivation and engagement were assessed via students' responses to the Motivation and Engagement Scale-High School (MES-HS). Confirmatory factor…

  11. Motivation and Engagement in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Australia, and China: Testing a Multi-Dimensional Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andrew J.; Yu, Kai; Papworth, Brad; Ginns, Paul; Collie, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    This study explored motivation and engagement among North American (the United States and Canada; n = 1,540), U.K. (n = 1,558), Australian (n = 2,283), and Chinese (n = 3,753) secondary school students. Motivation and engagement were assessed via students' responses to the Motivation and Engagement Scale-High School (MES-HS). Confirmatory…

  12. Comparrisson of MICs of ceftioufur and other antimicrobial agents against bacterial pathogens of swine from the United States, Canada and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salmon, S.A.; Watts, J.L.; Case, C.A.;

    1995-01-01

    The MICs of ceftiofur and other antimicrobial agents, tested for comparison, for 515 bacterial isolates of pigs from the United States, Canada, and Denmark with various diseases were compared. The organisms tested included Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida....../ml). However, this antimicrobial agent was much less active when it was tested against A. pleuropneumoniae, S. cholerae-suis, and E. coli (MIC(90)s, 16.0, >32.0, and >32.0 mu g/ml, respectively). Against the U.S. isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae and P. multocida, tilmicosin was moderately active (MIC(90)s, 4...

  13. Short hours, long hours: Hour levels and trends in the retail industry in the United States, Canada, and Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Carré, Françoise; Tilly, Chris

    2012-01-01

    In settings where most workers have full-time schedules, hourly wages are appropriate primary indicators of job quality and worker outcomes. However, in sectors where full-time schedules do not dominate - primarily service-producing activities - total hours matter, in addition to hourly wages, for job quality and worker outcomes. In this paper we employ a sector-focused, comparative framework to further examine hours levels - measured as average weekly hours - and trends in Canada, the United...

  14. Under oath: content analysis of oaths administered in ADA-Accredited Dental Schools in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Aaron B; Peterson, Erin M; Edelstein, Burton L

    2009-06-01

    This study reviews and analyzes the content of dental school oaths taken by students in the United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico in 2006. Each oath was qualitatively reviewed to determine its consistency with each of the five principles set forth in the American Dental Association (ADA)'s Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct. Fifty-eight oaths were received from sixty-one of sixty-six schools in response to information requests regarding use of oaths and manner of administration. Of these, thirty-nine employ one oath, administered at either graduation or ceremonies marking transition to clinical training; twelve employ an oath at both occasions, with five repeating the same oath; and ten have no formal oaths. Eighteen oaths follow the wording of "The Dentist's Pledge," nine follow the "Oath to the Profession/Professional Pledge," three follow the Modern Hippocratic Oath, and twenty-eight are idiosyncratic. All five of the ADA principles (autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, justice, and veracity) are addressed in thirteen oaths, four principles in nine oaths, and three or fewer principles in thirty-six oaths. Eleven make reference to care for the underserved. As oath-taking is an opportunity to instill and reinforce to students dentistry's most important ethical obligations, recommendations are offered to make the content more meaningful and comprehensive.

  15. Attitudes and Practices of Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Suicide in the United States, Canada, and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, Bregje D; Urwin, John W; Cohen, Joachim

    2016-07-05

    The increasing legalization of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide worldwide makes it important to understand related attitudes and practices. To review the legal status of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide and the available data on attitudes and practices. Polling data and published surveys of the public and physicians, official state and country databases, interview studies with physicians, and death certificate studies (the Netherlands and Belgium) were reviewed for the period 1947 to 2016. Currently, euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide can be legally practiced in the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, Colombia, and Canada (Quebec since 2014, nationally as of June 2016). Physician-assisted suicide, excluding euthanasia, is legal in 5 US states (Oregon, Washington, Montana, Vermont, and California) and Switzerland. Public support for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the United States has plateaued since the 1990s (range, 47%-69%). In Western Europe, an increasing and strong public support for euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide has been reported; in Central and Eastern Europe, support is decreasing. In the United States, less than 20% of physicians report having received requests for euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide, and 5% or less have complied. In Oregon and Washington state, less than 1% of licensed physicians write prescriptions for physician-assisted suicide per year. In the Netherlands and Belgium, about half or more of physicians reported ever having received a request; 60% of Dutch physicians have ever granted such requests. Between 0.3% to 4.6% of all deaths are reported as euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide in jurisdictions where they are legal. The frequency of these deaths increased after legalization. More than 70% of cases involved patients with cancer. Typical patients are older, white, and well-educated. Pain is mostly not reported as the primary motivation. A large portion of patients receiving

  16. 美国、加拿大与澳大利亚的卫生技术评估%Health Technology Assessment in United States, Canada and Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文煜; 薛迪

    2011-01-01

    以美国、加拿大和澳大利亚为例,回顾了卫生技术评估发展历史、体系结构、参与各方以及对于卫生政策的影响.其对我国卫生技术评估的发展提供了可借鉴的经验.%The United States is historically the first to conduct health technology assessment ( HTA ), and Canada and Australia is the one who performs outstanding HTA in the world. The paper presented the histories of HTA in three countries and their system structures, interest parties and impacts on health policy, which provided inspirations to HTA development in China.

  17. What do we learn from emissions reporting? Analytical considerations and comparison of pollutant release and transfer registers in the United States, Canada, England, and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerret, Dorit; Gray, George M

    2007-02-01

    Pollutant release and transfer registers (PRTRs) are becoming a popular measure for addressing industrial pollution in many countries. PRTRs require reporting of emissions from specific industrial sectors and making the information publicly available. This article suggests a framework for comparing PRTRs in order to determine whether they attain their declared goals and which factors, if any, influence their effectiveness. The challenges to such a comparison can be divided into three groups. The first refers to changes that are directly linked to the characteristics of PRTRs: both the changes within a specific system over time and variations among different systems. The second refers to parameters that affect the outcomes of the systems without being directly a part of them. The third involves the relations between the emissions reported to the PRTRs and the associated environmental risk. We suggest an approach that relies on relative comparison, commensurate with the unique characteristics of each PRTR, that compares their actual outcomes. Such an approach is necessary both due to significant variations among current PRTRs as well as for following the unique policy objectives that are manifested in different PRTRs. Application of this comparative approach in the United States, England, Canada, and Australia demonstrates significant differences in PRTR systems across countries and suggests that the mere presence of a PRTR may not lead to reduced industrial emissions. The analysis also demonstrates that emission reductions do not correlate with reductions in risk-related measures. The article proposes several simple modifications to the composition of current PRTR databases that may facilitate more accurate analysis of results and effective oversight of implementation.

  18. Initiatives of cross-border regional planning in Matamoros-Brownsville (Mexico-United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Oliveras González

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-border regional planning is a recent phenomenon, which its first initiatives date back to 1960s. Currently some experiences have been conducted, most of them in Europe. The weak development of this phenomenon lies on the obstacles and limitations that it has to deal with. Those obstacles derive from the asymmetries between the political and administrative systems, urban and spatial policies, land planning and land uses, etc. on each side of an international border. In a great extent, cross-border planning has been theoretically approached from an institutional construction perspective. However, in this research it has been adopted the symbolic regional construction perspective that allows to analyze cross-border regional planning through spatial imaginaries. In this sense, crossborder planning is understood as a result of the interaction between regional actors and the social constructed values and meanings (geographical, cultural, social, economic, historical, etc. given to border and cross-border regions. This investigation pursues, in first place, to determine the spatial imaginaries on which cross-border planning is constructed and, at the same time, the spatial imaginaries that cross-border planning reproduces; in second place, to determine in which way cross-border planning contributes to deactivate the border (deborder or, on the contrary, to reproduce and reinforce the spatial differentiation process (the process by which two contiguous national or bordered spaces build spatial discontinuities as a way to distinguish of each other. To achieve these objectives, it has been conducted a content analysis based on the documentation of the spatial and urban planning and of the cross-border initiatives from a case study area; a direct observation of an ongoing cross-border initiative; and interviews to key informants (planning agencies and other organizations related to cross-border initiatives. In the Mexico-United States border region

  19. Borders and border representations: Comparative approximations among the United States and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Cueva Perus

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article uses a comparative approach regarding frontier symbols and myths among the United States, Latin America and the Caribbean. Although wars fought over frontiers have greatly diminished throughout the world, the conception of frontier still held by the United States is that of a nationalist myth which embodies a semi-religious faith in the free market and democracy. On the other hand, Latin American and Caribbean countries, whose frontiers are far more complex, have shown extraordinary stability for several decades. This paper points out the risks involved in the spread of United States´ notions of frontier which, in addition, go hand-in-hand with the problem of multicultural segmentation. Although Latin American and Caribbean frontiers may be stable, they are vulnerable to the infiltration of foreing frontier representations.

  20. Systems-Based Aspects in the Training of IMG or Previously Trained Residents: Comparison of Psychiatry Residency Training in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, India, and Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Gaurav; Mazhar, Mir Nadeem; Uga, Aghaegbulam; Punwani, Manisha; Broquet, Karen E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: International medical graduates (IMGs) account for a significant proportion of residents in psychiatric training in the United States. Many IMGs may have previously completed psychiatry residency training in other countries. Their experiences may improve our system. Authors compared and contrasted psychiatry residency training in the…

  1. Forecasting urban growth across the United States-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Feller, M.; Phillip, Guertin D.

    2009-01-01

    The sister-city area of Nogales, Arizona, and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, is known collectively as Ambos (both) Nogales. This area was historically one city and was administratively divided by the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. These arid-lands have limited and sensitive natural resources. Environmental planning can support sustainable development to accommodate the predicted influx of population. The objective of this research is to quantify the amount of predicted urban growth for the Ambos Nogales watershed to support future planning for sustainable development. Two modeling regimes are explored. Our goal is to identify possible growth patterns associated with the twin-city area as a whole and with the two cities modeled as separate entities. We analyzed the cross-border watershed using regression analysis from satellite images from 1975, 1983, 1996, and 2002 and created urban area classifications. We used these classifications as input to the urban growth model, SLEUTH, to simulate likely patterns of development and define projected conversion probabilities. Model results indicate that the two cities are undergoing very different patterns of change and identify locations of expected growth based on historical development. Growth in Nogales, Arizona is stagnant while the urban area in Nogales, Sonora is exploding. This paper demonstrates an application that portrays how future binational urban growth could develop and affect the environment. This research also provides locations of potential growth for use in city planning.

  2. Border Crossings: Undocumented Migration between Mexico and the United States in Contemporary Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Amy

    2013-01-01

    This study identifies patterns in 11 English language young adult novels from the past three decades (1981-2011) which depict undocumented migration between Mexico and the United States. The increase in YA novels on this topic demonstrates rising public concern. These books offer sympathetic identification with border crossing youth. Eight of the…

  3. Adolescent Worlds and Literacy Practices on the United States-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Piedra, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    This article presents partial results of an ethnographic study about literacy practices among adolescents living near the United States-Mexico border. The students became involved in literacy practices with their friends and family at home. These practices were related to the adolescents' interests in popular culture such as reading magazines or…

  4. CHIPS: Monitoring Colonias along the United States-Mexico border in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.

    2008-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. The expansion of colonias in the United States-Mexico border region can be traced to the rapid growth associated with the Mexican Border Industrial Program during the 1960s. This rapid population growth created a lack of affordable housing, causing new migrants in the United States to purchase rural homestead lots through a contract-for-deed program from land developers. Because of the need to keep prices affordable and the absence of effective land-use controls, these homesteads expanded into rural subdivisions, commonly called colonias, without proper infrastructure. Colonias have been identified in the four U.S. border states, with Texas having designated the majority, which numbered over 1,400 colonias in 2001. Because the region is binationally interconnected economically, politically, and socially, the phenomenon of colonias in the United States is a transborder issue.

  5. Topographical features of physiographic unit borders on reef flat in fringing reefs

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, Tatsuo

    2007-01-01

    In coral reef ecosystem spatial structure of 10^1-10^3m scale provide very important aspect in coral reef conservation. Nakai (2007) showed that physiographic unit (PGU) could be set as well as zonation on reef flat of fringing reef. The borders of PGUs delimiting it from the open sea or an adjacent PGU are constituted by landforms such as reef crest or channels. In this article the landforms becoming the borders of PGUs were discussed and the PGU property was clarified.

  6. The Securitization of Migration: An Analysis of United States Border Security and Migration Policy Toward Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    efforts directed at the border have been superficial in nature, caused by political demand to “take action” without creating an economic disturbance...33 Buzan et al., Security, 25. 14 expand to the Pacific Ocean. Tensions between Mexico and the United States eventually evolved into...docview /508809004?accountid=12702 Woodbury, Richard and Agua Prieta. “Danger And Alarm On A New Alien Gateway.” Time, September 27, 1999. http

  7. Children's mental health and collective violence: a binational study on the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiner, Marie; Puertas, Hector; Caratachea, Raúl; Avila, Carmen; Atluru, Aparna; Briones, David; Vargas, Cecilia de

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the risk effects of poverty and exposure to collective violence attributed to organized crime on the mental health of children living on the United States-Mexico border. A repeated, cross-sectional study measured risk effects by comparing scores of psychosocial and behavioral problems among children and adolescents living on the border in the United States or Mexico in 2007 and 2010. Patients living in poverty who responded once to the Pictorial Child Behavior Checklist (P+CBCL) in Spanish were randomly selected from clinics in El Paso, Texas, United States (poverty alone group), and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico (poverty plus violence group). Only children of Hispanic origin (Mexican-American or Mexican) living below the poverty level and presenting at the clinic for nonemergency visits with no history of diagnosed mental, neurological, or life-threatening disease or disability were included. Exposure to collective violence and poverty seemed to have an additive effect on children's mental health. Children exposed to both poverty and collective violence had higher problem scores, as measured by the P+CBCL, than those exposed to poverty alone. It is important to consider that children and adolescents exposed to collective violence and poverty also have fewer chances to receive treatment. Untreated mental health problems predict violence, antisocial behaviors, and delinquency and affect families, communities, and individuals. It is crucial to address the mental health of children on the border to counteract the devastating effects this setting will have in the short term and the near future.

  8. Mobile surveillance units (MSU) for border protection of the enlarged economic union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandon, Christopher

    2004-12-01

    During the last 12 years the European Union (EU) has financed the new member applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe in their preparation for joining the EU. Based on this enlargement of the EU, funding for Cross Border Protection has been made available from the overall infrastructure improvement budget. Border protection was required in areas where border conflicts had taken place and to limit Illegal Immigration (II) and smuggling. After 9/11/2001, defence against terrorist activities will no doubt be added to the requirement. This paper describes the approach taken in the design of the latest "containerised" police and para military Mobile Surveillance Units (MSUs). This approach may also be considered for Homeland Security initiatives. These MSU's utilise standard road vehicles, and off-road variants, converted to use high performance military thermal imagers, such as SiGMA. In future the current, in service, MSUs will require increased sensor integration and networking to cover land and coastal borders. The underlying key is affordability for the police and para-military markets whilst retaining the highest performance derived from the latest SFPA military standard thermal imagers.

  9. Population-based survey of taeniasis along the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton Behravesh, C; Mayberry, L F; Bristol, J R; Cardenas, V M; Mena, K D; Martínez-Ocaña, J; Flisser, A; Snowden, K F

    2008-06-01

    Taenia solium and T. saginata are zoonotic tapeworms of substantial medical and economic importance. Although human taeniasis is widely recognised as an endemic problem in Mexico, its presence in the United States is poorly understood. The first population-based study to estimate the prevalence of human infection with Taenia tapeworms along the Texas-Mexico border has recently been conducted. Households were interviewed in the Texan city of El Paso and in the neighbouring Ciudad Juárez, in Mexico. Faecal samples from household members were then checked for Taenia eggs by flotation and/or for Taenia copro-antigens in an ELISA. The overall prevalence of taeniasis in this border region was found to be 3% but, compared with the residents of Juárez, El Paso residents were 8.6-fold more likely to be tapeworm carriers. The interviews revealed some important differences between the two study sites, particularly the more frequent use of anthelminthic drugs on the Mexican side of the border. These findings have implications in terms of the planning of effective health-education campaigns to decrease the prevalence of taeniasis in the human populations along the Texas-Mexico border.

  10. United States-Mexico border crossing: experiences and risk perceptions of undocumented male immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLuca, Lawrence A; McEwen, Marylyn M; Keim, Samuel M

    2010-02-01

    Undocumented immigrants crossing the US-Mexico border face many hazards as they attempt to enter the United States, including heat and cold injury, dehydration, and wild animal encounters. In the Tucson sector of the US-Mexico border, there are over 100 deaths a year from heat-related injuries alone. Public awareness campaigns have been undertaken to disseminate information on the dangers inherent in crossing. Little is known, however, about the ways in which undocumented immigrants actually receive information regarding the risks of crossing the border, how such information impacts their preparation for crossing or how the journey itself effects their motivation to cross again in the future. A qualitative descriptive method was used to describe and analyze information from adult males who had attempted to illegally cross the US-Mexico Border and had recently been returned to Mexico. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, and responses were classified into several broad themes. Interviews were conducted and analyzed iteratively until thematic saturation was achieved. The responses validated the established risks as being commonplace. A total of eight (8) male undocumented immigrants participated in the interviews. Individuals sought information prior to crossing from the media, their families and friends, and acquaintances in border towns. They did not appear to value any particular information source over any other. New areas of risk were identified, such as traveling with others who might have new or existing medical problems. There was also substantial concern for the family unit as both a source of inspiration and motivation. The family emerged as an additional at-risk unit due to the destabilization and financial strain of having one of its members leave to attempt to immigrate to the US for work. While many planned to cross again, the majority of the men in our sample had no intention of seeking permanent residence in the US, instead planning to work and

  11. Cervical cancer incidence in the United States in the US-Mexico border region, 1998-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Richards, Thomas B; Nasseri, Kiumarss; Weiss, Nancy S; Wiggins, Charles L; Saraiya, Mona; Stinchcomb, David G; Vensor, Veronica M; Nielson, Carrie M

    2008-11-15

    Cervical cancer mortality rates have declined in the United States, primarily because of Papanicolaou testing. However, limited information is available about the incidence of the disease in the US-Mexico border region, where some of the poorest counties in the United States are located. This study was undertaken to help compare the patterns of cervical cancer incidence among women in the US-Mexico border region and other parts of the United States. Age-adjusted cervical cancer incidence rates for border counties in the states bordering Mexico (California, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas) for the years 1998 to 2003 were compared with the rates for nonborder counties of the border states and with those of nonborder states. Differences were examined by age, race, ethnicity, rural residence, educational attainment, poverty, migration, stage of disease, and histology. Overall, Hispanic women had almost twice the cervical cancer incidence of non-Hispanic women in border counties, and Hispanic women in the border states had higher rates than did non-Hispanic women in nonborder states. In contrast, cervical cancer incidence rates among black women in the border counties were lower than those among black women in the nonborder states. Among white women, however, incidence rates were higher among those in nonborder states. Differences in cervical cancer incidence rates by geographic locality were also evident by age, urban/rural residence, migration from outside the United States, and stage of disease. Disparities in cervical cancer incidence in the US-Mexico border counties, when the incidence is compared with that of other counties and geographic regions, are evident. Of particular concern are the higher rates of late-stage cervical cancer diagnosed among women in the border states, especially because such cervical cancer is preventable.

  12. Characterizing tuberculosis genotype clusters along the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B J; Moonan, P K

    2014-03-01

    We examined the growth of tuberculosis (TB) genotype clusters during 2005-2010 in the United States, categorized by country of origin and ethnicity of the index case and geographic proximity to the US-Mexico border at the time of TB diagnosis. Nationwide, 38.9% of cases subsequent to Mexico-born index cases were US-born. Among clusters following US-born Hispanic and US-born non-Hispanic index cases, respectively 29.2% and 5.3% of subsequent cluster members were Mexico-born. In border areas, the majority of subsequent cases were Mexico-born following US-born Hispanic (56.4%) and US-born non-Hispanic (55.6%) index cases. These findings suggest that TB transmission commonly occurs between US-born and Mexico-born persons. Along the US-Mexico border, prioritizing TB genotype clusters following US-born index cases for investigation may prevent subsequent cases among both US-born and Mexico-born persons.

  13. Acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits among Hispanics in United States-Mexico border communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Suad; Brown, Cynthia J; Pagán, José A; Díaz, Violeta

    2010-09-01

    To explore the relationship between acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits in the largely Hispanic populations living in underserved communities in the United States of America along the U.S.-Mexico border. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2006 to June 2008 using survey data from the Alliance for a Healthy Border, a program designed to reduce health disparities in the U.S.-Mexico border region by funding nutrition and physical activity education programs at 12 federally qualified community health centers in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas. The survey included questions on acculturation, diet, exercise, and demographic factors and was completed by 2,381 Alliance program participants, of whom 95.3% were Hispanic and 45.4% were under the U.S. poverty level for 2007. Chi-square (χ2) and Student's t tests were used for bivariate comparisons between acculturation and dietary and physical activity measures. Linear regression and binary logistic regression were used to control for factors associated with nutrition and exercise. Based on univariate tests and confirmed by regression analysis controlling for sociodemographic and health variables, less acculturated survey respondents reported a significantly higher frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and healthier dietary habits than those who were more acculturated. Adjusted binary logistic regression confirmed that individuals with low language acculturation were less likely to engage in physical activity than those with moderate to high acculturation (odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.59-0.95). Findings confirmed an association between acculturation and healthy lifestyle habits and supported the hypothesis that acculturation in border community populations tends to decrease the practice of some healthy dietary habits while increasing exposure to and awareness of the importance of other healthy behaviors.

  14. Diabetes among Latinos in the Southwestern United States: border health and binational cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Ryan P; Rouff, Mark A; Jauregui-Covarrubias, Lorena

    2014-12-01

    This analysis reviews cooperation between the four border states of the United States of America (Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas) and international partners in Mexico with regard to type 2 diabetes among Latinos. Binational cooperation, academic collaboration, preventative health initiatives, and efforts to improve health care access for the border population are highlighted. This meta-analysis of the literature points out causative factors of the increased type 2 diabetes prevalence among Latinos in the United States; an inverse correlation between diabetes and education and socioeconomic level; contributing factors, including barriers with language, health care payment, transportation, and underestimating diabetes implications; and a lack of social and environmental support for disease management. Medical and indirect costs in socioeconomic terms are also included. Cooperation between the United States and Mexico may be beneficial to promoting further collaborative efforts between these nations, and serve as a template for greater cooperative efforts to mitigate the substantial public health and socioeconomic implications of type 2 diabetes globally.

  15. Increasing cervical cancer screening in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Beti; Vilchis, Hugo; Moran, Crystal; Copeland, Wade; Holte, Sarah; Duggan, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Hispanic women living on the United States-México border experience health disparities, are less likely to access cervical cancer screening services, and have a higher rate of cervical cancer incidence compared to women living in nonborder areas. Here we investigate the effects of an intervention delivered by community health workers (CHWs, known as lay health educators or Promotores de Salud in Spanish) on rates of cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women who were out of compliance with recommended screening guidelines. Hispanic women out of compliance with screening guidelines, attending clinics in southern New Mexico, were identified using medical record review. All eligible women were offered the intervention. The study was conducted between 2009 and 2011, and data were analyzed in 2012. Setting/participants--162 Hispanic women, resident in New Mexico border counties, aged 29-80 years, who had not had a Pap test within the past 3 years. Intervention--a CHW-led, culturally appropriate, computerized education intervention. Main outcome measures--the percentage of women who underwent cervical cancer screening within 12 months of receiving the intervention. Change in knowledge of, and attitudes toward cervical cancer and screening as assessed by a baseline and follow-up questionnaire. 76.5% of women had a Pap test after the intervention. Women displayed increased knowledge about cervical cancer screening and about HPV. A culturally appropriate promotora-led intervention is successful in increasing cervical cancer screening in at-risk Hispanic women on the United States-México border. © 2013 National Rural Health Association.

  16. CHIPS: A New Way to Monitor Colonias Along the United States-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Humberson, Delbert G.

    2007-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border settlements in the United States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. Colonia residents live in poverty and lack adequate health care, potable water, and sanitation systems. These conditions create substantial health risks for colonias and surrounding communities. By 2001, more than 1,400 colonias were identified in Texas. Cooperation with the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Offices of the Texas Attorney General, Secretary of State, and the Texas Water Development Board has allowed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to improve colonia Geographic Information System (GIS) boundaries and develop the Colonia Health, Infrastructure, and Platting Status tool (CHIPS). Together, the GIS boundaries and CHIPS aid the Texas government in prioritizing the limited funds that are available for infrastructure improvement. CHIPS's report generator can be tailored to the needs of the user, providing either broad or specific output. For example, a congressman could use CHIPS to list colonias with wastewater issues in a specific county, whereas a health researcher could list all colonias without clinical access. To help cities along the United States-Mexico border manage issues related to colonias growth, CHIPS will become publicly available in an Internet-enabled GIS as part of a cooperative study between the USGS, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Mexican Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografia e Informatica.

  17. Student perception about working in rural United States/Canada after graduation: a study in an offshore Caribbean medical school [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/4vz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Ravi Shankar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rural residents of the United States (US and Canada face problems in accessing healthcare. International medical graduates (IMGs play an important role in delivering rural healthcare. IMGs from Caribbean medical schools have the highest proportion of physicians in primary care.  Xavier University School of Medicines admits students from the US, Canada and other countries to the undergraduate medical (MD course and also offers a premedical program. The present study was conducted to obtain student perception about working in rural US/Canada after graduation.   Methods: The study was conducted among premedical and preclinical undergraduate medical (MD students during October 2014. The questionnaire used was modified from a previous study. Semester of study, gender, nationality, place of residence and occupation of parents were noted. Information about whether students plan to work in rural US/Canada after graduation, possible reasons why doctors are reluctant to work in rural areas, how the government can encourage rural practice, possible problems respondents anticipate while working in rural areas were among the topics studied. Results: Ninety nine of the 108 students (91.7% participated. Forty respondents were in favor of working in rural US/Canada after graduation. Respondents mentioned good housing, regular electricity, water supply, telecommunication facilities, and schools for education of children as important conditions to be fulfilled. The government should provide higher salaries to rural doctors, help with loan repayment, and provide opportunities for professional growth.  Potential problems mentioned were difficulty in being accepted by the rural community, problems in convincing patients to follow medical advice, lack of exposure to rural life among the respondents, and cultural issues. Conclusions: About 40% of respondents would consider working in rural US/Canada. Conditions required to be fulfilled have been

  18. The United States-Mexican Border - A land of conflict and opportunity: Chapter 1 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.

    2013-01-01

    The boundary between the United States and Mexico was created for convenient expediency through political debate and agreements (fig. 1–1). With the exception of the eastern segment of the border, which follows the course of the Rio Grande (known as the Rio Bravo in Mexico), the defining of this border was based on political decisions that had little concern for ecosystems, geologic features, or water—all of which span that imaginary line. However, the location of the border has had a remarkable effect on the biologic and physical systems in the border region and, in turn, has had a growing influence on what we now see as 21st century socioeconomic and environmental priorities. Because of the complex interactions of the human, ecological, political, and economic exigencies associated with this area, the status of the United States–Mexican border region, known as the Borderlands, has become an ever-present concern for most American citizens and for Mexican and United States Federal, State, and local governments.

  19. Description of a propulsion unit used in guiding a walking machine by recognizing a three-point bordered path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Altamirano, Diego A.; Juárez-Campos, Ignacio; Márquez-Pérez, Lucia; Flores-Díaz, Ociel

    2016-08-01

    A reconfigurable propulsion unit based on the Peaucellier-Lipkin mechanism has the ability to describe exact straight or curved paths depending on the selected ratio between the lengths of two of its links. The Peaucellier-Lipkin mechanism with one degree of freedom is transformed into a more sophisticated parallel kinematic chain by including four more degrees of freedom. The resulting propulsion unit is able to adapt its kinematic structure and reach instant centers of rotation, in accordance with the presence of three points that border a geometric path. A laser sensor mounted on the body of the machine detects each point. Once the machine has detected the exact location of the border of the road, it walks along a curve parallel to that border. Although the proposed research describes only one propulsion unit or leg, the methodology can be applied to all the legs of the walking machine. The novel 5-DOF leg is able to reach different centers of rotation, providing either the concave or convex arcs that satisfy the basic principle of displacement of walking machines.

  20. Blood pressure control, hypertension, awareness, and treatment in adults with diabetes in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Maya; He, Guozhong; Stoddard, Pamela; Schillinger, Dean

    2010-09-01

    To determine prevalence of blood pressure control, hypertension, hypertension awareness, and antihypertensive treatment among adults (> 18 years old) with diabetes living in the border region between the United States of America and Mexico, and to explore variation in those variables between all adults on the Mexican side of the border ("Mexicans") and three groups on the U.S. side of the border ("all U.S. adults," "U.S.-born Hispanics," and "Mexican immigrants"). Using data from Phase I (February 2001-October 2002) of the U.S.-Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control Project, a prevalence study of type 2 diabetes and its risk factors, age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension-related variables was calculated for the sample (n = 682) and differences between the border groups were examined through logistic regression. Less than one-third of the sample had controlled blood pressure (hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg), and hypertension awareness and treatment were inadequate. After adjusting for demographics, body mass index, and access to health care, there were no differences in blood pressure control, hypertension, hypertension awareness, or treatment between Mexicans and both U.S. adults and Mexican immigrants. However, compared to Mexicans and Mexican immigrants, U.S.-born Hispanics, particularly younger individuals, had the lowest rates of blood pressure control (17.3%) and the highest rates of coexisting hypertension (54.8%). Compared to Mexicans, U.S.-born Hispanics had lower odds of controlled blood pressure (odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.95) and greater odds of hypertension (OR 3.75, 95% CI 1.51-9.29) and hypertension awareness (OR 6.19, 95% CI 1.46-26.15). Co-occurrence of diabetes and hypertension is a major public health problem among U.S.-Mexico border residents. The low rate of blood pressure control among various border groups, especially younger U.S.-born Hispanics, suggests that initiatives should aggressively target blood

  1. Using GIS to assess priorities of infrastructure and health needs of colonias along the United States-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, J.W.; Humberson, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Colonias, which are unincorporated border setdements in the United. States, have emerged in rural areas without the governance and services normally provided by local government. Colonia residents live in poverty and lack adequate health care, potable water, and sanitation systems. These conditions create substantial health risks for themselves and surrounding communities. By 2001, more than 1,400 colonias were identified in Texas. Cooperation with several Federal and Texas state agencies has allowed the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to improve colonia Geographic Information System (GIS) boundaries and develop the Colonia Health, Infrastructure, and Platting Status tool (CHIPS). Together, the GIS boundaries and CHIPS aid the Texas government in prioritizing the limited funds that are available for infrastructure improvement. CHIPS's report: generator can be tailored, to the needs of the user, providing either broad or specific output. CHIPS is publicly available on the U.S. Geological Survey Border Environmental Health Initiative website at http://borderhealth.cr. usgs.gov.

  2. Preliminary United States-Mexico border watershed analysis, twin cities area of Nogales, Arizona and Nogales, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Laura Margaret; Gray, Floyd; Castaneda, Mario; Bultman, Mark; Bolm, Karen Sue

    2002-01-01

    The United States - Mexico border area faces the challenge of integrating aspects of its binational physical boundaries to form a unified or, at least, compatible natural resource management plan. Specified geospatial components such as stream drainages, mineral occurrences, vegetation, wildlife, and land-use can be analyzed in terms of their overlapping impacts upon one another. Watersheds have been utilized as a basic unit in resource analysis because they contain components that are interrelated and can be viewed as a single interactive ecological system. In developing and analyzing critical regional natural resource databases, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other federal and non-governmental agencies have adopted a ?watershed by watershed? approach to dealing with such complicated issues as ecosystem health, natural resource use, urban growth, and pollutant transport within hydrologic systems. These watersheds can facilitate the delineation of both large scale and locally important hydrologic systems and urban management parameters necessary for sustainable, diversified land-use. The twin border cities area of Nogales, Sonora and Nogales, Arizona, provide the ideal setting to demonstrate the utility and application of a complete, cross-border, geographic information systems (GIS) based, watershed analysis in the characterization of a wide range of natural resource as well as urban features and their interactions. In addition to the delineation of a unified, cross-border watershed, the database contains sewer/water line locations and status, well locations, geology, hydrology, topography, soils, geomorphology, and vegetation data, as well as remotely sensed imagery. This report is preliminary and part of an ongoing project to develop a GIS database that will be widely accessible to the general public, researchers, and the local land management community with a broad range of application and utility.

  3. Deterring Cybertrespass and Securing Cyberspace: Lessons from United States Border Control Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    literature about border controls. Drawing on a rich literature, including case studies of successful and un- successful attempts at securing the Southern...ndupress.ndu.edu/ Media /News/NewsArticleView/tabid/7849/ Article/581864/jfq-77-rethinking-the-cyber-domain-and-deterrence. aspx, accessed August 11, 2015. 21

  4. Border Talk: Narratives of Spanish Language Encounters in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Anne; Schwartz, Adam

    2011-01-01

    US foreign language education is often presented as an opportunity to foster intercultural communication; yet, curricula frequently build borders between an English-speaking "we" and a non-English-speaking "they". Little is known, however, about how language students make sense of their changing linguistic identities as they encounter users of the…

  5. Indirect Transportation Cost in the border crossing process: The United States–Mexico trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Obed Figueroa Ortiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a Social Accounting Matrix as database, a Computable General Equilibrium model is implemented in order to estimate the Indirect Transportations Costs (ITC present in the border crossing for the U.S.–Mexico bilateral trade. Here, an “iceberg–type” transportation function is assumed to determine the amount of loss that must be faced as a result of border crossing process through the ports of entry existing between the two countries. The study period covers annual data from 1995 to 2009 allowing the analysis of the trend of these costs considering the trade liberalisation that is experienced. Results show that the ITC have experienced a decrease of 12% during the period.Test

  6. Trans-border (east Serbia/west Bulgaria correlation of the Jurassic sediments: Main Jurassic paleogeographic units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchoumatchenco Platon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the region across the Serbian/Bulgarian state border, there are individualized 5 Jurassic paleogeographic units (from West to East: (1 the Thracian Massif Unit without Jurassic sediments; (2 the Lužnica-Koniavo Unit - partially with Liassic in Grsten facies and with deep water Middle Callovian-Kimmeridgian (p. p sediments of the type "ammonitico rosso", and Upper Kimmeridgian-Tithonian siliciclastics flysch; (3 The Getic Unit subdivided into two subunits - the Western Getic Sub-Uni - without Lower Jurassic sediments and the Eastern Getic Sub-Unit with Lower Jurassic continental and marine sediments, which are followed in both sub-units by carbonate platform limestones (type Stramberk; (4 the Infra (Sub-Getic Unit - with relatively deep water Liassic and Dogger sediments (the Dogger of type "black shales with Bossitra alpine" and Middle Callovian-Tithonian of type "ammonitico rosso"; (5 the Danubian Unit - with shallow water Liassic, Dogger and Malm (Miroč-Vrška Čuka Zone, deep water Dogger and Malm (Donjomilanovačko-Novokoritska Zone.

  7. The relatedness of HIV epidemics in the United States-Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Sanjay R; Delport, Wayne; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Espitia, Stephen; Patterson, Thomas; Pond, Sergei Kosakovsky; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Smith, Davey M

    2010-12-01

    Phylogeography can improve the understanding of local and worldwide HIV epidemics, including the migration of subepidemics across national borders. We analyzed HIV-1 sequences sampled from Mexico and San Diego, California to determine the relatedness of these epidemics. We sampled the HIV epidemics in (1) Mexico by downloading all publicly available HIV-1 pol sequences from antiretroviral-naive individuals in GenBank (n = 100) and generating similar sequences from cohorts of injection drug users and female sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico (n = 27) and (2) in San Diego, California by pol sequencing well-characterized primary (n = 395) and chronic (n = 267) HIV infection cohorts. Estimates of population structure (F(ST)), genetic distance cluster analysis, and a cladistic measure of migration events (Slatkin-Maddison test) were used to assess the relatedness of the epidemics. Both a test of population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.06; p cluster analysis identified 72 clusters (two or more sequences), with two clusters containing both Mexican and San Diego sequences (permutation p Mexico are distinct. Larger epidemiological studies are needed to quantify the magnitude and associations of cross-border mixing.

  8. Potential effects of the United States-Mexico border fence on wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flesch, Aaron D; Epps, Clinton W; Cain, James W; Clark, Matt; Krausman, Paul R; Morgart, John R

    2010-02-01

    Security infrastructure along international boundaries threatens to degrade connectivity for wildlife. To explore potential effects of a fence under construction along the U.S.-Mexico border on wildlife, we assessed movement behavior of two species with different life histories whose regional persistence may depend on transboundary movements. We used radiotelemetry to assess how vegetation and landscape structure affect flight and natal dispersal behaviors of Ferruginous Pygmy-Owls (Glaucidium brasilianum), and satellite telemetry, gene-flow estimates, and least-cost path models to assess movement behavior and interpopulation connectivity of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana). Flight height of Pygmy-Owls averaged only 1.4 m (SE 0.1) above ground, and only 23% of flights exceeded 4 m. Juvenile Pygmy-Owls dispersed at slower speeds, changed direction more, and had lower colonization success in landscapes with larger vegetation openings or higher levels of disturbance (p < or = 0.047), which suggests large vegetation gaps coupled with tall fences may limit transboundary movements. Female bighorn sheep crossed valleys up to 4.9 km wide, and microsatellite analyses indicated relatively high levels of gene flow and migration (95% CI for F(ST)=0.010-0.115, Nm = 1.9-24.8, M =10.4-15.4) between populations divided by an 11-km valley. Models of gene flow based on regional topography and movement barriers suggested that nine populations of bighorn sheep in northwestern Sonora are linked by dispersal with those in neighboring Arizona. Disruption of transboundary movement corridors by impermeable fencing would isolate some populations on the Arizona side. Connectivity for other species with similar movement abilities and spatial distributions may be affected by border development, yet mitigation strategies could address needs of wildlife and humans.

  9. Clinical manifestations and endoscopic findings of amebic colitis in a United States-Mexico border city: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Rhonda; Cooper, Chad J; Ramirez-Vega, Ruben; Huerta-Alardin, Ana; Boman, Darius; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2015-12-14

    Invasive amebiasis is not frequently seen in the United States. It is associated with considerable morbidity in patients residing in or traveling to endemic areas. We report a case series of patients with amebic colitis in a United States-Mexico border city to alert physicians to the varied clinical manifestations. Nine patients were diagnosed with amebic colitis. Mean age was 56 (38-83), 6 were males, and all were Hispanic. Common symptoms were diarrhea (56 %), hematochezia (33 %) and abdominal bloating (11 %). The diagnosis of amebic colitis was established in the following ways: 8 patients by colonoscopy with biopsy, 1 by surgery for colonic obstruction. The diagnosis of amebic colitis was confirmed in 8 patients (89 %) by amebic trophozoites present in histopathologic sections. One patient was diagnosed with amebic colitis based upon clinical symptoms, colitis on colonoscopy and visualization of amebic trophozoites on stool examination. In the 8 patients in whom colonoscopy was done, 6 (75 %) had inflammation with rectosigmoid involvement and 5 (62.5 %) had ulcerations. Infection resolved after treatment with metronidazole in most patients; however, one patient developed a liver abscess and another had a colonic perforation and later developed a liver abscess. The occurrence of amebic colitis in this United States-Mexico border city hospital population was low, but in some cases potentially life-threatening. Physicians should be alert to the less common presentations of amebic colitis, such as overt gastrointestinal bleeding, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, and the incidental finding of association with colon cancer, or a surgical abdomen. Rectosigmoid involvement was typically found on colonoscopy.

  10. Challenge theme 7: Information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States-Mexican Borderlands: Facing tomorrow's challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  11. Army Support to the United States Border Patrol in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    Francisco “Pauncho” Villa who attacked Columbus, New Mexico.39 Brigadier General John J. Pershing moved 12,000 soldiers into Mexico, pursuing raiders and...returning hostages to the United States. Pershing was not able to capture Villa , but he managed to help prevent further attacks into the United

  12. Common Mental Disorders at the Time of Deportation: A Survey at the Mexico-United States Border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojorquez, Ietza; Aguilera, Rosa M; Ramírez, Jacobo; Cerecero, Diego; Mejía, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Deportations from the Unites States (US) to Mexico increased substantially during the last decade. Considering deportation as a stressful event with potential consequences on mental health, we aimed to (1) estimate the prevalence of common mental disorders (CMD) among deported migrants; and (2) explore the association between migratory experience, social support and psychological variables, and CMD in this group. In repatriation points along the border, a probability sample of deportees responded to the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ). The prevalence of CMD was 16.0% (95% CI 12.3, 20.6). There was a U-shaped association between time in the US and SRQ score. Times returned to Mexico, having a spouse in the US, number of persons in household, less social support, anxiety as a personality trait, and avoidant coping style were directly associated with SRQ score. Public health policies should address the need for mental health care among deported migrants.

  13. [End of the borders? Undocumented migration from Mexico to the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, D

    1993-01-01

    This is an analysis of trends in illegal labor migration between Mexico and the United States from 1924 to 1986. Data are primarily from the 1984 Encuesta a Trabajadores Indocumentados Devueltos de Estados Unidos, supplemented by more recent studies.

  14. Beyond borders: comparative quantitative research on partner violence in the United States and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías, Sonia M; Angel, Ronald J

    2012-01-01

    We employ two surveys to identify similarities and differences in the risk of abuse among poor urban Mexican-origin women in the United States and Mexico. While the two surveys reveal basic structural similarity in the predictors of partner violence, the rate of violence among Mexican women is far lower than among either foreign-born or native-born Mexican origin women in the United States. While these differences may reflect reality, we argue that survey data must be interpreted cautiously and with an understanding of the cultural, economic, and political context in which the information is collected as well as methodological differences between the surveys.

  15. Breast and cervical cancer screening utilization among Hispanic women living near the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuño, Tomas; Castle, Philip E; Harris, Robin; Estrada, Antonio; García, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    Hispanic women who reside in low-resource settings are especially at risk for nonparticipation in cancer screening programs. The purpose of this study was to assess characteristics that influence breast and cervical cancer screening among older Hispanic women living along the United States-Mexico border. A cross-sectional study of women aged ≥50 years (n = 504) residing in Yuma County, Arizona, were randomly selected for interviews. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify determinants of compliance with mammography and Pap smear use. Women who received a recommendation from a clinician to get both mammography and Pap smears were more likely to receive a mammogram within the past year (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 5.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0-8.9) compared to women who received no recommendation. Likewise, women who received both recommendations were more likely to receive a Pap smear within the past 3 years (AOR 9.7, 95% CI 4.6-20.7) compared to women who received no recommendation. Other factors, such as current health insurance and a visit with their healthcare provider in the past year, were also associated with getting a mammogram within 1 year or Pap smear within 3 years. Enabling characteristics were significantly associated with breast and cervical cancer screening use compared to predisposing and need characteristics among older Hispanic women residing near the U.S.-Mexico border. Clinician recommendation of both mammograms and Pap smears and opportunistic clinic visits to medical providers may increase breast and cervical cancer screening coverage and reduce the burden of these two cancers in this high-risk population.

  16. 77 FR 18296 - Notice of U.S. Hosting of 2012-2013 United States-Mexico Binational Bridges and Border Crossings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Notice of U.S. Hosting of 2012-2013 United States-Mexico Binational Bridges and Border Crossings Meetings; Executive Order 11423, as Amended AGENCY: Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs; Department of State....

  17. Hyperendemic Cryptosporidium and Giardia in households lacking municipal sewer and water on the United States-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, Thomas; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Graham, Jay; Galindo, Adriana; Avitia, Raquel; Cardenas, Victor

    2002-06-01

    This study identified differences in the epidemiology of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infection for low-income populations residing on the United States-Mexico border. Participation included 77 households in three communities lacking adequate municipal water and sewage services. The household was the unit of analysis and sampling was from household biosolid waste from newly installed composting toilets. The proportion of households positive for Giardia and Cryptosporidium was high, 82% and 70%, respectively, and this was in contrast to the few households (14%) reporting at least one individual with diarrhea symptoms. This finding indicated that most of the participant families were chronically infected but asymptomatic. In the multivariate analysis, there was a statistically significant protective effect for Cryptosporidium in those households that purified drinking water but not for Giardia. Those households with children less than five years of age were 1.3 times at risk for Giardia infection. Our findings highlighted differences in the transmission mode of these two pathogens and underscore the need for interventions addressing hygiene, water supply, and sanitation.

  18. Beyond the Border: Mexico’s Internal Conflict Is the United States’ Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    prevent illicit drug use and addiction before their onset and bring more Americans in need of treatment into contact with the appropriate level of...congressionally banned synthetic drugs, such as “bath salts ,” as well as work with all forms of governance to initiate a 167United States Chairman...would be to deter consumer addiction which curtains the demand aspect of the DTO business structure maybe the pressure needed to limit drug trafficking

  19. Healthy Border 2020 Embassy Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission launched the Healthy Border 2020 at the Mexican Embassy in the United States on June 24, 2015. This new initiative aims to strengthening what was accomplished on the previous plan of action entitled Healthy Border 2010.

  20. Nonfuel mineral resources in the United States-Mexico border region; a progress report on information available from the Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations (CIMRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orris, G.J.; Page, N.J.; Staude, J.G.; Bolm, K.S.; Carbonaro, M.M.; Gray, Floyd; Long, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    The exploitation of minerals has played a significant role in population growth and development of the U.S.Mexico border region. Recent proposed changes in regulations related to mining in the United States and changes in mining and investment regulations in Mexico have led to increased mineral exploration and development in Mexico, especially in the border region. As a preliminary step in the study of the mineral industry of this area, the Center for Inter-American Mineral Resource Investigations (CIMRI) of the U.S. Geological Survey has compiled mine and occurrence data for nonfuel minerals in the border region. Analysis of this information indicates that a wide variety of metallic and industrial mineral commodities are present which can be used in agriculture, infrastructure, environmental improvement, and other industries. Therefore, mining will continue to play a significant role in the economy of this region.

  1. Rivers as borders, uniting or dividing? The effect of topography and implications for catchment management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, D A; Rowntree, K M

    2012-01-01

    South Africa's water resources are unequally distributed over space and time and an already stressed water resource situation will only be exacerbated by climate change if current predictions are correct. The potential for conflict over increasingly strained water resources in South Africa is thus very real. In order to deal with these complex problems, national legislation is demanding that water resource management be decentralized to the local level where active participation can take place in an integrated manner in accordance with the principles of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM). However, administrative and political boundaries rarely match those of catchments as, throughout South Africa, rivers have been employed extensively to delineate administrative and political boundaries at a number of spatial scales. The aim of this research is to determine if rivers act as dividing or uniting features in a socio-political landscape and whether topography will influence their role in this context. The Orange-Senqu River is used as a case study. This paper goes on to consider the implications of this for catchment management in South Africa. No study known to the authors has explored the effect of the river itself, and its topographic setting, on the drivers that foster either conflict or cooperation, and allow for participatory management. This study presents evidence that the topography of a catchment has the ability to aggravate or reduce the impact of the variables considered by water managers and thereby influence the role of a river as a dividing or uniting feature. South Africa's proposed form of decentralized water management will have to contend with the effects of different topographies on the way in which rivers are perceived and utilized.

  2. Obstetric emergencies at the United States–Mexico border crossings in El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jill A.; Rishel, Karen; Escobedo, Miguel A.; Arellano, Danielle E.; Cunningham, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe the frequency, characteristics, and patient outcomes for women who accessed Emergency Medical Services (EMS) for obstetric emergencies at the ports of entry (POE) between El Paso, Texas, United States of America, and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Methods A descriptive study of women 12–49 years of age for whom an EMS ambulance was called to an El Paso POE location from December 2008–April 2011 was conducted. Women were identified through surveillance of EMS records. EMS and emergency department (ED) records were abstracted for all women through December 2009 and for women with an obstetric emergency through April 2011. For obstetric patients admitted to the hospital, additional prenatal and birth characteristics were collected. Frequencies and proportions were estimated for each variable; differences between residents of the United States and Mexico were tested. Results During December 2008–December 2009, 47.6% (68/143) of women receiving EMS assistance at an El Paso POE had an obstetric emergency, nearly 20 times the proportion for Texas overall. During December 2008–April 2011, 60.1% (66/109) of obstetric patients with ED records were admitted to hospital and 52 gave birth before discharge. Preterm birth (23.1%; No. = 12), low birth weight (9.6%; No. = 5), birth in transit (7.7%; No. = 4), and postpartum hemorrhage (5.8%; No. = 3) were common; fewer than one-half the women (46.2%; No. = 24) had evidence of prenatal care. Conclusions The high proportion of obstetric EMS transports and high prevalence of complications in this population suggest a need for binational risk reduction efforts. PMID:25915011

  3. Black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from vehicles in the United States-Mexico border region: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kerry; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn; Quintero Núñez, Margarito; Vazquez, F Adrian; Collins, Kimberly; Barud-Zubillaga, Alberto

    2006-03-01

    The investigators developed a system to measure black carbon (BC) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission factors during roadside sampling in four cities along the United States-Mexico border, Calexico/Mexicali and El Paso/Juarez. The measurement system included a photoacoustic analyzer for BC, a photoelectric aerosol sensor for particle-bound PAHs, and a carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer. When a vehicle with measurable emissions passed the system probe, corresponding BC, PAH, and CO2 peaks were evident, and a fuel-based emission factor was estimated. A picture of each vehicle was also recorded with a digital camera. The advantage of this system, compared with other roadside methods, is the direct measurement of particulate matter components and limited interference from roadside dust. The study revealed some interesting trends: Mexican buses and all medium-duty trucks were more frequently identified as high emitters of BC and PAH than heavy-duty trucks or passenger vehicles. In addition, because of the high daily mileage of buses, they are good candidates for additional study. Mexican trucks and buses had higher average emission factors compared with U.S. trucks and buses, but the differences were not statistically significant. Few passenger vehicles had measurable BC and PAH emissions, although the highest emission factor came from an older model passenger vehicle licensed in Baja California.

  4. The United States--Mexican Border--a land of conflict and opportunity: Chapter 1 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updike, Randall G.

    2013-01-01

    The boundary between the United States and Mexico was created for convenient expediency through political debate and agreements (fig. 1–1). With the exception of the eastern segment of the border, which follows the course of the Rio Grande (known as the Rio Bravo in Mexico), the defining of this border was based on political decisions that had little concern for ecosystems, geologic features, or water—all of which span that imaginary line. However, the location of the border has had a remarkable effect on the biologic and physical systems in the border region and, in turn, has had a growing influence on what we now see as 21st century socioeconomic and environmental priorities. Because of the complex interactions of the human, ecological, political, and economic exigencies associated with this area, the status of the United States–Mexican border region, known as the Borderlands, has become an ever-present concern for most American citizens and for Mexican and United States Federal, State, and local governments.

  5. Quantitative Detection of Hepatitis A Virus and Enteroviruses Near the United States-Mexico Border and Correlation with Levels of Fecal Indicator Bacteria▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gersberg, Richard M.; Rose, Michael A.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Dhar, Arun K.

    2006-01-01

    For decades, untreated sewage flowing northward from Tijuana, Mexico, via the Tijuana River has adversely affected the water quality of the recreational beaches of San Diego, California. We used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure the levels of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enteroviruses in coastal waters near the United States-Mexico border and compared these levels to those of the conventional fecal indicators, Escherichia coli and enterococci. Over a 2-year period from 2003 to ...

  6. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...... regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...

  7. Border markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this issue of Articulo – Journal of Urban Research is to examine the characteristics of border markets in a comparative perspective. In this introductory paper, I first discuss what makes African border markets different from other markets, and examine several factors that explain...... their unequal economic development: the presence of a trade community, the combination of trading and productive activities, and the relative porosity of borders. In a second part, I examine how border markets on the U.S.-Mexico border must simultaneously guarantee the security of the state while favoring...... regional trade. The last part of the paper argues that more policy attention should be paid to border markets which, despite being at the margin of states, are a vital component of their economy. Fifty years after most West African states became independent and just as NAFTA turns 20, it is high time...

  8. The Karavanke range - from its dividing to the uniting role between the Slovenians on the both sides of the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals on socio-political development of Karavanke mountains, which had changing the division- and conecting role in historical development, especialy for slovene population, living on both sides of border. This mountain barriere became in 19th century conecting area for Slovenes of Carniola and Carinthia. After World War I., Karavanke became a border zone with strong division- function. Even though, the local population of both sides found some posibilities to comunicate with each other, what finnaly led to the today's larger transborder cooperation. In frame of this, slovene minority in Carinthia has a visible role and function.

  9. An Analysis of the Development and Effectiveness of the United States Border Patrol Strategic Plans, 1994-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    incentive for those contemplating illegal entry into the country. If undocumented immigrants made it past the USBP near the international border and...from their previous primary focus, which was to prevent and detect undocumented immigrants unlawfully crossing into the U.S., to specifically...

  10. Occupational health risks for Mexican women: the case of the maquiladora along the Mexican-United States border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovell, M F; Sipan, C; Hofstetter, C R; DuBois, B C; Krefft, A; Conway, J; Jasis, M; Isaacs, H L

    1988-01-01

    International reports of morbidity among female workers in Mexico's border zone have raised concern about the occupational health of female workers in maquiladora plants (foreign-owned border industries with special tariff benefits). Commentators have suggested that U.S. industries may be exploiting workers by transferring work to nations with less stringent health and safety regulation through the maquiladora program. Using data from a larger evaluation of the effectiveness of Project Concern and a specially developed questionnaire, this study investigated the extent to which female workers reported higher morbidity rates than women with other employment and women not employed outside the home in seven colonias (communities) in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico. Results showed essentially no difference in many short-term self-reported symptoms of illness among maquiladora workers and two other groups. Women who worked exclusively in the home reported the greatest number of symptoms. These results suggest that additional primary care services may be needed for women who have primarily domestic responsibilities. Additional research is needed to assess the risks for long-latency morbidity.

  11. Monitoring Colonias Development along the United States-Mexico Border: A Process Application using GIS and Remote Sensing in Douglas, Arizona, and Agua Prieta, Sonora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Donelson, Angela J.; Pfeifer, Edwin L.; Lam, Alven H.; Osborn, Kenneth J.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have developed a joint project to create Internet-enabled geographic information systems (GIS) that will help cities along the United States-Mexico border deal with issues related to colonias. HUD defines colonias as rural neighborhoods in the United States-Mexico border region that lack adequate infrastructure or housing and other basic services. They typically have high poverty rates that make it difficult for residents to pay for roads, sanitary water and sewer systems, decent housing, street lighting, and other services through assessment. Many Federal agencies recognize colonias designations and provide funding assistance. It is the intention of this project to empower Arizona-Sonora borderland neighborhoods and community members by recognizing them as colonias. This recognition will result in eligibility for available economic subsidies and accessibility to geospatial tools and information for urban planning. The steps to achieve this goal include delineation of colonia-like neighborhoods, identification of their urbanization over time, development of geospatial databases describing their infrastructure, and establishment of a framework for distributing Web-based GIS decision support systems. A combination of imagery and infrastructure information was used to help delineate colonia boundaries. A land-use change analysis, focused on urbanization in the cities over a 30-year timeframe, was implemented. The results of this project are being served over the Internet, providing data to the public as well as to participating agencies. One of the initial study areas for this project was the City of Douglas, Ariz., and its Mexican sister-city Agua Prieta, Sonora, which are described herein. Because of its location on the border, this twin-cities area is especially well suited to international manufacturing and commerce, which has, in turn, led to an uncontrolled spread of

  12. Improving Pediatric Cancer Care Disparities Across the United States–Mexico Border: Lessons Learned from a Transcultural Partnership between San Diego and Tijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, Paula; Fuller, Spencer; Rivera, Rebeca; Beyda, David; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Roberts, William

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the 5-year survival rate for children with acute leukemia in Baja California, Mexico was estimated at 10% (vs. 88% in the United States). In response, stakeholders at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Rady Children’s Hospital San Diego, and the Hospital General de Tijuana (HGT) implemented a transcultural partnership to establish a pediatric oncology program. The aim was to improve clinical outcomes and overall survival for children in Baja California. An initial needs assessment evaluation was performed and a culturally sensitive, comprehensive, 5-year plan was designed and implemented. After six years, healthcare system accomplishments include the establishment of a fully functional pediatric oncology unit with 60 new healthcare providers (vs. five in 2007). Patient outcome improvements include a rise in 5-year survival for leukemia from 10 to 43%, a rise in new cases diagnosed per year from 21 to 70, a reduction in the treatment abandonment rate from 10% to 2%, and a 45% decrease in the infection rate. More than 600 patients have benefited from this program. Knowledge sharing has taken place between teams at the HGT and Rady Children’s Hospital San Diego. Further, one of the most significant outcomes is that the HGT has transitioned into a regional referral center and now mentors other hospitals in Mexico. Our results show that collaborative initiatives that implement long-term partnerships along the United States–Mexico border can effectively build local capacity and reduce the survival gap between children with cancer in the two nations. Long-term collaborative partnerships should be encouraged across other disciplines in medicine to further reduce health disparities across the United States–Mexico border. PMID:26157788

  13. Improving Pediatric Cancer Care Disparities Across the United States-Mexico Border: Lessons Learned from a Transcultural Partnership between San Diego and Tijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, Paula; Fuller, Spencer; Rivera, Rebeca; Beyda, David; Ribeiro, Raul C; Roberts, William

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, the 5-year survival rate for children with acute leukemia in Baja California, Mexico was estimated at 10% (vs. 88% in the United States). In response, stakeholders at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Rady Children's Hospital San Diego, and the Hospital General de Tijuana (HGT) implemented a transcultural partnership to establish a pediatric oncology program. The aim was to improve clinical outcomes and overall survival for children in Baja California. An initial needs assessment evaluation was performed and a culturally sensitive, comprehensive, 5-year plan was designed and implemented. After six years, healthcare system accomplishments include the establishment of a fully functional pediatric oncology unit with 60 new healthcare providers (vs. five in 2007). Patient outcome improvements include a rise in 5-year survival for leukemia from 10 to 43%, a rise in new cases diagnosed per year from 21 to 70, a reduction in the treatment abandonment rate from 10% to 2%, and a 45% decrease in the infection rate. More than 600 patients have benefited from this program. Knowledge sharing has taken place between teams at the HGT and Rady Children's Hospital San Diego. Further, one of the most significant outcomes is that the HGT has transitioned into a regional referral center and now mentors other hospitals in Mexico. Our results show that collaborative initiatives that implement long-term partnerships along the United States-Mexico border can effectively build local capacity and reduce the survival gap between children with cancer in the two nations. Long-term collaborative partnerships should be encouraged across other disciplines in medicine to further reduce health disparities across the United States-Mexico border.

  14. Forgotten antibiotics: an inventory in Europe, the United States, Canada, and Australia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulcini, C.; Bush, K.; Craig, W.A.; Frimodt-Moller, N.; Grayson, M.L.; Mouton, J.W.; Turnidge, J.; Harbarth, S.; Gyssens, I.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    In view of the alarming spread of antimicrobial resistance in the absence of new antibiotics, this study aimed at assessing the availability of potentially useful older antibiotics. A survey was performed in 38 countries among experts including hospital pharmacists, microbiologists, and infectious d

  15. Forgotten antibiotics: an inventory in Europe, the United States, Canada, and Australia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulcini, C.; Bush, K.; Craig, W.A.; Frimodt-Moller, N.; Grayson, M.L.; Mouton, J.W.; Turnidge, J.; Harbarth, S.; Gyssens, I.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    In view of the alarming spread of antimicrobial resistance in the absence of new antibiotics, this study aimed at assessing the availability of potentially useful older antibiotics. A survey was performed in 38 countries among experts including hospital pharmacists, microbiologists, and infectious

  16. Challenge theme 7: information support for management of border security and environmental protection: Chapter 9 in United States--Mexican Borderlands--facing tomorrow’s challenges through USGS science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcher, Jean W.; Page, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Historically, international borders were located far from the major political and economic capitals of their countries and rarely received adequate planning or infrastructure development. Today, as a result of global economics and increased movement of goods between nations, border regions play a much greater role in commerce, tourism, and transportation. For example, Mexico is the second largest destination for United States exports (Woodrow Wilson Center Mexico Institute, 2009). The rapid population and economic growth along the United States–Mexican border, undocumented human border crossings, and the unique natural diversity of resources in the Borderlands present challenges for border security and environmental protection. Assessing risks and implementing sustainable growth policies to protect the environment and quality of life greatly increase in complexity when the issues cross an international border, where social services, environmental regulations, lifestyles, and cultural beliefs are unique for each country. Shared airsheds, water and biological resources, national security issues, and disaster management needs require an integrated binational approach to assess risks and develop binational management strategies.

  17. Binational Dengue Outbreak Along the United States-Mexico Border - Yuma County, Arizona, and Sonora, Mexico, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jefferson M; Lopez, Benito; Adams, Laura; Gálvez, Francisco Javier Navarro; Núñez, Alfredo Sánchez; Santillán, Nubia Astrid Hernández; Plante, Lydia; Hemme, Ryan R; Casal, Mariana; Hunsperger, Elizabeth A; Muñoz-Jordan, Jorge; Acevedo, Veronica; Ernst, Kacey; Hayden, Mary; Waterman, Steve; Gomez, Diana; Sharp, Tyler M; Komatsu, Kenneth K

    2016-05-20

    Dengue is an acute febrile illness caused by any of four dengue virus types (DENV-1-4). DENVs are transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes (1) and are endemic throughout the tropics (2). In 2010, an estimated 390 million DENV infections occurred worldwide (2). During 2007-2013, a total of three to 10 dengue cases were reported annually in Arizona and all were travel-associated. During September-December 2014, coincident with a dengue outbreak in Sonora, Mexico, 93 travel-associated dengue cases were reported in Arizona residents; 70 (75%) cases were among residents of Yuma County, which borders San Luis Río Colorado, Sonora, Mexico. San Luis Río Colorado reported its first case of locally acquired dengue in September 2014. To investigate the temporal relationship of the dengue outbreaks in Yuma County and San Luis Río Colorado and compare patient characteristics and signs and symptoms, passive surveillance data from both locations were analyzed. In addition, household-based cluster investigations were conducted near the residences of reported dengue cases in Yuma County to identify unreported cases and assess risk for local transmission. Surveillance data identified 52 locally acquired cases (21% hospitalized) in San Luis Río Colorado and 70 travel-associated cases (66% hospitalized) in Yuma County with illness onset during September-December 2014. Among 194 persons who participated in the cluster investigations in Yuma County, 152 (78%) traveled to Mexico at least monthly during the preceding 3 months. Four (2%) of 161 Yuma County residents who provided serum samples for diagnostic testing during cluster investigations had detectable DENV immunoglobulin M (IgM); one reported a recent febrile illness, and all four had traveled to Mexico during the preceding 3 months. Entomologic assessments among 105 households revealed 24 water containers per 100 houses colonized by Ae. aegypti. Frequent travel to Mexico and Ae. aegypti colonization indicate risk for local

  18. Border poetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Lundberg

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The language of poetry is a language of inquiry, not the language of a genre. Poetry has the capacity of entering those zones known as borderlands, where you meet strange things and foreign people. In this poetic world view, the border is not an edge along the fringe of lands, societies and experiences, but rather their very middle – and their in-between. The structures of language are social structures in which meanings and intentions are already in place, always fighting for power and dominance, with rhetorical figures and more violent weapons.

  19. Comparison of Fluoride Levels in Tap and Bottled Water and Reported Use of Fluoride Supplementation in a United States–Mexico Border Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma I. Beamer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCompared to the general United States (U.S. population, Arizona counties along the U.S.–Mexico border have a higher prevalence of dental caries, which can be reduced with adequate fluoride exposure. Because of concern regarding local tap water quality, fluoride-free bottled water consumption is common in this region, raising concern that families are not receiving adequate fluoride to promote dental health.ObjectiveTo evaluate the levels of fluoride in tap and bottled water as well as the use of fluoride supplements in an Arizona border community.MethodsLow-income Latino households (n = 90 who report use of bottled water as their primary source of water intake were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire about their and their children’s dental histories and use of fluoride supplements. Water samples (bottled and tap were collected from a subset of households (n = 30 for analysis of fluoride.ResultsFluoride detection levels were significantly greater (p = 0.02, Fisher’s exact test in tap water (average = 0.49 mg/dL than in bottled water, yet, the majority (22/30 were below the range for optimal dental health (0.7–1.2 mg/L. Concentration of fluoride in the majority (29/30 of bottled water samples was below the quantitative detection limit of 0.4 mg/L. Children were significantly less likely to have dental caries if they received fluoride varnishing treatments (p = 0.01, Fisher’s exact test, lived in households that reported using fluoridated mouthwash (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test, their parents received fluoride education (p = 0.01, Fisher’s exact test, and their parents reported visiting a dentist yearly (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test. Furthermore, none of the participants reported receiving recommendations from health-care providers about fluoride supplementation or variance in content by the type of water consumed.ConclusionAlthough fluoride was significantly more

  20. Cross-border Ties as Sources of Risk and Resilience: Do Cross-border Ties Moderate the Relationship between Migration-related Stress and Psychological Distress for Latino Migrants in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Alcántara, Carmela; Rudolph, Kara E; Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A

    2016-12-01

    Few studies have examined the associations between health and the cross-border ties that migrants maintain with their family members in communities of origin. We draw on theory related to social ties, ethnic identity, and mental health to examine cross-border ties as potential moderators of the association between migration-related stress and psychological distress among Latino migrants. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Survey, we find that remittance sending is associated with significantly lower levels of psychological distress for Cuban migrants, and difficulty visiting home is associated with significantly greater psychological distress for Puerto Rican migrants. There were significant associations between migration-related stressors and psychological distress, although these associations fell to nonsignificance after accounting for multiple testing. We found little evidence that cross-border ties either buffer or exacerbate the association between migration-related stressors and psychological distress. We consider the findings within the current political and historical context of cross-border ties and separation. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  1. Trans-border (south-east Serbia/west Bulgaria correlations of the Jurassic sediments: Infra-Getic Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchoumatchenco Platon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Infra-Getic Unit is a palaeogeographic unit, predestined by palaeotectonics. From the point of view of geological heritage, it represents a geosites framework. For the purpose of the correlation, the Serbian sections of Lukanja, Bogorodica Monastery, Rosomač and Senokos, as well as the Bulgarian sections of Komshtitsa, Gintsi, and Stanyantsi were used. The Jurassic sediments of the Infra-Getic Unit crop out on the southern slops of the Stara Planina Mountain in east Serbia and west Bulgaria. The Lower Jurassic started with continental and continental-marine sediments (clays and sandstones (Lukanja clastics and Lukanja coal beds in Serbia and the Tuden Formation in Bulgaria and continue with Lukanja quartz sandstones (Serbia and the Kostina Formation (Bulgaria. These sediments are covered by Lukanja brachiopod beds and Lukanja limestones (Serbia and the Romanov Dol, Ravna and Dolni Loukovit Members of the Ozirovo Formation (Bulgaria predominantly consist of bioclastic limestones. The sedimentations follow with Lukanja belemnites-gryphaea beds (marls and clayey limestones, which in Bulgaria correspond to the Bukorovtsi Member (also marls and clayey limestones of the Ozirovo Formation. The Middle Jurassic sedimentation started with black shales with Bossitra alpine. These sediments are individualized in Serbia as Senokos aleurolites and clays and in Bulgaria they are known as the Etropole Formation. In Serbia the section continues with sandstones called Vodenički sandstones of Bajocian age, known in Bulgaria as the Dobrogled Member of the Polaten Formation. However, in Bulgaria, the age is Upper Bajocian-Lower Bathonian, and it cover the marls of the lower member (Gornobelotintsi Member of the Bov Formation and is covered by the upper member - alternation of marls and clayey limestones - the Verenitsa Member of the Bov Formation. The Vodenički sandstones-Dobrogled Member which ended their distribution in the section of Komshtitsa, to the

  2. Crossing the Mexico-U.S. Border: Illegality and Children’s Migration to the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine M. Donato

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent public debates reveal that the experiences of child migrants are not well understood. This study is a child-centered analysis of Mexican migration. We examine whether and how conditions in origin communities, and the attributes of children and parents, affect the propensities that children undertake a first migrant trip to the United States. From event history and other multivariate models used to assess children’s undocumented migration and how conditions in origin and sending communities explain its variation, our findings reveal close links between violence in Mexico and unauthorized child migration, and important variation in children’s likelihoods to initiate migration related to parents’ migration, origin migrant networks, and period of U.S. entry.

  3. Intercultural Dating at Predominantly White Universities in the United States: The Maintenance and Crossing of Group Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micere Keels

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The increased representation of minority students on the campuses of predominantly White universities in the United States presents increased opportunities for intercultural contact. Studying dating experiences across racial and ethnic lines has been used to determine the existence of a post-racial America. While most previous research has examined general racial/ethnic and gender differences in intercultural college dating experiences, this study analyzes precollege and college-going friendship diversity and skin tone as factors accounting for romantic distance between racial/ethnic groups among a recent cohort of college students. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses were conducted on a 4-year longitudinal sample of 2804 undergraduate students from 24 colleges and universities. Results confirm that White students continue to be the group most likely to engage in intragroup dating relationships, Latino/a students were the most likely to date interculturally, and that Black men were significantly more likely to date interculturally than Black women. For Black students there were significant within group differences in intercultural dating based on skin tone.

  4. Quantitative Detection of Hepatitis A Virus and Enteroviruses Near the United States-Mexico Border and Correlation with Levels of Fecal Indicator Bacteria▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersberg, Richard M.; Rose, Michael A.; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Dhar, Arun K.

    2006-01-01

    For decades, untreated sewage flowing northward from Tijuana, Mexico, via the Tijuana River has adversely affected the water quality of the recreational beaches of San Diego, California. We used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure the levels of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enteroviruses in coastal waters near the United States-Mexico border and compared these levels to those of the conventional fecal indicators, Escherichia coli and enterococci. Over a 2-year period from 2003 to 2005, a total of 20 samples were assayed at two sites during both wet and dry weather: the surfzone at the mouth of the Tijuana River and the surfzone near the pier at Imperial Beach (IB), California (about 2 km north of the mouth of the Tijuana River). HAV and enterovirus were detected in 79 and 93% of the wet-weather samples, respectively. HAV concentrations in these samples ranged from 105 to 30,771 viral particles/liter, and enterovirus levels ranged from 7 to 4,417 viral particles/liter. The concentrations of HAV and enterovirus were below the limit of detection for all dry weather samples collected at IB. Regression analyses showed a significant correlation between the densities of both fecal bacterial indicators and the levels of HAV (R2 > 0.61, P 0.70, P < 0.0001), a finding that supports the use of conventional bacterial indicators to predict the levels of these viruses in recreational marine waters. PMID:16980430

  5. Quantitative detection of hepatitis a virus and enteroviruses near the United States-Mexico border and correlation with levels of fecal indicator bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersberg, Richard M; Rose, Michael A; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Dhar, Arun K

    2006-12-01

    For decades, untreated sewage flowing northward from Tijuana, Mexico, via the Tijuana River has adversely affected the water quality of the recreational beaches of San Diego, California. We used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to measure the levels of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and enteroviruses in coastal waters near the United States-Mexico border and compared these levels to those of the conventional fecal indicators, Escherichia coli and enterococci. Over a 2-year period from 2003 to 2005, a total of 20 samples were assayed at two sites during both wet and dry weather: the surfzone at the mouth of the Tijuana River and the surfzone near the pier at Imperial Beach (IB), California (about 2 km north of the mouth of the Tijuana River). HAV and enterovirus were detected in 79 and 93% of the wet-weather samples, respectively. HAV concentrations in these samples ranged from 105 to 30,771 viral particles/liter, and enterovirus levels ranged from 7 to 4,417 viral particles/liter. The concentrations of HAV and enterovirus were below the limit of detection for all dry weather samples collected at IB. Regression analyses showed a significant correlation between the densities of both fecal bacterial indicators and the levels of HAV (R2>0.61, P0.70, P<0.0001), a finding that supports the use of conventional bacterial indicators to predict the levels of these viruses in recreational marine waters.

  6. Trans-border (north-east Serbia/north-west Bulgaria correlations of the Jurassic lithostratigraphic units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchoumatchenco Platon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, correlations of the Jurassic sediments from NE Serbia with those of NW Bulgaria are made. The following Jurassic palaeogeographic units: the Eastern Getic, the Infra-Getic and the Moesian Platform are included in the study. The East Getic was studied in the outcrops near Rgotina, where the sedimentation started in the Hettangian and continued during the Callovian-Late Jurassic and is represented by platform carbonates. The Infra-Getic is documented by the sections of Dobra (Pesača and the allochtonous sediments near the Štubik. Very important for the Infra-Getic are the Late Jurassic volcano-sedimentary deposits of the Vratarnica Series, which crop out near Vratarnica Village. The Jurassic Moesian platform was studied in the sections near D. Milanovac and Novo Korito (Serbia and in their prolongation in NW Bulgaria into the Gornobelotintsi palaeograben. Very important are the correlation in the region of Vrška Čuka (Serbia and Vrashka Chuka (Bulgaria - Rabisha Village (Magura Cave. A revision of the Jurassic sediments on the Vidin palaeohorst, which were studied in the Belogradchik palaeohorst, Gorno-Belotintsi palaeograben, Belimel palaeohorst and the Mihaylovgrad palaeograben, is made. The sedimentation on the Vidin palaeohorst started during different parts of the Middle Jurassic, and in the Mihaylovgrad palaeograben during the Hettangian (Lower Jurassic where the sediments were deposited in relatively deeper water conditions. To south, the relatively shallow water sediments deposited on the Jurassic Vratsa palaeohorst on the southern board of the Mihaylovgrad palaeograben are described.

  7. Breaking Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup

    2015-01-01

    examples of this success. Based on theories of media creativity, genre and globalization, this chapter addresses how to understand the international interest in series from a small national television culture. We analyse the production framework of DR’s in-house drama unit, which has concepts such as ‘one...... vision’ and ‘double storytelling’ as guidelines for creating quality drama. Moreover, the chapter focuses on audience patterns for the series and aspects of their international distribution and reception....

  8. Breaking Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    examples of this success. Based on theories of media creativity, genre and globalization, this chapter addresses how to understand the international interest in series from a small national television culture. We analyse the production framework of DR’s in-house drama unit, which has concepts such as ‘one......In Denmark, the Sunday night dramas of the public service broadcaster DR are somewhat of a national ritual. Until recently, Danes thought these series to be only for the Danes, but since 2002 they have also found international acclaim and distribution. The Killing and Borgen are the most recent...

  9. Breaking Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib; Redvall, Eva Novrup

    2015-01-01

    examples of this success. Based on theories of media creativity, genre and globalization, this chapter addresses how to understand the international interest in series from a small national television culture. We analyse the production framework of DR’s in-house drama unit, which has concepts such as ‘one......In Denmark, the Sunday night dramas of the public service broadcaster DR are somewhat of a national ritual. Until recently, Danes thought these series to be only for the Danes, but since 2002 they have also found international acclaim and distribution. The Killing and Borgen are the most recent...... vision’ and ‘double storytelling’ as guidelines for creating quality drama. Moreover, the chapter focuses on audience patterns for the series and aspects of their international distribution and reception....

  10. Border Crossings (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing Ports (NTAD 2015) are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states...

  11. International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program : visions and strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, Michael; Mohagheghi, Amir Hossein

    2011-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), International Border Management Systems (IBMS) Program is working to establish a long-term border security strategy with United States Central Command (CENTCOM). Efforts are being made to synthesize border security capabilities and technologies maintained at the Laboratories, and coordinate with subject matter expertise from both the New Mexico and California offices. The vision for SNL is to provide science and technology support for international projects and engagements on border security.

  12. Borders, Violence, Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER DE LUCAS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between violence, law and borders by analyzing both the violence at the borders and the violence of the borders. In both cases, the author states that violence exerted by means of law, as well as migratory and asylum policies, threaten the universal human rights of the most vulnerable people and cannot be seen as exercising the legitimate monopoly of force, resulting in the destruction of the Rule of Law.

  13. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    Using social network analysis, this paper studies the structure of trade networks that developed across West African borders. The first part aims to understand the centralization of cross-border trade networks. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find that dec......Using social network analysis, this paper studies the structure of trade networks that developed across West African borders. The first part aims to understand the centralization of cross-border trade networks. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find...... developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. In the second part, we study the spatial structure of trade networks and the influence of national borders on the development of social ties. The paper shows that the spatial form of trade networks is constrained by the historical...

  14. The Nature and Functions of European Political Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Zupančič

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The political border limits a state’s territory and symbolizes the extent of a state’s power and ownership. Borders give integrity to the inner state territory which they enclose (the role of establishing national integrity and at the same time form an outer boundary segregating the state territory from the surrounding politicial entities (the segregation role. European borders are old and reflect the political history of an old continent. The last major border changes happened after World War II. Over the centuries borders were merely lines separating one territory from another. Such borders were understood as »frontiers«. Forming an effective barrier against enemies was the overriding function of borders. Many borders were fortified and further enhanced by means of various defensive systems. In the second half of the 20th century the character of political borders changed. They became a contact area between countries, nations and cultures. Contemporary European borders reflect the colourful history of an old continent. They are predominantely functional markers: they represent the political and juridical delimitation of territories, they mark economic barriers and show their defensive nature and reveal the extent of cultural contact. As a result of European integration processes, the nature of political borders has changed: instead of division, their integration role is brought to the fore. A united Europe is nevertheless still not a borderless Europe! The borders within the »Schengen-area« have retained their political and administrative functions, it is just that the customs and security checks at the borders have been removed. During the period of European integration, borderlines were stabilized in accordance with the 1974 Helsinki Agreement. But despite this we can still observe ongoing changes to state borders, particularly in areas of conflict such as the Balkan peninsula. It seems after all that the process of demarcation

  15. Seroprevalence of select bloodborne pathogens and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users in the Paso del Norte region of the United States – Mexico border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbona Sonia

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The region situated where the borders of Mexico, Texas and New Mexico meet is known as 'Paso del Norte'. The Paso del Norte Collaborative was formed to study the seroprevalence of select pathogens and associated risk behaviors among injection drug users (IDUs in the region. Methods Respondent-driven sampling (RDS was used: 459 IDU participants included 204 from Mexico; 155 from Texas; and 100 from New Mexico. Each of the three sites used a standardized questionnaire that was verbally administered and testing was performed for select bloodborne infections. Results Participants were mostly male (87.4% and Hispanic/Latino (84.7% whose median age was 38. In Mexico, Texas and New Mexico, respectively: hepatitis B virus (HBV was seen in 88.3%, 48.6% and 59.6% of participants; hepatitis C virus (HCV in 98.7%, 76.4% and 80.0%; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in 2.1%, 10.0% and 1.0%; and syphilis in 4.0%, 9.9% and 3.0%. Heroin was the drug injected most often. More IDUs in New Mexico were aware of and used needle exchange programs compared with Texas and Mexico. Conclusion There was mixed success using RDS: it was more successfully applied after establishing good working relationships with IDU populations. Study findings included similarities and distinctions between the three sites that will be used to inform prevention interventions.

  16. Border cells versus border-like cells: are they alike?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driouich, Azeddine; Durand, Caroline; Cannesan, Marc-Antoine; Percoco, Giuseppe; Vicré-Gibouin, Maité

    2010-09-01

    Roots of many plants are known to produce large numbers of 'border' cells that play a central role in root protection and the interaction of the root with the rhizosphere. Unlike border cells, border-like cells were described only recently in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and other Brassicaceae species and very little is known about the functional properties of border-like cells as compared with 'classical' border cells. To stimulate discussion and future research on this topic, the function of border cells and the way border-like cells are organized, maintained, and possibly involved in plant protection is discussed here.

  17. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    the borders in the context of modernity such as will also be discussed. In the backdrop of polarisation of populations into us and them, still there are increasing trends towards intermarriage, which challenge the idea of who belongs together and earlier taboos against such mixing. The symposia will explore...... dynamics of these relations - in the intimate partnerships, friendships across the borders, children of mixed parentage...

  18. Force Multiplier: The Military’s Future Role in U.S. Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    1994 North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ), promoted the expansion of free trade between Canada , the United States, and Mexico. The most recent...border in both the United States and Canada .15 Historically, the northern border yields significantly lower numbers of illegal incursions than...States from Canada than from Mexico.20 Southwestern Border Region Spanning approximately 2,000 miles, the southwest border has assumed an even

  19. Use of a sacral silicone border foam dressing as one component of a pressure ulcer prevention program in an intensive care unit setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Nancy S; Blanck, Alyson W; Smith, Lisa; Cross, Maribeth; Andersson, Liane; Polito, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In 2008, patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) at Danbury Hospital, Danbury, Connecticut, experienced 79 pressure ulcers. As a result, pressure ulcer-prevention interventions were standardized in critical care and medical-surgical units and education was provided to all direct patient care staff about principles of skin care and prevention. Following these efforts, 53 ICU patients developed pressure ulcers in the sacral area in fiscal year 2009, representing a 12.5% incidence for the ICU as compared to a 3.4% overall pressure ulcer incidence for the total hospital. In order to achieve additional reduction in pressure ulcer incidence, we replicated an initiative that called for application of a silicone foam dressing every 3 days to determine its effect on sacral pressure ulcer incidence in the ICU. We found that the use of the dressing further diminished the incidence of sacral pressure ulcers in our patients.

  20. Borders, Risks, Exclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Muller

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the border is evaluated as a fold of power relations in which sovereign capacity and competence is marshaled in the furtherance of illiberal practices. Drawing from interview data of officials in various agencies engaged in the US-Canada and particularly the Windsor-Detroit corridor, the argument is made that the border is a site for both negative and positive power, for insertion and subtraction, and that surveillance and compliance regimes are ‘run’ not so much in the furtherance of a precautionary or preemptive end-state, but as intermediate values that are sufficiently malleable by an invigorated sovereign, expressed in the residue of discretion in and between the many border agencies.

  1. Cross border relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    in which they were born. These movements also imply human relationships across the borders in different contexts with various cultural, psychological consequences. Relationships of members of migrant groups with each other, and also with the host community have important implications on the health and well......-being of not just the migrant population, but also the host communities. These relationships represent the microcosm of societal and cultural integration and cohesion at the broader levels. Studies of how and how well migrants, especially youth handle migration indicate transformations in paradigms as both...... dynamics of these relations - in the intimate partnerships, friendships across the borders, children of mixed parentage...

  2. Border region studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Williams, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary conditions of academic capitalism exert pressures on researchers to avoid ‘peripheral’ journals and ‘unfashionable’ topics. Here an attempt is made to shed light onto the structure of one such ‘offbeat’ field, namely ‘border region studies’, by discussing its geographical...... distribution, key themes, significance and impact. The review suggests that border region studies can be considered a significant and important ‘branch’ of regional studies, which accounts for a small but increasing proportion of regional studies research particularly in Europe and North America. Four main...

  3. Factors Influencing the Impacts on Security of Manning Military Posts on the United States-Mexico Border from 1865 to 1916

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-15

    town. Additionally, the Yucatan Peninsula declared itself independent and neutral in regards to the war. Following the loss at Buena Vista Santa Anna...across the southern United States by railroad to Agua Prieta to rout some 6,500 forces of Villa’s feared División del Norte. Once again Wilson’s...support worked. The Agua Prieta battle ended Villa’s ability to mass forces. His ability to influence Mexicans, however, had yet to peak. Fed up with the

  4. 47 CFR 73.504 - Channel assignments in the Mexican border area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel assignments in the Mexican border area... assignments in the Mexican border area. (a) NCE-FM stations within 199 miles (320 km) of the United States-Mexican border shall comply with the separation requirements and other provisions of the...

  5. From Borders to Margins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel

    2009-01-01

    upon Deleuze's philosophy to set out an ontology in which the continual reformulation of entities in play in ‘post-international' society can be grasped.  This entails a strategic shift from speaking about the ‘borders' between sovereign states to referring instead to the ‘margins' between a plethora...

  6. Biometric Borders and Counterterrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    34Transforming Travel and Border Controls: Checkpoints in the Open Society," Government Information Quarterly 22, no. 4 (01 October 2005), 594-625, http...the Open Society." Government Information Quarterly 22, no. 4 (1 October 2005): 594– 625. Hsu, Spencer S. "U.S. Preparing to Drop Tracking of

  7. Borders of Discourse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Janni Berthou

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to discuss a fundamentally different approach to discourse analysis by using a pragmatic point of departure for understanding use of language. Using an empirical example from a construction project it is discussed how material as well as societal dimensions of collaboration...... functions as borders for transformations of discourse – and these dimensions are most often intertwined...

  8. Crossing borders for creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Jacobs; Ewan Lentjes

    2012-01-01

    The Organza project was proud to present "Crossing Borders for Creativity". This publication is a reflective record of the Organza project. The second chapter examines What Organza was all about. It is a concise analysis of the process, starting from the regional profile descriptions, it points at

  9. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...

  10. The Assessment Of Geographical Borders In Economic Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markowska Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The length of common border between two geographical units is frequently used as a basic weight in spatial analysis. The newest methodological propositions such as tests for hierarchical relations (Markowska et. al. 2014; Sokołowski et. al. 2013, regional spatial moving average and new spatial correlation coefficient (Markowska et. al. 2015 are using border lengths. In cited references new methods have been illustrated by analyses for EU NUTS2 regions. It is obvious that borders between regions belonging to different countries have different socio-economic impact than borders between regions lying in the same country. A new simple method for assesment the importance of borders is proposed in the paper. It is based on a chosen macroeconomic variable available at NUTS 2 level (e.g. GDP, infant mortality, Human Development Index. For neighboring regions bigger value is divided by smaller value giving the local importance of the given border. These measures of local border importance can be than average for borders within the same country and for borders for each pair of neighboring countries.

  11. Canada and Mexico Border Crossings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Border Crossing Ports are points of entry for land modes along the U.S. - Canadian and U.S.- Mexcian borders. The ports of entry are located in 15 states along the...

  12. Soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in El Paso, Texas: analysis of a potential problem in the United States/Mexico border region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre-Roche, Roberto J; Lee, Wen-Yee; Campos-Díaz, Sandra I

    2009-04-30

    Ultrasonic extraction followed by Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption inline coupled with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) was used to perform a comprehensive determination of soil-borne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in El Paso, Texas. The method provided good sensitivity and faster processing time for the analysis. The total PAHs in El Paso soil ranged from 0.1 to 2225.5 microg kg(-1). Although the majority of PAH concentrations did not exceed the soil screening levels regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, the existence of PAHs in this ecosystem is ubiquitous. Naphthalene were found in 100% of the soil samples; while the heavy PAHs (five- and six-ring) were not often detected and mostly remained in closer proximity to industrial areas and major traffic points. The results ruled out the possibility of petroleum refining as the significant source of local soil-borne PAH contamination, but they suggested that the PAHs found in El Paso soil were closely linked to human activities and possible other industrial processes.

  13. Trans-border (South-Eastern Serbia/South-Western Bulgaria correlations of the Jurassic sediments: The Getic and Supra-Getic units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchoumatchenco Platon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The Getic and Supra-Getic are palaeogeographic units in SE Serbia and SW Bulgaria. Based on the presence (in Eastern or absence (in Western of Lower Jurassic marine deposits, the Getic is divided into Eastern and Western. In the Eastern Getic, the Lower Jurassic sedimentation in SE Serbia is represented by the Vidlič Clastites covered by the Lukanja Coal Beds, Lukanja Quartz Sandstones, Lukanja Brachiopods Beds, Lukanja Marlstones, Lukanja Belemnitic-Gryphaean Beds and Lukanja Cephalopod Limestones; in SW Bulgaria, the sedimentation commenced with the Tuden Formation, followed by the Kostina Formation and the Ozirovo Formation with a few members. The Middle Jurassic in SE Serbia commenced with the Senokos Siltstones and Shales and the Gulenovci Beds, while in SW Bulgaria with black shales (the Etropole Formation, followed by marls and clayey limestones of the Bov Formation. The Middle Jurassic sediments are represented in the Western Getic of SE Serbia by the Kurilovo Clastites and the Kurilovo Limestones (synonym to Gumpina Limestones of KRAÜTNER & KRSTIĆ 2003; in the Supra-Getic of SE Serbia they are formed by the Jerma Clastites and Jerma Limestones (synonym of the Gumpina Limestones. In SW Bulgaria the Middle Jurassic sediments are represented by the sandstones of the Gradets Formation and by the bioclastic limestones of the Polaten Formation. During the Callovian (Middle? started the formation of a carbonate platform with micritic limestones. In SE Serbia, it is Basara Limestones, Vidlič Limestones, Beljanica and Ždrelo Limestones, and in SW Bulgarian, the Belediehan Formation of Callovian-Kimmeridgian p.p. age. Characteristic for the Supra- Getic is the formation of a few grabens with specific sedimentation: the Svetlya Graben (the Zhablyano and Ozirovo Formations and the Lobosh Formation; the Treklyano Graben (the Dobridol and Sredorek Formations, and out of it - the Methohya and Sredorek Formation. During the Callovian

  14. Border Cracks: Approaching Border Security From a Complexity Theory and Systems Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    33 o. Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) ..................................34 viii p. Federal Police (PF...SIU Sensitive Information Unit SOD Special Operations Division SSP Secretaria de Seguridad Publica SWB Southwest Border Initiative SWBICP...www.usatoday.com/news/military/2010-04-06-Mexico_N.htm. 34 o. Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) SSP is part of the Federal Civil Service whose aim is

  15. Distance, Borders, and Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier; Zheng, Quan

    is a combination of the physical geography of the target environment, and the mental and physical cost of following a seemingly random pattern of attacks. Focusing on the distance and time between attacks and taking into consideration the transaction costs that state boundaries impose, we wish to understand what......” of North and West Africa that depicts the permeability to violence. A better understanding of how location, time, and borders condition attacks enables planning, prepositioning, and response....

  16. Advanced training in pediatric emergency medicine in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, and Australia : An international comparison and resources guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babl, FE; Weiner, DL; Bhanji, F; Davies, F; Berry, K; Barnett, P

    2005-01-01

    Pediatric emergency medicine is an important subspecialty of pediatrics and emergency medicine. It is a well-established subspecialty in some countries and less well developed or evolving in others. We set out to develop a resource guide and document the current status of pediatric emergency medicin

  17. Metrics for border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2009-07-01

    There are as many unique and disparate manifestations of border systems as there are borders to protect. Border Security is a highly complex system analysis problem with global, regional, national, sector, and border element dimensions for land, water, and air domains. The complexity increases with the multiple, and sometimes conflicting, missions for regulating the flow of people and goods across borders, while securing them for national security. These systems include frontier border surveillance, immigration management and customs functions that must operate in a variety of weather, terrain, operational conditions, cultural constraints, and geopolitical contexts. As part of a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 08-684 (Year 1), the team developed a reference framework to decompose this complex system into international/regional, national, and border elements levels covering customs, immigration, and border policing functions. This generalized architecture is relevant to both domestic and international borders. As part of year two of this project (09-1204), the team determined relevant relative measures to better understand border management performance. This paper describes those relative metrics and how they can be used to improve border management systems.

  18. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele T Jay-Russell

    Full Text Available In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6% dog and 5 (4.9% coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2% dog and 33 (32% coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2% of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1% of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the

  19. Social and Symbolic Capital in Border Region Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Royer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    to a specific industry sector. The actors have relationships characterised by interdependencies of different strength and quality that define the boundaries. Empirically this contribution is sticking to a firm cluster in the Danish - German border region in Southern Jutland/Danmark. We found global players...... with a high sensitivity regarding the importance of social capital in the process of value creation. Managers on the firm- as well as on the web-level are aware of the potential, but the border between the countries is by the same one border of the cluster as an value adding unit....

  20. Atmospheric Science Without Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Arnico; Praveen, Ps; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Bhave, Prakash; Surapipith, Vanisa; Pradhan, Bidya; Karki, Anita; Ghimire, Shreta; Thapa, Alpha; Shrestha, Sujan

    2016-04-01

    The Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) in northern South Asia are among the most polluted and most densely populated places in the world, and they are upwind of vulnerable ecosystems in the Himalaya mountains. They are also fragmented across 5 countries between which movement of people, data, instruments and scientific understanding have been very limited. ICIMOD's Atmosphere Initiative has for the past three years been working on filling data gaps in the region, while facilitating collaborations across borders. It has established several atmospheric observatories at low and mid elevations in Bhutan and Nepal that provide new data on the inflow of pollutants from the IGP towards the mountains, as well as quantify the effects of local emissions on air quality in mountain cities. EGU will be the first international conference where these data will be presented. ICIMOD is in the process of setting up data servers through which data from the region will be shared with scientists and the general public across borders. Meanwhile, to promote cross-border collaboration among scientists in the region, while addressing an atmospheric phenomenon that affects the lives of the several hundred million people, ICIMOD' Atmosphere Initiative has been coordinating an interdisciplinary multi-year study of persistent winter fog over the Indo-Gangetic Plains, with participation by researchers from Pakistan, India, China, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh. Using a combination of in-situ measurements and sample collection, remote sensing, modeling and community based research, the researchers are studying how changing moisture availability and air pollution have led to increases in fog frequency and duration, as well as the fog's impacts on local communities and energy demand that may affect air pollution emissions. Preliminary results of the Winter 2015-2016 field campaign will be shown.

  1. Collaborating Across Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatten, Amy

    Physicists transcend national boundaries, ethnic differences, and scientific disciplines to address globally shared problems and questions. This talk will highlight how scientists have collaborated across borders - both geographic and scientific - to achieve ground-breaking discoveries through international scientific cooperation. The speaker also will address how international collaborations will be even more crucial for addressing future challenges faced by the physics community, such as building large-scale research facilities, strengthening scientific capacity in developing countries, fostering ''science for diplomacy'' in times of political tensions and other critical issues.

  2. Cardiology without borders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Wolk

    2004-01-01

    @@ Cardiovascular disease takes place in a border-free world. The challenge at the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and anywhere else in the world is to hold patient care above the artificial barriers raised by geopolitical issues. Fundamentally, the goal of ACC members or of any cardiology societies in the world is to provide excellent patient care. Cardiovascular disease is essentially the same throughout the world. Where there are minor variations among individuals, as clinicians we find priceless opportunity to learn. Expanding- rather contracting -our experience base helps us as individuals to realize our best potential as practitioners.

  3. Business, brokers and borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    in two border regions between Niger, Nigeria, and Benin. In a business environment where transaction costs are extremely high, we find that decentralized networks are well adapted to the various uncertainties induced by long-distance trade. We also find that long-distance trade relies both on the trust...... and cooperation shared among local traders, and on the distant ties developed with foreign partners from a different origin, religion or culture. Studying the spatial structure of trade networks, we find that in those markets where trade is recent and where most of the traders are not native of the region...

  4. Health Migration: Crossing Borders for Affordable Health Care

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Miller-Thayer

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 45.7 million people in the United States are uninsured and unknown numbers of this population are underinsured, severely limiting their access to medical care. To address this problem, people use innovative strategies to increase their access through cross-border care options. The U.S.-Mexico border provides unique challenges and opportunities for health care in this context. The lower cost of medical and dental procedures and medications in Mexico makes that country an attracti...

  5. Militarization of the border and illegal immigration: Tamaulipas laborers

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2009-01-01

    Tamaulipas presents a long tradition of rural migration to the United States in search of farm employment. Until the eighties Tamaulipas’ undocumented workers crossed the border easily. However, from the nineties, as a result of a restrictive migration policy centered exclusively on the “supply–side” to cross the border has become intricate. As a result, most part of immigrants is using the services of “smuggles”. This paper analyses the impact of the militarization of the frontier on the emi...

  6. Stretching the Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horstmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I hope to add a complementary perspective to James Scott’s recent work on avoidance strategies of subaltern mountain people by focusing on what I call the refugee public. The educated Karen elite uses the space of exile in the Thai borderland to reconstitute resources and to re......-enter Karen state in Eastern Burma as humanitarians, providing medical, educational resources and help to document human rights violations and do advocacy work. In addition, local missionaries and faith-based groups also use the corridor to spread the word of God. I argue that Karen humanitarian community......-based organizations succeed to stretch the border by establishing a firm presence that is supported by the international humanitarian economy in the refugee camps in Northwestern Thailand....

  7. Borders in Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Toshmakova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Libraries are fundamental institutions for the life under socialism in Bulgaria (1944-1989. They provide studies and readings for big part of society. This is time when television was very rare in Bulgarian homes and the newspapers were totally controlled by Communist party. This way a library served as the main source of information. Seemingly ordinary cultural centers, they become a powerful tool in the hands of the communist state. They are the ones who are actively worked to impose new socialist thinking trough setting limits on access to readers and therefore control the flow of information. The aim of this article is to trace the influence of restricted by communist censorship institution Glavlit literature. Or to put it another way – what was the role of censorship in the process of establishment of borders created by prohibited access to scientific information.

  8. Border mythology: Turner and modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Brenna B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Modernity has been creating spaces, new boundaries and borders, as metaphysical, mythological and symbolic marks of physical and imaginary territories. Modern space and its borders are metaphors, boundaries that are created, walls that rise to identify with some and categorize others. In this short paper we want to approach the problem of the transformation of the idea of border (geographical, cultural, symbolic, etc., for a reflection on the transformations of that civilized obsession called border. The border has always been a reference in facing the identities, names, symbols, different imaginary: it is more confrontational line between two otherness. From the previous framework, we reflect on Turnerian mythology, as we believe that behind the creation of the imagination of the northern border is the mythical vision of the American frontier as ideological canon that explains and confirms the presence of the white race in a border re–made in the image and likeness of the “American Dream”. Frederick Turner’s reflection on the role of the frontier in American history is not only the study of the importance of progress towards the West but –even more so, is the analysis of meaning that had the American frontier as a historical process that ended in 1893, as Turner said, but rather extended into the twentieth century and continues to constantly shaping the process of territorialization of the border.

  9. Geographical, Sociological and Metaphysical Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacinto Choza Armenta

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available During the different ages of history and prehistory, borders have possessed different kinds of natures. Sometimes they did not exist, at other times they have been very diffuse, while at others they have been impassable. There were no borders in the Paleolithic age, or during Greece’s Heroic Age. It was not until the creation of the city-states and the empires that borders began to be consolidated. Territorial demarcations were not very strict during the Middle Ages, either. It was in the modern age that borders acquired an impassable nature, following the birth of the modern State, and they began to weaken with the crisis of the modern State that began in the 20th century. Thus, the author claims, the construction of borders is not a fundamentally political-administrative event. Instead, it seems to be primarily a phenomenon of a cultural nature and, more specifically, of a metaphysical nature.

  10. Border Security Agency Structure: A Hindrance to Demonstrating Border Security Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Citizenship and Immigration Services USCS United States Customs Service VSP Visa Security Program WMD Weapons of Mass Destruction WTC World Trade Center... destruction ” was not part of the border security agencies’ mission lexicon before the passage of the HSA. 2. The U.S. Customs Service In 1992, the GAO...laws. Focus on terrorists and weapons of mass destruction were the province of the FBI and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. INS and the

  11. Infectious disease morbidity in the US region bordering Mexico, 1990-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, T J; Bryan, R T

    2000-11-01

    The United States and Mexico share an international boundary approximately 3000 km long. This border separates 2 nations with great differences in health status. The objective of this study was to assess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the US region bordering Mexico. The incidence between 1990 and 1998 of 22 nationally notifiable infectious diseases was compared between border and nonborder regions. Disease rates, reflected as rate ratios, were higher in the border region for botulism, brucellosis, diphtheria, hepatitis A, measles, mumps, rabies, rubella, salmonellosis, and shigellosis than in either of 2 nonborder comparison regions. These data indicate that incidence rates for a variety of infectious diseases of public health importance are significantly higher in the United States along the Mexican border than in nonborder regions. These results suggest that an inadequate public health infrastructure may contribute to excess morbidity due to infectious diseases in the border region.

  12. Militarization of the border and illegal immigration: Tamaulipas laborers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Tamaulipas presents a long tradition of rural migration to the United States in search of farm employment. Until the eighties Tamaulipas’ undocumented workers crossed the border easily. However, from the nineties, as a result of a restrictive migration policy centered exclusively on the “supply–side” to cross the border has become intricate. As a result, most part of immigrants is using the services of “smuggles”. This paper analyses the impact of the militarization of the frontier on the emigration of Tamaulipas’ illegal rural workers seeking for farm jobs in the United States.

  13. Crossing borders via mental bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Dirk

    The project studies cross-border regional integration in Europe drawing on the example of the emerging Danish-German Femern Belt Region. It focuses on cross-border networking within public administration as part of regional integra- tion. My central question is how national-cultural differences...... influence coopera- tion, coordination and collaboration in administrative cross-border networks. In this connection the project asks after the perception of regional integration seen from the different national backgrounds. The research concentrates on the group of decision makers within the field of public...

  14. Firemen without borders

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    Fire knows no borders and neither should the tools for fighting it. It was with this aim in mind that delegates from 14 different countries came to CERN at the beginning of April to take part in the twentieth of a series of twice-yearly international conferences organised by the Federation of European Union Fire Officer Associations (FEU). This latest conference allowed participants to keep abreast of new developments with a view to improving the safety techniques used in their own countries. The first in the series was held in Tampere, Finland, in 1994. The FEU network's objective is to harmonise safety policies and modernise the fire-fighting programme. In particular, it aims to develop an international system for testing hotels' fire alarm systems and to improve language learning in all countries' fire-fighting services. "We want authorities throughout Europe to be aware of the importance of a good joint fire-prevention policy in order to avoid catastrophes such as the fire that destroyed Madrid's Winds...

  15. Distance, Borders, and Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skillicorn, David; Walther, Olivier; Zheng, Quan

    This paper explores the spatial and temporal diffusion of political violence in North and West Africa. It does so by endeavoring to represent the mental landscape that lives in the back of a group leader’s mind as he contemplates strategic targeting. We assume that this representation is a combin......This paper explores the spatial and temporal diffusion of political violence in North and West Africa. It does so by endeavoring to represent the mental landscape that lives in the back of a group leader’s mind as he contemplates strategic targeting. We assume that this representation...... constrains a group leader to attack at a location other than the one that would seem to yield the greatest overt payoff. By its very nature, the research problem defies the collection of a full set of structural data. Instead, we leverage functional data from the Armed Conflict Location and Event Data......” of North and West Africa that depicts the permeability to violence. A better understanding of how location, time, and borders condition attacks enables planning, prepositioning, and response....

  16. Acting in Isolation: Safeguarding and anti-trafficking officers’ evidence and intelligence practices at the border

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer K. Lynch; Katerina Hadjimatheou

    2017-01-01

    Internationally, the border has been presented as a site of unique opportunity for the identification and protection of victims of human trafficking. In the UK, the establishment of specialist safeguarding and anti-trafficking (SAT) units within the border force has raised questions about the challenges for border force officers (BFOs) of balancing the enforcement of strict immigration rules with the protection of victims under anti-trafficking legislation. In this paper we draw on data colle...

  17. A Voice of the US Southwestern Border: The 2012 “We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future” Conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah McC. Heyman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 2012, a diverse group of US residents living near the US-Mexico border met in El Paso, Texas for a conference entitled, We the Border: Envisioning a Narrative for Our Future.  This paper describes a vision for the US-Mexico border by diverse border residents that is at odds with the widespread view of the border as a threat to the United States. These border residents viewed their region as a set of human communities with rights, capacities, and valuable insights and knowledge. They embraced an alternative vision of border enforcement that would focus on “quality” (dangerous entrants and contraband over “quantity” (mass migration enforcement.  They called for investments in the functionality and security of ports of entry, rather than in between ports of entry.  They noted the low crime rate in US border cities, and examined how policies of not mixing local law enforcement with federal immigration enforcement contributed to this achievement. They saw the border region as the key transportation and brokerage zone of the emerging, integrated North American economy. In their view, the bilingual, bicultural, and binational skills that characterize border residents form part of a wider border culture that embraces diversity and engenders creativity. Under this vision the border region is not an empty enforcement zone, but is part of the national community and its residents should enjoy the same constitutional and human rights as other US residents. The conference participants emphasized the necessity and value of accountability and oversight of central government enforcement operations, and the need for border communities to participate in federal decision-making that affects their lives. 

  18. Application of IR microbolometers in border surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakfield, David K.; Norton, Peter; Plemons, Dan; Rodriguez, Christian; Sustare, Dennis

    2007-04-01

    BAE Systems led a collaborative study with New Mexico State University to investigate a series of ground based persistent surveillance solutions for potential use along the Southwest border of the United States. This study considered a wide range of system options for mobile and fixed site applications. This paper summarizes the findings of the study including the central role of the imaging subsystems in mobile ground based surveillance solutions and the suitability of uncooled IR Microbolometers within this subsystem. The paper also provides a discussion of the benefits of real time decision support applications when fielding a persistent surveillance solution.

  19. Early seismicity of the Scottish Borders Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. W. Musson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the seismicity of Southern Scotland and Northern England up to the year 1750. This area was formerly a border area between two states that eventually became politically united. Much of the area is uplands, and the seismicity is moderate to low. This makes for some problems in studying historical seismicity, yet the area provides a number of case studies of general interest in the field of historical seismology, including a rare case of being able to track down a «missing» earthquake.

  20. Bordering the Civic Imaginary: Alienization, Fence Logic, and the Minuteman Civil Defense Corps

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChaine, D. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Current figurations of the "immigration problem" in the United States challenge our understanding of the rhetoricity of contemporary bordering practices. The public discourse of the Minuteman Civil Defense Corps serves to chart the alienization of undocumented migrants and the enactment of alien abjection on the U.S.-Mexico border.…

  1. Borders and Identity: A Resource Guide for Teachers = Identidad y Fronteras: Una Guia para Maestros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belauus, Betty; Botein, Emily; Cadaval, Olivia

    The materials in this resource guide include a four-part video, a poster-size cultural map with additional exercises, and the five sections of this guide. The unit, presented in English and Spanish, intends to introduce students to the peoples and cultures of the U.S.-Mexico border, to explore the concept of borders in their own communities, to…

  2. Borders and Identity: A Resource Guide for Teachers = Identidad y Fronteras: Una Guia para Maestros.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belauus, Betty; Botein, Emily; Cadaval, Olivia

    The materials in this resource guide include a four-part video, a poster-size cultural map with additional exercises, and the five sections of this guide. The unit, presented in English and Spanish, intends to introduce students to the peoples and cultures of the U.S.-Mexico border, to explore the concept of borders in their own communities, to…

  3. UNESCO Without Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was established in 1945 with twin aims: to rebuild various institutions of the world destroyed by war, and to promote international understanding and peaceful cooperation among nations. Based on empirical and historica...... impact. The book will also appeal to practitioners, especially those who conduct research on or work in post-conflict societies....

  4. Border Security: A Journey Without a Destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    immigrants include “ undocumented immigrants ,” “ undocumented migrants,” “ undocumented aliens,” and “illegal aliens.”12 7. Border Security Border... Undocumented Immigrants : Facts and Figures.” Urban Institute, January 12, 2004. http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF...the future. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Border, Border Security, Secure Border, DHS, CBP, USBP, Immigration , Measures, Project Management, Project

  5. Border Kids in the Home of the Brave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman-Orozco, Susan

    2015-01-01

    As a new wave of unaccompanied minors flowed across the border between Mexico and the United States in 2014, educators began to scramble to educate students who came to them with little or no English, having survived traumatic and arduous immigration journeys, and often with significantly limited formal schooling. Many of these children were…

  6. Differences Between Library Instruction Conference Attendees and their Institutional Affiliations in the United States and Canada are Discernible. A review of: Willingham, Patricia, Linda Carder, and Christopher Millson‐Martula. “Does a Border Make a Difference? Library Instruction in the United States and Canada.” Journal of Academic Librarianship 32.1 (Jan. 2006: 23-34.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Perryman

    2006-09-01

    fifteen demographic and attitudinal questions was sent via e‐mail to all 508 attendees of major library instruction conferences (LOEX and WILU for 2001, and LOEX of the West for 2000 in the United States and Canada. Responses from the 132 returned surveys were tabulated and used to evaluate their linked hypotheses. Main results – Of the nine initial hypotheses, five were supported, and the remaining four were either partially supported or rejected. Supported hypotheses included: #1, that most participants in the top library instructional conferences came from institutions with >5,000 student populations; #2, that the majority of fully developed instructional programs were in universities; #5, that librarians with greater seniority were more likely to attend instructional conferences; #7, that conference attendance has only a medium impact on program development at participants’ home institutions; and #9, that most conference attendees come from the United States. Partially supported hypotheses were: #4, that factors most highly rated by participants were program development and technology, and #8, that conference theme and reputation are ranked higher in terms of influence in attendees’ decision to participate in the conferences. Rejected hypotheses included: #3, that “beginning programs are typically found at four‐year institutions,” #4, that “program development and technology rank as the two most important instruction‐related issues” (note that hypothesis #4 is both rejected and partially supported, and #6, that “LOEX is considered the most valuable conference.” Conclusion – The authors confirmed their overall hypothesis that significant differences exist between the United States and Canada regarding library instructional programs. Although the two countries developed at very different rates prior to the 1960s, technology and cross‐border sharing has meant that they are now developing along parallel paths. The authors suggest several

  7. Problems and perspectives of border-zone air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolivia, E.

    1982-10-01

    The Saneamiento Atmosferico of Mexico with the United States Environmental Protection Agency has formulated an agreement elaborating programs to address the problems of border-zone air quality according to the specific problems of particular trans-national areas. Industries and power plants affect air quality on both sides of the border. In areas especially suffering from vehicle emissions, the agreement provides for the monitoring of air quality through an air-meter system. Vehicle maintenance and inspection programs are now being put into effect.

  8. Borderlands Theory: Producing Border Epistemologies with Gloria Anzaldua

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco-Mendoza, Elva Fabiola

    2008-01-01

    This study is dedicated to examine the concept of borders, geographical and otherwise, as instruments that are socially produced. It utilizes Gloria Anzalduaâ s theoretical framework of Borderlands theory as a set of processes that seek to attain the de-colonization of the inner self. The historical and spatial dynamics of the geographical border between Mexico and United States, largely shaped by the U.S. expansionist agenda, resulted in the Mexican lost of more than half of its territory a...

  9. The 'border within': inhabiting the border in Trieste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialasiewicz, L.; Minca, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we look to the Italian border city of Trieste-at various points in its past, a cosmopolitan port, Austria's urbs europeissima, but also a battleground for competing understandings of territoriality, identity, and belonging and a paragon of the violent application of an ethnoterritorial

  10. Border Security: Barriers Along the U.S. International Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-30

    Congressional Research Service ˜ The Library of Congress CRS Report for Congress Received through the CRS Web Order Code RL33659 Border Security...Presidencia,” May 12, 2005. Translation by CRS. Available at [http://www.presidencia.gob.mx/actividades/crecimiento/?contenido=18195& pagina =31]. Last

  11. Transboundary aquifers along the Canada–USA border: Science, policy and social issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rivera, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Study region: Canada–USA border. Study focus: Since 2005, Canada has followed international developments in transboundary groundwater issues in cooperation with its southern neighbor the United States (USA...

  12. Genetic analysis of Israel Acute Paralysis Virus: distinct clusters are circulating into the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel acute paralysis virus (IAPV) is associated with colony collapse disorder of honey bees. Nonetheless, its role in the pathogenesis of the disorder and its geographic distribution are unclear. Here, we report phylogenetic analysis of IAPV obtained from bees in the United States, Canada, Austral...

  13. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection taking...

  14. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection taki...... of choosing a foreign partner while the decision between foreign partners from different locations is not. The results do however not provide support for the theory of knowledge bases influencing the location of innovation partners....... the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was used to analyse cross-border innovation cooperation patterns...... of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice...

  15. Border governance in Mozambique : The intersection of international border controls, regional integration and cross-border regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.L.M. Seda (Fulgêncio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractA tension exists between the interests of states in protecting national security through border controls and those of communities in cross-border regions, to whom frequent border crossing is part of daily life – a necessary part of achieving their own wellbeing. The interplay between

  16. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Boarder Crossing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics for incoming crossings at the U.S.-Canadian and the U.S.-Mexican border at the port level. Data are available...

  17. Cross-Border Exposures and Financial Contagion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degryse, H.A.; Elahi, M.A.; Penas, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated financial markets provide opportunities for expansion and improved risk sharing, but also pose threats of contagion risk through cross-border exposures. This paper examines cross-border contagion risk over the period 1999-2006. To that purpose we use aggregate cross-border exposures of

  18. Recent trends in cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haas, Ralph; van Horen, Neeltje; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter identifies a number of recent trends in European cross-border banking. The authors first distinguish between two main modes of international banking: cross-border versus multinational banking. Cross-border banking occurs when a bank in country A lends directly to a borrower in country

  19. The impact of Border policy effect on cross-border ethnic areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Q. L.; Zhou, S. Y.; Li, C. S.

    2013-11-01

    Boundary effect analysis is related to border policy making in the cross-border ethnic area. The border effect literatures show that geographic boundaries have obvious impacts on economic, social and cultural relations in both sides of a nation border. Particularly in cross-border ethnic areas, each ethnic group has strong internal spatial structure relevance, and the boundary effect is more obvious. However, most of China's border areas are cross-border ethnic areas, each of border issues is unique. Under this perspective, we analyze the border effects of various boundaries can provide basis for formulating border management policies. For small scale of cross-border ethnic minority areas, how to formulate the boundary management policy is a good question to explore. This paper is demonstrated by a study of the impact of border management policies in Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province at the border area to Burma. The comparative method is used to analysis the border management policies in past 50 decades for the border area of Yunnan Province .This research aims to define trends within border policy and its influences to national security. This paper also examines Wendy Brown's liberal theory of border management policy. We found that it is not suitable for Sino-Burma border area. The conclusion is that the changes or instability of international economic and political situation has more influence to this cross-border ethnic area, and only innovative policy will be effective in cross-border ethnic area. So the border management policies should reflect the change of international context.

  20. Old Borders and New Bordering Capabilities: Cities as Frontier Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Sassen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The global city is a new frontier zone. Deregulation, privatization, and new fiscal and monetary policies create the formal instruments to construct their equivalent of the old military “fort”. The city is also a strategic frontier zone for those who lack power, and allows the making of informal politics. At the same time the border is a mix of regimes, marked by protections and opportunities for corporations and high-level professionals, and implies confinement, capture and detention for migrants. The essay discusses the transformation of the city in a frontier zone and analyses the separation between the capabilities entailed by territoriality and the geographic territory tout court. The analysis focuses on the effects of neoliberal policies that, far from making this a borderless world, have actually multiplied the bordered spaces that allow firms and markets to move across conventional borders. Cities are therefore one of the key sites where new neoliberal norms are made and where new identities emerge.

  1. Globalization and Cross-Border Labor Organizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph Armbruster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of the world economy has opened up new possibilities for cross-border labor organizing. In fact, several U.S. unions are working together with unions from Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, the Dominican Republic, Japan, South Korea, and many European nations. For example, over the last several years, UNITE (Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees, the AFL-CIO, and the international garment workers trade secretariat have worked directly with maquiladora workers in Honduras and the Dominican Republic. These efforts led to the formation of several labor unions and the first contracts ever negotiated in the maquiladoras in the Dominican Republic. In addition, labor rights and solidarity organizations, like the Campaign for Labor Rights, Witness for Peace, and the US/Guatemala Labor Education Project (US/GLEP, along with many other groups, have also played key roles in the formation of maquiladora unions in Nicaragua and Guatemala.

  2. Reviewing the Spanish-Portuguese border: conflict, interaction and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Calderón Vázquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available European borders, or borders between European Union member states, are historical products that embody the ebbs and flows of European borderlands. These areas are evolving from past struggles and confrontations between European kingdoms toward a future of progressive European integration. Such processes are highly complex, as they involve border deactivation. In this work, we examine the evolution of the Spanish- Portuguese border from the perspective of cross-border interaction.

  3. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  4. Internal Border Controls in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten Willemoes; Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2012-01-01

    Recent events, involving inter alia France and Denmark, have stimulated renewed interest in the introduction of different forms of border controls at the internal borders within the European Union. These border control measures are aimed at checking either persons or goods or both. Against...... the background of these events, this article analyses the existing rules regulating controls of persons and goods, and explores how these rules may or may not stand in the way of introducing border controls at the European Union’s internal borders. These events have resulted in a call for reforms of the current...

  5. Languaging the Borders of Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Kramsch; Kolar Aparna; Huda Degu

    2015-01-01

    Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multipl...

  6. Introduction to "Stories and Histories from the China-Vietnam Border"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hue-Tam Ho Tai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Whether on land or at sea, border areas are not just sites of conflict. For the ethnically diverse communities who live at the margins of empires or nations, border crossing is a facet of everyday life. It may involve trade and smuggling, pillaging raids, flight from fighting or from the state, human trafficking, marriage, or family visits. These historical events and trends are often narrated within the confines of national histories. Yet they highlight the fuzziness of national boundaries and the importance of forms of social organization that cut across borders and unite individuals and communities that nations seek to separate and distinguish. Not only does the study of border areas and border crossings “rescue history from the nation,” to borrow from Prasenjit Duara (1995, but it also points out that the highly local can be transnational, and that apparently remote places can be linked to global currents of people, ideas, and commodities...

  7. Border preserving skin lesion segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Mostafa; Samei, Golnoosh

    2008-03-01

    Melanoma is a fatal cancer with a growing incident rate. However it could be cured if diagnosed in early stages. The first step in detecting melanoma is the separation of skin lesion from healthy skin. There are particular features associated with a malignant lesion whose successful detection relies upon accurately extracted borders. We propose a two step approach. First, we apply K-means clustering method (to 3D RGB space) that extracts relatively accurate borders. In the second step we perform an extra refining step for detecting the fading area around some lesions as accurately as possible. Our method has a number of novelties. Firstly as the clustering method is directly applied to the 3D color space, we do not overlook the dependencies between different color channels. In addition, it is capable of extracting fine lesion borders up to pixel level in spite of the difficulties associated with fading areas around the lesion. Performing clustering in different color spaces reveals that 3D RGB color space is preferred. The application of the proposed algorithm to an extensive data-base of skin lesions shows that its performance is superior to that of existing methods both in terms of accuracy and computational complexity.

  8. Cross-border reprogenetic services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couture, V; Drouin, R; Tan, S-L; Moutquin, J-M; Bouffard, C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to synthesize the current knowledge on the international movement of patients and biopsied embryo cells for pre-implantation genetic diagnosis and its different applications. Thus far, few attempts have been made to identify the specific nature of this phenomenon called 'cross-border reprogenetic services'. There is scattered evidence, both empirical and speculative, suggesting that these services raise major issues in terms of service provision, risks for patients and the children-to-come, the legal liabilities of physicians, as well as social justice. To compile this evidence, this review uses the narrative overview protocol combined with thematic analysis. Five major themes have emerged from the literature at the conjunction of cross-border treatments and reprogenetics: 'scope', 'scale', 'motivations', 'concerns', and 'governance'. Similar themes have already been observed in the case of other medical tourism activities, but this review highlights their singularity with reprogenetic services. It emphasizes the diagnostic and autologous feature of reprogenetics, the constant risk of misdiagnosis, the restriction on certain tests for medically controversial conditions, and the uncertain accessibility of genetic counseling in cross-border settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Population and employment in selected countries bordering the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepcion, M B

    1982-12-01

    This study is concerned with the dynamics of labor force composition in selected countries bordering the Pacific. The estimates presented are based on national definitions of urban and rural places and of the labor force and are derived primarily from published U.N. data. Variations in labor force composition and in urbanization levels by country are discussed. Countries considered include Canada, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Nicaragua, Peru, the Philippines, and the United States.

  10. Mitigating the Exploitation of U.S. Borders by Jihadists and Criminal Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Steinmetz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the events of September 11, 2001, the U.S. Government began improving security in large population centers and near potential highvalue terrorist targets. Included in these efforts was the development of a more robust border security program, with an emphasis on reducing the threat of terrorist infiltration at America's borders. However, nearly a decade after 9/11, terrorism and organized crime continue to pose significant threats to the United States. As many of these threats emanate from other nations, improved border security helps mitigate these threats. This article summarizes known terrorist activity along the U.S. northern and southern borders, and highlights the threat of organized crime in the southwest border region. Furthermore, it analyzes current border security efforts and identifies key deficiencies in the system. Finally, it provides a tool kit for future border security endeavors that center on developing a larger but more coordinated and nimble border security force, driven by intelligence, and supported by proven technologies and tactical infrastructure.

  11. The Border Patrol and Their Migra Corridos: Propaganda, Genre Adaptation, and Mexican Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    María Herrera-Sobek

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Border Patrol efforts to stop illegal immigration from Mexico to the United States are manifold. In recent times, the U.S. Border Patrol has begun employing so-called corridos, or Mexican ballads, as a means of covert propaganda to slow down illegal immigration. In her article, María Herrera-Sobek discusses the appropriation of the corrido genre by the U.S. Border Control and analyzes the corridos from the point of view of extra-literary adaptations.

  12. The Border Patrol and Their Migra Corridos: Propaganda, Genre Adaptation, and Mexican Immigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Herrera-Sobek

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Border Patrol efforts to stop illegal immigration from Mexico to the United States are manifold. In recent times, the U.S. Border Patrol has begun employing so-called corridos, or Mexican ballads, as a means of covert propaganda to slow down illegal immigration. In her article, María Herrera-Sobek discusses the appropriation of the corrido genre by the U.S. Border Control and analyzes the corridos from the point of view of extra-literary adaptations.

  13. A fronteira México-Estados Unidos: entre o sonho e o pesadelo - as experiências de e/imigrantes em viagens não-autorizadas no mundo global The Mexico-United States border: between the dream and the nightmare - the experiences of emigrants/immigrants in non-authorized trips in the global world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia de Oliveira Assis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute as experiências de homens e mulheres brasileiros, que tentam cruzar a fronteira México-Estados Unidos em viagens não-autorizadas no mundo global. São viajantes clandestinos que, com a ajuda dos coiotes, tentam entrar na "América". Na produção sobre tráfico de pessoas e "contrabando" ou tráfico de migrantes (smuggling, as questões relativas a gênero tendem a ser tratadas considerando-se que os homens brasileiros estão predominantemente vinculados ao tráfico de migrantes, enquanto as mulheres são vítimas de tráfico de pessoas para exploração sexual. Neste texto mostro que homens e mulheres estão envolvidos no tráfico de migrantes e ambos enfrentam os riscos, a aventura ou desventura de cruzar a fronteira ou de ser deportado.This article discusses the experiences of Brazilian men and women who try to cross the México-United States border in non-authorized trips in the global world. They are illegal travelers who, with the coyotes' help (immigrant smugglers, try to get into "America". In the literature, questions concerning gender tend to be treated by taking for granted that the Brazilian men are predominantly linked to migrant smuggling, while the women are victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation. The aim of this text is to demonstrate that both men and women are involved in migrant smuggling and both face the risks, the fortune or misfortune of crossing the border or being deported.

  14. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    This multidisciplinary Ph.D. dissertation engages with the timely and much debated topic of European border control. The first two chapters discuss several moral arguments claiming that border control facilitates solidarity and autonomy. These are assessed with reference to central debates in pol...... in-depth research of the privatization of border control through the cases of G4S, Finmeccanica and the EU’s EUROSUR system. The chapter links externalization of border control with European state-driven export markets and shows how states’ export credit agencies, the arms industry...... and the international banking sector all have overlapping interests in privatized border control. Chapter five identifies the multiple flows, technological, personnel, funds and data, maintaining Europe’s border infrastructure, As migrants are circulated between detention camps and countries, dumped in deserts...

  15. Aymara paradiplomacy: Empowerment in the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Aranda Bustamante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the border paradiplomacy used by more than 50 municipalities from Bolivia, Chile and Peru, named “Aymaras without Borders Strategic Alliance”. In spite of the differentiated historical construction of national identities, according to a literature review, it could be argued that there is an unprecedented border relation between these three countries. Furthermore, it is possible to conclude that this non-violent strategy has been successful in the last 15 years.

  16. A model for international border management systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duggan, Ruth Ann

    2008-09-01

    To effectively manage the security or control of its borders, a country must understand its border management activities as a system. Using its systems engineering and security foundations as a Department of Energy National Security Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories has developed such an approach to modeling and analyzing border management systems. This paper describes the basic model and its elements developed under Laboratory Directed Research and Development project 08-684.

  17. 78 FR 46402 - Issuance of a Presidential Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ..., North Dakota, for the export of liquefied ethane from the United States to Canada. The Department of... border of the United States and Canada in Divide County, North Dakota, for the export of liquid ethane... extending from the United States-Canada border near 151st Ave NW., Divide County, North Dakota, up to and...

  18. Phenotypic covariance at species’ borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the evolution of species limits is important in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. Despite its likely importance in the evolution of these limits, little is known about phenotypic covariance in geographically marginal populations, and the degree to which it constrains, or facilitates, responses to selection. We investigated phenotypic covariance in morphological traits at species’ borders by comparing phenotypic covariance matrices (P), including the degree of shared structure, the distribution of strengths of pair-wise correlations between traits, the degree of morphological integration of traits, and the ranks of matricies, between central and marginal populations of three species-pairs of coral reef fishes. Results Greater structural differences in P were observed between populations close to range margins and conspecific populations toward range centres, than between pairs of conspecific populations that were both more centrally located within their ranges. Approximately 80% of all pair-wise trait correlations within populations were greater in the north, but these differences were unrelated to the position of the sampled population with respect to the geographic range of the species. Conclusions Neither the degree of morphological integration, nor ranks of P, indicated greater evolutionary constraint at range edges. Characteristics of P observed here provide no support for constraint contributing to the formation of these species’ borders, but may instead reflect structural change in P caused by selection or drift, and their potential to evolve in the future. PMID:23714580

  19. Border Crossing/Entry Data - Border Crossing/Entry Data Time Series tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The dataset is known as “Border Crossing/Entry Data.” The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) Border Crossing/Entry Data provides summary statistics to the...

  20. The Borders of "Shopluk" and/or Shops without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hristov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A historic and cultural region exists at the heart of the Balkans, known in geographic and ethnographic research as Shopluk. This is a region in which, over the last 150 years, state boundaries were moved several times as a result of 5 different wars. Today, the historic Shopluk is where the borders of three nations converge – Republic of Bulgaria, Republic of Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia – and, during the last decade, the region was declared one of the “Euroregions” on the Balkans. Despite the historical similarities in traditional culture and language of this population, in the 19th century it became a subject of nationalist ambitions and a propaganda “wars” between the new national states of Serbia and Bulgaria. The joining of Bulgarian-inhabited parts of Shopluk (the regions of today’s Dimitrovgrad and Bosilegrad in Serbia to the Kingdom of Serbs, Slovenes and Croats in 1919 created a long-lasting tension between the two countries, some residues of which can be felt in everyday relations even today. On the other hand, it has been a century-long tradition for men in this region to take part in seasonal labour migrations all over the Balkan Peninsula, despite political borders. In this way, preserving their cultural and lingual specifics, the groups of seasonal workers – migrants from Shopluk, became a bridge for cultural interaction and exchange with other regions in the neighbour countries. Even though today the population of Shopluk exhibits different national identities, historical similarities in culture and language can turn the Euroregion between Nish, Sofia and Skopje from one of the poorest on the Balkans to one of the most integrated and prosperous.

  1. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which…

  2. Sprouting of dormant buds on border trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.R., Jr. Trimble; H. Clay Smith; H. Clay Smith

    1970-01-01

    As part of an evaluation of silvicultura1 systems used in managing Appalachian hardwoods, we are studying degrade of border trees surrounding harvest-cut openings made in the patch cutting and group selection systems. One facet of this research dealt with determining what portion of visually evident dormant buds on border tree boles sprouted when the openings were cut...

  3. Border Pedagogy Cafes: Grassroots Conversations that Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necochea, Juan; Cline, Zulmara

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study uses qualitative methods to analyze the impact of conversations in the Border Pedagogy "Cafes" on more than 500 binational educators from the Tijuana/San Diego area on the U.S.-Mexico border. Four important themes emerged from the analysis that describe the impact of the cafes and offer a strong foundation on which…

  4. Competitiveness of the Economies of Border Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Yuri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the problem of competitiveness of border regions as subjects of the Russian Federation having specific characteristics. The authors focus on the stages, during which border regions build their competitiveness, as well as analyse certain indices characterizing it. They examine the role of these regions in the development of international trade and economic relations, cross-border cooperation and international integration, taking the North-west federal district and the Republic of Karelia as a case-study. The article describes the mechanisms of building and increasing competitiveness of border regions in today’s Russia both in general and, particularly, in the Republic of Karelia as a border region of the North-west federal district.

  5. A polyhedral approach to computing border bases

    CERN Document Server

    Braun, Gábor

    2009-01-01

    Border bases can be considered to be the natural extension of Gr\\"obner bases that have several advantages. Unfortunately, to date the classical border basis algorithm relies on (degree-compatible) term orderings and implicitly on reduced Gr\\"obner bases. We adapt the classical border basis algorithm to allow for calculating border bases for arbitrary degree-compatible order ideals, which is \\emph{independent} from term orderings. Moreover, the algorithm also supports calculating degree-compatible order ideals with \\emph{preference} on contained elements, even though finding a preferred order ideal is NP-hard. Effectively we retain degree-compatibility only to successively extend our computation degree-by-degree. The adaptation is based on our polyhedral characterization: order ideals that support a border basis correspond one-to-one to integral points of the order ideal polytope. This establishes a crucial connection between the ideal and the combinatorial structure of the associated factor spaces.

  6. Revitalising Borders: Memory, Mobility and Materiality in a Latvian-Russian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aija Lulle

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate how an international border is 'revitalised' in political discourses as opposed to lived experiences. Based on narratives I have collected from border dwellers on both sides of the current border between Latvia and Rus-sia and placing them into a broader context of current border debates, I analyse how geographical and social mobility is remembered from Soviet times and reworked in current contexts. I argue that while politically the border is revitalised through aban-doning and forgetting the Soviet past and through the idea of constant threats in the future, locally it is revitalised through giving a life to the abandoned: memories of 'vigorous times' in life-courses and material things. People who dwell at the border did not move themselves: the international border moved several times in one cen-tury leaving border dwellers' memories and significant places on the 'other' side. I focus on how these borders were crossed in the past, how they are (not crossed now, and the social meanings assigned to these circumstances. In the current con-text I follow diverse paths of reasoning that describe how the uneven flow of goods and people through the Latvian-Russian border shapes the power dynamic against which the people living in the border area used to reconstruct imaginaries of 'Soviet times' versus 'Europe' and 'vigorous times' versus decline.

  7. CROSS-BORDER COOPERATION AT THE EXTERNAL BORDERS OF EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Popescu (Stîngaciu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To cooperate means to work and act together for a common advantage or purpose. The cooperation across borders, between different countries and regions sharing the same border, to reach common goals, is aimed to increase the overall competitiveness of the regional economy and to improve the quality of living standards for the these areas. European Union’s programmes are good accelerators for cross-border cooperation. The paper is focused on cross-border cooperation programmes at the external border of the EU and the expected impact of the allocated funds. The cross-border cooperation programmes are creating the conditions to exist the relationships between different social and economic stakeholders in order to contribute to economic and social development by supporting SME development, innovation, human resources development, civil society and local communities, increasing educational, social, cultural and sporting exchanges, improving local governance in different cross-border areas.

  8. Hybridity and the Space of the Border in the Writing of Norma Elia Cantú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen McCracken

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The creative and scholarly writing of Norma Elia Cantú focuses centrally on the tensions of borders that are eroding yet firmly in place. Cantú's border pivots on the geographic space in which Mexico and the United States physically intersect, yet she probes at the same time several of the other tenuous cultural borders that postmodernity has brought into focus. Transcending distinctions between genres, languages, and cultures, Cantú undertakes innovative genre hybridity, visual-verbal hybridity, and the recombination of distinct cultural codes. Whether writing cultural criticism, autobioethnography, creative fiction, or poetry, Cantú locates herself at the intersection of the geographical and epistemological borders central to postmodernity.

  9. Border Figure Detection Using a Phase Oscillator Network with Dynamical Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. H. A. Monteiro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oscillator networks have been developed in order to perform specific tasks related to image processing. Here we analytically investigate the existence of synchronism in a pair of phase oscillators that are short-range dynamically coupled. Then, we use these analytical results to design a network able of detecting border of black-and-white figures. Each unit composing this network is a pair of such phase oscillators and is assigned to a pixel in the image. The couplings among the units forming the network are also dynamical. Border detection emerges from the network activity.

  10. Local border traffic as an efficient tool for developing cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gumenyuk Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Local border traffic (LBT is a tool for cooperation between the EU member states and neighbouring countries. It emerged as a measure to mitigate the barrier effect of the EU’s external border. In 2006, the European Parliament authorised the EU member states to conclude bilateral agreements on a simplified border crossing regime in border areas. This article analyses local border traffic as a cross-border cooperation tool. The territory described in the study includes the external borders of the EU (and Norway with the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus. The article will be of interest to specialists in international and, particularly, in cross-border cooperation. The authors analyse the mechanism of local border traffic and identify possible trends based on the general socioeconomic situation and foreign policy background in Russia, Belarus, and the EU (Norway. The article employs the cartographic method to enhance the visual component of the study. It is concluded that the LBT mechanism is effective and it has a positive effect on the development of border contacts between countries. There is a need to continue the dialogue between Russia, Belarus and the EU countries on both expanding the geographical scope of the LBT mechanism and ensuring its qualitative development.

  11. Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pinciaroli

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available “Borders, boundaries and desirable wishes” is the title of the residential workshop offered to a group of young adults (aged 18-25 of the Centro di Salute Mentale (Mental Health Center of the DSM Basaglia of ASL TO2 in Turin. The idea of the workshop, the definition of the objectives and the topics, which are clearly expressed in the title, come from the work of the team dedicated to group psychotherapies, which has been offering group psychodrama sessions to young adults of this age since 2008. In the delicate move to the adult age, these young adults are lost and stuck in static realities where it is not possible to open up to the dimension of desire nor to the transforming encounter with the Other, since they didn’t have the experience of boundaries and lack. These two elements are necessary to acquire the ability to make projects for oneself. During the workshop the following instruments were used: group, psychodrama and art therapy. The group, as a paternal function, ensured the presence of safe boundaries enabling individuals to experiment; psychodrama and art therapy enabled the bodies to experience encounters and transformations, using doing as a metaphor for the movement against the inhibition of doing and as a way to show oneself to the Other and be able to see the Other. 

  12. Languaging the Borders of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Kramsch

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging from a discomfort with the blind spots encountered within and across theorizations of language and space in the field of human geography, in this article, we argue for “making space” for conceptualizations that speak from and through the everyday territories of migrants in Europe today. Inspired by a range of writers thinking postcolonially and multi/trans-lingually, the authors draw on their own embodied migrant experience to argue for re-envisioning Europe’s borders through multiple languaging practices. “Languaging”, in this view, takes linguistic practices in a migrant context as an inherently prosthetic activity, whereby any dominant, national host language is inevitably subject to the subterranean rumblings of all the languages a migrant brings with her on her global journeys. Conceived as being saturated with prosthetic “absence(s”, migrant languaging practices rework cultural geography’s bounded, inward-looking, and security-fixated understanding of the language/territory nexus, the better to open a vital space for re-envisioning language’s everyday territories as sites for translational solidarity and becoming.

  13. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  14. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

    2013-01-01

    ... of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological...

  15. Borders in Europe: From history to everyday life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narcís Bassols

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available

    This article reflects on European borders and their everyday dynamics from a cross-border perspective. The article begins with a discussion of recent events that question current border policies in the European Union, reviews the literature on borders and border territories, and finally moves on to a discussion of the everyday effects of cross-border practices on the inhabitants of border spaces. Occasional reference is made to borders in the Americas to complete the picture of this topic. Although the issue of security is indeed relevant, we focus on the economic and social dimensions of cooperation. Three aspects are essential for border residents who attempt to use the advantages of the territories for their global nature: work, shopping, and place of residence. In conclusion, there has been a tendency toward the softening of borders and greater integration of border zones in the European Union.

  16. The U.S.-Mexico Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project: Establishing Binational Border Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Stephen; Lucas, Carlos Alvarez; Falcon, Veronica Carrion; Morales, Pablo Kuri; Lopez, Luis Anaya; Peter, Chris; Gutiérrez, Alejandro Escobar; Gonzalez, Ernesto Ramirez; Flisser, Ana; Bryan, Ralph; Valle, Enrique Navarro; Rodriguez, Alfonso; Hernandez, Gerardo Alvarez; Rosales, Cecilia; Ortiz, Javier Arias; Landen, Michael; Vilchis, Hugo; Rawlings, Julie; Leal, Francisco Lopez; Ortega, Luis; Flagg, Elaine; Conyer, Roberto Tapia; Cetron, Martin

    2003-01-01

    In 1997, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Mexican Secretariat of Health, and border health officials began the development of the Border Infectious Disease Surveillance (BIDS) project, a surveillance system for infectious diseases along the U.S.-Mexico border. During a 3-year period, a binational team implemented an active, sentinel surveillance system for hepatitis and febrile exanthems at 13 clinical sites. The network developed surveillance protocols, trained nine surveillance coordinators, established serologic testing at four Mexican border laboratories, and created agreements for data sharing and notification of selected diseases and outbreaks. BIDS facilitated investigations of dengue fever in Texas-Tamaulipas and measles in California–Baja California. BIDS demonstrates that a binational effort with local, state, and federal participation can create a regional surveillance system that crosses an international border. Reducing administrative, infrastructure, and political barriers to cross-border public health collaboration will enhance the effectiveness of disease prevention projects such as BIDS. PMID:12533288

  17. Elastic and hegemonic borders and discourse theory: Mexico’s southern border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Marengo Camacho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Discourse theory is useful for understanding the creation of borders, whether material or imaginary. This paper addresses three situations on Mexico’s southern border between 2000 and 2015 in which elements of discourse theory may be applied. The outcomes were the following: 1 correlations may be made between the elements of the discourse moving from the northern to the southern border, but not in the opposite direction; 2 the process of securitising the discourse about migrants is continuous, and new securitising elements are regularly added; 3 an “elastic borders” phenomenon exists, where borders extend or retract, thereby creating new border regions; and 4 discourses around the southern border are constructed with more pejorative elements than the northern, despite the fact that crime rates are higher in the north.

  18. CROSS-BORDER PROJECTS – MEANS FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT ALONG THE ROMANIAN-HUNGARIAN BORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălina-Maria BÂTEA (BOTA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the linkage between establishing crossborder relations and tourism development by focusing on ten tourism projects implemented under Hungary-Romania Cross-Border Co-operation Programme (2007-2013. The study area comprises the two neighbouring counties of Satu Mare and Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg, the border connecting two areas characterised by social and economic similarities. Building on a solid foundation, as the first Hungarian-Romanian cross-border initiatives were launched nearly two decades ago, the two counties work together towards the shared aim of developing business infrastructure, cross-border trade, culture and tourism. The present study examines the relevance of cross-border projects viewed from the perspective of sustainable tourism development in two peripheral counties featuring similar resources. Moreover, the investigation is based on consultation of project documents, reports and promotional materials, against the theoretical framework of cross-border cooperation and regional development.

  19. Networks communities within and across borders

    CERN Document Server

    Cerina, Federica; Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impact of borders on the topology of spatially embedded networks. Indeed territorial subdivisions and geographical borders significantly hamper the geographical span of networks thus playing a key role in the formation of network communities. This is especially important in scientific and technological policy making and highlights the interplay of the internationalization pressure toward a global innovation system against the administrative borders imposed by the national and continental institutions. In this study we introduce an outreach index to quantify the impact of borders on the community structure and apply it to the case of the European and US patent co-inventors networks. We find that (a) the US connectivity decays as a power of distance, whereas we observe a faster exponential decay for Europe; (b) European network communities essentially correspond to nations and contiguous regions while US communities span multiple states across the whole country without any characteristic geog...

  20. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    This multidisciplinary Ph.D. dissertation engages with the timely and much debated topic of European border control. The first two chapters discuss several moral arguments claiming that border control facilitates solidarity and autonomy. These are assessed with reference to central debates...... seeking children in Denmark is assessed as a form of liberal nationalism. Several problematic features with this system are discussed, such as the lacking Danish implementation of the Convention of the Rights of the Child, and the use of cultural generalizations in case evaluations. Chapter four conducts...... and the international banking sector all have overlapping interests in privatized border control. Chapter five identifies the multiple flows, technological, personnel, funds and data, maintaining Europe’s border infrastructure, As migrants are circulated between detention camps and countries, dumped in deserts...

  1. Integrated care across borders: possibilities and complexities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Evers

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this practice paper is to describe and analyse the possibilities and complexities of integrated health care across borders. First, we portray an ideal scenario for this type of care with a case of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis and living in the Dutch-Belgian frontier area. It shows how cross border care enhances continuity of care/tailor-made care and the other way around. Secondly, based on different literature sources, we describe actual regulations on health care across borders. We show that these regulations can be a major hindrance to integrated care. This raises questions on the scope and content of policies directed at both cross border and integrated care.

  2. Introduction: Cultural Production and Negotiation of Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Schimanski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The essays in this issue of Nordlit focus on how historical and contemporary border discourses, expressive and aesthetic representations, are generated, circulated, and interpreted in both local and global contexts.

  3. Corruption, Insecurity and Border control in Niger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi

    In Niger, building more border offices has proven insufficient to tackle the spread of smuggling, drug trade and circulation of jihadists in the Sahel. Instead, everyday petty corruption makes border control ineffective and, while apparently benign, this has severe consequences in contexts...... of volatile security. In this policy brief, Eric Hahonou argues that without complementary activities, the multiplication of border offices could even expand opportunities for corruption. Instead, security policy should focus on creating a culture of effectiveness including systematic and regular staff...... meetings, reporting, law implementation and sanctions as well as new modalities to reward border guards and other state agents. Because corruption is, to a large extent, embedded in the social norms of the users of public service in Niger, sensitisation among transporters, passengers and traders is crucial....

  4. Of States and Borders on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Struthers, David

    2010-01-01

    The space of the Internet is often described as easy to traverse with no regard for national borders. Yet few have considered what such easy border crossings on the Internet might mean to the ordinary people actually doing the traversing. Our qualitative study of regular Internet users in Kazakhs......The space of the Internet is often described as easy to traverse with no regard for national borders. Yet few have considered what such easy border crossings on the Internet might mean to the ordinary people actually doing the traversing. Our qualitative study of regular Internet users...... in Kazakhstan shows that the naming of a state-controlled space on the Internet, through the use of country code top-level domain names (ccTLDs), does in fact matter to the average user. People are aware of national boundary traversals as they navigate the Internet. Respondents in our study identified...

  5. Abuses at Europe’s borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Breen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Refugees and migrants have been regularly subjected to widespread rights violations by officials at some European borders. The EU needs to allow more legal avenues for people seeking protection to reach Europe safely.

  6. A puzzle concerning borders and identities: towards a typology of attitudes to the Irish border

    OpenAIRE

    Todd, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    State borders are typically held to shape categories of national identification. This paper explores this interrelationship in the light of empirical evidence drawn from research in the Irish border area. It begins by outlining a schema, drawn from the literature, which posits a movement from contestation of borders, to institutionalisation, to transgression. It then proceeds to show how this is reflected in scholarly and political interpretations of attitudes towards the Irish borde...

  7. Improving Nigerian Border Security -- A Comprehensive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    threats, overlapping jurisdictions between different agencies, presence of private sector businesses, and partnerships with neighboring states produce a...help us increase trade amongst West African states. Increased trade means that more goods and services will be produced , increased production means...Border Security, Cooperation and Integration, 69. 22. Adeola and Fayomi, Implications of Cross Border Migration, 6-7. 23. Ibid., 7. 24. Aluko Ola

  8. Economic integration and cross-border economic organizations: The case of San Diego-Tijuana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Mendoza Cota

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic integration between the United States and Mexico has affected the economic, political and social relations in the border region. The paper seeks to relate the increasing economic integration and business cycles of the economies of San Diego and Tijuana to the development of both national and binational economic organizations in the border region. The methodology of analysis uses both statistical estimations of the economic integration of San Diego and Tijuana and semi-structured interviews of economic organizations to analyze the increasing economic integration and the role and achievements of the cross-border economic organizations. The results showed that cross-border cooperation is predominately controlled by federal and state governments on both sides of the border. However, the main achievements of cross-border economic cooperation have been accomplished by local private organizations. The perspective of further local economic development greatly depends on both the possibility of increased involvement of federal governments and the growing encouragement of regional organizations.

  9. [AIDS along Brazil's borders, 1990-2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; de Castilho, Euclides Ayres

    2009-01-01

    To study the AIDS epidemic in Brazil's border areas, from the spatial and temporal perspective. This was an ecological study in which the cases of AIDS reported to the Ministry of Health of Brazil from 1990-2003 were grouped according to "hunger areas" as defined by Josué de Castro in the 1940s and according to 19 cultural subregions. Spatial assessment was based on incidence rates for border municipalities; temporal assessment considered the absolute number of cases occurring quarterly from 1990-2003 in each of the hunger areas studied (Extreme South, Midwest, and Amazon). During the study period, 7,973 cases of AIDS were reported from the Brazilian border areas: 648 in the Amazon area, 1,579 in the Midwest, and 5,746 in the Extreme South (populations of 668,098, 895,489, and 2,769,361, respectively). The subregions with the highest AIDS incidence rates in each of the three border areas were those near triple-borders, between more than two Latin American countries. Sexual transmission was predominant, with heterosexual transmission being the most frequent, followed by transmission by male homosexuality. These two categories accounted for 87.2% of the cases reported. The estimates of the trend parameter in the temporal analysis were 0.53 (P borders may be a strategy for territorial integration and for dealing with the AIDS epidemic, as long as social, economic, and cultural differences are taken into account.

  10. "Is it worth risking your life?" Ethnography, risk and death on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Seth M

    2013-12-01

    Every year, several hundred people die attempting to cross the border from Mexico into the United States, most often from dehydration and heat stroke though snake bites and violent assaults are also common. This article utilizes participant observation fieldwork in the borderlands of the US and Mexico to explore the experience of structural vulnerability and bodily health risk along the desert trek into the US. Between 2003 and 2005, the ethnographer recorded interviews and conversations with undocumented immigrants crossing the border, border patrol agents, border activists, borderland residents, and armed civilian vigilantes. In addition, he took part in a border crossing beginning in the Mexican state of Oaxaca and ending in a border patrol jail in Arizona after he and his undocumented Mexican research subjects were apprehended trekking through the borderlands. Field notes and interview transcriptions provide thick ethnographic detail demonstrating the ways in which social, ethnic, and citizenship differences as well as border policies force certain categories of people to put their bodies, health, and lives at risk in order for them and their families to survive. Yet, metaphors of individual choice deflect responsibility from global economic policy and US border policy, subtly blaming migrants for the danger - and sometimes death - they experience. The article concludes with policy changes to make US-Mexico labor migration less deadly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The California Border Health Collaborative: A Strategy for Leading the Border to Better Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Edwards Matthews III

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are hundreds of departments and organizations working on border health issues in the California/Baja California border region trying to protect and improve health without a collaborative structure that integrates jurisdictions and organizations. As a result, there is a need to effectively improve the health in the border region by coordinating these organizations to work together and benefit from each other’s best practices. The newly developed California Border Health Collaborative (CBHC can provide the leadership and collaborative culture to positively improve the health of the border region. This article aims to describe the development process of this collaborative to include key ingredients to success, the roles of mulit-level jurisdictions, and policy implications.This article describes the methods used to develop key aspects of collaborative leadership, strategic alignment and a common vision toward the building of this collective impact approach to border health. In addition, we describe the role of key local County (County of San Diego Live Well San Diego initiative, State, (California Department of Public Health- Office of Binational Border Health, Federal (US-Mexico Border Health Commission’s Leaders across Borders, Academia (e.g., University of California San Diego and San Diego State University and non-profit entities (e.g., Project Concern International, San Ysidro Health Center in forming the BHCC. Evaluating the consortium development process included a literature review of similar processes, a review of internal documents and an analysis of developmental events. To this point the CBHC has built a strong, cohesive collaborative on the U.S. side of the border. It is sharing and leveraging local expertise to address many border health issues. Even more importantly, the BHCC has reached a key stage in which it can effectively engage its Baja California, Mexico counterparts in a manner that will prove extremely powerful

  12. United States Border Security and Reserve Component Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-15

    goods, cargo, animals , and plants entering the country. The policy combines the three previously separate functions of immigration, customs, and animal ...terrorism, narco-trafficking, alien smuggling, and weapons of mass destruction. According to U.S. Army Colonel Paul Disney , Director of Operations...Paul R. Disney , USA Director of Operations Joint Task Force North Before the House Armed Services Committee; 1 August 2006; available from http

  13. Borders Uncorked: Exporting Wine to the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpern, Barbara E.; Odett, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Last fall, in an effort to raise awareness of Canadian table wines, the Consulate General commissioned a group of International Business MBA students from Walsh College, in suburban Detroit, to create the "Canadian Wine Exporter's Guide." This report, which was officially presented to Canadian wine producers prior to the tasting,…

  14. Combat Drug Zone 2010: The United States Southwest Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    become highly successful. The support resources and mechanisms are already in place throughout the country. Most US cities and towns 15 now...other violent crimes. The mechanism to support such a strategy of legalization would be revolutionary. Far ranging statue reforms would have to be...manufactures of the drug Ecstasy in Europe. This has forced government officials to combat this trend with law enforcement methods. 19 use is

  15. Countering Violence Along the United States - Mexico Border: Thinking Strategically

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Account JIATF-S Joint Interagency Task Force South NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement NAZTF National Arrival Zone Task Force NDCS...consultation and coordination with the Departments of State and Defense; and 4. Work closely with the governments of Canada and Mexico to enhance North...included within the broader enterprise, such as the North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ). 39 CHAPTER 7 MÉRIDA INITIATIVE This chapter

  16. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles; DHS’s Answer to Border Surveillance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    are not alone when they worry about how cartel violence may affect trade relations and tourism between the United States and Mexico. In border...affordable UAVs has captured the attention of military and civilian law enforcement agencies worldwide. These smaller, more durable systems are packed

  17. Threats to cross-border wildlife linkages in the Sky Islands Wildlands Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Vacariu

    2005-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing conservationists in the Sky Islands region is finding a realistic means to maintain historic travel routes for wide-ranging species crossing the United States-Mexico border. This challenge is made difficult due to the ongoing efforts by the Federal government to install additional security infrastructure to stem the flood of...

  18. Comparing Values in Education on the U.S.-Mexican Border, El Paso and Ciudad Juarez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippberger, Susan; Staudt, Kathleen

    A three-year study examined attitudes toward education and public schools through behaviors in elementary schools in two United States-Mexican border towns, El Paso (Texas) and Ciudad Juarez (Mexico). It looked at curricular civic rituals such as the flag salute, and more covert normative training found in classroom organization and management…

  19. The Border Crossed Us: Education, Hospitality Politics, and the Social Construction of the "Illegal Immigrant"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Dennis Carlson explores some of the implications of Derrida's "hospitality politics" in helping articulate a progressive response to a rightist cultural politics in the United States of policing national, linguistic, and other borders. He applies the concept of hospitality politics to a critical analysis of the social construction…

  20. Borders to Cross: Identifying Sources of Tension in Mentor-Intern Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Leslie Upson; Koballa, Thomas R., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    We used border crossing as a theoretical framework to explore the tensions that developed between two mentor-intern pairs during the course of a yearlong internship in high schools in the United States. Interviews with mentors and interns, and observations of planning sessions, teaching episodes, and follow-up conferences indicated that differing…

  1. The Effect of Borders on the Linguistic Production and Perception of Regional Identity in Louisville, Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Jennifer Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    A great deal of scholarly research has addressed the issue of dialect mapping in the United States. These studies, usually based on phonetic or lexical items, aim to present an overall picture of the dialect landscape. But what is often missing in these types of projects is an attention to the borders of a dialect region and to what kinds of…

  2. Teaching Citizenship and Values on the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippberger, Susan; Staudt, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    In the United States and Mexico, public schooling, as a government institution, has attempted to reinforce cultural and national values explicitly through civics lessons and implicitly through attitudes and classroom management. This study shows how schools on each side of the U.S.-Mexico border attempt to teach distinct national and cultural…

  3. The Border Crossed Us: Education, Hospitality Politics, and the Social Construction of the "Illegal Immigrant"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Dennis Carlson explores some of the implications of Derrida's "hospitality politics" in helping articulate a progressive response to a rightist cultural politics in the United States of policing national, linguistic, and other borders. He applies the concept of hospitality politics to a critical analysis of the social construction…

  4. Nonstate Actors and the Open Border Policy: The Border Security Case Study of Nepal and India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    49 3. Human and Drug Trafficking ...border policy, the Polish and German governments continue to address border security challenges, “including illicit trafficking of humans , arms...terrorists and organized criminals), human trafficking , technology, and corruption. As states respond to disruptive nonstate actors, which have implications

  5. Border regions as cross-border laboratories for regional and European integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with barriers to regional cross border police cooperation. Leading police officers in the Schleswig-Holstein state police have experienced that the Danish police in recent years has become more reticent in regional cooperation across the border, especially in relation to coopera...

  6. Border regions as cross-border laboratories for regional and European integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Battrup, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with barriers to regional cross border police cooperation. Leading police officers in the Schleswig-Holstein state police have experienced that the Danish police in recent years has become more reticent in regional cooperation across the border, especially in relation...

  7. Regional Joint Border Commands: A Pathway to Improving Collaboration and Effectiveness for Border Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Police xii SBI Secure Border Initiative SES Senior Executive Service SSP Secretaria de Seguridad Publica TSA Transportation Security...also been involvement from the Mexican law enforcement agency, Secretaria de Seguridad Publica (SSP) on the southwest border (CBP, 2009; ICE, 2009, p. 5

  8. Cross-border mobility and social networks: Laotians seeking medical treatment along the Thai border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochaton, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Drawing upon research conducted on cross-border patients living in Laos and seeking care in Thailand, this paper examines the important role played by social networks in patients' decision-making and on the itineraries they choose to seek treatment on the Thai side of the border. Due to the vastly contrasting situations between the two countries in terms of healthcare supply, and considering Laotians' increasing demand for high quality healthcare, a number of them have managed to satisfy their needs by combining cross-border treatment with the use of the healthcare facilities provided by their own country. This study consisted first of household surveys conducted in five border areas (2006-2007) in Laos in order to quantify and map out cross-border healthcare-related travel patterns. Afterwards, interviews were conducted with cross-border patients (55), Laotian and Thai medical doctors (6), Thai social workers (5), and officials working in public institutions (12). While socioeconomic and spatial factors partly explain cross-border mobility, patients' social networks significantly influence treatment itineraries throughout the decision-making process, including logistical and financial considerations. The social networks existing at different geographical levels (neighbourhood, regional and global) are therefore a powerful analytical tool not only for understanding the emergence of these cross-border movements but also for justifying them in an authoritarian political environment such as Lao PDR's. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The impact of cross-border reproductive care or 'fertility tourism' on NHS maternity services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, A; David, A L; Shenfield, F; Jauniaux, E R

    2009-10-01

    High order multiple pregnancies have substantial morbidity and mortality. Fertility treatment is commonly responsible for their conception and is available globally with variable regulation. We investigated cross-border fertility treatment in these pregnancies in a UK fetal medicine unit, recording mode of conception, country of fertility treatment, reason for non-UK treatment and fetal reduction. Over an 11-year period, 109 women had a high order multiple pregnancy. Ninety-four women (86%) conceived with fertility treatment of whom 24 (26%) had this performed overseas. Cross-border fertility treatment poses an increasing challenge to obstetricians. National data on its occurrence is urgently needed.

  10. Cross-border regional innovation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Rohde, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    elaborated through notions of geographical scale, proximity and related variety in a range of conceptual papers proposing CBRIS as a comprehensive framework for analysing regional cross-border integration. However, the empirical literature on CBRIS has failed to keep up with the advances in conceptualisation...... of understanding how suggested policy measures based on CBRIS reasoning have been implemented in border regions, and their effectiveness in promoting cross-border integration........ This paper discusses the reasons behind this mismatch which means that the concept still rests upon and draws policy suggestions based on a thin evidence base. Directions for further research are pointed out by underlining the need for holistic empirical validations of the concept together with the need...

  11. Lesion Border Detection in Dermoscopy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M Emre; Schaefer, Gerald; Stoecker, William V; 10.1016/j.compmedimag.2008.11.002

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dermoscopy is one of the major imaging modalities used in the diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Due to the difficulty and subjectivity of human interpretation, computerized analysis of dermoscopy images has become an important research area. One of the most important steps in dermoscopy image analysis is the automated detection of lesion borders. Methods: In this article, we present a systematic overview of the recent border detection methods in the literature paying particular attention to computational issues and evaluation aspects. Conclusion: Common problems with the existing approaches include the acquisition, size, and diagnostic distribution of the test image set, the evaluation of the results, and the inadequate description of the employed methods. Border determination by dermatologists appears to depend upon higher-level knowledge, therefore it is likely that the incorporation of domain knowledge in automated methods will enable them to perform better, especially in ...

  12. BTFS: The Border Trade Facilitation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, L.R.

    1999-03-18

    The author demonstrates the Border Trade Facilitation System (BTFS), an agent-based bilingual e-commerce system built to expedite the regulation, control, and execution of commercial trans-border shipments during the delivery phase. The system was built to serve maquila industries at the US/Mexican border. The BTFS uses foundation technology developed here at Sandia Laboratories' Advanced Information Systems Lab (AISL), including a distributed object substrate, a general-purpose agent development framework, dynamically generated agent-human interaction via the World-Wide Web, and a collaborative agent architecture. This technology is also the substrate for the Multi-Agent Simulation Management System (MASMAS) proposed for demonstration at this conference. The BTFS executes authenticated transactions among agents performing open trading over the Internet. With the BTFS in place, one could conduct secure international transactions from any site with an Internet connection and a web browser. The BTFS is currently being evaluated for commercialization.

  13. Formation and separation of root border cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driouich, Azeddine; Durand, Caroline; Vicré-Gibouin, Maïté

    2007-01-01

    Plant roots release a large number of border cells into the rhizosphere, which are believed to play a key role in root development and health. The formation and loss of these cells from the root cap region is a developmentally regulated process that is also controlled by phytohormones and environmental factors. The separation of border cells involves the complete dissociation of individual cells from each other and from root tissue. This process requires the activity of cell wall-degrading enzymes that solubilize the cell wall connections between cells. We present and discuss the solubilization process with an emphasis on pectin-degrading enzymes as well as the recently discovered root border-like cells of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  14. Meteors Without Borders: a global campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heenatigala, T.

    2012-01-01

    "Meteors Without Borders" is a global project, organized by Astronomers Without Borders and launched during the Global Astronomy Month in 2010 for the Lyrid meteor shower. The project focused on encouraging amateur astronomy groups to hold public outreach events for major meteor showers, conduct meteor-related classroom activities, photography, poetry and art work. It also uses social-media platforms to connect groups around the world to share their observations and photography, live during the events. At the International Meteor Conference 2011, the progress of the project was presented along with an extended invitation for collaborations for further improvements of the project.

  15. A CART extention using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature......-space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion...

  16. A CART extension using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature......-space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion...

  17. of the U. S.-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Meritet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the possible impacts of liquefied natural gas (LNG projects on natural gas prices on both sides of the U. S.-Mexico border in California. In that state gas prices are high and demand is expected to grow. Several projects for LNG facilities have been proposed and have to cope with public opinions against them. In Baja California, four LNG projects are under development given the rising demand forecasted for the next years. After a detailed study of the opportunity for LNG projects, we conclude with an analysis of the fundamentals of the current and future price formation in both sides of the U. S.- Mexico border.

  18. Crossing the Borders: An Eco-cinecritical Analysis of Plant Wars and Bird Without Borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ching Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay reads two Asian nature-oriented films from the perspective of ecocinecriticism,an ecologically minded film criticism. Plant Wars, produced by PTSTaiwan, questions the demarcation between native plants and exotic plants as well asbetween plants and human beings so as to remap the in-between border area. Thestorytelling method it applies is to feature 14 currently native plants as the maincharacters, and illustrates their relationship to aboriginal people, farmers, beekeepersand to other insect species. Bird Without Borders, also produced by PTS, tells the storyof the migration journey of a group of black-faced spoonbills flying 16,000 kilometersall the way from Tainan, Taiwan, to Japan, along the border of South and North Korea,to a remote island of China to look for feeding places and then back to Taiwan to spendthe winter. Different layers of border-crossing are shown in Bird. One similarity ofthese two PTS productions is the search for border-crossing so as to redefine or revisewhat the border means. Plant questions the biological categorization of the native plantsand the exotic plants; Bird illustrates how the crew physically follows the route of thebirds’ flight which crosses the national borders to provide a vision of remapping thenatural territory through challenging the idea of a fixed “place.” Both are seeking forways to trespass the man-made borders: Plant via environmental imagination; Bird viasome physical movement. While the title of Plant Wars seemingly expresses its positionmore strongly through “wars,” Bird Without Borders explicitly asserts a dream of noborders.

  19. Civic stratification and the exclusion of undocumented immigrants from cross-border health care*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M.; Waldinger, Roger

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework and an empirical example of the relationship between the civic stratification of immigrants in the United States, and their access to healthcare. We use the 2007 Pew/RWJF Hispanic Healthcare Survey, a nationally representative survey of U.S. Latinos (n=2783 foreign-born respondents) and find that immigrants who are not citizens or legal permanent residents are significantly more likely to be excluded from care in both the U.S. and across borders. Legal status differences in cross-border care utilization persisted after controlling for health status, insurance coverage, and other potential demographic and socio-economic predictors of care. Exclusion from care on both sides of the border was associated with reduced rates of receiving timely preventive services. Civic stratification, and political determinants broadly speaking, should be considered alongside social determinants of population health and healthcare. PMID:26582512

  20. Castrum Persiceta. Power and territory in a border area, 6th-9th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Santos Salazar

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the suggestions coming from recent historical studies on the concept of border, we mean to analyse the border area between the regnum Langobardorum and the Byzantine Exarchate in Italy. The subject of the research is the group of castra in the Emilia region along the territories of the regnum mentioned in the sources in the 8th century, and mainly the castrum Persiceta. The analysis shows how the frontier were an uncertain bordering ambit, an area of political separation, and tries offering an interpretation that, through the analysis of long term processes, points out the specificity of castra as framework units for the population and media between local powers and central political structures in the period from the 5th to the 9th century.

  1. Alcohol-related social problems among Mexican Americans living in U.S.-Mexico border and non-border areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2012-08-01

    This paper examines alcohol-related social problems among Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and in non-border areas. Interviews were conducted among Mexican Americans in the border regions of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (N=1307). Non-border respondents were interviewed primarily in Houston and Los Angeles (N=1288) as part of the Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Both the border and HABLAS surveys employed multistage cluster sample designs (response rates were 67% and 76%, respectively). In the bivariate analysis, there were no significant differences between border and non-border areas in the proportion of those with one or more social problem. In non-border areas, the prevalence of alcohol problems did not differ significantly by age. However, along the border the prevalence of alcohol problems was significantly different across age groups, with 18 to 29year old men and women having the highest prevalence. The final models showed no residence effect on problem likelihood. Drinking was strongly associated with problems. Although young border residents had higher problem prevalence rates than older residents, the logistic regression models showed no effect of border residence on the likelihood of problems, indicating that problems are due to alcohol consumption, not the border environment. The border, however, did appear to influence more drinking among young people. Regardless of residence, alcohol treatment and preventive interventions tailored to Mexican Americans are essential and special attention should be focused on younger individuals near the border.

  2. Felicitas Pauss - Physics without borders

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    With the goal of turning CERN into a truly global laboratory, the Director-General has appointed Felcitas Pauss to the newly created position of Co-ordinator for External Relations. In this interview with the Bulletin she explains how external relations will shape the future of CERN. "At CERN there is already an excellent atmosphere of international collaboration, of working together beyond political boundaries," says Felicitas Pauss, the newly appointed Co-ordinator for External Relations. "This is indeed a remarkable feature of scientific collaborations." When it was founded over 50 years ago CERN had the seemingly impossible task of stitching together a united European particle physics community from countries torn apart by the Second World War. Today this goal of collaboration is just as important, not only within Europe but worldwide. "The particle physics landscape has really changed over the past years," Pauss points out. "As...

  3. Managing Migration: Is border control fundamental to anti-trafficking and anti- smuggling interventions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Miller

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, globalisation and a growing concern over security issues, including transnational crime and terrorism, has shaped migration policies and the priorities of states. As migration rose to the top of many government agendas, a rapid tightening and regularisation of borders ensued in an attempt to keep undesirable, high-risk migrants out of potential destination countries. Concomitantly, transnational crimes, such as trafficking in persons and the smuggling of migrants, have been increasingly defined as border security problems. This article examines the extent to which border control is fundamental to anti-trafficking and anti-smuggling interventions, situating the debate within the wider nexus of globalisation and the securitisation of migration. Based upon their work with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC Regional Centre for Southeast Asia and the Pacific, the authors take the standpoint that given it is the sovereign right of each state to control its border and regulate migration, the human rights of migrants must be considered within this realpolitik. Clearly, though, this claim is highly political and contentious. In the article, we explore some of the tensions and contradictions that have emerged in this debate, and then develop an argument to suggest that it is possible for states to combine managed migration and strict border controls with the protection of human rights in the current context of globalisation.

  4. Managing Migration: Is border control fundamental to anti-trafficking and anti-smuggling interventions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Miller

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last several decades, globalisation and a growing concern over security issues, including transnational crime and terrorism, has shaped migration policies and the priorities of states. As migration rose to the top of many government agendas, a rapid tightening and regularisation of borders ensued in an attempt to keep undesirable, high-risk migrants out of potential destination countries. Concomitantly, transnational crimes, such as trafficking in persons and the smuggling of migrants, have been increasingly defined as border security problems. This article examines the extent to which border control is fundamental to anti-trafficking and anti-smuggling interventions, situating the debate within the wider nexus of globalisation and the securitisation of migration. Based upon their work with the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC Regional Centre for Southeast Asia and the Pacific, the authors take the standpoint that given it is the sovereign right of each state to control its border and regulate migration, the human rights of migrants must be considered within this realpolitik. Clearly, though, this claim is highly political and contentious. In the article, we explore some of the tensions and contradictions that have emerged in this debate, and then develop an argument to suggest that it is possible for states to combine managed migration and strict border controls with the protection of human rights in the current context of globalisation.

  5. Rush to the border? Market liberalization and urban- and rural-origin internal migration in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Andrés; Hamilton, Erin R

    2012-09-01

    In this study we examine the social and economic factors driving internal migration flows in Mexico. We pay particular attention to the effect that economic liberalization has had in encouraging migration to border cities. Our analysis of the origin and destination of migrants is carried out at a finer level of geographical detail than ever before. Microdata files from the 2000 population census allow us to distinguish urban- and rural-origin migrants to the largest 115 cities and metropolitan areas in the country. Our results indicate that economic liberalization, measured by the level of foreign investment and employment in the maquiladora export industry, strongly influences migrants' choice of destinations. However, economic liberalization fails to fully account for the attraction of the border, as do the higher emigration rates to the United States from border cities. Our analysis also reveals that migrants to the border region and to cities with high levels of foreign investment are younger, less educated and more likely to be men than migrants to other parts of Mexico. Rural migrants are significantly more likely to move to the border and to cities with high levels of foreign investment than urban migrants. The results of our study have important implication for other countries opening their economies to foreign investment and international trade.

  6. Epidemiology of bovine tuberculosis in Mexico, bordering the United States, at establishment of controlling strategies Epidemiologia da tuberculose bovina na fronteira do México com os Estados Unidos, por ocasião do estabelecimento das estratégias de controle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Enríquez-Cruz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A case-control study was carried out for determining epidemiological patterns at the beginning of the Mexican campaign against bovine tuberculosis (BTB in the State of Tamaulipas, Mexico, bordering the United States of America. From January 1995 to March 1998, 599 direct tissue smears of cattle from routine slaughterhouse inspection were analyzed for the presence of Mycobacterium bovis acid-fastness with Ziehl-Neelsen stain. BTB status was associated with year of diagnosis, age, breed, geographical origin of cattle, and type of slaughterhouse using the odds ratio (OR (95% confidence level. The prevalence at slaughterhouse surveillance was 15.36%, which was considerably higher in 1995 (41.38%, OR=5.78, PO estudo foi realizado para determinar os padrões epidemiológicos no início da campanha mexicana contra a tuberculose bovina (BTB, no Estado de Tamaulipas, fronteira com os Estados Unidos da América. De janeiro de 1995 a março de 1998, 599 amostras de tecidos bovinos, obtidas em inspeção de rotina em abatedouros, foram analisadas para a presença de Mycobacterium bovis, fixadas em corante Ziehl-Neelsen. O status BTB foi associado ao ano do diagnóstico, idade, raça e origem geográfica do bovino utilizando a razão de probabilidade (OR (com intervalo de confiança de 95%. A prevalência no abatedouro sob inspeção foi de 15,36%, consideravelmente maior em 1995 (41,38%, OR=5,78, P<0,0001 em relação a 8,09%, 4,42% e 10,14% para 1996, 1997 e 1998, respectivamente. Houve associação entre BTB e animais provenientes do estado de Tamaulipas (19,73%; OR=0.438; P=0.01, idade adulta (19,13%; OR=2,19; P<0,0001, Bos taurus (22,54%; OR=2,135; P<0,0001 e cruzamentos B. taurus x B. indicus (29,31%; 2,769; P<0,0001, e animais abatidos em abatedouros federais inspecionados (17,58%; OR=1,23; P<0,0001.

  7. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  8. Stress Resilience among Border Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Bobby; Vincent, Vern; Dugas, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors distinguishing Mexican American women living near the U.S.-Mexican border who are resilient to the experience of stress from those who are not. The study sample consisted of 418 participants ranging in age from 20 to 61 years. Data were gathered through a self-report survey instrument composed of…

  9. Implementation Issues of Cross-border Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) using the survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Scandinavia. The results of regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration extent, a...

  10. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...

  11. Estimating Border Tax Evasion in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Van Dunem, Joao Ernesto

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between border tax rates and evasion is examined for Mozambique using the methodology developed by Fisman and Wei (2004). We find that high tax rates are associated with high levels of under-reporting of import values and that tax rates have a strong and positive effect on tax ev...

  12. Lesson plan. Crossing borders: the globalization debate

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2008-01-01

    Students will consider both sides of the globalization debate—the benefits and the costs—by reading and discussing the article "Crossing Borders: The Globalization Debate" from the Spring 2008 issue of Inside the Vault. Working in groups, students will analyze statements regarding the benefits and costs of globalization, categorize the statements and discuss them.

  13. Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan

    This paper focuses on three topics in cross-border mergers and acquisitions (CBM&As) field: motivations for CBM&As, valuation techniques and CBM&A performance (assessment and the determinants). By taking an overview of what have been found so far in academic field and investigating...

  14. The border population effects of EU integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; van Marrewijk, Charles; Oumer, Abdella

    2012-01-01

    Border cities or regions are in theory more affected by the EU integration process than more central locations as it more drastically influences their transaction costs and market potential. We find a positive empirical effect of EU enlargement as measured by the growth in population share along the

  15. Crossing Pedagogical Borders in the Yucatan Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhauck, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A challenging intercultural teaching experience provided an opportunity for engaging embodied pedagogies that facilitated border crossings of language, age, gender, and experience. Influenced by the work of Augusto Boal, the author describes how improvisation, role-play, music, and drawing led seminary students in Mexico into sacred time and space…

  16. International taxation and cross-border banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998�2008 period. International double taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI. Furthermo

  17. International Taxation and Cross-Border Banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizinga, H.P.; Voget, J.; Wagner, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines empirically how international taxation affects the volume and pricing of cross-border banking activities for a sample of banks in 38 countries over the 1998-2008 - period. Home country corporate income taxation of foreign-source bank income is found to reduce banking-sector FDI.

  18. Cross-border flow of health information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Iorio, Concetta Tania; Carinci, Fabrizio; Brillante, Massimo;

    2013-01-01

    The EUBIROD project aims to perform a cross-border flow of diabetes information across 19 European countries using the BIRO information system, which embeds privacy principles and data protection mechanisms in its architecture (privacy by design). A specific task of EUBIROD was to investigate the...

  19. Borders and Borderlands in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    arbitration . This means that states do not necessarily view their borders as matters of existential import, but at most as subjects that may be... ethical , political, civil rights, privacy, and legal implications, the technology is rapidly becoming available to digitally tag, biometrically identify

  20. The context of leprosy in Brazil-Paraguay border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajalla, Maria Elizabeth Araujo; Andrade, Sonia Maria Oliveira de; Tamaki, Edson Mamoru; Waissmann, William; Diettrich, Sandra Helena Correia; Silva, Baldomero Antônio Kato da

    2016-01-01

    In Brazil, leprosy is endemic in three regions: the North, Northeast, and Mid-West. Counties with contiguous binational urban areas are characterized by a constant flow of people, goods, and services, which facilitates the transmission of diseases and influences the epidemiological profile of leprosy. The purpose of this study was to examine territorial differences in relation to the incidence of leprosy, focusing on border counties with contiguous binational urban areas or otherwise. Each county was taken as an information unit for leprosy cases reported during 2001-2011, based on data from original notification records of the state's Department of Health. In counties with contiguous binational urban areas detection rates showed tendency to increase, Virchowian (lepromatous) disease and disability grade II predominated when compared with Groups II and III: 0.64 and 0.54/100,000 inhabitants for Virchowian disease and 0.14 and 0.27/100,000 inhabitants for disability grade II respectively, and were associated with higher transmission rates. The findings demonstrate the role of border areas in maintaining the endemicity of leprosy.

  1. Beyond Our Borders? Public Resistance to Global Genomic Data Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Mary A; Cook-Deegan, Robert; McGuire, Amy L

    2016-11-01

    Prospects have never seemed better for a truly global approach to science to improve human health, with leaders of national initiatives laying out their vision of a worldwide network of related projects. An extensive literature addresses obstacles to global genomic data sharing, yet a series of public polls suggests that the scientific community may be overlooking a significant barrier: potential public resistance to data sharing across national borders. In several large United States surveys, university researchers in other countries were deemed the least acceptable group of data users, and a just-completed US survey found a marked increase in privacy and security concerns related to data access by non-US researchers. Furthermore, diminished support for sharing beyond national borders is not unique to the US, although the limited data from outside the US suggest variation across countries as well as demographic groups. Possible sources of resistance include apprehension about privacy and security protections. Strategies for building public support include making the affirmative case for global data sharing, addressing privacy, security, and other legitimate concerns, and investigating public concerns in greater depth.

  2. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakker, E. [AIDEnvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil

  3. Partnership and Cooperation Models in Cross-Border Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Slusarciuc

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at exploring the partnership and cooperation issues in cross-border areas in European Union. The theoretical part of the papers is defining the role of the borders in the framework of the European Union enlarged and it includes a review of forms of cooperation and principles applicable in cross-border cooperation considered by the Council of Europe and the European Union or the Association of European Border Regions. Further there are identified in the specific literature important challenges and key points that are marking the cross-border partnerships. The last part of the paper is focusing on some examples of cross-border cooperation, making distinction between two main situations: the border between Member States and the borders between EU and neighbouring countries.

  4. BorderTourism--- IntheCaseofShaTauKokTourismexploitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fangzhou

    2014-01-01

    The diversity is the foundation of tourism.Border regions witness the change of the history, and retain valuable heritages and unique vil ages. Because of the common border protection regulations, natural beauties and cultural landscapes can be also wel preserved, leaving abundant and precious tourism resources for younger generations.Combining with the sha tau kok border region and the surrounding site,analysis of the feasibility of border tourism and chal enges.

  5. Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Graniczny; Jonas Satkunas; Jurga Lazauskiene; Jiri Sebesta

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Workshop on "Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America" was organized in Managua, Nicaragua, 5-8 December, 2005 by the Working Group International Borders-Geoenvironmental Concerns (IBC), under the IUGS Commission on Geosciences for Environmental Management (GEM) and in the framework of the IUGS funded project "Application of geosciences for sustainable development of cross-border areas(GEOCrossBorder)".

  6. Hmong Across Borders or Borders Across Hmong? Social and Political Influences Upon Hmong People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasit Leepreecha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Hmong are a transnational ethnic people, because of their dispersal from China into Southeast Asia in the early 19th century and from Southeast Asia to Western countries from 1975 onward. However, even within the context of Southeast Asia and southern China, the Hmong are a transnational ethnic group, due to state boundaries and the enforcement of international laws.Scholars speak as though the Hmong population has crossed political and legal borders by their movement across state boundaries and international borders. However, I argue that it is the political, social, and legal borders that have cut across the Hmong people and subjected them to be citizens of different modern nation-states. Even in the present time, these borders still, and continuously, play important roles that cross and divide the Hmong people into distinctive subgroups and fragments. In this article, I will start by describing the generally understood situation of Hmong being across national borders, and then will explain my argument that borders are across the Hmong.

  7. Imagining and Imaging Borders: Understanding Borderlands for Global Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, V.

    2013-11-01

    Borders are increasingly complex human responses and social constructions in a world where globalizing forces confront basic human concerns for security and certainty. In an effort to provide a background to assess research directions for imaging borders, this paper explores what we know about borders, and what we do not know well about borders. Borders in globalization are the meeting points of globalizing forces of security, trade and migration flows with emerging technologies, self determination and regionalization around the world. We need to know more about how: self determination fuels secessions and new borders; borders result from complex rather than simple policy and governance issues; borders depend on the political clout of borderland communities; market and migration flows impact borders; and borders are always in motion. The paper shows how these organizing principles underlie the basic themes of border governance, flows, culture, history, security and sustainability. Finally, the paper offers two brief illustrations of border imaging to link this presentation to the following discussion of the workshop.

  8. 78 FR 35044 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Visa Waiver Program Carrier Agreement (CBP Form I-775) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland...: 1651-0110. SUMMARY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) of the Department of Homeland...

  9. 75 FR 266 - Customs and Border Protection's Bond Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ...] [FR Doc No: E9-30920] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Bureau of Customs and Border Protection DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY 19 CFR Parts 101, 113, and 133 [Docket No. USCBP-2006-0013] RIN 1505-AB54 Customs and Border Protection's Bond Program AGENCIES: Customs and Border Protection, Department of...

  10. 77 FR 1497 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Application for Withdrawal of Bonded Stores for Fishing Vessels and Certificate of Use AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... comments to U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Attn: Tracey Denning, Regulations and Rulings, Office...

  11. The Dutch-French Language Border in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemyns, Roland

    2002-01-01

    Describes language border fluctuations in Belgium as far as its Dutch-French portion is concerned. Examines the status and function of the language border in Belgium and of actual border fluctuations. Discusses two problem areas in detail: the "Voerstreek, and the Brussels suburban region. Language shift and language change through erosion in…

  12. U.S. Border Patrol Fiscal Year Statistics Southwest border sector deaths - FY 1998 through FY 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Southwest Border Sectors include: Del Rio, El Centro, El Paso, Laredo, Rio Grande Valley, San Diego, Tucson, Yuma Southwest Border Deaths By Fiscal Year (Oct. 1st...

  13. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-01-01

    The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At t...

  14. Opportunities for Cross-Border Entrepreneurship Development in a Cluster Model Exemplified by the Polish–Czech Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kurowska-Pysz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the analysis and evaluation of cross-border entrepreneurship development opportunities on the basis of cross-border cooperation, which has gradually evolved from consisting of bilateral partnerships to a networking model or even a cluster. The study conducted at the Polish–Czech border area indicates that, in terms of the development of cross-border cooperation, the economic sphere is lagging far behind social activities such as culture, education and tourism. At the same time, Polish and Czech enterprises are not sufficiently mobilized to develop cross-border entrepreneurship, although a number of support instruments in this regard have been proposed. Sustainable development of the border should take into account both social and economic aspects. An important research problem therefore becomes determining the possibility of boosting the development of cross-border entrepreneurship on the basis of the existing forms of cross-border cooperation, including cooperation in the social sphere. The aim of this paper is to define the conditions and opportunities for the development of cluster cooperation in the area of cross-border entrepreneurship. The author has attempted to resolve whether the intensity of cross-border cooperation can be a factor which mobilizes companies to develop their cross-border entrepreneurship and whether cross-border entrepreneurship can be further developed within the cluster model.

  15. Off-shoring and out-sourcing the borders of EUrope: Libya and EU border work in the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialasiewicz, L.

    2012-01-01

    The article examines some of the novel ways in which the European Union carries out its ‘border-work’- border-work that stretches far beyond the external borders of the current Union. It highlights, in particular, the role of EUrope's neighbours in new strategies of securitisation, drawing attention

  16. Centronuclear myopathy in a Border collie dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, S; Cherubini, G B; Shelton, G D

    2012-10-01

    A two-year old, male entire Border collie was presented with a one-year history of exercise-induced collapsing on the pelvic limbs. Physical examination revealed generalised muscle atrophy. Neurological examination supported a generalised neuromuscular disorder. Electromyography revealed spontaneous electrical activity in almost all muscles. Unfixed and formaldehyde-fixed biopsy samples were collected from the triceps brachii, longissimus and vastus lateralis muscles. Histopathological, histochemical and ultrastructural examinations of biopsy specimens were consistent with either centronuclear or myotubular myopathy. The dog clinically improved with supportive treatment with L-carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and vitamin B compound. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of centronuclear/myotubular myopathy in a Border collie.

  17. Antecedents of Cross-Border Acquisition Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John Ernest

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs), using survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Nordic countries. The results of OLS regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration...... impact on the success, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance. Taking a process perspective, this study specially focuses on the main implementation activities during acquisition process......, with the aim to empirically investigate their relative importance and joint effect on the performance of cross-border acquisitions. Such integrative understanding of how and why these actions explain acquisition success also yields important implications for managers....

  18. Cross-border cooperation potential in fostering redevelopment of degraded border areas - a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre Castanho, Rui; Ramírez, Beatriz; Loures, Luis; Fernández-Pozo, Luis; Cabezas, José

    2017-04-01

    Border interactions have reached unprecedented levels in recent decades, not only due to their potential for territorial integration but also considering their role in supranational processes, such as landscape reclamation, infrastructure development and land use planning on European territory. In this scenario, successful examples related to the redevelopment of degraded areas have been showing positive impacts at several levels, such as the social, economic, environmental and aesthetic ones which have ultimately related this process, positively, to sustainability issues. However, concerning to border areas, and due to their inherent legislative and bureaucratic conflicts, the intervention in these areas is more complex. Still, and taking into account previously developed projects and strategies of cross-border cooperation (CBC) in European territory it is possible to identified that the definition of common master plans and common objectives are critical issues to achieve the desired territorial success. Additionally, recent studies have put forward some noteworthy ideas highlighting that it is possible to establish a positive correlation between CBC processes and an increasing redevelopment of degraded border areas, with special focus on the reclamation of derelict landscapes fostering soil reuse and redevelopment. The present research, throughout case study analysis at the Mediterranean level - considering case studies from Portugal, Spain, Monaco and Italy - which presents specific data on border landscape redevelopment, enables us to conclude that CBC processes have a positive influence on the potential redevelopment of degraded border areas, considering not only urban but also rural land. Furthermore, this paper presents data obtained through a public participation process which highlights that these areas present a greater potential for landscape reclamation, fostering resource sustainability and sustainable growth. Keywords: Spatial planning; Land

  19. Cross-Border Landscape: Construction of Natural Heritage and Local Development at Bulgarian-Serbian Borderlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Markov

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normally nature is examined as a phenomenon which is subject to natural laws; it belongs to the field of natural sciences. In constructivist perspective the environment is subsumed under the symbolism of humans’ tradition and culture. From such point of view the very notion of nature is unthinkable without taking into account its existence and understanding in a specific social, economic and cultural context of definite time, space and society. In the proposed paper I proceed from this paradigm in examination of a definite natural landscape which, however, is divided by the political border. The research attention is focused on a region of Bulgarian-Serbian borderlands – the area where the Erma River flows. The river takes its sources in Serbia and though it is not very long, it is notable for passing the Bulgarian-Serbian border twice, and for its two remarkable gorges – the Gorge of Tran in Bulgaria and the Gorge of Poganovo in Serbia. During the socialist period this border region was under strong military and police control. The crossing of the border was formally impossible; the borderlands remained peripheral industrially undeveloped areas and were putted under strong depopulation. However, the lands on either side of the border preserved its pristine nature. During the last two decades the preserved natural landscape and certain nature objects have been turned into more important landmarks and included in the value scale of local communities as symbols and heritage. In result, the above mentioned gorges have become more important part of strategic priorities in the local policies of revival of these economically undeveloped borderlands in the Western Bulgaria and Eastern Serbia. Nowadays the local efforts are uniting through different joint cross-border projects and activities in the sphere of nature preservation and eco-tourism.

  20. Developing a simulation for border safeguarding

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Rooyen, S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Operations Other Than War (OOTW). Border safeguarding provides a platform to develop doctrine through simulation. Defence against aggression is replaced by arrests, and target damage assessment is replaced by the number of intercepts without kills... without the use of intelligent threat behaviour. Section 5 contains our conclusions. 2. Joint Control and Command Figure 1 shows how JC2 operate and communicate between the levels of war as defined in [2]. The levels signify Strategic goals...

  1. Effective Border Tax Adjustments for Export Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn P. Jenkins; Chun-Yan Kuo

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we address the administration issues associated with the most important border tax adjustments for export expansion. These relate to the refund of input tax credits under the VAT and the relief from customs duties on imported inputs used to produce exports. Such refunds in many developing countries are either not paid in a timely fashion or have been fraudulently overstated in the claims made by exporters. These become impediments that have frequently discouraged foreign invest...

  2. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    OpenAIRE

    Mourrain, B.; J. B. Lasserre; Laurent, Monique; Rostalski, P.; Trebuchet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-denite programming. While the border basis algorithms of [17] are ecient and numerically stable for computing complex roots, algorithms based on moment matrices [12] allow the incorporation of additional polynomials, ...

  3. Implementation Issues of Cross-border Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) using the survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Scandinavia. The results of regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration extent......, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance....

  4. Changing European borders: from separation to interface? An introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Nelles

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue is to address the evolution of European borders from a comparative perspective. This collection of papers spans a wide variety of topics in the realm of borderland studies. Although each engages with a single empirical or theoretical case collectively they identify nuances relevant to the theoretical elaboration of borders, and particularly contribute to the field of sub-national cross-border cooperation. In the course of its analysis each paper contributes to a broader understanding of the definition of cross-border regions; identifies a set of barriers to cooperation in these contexts; explores the role of identities on cooperation and of the role of borders in constructing those identities; and reflects on the socio-political meanings and uses of these international boundaries. This introduction discusses theoretical significance of these contributions to major debates in the study of borders and border regions.

  5. Small Border Traffic and Cross-Border Tourism Between Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisiewicz Renata

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polish and Russian cross-border cooperation is governed by lawful agreements. The enlargement of the Schengen Area had a significant impact on Kaliningrad Oblast relations and cross-border cooperation with its neighbours. The introduction of visas between Poland and Russia hindered and restricted local border trade which had for years been the only measure mitigating social and economic problems of the cross-border regions. Nevertheless, border traffic between Poland and Kaliningrad grew steadily, to exceed four million in 2012.

  6. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

  7. Say Hola: Crossing Borders, Enriching Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Michele; Farris, Pamela

    1998-01-01

    Describes a thematic unit of study, carried out in a kindergarten class, on traditional aspects of Mexican life. Describes class activities, unit objectives, and student responses in the unit involving geography, art, literacy, and Mexican culture. (SR)

  8. Intelligence networks and the tri border area of South America : the dilemma of efficiency versus oversight

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis examines the intelligence communities of Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay to determine how to better coordinate and share information between themselves and the United States to combat the emerging threat of terrorism within the border region shared by the three Latin American countries. The thesis argues from the standpoint that the primary intelligence effort should be economic and HUMINT due to the currently low threat l...

  9. Density-based parallel skin lesion border detection with webCL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, James; Kockara, Sinan; Halic, Tansel; Mete, Mutlu

    2015-01-01

    Dermoscopy is a highly effective and noninvasive imaging technique used in diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Many aspects of the lesion under consideration are defined in relation to the lesion border. This makes border detection one of the most important steps in dermoscopic image analysis. In current practice, dermatologists often delineate borders through a hand drawn representation based upon visual inspection. Due to the subjective nature of this technique, intra- and inter-observer variations are common. Because of this, the automated assessment of lesion borders in dermoscopic images has become an important area of study. Fast density based skin lesion border detection method has been implemented in parallel with a new parallel technology called WebCL. WebCL utilizes client side computing capabilities to use available hardware resources such as multi cores and GPUs. Developed WebCL-parallel density based skin lesion border detection method runs efficiently from internet browsers. Previous research indicates that one of the highest accuracy rates can be achieved using density based clustering techniques for skin lesion border detection. While these algorithms do have unfavorable time complexities, this effect could be mitigated when implemented in parallel. In this study, density based clustering technique for skin lesion border detection is parallelized and redesigned to run very efficiently on the heterogeneous platforms (e.g. tablets, SmartPhones, multi-core CPUs, GPUs, and fully-integrated Accelerated Processing Units) by transforming the technique into a series of independent concurrent operations. Heterogeneous computing is adopted to support accessibility, portability and multi-device use in the clinical settings. For this, we used WebCL, an emerging technology that enables a HTML5 Web browser to execute code in parallel for heterogeneous platforms. We depicted WebCL and our parallel algorithm design. In addition, we tested

  10. Density-based parallel skin lesion border detection with webCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermoscopy is a highly effective and noninvasive imaging technique used in diagnosis of melanoma and other pigmented skin lesions. Many aspects of the lesion under consideration are defined in relation to the lesion border. This makes border detection one of the most important steps in dermoscopic image analysis. In current practice, dermatologists often delineate borders through a hand drawn representation based upon visual inspection. Due to the subjective nature of this technique, intra- and inter-observer variations are common. Because of this, the automated assessment of lesion borders in dermoscopic images has become an important area of study. Methods Fast density based skin lesion border detection method has been implemented in parallel with a new parallel technology called WebCL. WebCL utilizes client side computing capabilities to use available hardware resources such as multi cores and GPUs. Developed WebCL-parallel density based skin lesion border detection method runs efficiently from internet browsers. Results Previous research indicates that one of the highest accuracy rates can be achieved using density based clustering techniques for skin lesion border detection. While these algorithms do have unfavorable time complexities, this effect could be mitigated when implemented in parallel. In this study, density based clustering technique for skin lesion border detection is parallelized and redesigned to run very efficiently on the heterogeneous platforms (e.g. tablets, SmartPhones, multi-core CPUs, GPUs, and fully-integrated Accelerated Processing Units) by transforming the technique into a series of independent concurrent operations. Heterogeneous computing is adopted to support accessibility, portability and multi-device use in the clinical settings. For this, we used WebCL, an emerging technology that enables a HTML5 Web browser to execute code in parallel for heterogeneous platforms. We depicted WebCL and our parallel algorithm design. In

  11. Borders as membranes :metaphors and models for improved policy in border regions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malczynski, Leonard A.; Passell, Howard David; Forster, Craig B. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Cockerill, Kristan (Cockerill Consulting, Boone, NC)

    2005-10-01

    Political borders are controversial and contested spaces. In an attempt to better understand movement along and through political borders, this project applied the metaphor of a membrane to look at how people, ideas, and things ''move'' through a border. More specifically, the research team employed this metaphor in a system dynamics framework to construct a computer model to assess legal and illegal migration on the US-Mexico border. Employing a metaphor can be helpful, as it was in this project, to gain different perspectives on a complex system. In addition to the metaphor, the multidisciplinary team utilized an array of methods to gather data including traditional literature searches, an experts workshop, a focus group, interviews, and culling expertise from the individuals on the research team. Results from the qualitative efforts revealed strong social as well as economic drivers that motivate individuals to cross the border legally. Based on the information gathered, the team concluded that legal migration dynamics were of a scope we did not want to consider hence, available demographic models sufficiently capture migration at the local level. Results from both the quantitative and qualitative data searches were used to modify a 1977 border model to demonstrate the dynamic nature of illegal migration. Model runs reveal that current US-policies based on neo-classic economic theory have proven ineffective in curbing illegal migration, and that proposed enforcement policies are also likely to be ineffective. We suggest, based on model results, that improvement in economic conditions within Mexico may have the biggest impact on illegal migration to the U.S. The modeling also supports the views expressed in the current literature suggesting that demographic and economic changes within Mexico are likely to slow illegal migration by 2060 with no special interventions made by either government.

  12. Bordering Binarities and Cognitive Cartography: What on Earth Does Literature Have to do with Border Transactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Moi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Although literature and poetry have numerous borders of their own,these are rarely assumed to have any significance for the world out-side the text itself. A number of reasons for this distinctive division certainly stem from the literary field itself. This paper intends to indicate the exclusivist stance of some theories of literature, and the inclucivist of others, before exploring the possibilities of bridging between borders in text and territory by reference to the life and literature of Oscar Wilde and a performative and imaginative analysis of Paul Muldoon's epigrammatic poem The Plot.

  13. People’s Health Service Preference at the State Borders [A Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turniani Laksmiarti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesian has 497 District consisting of 399 districts and 98 cities, some districts are adjacent to other countries with relatively short travel time and easily, so presumably there are 12.000 Indonesian citizens who went to Malaysia each year and the data of National Health Care Group international Business Development -Singapore claimed 50 percent of international patients seeking treatment in Singapore is a citizen of Indonesia. This study aims to describe of the state border regions, in particular aspects of health regulations. Methods:Operational research with cross sectional design, in which data are collected in the same time (the same fiscal year. The research was conducted in 2012 in Sanggau and Batam District. The unit of analysis is the health workers and communities in the border region. Results: People in the border region who have the financial capability prefer to have treatment in the neighboring countries because of the resources (personnel, health equipment in the border areas health facilities are still inadequate and the referral access to the capital city could not be reached by the people compared to neighboring countries’ hospitals. Recommendations:The government and local governments improve preventive programs and health promotion, improve the health facilities so that there will be no lost of foreign exchange from the health sector towards the neighboring countries.

  14. Neural tube defect surveillance and folic acid intervention--Texas-Mexico border, 1993-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-14

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are common and serious malformations that originate early in pregnancy. In the United States, approximately 4000 pregnancies each year are affected by the two most common NTDs (spina bifida and anencephaly). In 1992, the Texas Department of Health (TDH), with support from a CDC cooperative agreement, implemented the Texas Neural Tube Defect Project (TNTDP), a program of NTD surveillance and risk-reduction activities in the 14 counties that border Mexico. The project was initiated in response to an anencephaly cluster identified during 1990-1991 in Brownsville (Cameron County), Texas (1). Whether the high anencephaly rate (19.7 per 10,000 live births) was unique to Cameron County or was characteristic of the entire border was unknown. This report summarizes NTD surveillance rates for the 14 Texas-Mexico border counties for 1993-1998 and presents preliminary results of TNTDP efforts to prevent the recurrence of NTDs by providing folic acid to high-risk women. Findings indicate that the baseline rate along the border is high (13.4 per 10,000 live births) and largely reflects the rate among Hispanics (13.8). Although a longer period is needed to obtain definitive results, folic acid appears to be effective for reducing the risk for NTD recurrence in Hispanics.

  15. Of States and Borders on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shklovski, Irina; Struthers, David

    2010-01-01

    in Kazakhstan shows that the naming of a state-controlled space on the Internet, through the use of country code top-level domain names (ccTLDs), does in fact matter to the average user. People are aware of national boundary traversals as they navigate the Internet. Respondents in our study identified...... their activity on the Internet as happening within or outside the space of the state to which they felt allegiance and belonging. National borders are demarcated on the Internet through naming via ccTLDs and can result in individual expressions of various types of nationalism online. We find that cc...

  16. The new borders of Saint Louis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Delsahut

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In 1904 the Olympic and Anthropologic Games in Saint Louis, Missouri, were lost in the chaos of the Louisiana Purchase (Universal Exposition. Although the expected universal spirit, for a long time Saint Louis expressed racial prejudices of its personal. This paper shows up how Sport Sciences and growing up Anthropology acted together in sense of serving questioned causes like racial ranking and colonization right. They were important in improving a feeling of nation in North American that took in grant sport as part of its constitution. The Universal Exposition and Market of Saint Louis offered new possibilities in definition of technological, racial, geographic and corporal borders.

  17. Picking and Choosing the ‘Sovereign’Border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, Noel; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We argue that the continued persistence of borders is an effect of their constitutive role for the many dimensions of a social particular. States cannot choose to have a border; but they can and do make choices amongst the materials available on the various planes of inscription for bordering....... For contemporary states the planes have become increasingly disaggregated, in the sense that they do not fall into place at one and the same border. Thus, states have to pick and choose different articulations (often inconsistently) on different planes. We illustrate these ideas with instances, present......-day and historical, of bordering. A corollary of there being more need to pick and choose is that articulations of sovereignty change. So, sovereignty is increasingly the material of ‘sovereignty games’, where sovereignty is used as a political instrument. In sum, our theory directs attention to state bordering...

  18. Managing US-Mexico "border health": an organizational field approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Dogrul, Julie

    2006-12-01

    During World War II Mexican and US health professionals and organizations constructed a transnational organizational field to manage the border's public health problems. Despite barriers to inter-organizational cooperation, including disparate administrative structures and North-South stratification, the field's transnational approach to health on the border has continued for 60 years. Using archival data to track changes in the number and types of organizations, this article argues that the field practitioners call "border health" reconfigured during the North American Free Trade Association (NAFTA) decade from an era of loosely organized professionals to a specialized bureaucracies era. This change brought new vitality to border health, with transnational ties increasing and diversifying, but has not weakened entrenched cross-border inequalities. The organizational history of the US-Mexico border health field demonstrates how macro-politics and inter-organizational stratification shape transnational public health problems.

  19. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... a tourist attraction in itself, which benefits the local economies on both sides of the border. However, this potential is not taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. The article, thus, concludes with suggestions for the tourism industry to develop its image and brand by integrating cross...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...

  20. Comparative balance of border regulations in four neighboring Caribbean countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cristina Mantilla Valbuena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to investigate whether there is a potential for border integration among four adjoining Caribbean countries: Colombia, Nicaragua, Panama and Costa Rica. The discussion is part of the “cross-border” concept and the integration of subnational entities in two or more nation states, with particular emphasis on the role played by the societies that inhabit border regions. A comparative analysis model is used to assess border regulations in each country’s various territorial levels based on relevant legal elements, autonomous processes and decentralization. The article concludes that the more modern each country’s border regulations and constitutional, political and administrative reforms are, the greater the likelihood of cross-border integration. Colombia and Nicaragua have the highest potential for integrating their borders, whereas Panama and Costa Rica have the lowest potential.

  1. Temporary reintroduction of border controls at French borders inside the Schengen Area

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The French authorities have informed CERN that, in view of the upcoming COP21 Paris Climate Conference, France will exceptionally reintroduce controls at its borders with Schengen states for one month from 13 November to 13 December 2015. All border posts and crossing points between France and Switzerland will be affected by this measure.   Members of the personnel are therefore reminded that, when crossing borders within the Schengen Area*, they must carry: either, in the case of citizens of European Economic Area (EEA) countries and Switzerland, an official identity document (identity card or passport); or, in the case of non-EEA and non-Swiss citizens, an identity document together with a Schengen visa if they are subject to this obligation, or an identity document together with a residence permit issued by a Schengen state** if they have one.   The French authorities will make every effort to limit the impact of this measure on cross-border traffic, and wish to thank the members of th...

  2. Electricity without borders - The need for cross-border transmission investment in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancucci Martínez-Anido, C.

    2013-01-01

    An increase in cross-border electricity flows is foreseen in Europe in the coming decades due to large-scale penetration of renewable energy, the electrical integration of the Euro-Mediterranean region, the electrification of transport, and possible shifts in electricity generation dispatc

  3. Multi-TSO cross border balancing mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorens, Maria Luisa; Moreno, Laura; Fuente, Jose Ignacio de la; Junco, Paula; Arenillas, Jorge [Red Electrica de Espana (REE) S.A.U., Madrid (Spain). Operation Markets Dept.; Pereira, Pedro [REN - Servicos, S.A., Lisbon (Portugal). Gabinete Mercado e Liquidacoes; Chabanne, Colas [RTE Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, Paris (France). Markets Dept.; Apoyan, Lalake; Barbieri, Galileo [RTE Reseau de Transport d' Electricite, Paris (France). Cross-Border Market Design

    2012-07-01

    The balancing market integration has been highlighted as a necessary step to reach the European Union goal for the development of an effective, competitive single market for electricity across Europe. In this paper it is described the work done by RTE, REE and REN regarding the design of a non-discriminatory, efficient and reliable multi-TSO Cross Border Balancing Mechanism at regional level, extendible to other control areas. The implementation of this multi-TSO Cross Border Balancing Mechanism will aim at increasing the operational security, enhancing the Liquidity and Competition of balancing markets, facilitating the integration of energy produced by Renewable Energy Sources while optimizing the use of Interconnection capacities. With this mechanism, the three TSOs will be able to exchange to each other balancing energy through the available interconnection capacities after the last intraday market sessions. This mechanism will be based on a common IT platform where TSOs will share their available surplus of reserves and communicate their balancing needs. The available interconnection capacities will be taken into account in an automatic and centralized way. Two main options are investigated regarding the allocation method: on the one hand, the first come first served approach (FCFS), on the other hand, the ''social welfare'' optimization approach. (orig.)

  4. First Philosophy in the Border Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viggo Rossvaer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article will be devoted to such problems as a idea of subsidiarity, a cosmopolitan right and a visitor figure in context and interpretation of ancient and modern philosophy. The article deals with the concept of subsidiarity which is taken as a point of departure for the discipline of borderology, an academic study with Kantian roots. Borderology, according to the principle of subsidiarity, can present as a new field of investigation which invites philosophers and social scientists to replace a “top down” with a “bottom up” procedure. The figure of the visitor is close linked with the experience of subsidiarity which means the freedom and initiative below the level of State. In Immanuel Kant’s strategy for perpetual peace, the figure of the visitor launches a critique of a tendency to self-aggrandizement, characteristic of the modern State and thereby a defense of the political independence of local border regions. The visitor also invites us to see, think and work to liberate our own subjectivity from false voices of sovereignty. Kant articulates the offer of the visitor by bringing in the term Verkehr. Using Kant scholar Otfried Höffe,s methodology we show how idea of subsidiarity is overlooked in international political theory, explain some constitutive principles of borderology, from which is more important is the methodological principle of an intercultural discourse and presents borderology as an anti-Huntingtonian model for border studies.

  5. Seismicity at Jalisco-Nayarit Border, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F.; Camarena, M.; Trejo, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plasencia, C.

    2003-12-01

    Since 2002 a regional seismic network from Jalisco Civil Defense and University of Guadalalajara is monitoring seismicity at the northwest border of Jalisco block. With the installation of a seismic station on Ceboruco Volcano, by Nayarit Civil Defense, coverage of the network extends to east. Ceboruco Volcano is located on the Tepic-Zacoalco graben, the east border of Jalisco block, this allow us to begin to monitoring this area. The zone of Bahia de Banderas, between the north coast of Jalisco and south coast of Nayarit, probably on a tectonic triple point, is a region of high seismic potential. Activ tectonic structures and clusters in the zone of El Tuito and the Dam Cajon de Pe¤as have been identified. The seismicity in the north area of the bay is low, meanwhile in the south, where the bay is deeper, the seismicity level is higher with an East-West tendency. At the east, the Amatlan de Ca¤as-Ameca zone presents continue activity, here have been possible to locate events with local magnitude between 2 and 4. Tectonovolcanic events registred at Ceboruco station presents waveform with scattering. The seismic distribution of the coast of Jalisco shows parallel alignments to the trench throughout al the coast. Other perpendicular alignments to the coastline show active morphologic structures within the Jalisco block related to the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco block.

  6. "Crossing Borders" ja valmimislootuses Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia / Malle Maltis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltis, Malle, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    19. - 29. augustini EMTAs toimunud rahvusvahelisest suvekursusest "Crossing Borders in Interpretation of Classical Music and Jazz". Kooli välissuhete prorektor sellest projektist ja muusikaakadeemia juurdeehitusest

  7. "Crossing Borders" ja valmimislootuses Eesti Muusika- ja Teatriakadeemia / Malle Maltis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Maltis, Malle, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    19. - 29. augustini EMTAs toimunud rahvusvahelisest suvekursusest "Crossing Borders in Interpretation of Classical Music and Jazz". Kooli välissuhete prorektor sellest projektist ja muusikaakadeemia juurdeehitusest

  8. 47 CFR 90.383 - RSU sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RSU sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico... Communications Service (dsrcs) § 90.383 RSU sites near the U.S./Canada or U.S./Mexico border. Until such time as agreements between the United States and Canada or the United States and Mexico, as applicable,...

  9. 78 FR 32356 - United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... 178 RIN 1515-AD86 United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement entered into by the United States and the Republic of Korea... ``Korea'') signed the United States-Korea Free Trade Agreement (hereinafter ``UKFTA'' or the ``Agreement...

  10. 7 CFR 1212.32 - United States Customs Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Customs Service. 1212.32 Section 1212... § 1212.32 United States Customs Service. “United States Customs Service” or “Customs” means the United States Customs and Border Protection, an agency of the Department of Homeland Security. Honey Packers...

  11. The Impact of Land Border Security on Terrorism Financing: Turkey’s Southeast Land Border and the PKK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    LAND BORDER SECURITY ON TERRORISM FINANCING: TURKEY’S SOUTHEAST LAND BORDER AND THE PKK by Yunus Eren December 2013 Thesis Advisor...FINANCING: TURKEY’S SOUTHEAST LAND BORDER AND THE PKK 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Yunus Eren 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...of terrorist organizations takes an important place in countering terrorism. This thesis focuses on the Kurdistan Workers’ Party ( PKK ) financing

  12. Effect of the US-Mexico border region in cardiovascular mortality: ecological time trend analysis of Mexican border and non-border municipalities from 1998 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Gabriel; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2017-05-06

    An array of risk factors has been associated with cardiovascular diseases, and developing nations are becoming disproportionately affected by such diseases. Cardiovascular diseases have been reported to be highly prevalent in the Mexican population, but local mortality data is poor. The Mexican side of the US-Mexico border has a culture that is closely related to a developed nation and therefore may share the same risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. We wanted to explore if there was higher cardiovascular mortality in the border region of Mexico compared to the rest of the nation. We conducted a population based cross-sectional time series analysis to estimate the effects of education, insurance and municipal size in Mexican border (n = 38) and non-border municipalities (n = 2360) and its association with cardiovascular age-adjusted mortality rates between the years 1998-2012. We used a mixed effect linear model with random effect estimation and repeated measurements to compare the main outcome variable (mortality rate), the covariates (education, insurance and population size) and the geographic delimiter (border/non-border). Mortality due to cardiovascular disease was consistently higher in the municipalities along the US-Mexico border, showing a difference of 78 · 5 (95% CI 58 · 7-98 · 3, p size and higher education levels showed a reduction in cardiovascular mortality of 12 · 6 (95% CI 11 · 4-13 · 8, p Mexico border region is disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease mortality as compared to the non-border region of Mexico. This was not explained by education, population density, or insurance coverage. Proximity to the US culture and related diet and habits can be explanations of the increasing mortality trend.

  13. Who’s Who at the Border? A rights-based approach to identifying human trafficking at international borders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marika McAdam

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available International borders are widely touted as bastions in the fight against trafficking in persons. This article acknowledges the important role border officials play in preventing human trafficking, but calls for expectations to be tempered by deference to the conceptual complexity of cross-border trafficking and the migration processes involved. The fact that many trafficked victims begin their journeys as irregular or smuggled migrants highlights the challenge posed to border officials in identifying trafficked persons among the people they encounter. Indicators of trafficking generally relate to the exploitation phase, leaving border officials with little guidance as to how persons vulnerable to trafficking can be accurately identified before any exploitation has occurred. Ultimately, this paper advocates a pragmatic rights-based approach in designating anti-trafficking functions to border officials. A rights-based approach to border control acknowledges the core work of border officials as being to uphold border integrity, while ensuring that their performance of this role does not jeopardise the rights of those they intercept nor result in missed opportunities for specialists to identify trafficked persons and other vulnerable people among them.

  14. Criminal offences in trans-border territories. Drug trade in the Province of Tamarugal, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Corder Tapia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research addresses the drug trade in Tamarugal Province for the years 2003 to 2010, through an analysis of crime statistics from the police (Chilean Carabineros and Police Investigations Unit, and penal system institutions (National Prison Service and the Office of the Prosecutor. The analysis of the drug trade situates the drug trafficking issue in the international context of globalization and in a border area emergency that does not necessarily correspond to the traditional definition of the nation state. The research proposes to situate this issue of criminal offence in the context of the international legal order, focusing on the specific characteristics of the Tarapacá region and its condition as a trans border territory. It also proposes to situate this issue in a regional context, as well as in terms of the efforts of the international order to control illegal trafficking of drugs.

  15. Male preventive health behaviors: perceptions from men, women, and clinical staff along the U.S. Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer B; Fernandez, Maria Lourdes; Lacy-Martinez, Charles R; Dunne-Sosa, Andrea M; Coe, M Kathryn

    2007-12-01

    Mexican American males have higher levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides, higher body mass indexes, and a higher prevalence of diabetes than do non-Hispanic White males. They are the least likely Hispanic subgroup to be insured, to have recently visited a physician, or to have preventive exams. To explore factors related to the use of preventive exams among mature men, and specifically among Mexican American men residing along the Arizona, United States/Sonora, Mexico border, information on barriers and motivating factors to male participation in preventive screening exams was collected. Interviews were conducted with mature men and women from a single border community and with clinical staff from three different border communities who deliver services to similar populations. Responses were triangulated. Common themes identified include health education/information/advertisement and female/family support as motivating factors and machismo/denial/fatalism as a barrier to male health-seeking behavior.

  16. Prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants: probability survey in the north border of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudelia Rangel M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of risk factors for HIV infection among Mexican migrants and immigrants (MMIs in different geographic contexts, including the sending communities in Mexico, the receiving communities in the United States (US, and the Mexican North border region. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a probability survey among MMIs traveling through key border crossing sites in the Tijuana (Baja California, Mexico-San Diego (California, US border region (N=1 429. RESULTS: The survey revealed substantial rates of reported sexually transmitted infections, needle-sharing and sexual risk practices in all migration contexts. CONCLUSIONS: The estimated levels of HIV risk call for further binational research and preventive interventions in all key geographic contexts of the migration experience to identify and tackle the different personal, environmental, and structural determinants of HIV risk in each of these contexts.

  17. Obtaining the borders of urban areas

    CERN Document Server

    Comin, Cesar Henrique; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura

    2015-01-01

    The access to an ever increasing amount of information in the modern world gave rise to the development of many quantitative indicators about urban regions in the globe. Therefore, there is a growing need for a precise definition of how to delimit urban regions, so as to allow proper respective characterization and modeling. Here we present a straightforward methodology to automatically detect urban region borders. The method is based on the density of street crossings around a single seed point associated to the urban area of interest. We exemplify the potential of the methodology by characterizing the geometry and topology of 21 urban regions obtained from 8 distinct countries. The geometry is studied by employing the lacunarity measurement, which is associated to the regularity of holes contained in a pattern. The topology is analyzed by associating the betweenness centrality of the streets with their respective class, such as motorway or residential, obtained from a database.

  18. Usability in Public Services and Border Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirelli, Giuliano

    The paper starts with a brief overview of the scale of disability and associated challenges and puts them in the context of the public policy on disability. It then analyses the usability challenges in public services and border control, including the issues of accessibility, safety and communication. These need to be addressed in future policy proposals, to provide the best assistance by new technologies to elderly people and people with disabilities, avoiding creating new barriers due to incorrect or incomplete initial conception. With increasing flux of novel security technology in mass transportation systems, and particularly the use of biometric identification in airports, the challenge of usability is recognized. This paper analyses these issues in the context of users with disability in an idealized process of Simplifying Passenger Travel (SPT).

  19. [Crossing borders. The motivation of extreme sportsmen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opaschowski, H W

    2005-08-01

    In his article "Crossing borders -- the motivation of extreme sportsmen" the author gets systematically to the bottom of the question of why extreme sportsmen voluntarily take risks and endanger themselves. Within the scope of a representative sampling 217 extreme sportsmen -- from the fields of mountain biking, trekking and free climbing, canoyning, river rafting and deep sea diving, paragliding, parachuting, bungee jumping and survival training -- give information about their personal motives. What fascinates them? The attraction of risk? The search for sensation? Or the drop out of everyday life? And what comes afterwards? Does in the end the whole life become an extreme sport? Fact is: they live extremely, because they want to move beyond well-trodden paths. To escape the boredom of everyday life they are searching for the kick, the thrill, the no-limit experience. It's about calculated risk between altitude flight and deep sea adventure.

  20. The coordination of care across borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    -savings, improved quality of care, avoidance of unnecessary tests, improved work efficiency, reduced waiting times and improvement in the overall efficiency of the healthcare system. Although benefits exists, healthcare organizations have experienced difficulties attaining them and overall adoption of e...... with implementing a new system, and uncertainty that the technology may actually reduce overall costs. The coordination of care across boundaries presents a plethora of issues that need to be tackled from a policy, legal, practical research perspective. This thesis attempts to address pressing issues...... with a particular focus on the implications health information exchange for the purposes of coordinating care will have on both the patient and healthcare professionals on three levels: international, national and institutional level. The findings of this thesis imply that in order for cross-border health...

  1. Frontiers, territoriality and tensions in bordering spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Comerci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansión of the agricultural frontier in the Argentine pampas implied a re-valuation of "bordering" spaces, which were considered "marginal" by capital. This paper aims at interpreting the socio-territorial impact -from both a material and a symbolic level- being caused by the expansión of the productive, business-profile [agricultural and oil] frontier in the center-west of the province of La Pampa. With the interpretative approach provided by qualitative methodologies, we intend to analyze -in a case study- how these frontier expansión processes altered and re-defined the social arena between the years 2000 and 2010, the social construction of the space and the power relations in Chos Malal

  2. POSTMODERN EDUCATION: CRITICAL AND BORDER PEDAGOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kurt

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the influence of postmodernism on education and investigates the main effects ofpostmodern philosophy on social sciences. It is clearly stated in the article that the effects of postmodernism cannotonly be limited to art and logically it should have an effect on education as well. This effect, described as thepostmodern educational approach, emphasizes that the rudiments of popular culture should also be incorporated toeducation and therefore to curricula. Postmodern educational approach also accentuates the significance of allowing‘others’ who have never possessed the opportunity to articulate their standpoints and desires to have a say in their owneducation. The concrete reflections of postmodern educational approach can be perceived in Critical and BorderPedagogies theorized by Henry A. Giroux. Critical pedagogy aspires to educate individuals who do not acceptoccurrences as they are and are critical of the knowledge they construct all through their education. Only by this waythese individuals will be able to discover their own voices, improve their civilian consciousness by taking risks, andacquire the ability of staying alive and functioning within social relations, traditions and experiences. Border pedagogyis as well a product of postmodern philosophy. It defends counter-text as opposed to the official ones offered, presentedand imposed to learners. Counter-consciousness represents the critical analysis of how the present reads the past andhow the past informs the present. This practice of course results in the re-evaluation of memories and traditions.Memories are the stories which were forgotten or ignored with the support of preserved traditions. It is thereforeconcluded in the article that postmodern educational approach is the critical examination towards dismissing the mainnarratives and discourses which manipulate and configure the curriculum of schools. It is the struggle exercisedtowards the recognition

  3. Editorial: Human rights at the border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Molland

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It is with great honour that I introduce the second issue of the Anti-Trafficking Review (ATR. The first issue received an overwhelming response and has placed the journal at the forefront of rigorous analysis and debate relating to human trafficking and human rights. It raised the topic of accountability in anti-trafficking. This issue hopes to further strengthen the ATR’s position as a global, reputable journal on human trafficking. Strengthening the quality of research, analysis, and reflexivity in the trafficking sector is much needed, and I echo Anne Gallagher’s observation as guest editor of the first issue that standards in anti-trafficking research tend to be less rigorous than in other fields of study. My aim as a guest editor is to contribute to addressing this shortfall by bringing together a set of diverse and insightful articles focussing on the nexus of borders and human rights. It is also my hope that this issue will work towards narrowing the divide between practitioners and academics in anti-trafficking. This is reflected in the varied range of contributors. The last few years have witnessed a significant increase in publishing relating to human trafficking worldwide. However, there is limited measured debate and appraisal of this literature within the anti-trafficking sector. For this reason we have decided to include a book review as a way of highlighting recent major publications. The question of borders, migration control, trafficking and human rights raise contested and controversial questions. The editorial team has attempted to include different perspectives, reflected in the debate section in particular. Needless to say, all papers have been subject to double blind peer review.

  4. Cross-border firing and injury patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nital Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cross-border firing are increasingly being common in the modern era. The injuries resulting from these low intensity conflicts are a source of anxiety among treating physicians and their respective governments. The provisions are required to minimise the suffering of the victims viz. Mode of injuries, mortality patterns, adequacy of treatment at pre-hospital and tertiary care hospital and provisions to decrease morbidity and mortality for the people living in these areas. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in GMCH, Jammu who suffered injuries due to cross border firing in the month of October, 2014. 68 patients were reported in the causality wing. All the patients were referred from level 2 trauma centre. There were 51 males and 17 females out of which 5 were children. The cause of injury, involvement of organ system, cause of mortality and morbidity and loopholes in prehospital management were identified. Results: Sharpnel were the most common cause of injury followed by indirect trauma. The common cause of mortality was abdominal and thoracic injuries. There were 4 deaths at hospital 2 of which were brought dead and 2 died during the course of treatment. There were twenty patients with extremity injuries, fourteen with chest trauma, eleven with abdomen including parineal injuries, three with head injuries, eight with ENT injuries, three with eye injuries and nine with splinters in the back out of which two were in the spinal canal. Conclusion: Prehospital stabilisation, early transport, in-transit resuscitation, immediate surgery if required and implementation of triage model and ATLS protocol has been the key to reduce mortality and morbidity.

  5. In Harm’s Way: Family Separation, Immigration Enforcement Programs and Security on the US-Mexico Border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Slack

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Consequence Delivery System (CDS is a suite of border and immigration enforcement programs designed to increase the penalties associated with unauthorized migration in order to convince people not to return (Rosenblum 2013. Despite its inauguration in 2011, many aspects of the CDS are not new. CDS does however, mark a shift from the deterrent strategy that, in the 1990s that relied heavily on the dangers of the natural terrain to dissuade unauthorized border crossers, to one that actively punishes, incarcerates, and criminalizes them. This article presents findings from the Migrant Border Crossing Study, a random sample survey of 1,100 recently deported migrants in six cities in Mexico conducted between 2009 and 2012. It examines the demographics and family ties of deportees, their experiences with immigration enforcement practices and programs under the CDS, and how these programs have reshaped contemporary migration and deportation along the US-Mexico border. The article covers programs such as criminal prosecutions of illegal entries under Operation Streamline, and the Alien Transfer and Exit Program (ATEP or lateral repatriation program which returns immigrants to different locations from where they illegally entered. In relationship to these programs, it considers issues of due process and treatment of deportees in US custody. It also examines interior enforcement under Secure Communities, which, during the study period, comprised part of the overarching border security plan, and screened virtually everybody arrested in the United States against immigration databases.The article concludes that these programs do not have a strong deterrent effect. Instead, immigration enforcement has led to a “caging effect” over the past two decades which has disrupted seasonal migration flows, increased familial and social ties to the United States, and decreased the probability of returning to Mexico once in the United States. The development of

  6. Cross border reproductive care in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Mouzon, J; Pennings, G; Ferraretti, A P

    2010-01-01

    The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients.......The quantity and the reasons for seeking cross border reproductive care are unknown. The present article provides a picture of this activity in six selected European countries receiving patients....

  7. 77 FR 38076 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of SGS North America, Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security... petroleum and petroleum products, organic chemicals and vegetable oils for customs purposes, in...

  8. 76 FR 65207 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Cancellation of Customs Broker Licenses AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: General notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 641 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, (19 U.S.C. 1641) and the U.S. Customs...

  9. 15 CFR 30.17 - Customs and Border Protection regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs and Border Protection regulations. 30.17 Section 30.17 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade... Requirements § 30.17 Customs and Border Protection regulations. Refer to the DHS's CBP regulations, 19 CFR...

  10. 77 FR 59206 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Foreign Assembler's Declaration AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), Department of Homeland Security. ACTION: 60-day... November 26, 2012, to be assured of consideration. ADDRESSES: Direct all written comments to U.S....

  11. 75 FR 70937 - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Accreditation and Approval of Robinson International (USA) Inc., as a Commercial Gauger and Laboratory AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of... been approved to gauge and accredited to test petroleum and petroleum products for customs purposes,...

  12. Cross-border mobility, unfamiliarity and development policy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, B.; Velde, M. van der

    2013-01-01

    In this special issue, we seek to explore experiences, performances and effects of both “unfamiliarity” and “familiarity” across a diversity of inner and outer borders of the European Union. In EU integration discourse, cross-border unfamiliarity is usually considered to obstruct international mobil

  13. On the assessment of cross-border regions' development potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilchak M. V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to assess the potential of cross-border region development on the basis of theoretical and methodological materials. The study examines the Kaliningrad region and Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship. The article is focused on the modelling of interindustry balance and export/import functions of border territories.

  14. The Maritime and Border Regions of Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corner, Trevor

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the diversity of languages in Western Europe and the peripheralization of maritime and border languages through isolation, domination by other languages, and fragmentation of the culture. Discusses minority rights issues, suggesting rise in bilingual education implies border-language revival. 5 tables, 27 references. (TES)

  15. Cross-border cooperation in the Fehmarn Belt Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    Ph.d. thesis on cross-border cooperation around transport planning and regional development. Successfully defended on December 1st, 2015. Executive summary available on page V of the document......Ph.d. thesis on cross-border cooperation around transport planning and regional development. Successfully defended on December 1st, 2015. Executive summary available on page V of the document...

  16. 76 FR 41993 - Customs and Border Protection Officer Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... elements of those structures include: (1) A maximum entry age (to maintain a young and vigorous workforce... reference to a Federal occupational series--the Customs and Border Protection job series (GS- 1895). Two... border protection officer will be determined by looking back at the individual's employment history...

  17. The Green Room: How Border Walls Affect Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckrich, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    The proposed wall along the U.S.-Mexico border would significantly affect wildlife. Most animals cannot get past walls that are hundreds of miles long and many meters tall. Some species along parts of the border where a wall already exists, such as jaguars and ocelots, suffer from dwindling populations and difficulty finding mates. This column…

  18. Cross-Border Brides: Vietnamese Wives, Chinese Husbands in a Border-Area Fishing Village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyễn Thị Phương Châm

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the lives of a group of Vietnamese women driven by poverty and loss of marriageability to cross the border into China to marry men from the fishing village of Wanwei. Wanwei’s location, only 25 kilometers from the border with Vietnam, enables these women to make fairly regular trips back to their native villages to visit their birth families. Yet, despite the fact that they now live in a designated Jing (ethnic Vietnamese village, where a significant proportion of the population shares their ethnicity, their illegal residential status and recent arrival excludes them from the community of villagers who claim descent from Vietnamese immigrants in the sixteenth century. Despite the hardships these women face as a result of continuing poverty, lack of emotional intimacy in their marriages, and marginal social status, few see themselves as victims of human trafficking. Instead, most take pride in their agency and achievements.

  19. Cross-border innovation cooperation: Partner selection, national borders and knowledge bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2017-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark by focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection...... by taking the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was utilized to analyse cross-border innovation...... cooperation patterns of Danish firms focusing on their choices of foreign innovation partners. The results indicate that firm size and research and development (R&D) intensity have a positive effect on firm’s propensity to cooperate on innovation and that having R&D activities abroad as well as high level...

  20. Borders, Corridors, and Economics: The Keys to Stopping Cross Border Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    aspect of their organization. According to the book La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications for U.S. Mexican Security, La Familia came onto the scene in...La Familia recruits out of over a dozen rehabilitation clinics they operate. Once a potential recruit is clean they begin their training. The...Rep. Connie. Enhanced Border Security Act. Washington D.C., 2011. Grayson, George W. La Familia Drug Cartel: Implications For U.S.-Mexican Security

  1. Border Jumping: Strategic and Operational Considerations in Planning Cross-Border Raids Against Insurgent Sanctuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    military and cultural influence. Within month, the agreements rang hollow, as both nations lent support to the FLN.107 The French capture of Ben...Africa in Namibia, 56. 142 Truth and Reconciliation Commission, South Africa Report, 45. Kelly Bell, “Operation Savannah: Task Force Zulu and the...focused cross-border raids. Indigenous intelligence networks can also help preserve tactical forces by sharing cultural information that can affect the

  2. Rethinking Borders in Japan: Internal, Cultural, and Geopolitical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingyu Oh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Christopher Bondy. Voice, Silence, and Self: Negotiations of Buraku Identity in Contemporary Japan. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center, 2015. 184 pp. $40 (cloth. Koichi Iwabuchi. Resilient Borders and Cultural Diversity. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2015. 137 pp. $75 (cloth/e-book. Akihiro Iwashita. Japan’s Border Issues: Pitfalls and Prospects. New York: Routledge, 2016. 144 pp. $160 (cloth. The books reviewed here address three different borders in present-day Japanese society: internal, cultural, and geopolitical. It is rare for three different authors to concurrently publish monographs on Japanese borders from three different angles. This may be a sign of increasing consciousness within Japan on the issues of diversity, multiethnicity, old and new forms of discrimination, and continuing border conflicts with neighboring countries...

  3. Does smoke cross the border? Cigarette tax avoidance in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Lakhdar, Christian; Vaillant, Nicolas Gérard; Wolff, François-Charles

    2016-12-01

    This paper examines the impact on cigarette sales of the successive increases in cigarette prices in France from 2002 to 2004. Since the price differential between France and neighboring countries increased over the period in question, cross-border purchases became more financially attractive for smokers living near borders. Results from difference-in-differences estimates indicate that the decrease in cigarette sales observed in French border departments was around 20 % higher from 2004 to 2007 compared to non-border departments. The loss of fiscal revenue due to cross-border shopping since the tax increase amounts to 2 billion euros over the period 2002-2007. Our findings highlight the need for improved coordination of policies aimed at reducing tobacco consumption across European Union countries.

  4. Parhelic-like circle from light scattering in Plateau borders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tufaile, A., E-mail: tufaile@usp.br; Tufaile, A.P.B.

    2015-03-06

    We are reporting a new simple optical element to generate halos. We have observed interesting patterns of light scattering in Plateau borders in foams. In analogy to the atmospheric phenomena known as parhelic circle, sun dogs, and sun pillars, we have named the features of the patterns observed as parlaseric circle, laser dogs, and laser pillars. The triangular symmetry of the Plateau borders is analogous to the hexagonal symmetry of ice crystals which produce these atmospheric phenomena. Working with one Plateau border at a time, we have observed wave optics phenomena that are not perceived in the atmospheric phenomena, such as diffraction and interference. - Highlights: • We obtained halo formation from light scattering in a Plateau border using an experiment. • We explained halo formation using geometrical theory of diffraction. • An optical element based on a Plateau border is proposed. • We compared some aspects of the parhelic circle with the parlaseric circle.

  5. Trans-border (east Serbia/west Bulgaria correlation of the morpho-tectonic structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchoumatchenco Platon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Bulgarian and Serbian geological literatures, many maps, both geological and tectonic, exist showing the structures, but limiting them nationally. There are very few publications correlating the structures from both sides of the border and they preserve the local Bulgarian or Serbian names. Our aim is to create a base for the unification of the names defining the major morpho-tectonic structures: the Moesian Platform, the Miroč - Fore-Balkan Unit, the Poreč-Stara Planina Unit, the Krayna Unit, the Getic - Srednogorie Unit, the Supra Getic - Kraishtide Zone, the Serbo-Macedonian - Thracian Massif and the Vardar Zone, showing their synonyms from the Bulgarian and Serbian sides.

  6. Erasing Borders: A Brief Chronicle of Early Synthetic Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretó, Juli

    2016-12-01

    Synthetic Biology is currently presented as an emergent field involving the application of engineering principles to living matter. However, the scientific pursuit of making life in a laboratory is not new and has been the ultimate, if somewhat distant, aim of the origin-of-life research program for many years. Actually, over a century ago, the idea that the synthesis of life was indispensable to fully understand its nature already appealed to material scientists and evolutionists alike. Jacques Loeb proposed a research program from an engineering standpoint, following a synthetic method (experimental abiogenesis) and based on his mechanist vision of living beings, which he considered true chemical machines. Early synthetic biology endeavors, such as the premature experiments by Alfonso L. Herrera in Mexico, Stéphane Leduc in France, and John B. Burke in United Kingdom, were easily ridiculed on both scientific and ideological grounds. However, in retrospect, all those attempts should be considered as legitimate and sincere anti-vitalistic efforts to cross the apparent border between inert and living matter.

  7. School Social Workers in Texas: A Comparative Demographic Analysis of the Texas-Mexico Border and Non-Border Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cecilia; Landeck, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the role of school social workers as potential agents of change in the educational system, with a special focus on their major demographic characteristics in Texas and along the Mexico border region. The border region of the state has chronic poverty and limited educational attainment levels and demonstrates a need for…

  8. The Humanitarian Drone and the Borders: Unveiling the Rationales Underlying the Deployment of Drones in Border Surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, Luisa; Custers, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In these days economic and political pressures push for the deployment of drones’ technology in civil and commercial domains. This chapter focuses in particular on the deployment of drones in the context of border surveillance. Border surveillance is a shared competence between the European Union, t

  9. School Social Workers in Texas: A Comparative Demographic Analysis of the Texas-Mexico Border and Non-Border Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cecilia; Landeck, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the role of school social workers as potential agents of change in the educational system, with a special focus on their major demographic characteristics in Texas and along the Mexico border region. The border region of the state has chronic poverty and limited educational attainment levels and demonstrates a need for…

  10. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/7: A Generic Model for Cooperative Border Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Netzer, Colonel Gideon

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a generic model for dealing with security problems along borders between countries. It presents descriptions and characteristics of various borders and identifies the threats to border security, while emphasizing cooperative monitoring solutions.

  11. Inverting the Telescope on Borders that Matter: Conversations in Café Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorte Jagetic; Kramsch, Olivier Thomas; Sandberg, Marie

    2015-01-01

    of geopolitical as well as everyday life border practices find expression and take place. Inside this tension of multiple realities and politics, border theory is challenged and charged. It is the aim of the article to invite a furthering of ontological border politics in and across such conversations on borders...... that matter. Keywords: border studies, border theory, new comparativism, ontological politics, multiplicity, extra-territoriality/deterritorialisation...

  12. "Googling" for Cancer: An Infodemiological Assessment of Online Search Interests in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Forough; Lam, Alfred K-Y; Lim, Megan S C; Saremi, Nassim; Ahmadvand, Alireza

    2016-05-04

    The infodemiological analysis of queries from search engines to shed light on the status of various noncommunicable diseases has gained increasing popularity in recent years. The aim of the study was to determine the international perspective on the distribution of information seeking in Google regarding "cancer" in major English-speaking countries. We used Google Trends service to assess people's interest in searching about "Cancer" classified as "Disease," from January 2004 to December 2015 in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Then, we evaluated top cities and their relative search volumes (SVs) and country-specific "Top searches" and "Rising searches." We also evaluated the cross-country correlations of SVs for cancer, as well as rank correlations of SVs from 2010 to 2014 with the incidence of cancer in 2012 in the abovementioned countries. From 2004 to 2015, the United States (relative SV [from 100]: 63), Canada (62), and Australia (61) were the top countries searching for cancer in Google, followed by New Zealand (54) and the United Kingdom (48). There was a consistent seasonality pattern in searching for cancer in the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Baltimore (United States), St John's (Canada), Sydney (Australia), Otaika (New Zealand), and Saint Albans (United Kingdom) had the highest search interest in their corresponding countries. "Breast cancer" was the cancer entity that consistently appeared high in the list of top searches in all 5 countries. The "Rising searches" were "pancreatic cancer" in Canada and "ovarian cancer" in New Zealand. Cross-correlation of SVs was strong between the United States, Canada, and Australia (>.70, P<.01). Cancer maintained its popularity as a search term for people in the United States, Canada, and Australia, comparably higher than New Zealand and the United Kingdom. The increased interest in searching for keywords related to cancer shows the possible effectiveness

  13. Moving across the border: Modeling migratory bat populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscena, Wiederholt; López-Hoffman, Laura; Cline, Jon; Medellin, Rodrigo; Cryan, Paul M.; Russell, Amy; McCracken, Gary; Diffendorfer, Jay; Semmens, Darius J.

    2013-01-01

    The migration of animals across long distances and between multiple habitats presents a major challenge for conservation. For the migratory Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana), these challenges include identifying and protecting migratory routes and critical roosts in two countries, the United States and Mexico. Knowledge and conservation of bat migratory routes is critical in the face of increasing threats from climate change and wind turbines that might decrease migratory survival. We employ a new modeling approach for bat migration, network modeling, to simulate migratory routes between winter habitat in southern Mexico and summer breeding habitat in northern Mexico and the southwestern United States. We use the model to identify key migratory routes and the roosts of greatest conservation value to the overall population. We measure roost importance by the degree to which the overall bat population declined when the roost was removed from the model. The major migratory routes—those with the greatest number of migrants—were between winter habitat in southern Mexico and summer breeding roosts in Texas and the northern Mexican states of Sonora and Nuevo Leon. The summer breeding roosts in Texas, Sonora, and Nuevo Leon were the most important for maintaining population numbers and network structure – these are also the largest roosts. This modeling approach contributes to conservation efforts by identifying the most influential areas for bat populations, and can be used as a tool to improve our understanding of bat migration for other species. We anticipate this approach will help direct coordination of habitat protection across borders.

  14. Undocumentedness and public policy: the impact on communities, individuals, and families along the Arizona/Sonora border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Marylyn Morris; Boyle, Joyceen S; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this article is the health impact and implications of undocumentedness along the U.S.-Mexico border, particularly the Arizona/Sonora region. We describe the direct and indirect influences of immigration policies on the health of individuals, families, and communities. The Arizona border region maintains close social, cultural, and linguistic ties to Mexico, and the amplified efforts to secure the border have been dramatic on the region and on the people who live there. The 261-mile stretch across the Arizona-Sonora Desert is the most deadly corridor for immigrants crossing into the United States because they are at risk of being killed, kidnapped, and coerced into smuggling drugs or dying in the desert. Gang-related violence is pushing more Central Americans, including unaccompanied minors, to the United States. The impact on individual migrants and their families has been devastating. We examine the health implications of policy and applaud the actions of the Arizona Nurses Association and the American Academy of Nursing to address the health needs of border communities.

  15. An open mind to closed borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallet, Ulrike; Lefeber, Bob

    2017-04-01

    One aspect of "Science in tomorrow's classroom" is teaching geography students the basic skills and knowledge to play an active role in society as citizens. Topics that frame the development of good citizenship are wide-ranged and include climate change, migration and integration as well as democracy and identity. Often these kinds of topics do not allow for right or wrong answers or classroom lectures; it is more important to encourage students to find and discuss arguments with which to underpin their opinion. In this way, civic education is very suitable for active learning. Active learning is described as a method of learning in which students are actively involved in the learning process through (group) discussion, experiments or games. By doing so, students are stimulated to engage in higher-order thinking tasks such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation, which are inherent to becoming responsible, reflective and critical citizens as well as (future) scientists. It has also been shown that the use of active learning methods significantly increased the number of meaningful geographical relationships that students give in tests (Karkdijk, 2012). I, therefore, propose to use active learning to approach civic education in the classroom. Specifically, I used a "mystery" to engage students in active learning on the highly polarizing subject of migration. A mystery (Leat, 1990) is a didactic method that uses short bits of information to solve an intriguing question. A current polarizing subject in society and in the classroom is the migration from Northern Africa and the Middle East to Europe and the increasing number of terrorist attacks by individuals who have radicalised before, during or after their journey over the Mediterranean. In class, students were asked to solve this migration mystery: "Could the terrorist attack in Berlin have been stopped by closing the borders of the Mediterranean countries to migrants?" In order to solve this mystery and to find an

  16. Environmental exposure of road borders to zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blok, J. [Royal Haskoning, P.O. Box 151, 6500 Ad Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: Han.Blok@royalhaskoning.com

    2005-09-15

    The emissions of zinc along roads originating from tyre wear, corrosion of safety fence and other traffic-related sources have been quantified and validated by measured long-term loads in road run-off and airborne solids (drift) for 29 published case studies. The distribution pattern over the road border at various distances from the edge of the paved surface is assessed on the basis of 38 published case studies with measured concentrations in soil. For the impact assessment, the road border is differentiated into a zone that is part of the 'technosphere' and the 'target zone' beyond that technosphere that can be considered as part of the receiving environment. The 'technosphere' of the road includes the central reservation, the hard and the soft shoulder or, if one or both shoulders are not present, the so-called obstacle 'free zone' that is defined by road engineers. Pollution within the technosphere may require appropriate management of solid disposal and isolation from groundwater to prevent further distribution of pollutants to the environment. In the target zone along regional roads, the zinc load is about 4 mg/m{sup 2} year and this is of the same order of magnitude as that of atmospheric deposition in areas beyond the influence of roads (background). In the target zone along highways, the zinc load is increased in comparison to the background deposition. The average load of about 38 mg/m{sup 2} year is similar to that in fertilised agricultural land. Because most of the emitted zinc stays in the technosphere, the total amount entering this target zone along highways is limited. From the 140 tons of zinc per year that is released from tyre wear in The Netherlands, 64 tons is emitted in the urban area, 6.5 tons reaches to the target zones of all roads and only 1.1 tons of zinc will enter the target zone along highways. This amount will be further decreased by the application of porous asphalt in the near future. The

  17. Enhancing Surveillance for Arboviral Infections in the Arizona Border Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCotter, Orion; Vanskike, Frank; Ernst, Kacey; Komatsu, Ken; Margolis, Harold; Waterman, Stephen; Tippit, Laura; Tomashek, Kay; Wertheimer, Anne; Montiel, Sonia; Golenko, Catherine; Hunsperger, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Objective To enhance arboviral surveillance and laboratory capacity to establish a surveillance baseline for the emerging threat of Dengue fever in the Arizona-Mexico border region. Introduction West Nile Virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) are both arboviruses which are transmitted to humans by an infected mosquito bite during blood-meal feeding. The clinical presentations of non-neuroinvasive WNV and dengue fever are similar, and symptoms may include acute onset of high fever, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, nausea, vomiting, and often a maculopapular rash. More serious manifestations of these viruses include fatal encephalitis and meningitis in WNV patients and fatal hemorrhagic disease in dengue patients. Over the last decade, WNV has spread rapidly across North America, reaching Arizona in 2004, and has become a significant cause of human illness since that time. Even though dengue has been described as primarily a disease of the tropics and sub-tropical areas, there is a small but significant risk for dengue outbreaks in the continental United States as evidenced by surveillance efforts in Texas that identified local dengue transmission in 2005. In recent years, outbreaks of dengue have occurred in Mexico border states, most notably Sonora in 2010. That same year, Arizona had the highest incidence of WNV cases in the U.S. including number of neuroinvasive disease cases, total cases, and number of deaths per state. The emergence of DENV and WNV as important public health problems maybe have been due to non-effective mosquito control, global demographic changes (urbanization and population growth), increased air travel, and inadequate surveillance. Methods Vector mapping: Mapping techniques will be utilized to visually depict Aedes aegypti populations captured from previous seasonal public health environmental vector trapping programs. Laboratory capacity: Multi-state laboratory training by CDC Dengue Branch was held in October 2012. Surveillance: The WNV cases

  18. Rates and predictors of DUI among U.S.-Mexico border and non-border Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Mills, Britain A

    2013-10-01

    This paper examines driving under the influence (DUI) arrests and other related factors among Mexican Americans living in U.S.-Mexico border and non-border areas. Respondents in the non-border areas (primarily Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N=1288) of these areas, interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N=1307) were interviewed between March 2009 and July 2010 and constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents' homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. Border or non-border residential location was not associated with self-reported DUI, 12 month DUI arrest, or lifetime DUI arrest. An increase in consumption of 5 drinks per week was associated with an 18% increase in the chance of self-reporting DUI and an 18% increase in the probability of a lifetime DUI arrest. Binge drinkers were more likely to self-report a DUI event (OR=2.85, 95% CI=1.61-5.03; pDUI arrest (OR=2.81; 95% CI=1.43-5.53, pDUI as a major problem affecting Hispanics. However, while most correctly identified the legal blood alcohol content to drive in their state as .08 g/dl or lower, approximately one third of individuals were unaware of the legal limit. Compared to their non-border counterparts, border men were more likely to identify a bar/tavern/club and border women were more likely to identify a friend or relative's home as the places of last drink before the most recent DUI trip originated. In conclusion, border and non-border Mexican Americans are not different regarding DUI rates. These rates are high in both groups, especially among men. Intervention strategies to decrease DUI should be implemented not only in drinking establishments but also with families.

  19. Deaths in the desert: the human rights crisis on the U.S.-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androff, David K; Tavassoli, Kyoko Y

    2012-04-01

    Many would acknowledge that immigration is a major issue in the United States and that immigration reform should be a priority. However, there is little attention to the human rights crisis on the U.S.-Mexican border. As a result of tightened border security since 1994, it is estimated that over 5,000 migrants have died in the Sonoran desert. The criminalization of immigration has resulted in a human rights crisis in three areas: (1) the rise of deaths and injuries of migrants crossing the border in harsh and remote locations, (2) the use of mass hearings to prosecute apprehended migrants, and (3) abuses of migrants in immigration detention. These policies and practices have serious repercussions for the affected vulnerable population. Despite recent legislation designed to discourage undocumented immigration, such as Arizona's Senate Bill 1070, the deterrence strategy has not diminished migration--it has only increased the suffering and deaths of migrants. Humanitarian groups are working to prevent more deaths but also have been targeted for criminalization. The profession's ethics compel social workers to work with humanitarian organizations to prevent more deaths and to advocate for humane immigration reform.

  20. Identifying and characterizing transboundary aquifers along the Mexico-US border: An initial assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rosario; Lopez, Victoria; Eckstein, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    The transboundary nature of water dividing Mexico and the United States (U.S.) transforms the entire border region into an instrument of cooperation, a source of conflict, a national security issue, and an environmental concern. Reasonable data collection and research analysis have been conducted for surface waters by joint governmental institutions and non-governmental bodies. However, with the exception of the U.S. Transboundary Assessment Act Program (TAAP) (focusing on the Hueco Bolson, Mesilla Bolson, San Pedro and Santa Cruz aquifers), there is no comparable research, institutional development, or assessment of transboundary groundwater issues on the frontier. Moreover, data collection and methodologies vary between the two countries, there is no broadly accepted definition of the transboundary nature of an aquifer, and available legal and policy frameworks are constrained by non-hydrological considerations. Hence, there is a conceptual and institutional void regarding transboundary groundwater resources between Mexico and the U.S. The purpose of this paper is to bridge this void and characterize transboundary aquifers on the Mexico-US border. It reviews existing international frameworks for identifying hydrological and social criteria that characterize an aquifer as transboundary. It then assesses data from both countries to propose where and which aquifers could be considered transboundary. Finally, the paper proposes an agenda for assessing Mexico-US transboundary aquifers as a means for improving groundwater management in the border region.

  1. Unsettled borders and memories: a “local” indigenous perspective on contemporary globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Watson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a case study of decolonial counter-memory in contemporary indigenous artist Alan Michelson's 2009 Third Bank of the River. Installed inside the lobby of the tri-national border station between the Akwesasne Mohawk Nation, Canada, and the United States—the most legally disputed territory in North America—Michelson's artwork recovers the seventeenth-century Two Row wampum belt as model for reforming relationships at the border. This wampum belt memorializes a commitment between the Haudenosaunee and European settlers to co-exist in balanced interdependence and remains a key touchstone in indigenous political philosophy and activism. Interpreted in the post-9/11 build-up of state power at the disputed border zone, Third Bank proposes a model of international dialogue and nation-to-nation diplomacy that contrasts with the ongoing conditions of settler colonialism. It thus stands out as an important indigenous perspective on the widespread interest in memory in global contemporary art, in which artists are recovering a new viewpoint on contemporaneity through the reconceptualization of historical pasts.

  2. Structure and headship of northern border homes in the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice D. Vargas Valle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to describe the trends in household structure and female headship on the northern border of Mexico between 2000 and 2010, as well as the changes in their demographic profiles. There were three relevant trends: the increase in single person households, the slight decrease in extended households and the rise in female headship. These trends indicate the intersection of complex structural and conjunctural processes. On the one hand, population aging is an ongoing process, and the cultural processes linked to the value of individual autonomy versus familial altruism continue advancing as seen by the rise in men living alone and women heading households. On the other hand, conjunctural processes such as the economic crises and the recent migratory and security policies of the United States have influenced the reduction of internal immigration to the border and the increase of return migration from this country, which in turn have contributed to modifying the composition of border households.

  3. Satisfaction in border tourism: An analysis with structural equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Jimber del Río

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Border tourism is the temporary displacement of people to the dividing line between two countries contiguous areas. This activity promotes the economic development of these geographical regions. The aim of this research is to analyze visitors from the Dominican Republic and Haiti border. We propose the results of an empirical study with structural equations that show correlations between the attitude factor towards the border tourism, the value factors perceived by the tourist, satisfaction and loyalty of the visitor in the destination place.

  4. New lower bounds for the border rank of matrix multiplication

    OpenAIRE

    Landsberg, J. M.; Ottaviani, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The border rank of the matrix multiplication operator for n by n matrices is a standard measure of its complexity. Using techniques from algebraic geometry and representation theory, we show the border rank is at least 2n^2-n. Our bounds are better than the previous lower bound (due to Lickteig in 1985) of 3/2 n^2+ n/2 -1 for all n>2. The bounds are obtained by finding new equations that bilinear maps of small border rank must satisfy, i.e., new equations for secant varieties of triple Segre ...

  5. Red-Hot Sino-Russian Border Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IN the late 1990s, the Sino-Russian border in northeastern China which had been so silent for many years got busy in a hurry. In the border city of Suifenhe, with a population of only 40,000, and in Dongning County, with its population of 220,000, trains and vehicles drive by on the rails and the road day and night. The annual volume of goods crossing the border amounts to more than 6.5 million tons and the annual number of passengers passing through exceeds 2 million persons. Suifenhe and Dongning now rank first

  6. Woolfian border poetics and contemporary circadian novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anka Ryall

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Virginia Woolf’s circadian novel Mrs Dalloway (1925 has inspired many successors, some of them important works in their own right. Although few of these novels are as explicitly linked to Mrs Dalloway as Michael Cunningham’s The Hours (1998, more recent novels such as Ian McEwan’s Saturday (2005 and Gail Jones’ Five Bells (2011 clearly pay homage to Woolf’s use of the one-day format to reveal whole lives and show how those individual private lives are entangled in history. The essay highlights one particular aspect of these three works, their imaginative and often transformative reworking of elements of Woolfian border poetics, particularly the predominance in Mrs Dalloway of boundary tropes – windows, doors, thresholds – that create a sense of synchronicity between present and past. Adapting Woolf’s boundary tropes to representations of contemporary realities, all three novels in different ways suggest how the present is deepened ”when backed by the past”, as Woolf puts it her memoirs; that is, when the present is not only informed by a remembered past but experienced in terms of both re-enactment and renewal, continuity and change.

  7. Petrology of the Upper Border Series of the Skaergaard Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonsen, L.; Tegner, C.; Jakobsen, J. K.

    2009-12-01

    The Upper Border Series crystallized downwards from the roof of the Skaergaard magma chamber. It met with the Layered Series that crystallized upwards from the floor in the Sandwich Horizon that contains the last and most evolved rocks of the intrusion. Previous investigations of the Upper Border Series (Naslund, 1984) have shown that the compositional trends of plagioclase, olivine and pyroxene largely mirror those of the Layered Series. At the same time it was argued that the crystallization sequence in Upper Border Series differed from the Layered Series in that apatite precipitated before magnetite that, in turn, appeared before Ca-rich pyroxene. From the existing data the magma from which the Upper Border Series crystallized was inferred to be enriched in SiO2, K2O, P2O5 and H2O relative to the magma in the lower parts of the intrusion. This has lead to the conception that the Upper Border Series crystallized from a chemically different magma. Here we present new petrography, mineralogy and bulk compositions for samples collected in three profiles through the Upper Border Series (Kilen, Hammerpas and Brødretoppen transects). Although euhedral apatite is present throughout most of the Upper Border Series, we interpret a marked increase in modal apatite late in the crystallization sequence as marking its first appearance on the liquidus at the crystallization front. The plagioclase An% at this level in the Upper Border Series is ˜40 and is identical with plagioclase An% at the level of apatite-in in the Layered Series. Similarly, we find that the plagioclase An% at the onset of FeTi-oxide and sulphide precipitation in the Upper Border Series (52 and 47, respectively) and Layered Series are alike. Finally, we interpret abundant augite in Upper Border Series rocks before magnetite-in as a cumulus phase. We therefore conclude that the crystallization sequences of the two series are identical. The new bulk rock data reveal that the Upper Border Series and the

  8. TOPONYMS AS REFLECTION OF THE PECULIARITIES OF CRAFT ACTIVITY (ON THE MATERIAL OF SMOLENSK-VITEBSK BORDER-ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evseeva Olga Sergeevna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The geographical names are important units, representing the connection with the cultural and historical traditions and national-specific context of a specific time period; due to the inherent cumulative functions they fix and retain the essential features of a variety of information: linguistic, cultural, social, historical, psychological, ethnographic. The article deals with the toponyms, spread on the territory of the Smolensk-Vitebsk borderzone and recorded in modern lexicographical sources (toponymic and dialect dictionaries. The card index of geographical names collected by the author includes 1196 units, 604 of which are registered in the Smolensk border-zone and 592 in the Vitebsk border-zone. The conducted analysis allowed us to identify nine groups of the studied units, depending on the semantics of motivating word. Special attention is paid to the toponyms formed from appellatives associated with industrial activity, which was widely spread on the territory of Smolensk region in different historical periods. These units reflect the linguistic, historical, cultural and economic specifics of Smolensk-Vitebsk border-zone. The toponyms which present the development of mining, brick production, the manufacture of household utensils (glass and clay are the most frequent. The author reveals that the dialectal units and borrowed words confirming the close language contact among the frontier inhabitants, as well as Slavic vocabulary, were used as appellatives that served as the basis for toponyms. The results of the linguistic and culturological analysis allowed to conclude that the fragment of toponymic system, based on the craft activity of Smolensk-Vitebsk border-zone residents, testified to the community and the interaction between cultures and languages of closely related peoples – Russians and Belarusians.

  9. NAFTA: The World's Largest Trading Zone Turns 20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Tawni Hunt; Day, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Everyone under the age of 20 who has grown up in North America has lived in the common market created by NAFTA--the North American Free Trade Agreement. In a zone linking the United States, Canada, and Mexico, most goods and investments flow freely across borders to users, consumers, and investors. In 1994, NAFTA created the largest relatively…

  10. 75 FR 33320 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning a Lift Unit for an Overhead Patient Lift System; Correction AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... notice that it had issued a final determination concerning the country of origin of a lift unit for an...

  11. 76 FR 68067 - United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-03

    ... to trade in textile and apparel goods between Peru and the United States. The provisions within...] RIN 1515-AD79 United States-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement AGENCIES: U.S. Customs and Border... of the United States- Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. DATES: Interim rule effective November 3, 2011...

  12. Cross-border shopping and tourism destination marketing: The case of Southern Jutland, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated......-border shopping into tourism destination marketing strategies. The results have wider relevance for other border regions.......This article addresses the economic impact that cross-border shopping has on the local tourism industry and the ways that cross-border shopping is taken advantage of in tourism destination marketing. Southern Jutland–situated in Denmark just north of the German border, where border shops situated...... just south of the same border enable Danes to capitalize on the lower value added tax levels in Germany–is utilized as an illustrative case example. The data was collected by analysing the relevant tourism destination marketing material and via interviews with local destination marketing organizations...

  13. [The southern border and international migration from the perspective of NAFTA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, C

    1993-01-01

    "Constitution of a trade bloc between Mexico, the United States and Canada through the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in this decade has called attention to...the role of Mexico's southern border, Central American conflicts and migrations from that era. Relevant adjustments have been made to Mexico's policy in approaching problems regarding its southern neighbors. These changes respond largely to the perception held by larger economic blocs and migration generated by unequal development levels within these regions and countries." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  14. Leith Davis, Ian Duncan, & Janet Sorensen, eds. Scotland and the Borders of Romanticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann THOLONIAT

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Scotland and the Borders of Romanticism is a collection of essays written by scholars from Scotland, England, Canada and the United States which seeks to rehabilitate eighteenth-century Scottish literature within the wider canon of British literature. With this aim in view, the introduction, co-signed by the three editors, is legitimately polemical. The editors emphasise the role of Scotland in bodying forth not only Romanticism, but also major Victorian poetics (4. After having studied “Sco...

  15. Acculturation, depression, and function in individuals seeking pain management in a predominantly Hispanic southwestern border community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kristynia M; Monsivais, Jose J

    2011-06-01

    Acculturation does not inform practice in the acute or primary care setting; nor does it explain ethnic disparities in the recognition and treatment of chronic diseases, particularly chronic pain. As clinicians, it is imperative that we recognize contributing factors, comorbid conditions, and the impact of chronic pain on individuals and families. The purposes of this article are to present evidence that exemplifies the nonsignificant role acculturation plays in expression of pain and function of a predominantly Hispanic population on the United States border; and to identify more meaningful perspectives of culture that may lessen health disparities and improve pain management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Environment within the US-Mexico border: Environmental NGOs, new social partners?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Alfie Cohen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the role played by the ONG’S in front of the environmental damage in the border region, which we share with the United States. Its objective is to show the scope and the achievements, as well as the challenges and the goals of these new social actors. If we agree about the environment damage is one of the global issues, presented as an critical concern both for the Northern countries as for the Southern countries. The Mexico-United States borderline is an excellent test laboratory to verify not only the existence and action of new groups and social individuals, but also to bring to a discussion table the damage, chaos and environment dangers of this region shared with the United States.

  17. Shaping the Victim: Borders, security, and human trafficking in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Campbell

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Borders are productive sites where knowledge is gathered and migrant populations are formed. The knowledge gathered from victims of trafficking reinforces a victim narrative that represents a perceived threat to society by highlighting violence, criminality, coercion, and naivety. Using Albania as a case in point, the article looks at trafficked people and the narratives of victimhood that surround them. In the case of trafficked people, the border projected out towards other states produces a discursively defined victim of trafficking. When projected back within the national territory, the border essentially produces a criminalised sex worker. To argue this point, the article discusses the role victims of trafficking play in the EU and looks at how international norms espoused by the OSCE and IOM have prepped the Albanian border for EU ascension and created the means for governable populations within Albania.

  18. Integrated control of the South African border environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Taute, BJE

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available security, trade and tourism. Control of the border environment is inherently a multi-departmental responsibility, requiring extensive communication and coordination across departments, agencies and provinces, and covering the whole of the South African...

  19. Border Detection of Common Carotid Artery Using Hough Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Yoshiharu; Nagahara, Yoshihiro

    The arteriosclerosis is on the increase with an aging or change of our living environment. For that reason, diagnosis of the common carotid artery using echocardiogram is doing to take precautions carebropathy. The arteriosclerosis of the common carotid artery is diagnosed using Intima-Media Thickness (IMT) which is obtained from echocardiogram. In order to measure IMT from echocardiogram, it is required to detect a border which is a boundary between vessel tissue layers. The method of border detection requires reproducibility and high accuracy. The conventional methods to detect the border curve depend on differential value of brightness on the common carotid artery. Therefore, we can't extract a good candidate point by influence of a noise. In this paper, we propose the high-accuracy detection method by Hough Transform. About high-accuracy, it realized by attaching importance to high reliable candidate point of border.

  20. Health and Borders across Time and Cultures: Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Carrillo Garcia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of Portal brings together papers examining the intersection of health and borders. In this analysis health is understood not only as the absence of illness, but also as knowledge, as a right, and as the pursuit of identity and self-transformation. Similarly, borders here are used as both physical and mental constructs. The special issue represent a multidisciplinary effort that looks at health from a social science perspective through historical, socio-economic, and cultural approaches. It is also concerned with the health inequities across and within national borders, due to economic imperatives, changing technologies and environments. The articles in this special issue explore lessons learned and new ways of understanding health across time and borders, with specific reference to the cases of India, Australia, Hong Kong and China, Pakistan, and Thailand.

  1. The structure of borders in a small world

    CERN Document Server

    Thiemann, C; Grady, D; Brune, R; Brockmann, D

    2010-01-01

    Geographic borders are not only essential for the effective functioning of government, the distribution of administrative responsibilities and the allocation of public resources, they also influence the interregional flow of information, cross-border trade operations, the diffusion of innovation and technology, and the spatial spread of infectious diseases. However, as growing interactions and mobility across long distances, cultural, and political borders continue to amplify the small world effect and effectively decrease the relative importance of local interactions, it is difficult to assess the location and structure of effective borders that may play the most significant role in mobility-driven processes. The paradigm of spatially coherent communities may no longer be a plausible one, and it is unclear what structures emerge from the interplay of interactions and activities across spatial scales. Here we analyse a multi-scale proxy network for human mobility that incorporates travel across a few to a few...

  2. Status of mangroves along the countries bordering the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Distribution of mangroves in the countries bordering the Arabian Sea, including Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Gulf of Aden and Red Sea, is reviewed and their present status is discussed. The estimated area of mangrove vegetation is 1140 sq. km...

  3. The European Electricity Market and Cross-Border Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Adamec

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with basic characteristics and features of trading in electricity, especially in cross-border trading. First, the most important features of electricity as a commodity are explained, with the consequences for electricity trading. Then characteristics and changes in the electricity market after liberalization are discussed. This liberalization has taken place throughout Europe, and the consequences of this revolutionary change are still visible. The main features of electricity trading are mentioned in general. Then cross-border trade in Europe is discussed in greater detail. In this context the basic principles of the allocation of cross-border transmission capacities are explained.The next part of the paper considers the characteristics of the European electricity market from the trader’s point of view. Liquidity as a very important index is introduced here.Finally the most visible trends in cross-border trade and the most probable future development in this area are presented. 

  4. Measuring cross-border regional integration with composite indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Earlier quantitative studies on cross-border regional integration processes have commonly neglected science, technology and innovation (STI) indicators: even the most notable example of a composite indicator approach to measuring cross-border regional integration, i.e. the Oresund index, lacks...... a sub-category for STI. Consequently, by ignoring cross-border innovation and knowledge flows, the Oresund integration index fails to take into account one of the most important drivers of economic growth in cross-border regions. Therefore, a new composite STI indicator (sub-category) was introduced...... to strengthen the Oresund integration index. This was compiled from patent, publication and collaborative R&D project data. The findings show that this index performs reasonably well in depicting STI integration, while at the same time remaining simple and straightforward enough to be adopted in other cross...

  5. Definig the US-Mexico border as hyperreality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Duarte-Herrera

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The US-Mexico border has been defined as a periphery, as a transborder social system, and more currently, as a station in transnational circuits. The two first definitions presuppose the strongly criticized concepts of region and cultural area. The third definition shares, along with the other two definitions, the positivist epistemological supposition that the border is a specific entity that can be known and experienced as such by any observer, no matter their social site. This paper is to support the definition of the border as a hyperreality constituted by speeches, practices, and experiences of the different social actors. From this posture, the image of the border as a formal geopolitical division is interpreted as a sustained image and reproduced by government agencies. Likewise, this writing is to support the documentation and promotion of alternative images constructed and reproduced by social actors from different power sites.

  6. Signaling pathways and tissue interactions in neural plate border formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schille, Carolin; Schambony, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    The neural crest is a transient cell population that gives rise to various cell types of multiple tissues and organs in the vertebrate embryo. Neural crest cells arise from the neural plate border, a region localized at the lateral borders of the prospective neural plate. Temporally and spatially coordinated interaction with the adjacent tissues, the non-neural ectoderm, the neural plate and the prospective dorsolateral mesoderm, is required for neural plate border specification. Signaling molecules, namely BMP, Wnt and FGF ligands and corresponding antagonists are derived from these tissues and interact to induce the expression of neural plate border specific genes. The present mini-review focuses on the current understanding of how the NPB territory is formed and accentuates the need for coordinated interaction of BMP and Wnt signaling pathways and precise tissue communication that are required for the definition of the prospective NC in the competent ectoderm.

  7. Borders in Education and Living- a Case of Trench Warfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hviid, Pernille

    2016-03-01

    In this paper the notion of border will be examined in a cultural life course perspective. I will investigate borders as psycho-cultural constructions created to enable and control meaning-making in the intersection between subjects engagements and concerns and collectively constructed and guiding meanings. An empirical analysis of one boy's life course in and between home, school and a Leisure Time Activity Center in the years 1st to 3rd grade demonstrates a systemic construction of borders involving him, his teachers and his parents and renders the boy to choose between becoming an engaged pupil or a dedicated son. As such, the analysis can illuminate processes of school - home interactions that work opposite of what is intended and become detrimental to children's life. In a cultural life course perspective borders show how life is maintained as meaningful and not only guide the present living but also serve as directional guides into the future.

  8. The Sino-Indian Border: Is Conflict Inevitable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    99 viii ACRONYMS ADBI Asian Development Bank Initiative BD Border Defense BRICS Brazil Russia... BRICS ) which is emerging as a strong organization (one of the largest organizations in terms of population, area and trade). China has granted a

  9. Galectin-4 and small intestinal brush border enzymes form clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; van Deurs, B

    1997-01-01

    Detergent-insoluble complexes prepared from pig small intestine are highly enriched in several transmembrane brush border enzymes including aminopeptidase N and sucrase-isomaltase, indicating that they reside in a glycolipid-rich environment in vivo. In the present work galectin-4, an animal lectin...... lacking a N-terminal signal peptide for membrane translocation, was discovered in these complexes as well, and in gradient centrifugation brush border enzymes and galectin-4 formed distinct soluble high molecular weight clusters. Immunoperoxidase cytochemistry and immunogold electron microscopy showed...... by a nonclassical pathway, and the brush border enzymes represent a novel class of natural ligands for a member of the galectin family. Newly synthesized galectin-4 is rapidly "trapped" by association with intracellular structures prior to its apical secretion, but once externalized, association with brush border...

  10. EUROPEAN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS- REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Vancea Mariana

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of the economic and financial crisis on merger and acquisition activity in Europe and the latest trends manifested on the cross-border merger and acquisition market involving European companies. Thus, a first objective of this research is to reveal the evolution of the European cross-border merger and acquisition activity in terms of dynamics, volume and structure. Another objective of this research is to reveal the short and medium term perspectives on mergers ...

  11. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. Copyright © 2016

  12. Bastion on the Border: Fort Bliss, 1854-1943

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    THE BORDER border. Several smuggling rings even made canvas vests for their runners to wear so they could carry more cartridges per trip. There was...no lack of runners , especially among destitute Mexican refugees eager to earn a few cents per cartridge for carrying ammunition. They knew that if they...Aftermath /99 cavalry found it difficult to maneuver in a maze of irrigation ditches. Accordingly the Villistas were not crushed, but they were completely

  13. Cross-border acquisitions in the global food sector

    OpenAIRE

    Herger, Nils; Kotsogiannis, Christos; McCorriston, Steve

    2017-01-01

    Cross-border acquisitions constitute the main form of foreign direct investment in the world economy, the focus of this paper being to consider the determinants of the location and growth of cross-border acquisitions in the global food sector. The data relates to over 2,000 international acquisitions in the food sector from 45 source to 46 host countries. The results highlight the importance of market size, relative costs and stock market growth as important determinants. We also report diffe...

  14. SSL Demonstration: Area Lighting, Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area, AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-28

    Along the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona, the GATEWAY program conducted a trial demonstration in which the incumbent quartz metal halide area lighting was replaced with LED at three pole locations at the Yuma Sector Border Patrol Area in Yuma, Arizona. The retrofit was documented to better understand LED technology performance in high-temperature environments. This document is a summary brief of the Phase 1.0 and 1.1 reports previously published on this demonstration.

  15. Border Basis for Polynomial System Solving and Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Trébuchet, Philippe; Mourrain, Bernard; Abril Bucero, Marta

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We describe the software package borderbasix dedicated to the computation of border bases and the solutions of polynomial equations. We present the main ingredients of the border basis algorithm and the other methods implemented in this package: numerical solutions from multiplication matrices, real radical computation, polynomial optimization. The implementation parameterized by the coefficient type and the choice function provides a versatile family of tools for poly...

  16. Accountings of Selecting Sperm on the (ethical) border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    will analyze how women and their partners crossing the Danish border accounts for their donor choice, and their practices of choosing. I will be exploring the question: How are women and their partners accounting for choosing a sperm donor, crossing the (ethical) border to Denmark? The use of the term......-sited ethnographic fieldwork at a Danish private fertility clinic, and a Danish sperm bank. The presentation will mainly draw on interviews with fertility travellers going through treatment with donor sperm in Denmark....

  17. The borders between Azerbaijan, Georgia, and Russia: Soviet heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Arkhipova, Ekaterina

    2005-01-01

    The administrative-territorial reforms carried out under Soviet power in the Caucasus to delimitate Russia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia have always been and remain a bone of contention. So far their governments have not yet come to terms on several problems on certain border stretches. For fourteen years now, delimitation has been going on with varying intensity. Russia and Azerbaijan have come the closest to settling these disputes with respect to the Daghestanian stretch of their common border....

  18.   Border Carbon Adjustments, the UNFCCC and WTO Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Laura

    2010-01-01

      My presentation on Trade and Climate Change concludes that border carbon adjustments can be consistent with both the climate change and WTO rules - depending of course on their design - but that they are not necessarily attractive. ......  My presentation on Trade and Climate Change concludes that border carbon adjustments can be consistent with both the climate change and WTO rules - depending of course on their design - but that they are not necessarily attractive. ...

  19. Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Debra; Leitheiser, Aggie; Atchison, Christopher; Larson, Susan; Homzik, Cassandra

    2005-01-01

    On December 15, 2003, the Centers for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Minnesota and the University of Iowa convened the “Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues Roundtable.” The purpose of the roundtable was to gather public health professionals and government agency representatives at the state, provincial, and local levels to identify unmet cross-border emergency preparedness and response needs and develop strategies for addressing these needs. Represen...

  20. Alternate Pacing of Border-Collision Period-Doubling Bifurcations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaopeng; Schaeffer, David G

    2007-11-01

    Unlike classical bifurcations, border-collision bifurcations occur when, for example, a fixed point of a continuous, piecewise C1 map crosses a boundary in state space. Although classical bifurcations have been much studied, border-collision bifurcations are not well understood. This paper considers a particular class of border-collision bifurcations, i.e., border-collision period-doubling bifurcations. We apply a subharmonic perturbation to the bifurcation parameter, which is also known as alternate pacing, and we investigate the response under such pacing near the original bifurcation point. The resulting behavior is characterized quantitatively by a gain, which is the ratio of the response amplitude to the applied perturbation amplitude. The gain in a border-collision period-doubling bifurcation has a qualitatively different dependence on parameters from that of a classical period-doubling bifurcation. Perhaps surprisingly, the differences are more readily apparent if the gain is plotted vs. the perturbation amplitude (with the bifurcation parameter fixed) than if plotted vs. the bifurcation parameter (with the perturbation amplitude fixed). When this observation is exploited, the gain under alternate pacing provides a useful experimental tool to identify a border-collision period-doubling bifurcation.

  1. Frontières, territoire, sécurité, souveraineté (Borders, Territory, Security, Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Bigo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Les savoirs sur la frontière relèvent de diverses disciplines mais, spontanément, la frontière est associée au territoire, à la souveraineté, à l'État, à la sécurité. Cet article vise à rendre compte des approches classiques de la frontière, de ce qui fait leur force et leur unité. Il vise aussi à décoloniser et décloisonner ces savoirs et présente une série d'approches alternatives où la frontière n'est pas l'enveloppe territoriale. La frontière, dans ce cas, ne serait-elle pas la mise en sens rétroactive, dans un monde fluide, des différences de perspectives entre groupes hétérogènes sur la mobilité et son contrôle et la légitimation de ces pratiques ?(Diverse disciplines are involved in the study of borders and border issues include those associated with territory, sovereignty, the state, and security. This article studies the classic approaches to the study of borders and what unites them. It also aims to segregate them and offer a series of alternative approaches, which do not view borders as territorial envelopes. Rather, borders are seen as a reflection, in a fluid world, of the different perspectives of diverse peoples on mobility and the legalization of their practices.

  2. Imam Sahib Border Police Company Headquarters in Kunduz Province: $7.3 Million Facility Sits Largely Unused

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Afghanistan Border Police Battalion (BN) Headquarters (HQ) to replace an existing sub-standard fac ility. The standard ABP BN HQ manning documents call for...current manning of the site revealed that an ABP BN HQ unit is now utilizing this as a headquarters. An ABP BN HQ has a tashkil manning of 59 personnel...The facility was built for 175 personnel. The difference in designs between an ABP battalion and a company is the amount of barrack space. The build

  3. When the Border Educates: Malín Alegria's "Sofi Mendoza's Guide to Getting Lost in Mexico" (2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarraran-Bigalondo, Amaia

    2016-01-01

    The border between the United States and Mexico, since it was first conceived in 1848, has marked the lives of those who live on both of its sides, as well as of those who want to cross it. It has also become the source of a vast array of theoretical and artistic work. Chicano writers have written about it, and so have theorists dealt with its…

  4. Navigating High School Academics: A Qualitative Study of Education and Transnationalism in the San Diego-Tijuana Border Region

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Thousands of Mexican students commute from Mexico to the United States each day to attend school. South San Diego's transfronterizo, or cross-border, students (most U.S. citizens) offer a colorful microcosm of the greater diversity evident in American schools. But little is known about this phenomenon of transfronterizos. The topic demands penetrating research to understand how we can effectively help these students navigate the U.S. education system and routes into higher education. The shif...

  5. Towards a cross-border hydrogeological model: harmonized data integration within the H3O-projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Vanessa M. A.; Vernes, Ronald W.; Deckers, Jef; Bogemans, Frieda; Deceukelaire, Marleen; Den Dulk, Maryke; Doornenbal, Hans C.; Dusar, Michiel; Hummelman, Jan; Kiden, Patrick; Lanckacker, Timothy; Menkovic, Armin; Meyvis, Bruno; Munsterman, Dirk K.; Reindersma, Reinder N.; ten Veen, Johan H.; van de Ven, Tamara J. M.; Walstra, Jan; Westerhoff, Wim E.; Witmans, Nora

    2016-04-01

    The sustainable use and management of natural resources in border regions requires unambiguous geological information from neighbouring countries. However, the available data often lack compatibility and the same level of detail across borders. Various stakeholders in the Netherlands and Flanders expressed their interest to harmonize the (hydro) geological models in the shared border region. Accordingly, the first H3O project was initiated in March 2012, focussing on the Roer Valley Graben across the Dutch-Flemish border. A second project (H3O-Campine area) set off in April 2015 and deals with the adjacent Campine area. Aim of these successive projects was (is) to produce cross-border, up-to-date, three-dimensional geological and hydrogeological models of the Cenozoic deposits. Existing (hydro) geological data (boreholes, well logs, seismic data, fault traces, geological maps and models) are collected, re-interpreted according to a harmonized lithostratigraphic scheme and fed into the 3D modelling process. Results of the first H3O-Roer Valley Graben project include: • A correlation scheme between Dutch and Belgian/Flemish (hydro) geological units; • A consistent fault model of the Roer Valley Graben; • Geometrically and stratigraphically consistent geological and hydrogeological models of the Cenozoic deposits in the Roer Valley Graben across the Dutch-Flemish border. The resulting 3D models can be considered as a state-of-the-art reference for the subsurface structure of the project area and can be used as a base for cross-border management of natural resources. The correlation scheme serves as a guideline for present (H3O-Campine area) and future cross-border projects. The H3O projects are carried out by a partnership between TNO - Geological Survey of the Netherlands, VITO and the Geological Survey of Belgium. The H3O models will be available in the public domain via the online data portals of DOV (Databank Ondergrond Vlaanderen) and DINOloket (Data en

  6. Tracking illegal small arms traffic across U.S. borders through the implementation of firearm microstamping to small arms and small arms exports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Ohar, Orest P.

    2009-05-01

    At a border security conference in August 2008, Michael Sullivan, acting director of Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives stated that, "Nearly all illegal firearms (90% to 95%) seized in Mexico come from the United States"[1]. When firearms are recovered at a crime scene, the firearms can be traced providing specific details on illegal firearm dealers or straw purchasers within the United States. Criminals or narco terrorist groups target US dealers to source firearms for drug cartels in Mexico and South America. Joint law enforcement programs between the US and Mexico law enforcement have been effective, however, in most cases the firearms that are seized are only a small fraction of the firearms trafficked across the United States border. A technology called Microstamping, when applied to newly manufactured firearms will provide further opportunities for tracing illegal firearms for law enforcement in the United States and across the globe. Microstamping is a patented technology and trace solution where intentional tooling marks are formed or micromachined onto firearms interior surfaces that come into contact or impact the surfaces of cartridge casings. The intentional tooling marks can take the form of alphanumeric codes or encoded geometric codes, such as a barcode. As the firearm is discharged the intentional tooling marks transfer a code to the cartridge casing before it is ejected out of the firearm. When recovered at the scene of an incident, the Microstamped cartridge can indentify a specific firearm, without the need to recover that firearm. Microstamping provides critical intelligence for use in border security operations and cross border violent drug related crime investigations. This paper will explain the key attributes of microstamping technology; including its potential benefits in border security operations and how data gathered from the technique can be used in geospatial information systems to identify illicit firearm sources

  7. Mapping the potential of cross-border cooperation in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Vollmer, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa.......Mapping the socio-economic potential of border regions can provide great insights as to where cross-border co-operation could be intensified in West Africa....

  8. Borders in dispute : the construction of state and nation in international diplomacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonen, Cris Anne

    2015-01-01

    New states seldom have new borders. The outcome of international negotiations is typically to maintain existing international borders and to follow administrative borders in demarcating the new international borders in line with the uti possidetis principle. These existing boundaries however prove

  9. Border Environmental Education Resource Guide: Southern New Mexico, South Texas, Northern Chihuahua, Northern Coahuila, Northern Nuevo Leon, Northern Tamaulipas = Guia de Recursos de Educacion Ambiental en la Frontera: Sur de Nuevo Mexico, Sur de Texas, Norte de Chihuahua, Norte de Coahuila, Norte de Nuevo Leon, Norte de Tamaulipas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, David, Comp.

    This guide provides educators and residents of the border with useful information about environmental education program offerings along the eastern half of the United States-Mexico border. The programs listed in the guide represent a broad range of educational efforts focused on understanding the environment and solving environmental problems in…

  10. "Bait vehicle" technologies and motor vehicle theft along the southwest border.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, Chris D.

    2007-09-01

    In 2005, over 33% of all the vehicles reported stolen in the United States occurred in the four southwestern border states of California, Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas, which all have very high vehicle theft rates in comparison to the national average. This report describes the utilization of 'bait vehicles' and associated technologies in the context of motor vehicle theft along the southwest border of the U.S. More than 100 bait vehicles are estimated to be in use by individual agencies and auto theft task forces in the southwestern border states. The communications, tracking, mapping, and remote control technologies associated with bait vehicles provide law enforcement with an effective tool to obtain arrests in vehicle theft 'hot spots'. Recorded audio and video from inside the vehicle expedite judicial proceedings as offenders rarely contest the evidence presented. At the same time, law enforcement is very interested in upgrading bait vehicle technology through the use of live streaming video for enhanced officer safety and improved situational awareness. Bait vehicle effectiveness could be enhanced by dynamic analysis of motor theft trends through exploitation of geospatial, timeline, and other analytical tools to better inform very near-term operational decisions, including the selection of particular vehicle types. This 'information-led' capability would especially benefit from more precise and timely information on the location of vehicles stolen in the United States and found in Mexico. Introducing Automated License Plate Reading (ALPR) technology to collect information associated with stolen motor vehicles driven into Mexico could enhance bait vehicle effectiveness.

  11. Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) Infestations in Tree Borders and Subsequent Patterns of Abundance in Soybean Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, B L; Kuhar, T P; Herbert, D A; Brewster, C C; Hogue, J W; Aigner, J D

    2017-04-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an important pest of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) in the Mid-Atlantic United States. In order to assess the influence of nonmanaged wooded borders on H. halys infestation patterns in soybean, 12 soybean fields in Orange and Madison Counties, VA, were sampled each week from July to October in 2013 or 2014 for H. halys. At each location, five 2-min visual counts of H. halys life stages were made on tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima Mill.) and other favorable host trees along a wooded border, on the adjacent soybean edge, 15 m into the soybean field, and 30 m into the field. Seasonal data showed a clear trend at all locations of H. halys densities building up on A. altissima-dominated wooded borders in July, then, gradually moving into adjacent soybean field edges later in the summer. Halyomorpha halys did not move far from the invading field edge, with approximately half as many bugs being present at 15 m into the field and very few being detected 30 m into the field. These results have implications for continued monitoring and management using field border sprays, particularly on edges adjacent to woods. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. CASE STUDIES OF CROSS-BORDER CO-OPERATION IN EUROPEAN TOURISM – PERSPECTIVES AND CHALLENGES FOR THE CROSS-BORDER REGION BUCOVINA/OBLAST TSCHERNIWZI

    OpenAIRE

    HEIKE BÄHRE

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on success factors and management models in destination management for cross-border co-operation in tourism. The method is based on literature research, case-studies in European cross-border-regions and descriptive.

  13. Travel and Border Health Measures to Prevent the International Spread of Ebola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nicole J; Brown, Clive M; Alvarado-Ramy, Francisco; Bair-Brake, Heather; Benenson, Gabrielle A; Chen, Tai-Ho; Demma, Andrew J; Holton, N Kelly; Kohl, Katrin S; Lee, Amanda W; McAdam, David; Pesik, Nicki; Roohi, Shahrokh; Smith, C Lee; Waterman, Stephen H; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-07-08

    During the 2014-2016 Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa, CDC implemented travel and border health measures to prevent international spread of the disease, educate and protect travelers and communities, and minimize disruption of international travel and trade. CDC staff provided in-country technical assistance for exit screening in countries in West Africa with Ebola outbreaks, implemented an enhanced entry risk assessment and management program for travelers at U.S. ports of entry, and disseminated information and guidance for specific groups of travelers and relevant organizations. New and existing partnerships were crucial to the success of this response, including partnerships with international organizations, such as the World Health Organization, the International Organization for Migration, and nongovernment organizations, as well as domestic partnerships with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security and state and local health departments. Although difficult to assess, travel and border health measures might have helped control the epidemic's spread in West Africa by deterring or preventing travel by symptomatic or exposed persons and by educating travelers about protecting themselves. Enhanced entry risk assessment at U.S. airports facilitated management of travelers after arrival, including the recommended active monitoring. These measures also reassured airlines, shipping companies, port partners, and travelers that travel was safe and might have helped maintain continued flow of passenger traffic and resources needed for the response to the affected region. Travel and border health measures implemented in the countries with Ebola outbreaks laid the foundation for future reconstruction efforts related to borders and travel, including development of regional surveillance systems, cross-border coordination, and implementation of core capacities at designated official points of entry in accordance with the International Health Regulations

  14. Translation of the UNESCO/OECD Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education into Local Policy Contexts: A Comparative Study of Finland and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallo, Johanna; Semchenko, Anzhelika

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the localisation of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) "Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education" (2005) at the national and university levels in Finland and Russia. The article engages…

  15. Report on the Binational Conference: In Search of a Border Pedagogy (4th, El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, January 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    This report contains a synopsis of the binational conference and features brief summaries of all the papers presented at the conference. Over 350 educators, community leaders, and researchers were brought together to discuss the educational extremes found along the border between the United States and Mexico and to investigate instructional…

  16. U.S.A./Mexico Adult Literacy Project: Educacion sin Fronteras/Education without Borders. Final Report, January 1, 1993 - September 30, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacienda La Puente Unified School District, City of Industry, CA.

    A cooperative literacy education program involving Mexico and the United States' border states is documented. The project has three objectives: to (1) implement the Mexican literacy agency's approach to promoting literacy among native Spanish speakers; (2) coordinate U.S./Mexico literacy task force activities; and (3) develop an immigrants' rights…

  17. Translation of the UNESCO/OECD Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education into Local Policy Contexts: A Comparative Study of Finland and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallo, Johanna; Semchenko, Anzhelika

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the localisation of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)/Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) "Guidelines for Quality Provision in Cross-Border Higher Education" (2005) at the national and university levels in Finland and Russia. The article engages…

  18. U.S.A./Mexico Adult Literacy Project: Educacion sin Fronteras/Education without Borders. Final Report, January 1, 1993 - September 30, 1993.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacienda La Puente Unified School District, City of Industry, CA.

    A cooperative literacy education program involving Mexico and the United States' border states is documented. The project has three objectives: to (1) implement the Mexican literacy agency's approach to promoting literacy among native Spanish speakers; (2) coordinate U.S./Mexico literacy task force activities; and (3) develop an immigrants' rights…

  19. Health Migration: Crossing Borders for Affordable Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Miller-Thayer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 45.7 million people in the United States are uninsured and unknown numbers of this population are underinsured, severely limiting their access to medical care. To address this problem, people use innovative strategies to increase their access through cross-border care options. The U.S.-Mexico border provides unique challenges and opportunities for health care in this context. The lower cost of medical and dental procedures and medications in Mexico makes that country an attractive alternative for low-income populations in the United States. Thus segments of the U.S. population practice transnational medical consumerism in an attempt to optimize their health by using the resources available in both countries. This practice has economic benefits for the people who access health care at an affordable rate and for the medical markets of the country providing the care. Drawing on data collected in the field in 2002, 2004, and 2005, this paper presents some of the complexities and dynamics of medical pluralism occurring at the U.S.-Mexico border.Environ 45,7 millions de personnes vivant aux Etats-Unis n’ont pas de couverture sociale et nombreux sont celles à être sous-assurées, ce qui limite considérablement leur accès aux soins. Face à ce problème, les Américains font preuve d'ingéniosité pour améliorer leur accès aux soins : ils se font soigner au-delà des frontières. Dans ce contexte, la frontière entre les Etats-Unis et le Mexique offre des opportunités uniques de soins. Le Mexique constitue en effet une alternative séduisante pour les Américains à faible revenu, car les tarifs des actes médicaux et dentaires, et des médicaments, sont nettement inférieurs à ceux en vigueur aux Etats-Unis. Ainsi, certains Américains pratiquent le consumérisme médical transnational et recourent aux ressources disponibles dans les deux pays afin d’optimiser leur santé. Cette pratique présente des avantages économiques

  20. Ion induced changes in the structure of bordered pit membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinkee; Holbrook, N Michele; Zwieniecki, Maciej A

    2012-01-01

    Ion-mediated changes in xylem hydraulic resistance are hypothesized to result from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in the bordered pit membranes separating adjacent xylem vessels. Although the kinetics of the ion-mediated changes in hydraulic resistance are consistent with the swelling/deswelling behavior of pectins, there is no direct evidence of this activity. In this report we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate structural changes in bordered pit membranes associated with changes in the ionic concentration of the surrounding solution. When submerged in de-ionized water, AFM revealed bordered pit membranes as relatively smooth, soft, and lacking any sharp edges surface, in contrast to pictures from scanning electron microscope (SEM) or AFM performed on air-dry material. Exposure of the bordered pit membranes to 50 mM KCl solution resulted in significant changes in both surface physical properties and elevation features. Specifically, bordered pit membranes became harder and the fiber edges were clearly visible. In addition, the membrane contracted and appeared much rougher due to exposed microfibers. In neither solution was there any evidence of discrete pores through the membrane whose dimensions were altered in response to the ionic composition of the surrounding solution. Instead the variable hydraulic resistance appears to involve changes in the both the permeability and the thickness of the pit membrane.

  1. The role of the regions in border dynamics in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiderio Fernández Manjón

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the role that the regions have played during this past half century, and which they continue to play now, in the changes that are occurring along the borders between European states and in the webs of interests that are woven as a consequence ofthis evolution. The mapping of borderlines associated with people endowed with singularities is a delicate, complex task, as demonstrated by several paradigmatic examples: the creation of new borders (Flanders and the profound modification of historical orders (the canton of Jura. The difficulty may lie in approval processes and in the appropriate conjugation of interests of other peoples and minorities existing within them. There are several Europeaninstitutions which are contributing to deeply modifying the imaginary of international borders. On the one hand, the Council of Europe, which fosters, among other things, cross-border cooperation and inter-regional cooperation. Secondly, the European Union institutions havetaken many ideas from the Council of Europe and made them their own: the Committee of the Regions and cross-border cooperation. In addition, these institutions force the unitary states to establish a territorial division taking into account the income levels of the population.

  2. Being thought from beyond our borders: Towards ethical global citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann-Albrecht Meylahn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a response to the challenge of global citizenship in an age of global crisis. Citizenship has to do with where one feels �at home�, namely the space that gifts identity and life. What kind of narrative is necessary to transform global space into a home from where we can go beyond our borders to embrace the other in multidisciplinary research or interfaith praxis? The different models for multidisciplinary research are made possible by the idea that research seeks that which is beyond its borders. This search could be a common space where the different traditions can accommodate one another, but it is not a home. The dominant discourse of this common space is to seek commonality and identities across borders while being aware of but ignoring differences � identity at the expense of differences. A home founded on identity at the expense of difference will always exclude. Theology can either be interpreted as thinking beyond the borders toward the Divine, or the Divine thinking us. The Exodus, the Incarnation and the Cross are all narratives of the Other crossing borders, liberating from boundaries, deconstructing the laws and norms that exclude. The religious traditions of these sacred narratives have something to offer, namely: to be thought by the Other, to receive life and (alien identity from the Other, the gift of a home which is continuously deconstructed by the home still to come, therefore always open for the Other.

  3. Ion induced changes in the structure of bordered pit membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinkee eLee

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Xylem hydraulic resistance varies with ion concentration in sap solution. It is assumed that this variation in resistance results from hydrogel like properties of pectins located in bordered pit membranes separating adjacent vessels. Although kinetics of the resistance change suggests swelling/deswelling behavior of the pectins, there is no direct evidence of this activity. In this report we provide evidence of structural changes in bordered pit membranes responding to variation in ionic concentration of solute around it using atomic force microscopy (AFM. AFM revealed bordered pit membranes as relatively smooth, soft and lacking any sharp edges surface when submerged in de-ionized water, in contrast to pictures from scanning electron microscope (SEM or AFM performed on air dry material. Exposure of the bordered pit membranes to 50 mM KCl solution resulted in significant changes in both surface physical properties with and elevation features as bordered pit membrane became harder, with visible edges of fibers and collapsed, while no change in porosity was observed. Analysis suggests a need for a major shift in our understanding to the physical bases of variable xylem resistance from change in porosity to change in pathway length. Findings support the role of actuating properties of hybrid hydrogel-cellulose materials in water redistribution and embolism resistance.

  4. Public health and terrorism preparedness: cross-border issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Debra; Leitheiser, Aggie; Atchison, Christopher; Larson, Susan; Homzik, Cassandra

    2005-01-01

    On December 15, 2003, the Centers for Public Health Preparedness at the University of Minnesota and the University of Iowa convened the "Public Health and Terrorism Preparedness: Cross-Border Issues Roundtable." The purpose of the roundtable was to gather public health professionals and government agency representatives at the state, provincial, and local levels to identify unmet cross-border emergency preparedness and response needs and develop strategies for addressing these needs. Representatives from six state and local public health departments and three provincial governments were invited to identify cross-border needs and issues using a nominal group process. The result of the roundtable was identification of the needs considered most important and most doable across all the focus groups. The need to collaborate on and exchange plans and protocols among agencies was identified as most important and most doable across all groups. Development of contact protocols and creation and maintenance of a contact database was also considered important and doable for a majority of groups. Other needs ranked important across the majority of groups included specific isolation and quarantine protocols for multi-state responses; a system for rapid and secure exchange of information; specific protocols for sharing human resources across borders, including emergency credentials for physicians and health care workers; and a specific protocol to coordinate Strategic National Stockpile mechanisms across border communities.

  5. Violence committed against migrants in transit: experiences on the Northern Mexican border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, César; Idrovo, Alvaro J; Sánchez-Domínguez, Mario S; Vinhas, Stéphane; González-Vázquez, Tonatiuh

    2012-06-01

    Thousands of Mexican and Central American migrants converge at the Mexico-United States border. Undocumented migrants in transit to the United States are vulnerable due to their lack of access to health care and legal assistance. This study attempts to provide evidence on the violent-related consequences that migration has on migrants. A mixed-method study was conducted between April 2006-May 2007 in shelters in Baja California, Mexicali and Tijuana, Mexico. 22 in depth interviews were performed and fifteen hundred and twelve migrants responded a questionnaire. Results from both in-depth interviews and the analysis of the quantitative data shows the different types of violence experiences by migrants which include threats, verbal abuse, and arbitrary detention based on ethnicity, as well as assaults, beatings and sexual violence. It is crucial to stress the importance and the need to evidence the condition in which migrants' transit to the US and to effectively respond to the violence they experience.

  6. Project GeoPower: Basic subsurface information for the utilization of geothermal energy in the Danish-German border region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Reinhard; Balling, Niels; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Fuchs, Sven; Hese, Fabian; Mathiesen, Anders; Møller Nielsen, Carsten; Nielsen, Lars Henrik; Offermann, Petra; Poulsen, Niels Erik; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Thomsen, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    Information on both hydraulic and thermal conditions of the subsurface is fundamental for the planning and use of hydrothermal energy. This is paramount in particular for densely populated international border regions, where different subsurface applications may introduce conflicts of use and require reliable cross-border management and planning tools. In the framework of the Interreg4a GeoPower project, fundamental geological and geophysical information of importance for the planning of geothermal energy utilization in the Danish-German border region was compiled and analyzed. A 3D geological model was developed and used as structural basis for the set-up of a regional temperature model. In that frame, new reflection seismic data were obtained to close local data gaps in the border region. The analyses and reinterpretation of available relevant data (old and new seismic profiles, core and well-log data, borehole data, literature data) and a new time-depth conversion (new velocity model) allowed correlation of seismic profiles across the border. On this basis, new topologically consistent depth and thickness maps for 12 geological/lithological units were drawn, with special emphasis on potential geothermal reservoirs, and a new 3D structural geological model was developed. The interpretation of petrophysical data (core data and well logs) allows to evaluate the hydraulic and thermal rock properties of geothermal formations and to develop a parameterized 3D thermal conductive subsurface temperature model. New local surface heat-flow values (range: 72-84 mW/m²) were determined and predicted temperature were calibrated and validated by borehole temperature observations. Finally, new temperature maps for major geological sections (e.g. Rhaetian/Gassum, Middle Buntsandstein) and selected constant depth intervals (1 km, 2 km, etc.) were compiled. As an example, modelled temperatures for the Middle Buntsandstein geothermal reservoir are shown with temperatures ranging

  7. Accountings of Selecting Sperm on the (ethical) border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    information (phenotypical descriptions) or extended profiles, including descriptions of the donors hobbies, looks and likes. I find fertility travellers crossing the Danish border particularly interesting, because many of them travel in order to bypass a national legislation. In this presentation, I...... will analyze how women and their partners crossing the Danish border accounts for their donor choice, and their practices of choosing. I will be exploring the question: How are women and their partners accounting for choosing a sperm donor, crossing the (ethical) border to Denmark? The use of the term...... accountability is central, because it implies both a theoretical and methodological inspirations from Donna Haraway and Karen Barad. The idea is to use accountability as a theoretical and methodological concept that enables the development of an ethics of practices. The presentation is based on a multi...

  8. Cross-border regional innovation system integration: An analytical framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makkonen, Teemu; Weidenfeld, Adi; Williams, Allan

    2017-01-01

    The importance of inter-regional cooperation and innovation are widely accepted in the development rhetoric of the European Union. The highlighted importance of both themes in the context of borderlands has recently led to the coining of a new concept, cross-border regional innovation system....... However, little attention has been given to the empirical analysis of the concept. This paper suggests a framework for empirically validating the concept by examining the levels of integration between cross-border regions. The outcome is a proposed framework can be operationalized by measurable indicators...... of cross-border cooperation in a regional innovation system setting. The framework was further tested with illustrative empirical cases that demonstrate its feasibility....

  9. Multinationals, Cross-border Acquisitions and Wage Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heyman, Fredrik; Sjöholm, Fredrik; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson

    2011-01-01

    We examine the impact of cross-border acquisitions on intra-firm wage dispersion using a detailed Swedish linked employer-employee data set including data on all firms and about 50% of the Swedish labour force with information on job-tasks and education. Foreign acquisitions of domestic multinati......We examine the impact of cross-border acquisitions on intra-firm wage dispersion using a detailed Swedish linked employer-employee data set including data on all firms and about 50% of the Swedish labour force with information on job-tasks and education. Foreign acquisitions of domestic...... multinationals and local firms increase wage dispersion but so do also other types of cross-border acquisitions. Hence, it is the acquisition itself rather than foreign ownership that increases wage dispersion. The positive wage effect is concentrated to CEOs and other managers, whereas other groups are either...

  10. Block-bordered diagonalization and parallel iterative solvers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, F.; Dag, H.; Bruggencate, M. ten [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    One of the most common techniques for enhancing parallelism in direct sparse matrix methods is the reorganization of a matrix into a blocked-bordered structure. Incomplete LDU factorization is a very good preconditioner for PCG in serial environments. However, the inherent sequential nature of the preconditioning step makes it less desirable in parallel environments. This paper explores the use of BBD (Blocked Bordered Diagonalization) in connection with ILU preconditioners. The paper shows that BBD-based ILU preconditioners are quite amenable to parallel processing. Neglecting entries from the entire border can result in a blocked diagonal matrix. The result is a great increase in parallelism at the expense of additional iterations. Experiments on the Sequent Symmetry shared memory machine using (mostly) power system that matrices indicate that the method is generally better than conventional ILU preconditioners and in many cases even better than partitioned inverse preconditioners, without the initial setup disadvantages of partitioned inverse preconditioners.

  11. State borders in ETRS89 coordinates – reality or fiction ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Poláček

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Common unique ETRS89 coordinates of the state boundaries are crucial for cross-border data harmonization for international projects. In the frame of European Location Framework (ELF project Czech Office for Surveying, Mapping and Cadastre (ČÚZK cooperates with Poland on egde-matching on the state border. During the preliminary phase of the project was some difficulty identified. If the state boundary is measured and administered in the national coordinate system, the accuracy of the transformation into the ETRS89 is influenced by discrepancies of the local trigonometric network, which results in two slightly different state boundaries. Final solution for Europe – international treaties on the state borders based on the ETRS89 coordinates – is necessary, but it will take years.

  12. Regional Disparities along the Romanian-Hungarian Border Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EGON NAGY

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the actual state and condition of territorial inequalities at the Romanian-Hungarian border region, which shows - at present - an evident advantage of the Hungarian side, from the point of view of complex socio-economical aspects. This advantage is especially outstanding for the Hungarian side in the field of infrastructural supply (drinking water, natural gas, and public sewage networks, but it is valid for some characteristics of human capital, too, (above all, with regard to the illiteracy rate and the proportion of highly skilled persons with bachelor degree. Despite these difficulties, these inequalities are not insurmountable and should not affect efficient cross-border cooperation between the two countries. This regional inventory facilitates the evaluation of the starting-point of this kind of cooperation and also depicts some aspects of the interregional cooperation of the four counties north of the Romanian-Hungarian border region which belong to the Carpathian Euroregion.

  13. Border Collision Bifurcations in Two Dimensional Piecewise Smooth Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Soumitro; Grebogi, Celso

    1999-01-01

    Recent investigations on the bifurcations in switching circuits have shown that many atypical bifurcations can occur in piecewise smooth maps which can not be classified among the generic cases like saddle-node, pitchfork or Hopf bifurcations occurring in smooth maps. In this paper we first present experimental results to establish the theoretical problem: the development of a theory and classification of the new type of bifurcations resulting from border collision. We then present a systematic analysis of such bifurcations by deriving a normal form --- the piecewise linear approximation in the neighborhood of the border. We show that there can be eleven qualitatively different types of border collision bifurcations depending on the parameters of the normal form, and these are classified under six cases. We present a partitioning of the parameter space of the normal form showing the regions where different types of bifurcations occur. This theoretical framework will help in explaining bifurcations in all syst...

  14. Root Border Cells and Their Role in Plant Defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, Martha; Allen, Caitilyn; Turgeon, B Gillian; Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Minh Tran, Tuan; Huskey, David A; Xiong, Zhongguo

    2016-08-01

    Root border cells separate from plant root tips and disperse into the soil environment. In most species, each root tip can produce thousands of metabolically active cells daily, with specialized patterns of gene expression. Their function has been an enduring mystery. Recent studies suggest that border cells operate in a manner similar to mammalian neutrophils: Both cell types export a complex of extracellular DNA (exDNA) and antimicrobial proteins that neutralize threats by trapping pathogens and thereby preventing invasion of host tissues. Extracellular DNases (exDNases) of pathogens promote virulence and systemic spread of the microbes. In plants, adding DNase I to root tips eliminates border cell extracellular traps and abolishes root tip resistance to infection. Mutation of genes encoding exDNase activity in plant-pathogenic bacteria (Ralstonia solanacearum) and fungi (Cochliobolus heterostrophus) results in reduced virulence. The study of exDNase activities in plant pathogens may yield new targets for disease control.

  15. The role of root border cells in plant defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M C; Gunawardena, U; Miyasaka, S; Zhao, X

    2000-03-01

    The survival of a plant depends upon the capacity of root tips to sense and move towards water and other nutrients in the soil. Perhaps because of the root tip's vital role in plant health, it is ensheathed by large populations of detached somatic cells - root 'border' cells - which have the ability to engineer the chemical and physical properties of the external environment. Of particular significance, is the production by border cells of specific chemicals that can dramatically alter the behavior of populations of soilborne microflora. Molecular approaches are being used to identify and manipulate the expression of plant genes that control the production and the specialized properties of border cells in transgenic plants. Such plants can be used to test the hypothesis that these unusual cells act as a phalanx of biological 'goalies', which neutralize dangers to newly generated root tissue as the root tip makes its way through soil.

  16. Trans-European transport network and cross-border governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the implementation of trans-European transport corridors in the EU and the influence it has on governance within EU member-states. It considers the implementation of such a scheme in the context of cross-border cooperation and discusses the system of governance necessary...... for coordinating knowledge, efforts and solutions across several national systems. In order to understand this governance setting, one needs to understand the specific quality of transnational governance in the EU, which is neither purely international nor federally integrated. The transport corridor between Malmö...... and Hamburg is taken as a case for discussion. Cross-border governance is analyzed within a multi-level policy network approach including actors from supranational, national and subnational levels, in order to determine the existence of a policy network across the borders. The main finding is a depiction...

  17. Forecasting the electricity consumption of the Mexican border states maquiladoras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores, C.E.; Phelan, P.E. [Arizona State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Tempe, AZ (United States); Mou, J.-I. [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co., Operation Planning Div., Hsin-Chu (Taiwan); Bryan, H. [Arizona State Univ., School of Architecture, Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The consumption of electricity by maquiladora industries in the Mexican border states is an important driver for determining future powerplant needs in that area. An industrial electricity forecasting model is developed for the border states' maquiladoras, and the outputs are compared with a reference forecasting model developed for the US industrial sector, for which considerably more data are available. This model enables the prediction of the effect of implementing various energy efficiency measures in the industrial sector. As an illustration, here the impact of implementing energy-efficient lighting and motors in the Mexican border states' maquiladoras was determined to be substantial. Without such energy efficiency measures, electricity consumption for these industries is predicted to rise by 64% from 2001 to 2010, but if these measures are implemented on a gradual basis over the same time period, electricity consumption is forecast to rise by only 36%. (Author)

  18. Conception of integrator in cross-border E-commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kawa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:  E-commerce is one of the most dynamic and important sectors of the economy. The latest trend in this market is cross-border trade. It is based on selling products to customers who are located in other countries. However, it is connected to several problems, such as a high cost and long time of delivery, language barriers, different legal and tax conditionings, etc. Methods: The studies were conducted on the basis of the authors' experience in the field of e-commerce. The issue of cross-border commerce was mainly analysed with the use of reports of the European Commission. The aim of the article is to propose a conception of an integrator of cross-border e-commerce, which will make it possible, among other things, to solve logistic problems. Results: The article presents an authorial conception of an integrator in cross-border e-commerce. Its main task is to integrate the whole supply chain. Thanks to the economies of scale, obtained as a result of consolidation of parcels from many e-shops, the integrator is able to achieve lower delivery costs in international transport, make returns of goods more effective and serve customers from different countries better. Conclusions: The conception of an integrator in cross-border commerce proposed in the article may increase competitiveness of micro and small e-enterprises, especially in the international arena. Moreover, applying this conception may contribute to a rise in the attractiveness of cross-border commerce, which, as result of a greater sale level, would contribute to an increase in the total e-commerce.

  19. Establishment of crown-root domain borders in mouse incisor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juuri, Emma; Saito, Kan; Lefebvre, Sylvie; Michon, Frederic

    2013-10-01

    Teeth are composed of two domains, the enamel-covered crown and the enamel-free root. The understanding of the initiation and regulation of crown and root domain formation is important for the development of bioengineered teeth. In most teeth the crown develops before the root, and erupts to the oral cavity whereas the root anchors the tooth to the jawbone. However, in the continuously growing mouse incisor the crown and root domains form simultaneously, the crown domain forming the labial and the root domain the lingual part of the tooth. While the crown-root border on the incisor distal side supports the distal enamel extent, reflecting an evolutionary diet adaptation, on the incisor mesial side the root-like surface is necessary for the attachment of the interdental ligament between the two incisors. Therefore, the mouse incisor exhibits a functional distal-mesial asymmetry. Here, we used the mouse incisor as a model to understand the mechanisms involved in the crown-root border formation. We analyzed the cellular origins and gene expression patterns leading to the development of the mesial and distal crown-root borders. We discovered that Barx2, En1, Wnt11, and Runx3 were exclusively expressed on the mesial crown-root border. In addition, the distal border of the crown-root domain might be established by cells from a different origin and by an early Follistatin expression, factor known to be involved in the root domain formation. The use of different mechanisms to establish domain borders gives indications of the incisor functional asymmetry.

  20. On the intended and unintended consequences of enhanced U.S. Border and interior immigration enforcement: evidence from Mexican deportees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Pozo, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Since about 2000, a number of federal and state policies have been implemented in the United States with the intention of stemming the flow of illegal immigration. In this article, we focus on two initiatives: (1) Operation Streamline, as an example of increased border enforcement by the federal government; and (2) state-level omnibus immigration laws, as an illustration of enhanced interior enforcement by state governments. We investigate whether these policies have reduced the intentions of deported Mexican immigrants to attempt a new unauthorized crossing. Although state-level omnibus immigration laws reduce the proportion of deportees intending to attempt a new crossing, increased border enforcement has proven to be far less effective. In addition, we ascertain the human costs associated with these policies. Our findings are mixed in this regard. Noteworthy is how the adoption of more stringent interior enforcement seems to result in a "herding" or "ganging-up" effect, whereby the incidence of verbal and physical abuse rises with the number of states enacting such measures. Additionally, our estimates suggest that deportees are more likely to respond that they have risked their lives to cross into the United States as a result of enhanced border enforcement.

  1. Brujeria and the U.S.-Mexico Border Outlaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Conover

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the death metal band Brujeria, their use of both traditional and contemporary outlaw imagery, and their connection to the narcocorrido, in order to examine the tenacity of the outlaw paradigm as an expression of resistance by subordinate groups in situations of social inequality. It deals with the contemporary figure of the outlaw in connection to the U.S.-Mexico border region, as influenced by outlaw traditions in the area, and as an expression of specific contemporary historical circumstances of that region, including Mexican economic crisis, globalization, and border conflicts surrounding immigration, drug trafficking, and labor.

  2. Accountings of Selecting Sperm on the (ethical) border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willum Adrian, Stine

    accountability is central, because it implies both a theoretical and methodological inspirations from Donna Haraway and Karen Barad. The idea is to use accountability as a theoretical and methodological concept that enables the development of an ethics of practices. The presentation is based on a multi...... will analyze how women and their partners crossing the Danish border accounts for their donor choice, and their practices of choosing. I will be exploring the question: How are women and their partners accounting for choosing a sperm donor, crossing the (ethical) border to Denmark? The use of the term...

  3. Group choreography: mechanisms orchestrating the collective movement of border cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montell, Denise J; Yoon, Wan Hee; Starz-Gaiano, Michelle

    2012-10-01

    Cell movements are essential for animal development and homeostasis but also contribute to disease. Moving cells typically extend protrusions towards a chemoattractant, adhere to the substrate, contract and detach at the rear. It is less clear how cells that migrate in interconnected groups in vivo coordinate their behaviour and navigate through natural environments. The border cells of the Drosophila melanogaster ovary have emerged as an excellent model for the study of collective cell movement, aided by innovative genetic, live imaging, and photomanipulation techniques. Here we provide an overview of the molecular choreography of border cells and its more general implications.

  4. Reflection of bending Waves from Border of the Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belubekyan M.V.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To problems of the reflection of the bending waves from flat border of the ambience dedicated to the multiple studies. Relatively little works are connected with questions of the reflection curved waves from flat edge of the thin plate. In this work happen to the decisions of the problem of the plate under different border condition. For partial case of the free edge, as limiting case of the absence of the reflected wave, is got decision of the problem localized curved variations.

  5. Cross-border reproductive care: an Ethics Committee opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Cross-border reproductive care (CBRC) is a growing worldwide phenomenon, raising questions about why assisted reproductive technology (ART) patients travel abroad, what harms and benefits may result, and what duties health-care providers may have in advising and treating patients who travel for reproductive services. Cross-border care offers benefits and poses harms to ART stakeholders, including patients, offspring, providers, gamete donors, gestational carriers, and local populations in destination countries. This document replaces the previous document of the same name, last published in 2013 (Fertil Steril 2013;100:645-50). Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of the Advantages of Creating Border Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Rosca-Sadurschi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In a changing environment and rapid globalization, competitiveness of a country or region depends increasingly more effective in innovation. The main challenge for research and innovation is to facilitate the networking of companies and research laboratories. These networks can take the form of a highly integrated cross-border economic group, but may consist of action to facilitate business linkages and inter-laboratory, or cross-border clusters. The creation of these clusters requires performing several conditions but bring significant benefits to all stakeholders.

  7. Information Analysis Methodology for Border Security Deployment Prioritization and Post Deployment Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, Paul M.; Maple, Scott A.

    2010-06-08

    Due to international commerce, cross-border conflicts, and corruption, a holistic, information driven, approach to border security is required to best understand how resources should be applied to affect sustainable improvements in border security. The ability to transport goods and people by land, sea, and air across international borders with relative ease for legitimate commercial purposes creates a challenging environment to detect illicit smuggling activities that destabilize national level border security. Smuggling activities operated for profit or smuggling operations driven by cross border conflicts where militant or terrorist organizations facilitate the transport of materials and or extremists to advance a cause add complexity to smuggling interdiction efforts. Border security efforts are further hampered when corruption thwarts interdiction efforts or reduces the effectiveness of technology deployed to enhance border security. These issues necessitate the implementation of a holistic approach to border security that leverages all available data. Large amounts of information found in hundreds of thousands of documents can be compiled to assess national or regional borders to identify variables that influence border security. Location data associated with border topics of interest may be extracted and plotted to better characterize the current border security environment for a given country or region. This baseline assessment enables further analysis, but also documents the initial state of border security that can be used to evaluate progress after border security improvements are made. Then, border security threats are prioritized via a systems analysis approach. Mitigation factors to address risks can be developed and evaluated against inhibiting factor such as corruption. This holistic approach to border security helps address the dynamic smuggling interdiction environment where illicit activities divert to a new location that provides less resistance

  8. ‘It’s All in Their Brain’: Constructing the figure of the trafficking victim on the US-Mexico border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Sanchez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is a qualitative reflection on a series of human trafficking awareness meetings held in a city on the US-Mexico border. It argues that along this border, representations of the human trafficking victim go beyond the stereotypical notions of the virginal female youth, target of sexual exploitation and violence. Rather, characterisations reflect a specific set of cultural and historical forms which further frame victims as inherently foreign, a proxy for Mexican, despite the ethnic similarities connecting communities on both sides of the US-Mexico divide. References to Mexican origin in this part of the United States have historically been used as part of an attempt to articulate social and ethnic difference, often despite sharing a common ethnic past. In the context of American anti-immigrant sentiments, Mexicans are described not only as inherently foreign, or as lacking government-sanctioned immigration status, but also as innately uncivilised, uneducated, hypersexual, criminal and pathological. On the US-Mexico border these characterisations become further complicated by the immediacy of Mexican border cities and their ongoing struggles amid the war on drugs. Collectively, the tropes of crime, violence and inherent pathos historically associated with Mexico and its people have seeped into the construction of the human trafficking rhetoric on the border, and have been quickly and effectively disseminated, despite the absence of empirically-informed indicators. Furthermore, while this practice is reflective of the efforts through which historically Mexican nationals have been othered along the US-Mexico border, in the current context of globalised fears over migrants and national security, human trafficking constructions become another tool of US border control and migration governance.

  9. The Border-making Policy of the European Union: Eastern Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lika Mkrtchyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Having no internal borders, what is a border for the European Union (EU? Which criteria does this powerful organization pursue in its decision-making on further expansion: geographical, political, cultural, economic or all of these? What is the profi t of the Union in advancing its external borders to the east? And why to the east and not the south or west across the Atlantic? Does it still mean that there is the reason for enlarging eastward based on the geographical belonging to Europe? This paper discusses the expansion of the European Union to the east with the main focus on its political and economic aspects of integration. The fi rst part includes introduction to the concept of Europe, historic background about the formation of the united Europe in terms of geography, culture, politics and economy, juxtaposing opinions and viewpoints of different experts and political scientists on “what is Europe?” and what are the core issues of its enlargement. The second and third parts are dedicated to the advantages and disadvantages of European Integration for both parties concerned – the EU and the candidate/member state, in the case of the former having its own “demarcation policy” towards certain regions of the continent when it comes to unifi cation. And the fourth part is about the communication and miscommunication of the informative bodies of the European Union that are responsible for public awareness on any process that goes on within the European family. The lack of information results in the ignorance of citizens of European and partner countries, which, of course, refl ects on the further processes of expansion on the political level and cultural perception and mentality on the social level. The conclusion sums up the research, and the bibliography lists the books, articles, monographs and Internet sources used in the course of the study.

  10. Tuberculosis-diabetes epidemiology in the border and non-border regions of Tamaulipas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelbary, Bassent E; Garcia-Viveros, Moncerrato; Ramirez-Oropesa, Horacio; Rahbar, Mohammad H; Restrepo, Blanca I

    2016-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a re-emerging risk factor for TB development and adverse TB outcomes. As a follow-up of our previous study in 1998-2004, we reassessed prevalence of DM and its associated factors among 8431 TB patients using surveillance data from 2006 to 2013 for the Mexican state of Tamaulipas, across the border with Texas. Prevalence of DM was 25.2%, with an increase of at least 2.8% over the study period. Newly discovered factors associated with TB-DM (versus no DM) were lower education and higher unemployment (p < 0.001), which are reportedly associated with poorer DM management. At least 15% of the DM patients were newly-diagnosed and younger than those previously diagnosed, showing the importance of early DM diagnosis at TB clinics. TB-DM patients were more likely to have smear-positive, pulmonary (versus extra-pulmonary) and drug-resistant TB (1.9-, 3.8- and 1.4-fold, respectively). During treatment, TB-DM patients were more likely to be smear-positive, and less likely to die or abandon TB treatment. Thus, the increasing prevalence of DM among TB, and its association with low education, features of a more contagious TB, and drug resistance, highlight the need for design of TB management programs in DM patients, blood testing of all new TB patients for DM, and if positive for DM, testing for drug resistance.

  11. Cross-Border Interactions and Health in the Brazil-Colombia-Peru Border Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Cecilia Suárez-Mutis

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The border area between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru has a population of over 100,000 people; at least a quarter are indigenous (mostly Tikuna, and the rest is composed of people from the Andean region and some itinerant groups (migrants, traders, etc.. The “twin cities”, Tabatinga (Brazil and Leticia (Colombia, receive a significant flux of people from the adjacent regions of each country, each one having a referral hospital for attending cases of moderate complexity. This region has a high incidence of  water-borne diseases, such as diarrhea and hepatitis, those transmitted by vectors, such as malaria and leishmaniasis, and other infectious diseases related to living conditions and the level of access to the health system, such as sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, and Hansen’s disease.. This work presents attempts to carry out a global analysis of the prevalence of some health problems introduced into the area during the last two decades, such as cholera epidemics, malaria, and HIV/AIDS infection, attempting to describe their main determinants in the region.

  12. Of shipwrecks and Weddings: Borders and Mobilities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzanesi, S.

    2016-01-01

    This essay proposes a new visual politics of Europe’s borders that foregrounds encounters and trespassings. It focuses on the analysis of two films that have received wide international acclaim: On the Bride’s Side (2013) and Fuocoammare (2015). The films deal with migration as a humanitarian crisis

  13. Frontier and Border Regions in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, R.M.; Ellis, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    That regional identities are constructed is now something of a truism in academic research. More recently regions have been conceptualized in the framework of Frontier and Border Studies, thus emphasizing their relationship to their neighbours in another state across a boundary line. In early modern

  14. EUROPEAN CROSS-BORDER MERGERS AND ACQUISITIONS- REALITIES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vancea Mariana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of the economic and financial crisis on merger and acquisition activity in Europe and the latest trends manifested on the cross-border merger and acquisition market involving European companies. Thus, a first objective of this research is to reveal the evolution of the European cross-border merger and acquisition activity in terms of dynamics, volume and structure. Another objective of this research is to reveal the short and medium term perspectives on mergers and acquisitions in Europe. Thus, under the continuous economic recovery of the European countries and the other worldwide economies, the recovery of financial markets and the growth of corporate profits, we shall witness an intensive cross-border merger and acquisition activity in Europe. The expansion engine of these operations seems to be represented by the emerging economies. This research is based on a systematic, logical and comparative analysis of scientific literature and statistical data regarding the cross-border mergers and acquisitions that involve European companies in recent years. This paper is part of the doctoral thesis Mergers and acquisitions- strategies of growth and development of enterprises. European and national particularities, coordinated by professor Ph.D. Alina Bădulescu from University of Oradea, Faculty of Economics. The doctoral research is supported by The Sectorial Operational Program for Human Resources Development 2007-2013, Contract POSDRU 59/1.5/S/1- Romanian researchers through modern and efficient doctoral programs.

  15. Seroprevalence of border disease in Danish sheep and goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Stryhn, H.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1994-96 with the aim of assessing the serological prevalence of Border Disease (BD) among sheep and goats in Denmark and to investigate possible relations to herd factors. From each of 1000 herds, 2 blood samples were obtained from animals older than 1 year. The examinati...

  16. Border Crossing in the Classroom through Performed Ethnography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Tara

    2016-01-01

    In this essay I share the ways I have used performed ethnography to explore the notion of border crossing in an undergraduate course called "Equity and Activism in Education." Performed ethnography involves turning the findings of ethnographic research into a play script. My students read two performed ethnographies, "Harriet's…

  17. Borders in Nigeria’s Relations with Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolara Akinyemi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Border incidences are sources of irritants in the relationships between Nigeria and Cameroun. Examples are not far-fetched from Bakassi Peninsula imbroglio leading to hostile relationship between the two countries, and subsequent ruling of Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroun by the International Court of Justice in 2002. Indeed, this also led to the revival of the Joint Cameroun-Nigeria Border Commission entrusted with the task of demarcation of the Land and Maritime boundaries between the two countries, as mandated by the 2002 judgment. However, the demarcation exercise has caused confusion and anxiety with the inhabitants of the Cross River State, Nigeria, resulting in the inability of the team to locate pillar 133A, thereby erecting a new pillar. This exercise is lacking in proper consideration of the effects on the people in the demarcation of the land boundary. Thus, the paper finds out that the demarcationof the Land boundary which the International Court of Justice perceived as the antidote to the border skirmishes between Nigeria and Cameroun is likely to generate to another border conflicts between the two countries. This is so because, the erecting of new pillars will lead to another claim of some parts of Nigeria to Cameroun. Hence, the demarcation of Land boundary if not properly checked may be an outcome of future skirmishes and chaos.

  18. Shifting Institutional Boundaries through Cross-Border Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Alberto; Tavares, Orlanda; Cardoso, Sónia; Sin, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border higher education (CBHE) has been changing the organizational boundaries of higher education institutions (HEIs). This study aims to analyze the shifting boundaries of Portuguese HEIs through the lens of the identity concept in organization theories, considering three contexts with different levels of regulation: African…

  19. Global Liquidity and Drivers of Cross-Border Bank Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerutti, E.; Claessens, S.; Ratnovski, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a definition of global liquidity consistent with its meaning as the "ease of financing" in international financial markets. Using a longer time series and broader sample of countries than in previous studies, it identifies global factors driving cross-border bank flows, alongside

  20. Cross-Border Acquisitions and Employee-Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Hao; Renneboog, Luc; Vansteenkiste, Cara

    2017-01-01

    We provide novel evidence that a firm’s engagement in employee-related issues explains part of the value difference between its domestic and cross-border takeovers. An acquirer’s investment in employee relations is positively related to the firm’s performance when acquiring domestically, but

  1. Gazons duurder dan borders met rozen of vaste planten?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hop, M.E.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    In de eerste uitgave van Vitale Stad stond een artikel over gazons die duurder zouden zijn dan borders met vaste planten of sierheesters. Volgens dit artikel zouden vaste planten dus goedkoper zijn dan gazons. Als wij die vraag stellen aan de gemiddelde groenbeheerder, krijgt je een compleet ander a

  2. The National Guard on the Southwest Border: Defining The Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    rape, and child molestation. CPB also seized over 870,000 pounds of illegal drugs, $147 million in currency, more than 29,000 fraudulent documents...the number increased to more than 11,600 drug related homicides and an estimated 34,500 total deaths since 2006, making the Mexican border one of the

  3. Cross-border Insurance in Europe : Challenges for Supervision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Schoenmaker (Dirk); J. Sass (Jan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractAt the start of Solvency II in January 2016, there is no overview of the insurance market in Europe. This paper develops a methodology to link various data sets on foreign branches and subsidiaries. The result is a new and comprehensive data set of cross-border insurance in Europe. W

  4. Environmental cohesion across the Hungarian-Croatian border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varjú Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental cohesion (as a new EU paradigm for a place-based interpretation of environmental justice has a clear connection to territorial cohesion. Based on this idea, advantages for people can include an equitable distribution of environmental protection and access to environmental services. In non-EU countries regional environmental cohesion is used as an instrument to accelerate accession to the EU and it may be manifested as a declaration of environmental diplomacy. Environmental cohesion across a border can be identified as soon as two regions - alongside the border - start to cooperate in order to improve environmental conditions and to ensure equal access to natural resources and environmental services. After a literature review environmental cohesion is evaluated in multidimensional way, using empirical quantitative and qualitative data and a two-pillar based methodological approach. The Croatian-Hungarian border area was closed for a long time. As a result, developments avoided the area, on the other, natural resources remained mainly untouched. However, the two countries have had different approaches towards the area, while, Croatia made efforts to build another water power plant, Hungary intended to preserve and extend a Natural Park. This contradiction remained until the accession process of Croatia. Finally the disagreement between the two countries was moderated by a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve that was created alongside the border in 2015. The post-2010 period has been characterised by an increasing number of environmental-related cooperations.

  5. Seroprevalence of border disease in Danish sheep and goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Stryhn, H.; Uttenthal, Åse;

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1994-96 with the aim of assessing the serological prevalence of Border Disease (BD) among sheep and goats in Denmark and to investigate possible relations to herd factors. From each of 1000 herds, 2 blood samples were obtained from animals older than 1 year. The examinati...

  6. Languages without Borders: TESOL in a Transient World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nero, Shondel

    2012-01-01

    In today's transient world, where a continual multidirectional flow of people, goods, and services has deterritorialized languages and their users, languages, especially English, are now without borders. In this context, English language teaching (ELT) as a profession is called to a new task. In this article, I examine this task by asking the…

  7. What lures cross-border venture capital inflows?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schertler, Andrea; Tykvova, Tereza

    2012-01-01

    We investigate if economic factors drive gross and net cross-border venture capital inflows differently. Using a dataset of venture capital investments in European and North American countries from 2000 to 2008, we find that higher expected economic growth goes hand in hand with higher gross as well

  8. Rethinking borders in a mobile world: An alternative model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Retaillé, Denis

    national borders. The second section elaborates the fundamentals of an alternative model that is not reliant, as is classical spatial analysis, on points, lines and surfaces to represent movement. The article then presents three types of limits: the confines, the threshold and the horizon, which result...

  9. Rethinking borders in a mobile world: An alternative model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Retaillé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    national borders. The second section elaborates the fundamentals of an alternative model that is not reliant, as is classical spatial analysis, on points, lines and surfaces to represent movement. The article then presents three types of limits: the confines, the threshold and the horizon, which result...

  10. The German-Romance Language Borders in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, Felicity

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on language contact phenomena at the borders of Switzerland's four language communities (German, French, Italian, and Romansch), the legal status of the four Swiss national languages, and the language policies of individual bilingual and trilingual cantons. Describes the historical movements of the language boundaries, with particular…

  11. Frontier and Border Regions in Early Modern Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, R.M.; Ellis, Steven G.

    2013-01-01

    That regional identities are constructed is now something of a truism in academic research. More recently regions have been conceptualized in the framework of Frontier and Border Studies, thus emphasizing their relationship to their neighbours in another state across a boundary line. In early modern

  12. Blending Borders of Language and Culture: Schooling in La Villita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Irma M.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the efforts of a school in a Mexican community in Chicago to help children and parents capitalize on the language and culture of their 2 worlds. It builds on the concepts of border crossings and hybridity, metaphors used to describe the sociocultural and linguistic reality of people living transnationally. Some US communities…

  13. Recruiting Languages and Lifeworlds for Border-Crossing Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerrett, Allison; Bomer, Randy

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we show how two transnational youth, with the instructional support of their teacher, recruited their languages and lifeworlds, particularly their border-crossing experiences, as tools for engaging with school-based literacy practices. We analyze literary texts that the students composed, showing how the students' uses of…

  14. Modelling cross-border regional network for innovative development

    OpenAIRE

    Pere Tumbas; Predrag Matkovic; Marton Sakal

    2013-01-01

    The article provides detailed presentations of entities and functions of the Cross-border Regional network for innovative development, the manner and methods of its functioning, and its significance for enhancing university-industry cooperation in innovative development. Special attention was devoted to proper implementation of the Triple Helix concept in the development of an innovative network.

  15. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand-Myanmar Border, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleery, Ellen J; Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P; Noh, John C; Phares, Christina; O'Neal, Seth

    2015-10-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand-Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp.

  16. The principle of territoriality and cross-border loss compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marres, O.

    2011-01-01

    Member States are free to define their income tax base. They may in principle disregard foreign-sourced income, resulting in the impossibility of cross-border loss compensation. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has accepted the principle of territoriality as a criterion for the division of the au

  17. Modelling cross-border regional network for innovative development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Tumbas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article provides detailed presentations of entities and functions of the Cross-border Regional network for innovative development, the manner and methods of its functioning, and its significance for enhancing university-industry cooperation in innovative development. Special attention was devoted to proper implementation of the Triple Helix concept in the development of an innovative network.

  18. Acateco de la Frontera Sur (Acateco of the Southern Border).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Roberto Zavala

    This document is one of 17 volumes on indigenous Mexican languages and is the result of a project undertaken by the Archivo de Lenguas Indigenas de Mexico. This volume contains information on Acatec, an indigenous language of Mexico spoken along Mexico's southern border. The objective of collecting such a representative sampling of the linguistic…

  19. How Neighbours Communicate: The Role of Language in Border Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonni Olsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of the linguistic situation in the border region where Norway meets Russia in the north. The aim of the study was to investigate language use when contact is revitalised after a long period with closed borders. The Norwegian and Russian languages are very different in vocabulary and structure, which makes communication difficult. How are the two languages affected by extended contact and migration across the border? The study was carried out by the author and Marit Bjerkeng through interviews, a questionnaire and observation of the linguistic situations in two Norwegian communities. The results show an ongoing development where the neighbouring language is increasingly noticeable, and there is a clear link between attitudes, identity and language use. The role of public policy seems to play an important role for the developing linguistic situation, as the Barents region as a political concept introduced in the 1990s has led to cross-border contact within various fields and also inspired local language policy, contributing to cultural pride an

  20. Cross-border banking in Europe and financial stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, D.; Wagner, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose country-specific and systemic metrics that can be used to judge whether cross-border banking in a country (or region) takes a desirable form. Applying these metrics to the EU countries, we find that the countries with the largest banking centres, the UK and Germany, are wel

  1. Newcomer Immigrant Students Reinventing Academic Lives across National Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomidoy, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Relocation across national borders poses unique challenges and possibilities to newcomer immigrant students who enter diverse urban high schools. Based on focus group data with 27 newcomer students, in this article the author attends to the ways in which these students begin to counteract the challenges that relocation poses for them by…

  2. Cross-border banking in Europe and financial stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmaker, D.; Wagner, W.B.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose country-specific and systemic metrics that can be used to judge whether cross-border banking in a country (or region) takes a desirable form. Applying these metrics to the EU countries, we find that the countries with the largest banking centres, the UK and Germany, are

  3. Bridging Borders: Toward a Pedagogy of Preparedness for Visiting Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizzi, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    This analytical article largely draws on the experiences of visiting faculty teaching at post-secondary institutions overseas. What is largely understood in the literature is that visiting faculty need to navigate the sociocultural, professional, and contextual differences that shape the work context. Drawing on the theory of border pedagogy, this…

  4. Inconsistency in precipitation measurements across Alaska and Yukon border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Scaff

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study quantifies the inconsistency in gauge precipitation observations across the border of Alaska and Yukon. It analyses the precipitation measurements by the national standard gauges (NWS 8-in gauge and Nipher gauge, and the bias-corrected data to account for wind effect on the gauge catch, wetting loss and trace events. The bias corrections show a significant amount of errors in the gauge records due to the windy and cold environment in the northern areas of Alaska and Yukon. Monthly corrections increase solid precipitation by 135 % in January, 20 % for July at the Barter Island in Alaska, and about 31 % for January and 4 % for July at the Yukon stations. Regression analyses of the monthly precipitation data show a stronger correlation for the warm months (mainly rainfall than for cold month (mainly snowfall between the station pairs, and small changes in the precipitation relationship due to the bias corrections. Double mass curves also indicate changes in the cumulative precipitation over the study periods. This change leads to a smaller and inverted precipitation gradient across the border, representing a significant modification in the precipitation pattern over the northern region. Overall, this study discovers significant inconsistency in the precipitation measurements across the US and Canada border. This discontinuity is greater for snowfall than for rainfall, as gauge snowfall observations have large errors in the windy and cold conditions. This result will certainly impact regional, particularly cross borders, climate and hydrology investigations.

  5. Optimal Deployment of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Border Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    and intercept intruders that are trying to trespass a border. These intruders can include terrorists, drug traffickers, smugglers, illegal immigrants ...intruders can include terrorists, drug traffickers, smugglers, illegal immigrants , and others who represent a threat to national interests. Unmanned...traffickers, smugglers, illegal immigrants , and others who represent a threat to national interests. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) allow a modernization

  6. Rethinking borders in a mobile world: An alternative model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Retaillé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    national borders. The second section elaborates the fundamentals of an alternative model that is not reliant, as is classical spatial analysis, on points, lines and surfaces to represent movement. The article then presents three types of limits: the confines, the threshold and the horizon, which result...

  7. Why socio-political borders and boundaries matter in conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dallimer, Martin; Strange, Niels

    2015-01-01

    to address the adverse effects of socio-political borders on conservation: (i) scale-matching, (ii) quantification of the mutual economic benefits of conservation across boundaries, (iii) determining transboundary societal values, and (iv) acknowledging the importance of stakeholder behaviour and incentives....

  8. Book Design, Part III: Illuminated Letters and Borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Jeanne McLain; Lettow, Lucille

    1997-01-01

    This third in a series of articles on book design discusses and illustrates elements found within the body of the work: (1) illuminated letters, which serve as decoration, reflect cultural elements, enhance the meaning of text and illustrations, or establish motif, setting, or theme; and (2) borders, which serve as frames for text and…

  9. Cross-Border Takeovers, Corruption, and Related Aspects of Governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weitzel, U.; Berns, S.

    2006-01-01

    We use a panel of 4979 cross-border and domestic takeovers to test the relation between host country corruption and premiums paid for local targets. Host country corruption is negatively associated with target premiums, after correcting for other governance related factors such as political stabilit

  10. Cross-Border Electricity Cooperation in South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Anoop; Jamasb, Tooraj; Nepal, Rabindra; Toman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    South Asian countries, facing challenges in efficiently meeting growing electricity demand, can benefit from increased cross-border electricity cooperation and trade by harnessing complementarities in electricity demand patterns, diversity in resource endowments for power generation, and gains from larger market access. The region has witnessed slow progress in expanding regional electrici...

  11. The principle of territoriality and cross-border loss compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marres, O.

    2011-01-01

    Member States are free to define their income tax base. They may in principle disregard foreign-sourced income, resulting in the impossibility of cross-border loss compensation. The European Court of Justice (ECJ) has accepted the principle of territoriality as a criterion for the division of the

  12. Cross- border interfirm knowledge generation and enterprise development in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2015-01-01

    This chapter is grounded in the theoretical understanding that knowledge provides the foundation for innovation within fi rms and industries and propels economic growth. Furthermore, the amount and value of the learning that takes place within and between fi rms locally and in cross- border colla...

  13. Taeniasis among Refugees Living on Thailand–Myanmar Border, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    McCleery, Ellen J.; Patchanee, Prapas; Pongsopawijit, Pornsawan; Chailangkarn, Sasisophin; Tiwananthagorn, Saruda; Jongchansittoe, Papaspong; Dantrakool, Anchalee; Morakote, Nimit; Phyu, Hnin; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Noh, John C.; Phares, Christina; O’Neal, Seth

    2015-01-01

    We tested refugee camp residents on the Thailand–Myanmar border for Taenia solium infection. Taeniasis prevalence was consistent with that for other disease-endemic regions, but seropositivity indicating T. solium taeniasis was rare. Seropositivity indicating cysticercosis was 5.5% in humans, and 3.2% in pigs. Corralling pigs and providing latrines may control transmission of these tapeworms within this camp.

  14. Creditor Protection in a Cross-Border Context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCahery, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This comment focuses initially on the way in which cross-border mobility plays a central role in shaping creditor protection regimes across the European Union. We conclude with some preliminary observations about the European Insolvency Regulation and the potential impact of forum shopping on

  15. Adults Experiencing Homelessness in the US-Mexico Border Region: A Photovoice Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Eva Margarita; Chavez-Baray, Silvia M; Loweree, Jacqueline; Mattera, Brian; Martinez, Nahomi

    2017-01-01

    Homelessness is a social, economic, and political crisis in the United States. In particular, the US-Mexico Border region has seen a surge of homelessness, specifically among veterans, women victims of intimate partner violence, and immigrants. In 2014, 12 persons in El Paso, TX, with experience of being homeless used the photovoice methodology to participate in a project titled, "The Voices and Images of the Residents of the Opportunity Center for the Homeless: A Visual Project on the Identity and Challenges Homeless Adults Face on the Border Region." The project was led by faculty from the Department of Social Work and facilitated by graduate students from the Departments of Social Work, Sociology, and Anthropology at the University of Texas at El Paso. In partnership with the Opportunity Center for the Homeless, a community-based organization, a gallery of photographs with respective narratives was produced along with a video documentary. The participants identified four themes: broken systems, invisibility, opportunities and what works, and growth and determination. These themes represent participants' life experiences with homelessness and their aspirations. In addition to the photo gallery, participants supported the development of a Call to Action asking the community, policy, and decision makers to commit to changing the current social, economic, and political conditions affecting individuals experiencing homelessness. The gallery, Call to Action, and overall participant experiences with photovoice were shared during local, regional, and national conferences and events, including three State of the Homeless Conferences led by the Opportunity Center for the Homeless in partnership with the university.

  16. Crossing and Passing: Discursive Borders in Off Shoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Elmoudden

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As a term in popular discourse, globalisation marks a celebrated openness of global spaces. Critics of globalisation argue that a global economy creates borders that are more discursive than territorial. A current challenge to globalisation scholars is reaching an understanding of how the many configurations of context, space, time and place created by globalisation result in new ways of organizing space and identity. Based on rich ethnographic data from an off shore call centre in Morocco and informed by interdisciplinary research on space, this paper bridges the links between territorial and discursive borders in the global social network of off shoring. Metaphorical spaces come about when dynamic configurations of contexts at territorial borders relate or are made to relate. Call centre agents use metaphorical spaces to fix the meaning of space. In this article, I identify two different metaphorical spaces: crossing and passing that help agents organize and negotiate their spaces and subsequently their identities and power relations. I suggest that agents negotiate place through space. This crossing takes place as they imbricate the Moroccan context of “L’hrig” within the continuum of the call centre. I also suggest that agents negotiate space through place. This passing occurs via the imbrication of metaphorical space of polyvalence. Crossing and passing inscribe not only a literal meaning of “movement” and “disembodiment”, but also the nuanced meaning of “movement and staying” and “disembodiment and re-embodiment” in a place where conjunctions of space, time, place and context collide. The creation of metaphorical spaces of crossing and passing suggests modification of our understanding of diaspora: attaining the diasporic space can no longer depend on physical borders alone; it must also rely on discursive borders.

  17. 75 FR 43225 - Finding of No Significant Impact: San Diego-Tijuana Airport Cross Border Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Tuttle, U.S.-Mexico Border Affairs Coordinator, via e-mail at WHA-BorderAffairs@state.gov ; by phone at....gov/p/wha/rt/permit/ . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following is the text of the Finding of No...

  18. Comparative analysis of health systems on the triple border between Brazil, Colombia, and Peru

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levino, Antonio; Carvalho, Eduardo Freese de

    2011-01-01

    ...; analyze the structure of the national health systems of these bordering nations; and assess the constraints and potential for integrating the local health systems along the triple Amazon border...

  19. Is Border Enforcement Effective? What We Know and What It Means

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edward Alden

    2017-01-01

    For too long, the policy debate over border enforcement has been split between those who believe the border can be sealed against illegal entry by force alone, and those who believe that any effort...

  20. Literacies Crossing Borders: Transfronterizo Literacy Practices of Students in a Dual Language Program on the USA-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Piedra, Maria Teresa; Araujo, Blanca E.

    2012-01-01

    Research on transnational literacies has generally focused on youth who live in one country and communicate using digital literacies across national boundaries. Our work contributes to this literature by providing a view of transnational literacies that are unique to the USA-Mexico border region. The students in this ethnographic study navigate…